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Sample records for sublytic activation results

  1. Microvesicles released constitutively from prostate cancer cells differ biochemically and functionally to stimulated microvesicles released through sublytic C5b-9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, Dan; Moore, Colin; Antwi-Baffour, Samuel [Cellular and Molecular Immunology Research Centre, London Metropolitan University (United Kingdom); Lange, Sigrun [University College London School of Pharmacy, London UK (United Kingdom); Inal, Jameel, E-mail: j.inal@londonmet.ac.uk [Cellular and Molecular Immunology Research Centre, London Metropolitan University (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-08

    We have classified microvesicles into two subtypes: larger MVs released upon stimulation of prostate cancer cells, sMVs, and smaller cMVs, released constitutively. cMVs are released as part of cell metabolism and sMVs, released at 10-fold higher levels, produced upon activation, including sublytic C5b-9. From electron microscopy, nanosight tracking analysis, dynamic light scattering and flow cytometry, cMVs (194–210 nm in diameter) are smaller than sMVs (333–385 nm). Furthermore, using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance measuring changes in resonant frequency (Δf) that equate to mass deposited on a sensor, an sMV and a cMV are estimated at 0.267 and 0.241 pg, respectively. sMVs carry more calcium and protein, express higher levels of lipid rafts, GPI-anchored CD55 and phosphatidylserine including deposited C5b-9 compared to cMVs. This may allude to biological differences such as increased bound C4BP on sMVs inhibiting complement more effectively. - Highlights: • Prostate cells release microvesicles constitutively (cMVs) or upon stimulus (sMVs). • sMVs are larger than cMVs and carry more protein, lipid rafts and surface PstSer. • sMVs inhibit complement more effectively than cMVs.

  2. Changes in Astrocyte Shape Induced by Sublytic Concentrations of the Cholesterol-Dependent Cytolysin Pneumolysin Still Require Pore-Forming Capacity

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    Christina Förtsch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common pathogen that causes various infections, such as sepsis and meningitis. A major pathogenic factor of S. pneumoniae is the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin, pneumolysin. It produces cell lysis at high concentrations and apoptosis at lower concentrations. We have shown that sublytic amounts of pneumolysin induce small GTPase-dependent actin cytoskeleton reorganization and microtubule stabilization in human neuroblastoma cells that are manifested by cell retraction and changes in cell shape. In this study, we utilized a live imaging approach to analyze the role of pneumolysin’s pore-forming capacity in the actin-dependent cell shape changes in primary astrocytes. After the initial challenge with the wild-type toxin, a permeabilized cell population was rapidly established within 20–40 minutes. After the initial rapid permeabilization, the size of the permeabilized population remained unchanged and reached a plateau. Thus, we analyzed the non-permeabilized (non-lytic population, which demonstrated retraction and shape changes that were inhibited by actin depolymerization. Despite the non-lytic nature of pneumolysin treatment, the toxin’s lytic capacity remained critical for the initiation of cell shape changes. The non-lytic pneumolysin mutants W433F-pneumolysin and delta6-pneumolysin, which bind the cell membrane with affinities similar to that of the wild-type toxin, were not able to induce shape changes. The initiation of cell shape changes and cell retraction by the wild-type toxin were independent of calcium and sodium influx and membrane depolarization, which are known to occur following cellular challenge and suggested to result from the ion channel-like properties of the pneumolysin pores. Excluding the major pore-related phenomena as the initiation mechanism of cell shape changes, the existence of a more complex relationship between the pore-forming capacity of pneumolysin and the actin cytoskeleton

  3. Recent results of CHIMERA activity

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    Pagano A.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The experimental activity of CHIMERA in recent years has been characterized by a steady progress in the detection technique and data analysis. Since 2008 the detector system benefits of new implementations: a new reaction chamber, a new charged particle identification in silicon detector made by an extended pulse shape method and an efficient system for the identification of exotic beams produced by projectile-like fragmentation (In-flight method. These implementations appear to be promising tools in view of further exclusive experiments in the field of isospin physics. The coupling of CHIMERA with other equipments (such as interferometers and highly segmented arrays, magnetic elements, neutron detectors, etc. is also envisaged in order to extend the studies of the reaction mechanism in heavy ion physics.

  4. Evaluation of Results from Sales Promotion Activities

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    Olimpia Ban

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available An essential element of the sales promotion strategy and not only is the evaluation of the results obtained from the activities performed. Due to their nature and applicability, the evaluation of the sales promotion is much easier to be achieved, but it raises some problems. Using a hypothetical example, we have tried to develop a "classic" evaluation model of the specialty literature.

  5. Functional results after condylectomy in active laterognathia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusati, Roberto; Pedrazzoli, Marco; Colletti, Giacomo

    2010-04-01

    Mandibular asymmetry due to overgrowth has two main forms, hemimandibular hyperplasia and hemimandibular elongation. It is necessary to distinguish between inactive and active forms, since surgical treatment of the latter, with a solely morphological aim, could lead to recurrence of further condylar growth. In these cases orthognathic surgery is performed in association with high condylectomy to interrupt the hyperactivity of the condyle. Condylectomy alone in growing patients stops the progression of deformities and sometimes achieves facial symmetry at the end of growth. Some authors have viewed condylectomy as a dangerous procedure, with the possibility of compromising articular function. We aimed to verify immediate and long-term results of condylar function after high condylectomy. Between 1998 and 2007, 15 patients underwent high condylectomy for active laterognathia. All but one patient underwent postoperative Delaire functional rehabilitation. Long-term articular function was evaluated using subjective and objective criteria. In 14 patients, articular function was subjectively satisfactory. In one case, this did not occur because the patient refused postoperative functional rehabilitation. Some authors have advised against condylectomy because of the possibility of temporomandibular joint dysfunction. High condylectomy in active laterognathia seems to be the procedure of choice in both adults and growing patients. In our experience, functional alterations of practical relevance are rare if the operation is followed by successful functional rehabilitation.

  6. [Results of 2 years of activity].

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    Panigazzi, M

    2010-01-01

    Work-related injuries and occupational diseases are a scourge of modern, western societies, which, although technologically advanced, have difficulty in preventing, treating and rehabilitating victims with speed and efficiency. The current hospital neuromotor rehabilitation centres, whether public or accredited private structures, have notable difficulty in meeting the demand, which despite annual fluctuations and variable needs, does not, overall, seem to be decreasing. We present the results of an organization model developed at the "Fondazione Maugeri" Scientific Institute (Pavia, Italy), the criteria used for the activity, the technological innovations employed to determine ability, and the prospects for further development. This model is effective from a health care-rehabilitative point of view, also in the light of the new legislative scenarios, and is sustainable from an economic points of view; overall it is, therefore, efficient.

  7. Tellurium in active volcanic environments: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Silvia; Calabrese, Sergio; D'Alessandro, Walter; Brusca, Lorenzo; Bellomo, Sergio; Parello, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Tellurium is a toxic metalloid and, according to the Goldschmidt classification, a chalcophile element. In the last years its commercial importance has considerably increased because of its wide use in solar cells, thermoelectric and electronic devices of the last generation. Despite such large use, scientific knowledge about volcanogenic tellurium is very poor. Few previous authors report result of tellurium concentrations in volcanic plume, among with other trace metals. They recognize this element as volatile, concluding that volcanic gases and sulfur deposits are usually enriched with tellurium. Here, we present some results on tellurium concentrations in volcanic emissions (plume, fumaroles, ash leachates) and in environmental matrices (soils and plants) affected by volcanic emissions and/or deposition. Samples were collected at Etna and Vulcano (Italy), Turrialba (Costa Rica), Miyakejima, Aso, Asama (Japan), Mutnovsky (Kamchatka) at the crater rims by using common filtration techniques for aerosols (polytetrafluoroethylene filters). Filters were both eluted with Millipore water and acid microwave digested, and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Volcanic ashes emitted during explosive events on Etna and Copahue (Argentina) were analyzed for tellurium bulk composition and after leaching experiments to evaluate the soluble fraction of tellurium. Soils and leaves of vegetation were also sampled close to active volcanic vents (Etna, Vulcano, Nisyros, Nyiragongo, Turrialba, Gorely and Masaya) and investigated for tellurium contents. Preliminary results showed very high enrichments of tellurium in volcanic emissions comparing with other volatile elements like mercury, arsenic, thallium and bismuth. This suggests a primary transport in the volatile phase, probably in gaseous form (as also suggested by recent studies) and/or as soluble salts (halides and/or sulfates) adsorbed on the surface of particulate particles and ashes. First

  8. Enova results and activities report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    Energy was high on the agenda in 2006. The higher than normal electricity prices, Norway's strong dependence on electricity, and the increased focus on climate change resulted in a lot of interest in environmentally friendly energy solutions. For Enova this meant an exciting and demanding year. At the same time it has been important to take into account the long-term perspective of the activities. Enova is supposed to be a driving force for future oriented energy solutions and to contribute to a lasting change in Norway's generation and use of energy. During the past year better knowledge about what is happening to our world has had a positive effect on Enova's efforts. This increased attention has provided Enova with the opportunity to demonstrate that energy efficiency and renewable energy are the keys to a sustainable energy future. Moreover, the general focus on energy has enabled Enova to more effectively provide business and industry, households and the public authorities with good energy advice. refs., figs., tabs., ills

  9. Enova results and activities report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    Enova's primary task is to utilise the Norwegian Energy Fund to contribute to environmentally friendly restructuring of energy consumption and generation. Enova's management of the Energy Fund is governed by an agreement between the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy and Enova. Restructuring national energy consumption is a comprehensive task, which includes identifying barriers and fine-tuning policy instruments to achieve changes in the market. In 2007, Enova achieved contractual commitments for an energy result of about 2.4 TWh, while 10.1 TWh was contracted in the period 2001-2007. A 28 million euro wind power project received support in 2007, and counting this project, Enova has granted subsidies totalling 100 million euros for 11 different windmill parks located around Norway. A significant commitment was made in the heating area in 2007. An energy result of 751 GWh in renewable heating energy was contracted, distributed among 69 projects with total funding amounting to 40 million euros. Bio fuel processing projects received 0.6 million euros, divided among four projects totalling 163 GWh. From 2008, three new heating programs will replace the existing heating program, and the solid bio fuel production program will be discontinued. In 2007, Enova received 30 applications for the new technology program, of which 21 were connected to the joint effort with the Research Council of Norway and Innovation Norway. A total of ten projects have received pledges of support from Enova in 2007, totalling 10 million euros. The program for energy consumption in buildings achieved a contractual energy result of 365 GWh in 2007. An evaluation was carried out in 2007 that will be used as a basis for tailoring the program activities to the market. The work aimed at energy efficiency and conversion to renewable energy carriers in industry has contributed a total contracted energy result of 814 GWh in 2007. The main program has been confirmed and maintained in 2007. The

  10. Annual report 2009. Results and activities

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    NONE

    2010-07-01

    In 2009 Enova entered into agreements which together will provide 3.03 TWh saved and produced renewable energy. So far, Enova has supported energy projects equivalent to 13.8 TWh in the period to 2009. High activity in the industrial energy efficiency and environmentally friendly heat have contributed positively. (eb)

  11. Annual report 2011. Results and activities

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    NONE

    2012-07-25

    Enova is a state-owned enterprise, owned by the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy. Over a period of ten years, the enterprise has worked to trigger energy efficiency measures and renewable energy production by supporting proactive players that have paved the way for others. In the period 2002-2011, Enova has contracted an energy result of 16.6 TWh, Enova's Annual Report 2011 shows. This corresponds to the annual energy end-use of more than 35 per cent of Norways 2.2 million private households. Enova has allocated NOK 9 billion in support over ten years. This has resulted in project owners and other financiers investing about Nok 45 billion in capital for environmentally friendly energy projects in Norway, says Nils Kristian Nakstad, CEO of Enova. In 2011, Enova supported projects with an overall energy result of 1.35 TWh using resources from the Energy Fund, equally distributed between energy efficiency and renewable heating. The greatest contributors in 2011 are within energy conversion to renewable heating and energy efficiency measures in buildings.The climate impact of all of the projects where Enova has entered into contracts corresponds to 9.3 million tonnes in reduced CO2 emissions annually. The latter constitutes 17 per cent of domestic greenhouse gas emissions. (au)

  12. Annual report 2010. Results and activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In 2010, 926 G Wh of renewable heating was contracted. This is nearly on par with the record-breaking year of 2009, when Enova had extra funds to distribute through the Governments Stimulus Package in response to the financial crisis. District heating has been developed, or is in the process of being developed, in most major cities.We also expect new developments in smaller communities and extensions of existing facilities in cities. We expect this to result in an increased number of applications for smaller projects. (au)

  13. Plutonium recycle test reactor characterization activities and results

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    Cornwell, B.C.

    1997-05-01

    Report contains results of PRTR core and associated structures characterization performed in January and February of 1997. Radiation survey data are presented, along with recommendations for stabilization activities before transitioning to a decontamination and decommissioning function. Recommendations are also made about handling the waste generated by the stabilization activities, and actions suggested by the Decontamination and Decommissioning organization.

  14. Biological activities of triazine derivatives. Combining DFT and QSAR results

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    Majdouline Larif

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the relationship between activities and structures, a 3D-QSAR study is applied to a set of 43 molecules based on triazines. This study was conducted using the principal component analysis (PCA method, the multiple linear regression method (MLR and the artificial neural network (ANN. The predicted values of activities are in good agreement with the experimental results. The artificial neural network (ANN techniques, considering the relevant descriptors obtained from the MLR, showed a correlation coefficient of 0.9 with an 8-3-1 ANN model which is a good result. As a result of quantitative structure–activity relationships, we found that the model proposed in this study is constituted of major descriptors used to describe these molecules. The obtained results suggested that the proposed combination of several calculated parameters could be useful to predict the biological activity of triazine derivatives.

  15. ICARUS T600: physics results and future activities

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    Zani Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This contribution will report the present physics results obtained by the ICARUS Collaboration, as well as describe the overhauling activities and the physics program for the detector in its future deployment at Fermilab.

  16. Results of storm activity registration in the Kola Peninsula

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    Burtsev A. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of storm activity registration processing in the Kola Peninsula during 2013-2014 have been given. Considerable fluctuations of storm activity and unevenness of lightning discharges distribution across the region territory have been noted. It has been proposed to use a cloud-to-ground discharge density indicator taking into account their distribution in the region at an assessment of lightning protection efficiency of power generation facilities in areas with low thunder-storms intensity

  17. Physical activity across the curriculum: year one process evaluation results

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    Sullivan Debra K

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical Activity Across the Curriculum (PAAC is a 3-year elementary school-based intervention to determine if increased amounts of moderate intensity physical activity performed in the classroom will diminish gains in body mass index (BMI. It is a cluster-randomized, controlled trial, involving 4905 children (2505 intervention, 2400 control. Methods We collected both qualitative and quantitative process evaluation data from 24 schools (14 intervention and 10 control, which included tracking teacher training issues, challenges and barriers to effective implementation of PAAC lessons, initial and continual use of program specified activities, and potential competing factors, which might contaminate or lessen program effects. Results Overall teacher attendance at training sessions showed exceptional reach. Teachers incorporated active lessons on most days, resulting in significantly greater student physical activity levels compared to controls (p Conclusion In the first year of the PAAC intervention, process evaluation results were instrumental in identifying successes and challenges faced by teachers when trying to modify existing academic lessons to incorporate physical activity.

  18. Comparison of Physical Activity Adult Questionnaire results with accelerometer data.

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    Garriguet, Didier; Tremblay, Sylvain; Colley, Rachel C

    2015-07-01

    Discrepancies between self-reported and objectively measured physical activity are well-known. For the purpose of validation, this study compares a new self-reported physical activity questionnaire with an existing one and with accelerometer data. Data collected at one site of the Canadian Health Measures Survey in 2013 were used for this validation study. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was administered to respondents during the household interview, and the new Physical Activity for Adults Questionnaire (PAAQ) was administered during a subsequent visit to a mobile examination centre (MEC). At the MEC, respondents were given an accelerometer to wear for seven days. The analysis pertains to 112 respondents aged 18 to 79 who wore the accelerometer for 10 or more hours on at least four days. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) measured by accelerometer had higher correlation with data from the PAAQ (r = 0.44) than with data from the IPAQ (r = 0.20). The differences between accelerometer and PAAQ data were greater based on accelerometer-measured physical activity accumulated in 10-minute bouts (30-minute difference in MVPA) than on all minutes (9-minute difference). The percentages of respondents meeting the Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines were 90% based on self-reported IPAQ minutes, 70% based on all accelerometer MVPA minutes, 29% based on accelerometer MVPA minutes accumulated in 10-minute bouts, and 61% based on self-reported PAAQ minutes. The PAAQ demonstrated reasonable validity against the accelerometer criterion. Based on correlations and absolute differences between daily minutes of MVPA and the percentages of respondents meeting the Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines, PAAQ results were closer to accelerometer data than were the IPAQ results for the study sample and previous Statistics Canada self-reported questionnaire findings.

  19. Active Aging Promotion: Results from the Vital Aging Program

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    Mariagiovanna Caprara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Active aging is one of the terms in the semantic network of aging well, together with others such as successful, productive, competent aging. All allude to the new paradigm in gerontology, whereby aging is considered from a positive perspective. Most authors in the field agree active aging is a multidimensional concept, embracing health, physical and cognitive fitness, positive affect and control, social relationships and engagement. This paper describes Vital Aging, an individual active aging promotion program implemented through three modalities: Life, Multimedia, and e-Learning. The program was developed on the basis of extensive evidence about individual determinants of active aging. The different versions of Vital Aging are described, and four evaluation studies (both formative and summative are reported. Formative evaluation reflected participants’ satisfaction and expected changes; summative evaluations yielded some quite encouraging results using quasi-experimental designs: those who took part in the programs increased their physical exercise, significantly improved their diet, reported better memory, had better emotional balance, and enjoyed more cultural, intellectual, affective, and social activities than they did before the course, thus increasing their social relationships. These results are discussed in the context of the common literature within the field and, also, taking into account the limitations of the evaluations accomplished.

  20. Enova results and activities report 2008; Resultat- og aktivitetsrapport 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    Enova's results in 2008 was 2,15 TWh in saved and produces renewable energy. Totally Enova has contributed by activate environmental friendly energy projects equivalent 11,6 TWh up to 2009. This is a good step towards Enova's long-term goal and corresponding to an amount of approximately 10 % of Norway's united consumption of energy throughout a year. (AG). refs., figs., tabs., ills

  1. CONGESTION AS A RESULT OF SCHOOL AND SHOPPING CENTER ACTIVITY

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    Meike Kumaat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of land use in public facilities such as shopping center and school gives an impact on transportation problem in Manado City, North Sulawesi.  To determine factors which have causal relationship with congestion  as a result of school and shopping center activity then it need to be assessed and studied.  Descriptive study with observational survey was used in this study. The study ran Structural Equation Modelling (SEM by using AMOS program. Estimated method was used to calculate sample size then found 300 repondents, comprised : visitors and mall managers, school visitors, parents, school managers, Public Works department, and urban planning department .The study yielded a statistically significant correlation between  school and shopping center activity with congestion s. The result  indicated that school activity was positively related to congestion with p value  at p=0,000 (p ≤ 0,05. Shopping center activity was positively related to congestion with p value  at p=0,000 (p ≤ 0,05. The closer proximity from school to shooping center will causes severe traffic congestion. The relationship between school facility with proximity was found in p value at  p=0,000 (p ≤ 0,05 . The relationship between shopping center facility with proximity was found in p value at  p= 0,020 (p ≤ 0,05. While, the relationship between proximity with congestion was p= 0,008 (p ≤ 0,05. Monastery school and Mega Mall activity were affecting congestion because a closer proximity of two facilities. This indicates that the occurence of traffic congestion in Monastery School  may be dependent on existence of  Piere Tendean road link

  2. Prostate cancer cells stimulated by calcium-mediated activation of protein kinase C undergo a refractory period before re-releasing calcium-bearing microvesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Dan; Moore, Colin; Zheng, Lei; Lange, Sigrun; Inal, Jameel

    2015-05-08

    MVs are released in response to several stress agents, in an attempt to prevent continued cellular damage. After an initial stimulus of prostate cancer cells with sublytic C5b-9 and activation of MV release through PKC, cells take at least 20 min to fully recover their ability to microvesiculate. This release of MVs through activation of sublytic C5b-9 was inhibited by the PKC inhibitor bisindoylmaleimide I but not the Rho kinase inhibitor, Y27632. After stimulus there is a rise of 79 nMs(-1) over 11 s, reaching a peak [Ca(2+)]i of 920 nM. The concentration of cytosolic calcium then falls steadily at 2.4 nMs(-1) over 109 s reaching baseline levels (50-100 nM) within 10-15 min. In PC3 cells the rate of release of MVs from stimulated cells also reaches a minimum within 10-15 min. Using fura-2 AM-loaded cells, upon stimulation, cells were found to release MVs with a concentration of intravesicular calcium estimated at ∼ 430 nM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Statistical Results of Activities Categorization in Czech Agricultural Companies

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    Svobodová J.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In today’s competitive environment, to identify and correctly adjust the individual components of the business model is an important strategic device for every entrepreneur. This paper (preliminary study deals with different types of business models applied to the sector of small and medium-size farms in the Czech Republic. The main objective was to identify and categorize activities undertaken by Czech farmers into homogeneous clusters and offer recommendations on possible business model modification. The research was based on data from the Farm Accountancy Data Network (hereafter FADN. The principal component analysis and cluster analysis were carried out as part of the assessment, under which farms are categorized into homogeneous groups. The results showed that the farms surveyed can be categorized according to similar economic characteristics, production plans, and implementation processes into three basic clusters. The first business model is elaborated for the classic field production and various kinds of vegetable or livestock production, the second model for the special crop and livestock production, and the third one for the animal production. The use of FADN data and the fact that most Czech agricultural companies are of small- and medium-size should be taken into account as limiting factors of the study.

  4. Tc-99 Adsorption on Selected Activated Carbons - Batch Testing Results

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    Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2010-12-01

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is currently developing a 200-West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system as the remedial action selected under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Record of Decision for Operable Unit (OU) 200-ZP-1. This report documents the results of treatability tests Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers conducted to quantify the ability of selected activated carbon products (or carbons) to adsorb technetium-99 (Tc-99) from 200-West Area groundwater. The Tc-99 adsorption performance of seven activated carbons (J177601 Calgon Fitrasorb 400, J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, J177612 Norit GAC830, J177613 Norit GAC830, and J177617 Nucon LW1230) were evaluated using water from well 299-W19-36. Four of the best performing carbons (J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, and J177613 Norit GAC830) were selected for batch isotherm testing. The batch isotherm tests on four of the selected carbons indicated that under lower nitrate concentration conditions (382 mg/L), Kd values ranged from 6,000 to 20,000 mL/g. In comparison. Under higher nitrate (750 mg/L) conditions, there was a measureable decrease in Tc-99 adsorption with Kd values ranging from 3,000 to 7,000 mL/g. The adsorption data fit both the Langmuir and the Freundlich equations. Supplemental tests were conducted using the two carbons that demonstrated the highest adsorption capacity to resolve the issue of the best fit isotherm. These tests indicated that Langmuir isotherms provided the best fit for Tc-99 adsorption under low nitrate concentration conditions. At the design basis concentration of Tc 0.865 µg/L(14,700 pCi/L), the predicted Kd values from using Langmuir isotherm constants were 5,980 mL/g and 6,870 mL/g for for the two carbons. These Kd values did not meet the target Kd value of 9,000 mL/g. Tests

  5. Benchmarking Evaluation Results for Prototype Extravehicular Activity Gloves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitchison, Lindsay; McFarland, Shane

    2012-01-01

    The Space Suit Assembly (SSA) Development Team at NASA Johnson Space Center has invested heavily in the advancement of rear-entry planetary exploration suit design but largely deferred development of extravehicular activity (EVA) glove designs, and accepted the risk of using the current flight gloves, Phase VI, for unique mission scenarios outside the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) Program realm of experience. However, as design reference missions mature, the risks of using heritage hardware have highlighted the need for developing robust new glove technologies. To address the technology gap, the NASA Game-Changing Technology group provided start-up funding for the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Project in the spring of 2012. The overarching goal of the HPEG Project is to develop a robust glove design that increases human performance during EVA and creates pathway for future implementation of emergent technologies, with specific aims of increasing pressurized mobility to 60% of barehanded capability, increasing the durability by 100%, and decreasing the potential of gloves to cause injury during use. The HPEG Project focused initial efforts on identifying potential new technologies and benchmarking the performance of current state of the art gloves to identify trends in design and fit leading to establish standards and metrics against which emerging technologies can be assessed at both the component and assembly levels. The first of the benchmarking tests evaluated the quantitative mobility performance and subjective fit of four prototype gloves developed by Flagsuit LLC, Final Frontier Designs, LLC Dover, and David Clark Company as compared to the Phase VI. All of the companies were asked to design and fabricate gloves to the same set of NASA provided hand measurements (which corresponded to a single size of Phase Vi glove) and focus their efforts on improving mobility in the metacarpal phalangeal and carpometacarpal joints. Four test

  6. HEALTHY intervention: fitness, physical activity, and metabolic syndrome results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Russell; McMurray, Robert G; Drews, Kimberly L; Moe, Esther L; Murray, Tinker; Pham, Trang H; Venditti, Elizabeth M; Volpe, Stella L

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of the HEALTHY intervention on the metabolic syndrome (Met-S), fitness, and physical activity levels of US middle-school students. Cluster randomized controlled trial conducted in 42 (21 intervention) US middle schools. Participants were recruited at the start of sixth grade (2006) when baseline assessments were made, with post-assessments made 2.5 yr later at the end of eighth grade (2009). The HEALTHY intervention had four components: 1) improved school food environment, 2) physical activity and eating educational sessions, 3) social marketing, and 4) revised physical education curriculum. Met-S risk factors, 20-m shuttle run (fitness), and self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were assessed at each time point. Ethnicity and gender were self-reported. Obesity status (normal weight, overweight, or obese) was also assessed. At baseline, 5% of the participants were classified with Met-S, with two-thirds of the males and one-third of the females recording below average baseline fitness levels. Control group participants reported 96 min of MVPA at baseline with 103 min reported by the intervention group. There were no statistically significant (P physical activity levels. Approaches that focus on how to change physical activity, fitness, and Met-S using nonschool or perhaps in addition to school based components need to be developed.

  7. ERINDA Scientific Results: Transnational Access Activities and Scientific Visits

    CERN Document Server

    Hambsch, Franz-Josef

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Transnational Access Activities and Scientific visits within the FP7 project ERINDA (European Research Infrastructures for Nuclear Data). It highlights the fact that nearly 3200 data - taking hours for external users were made available in the partner installations and 104 man weeks for scientific visits to par tner institutes. This is much more than the 2500 beam hours and 80 weeks promised in the Description of Work of the project.

  8. Statistical Results of Activities Categorization in Czech Agricultural Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Svobodová J.; Urbancová H.

    2016-01-01

    In today’s competitive environment, to identify and correctly adjust the individual components of the business model is an important strategic device for every entrepreneur. This paper (preliminary study) deals with different types of business models applied to the sector of small and medium-size farms in the Czech Republic. The main objective was to identify and categorize activities undertaken by Czech farmers into homogeneous clusters and offer recommendations on possible business model mo...

  9. Calorimetry for Lepton Collider Experiments – CALICE results and activities

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Chefdeville, M.; Drancourt, C.; Gaglione, R.; Geffroy, N.; Karyotakis, Y.; Koletsou, I.; Prast, J.; Vouters, G.; Bilki, B.; Cundiff, T.; De Lurgio, P.; Drake, G.; Francis, K.; Haberichter, B.; Guarino, V.; Kreps, A.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Skrzecz, F.; Smith, J.; Underwood, D.; Wood, K.; Xia, L.; Zhang, Q.; Zhao, A.; Price, T.; Watson, N.K.; Marshall, J.S.; Thomson, M.A.; Ward, D.R.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Apostolakis, J.; Arfaoui, S.; Benoit, M.; Dannheim, D.; Dotti, A.; Duarte Ramos, F.; Elsener, K.; Folger, G.; Gerwig, H.; Grefe, C.; Ivantchenko, V.; Killenberg, M.; Klempt, W.; Lam, C.B.; Linssen, L.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.I.; Muennich, A.; Nardulli, J.; Poss, S.; Roloff, P.; Sailer, A.; Schlatter, D.; Sicking, E.; Speckmayer, P.; Strube, J.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Gay, P.; Manen, S.; Royer, L.; Soumpholphakdy, X.; Cauwenbergh, S.; Tytgat, M.; Zaganidis, N.; Blazey, G.C.; Chakraborty, D.; Dyshkant, A.; Hedin, D.; Lima, J.G.R.; Salcido, R.; Zutshi, V.; Astakhov, V.; Babkin, V.A.; Bazylev, S.N.; Golovatyuk, S.; Golutvin, I.; Gorbunov, N.; Malakhov, A.; Slepnev, S.; Tyapkin, I.; Volgin, S.V.; Zanevski, Y.; Zintchenko, A.; Dzahini, D.; Gallin-Martel, L.; Giraud, J.; Grondin, D.; Hostachy, J.Y.; Menu, J.; Rarbi, F-E.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Falley, G.; Gadow, K.; Gottlicher, P.; Gunter, C.; Hermberg, B.; Karstensen, S.; Krivan, F.; Kruger, K.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Morozov, S.; Morgunov, V.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Terwort, M.; Vargas-Trevino, A.; Feege, N.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Marchesini, I.; Ramilli, M.; Eckert, P.; Harion, T.; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Wilson, G.W.; Kawagoe, K.; Miyazaki, Y.; Oishi, K.; Sudo, Y.; Ueno, H.; Yoshioka, T.; Dauncey, P.D.; Postranecky, M.; Warren, M.; Wing, M.; Cortina Gil, E.; Mannai, S.; Bonnevaux, A.; Combaret, C.; Caponetto, L.; Grenier, G.; Han, R.; Ianigro, J.C.; Kieffer, R.; Laktineh, I.; Lumb, N.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Steen, A.; Berenguer Antequera, J.; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M.C.; Marin, J.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Verdugo, A.; Buscher, V.; Masetti, L.; Schafer, U.; Tapprogge, S.; Wanke, R.; Welker, A.; Corriveau, F.; Bobchenko, B.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Epifantsev, A.; Markin, O.; Mizuk, R.; Novikov, E.; Popov, V.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Andreev, V.; Kirikova, N.; Komar, A.; Kozlov, V.; Negodaev, M.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; Terkulov, A.; Buzhan, P.; Ilyin, A.; Kantserov, V.; Kaplin, V.; Karakash, A.; Popova, E.; Smirnov, S.; Baranova, N.; Boos, E.; d; Gladilin, L.; Karmanov, D.; Korolev, M.; Merkin, M.; Savin, A.; Voronin, A.; Kiesling, C.; Seidel, K.; Simon, F.; Soldner, C.; Szalay, M.; Tesar, M.; Weuste, L.; Augustin, J-E.; David, J.; Ghislain, P.; Lacour, D.; Lavergne, L.; Amjad, M.S.; Bonis, J.; Bouquet, B.; Callier, S.; Conforti, S.; Cornebise, P.; Dulucq, F.; Faucci Giannelli, M.; Fleury, J.; Frisson, T.; Guilhem, G.; Li, H.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Richard, F.; Poeschl, R.; Raux, L.; Rouene, J.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Wicek, F.; Zhang, Z.; Anduze, M.; Belkadhi, K.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J-C.; Cerutti, M.; Clerc, C.; Cornat, R.; Decotigny, D.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Guliyev, E.; Haddad, Y.; Jeans, D.; Magniette, F.; Matthieu, A.; Mora, P.; Musat, G.; Roche, N.; Ruan, M.; Tran, T.H.; Videau, H.; Bulanek, B.; Zacek, J.; Carna, M.; Gallus, P.; Lednicky, D.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Cvach, J.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Gapienko, V.; Semak, A.; Ukhanov, M.; Belhorma, B.; Ghazlane, H.; Hamasaki, R.; Ide, H.; Inayoshi, S.; Itoh, S.; Kawakami, Y.; Kobayashi, A.; Kotera, K.; Nishiyama, M.; Obe, S.; Ono, H.; Ogawa, T.; Ohtsuka, N.; Sakuma, T.; Sato, H.; Takeshita, T.; Totsuka, S.; Tsubokawa, T.; Yanagida, K.; Yamaura, W.; Khan, A.; Kim, D.H.; Kong, D.J.; Oh, Y.D.; Uozumi, S.; Yang, Y.; Fuchi, R.; Ukegawa, F.; Gotze, M.; Hartbrich, O.; Sauer, J.; Weber, S.; Zeitnitz, C.

    2012-01-01

    The CALICE collaboration conducts calorimeter R&D for highly granular calorimeters, mainly for their application in detectors for a future lepton collider at the TeV scale. The activities ranges from generic R&D with small devices up to extensive beam tests with prototypes comprising up to several 100000 calorimeter cells. CALICE has validated the performance of particle flow algorithms with test beam data and delivers the proof of principle that highly granular calorimeters can be built, operated and understood. The successes achieved in the past years allows the step from prototypes to calorimeter systems for particle physics detectors to be addressed.

  10. Experimental results using active control of traveling wave power flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David W.; Hall, Steven R.

    1991-01-01

    Active structural control experiments conducted on a 24-ft pinned-free beam derived feedback compensators on the basis of a traveling-wave approach. A compensator is thus obtained which eliminates resonant behavior by absorbing all impinging power. A causal solution is derived for this noncausal compensator which mimics its behavior in a given frequency range, using the Wiener-Hopf. This optimal Wiener-Hopf compensator's structure-damping performance is found to exceed any obtainable by means of rate feedback. Performance limitations encompassed the discovery of frequencies above which the sensor and actuator were no longer dual and an inadvertent coupling of the control hardware to unmodeled structure torsion modes.

  11. CHP REGIONAL APPLICATION CENTERS: ACTIVITIES AND SELECTED RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, Martin [ORNL

    2010-08-01

    Between 2001 and 2005, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) created a set of eight Regional Application Centers (RACs) to facilitate the development and deployment of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) technologies. By utilizing the thermal energy that is normally wasted when electricity is produced at central generating stations, Combined Heat and Power installations can save substantial amounts of energy compared to more traditional technologies. In addition, the location of CHP facilities at or near the point of consumption greatly reduces or eliminates electric transmission and distribution losses. The regional nature of the RACs allows each one to design and provide services that are most relevant to the specific economic and market conditions in its particular geographic area. Between them, the eight RACs provide services to all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Through the end of the federal 2009 fiscal year (FY 2009), the primary focus of the RACs was on providing CHP-related information to targeted markets, encouraging the creation and adoption of public policies and incentives favorable to CHP, and providing CHP users and prospective users with technical assistance and support on specific projects. Beginning with the 2010 fiscal year, the focus of the regional centers broadened to include district energy and waste heat recovery and these entities became formally known as Clean Energy Application Centers, as required by the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007. In 2007, ORNL led a cooperative effort to establish metrics to quantify the RACs accomplishments. That effort began with the development of a detailed logic model describing RAC operations and outcomes, which provided a basis for identifying important activities and accomplishments to track. A data collection spreadsheet soliciting information on those activities for FY 2008 and all previous years of RAC operations was developed and sent to the RACs in the summer of 2008. This

  12. Hellenic Amateur Astronomy Association's activities: Preliminary results on Perseids 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravelias, G.

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary results on the Perseids 2010 are presented. Visual and video observations were obtained by the author and a first reduction of the visual data shows that a maximum of ZHR ~120 was reached during the night 12-13 of August 2010. Moreover, a video setup was tested (DMK camera and UFO Capture v2) and the results show that, under some limitations, valuable data can be obtained.

  13. Summary of FY15 results of benchmark modeling activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arguello, J. Guadalupe [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Sandia is participating in the third phase of an is a contributing partner to a U.S.-German "Joint Project" entitled "Comparison of current constitutive models and simulation procedures on the basis of model calculations of the thermo-mechanical behavior and healing of rock salt." The first goal of the project is to check the ability of numerical modeling tools to correctly describe the relevant deformation phenomena in rock salt under various influences. Achieving this goal will lead to increased confidence in the results of numerical simulations related to the secure storage of radioactive wastes in rock salt, thereby enhancing the acceptance of the results. These results may ultimately be used to make various assertions regarding both the stability analysis of an underground repository in salt, during the operating phase, and the long-term integrity of the geological barrier against the release of harmful substances into the biosphere, in the post-operating phase.

  14. Experimental results for a novel rotary active magnetic regenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrecht, Kurt; Eriksen, Dan; Bahl, Christian

    2012-01-01

    in a solid refrigerant rather than the temperature change that occurs when a gas is compressed/expanded. This paper presents the general considerations for the design and construction of a high frequency rotary AMR device. Experimental results are presented at various cooling powers for a range of operating...

  15. Results of activated sludge plants applying enhanced biological phosphorus removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, A.; Pinto, M.; Neder, K.; Hoffmann, H.

    1989-02-01

    To stop the eutrophication in lakes and rivers, the input of nutrient and phosphorus compounds must be limited. The biological elimination of phosphorus describes a possibility, to reduce phosphorus in the biological stage of a treatment plant to a considerable extent. In this paper the process-system and the operation-results of a pilot plant and two municipal treatment plants are presented, where biological phosphorus reduction about 80% takes place without any constructional modifications.

  16. METHODOLOGY OF AN ASSESSMENT OF RESULTS OF INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa I. Egorova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodological bases of an assessment of the results of research, development and technological works and intangible assets are given in the article. A special attention is paid to the problems of formation of fair value of such assets for clients of financial accounting. The authors compare the methods of cost measurement of accounting entities regulated by Russian Accounting Standards (RAS and International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS. Peculiarities of detection and acknowledgement of impairment of intangible assets (loss of value are considered.

  17. Differential and Active Charging Results from the ATS Spacecraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Richard Christopher

    1980-12-01

    This study of spacecraft charging concentrates on the differential charging and artificial particle emission experiments on ATS-5 and ATS-6. It was found that differential charging of spacecraft surfaces generated large electrostatic barriers to spacecraft generated electrons, from photoemission, secondary emission, and thermal emitters. The electrostatic barrier is a potential minimum outside the charged spacecraft which causes low energy electrons to be trapped near the spacecraft. The large dish antenna on ATS-6 was identified as the source of the electrostatic barrier around the Environmental Measurements Experiment package. Daylight charging on ATS-6 was shown to have behavior suggesting the dominance of differential charging on the absolute potential of the mainframe. Electron emission experiments on ATS-5 in eclipse charging environments showed that the electron emitter could partially or totally discharge the satellite, but the mainframe recharged negatively in a few 10's of seconds. The equilibrium emitter current was found to be .3 microamps, substantially below the milliamp capability of the emitter. The limiting of the current and the time dependence seen in the ATS-5 potential during these operations were explained as the result of differential charging of the insulating surfaces on the spacecraft, and the creation of an electrostatic barrier by the differential potential. This barrier limited the artificially generated electron current to the point that the net flux to the spacecraft was again negative. Both the daylight charging events of ATS-6 and the eclipse electron emission experiments of ATS-5 were further analyzed with a simple time dependent model which showed that the barrier height quickly reached an equilibrium value which limited but did not completely stop electron emission. Average and differential potentials developed in time subject to the constraint that the barrier height remain constant. Ion engine operations and plasma emission

  18. 76 FR 67142 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Partial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Final Results... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain activated carbon from the People's Republic of...\\ See Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the Third...

  19. 75 FR 70208 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Partial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Final Results... of the antidumping duty order on certain activated carbon from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). See Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Preliminary Results of the...

  20. Results of a research study on the impact of active daylighting on operating results of a retail business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    In preliminary evaluations of So-Luminaire's (SI) product in 1985 and 1986, DOE concluded that it warranted further research and evaluation and was worthy of receiving governmental financial and structural support therefor. SI, along with Safeway, had known intuitively that the So-Luminaire systems which had been previously installed in several of their Phoenix-area stores had resulted in a marked reduction in electrical energy consumption. However, a definitive determination of energy savings had been utilized in previous installations. Further, SI and Safeway both hypothesized that the high quality of natural light provided by these systems displayed goods to greater advantage and contributed to an overall increase in store sales, all other factors being held constant. A study to attempt to objectively determine these two presumed benefits of active daylighting in a commercial application was begun.

  1. Results of a research study on the impact of active daylighting on operating results of a retail business. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    In preliminary evaluations of So-Luminaire`s (SI) product in 1985 and 1986, DOE concluded that it warranted further research and evaluation and was worthy of receiving governmental financial and structural support therefor. SI, along with Safeway, had known intuitively that the So-Luminaire systems which had been previously installed in several of their Phoenix-area stores had resulted in a marked reduction in electrical energy consumption. However, a definitive determination of energy savings had been utilized in previous installations. Further, SI and Safeway both hypothesized that the high quality of natural light provided by these systems displayed goods to greater advantage and contributed to an overall increase in store sales, all other factors being held constant. A study to attempt to objectively determine these two presumed benefits of active daylighting in a commercial application was begun.

  2. Leisure-time Physical Activity Among Different Social Groups of Estonia: Results of the National Physical Activity Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusmägi Peeter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the Eurobarometer (European Commission, 2010, 39% of the Estonian adult population is not physically active at all. This percentage is relatively high compared to other countries that are culturally close to Estonia; the corresponding figure of close neighbors Finland and Sweden is below 10%. The article aims to present the results of a survey of physical activity (n=1,009 conducted in Estonia in 2013 and analyzes physical activity levels across various social groups. The results of the article show that employment, age, education, and ethnicity are important factors for engaging in leisure-time physical activity in Estonia. Non-ethnic Estonians, the less educated, the elderly, the unemployed, and those on maternity leave are less engaged in regular leisure exercise than people in other social groups. The results of the article were used to develop Estonia’s Sports 2030 strategy.

  3. Results from the United states' 2014 report card on physical activity for children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentro, Kara N; Beals, Kim; Crouter, Scott E; Eisenmann, Joey C; McKenzie, Thomas L; Pate, Russell R; Saelens, Brian E; Sisson, Susan B; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Sothern, Melinda S; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2014-05-01

    The National Physical Activity Plan Alliance partnered with physical activity experts to develop a report card that provides a comprehensive assessment of physical activity among United States children and youth. The 2014 U.S. Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth includes 10 indicators: overall physical activity levels, sedentary behaviors, active transportation, organized sport participation, active play, health-related fitness, family and peers, school, community and the built environment, and government strategies and investments. Data from nationally representative surveys were used to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the physical activity indicators. The Committee used the best available data source to grade the indicators using a standard rubric. Approximately one-quarter of children and youth 6 to 15 years of age were at least moderately active for 60 min/day on at least 5 days per week. The prevalence was lower among youth compared with younger children, resulting in a grade of D- for overall physical activity levels. Five of the remaining 9 indicators received grades ranging from B- to F, whereas there was insufficient data to grade 4 indicators, highlighting the need for more research in some areas. Physical activity levels among U.S. children and youth are low and sedentary behavior is high, suggesting that current infrastructure, policies, programs, and investments in support of children's physical activity are not sufficient.

  4. Performance Prismas an Innovative Concept of the Organizational Activity Results Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Jagiełło

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an innovative method of the organization activity results measurement which is called Performance Measurement System. It is kind of control system which can help to improve the competitive advantages of organization.

  5. Dynamic Coefficients of a Tilting Pad With Active Lubrication: Comparison Between Theoretical and Experimental Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerda Varela, Alejandro Javier; Santos, Ilmar

    2015-01-01

    experimental results from the literature for industrial grade passive tilting pad bearings. This initial validation is followed by a comparison with experimental identification results obtained from a test rig featuring the active bearing design. Good overall agreement is observed in both configurations......This paper deals with the validation of the mathematical model for predicting the equivalent stiffness and damping of an active tilting-pad bearing. The active bearing design includes an injection nozzle in the pad and a hydraulic supply system featuring a servovalve, which enables to modify...

  6. Do Media Use and Physical Activity Compete in Adolescents? Results of the MoMo Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Spengler

    Full Text Available The displacement hypothesis predicts that physical activity and media use compete in adolescents; however, findings are inconsistent. A more differentiated approach at determining the co-occurrence of physical activity and media use behaviors within subjects may be warranted. The aim of this study was to determine the co-occurrence of physical activity and media use by identifying clusters of adolescents with specific behavior patterns including physical activity in various settings (school, sports club, leisure time and different types of media use (watching TV, playing console games, using PC / Internet.Cross-sectional data of 2,083 adolescents (11-17 years from all over Germany were collected between 2009 and 2012 in the Motorik-Modul Study. Physical activity and media use were self-reported. Cluster analyses (Ward's method and K-means analysis were used to identify behavior patterns of boys and girls separately.Eight clusters were identified for boys and seven for girls. The clusters demonstrated that a high proportion of boys (33% as well as girls (42% show low engagement in both physical activity and media use, irrespective of setting or type of media. Other adolescents are engaged in both behaviors, but either physical activity (35% of boys, 27% of girls or media use (31% of boys and girls predominates. These adolescents belong to different clusters, whereat in most clusters either one specific setting of physical activity or a specific combination of different types of media predominates.The results of this study support to some extent the hypothesis that media use and physical activity compete: Very high media use occurred with low physical activity behavior, but very high activity levels co-occurred with considerable amounts of time using any media. There was no evidence that type of used media was related to physical activity levels, neither setting of physical activity was related to amount of media use in any pattern.

  7. Do Media Use and Physical Activity Compete in Adolescents? Results of the MoMo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, Sarah; Mess, Filip; Woll, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The displacement hypothesis predicts that physical activity and media use compete in adolescents; however, findings are inconsistent. A more differentiated approach at determining the co-occurrence of physical activity and media use behaviors within subjects may be warranted. The aim of this study was to determine the co-occurrence of physical activity and media use by identifying clusters of adolescents with specific behavior patterns including physical activity in various settings (school, sports club, leisure time) and different types of media use (watching TV, playing console games, using PC / Internet). Cross-sectional data of 2,083 adolescents (11-17 years) from all over Germany were collected between 2009 and 2012 in the Motorik-Modul Study. Physical activity and media use were self-reported. Cluster analyses (Ward's method and K-means analysis) were used to identify behavior patterns of boys and girls separately. Eight clusters were identified for boys and seven for girls. The clusters demonstrated that a high proportion of boys (33%) as well as girls (42%) show low engagement in both physical activity and media use, irrespective of setting or type of media. Other adolescents are engaged in both behaviors, but either physical activity (35% of boys, 27% of girls) or media use (31% of boys and girls) predominates. These adolescents belong to different clusters, whereat in most clusters either one specific setting of physical activity or a specific combination of different types of media predominates. The results of this study support to some extent the hypothesis that media use and physical activity compete: Very high media use occurred with low physical activity behavior, but very high activity levels co-occurred with considerable amounts of time using any media. There was no evidence that type of used media was related to physical activity levels, neither setting of physical activity was related to amount of media use in any pattern.

  8. Results From the First French Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucouturier, Julien; Ganière, Caroline; Aubert, Salomé; Riviere, Fabien; Praznoczy, Corinne; Vuillemin, Anne; Tremblay, Mark S; Duclos, Martine; Thivel, David

    2017-08-01

    Many countries publish periodic Report Cards on physical activity for children and youth. This paper presents the results from the first French Report Card providing a systematic synthesis and assessment of the national engagements to facilitate childhood physical activity. A search for nationally representative data on 8 indicators of physical activity was conducted and the data were assessed by an expert panel according to international procedures. Whether children across France are achieving specific benchmarks was rated using an established grading framework [A, B, C, D, F, or INC (incomplete)]. Data were interpreted, grades assigned and detailed in the 2016 Report Card that was produced and disseminated. The expert panel awarded the following grades: Overall Physical Activity: INC; Organized Sport Participation: D; Active Transportation: D; Sedentary Behaviors: D; Family and Peers: INC; School: B; Community and the Built Environment: INC; Government Strategies and Investment: INC. The grades reveal that efforts must be done to improve youth's physical activity and that several gaps in the literature still need to be addressed. Collectively the results highlight that children's physical activity levels are low and that further national supports and investments are needed to promote childhood healthy active living in France.

  9. [Physical activity in adolescents of five Colombian cities: Results of the Global Youth Health Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeros, Marion; Pardo, Constanza

    2010-12-01

    In Colombia, chronic diseases represent a significant health burden. The promotion of physical activity has demonstrated effectiveness in terms of their control. The surveillance of physical activity levels in different age groups permits the design of specific interventions, monitoring and evaluation. To estimate the prevalence of global physical activity, sedentarism, physical activity for transportation and physical activity at school, among adolescent students in five Colombian cities. The Global School-based Health Survey was implemented in public and private schools of five Colombian cities: Bogotá, Bucaramanga, Cali, Manizales y Valledupar. Students were selected through a multi-stage sampling procedure. The survey was anonymous, voluntary and self-processed by students. Statistical analysis was performed at the CDC. The results are representative for adolescent students of each city. The reported recommended levels of physical activity in students from 13 to 15 years ranged from 9 % to 19.8 % in the five cities, being constantly higher among males. Overall, 50.3 % of the students reported not being physically active for transportation to school. 50.3 % of the students played video or computer games or used a computer for 3 or more hours a day. The results indicate low levels of physical activity among students of the five main cities in Colombia, pointing towards the need of interventions at different levels and the need for continuing surveillance.

  10. Dynamic Lateralization of Pupil Dilation Evoked by Locus Coeruleus Activation Results from Sympathetic, Not Parasympathetic, Contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pupil size is collectively controlled by the sympathetic dilator and parasympathetic sphincter muscles. Locus coeruleus (LC activation has been shown to evoke pupil dilation, but how the sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways contribute to this dilation remains unknown. We examined pupil dilation elicited by LC activation in lightly anesthetized rats. Unilateral LC activation evoked bilateral but lateralized pupil dilation; i.e., the ipsilateral dilation was significantly larger than the contralateral dilation. Surgically blocking the ipsilateral, but not contralateral, sympathetic pathway significantly reduced lateralization, suggesting that lateralization is mainly due to sympathetic contribution. Moreover, we found that sympathetic, but not parasympathetic, contribution is correlated with LC activation frequency. Together, our results unveil the frequency-dependent contributions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways to LC activation-evoked pupil dilation and suggest that lateralization in task-evoked pupil dilations may be used as a biomarker for autonomic tone.

  11. Activities Contributing to Total Energy Expenditure in the United States: Results from the NHAPS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Block Gladys

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity is increasingly recognized as an important factor influencing health and disease status. Total energy expenditure, both low-intensity and high-intensity, contributes to maintenance of healthy body weight. This paper presents the results of a quantitative approach to determining the activities that contribute to total energy expenditure in the United States. Methods Data from the National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS were used. In 1992–1994 the NHAPS sampled 4,185 females and 3,330 males, aged 18 years and over, weighted to be representative of the 48 contiguous United States. A detailed report of each activity performed in the previous 24 hours was obtained. A score was created for each activity, by multiplying duration and intensity for each individual and summing across individuals. This score was then used to rank each activity according to its contribution to total population energy expenditure, for the total sample and separately for each gender, race, age, region, and season. Results This analysis reveals our society to be primarily sedentary; leisure time physical activity contributed only approximately 5% of the population's total energy expenditure. Not counting sleeping, the largest contributor to energy expenditure was "Driving a car", followed by "Office work" and "Watching TV". Household activities accounted for 20.1% and 33.3% of energy expenditure for males and females respectively. Conclusion The information presented in this paper may be useful in identifying common activities that could be appropriate targets for behavioral interventions to increase physical activity.

  12. Results From Shanghai's (China) 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Tang, Yan; Cao, Zhen-Bo; Chen, Pei-Jie; Zhang, Jia-Lin; Zhu, Zheng; Zhuang, Jie; Yang, Yang; Hu, Yue-Ying

    2016-11-01

    Internationally comparable evidence is important to advocate for young people's physical activity. The aim of this article is to present the inaugural Shanghai (China) Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth. Since no national data are available, the working group developed the survey questionnaire and carried out the school surveys for students (n = 71,404), parents (n = 70,346), and school administrators and teachers (n = 1398). The grades of 9 report card indicators were assigned in accordance with the survey results against a defined benchmark: A is 81% to 100%; B is 61% to 80%; C is 41% to 60%, D is 21% to 40%; F is 0% to 20%. The 9 indicators were graded as follows: Overall Physical Activity Levels (F), Organized Sport Participation (F), Active Play (D-), Active Transportation (C-), Sedentary Behavior (F), Family and Peers (B), School (B+), Community and the Built Environment (D+), and Government (D). Levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior were low and below the respective recommended guidelines. Interventions and policies at the community level should be encouraged to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior. Future national surveys should be encouraged to strengthen Shanghai's Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth.

  13. Results from Nigeria's 2013 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinroye, Kingsley K; Oyeyemi, Adewale L; Odukoya, Oluwakemi O; Adeniyi, Ade F; Adedoyin, Rufus A; Ojo, Olatunde S; Alawode, Damilola A; Ozomata, Ebenezer A; Awotidebe, Taofeek O

    2014-05-01

    Physical activity (PA) promotion in children and youth is an impetus for prevention and control of NCD morbidity and mortality, but evidence is needed for effective interventions. The aim of the present paper is to summarize the results of the 2013 Nigerian Report Card on Physical Activity for children and youth. The Technical Report Committee conducted a comprehensive review of available literature in Nigeria. Grades were assigned to 10 PA indicators modeled after the Active Healthy Kids Canada (AHKC) grading system. Specific grades were assigned for several indicators: Overall Physical Activity Levels, C; Organized Sport and Physical Activity Participation, Incomplete; Active Play and Leisure, C-; Active Transportation, B; Sedentary Behaviors, F; Overweight and Obesity, B+. The following indicators were graded as INCOMPLETE: Physical Activity in School setting, Family and Peers, Community and Built Environment, and Government Strategies and Investments. PA levels of Nigerian children and youth are moderate while sedentary behaviors are high. The development of national guidelines for PA and sedentary behaviors can better inform policy and practice on healthy living among Nigerian children and youth.

  14. Brain activation patterns resulting from learning letter forms through active self-production and passive observation in young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa J Kersey

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Although previous literature suggests that writing practice facilitates neural specialization for letters, it is unclear if this facilitation is driven by the perceptual feedback from the act of writing or the actual execution of the motor act. The present study addresses this issue by measuring the change in BOLD signal in response to hand-printed letters, unlearned cursive letters, and cursive letters that 7 year-old children learned actively, by writing, and passively, by observing an experimenter write. Brain activation was assessed using fMRI while perceiving letters – in both cursive and manuscript forms. Results showed that active training led to increased recruitment of the sensori-motor network associated with letter perception as well as the insula and claustrum, but passive observation did not. This suggests that perceptual networks for newly learned cursive letters are driven by motor execution rather than by perceptual feedback.

  15. Experimental and modelling results of a parallel-plate based active magnetic regenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tura, A.; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Rowe, A.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of a permanent magnet magnetic refrigerator (PMMR) using gadolinium parallel plates is described. The configuration and operating parameters are described in detail. Experimental results are compared to simulations using an established twodimensional model of an active magnetic re...... plates and channels are needed in order to obtain both temperature spans and cooling powers comparable to those obtained with packed spheres.......The performance of a permanent magnet magnetic refrigerator (PMMR) using gadolinium parallel plates is described. The configuration and operating parameters are described in detail. Experimental results are compared to simulations using an established twodimensional model of an active magnetic...

  16. Results From Finland's 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammelin, Tuija H; Aira, Annaleena; Hakamäki, Matti; Husu, Pauliina; Kallio, Jouni; Kokko, Sami; Laine, Kaarlo; Lehtonen, Kati; Mononen, Kaisu; Palomäki, Sanna; Ståhl, Timo; Sääkslahti, Arja; Tynjälä, Jorma; Kämppi, Katariina

    2016-11-01

    Finland's 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth gathers and translates research results and assesses the status and promotion of physical activity (PA) among Finnish children and youth less than 18 years of age. This article summarizes the results and provides grades for 9 indicators. The working group evaluated the evidence and assigned grades of A (highest, 81% to 100%), B, C, D, or F (lowest, 0% to 20%) for 9 PA indicators using the Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card development process. The grades varied in Finland as follows: 1) Overall PA/fulfillment of recommendations = D, 2) Organized Sport Participation = C, 3) Active Play = C, 4) Active Transportation = B, 5) Sedentary Behaviors = D, 6) Family and Peers = C, 7) School = B, 8) Community and the Built Environment = B, 9) Government = B. Despite good policies and programs to promote PA in Finland, children and youth overall PA levels are low, whereas their time spent sedentary is high. More effective interventions, operation models, concrete tools as well as environmental solutions are needed to support the work toward more physically active childhood and youth.

  17. [Active ageing and quality of life--Results of a WHO demonstration project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von dem Knesebeck, O; David, K; Bill, P; Hikl, R

    2006-04-01

    Based on the Active Ageing Programme of the World Health Organization (WHO), a demonstration project was conducted in a city in North-Rhine Westphalia between October 2002 and December 2004. The aim of the study was to promote an active ageing process, to maintain autonomy and independence among older people, and thereby to promote health and quality of life. The target group included people aged 55 to 80 years. The aim was to include older persons in a critical period of life due to loss of partner within the last five years and people undergoing a status change due to retirement within the last two years. 344 participants were visited at home to assess their health and psychosocial situation and to identify opportunities for activities. Participants were supported in their efforts to realise the agreed-upon activities. In this article results of the external evaluation are presented. It is analysed whether quality of life according to the WHOQOL Bref improves among participants in the course of the project. Results of non-parametric tests show small differences in quality of life between the three waves of interviews (at the beginning of the project, after one year, at the end of the project). This holds true when only those participants are analysed who retired within the last two years. However, quality of life significantly improves among older persons who lost their partner within the last five years. In terms of implementation of the WHO Active Ageing Programme results suggest application of a risk group strategy.

  18. Thromboelastography results on citrated whole blood from clinically healthy cats depend on modes of activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiinberg Bo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last decade, thromboelastography (TEG has gained increasing acceptance as a diagnostic test in veterinary medicine for evaluation of haemostasis in dogs, however the use of TEG in cats has to date only been described in one previous study and a few abstracts. The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare three different TEG assays in healthy cats, in order to establish which assay may be best suited for TEG analyses in cats. Methods 90 TEG analyses were performed on citrated whole blood samples from 15 clinically healthy cats using assays without activator (native or with human recombinant tissue factor (TF or kaolin as activators. Results for reaction time (R, clotting time (K, angle (α, maximum amplitude (MA and clot lysis (LY30; LY60 were recorded. Results Coefficients of variation (CVs were highest in the native assay and comparable in TF and kaolin activated assays. Significant differences were observed between native and kaolin assays for all measured parameters, between kaolin and TF for all measured parameters except LY60 and between native and TF assays for R and K. Conclusion The results indicate that TEG is a reproducible method for evaluation of haemostasis in clinically healthy cats. However, the three assays cannot be used interchangeably and the kaolin- and TF activated assays have the lowest analytical variation indicating that using an activator may be superior for performing TEG in cats.

  19. Results from the Use of Molecular Descriptors Family on Structure Property/Activity Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorana-Daniela Bolboacă

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the results obtained by utilization of an originalapproach called Molecular Descriptors Family on Structure-Property (MDF-SPR andStructure-Activity Relationships (MDF-SAR applied on classes of chemical compoundsand its usefulness as precursors of models elaboration of new compounds with betterproperties and/or activities and low production costs. The MDF-SPR/MDF-SARmethodology integrates the complex information obtained from compound’s structure inunitary efficient models in order to explain properties/activities. The methodology has beenapplied on a number of thirty sets of chemical compounds. The best subsets of moleculardescriptors family members able to estimate and predict property/activity of interest wereidentified and were statistically and visually analyzed. The MDF-SPR/MDF-SAR modelswere validated through internal and/or external validation methods. The estimation andprediction abilities of the MDF-SPR/MDF-SAR models were compared with previousreported models by applying of correlated correlation analysis, which revealed that theMDF-SPR/MDF-SAR methodology is reliable. The MDF-SPR/MDF-SAR methodologyopens a new pathway in understanding the relationships between compound’s structure andproperty/activity, in property/activity prediction, and in discovery, investigation andcharacterization of new chemical compounds, more competitive as costs andproperty/activity, being a method less expensive comparative with experimental methods.

  20. Status of data, major results, and plans for geophysical activities, Yucca Mountain Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, H.W. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA); Hardin, E.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Las Vegas, NV (USA); Nelson, P.H. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (USA)] [eds.

    1990-07-01

    This report describes past and planned geophysical activities associated with the Yucca Mountain Project and is intended to serve as a starting point for integration of geophysical activities. This report relates past results to site characterization plans, as presented in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Plan (SCP). This report discusses seismic exploration, potential field methods, geoelectrical methods, teleseismic data collection and velocity structural modeling, and remote sensing. This report discusses surface-based, airborne, borehole, surface-to-borehole, crosshole, and Exploratory Shaft Facility-related activities. The data described in this paper, and the publications discussed, have been selected based on several considerations; location with respect to Yucca Mountain, whether the success or failure of geophysical data is important to future activities, elucidation of features of interest, and judgment as to the likelihood that the method will produce information that is important for site characterization. 65 refs., 19 figs., 12 tabs.

  1. Results of the Burkina Faso Women in Physics Working Group's activities at the University of Ouagadougou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafando, Pétronille; Zerbo, Issa

    2015-12-01

    The Burkina Faso Women in Physics Working Group was formed as a result of the 3rd IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics in 2008. The effect of the Working Group's activities on the amount and success of women in physics in Burkina Faso are presented.

  2. Increasing physical activity in postpartum multiethnic women in Hawaii: results from a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddock Jason E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mothers of an infant are much less likely to exercise regularly compared to other women. This study tested the efficacy of a brief tailored intervention to increase physical activity (PA in women 3–12 months after childbirth. The study used a pretest-posttest design. Sedentary women (n = 20 were recruited from a parenting organization. Half the participants were ethnic minorities, mean age was 33 ± 3.8, infants' mean age was 6.9 ± 2.4 months, 50% were primiparas, and mean body mass index was 23.6 ± 4.2. Methods The two-month intervention included telephone counseling, pedometers, referral to community PA resources, social support, email advice on PA/pedometer goals, and newsletters. The primary outcome of the study was minutes per week of moderate and vigorous leisure-time physical activity measured by the Godin physical activity instrument. Results All women (100% returned for post-test measures; thus, paired t-tests were used for pre-post increase in minutes of moderate and vigorous leisure-time physical activity and comparisons of moderate and vigorous leisure-time physical activity increases among ethnic groups. At baseline participants' reported a mean of 3 ± 13.4 minutes per week moderate and vigorous leisure-time physical activity. At post-test this significantly increased to 85.5 ± 76.4 minutes per week of moderate and vigorous leisure-time physical activity (p Conclusion A telephone/email intervention tailored to meet the needs of postpartum women was effective in increasing physical activity levels. However, randomized trials comparing tailored telephone and email interventions to standard care and including long-term follow-up to determine maintenance of physical activity are warranted.

  3. [Physical activity: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, S; Jordan, S; Mensink, G B M; Müters, S; Finger, J; Lampert, T

    2013-05-01

    Regular physical activity can have a positive effect on health at any age. Today's lifestyles, however, can often be characterised as sedentary. Therefore, the promotion of physical activity and sports has become an integral part of public health measures. The representative data of adults aged 18 to 79 years in Germany obtained from the "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults" (DEGS1) provide an overview of self-estimated current physical activity behaviour. The results show that one third of the adult population claims to pay close attention to reaching a sufficient level of physical activity and one fourth participates in sports for at least 2 h/week on a regular basis. Thus, the percentage of adults regularly engaged in sports has increased compared to the previous "German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998". Still, four out of five adults do not achieve at least 2.5 h/week of moderate-intensity physical activity as recommended by the World Health Organisation. Consequently, future individual-level and population-level interventions should focus on target group-specific measures while continuing to promote regular physical activity in all segments of the population. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.

  4. The International Prevalence Study on Physical Activity: results from 20 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowles Heather R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity (PA is one of the most important factors for improving population health, but no standardised systems exist for international surveillance. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was developed for international surveillance. The purpose of this study was a comparative international study of population physical activity prevalence across 20 countries. Methods Between 2002–2004, a standardised protocol using IPAQ was used to assess PA participation in 20 countries [total N = 52,746, aged 18–65 years]. The median survey response rate was 61%. Physical activity levels were categorised as "low", "moderate" and "high". Age-adjusted prevalence estimates are presented by sex. Results The prevalence of "high PA" varied from 21–63%; in eight countries high PA was reported for over half of the adult population. The prevalence of "low PA" varied from 9% to 43%. Males more frequently reported high PA than females in 17 of 20 countries. The prevalence of low PA ranged from 7–41% among males, and 6–49% among females. Gender differences were noted, especially for younger adults, with males more active than females in most countries. Markedly lower physical activity prevalence (10% difference with increasing age was noted in 11 of 19 countries for males, but only in three countries for women. The ways populations accumulated PA differed, with some reporting mostly vigorous intensity activities and others mostly walking. Conclusion This study demonstrated the feasibility of international PA surveillance, and showed that IPAQ is an acceptable surveillance instrument, at least within countries. If assessment methods are used consistently over time, trend data will inform countries about the success of their efforts to promote physical activity.

  5. Experimentally increasing sedentary behavior results in increased anxiety in an active young adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Meghan K; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2016-11-01

    Knowledge regarding the effects of sedentary behavior on anxiety has resulted mainly from observational studies. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a free-living, sedentary behavior-inducing randomized controlled intervention on anxiety symptoms. Participants confirmed to be active (i.e., acquiring 150min/week of physical activity) via self-report and accelerometry were randomly assigned into a sedentary behavior intervention group (n=26) or a control group (n=13). For one week, the intervention group eliminated exercise and minimized steps to ≤5000 steps/day whereas the control group continued their normal physical activity levels. Both groups completed the Overall Anxiety Severity Impairment Scale (OASIS) pre- and post-intervention, with higher OASIS scores indicating worse overall anxiety. The intervention group resumed normal physical activity levels for one week post-intervention and then completed the survey once more. A significant group x time interaction effect was observed (F(1,37)=11.13; P=.002), with post-hoc contrast tests indicating increased OASIS scores in the intervention group in Visit 2 compared with Visit 1. That is, we observed an increase in anxiety levels when participants increased their sedentary behavior. OASIS scores significantly decreased from Visit 2 to Visit 3 (P=.001) in the intervention group. A one-week sedentary behavior-inducing intervention has deleterious effects on anxiety in an active, young adult population. To prevent elevated anxiety levels among active individuals, consistent regular physical activity may be necessary. Clinicians treating inactive patients who have anxiety may recommend a physical activity program in addition to any other prescribed treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Results of the marine biota monitoring during drilling activity on Campos Basin, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petta, Claudia Brigagao de; Bastos, Fabio; Danielski, Monica; Ferreira, Mariana; Gama, Mariana; Coelho, Ana Paula Athanazio; Maia, Decio [Aecom do Brasil Ltda, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Project (PMA) aims to report environmental changes arising from drilling activity, in relation to the marine fauna. This project can also help in the monitoring of accidental spills. Since the professionals spend six hours of the day monitoring the ocean around the rigs, they can locate and identify oil stains, notify the responsible onboard, and also help in the monitoring of the oil stain. Such Project has been developed onboard a drilling unit working in Campos Basin. The results presented here were collected during the drilling activity in Bijupira and Salema fields, by Shell Brasil Petroleo Ltda, from July 13th to October 8th, 2011.

  7. DÖNER KEBAB RETAILED ON THE LUCCA AREA: RESULTS OF SURVEILLANCE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C D’Ascenzi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study the results of surveillance activity on döner kebab retailed on the Lucca area are reported. Ten kebab shops were inspected by health officers and food samples, including raw kebab, cooked kebab and sandwiches with kebab, were submitted for microbiological examinations. During surveillance activity some hygiene problems and difficult application of control plan were found. The microbiological analyses showed that döner kebab retailed in Lucca area had acceptable hygienic quality, but further inspections are necessary to improve the hygienic conditions of kebab shops.

  8. Matrix Metalloproteinase Gene Activation Resulting from Disordred Epigenetic Mechanisms in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Yasuto; Mimura, Toshihide

    2017-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are implicated in the degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM). Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial fibroblasts (SFs) produce matrix-degrading enzymes, including MMPs, which facilitate cartilage destruction in the affected joints in RA. Epigenetic mechanisms contribute to change in the chromatin state, resulting in an alteration of gene transcription. Recently, MMP gene activation has been shown to be caused in RASFs by the dysregulation of epigenetic changes, such as histone modifications, DNA methylation, and microRNA (miRNA) signaling. In this paper, we review the role of MMPs in the pathogenesis of RA as well as the disordered epigenetic mechanisms regulating MMP gene activation in RASFs. PMID:28441353

  9. Difficulties in work-related activities among migraineurs are scarcely collected: results from a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggi, A; Covelli, V; Leonardi, M; Grazzi, L; Curone, M; D'Amico, D

    2014-05-01

    Migraine affects work productivity in terms of missed workdays and days with reduced productivity. In this literature review, we looked for papers addressing specific difficulties in work-related activities. Twenty-three papers were included in the review, reporting data on 51,135 patients. Results showed that there is some evidence for limitations in skills such as problem solving, and activities such as speaking and driving. However, the way in which problems with remunerative employment are addressed is limited to concepts such as reduced performance or inability to work as usual. Given the paucity of data, a return to patient-derived data will be needed to develop an assessment instrument that is able to collect information on headache-related problems in work activities.

  10. Fatty Acid Accumulation and Resulting PPARα Activation in Fibroblasts due to Trifunctional Protein Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Wakabayashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To examine fatty acid accumulation and its toxic effects in cells, we analyzed skin fibroblasts from six patients with mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency, who had abnormalities in the second through fourth reactions in fatty acid β-oxidation system. We found free fatty acid accumulation, enhanced three acyl-CoA dehydrogenases, catalyzing the first reaction in the β-oxidation system and being assumed to have normal activities in these patients, and PPARα activation that was confirmed in the experiments using MK886, a PPARα specific antagonist and fenofibrate, a PPARα specific agonist. These novel findings suggest that the fatty acid accumulation and the resulting PPARα activation are major causes of the increase in the β-oxidation ability as probable compensation for fatty acid metabolism in the patients’ fibroblasts, and that enhanced cell proliferation and increased oxidative stress due to the PPARα activation relate to the development of specific clinical features such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, slight hepatomegaly, and skeletal myopathy. Additionally, significant suppression of the PPARα activation by means of MK886 treatment is assumed to provide a new method of treating this deficiency.

  11. Results From Mexico's 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaviz, Karla I; Arroyo, Mabel Aguilar; González-Casanova, Inés; Villalobos, Martín Francisco González; Jáuregui, Alejandra; Ulloa, Edtna Jáuregui; Miranda, Selene Pacheco; Rodríguez, Marcela Pérez; Pelayo, Ricardo Alejandro Retano; López-Taylor, Juan Ricardo

    2016-11-01

    The 2016 Mexican Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth aims to assess how Mexico is doing in terms of providing physical activity (PA) opportunities for Mexican children and youth. The purpose of this article is to summarize results from the Mexican 2016 Report Card. A literature search was conducted in Spanish and English languages using major databases, and complemented with a review of government/nongovernment documents, websites, and national health surveys. Information on the 9 indicators outlined in the Global Matrix of Report Card Grades was extracted. A team of Mexican experts met to discuss and assign a grade on each indicator based on the best available evidence and established benchmarks. Daily behaviors grades were Overall PA (C), Organized Sport Participation (D), Active Play (D-), Active Transportation (C), and Sedentary Behavior (D). For Settings and Sources of Influence, grades were Family and Peers (INC), School (D-), and Community and Environment (D). Strategies and Investments grades were Government Strategies (C) and Non-Government (F). PA and sedentary behaviors among Mexican children and youth remain below the recommended levels. Government and communities are far from providing appropriate and sufficient physical activity opportunities for children and youth.

  12. Uncoupling Malt1 Threshold Function from Paracaspase Activity Results in Destructive Autoimmune Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Gewies

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paracaspase Malt1 is a central regulator of antigen receptor signaling that is frequently mutated in human lymphoma. As a scaffold, it assembles protein complexes for NF-κB activation, and its proteolytic domain cleaves negative NF-κB regulators for signal enforcement. Still, the physiological functions of Malt1-protease are unknown. We demonstrate that targeted Malt1-paracaspase inactivation induces a lethal inflammatory syndrome with lymphocyte-dependent neurodegeneration in vivo. Paracaspase activity is essential for regulatory T cell (Treg and innate-like B cell development, but it is largely dispensable for overcoming Malt1-dependent thresholds for lymphocyte activation. In addition to NF-κB inhibitors, Malt1 cleaves an entire set of mRNA stability regulators, including Roquin-1, Roquin-2, and Regnase-1, and paracaspase inactivation results in excessive interferon gamma (IFNγ production by effector lymphocytes that drive pathology. Together, our results reveal distinct threshold and modulatory functions of Malt1 that differentially control lymphocyte differentiation and activation pathways and demonstrate that selective paracaspase blockage skews systemic immunity toward destructive autoinflammation.

  13. F-8 digital fly-by-wire flight test results viewed from an active controls perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalai, K. J.; Deets, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    The results of the NASA F-8 digital fly-by-wire flight test program are presented, along with the implications for active controls applications. The closed loop performance of the digital control system agreed well with the sampled-data system design predictions. The digital fly-by-wire mechanization also met pilot flying qualities requirements. The advantages of mechanizing the control laws in software became apparent during the flight program and were realized without sacrificing overall system reliability. This required strict software management. The F-8 flight test results are shown to be encouraging in light of the requirements that must be met by control systems for flight-critical active controls applications.

  14. Disability Weights for Chronic Mercury Intoxication Resulting from Gold Mining Activities: Results from an Online Pairwise Comparisons Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckling, Nadine; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Winkelnkemper, Julia; Fischer, Florian; Ericson, Bret; Krämer, Alexander; Hornberg, Claudia; Fuller, Richard; Plass, Dietrich; Bose-O'Reilly, Stephan

    2017-01-10

    In artisanal small-scale gold mining, mercury is used for gold-extraction, putting miners and nearby residents at risk of chronic metallic mercury vapor intoxication (CMMVI). Burden of disease (BoD) analyses allow the estimation of the public health relevance of CMMVI, but until now there have been no specific CMMVI disability weights (DWs). The objective is to derive DWs for moderate and severe CMMVI. Disease-specific and generic health state descriptions of 18 diseases were used in a pairwise comparison survey. Mercury and BoD experts were invited to participate in an online survey. Data were analyzed using probit regression. Local regression was used to make the DWs comparable to the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study. Alternative survey (visual analogue scale) and data analyses approaches (linear interpolation) were evaluated in scenario analyses. A total of 105 participants completed the questionnaire. DWs for moderate and severe CMMVI were 0.368 (0.261-0.484) and 0.588 (0.193-0.907), respectively. Scenario analyses resulted in higher mean values. The results are limited by the sample size, group of interviewees, questionnaire extent, and lack of generally accepted health state descriptions. DWs were derived to improve the data basis of mercury-related BoD estimates, providing useful information for policy-making. Integration of the results into the GBD DWs enhances comparability.

  15. Method and First Results of Calculation of Slant-Range Differences to Active Geostationary Telecommunication Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushuev, F. I.; Kalyuzhny, N. A.; Sybiryakova, Ye. S.; Shulga, A. V.; Gorbanev, Yu. M.

    2015-09-01

    A method for calculation of slant-range differences to the active geostationary telecommunication satellite (GEO Telecom Satellite) is described in the article. The method is developed in the “Mykolaiv Astronomical Observatory” Research Institute. The results of observation of the “Eutelsat- 25C” and “Eutelsat-13B” satellites with two receiving stations of digital satellite TV are discussed. The accuracy of determination of slant-range differences to the GEO Telecom Satellite is presented.

  16. THE RESEARCH ACTIVITY OF THE UNIVERSITY TEACHERS: DIRECTIONS, RESULTS, AND PROSPECTS. SOCIOLOGICAL CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Vasilyev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of an integrated monitoring research is the analysis of the main directions of research activity of faculty, staff and young scientists of the university.Methods. Scientific and theoretical analysis of publications on the researched topic are used as basic methods; sociological and diagnostic data collection methods; the method of statistical processing and classification of documentary and empirical data; the methods of content analysis and quantification of documentary and sociological information.Scientific novelty. The research is characterized by an integrated approach to the study of the problem: the basic provisions are analyzed; conclusions and recommendations of reports on research projects made by members of temporary research teams (or, university scientists and teaching staff. The classification (depending on the translation vectors results of dissertation works of graduate students, doctoral candidates is carried out in the course of the present study. Documentary information about the publication and presentation of scientific and pedagogical staff of the university is systematized; the report and information cards on the activities of innovative platforms are analyzed. The research team, with the direct participation of the author, after studying a few scientific publications on the subject, has developed an original method of complex research of the main directions of research activity of university scientists.Results. The presented research has allowed to note publication and innovative activity of the research and educational personnel, along with other its types, can act as the indicators characterizing the main directions of research activity both of higher education institution in general, and its concrete educational and scientific divisions. At the same, time the author emphasizes that efficiency of research process is caused not so much by quantitative as qualitative characteristics of concrete research

  17. INTERPRETATION OF ASSESSMENT RESULTS OF TEACHER'S ACTIVITY QUALITY OBTAINED THROUGH INFORMATION SERVICE KSUFEEDBACK FUNCTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Spivakovsky

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the research results of the experience of information service KSU Feedback using in HEI to assess the quality of faculty staff teaching through students' vision. Actual national and international scientific works and achievements that relate to our research are analyzed. Key theoretical and practical aspects of building a feedback circuit in high school are showcased. The principles, technical characteristics and requirements for effective feedback are considered. The results of the survey questions ranking is given by using simplified method of hierarchies' analysis. The calculation example of the quantitative indicator of teacher's activity effectiveness, which is based on results of an anonymous electronic targeting survey with taking into account the weights of each question, is given. The article includes a detailed analysis of the experience of information service's KSU Feedback implementation in Kherson State University and in Zaporizhzhya National University. Phased concept of results interpretation which were obtained through the asessment of teacher's activity quality by information service KSU Feedback using is disclosed. An overview analysis of the conflicts typology and approach of conflict situations solving with the help of conflict mapping method are given. The primary consistent patterns and trends whuch were obtained through experiment's results and emerge in the process of feedback's circuit building are hilighted.

  18. Results of the pilot proof of the inquiry activities conducted in the science center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kireš, Marián; BilišÅanská, Mária

    2017-01-01

    The science center SteelPARK Košice offers more than 60 interactive exhibits focused on presenting scientific principles and technical solutions connected to the production and manufacture of steel, research of its properties and its various industrial uses. We are trying to enhance the attractivity of the modern style of the exhibitions and its potential to engage students of ground and middle schools in acquiring new knowledge and capabilities, by means of the inquiry science center. Two laboratory measurements, for 5 three-person teams are provided once a month. During the introductory discussion on the activity, they are asked to answer a series of conceptual questions, which help determine their level of understanding at the beginning of the exercise. The measurements are based in guided inquiry, where the work progress is given a forehand, but the desired result is not. Every activity is focused on developing specific research capabilities. This is being monitored through a self-evaluation card, which every participants is required to fill out immediately after completing the activity. The work is tutored by a lecturer from the students of didactics. During two years and running 15 different activities, we have been able to gather information from more than 6000 students of ground and middle schools. Specific physics measurements, their respective conceptual questions, worksheets and final reports are being presented in this article. We evaluate the present level of conceptual understanding based on the acquired data and give recommendation to teachers on ways to improve the student's capabilities. The teacher, by way of observing the activity, the work of the lecturer and the students, is able to form an understanding of the inquiry activity for their own school practice, for which he/she can use all available methodical and work materials.

  19. Effect of petroleum coke expanding by perchloric acid on the performance of the resulted activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Mei-Gen; Wang, Ren-Qing

    2014-10-01

    Petroleum coke (PC) was expanded by using KMnO4 as oxidant and HClO4 as intercalator so as to decrease the amount of KOH needed for the successive activation. Activated carbon (AC) was prepared by activation of the expanded PC (EPC) at KOH/coke mass ratio of 3:1 (denoted as EAC-3). As a comparison, AC was also made by activation of PC at KOH/coke mass ratio of 3:1, 4:1 and 5:1 (denoted as AC-3, AC-4 and AC-5). Influence of expanding modification on the structure and performance of PC and AC was investigated. The results revealed that the expanding treatment increased the interplanar distance of PC microcrystalline from 0.344 to 0.362 nm and decreased the microcrystalline thickness from 2.34 to 1.57 nm. The specific surface area of EAC-3 and AC-5 was 3461 and 3291 m2ṡg-1, respectively. The average pore size of EAC-3 was 2.19 nm, which is 0.11 nm larger than that of AC-5. At a scan rate of 0.5 mVṡs-1, EAC-3 and AC-5 achieved a specific gravimetric capacitance of 486 and 429 Fṡg-1, respectively. Supercapacitor based on EAC-3 possessed lower resistance and better power performance.

  20. Activation of thalamus in motor imagery results from gating by hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Katharina; Bacht, Katrin; Prochnow, Denise; Schramm, Stefanie; Seitz, Rüdiger J

    2013-02-01

    The ability to mentally imagine the performance of automatic movements has been well-established being employed in sports and physiotherapy as a tool for motor learning and rehabilitation. This is probably mediated by engagement of the same brain areas as during real motor performance. Here we investigated the effect of hypnotic trance on the cerebral activation pattern engaged in motor imagery in 16 healthy, right-handed subjects using fMRI. Motor imagery as compared with rest was related to activations in the left medial frontal areas (preSMA/SMA), prefrontal- and frontal areas, putamen and inferior parietal areas. When compared with performance of the same movements motor imagery resulted in activation of the left middle frontal cortex, precuneus, and posterior cingulate. Under hypnotic trance there was one extra-activation in the left thalamus which occurred specifically in the motor imagery condition. The regional beta indices were highly correlated among the areas of the cortical-subcortical motor network. Our data accord with the notion that hypnotic trance enhances the motor control circuit engaged in motor imagery by modulating the gating function of the thalamus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Healthful Eating and Physical Activity in the Home Environment: Results from Multi-Family Focus Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M.; Arikian, Aimee; Doherty, William J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore multiple family members’ perceptions of risk and protective factors for healthy eating and physical activity in the home. Design Ten multi-family focus groups were conducted with 26 families. Setting Community setting. Participants Primarily Black and White families. Family members (n = 103) were between the ages of 8–61 years. Analysis A grounded hermeneutic approach. Phenomenon of Interest Risk and protective factors for healthy eating and physical activity in the home environment. Results Ten major themes were identified by family members related to health behaviors in the home environment, including: (a) accessibility to healthy foods and activity, (b) time constraints, (c) stage of youth development, (d) individual investment in health behaviors, (e) family investment in health behaviors, (f) family meals and shared activities, (g) parent modeling, (h) making health behaviors fun, (i) making health behaviors part of the family lifestyle, and (j) community investment in family health behaviors. Conclusions and Implications This study identified the importance of the family system and the reciprocal influences within the home environment on health behaviors. In addition, individual and community-level suggestions were identified. Insights from the families provide leads for future research and ideas for the prevention of youth obesity. PMID:22192951

  2. Enhancing activated-peroxide formulations for porous materials: Test methods and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauter, Paula [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tucker, Mark D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tezak, Matthew S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boucher, Raymond [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-12-01

    During an urban wide-area incident involving the release of a biological warfare agent, the recovery/restoration effort will require extensive resources and will tax the current capabilities of the government and private contractors. In fact, resources may be so limited that decontamination by facility owners/occupants may become necessary and a simple decontamination process and material should be available for this use. One potential process for use by facility owners/occupants would be a liquid sporicidal decontaminant, such as pHamended bleach or activated-peroxide, and simple application devices. While pH-amended bleach is currently the recommended low-tech decontamination solution, a less corrosive and toxic decontaminant is desirable. The objective of this project is to provide an operational assessment of an alternative to chlorine bleach for low-tech decontamination applications activated hydrogen peroxide. This report provides the methods and results for activatedperoxide evaluation experiments. The results suggest that the efficacy of an activated-peroxide decontaminant is similar to pH-amended bleach on many common materials.

  3. Localized cranial hyperostosis of meningiomas: a result of neoplastic enzymatic activity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heick, A.; Mosdal, C.; Klinken, Leif

    1993-01-01

    Neuropathology, alkaline phosphatase, cranial hyperostosis, meningioma, ossifying enzymatic activity......Neuropathology, alkaline phosphatase, cranial hyperostosis, meningioma, ossifying enzymatic activity...

  4. 78 FR 70533 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative... Preliminary Results of the fifth antidumping duty administrative review on certain activated carbon from the.... \\1\\ See Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the...

  5. Determinants of Active Longevity: Results of a Survey of Vologda Long-Livers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ol’ga Nikolaevna Kalachikova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Population ageing is a major demographic challenge for the majority of developed and developing countries. The implications of population ageing are not reduced to purely economic aspects (increasing the burden on the working population, growing deficit of pension funds and they lead to a change in people’s attitude toward the elderly as a social group, the resource potential of which should be disclosed, the task being of major importance for any “ageing” country. At the same time, a priority of population policy in any country is to increase life expectancy of its citizens. Thus, given the forecast reduction in demand on the labor market and possible raise of the retirement age in Russia, authorities at all levels focus not just on the increase in life expectancy, but on active longevity of its citizens, which is reflected in the maintenance of physical and moral health of man for as long as possible. The paper investigates determinants of active longevity. The first part of the paper provides statistical analysis of prevalence of this phenomenon in various regions of the world and Russia. The authors draw a conclusion that here the role of geographical and climatic conditions on a global scale is insignificant. However, it is revealed that the number of long-livers in the vast majority of cases is directly proportional to the level of socio-economic development of the territory. The second part of the paper presents the results of sociological research on the determinants of active longevity based on interviews with long-livers in Vologda. The data obtained show that among the factors under consideration it is not the biological (genetic or geographic factors that are of the greatest importance to the increase in life expectancy, rather it is the behavioral factors such as physical activity, balanced nutrition and a correct day regimen, absence of bad habits, involvement in social activities and extensive social environment, high labor

  6. Random Mutagenesis of the Aspergillus oryzae Genome Results in Fungal Antibacterial Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Cory A.; Brown, Stacy D.; Hayman, J. Russell

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant bacteria cause severe infections in hospitals and communities. Development of new drugs to combat resistant microorganisms is needed. Natural products of microbial origin are the source of most currently available antibiotics. We hypothesized that random mutagenesis of Aspergillus oryzae would result in secretion of antibacterial compounds. To address this hypothesis, we developed a screen to identify individual A. oryzae mutants that inhibit the growth of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in vitro. To randomly generate A. oryzae mutant strains, spores were treated with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). Over 3000 EMS-treated A. oryzae cultures were tested in the screen, and one isolate, CAL220, exhibited altered morphology and antibacterial activity. Culture supernatant from this isolate showed antibacterial activity against Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but not Klebsiella pneumonia or Proteus vulgaris. The results of this study support our hypothesis and suggest that the screen used is sufficient and appropriate to detect secreted antibacterial fungal compounds resulting from mutagenesis of A. oryzae. Because the genome of A. oryzae has been sequenced and systems are available for genetic transformation of this organism, targeted as well as random mutations may be introduced to facilitate the discovery of novel antibacterial compounds using this system. PMID:23983696

  7. Random Mutagenesis of the Aspergillus oryzae Genome Results in Fungal Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory A. Leonard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug-resistant bacteria cause severe infections in hospitals and communities. Development of new drugs to combat resistant microorganisms is needed. Natural products of microbial origin are the source of most currently available antibiotics. We hypothesized that random mutagenesis of Aspergillus oryzae would result in secretion of antibacterial compounds. To address this hypothesis, we developed a screen to identify individual A. oryzae mutants that inhibit the growth of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in vitro. To randomly generate A. oryzae mutant strains, spores were treated with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS. Over 3000 EMS-treated A. oryzae cultures were tested in the screen, and one isolate, CAL220, exhibited altered morphology and antibacterial activity. Culture supernatant from this isolate showed antibacterial activity against Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but not Klebsiella pneumonia or Proteus vulgaris. The results of this study support our hypothesis and suggest that the screen used is sufficient and appropriate to detect secreted antibacterial fungal compounds resulting from mutagenesis of A. oryzae. Because the genome of A. oryzae has been sequenced and systems are available for genetic transformation of this organism, targeted as well as random mutations may be introduced to facilitate the discovery of novel antibacterial compounds using this system.

  8. Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project: A summary of drilling and engineering activities and scientific results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, H.P.; Forsgren, C.K. (eds.)

    1992-04-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific g Project (SSSDP) completed the first major well in the United States Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The well (State 2-14) was drilled to 10,W ft (3,220 m) in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in California's Imperial Valley, to permit scientific study of a deep, high-temperature portion of an active geothermal system. The program was designed to investigate, through drilling and testing, the subsurface thermal, chemical, and mineralogical environments of this geothermal area. Extensive samples and data, including cores, cuttings, geothermal fluids and gases, and geophysical logs, were collected for future scientific analysis, interpretation, and publication. Short duration flow tests were conducted on reservoirs at a depth of approximately 6,120 ft (1,865 m) and at 10,136 ft (3,089 m). This report summarizes all major activities of the SSSDP, from project inception in the fall of 1984 through brine-pond cleanup and site restoration, ending in February 1989. This report presents a balanced summary of drilling, coring, logging, and flow-test operations, and a brief summary of technical and scientific results. Frequent reference is made to original records, data, and publication of results. The report also reviews the proposed versus the final well design, and operational summaries, such as the bit record, the casing and cementing program, and the coring program. Summaries are and the results of three flow tests. Several teamed during the project.

  9. Changes in diet and physical activity resulting from the Shape Up Somerville community intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, Sara C; Kuder, Julia F; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Hyatt, Raymond R; Must, Aviva; Naumova, Elena N; Nelson, Miriam E; Economos, Christina D

    2013-10-04

    The purpose of this study is to describe the behavioral changes in children resulting from Shape Up Somerville (SUS), a community-based, participatory obesity prevention intervention that used a multi-level, systems-based approach. It was set in Somerville, an urban, culturally diverse community in Massachusetts, USA. This was a non-randomized, controlled 2-year community-based intervention trial with children enrolled in grades 1 to 3 (ages 6-8 years). Overall, the SUS intervention was designed to create environmental and policy change to impact all aspects of a child's day. Pre-post outcomes were compared between Somerville and two control communities that were chosen based on socio-demographic similarities. Behavioral outcomes were fruit and vegetable and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption; number of organized sports and physical activities per year; walking to and from school; screen and television time; television in bedroom; and dinner in room with television on. These measures were assessed by parent/caregiver report using a 68-item Family Survey Form. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression, accounting for covariates and clustering by community. Intervention group children, compared to the control group, significantly reduced sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (-2.0 ounces per day; 95% CI -3.8 to -0.2), increased participation in organized sports and physical activities (0.20 sports or activities per year; 95% CI 0.06 to 0.33), and reduced their screen time (-0.24 hours per day; 95% CI -0.42 to -0.06). Results of this study, particularly intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and screen time, are similar to others that used a multi-level approach to realize change in behavior. These results support the efficacy of a multi-level and systems-based approach for promoting the behavioral changes necessary for childhood obesity prevention. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT00153322.

  10. First Results from Cherwell, a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor for Particle Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Nooney, Tamsin; Borri, Marcello; Crooks, Jamie; Headspith, Jon; Inguglia, Gianluca; Kolya, Scott; Lazarus, Ian; Lemmon, Roy; Mylroie-Smith, James; Turchetta, Renato; Velthuis, Jaap; Wilson, Fergus

    2014-01-01

    Cherwell is a CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) developed for digital calorimetry and charged particle tracking applications. Here, we outline the initial tests carried out to charac- terise the performance of Cherwell, give details of the test beam carried out at CERN and include the first results from this analysis. Three variations of the chip were tested; Type A, a high re- sistivity, low noise sensor, Type B, a standard resisivity, low noise sensor and Type C, a standard resistivity, standard noise sensor. The sensors yield an average RMS noise value per pixel of 9.6 e

  11. Charpy impact test results for low activation ferritic alloys irradiated to 30 dpa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, L.E.; Hamilton, M.L.; Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Miniature specimens of six low activation ferritic alloys have been impact field tested following irradiation at 370{degrees}C to 30 dpa. Comparison of the results with those of control specimens and specimens irradiated to 10 dpa indicates that degradation in the impact behavior appears to have saturated by {approx}10 dpa in at least four of these alloys. The 7.5Cr-2W alloy referred to as GA3X appears most promising for further consideration as a candidate structural material in fusion reactor applications, although the 9Cr-1V alloy may also warrant further investigation.

  12. Results From Colombia's 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Silvia A; Castiblanco, Maria A; Arias-Gómez, Luis F; Martinez-Ospina, Andrea; Cohen, Daniel D; Holguin, Gustavo A; Almanza, Adriana; Lemos, Diana Marina Camargo; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Escobar, Iván D; García, Johnattan; Gámez, Rocio; Garzon, Mauricio; Beltrán, Yaneth Herazo; Hurtado, Hernan; Lozano, Oscar; Páez, Diana C; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Ruiz, Nubia; Tovar, Gustavo; Sarmiento, Olga L

    2016-11-01

    Physical activity (PA) is vital to the holistic development of young people. Regular participation in PA is associated with substantial benefits for health, cognitive function, and social inclusion. Recognizing the potential of PA in the context of the current peace process in Colombia, the purpose of this article is to present the methodology and results of Colombia's second Report Card on PA for children and youth. A group of experts on PA graded 14 PA indicators based on data from national surveys and policy documents. National and departmental policy indicators received a grade of B, while organized sport participation, overweight, obesity, community influence, and nongovernment initiatives indicators received a grade of C. Overall PA levels, active transportation, sedentary behaviors, and school influence received a grade of D. Active play, low physical fitness, and family influence received an Incomplete grade. PA levels are low and sedentary behaviors are high in Colombian children and youth, with notable geographic differences. A broad policy framework translated into specific actions could provide unique opportunities to bridge the gap between knowledge and practice, and contribute to social integration goals in a postconflict setting.

  13. Active exercises utilizing a facilitating device in the treatment of lymphedema resulting from breast cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Fátima Guerreiro Godoy, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the reduction in volume of arm lymphedema secondary to breast cancer therapy utilizing an exercise facilitating device. Twenty-one women with arm lymphedema resulting from the surgical and radiotherapeutic treatment of breast cancer were randomly selected. Evaluation was made by water-displacement volumetry before and after each session. The patients were submitted to a series of active exercises using a facilitating device for four 12-minute sessions with intervals of 3 minutes between sessions in the sitting position with alignment of the spinal column. The lymphedematous arm was maintained under compression using a cotton-polyester sleeve. The active exercising device used was a mobile flexion bar fixed on a metal base at a height of 30 cm from the tabletop and at a distance of 10 cm from the patient’s body. The paired t-test was utilized for statistical analysis with an alpha error of 5% (p-value ≤0.05 being considered significant. The initial mean volume of the arms was 2,089.9 and the final volume was 2,023.0 mL with a mean loss of 66.9 mL (p-value <0.001. In conclusion, active exercises utilizing facilitating devices can contribute to a reduction in size of lymphedematous limbs.

  14. Comparison of the Results from Microscopic Tests Concerning the Quality of Activated Sludge and Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sowinska

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical studies on wastewater quality and microscopic analyses of activated sludge are necessary to properly evaluate the condition of activated sludge. The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of the sludge biotic index to determine when a change in treatment quality is short-lived, caused by, e.g., a change in influent quality or quantity, and when it indicates adverse changes in the biocenosis of activated sludge, which would very likely result in the lower efficiency of wastewater treatment in the near future. The objects of the study were two identical parallel running small wastewater treatment plants. The following indicators of contamination were analyzed: the chemical oxygen demand (COD, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, and total suspended solids (TSS. The authors additionally carried out a microscopic analysis. The study confirmed a correlation between the sludge biotic index and the removal efficiency of COD and BOD5; however, no correlation was found between the sludge biotic index and the removal efficiency of total suspended solids. The presence of metazoan microorganisms coincided in time with a good effluent treatment efficiency. When their quantity declined, a decrease in the efficiency of wastewater treatment was also observed.

  15. Results of Spectral Corona Observations in Solar Activity Cycles 17-24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliev, A. Kh.; Guseva, S. A.; Tlatov, A. G.

    2017-12-01

    The results of the work of the global observation network are considered, and a comparative analysis of the data of various coronal observatories is performed. The coronal activity index has been reconstructed for the period 1939-2016 based on the data of various observatories in Kislovodsk system. For this purpose, the corona daily intensity maps from the Sacramento Peak and Lomnický Štít observatories according to the Solar-Geophysical Data journal have been digitized; they supplement the data of other observatories. The homogeneity and continuity of the corona observations at the Kislovodsk station, including activity cycle 24, is confirmed. Unfortunately, the only observatory at present that continues observation of the spectral corona in Fe XIV 5303 Å and Fe XIV 6374 Å lines is the Kislovodsk astronomical station Mountain Astronomical Station (MAS) of the Central Astronomical Observatory, Russian Academy of Sciences (Pulkovo). The data on the combined corona in 5303 Å line are analyzed. It is shown that there is a high correlation of the intensity index of green corona with solar radiation measurements in the vacuum UV region. Data on the beginning of the new 25th activity cycle in the corona at high latitudes are presented.

  16. Research results in the field of information support for innovation activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Žižlavský

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an actual issue focused on one of the world wide problem – effective development of an innovation process in the company. Just innovation is deemed as an essential part of company’s efficiency and its development with an impact on overall performance and competitiveness. The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss knowledge and findings of original primary research into South-Moravian companies within two projects of Internal Grant Agency Faculty of Business and Management Brno University of Technology, which were conducted in 2009 and 2010. For this analysis a questionnaire survey was used – the results of the primary research reflect innovative activities from the top managers’ point of view. The scientific aim of the paper is to gain knowledge and analyse the present status of innovative activities as it pertains to Czech and foreign professional literature and in the Czech business environment. Authors proved with help of questionnaire survey that many companies still neglect information support of their innovation activities although given the importance of innovation as an engine of growth. Moreover, as shown by the primary research, the majority of companies lack a sophisticated marketing information system, modelling and analysis of the future market, analyses of customers, their behaviour and unsaid needs, definition of price strategies, and analysis of new expansion areas. These findings are not affirmative for our business environment.

  17. Sexual activity during pregnancy and after childbirth: results from the Sexual Preferences Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Sydow, K; Ullmeyer, M; Happ, N

    2001-03-01

    The sexual relations of expectant and young parents have been researched relatively often, but most studies are restricted to female participants, samples from the USA, a short postpartum period and a reductionist view of sexuality as equivalent to intercourse. The aim of this study is to gain more knowledge about sexual activity of German couples with regard to non-genital tenderness, French kissing, breast stimulation, manual-genital stimulation, cunnilingus, fellatio, vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse and masturbation during pregnancy and the first 6 months postpartum. As part of a larger longitudinal study, 60 women and men (30 couples) answered a newly developed Sexual Preferences Questionnaire (SPQ) which assesses sexual activity and enjoyment. The frequency of most heterosexual activities declined during pregnancy, reached almost zero in the first 3 months postpartum, and then began to increase; male masturbation remained relatively constant. Agreement between the two members of each couple was assessed and SPQ data were validated with other questionnaire data and interview data. The results are discussed with regard to limitations of the sample. Future research should broaden the range of questions investigated, the range of research methods applied (questionnaires and interviews) and the range of persons researched (both partners).

  18. Results From South Africa's 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uys, Monika; Bassett, Susan; Draper, Catherine E; Micklesfield, Lisa; Monyeki, Andries; de Villiers, Anniza; Lambert, Estelle V

    2016-11-01

    We present results of the 2016 Healthy Active Kids South Africa (HAKSA) Report Card on the current status of physical activity (PA) and nutrition in South African youth. The context in which we interpret the findings is that participation in PA is a fundamental human right, along with the right to "attainment of the highest standard of health." The HAKSA 2016 Writing Group was comprised of 33 authorities in physical education, exercise science, nutrition, public health, and journalism. The search strategy was based on peer-reviewed manuscripts, dissertations, and 'gray' literature. The core PA indicators are Overall Physical Activity Level; Organized Sport Participation; Active and Outdoor Play; Active Transportation; Sedentary Behaviors; Family and Peer Influences; School; Community and the Built Environment; and National Government Policy, Strategies, and Investment. In addition, we reported on Physical Fitness and Motor Proficiency separately. We also reported on nutrition indicators including Overweight and Under-nutrition along with certain key behaviors such as Fruit and Vegetable Intake, and policies and programs including School Nutrition Programs and Tuck Shops. Data were extracted and grades assigned after consensus was reached. Grades were assigned to each indicator ranging from an A, succeeding with a large majority of children and youth (81% to 100%); B, succeeding with well over half of children and youth (61% to 80%); C, succeeding with about half of children and youth (41% to 60%); D, succeeding with less than half but some children and youth (21% to 40%); and F, succeeding with very few children and youth (0% to 20%); INC is inconclusive. Overall PA levels received a C grade, as we are succeeding with more than 50% of children meeting recommendations. Organized Sports Participation also received a C, and Government Policies remain promising, receiving a B. Screen time and sedentary behavior were a major concern. Under- and over-weight were

  19. ['Walkability' and physical activity - results of empirical studies based on the 'Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS)'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottmann, M; Mielck, A

    2014-02-01

    'Walkability' is mainly assessed by the NEWS questionnaire (Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale); in Germany this questionnaire is widely unknown. We now try to fill this gap by providing a systematic overview of empirical studies based on the NEWS. A systematic review was conducted concerning original papers including empirical analyses based on the NEWS. The results are summarised and presented in tables. Altogether 31 publications could be identified. Most of them focus on associations with the variable 'physical activity', and they often report significant associations with at least some of the scales included in the NEWS. Due to methodological differences between the studies it is difficult to compare the results. The concept of 'walkability' should also be established in the German public health discussion. A number of methodological challenges remain to be solved, such as the identification of those scales and items in the NEWS that show the strongest associations with individual health behaviours. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Accelerating activity coefficient calculations using multicore platforms, and profiling the energy use resulting from such calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, David; Alibay, Irfan; Bane, Michael

    2017-04-01

    To predict the evolving concentration, chemical composition and ability of aerosol particles to act as cloud droplets, we rely on numerical modeling. Mechanistic models attempt to account for the movement of compounds between the gaseous and condensed phases at a molecular level. This 'bottom up' approach is designed to increase our fundamental understanding. However, such models rely on predicting the properties of molecules and subsequent mixtures. For partitioning between the gaseous and condensed phases this includes: saturation vapour pressures; Henrys law coefficients; activity coefficients; diffusion coefficients and reaction rates. Current gas phase chemical mechanisms predict the existence of potentially millions of individual species. Within a dynamic ensemble model, this can often be used as justification for neglecting computationally expensive process descriptions. Indeed, on whether we can quantify the true sensitivity to uncertainties in molecular properties, even at the single aerosol particle level it has been impossible to embed fully coupled representations of process level knowledge with all possible compounds, typically relying on heavily parameterised descriptions. Relying on emerging numerical frameworks, and designed for the changing landscape of high-performance computing (HPC), in this study we focus specifically on the ability to capture activity coefficients in liquid solutions using the UNIFAC method. Activity coefficients are often neglected with the largely untested hypothesis that they are simply too computationally expensive to include in dynamic frameworks. We present results demonstrating increased computational efficiency for a range of typical scenarios, including a profiling of the energy use resulting from reliance on such computations. As the landscape of HPC changes, the latter aspect is important to consider in future applications.

  1. A Highly Sensitive Telomerase Activity Assay that Eliminates False-Negative Results Caused by PCR Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenobu Yaku

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An assay for telomerase activity based on asymmetric polymerase chain reaction (A-PCR on magnetic beads (MBs and subsequent application of cycling probe technology (CPT is described. In this assay, the telomerase reaction products are immobilized on MBs, which are then washed to remove PCR inhibitors that are commonly found in clinical samples. The guanine-rich sequences (5'-(TTAGGGn-3' of the telomerase reaction products are then preferentially amplified by A-PCR, and the amplified products are subsequently detected via CPT, where a probe RNA with a fluorophore at the 5' end and a quencher at the 3' end is hydrolyzed by RNase H in the presence of the target DNA. The catalyst-mediated cleavage of the probe RNA enhances fluorescence from the 5' end of the probe. The assay allowed us to successfully detect HeLa cells selectively over normal human dermal fibroblast (NHDF cells. Importantly, this selectivity produced identical results with regard to detection of HeLa cells in the absence and presence of excess NHDF cells; therefore, this assay can be used for practical clinical applications. The lower limit of detection for HeLa cells was 50 cells, which is lower than that achieved with a conventional telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay. Our assay also eliminated false-negative results caused by PCR inhibitors. Furthermore, we show that this assay is appropriate for screening among G-quadruplex ligands to find those that inhibit telomerase activity.

  2. Test-beam activities and results for the ATLAS ITk pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bisanz, Tobias; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Phase-II upgrade of the LHC will result in an increase of the instantaneous luminosity up to about $5\\times10^{34}~\\text{cm}^{-2}\\text{s}^{-1}$. To cope with the resulting challenges the current Inner Detector will be replaced by an all-silicon Inner Tracker (ITk) system. The Pixel Detector will have to deal with occupancies of about 300~hits/FE/s as well as a fluence of $2\\times10^{16}~\\text{n}_\\text{eq}\\text{cm}^{-2}$. Various sensor layouts are under development, aiming at providing a high performance, cost effective pixel instrumentation to cover an active area of about $10~\\text{m}^2$. These range from thin planar silicon, over 3D silicon, to active CMOS sensors.\\par After extensive characterization of the sensors in the lab, their charge collection properties and hit efficiency are measured in common testbeam campaigns, which provide valuable feedback for improvements of the layout. Testbeam measurements of the final prototypes will be used for the decision of which sensor types will be installed in...

  3. Test-beam activities and results for the ATLAS ITk pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisanz, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Phase-II upgrade of the LHC aims at an increase of the instantaneous luminosity up to about 5×1034 cm‑2 s‑1. To cope with the resulting challenges the current Inner Detector will be replaced by an all-silicon Inner Tracker (ITk) system. The Pixel Detector will have to deal with occupancies of about 300 hits/FE/s as well as a fluence of around 2×1016 neq cm‑2. Various sensor layouts are under development, aiming at providing a high performance, cost effective pixel instrumentation to cover an active area of about 10 m2. These range from thin planar silicon, 3D silicon, to active CMOS sensors. After extensive characterization of the sensors in the lab, their charge collection properties and hit efficiency are measured in common testbeam campaigns, which provide valuable feedback for improvements of the layout. Testbeam measurements of the final prototypes will be used for the decision of which sensor types will be installed in ITk. The setups used in the ITk Pixel testbeam campaigns will be presented, including the common track reconstruction and analysis software. Results from the latest measurements will be shown, highlighting some of the developments and challenges for the ITk Pixel sensors.

  4. 77 FR 67337 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China; 2010-2011; Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China; 2010-2011...'') published its Preliminary Results of the antidumping duty order on certain activated carbon from the People.... \\1\\ See Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the...

  5. Final payload test results for the RemoveDebris active debris removal mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forshaw, Jason L.; Aglietti, Guglielmo S.; Salmon, Thierry; Retat, Ingo; Roe, Mark; Burgess, Christopher; Chabot, Thomas; Pisseloup, Aurélien; Phipps, Andy; Bernal, Cesar; Chaumette, François; Pollini, Alexandre; Steyn, Willem H.

    2017-09-01

    Since the beginning of the space era, a significant amount of debris has progressively been generated in space. Active Debris Removal (ADR) missions have been suggested as a way of limiting and controlling future growth in orbital space debris by actively deploying vehicles to remove debris. The European Commission FP7-sponsored RemoveDebris mission, which started in 2013, draws on the expertise of some of Europe's most prominent space institutions in order to demonstrate key ADR technologies in a cost effective ambitious manner: net capture, harpoon capture, vision-based navigation, dragsail de-orbiting. This paper provides an overview of some of the final payload test results before launch. A comprehensive test campaign is underway on both payloads and platform. The tests aim to demonstrate both functional success of the experiments and that the experiments can survive the space environment. Space environmental tests (EVT) include vibration, thermal, vacuum or thermal-vacuum (TVAC) and in some cases EMC and shock. The test flow differs for each payload and depends on the heritage of the constituent payload parts. The paper will also provide an update to the launch, expected in 2017 from the International Space Station (ISS), and test philosophy that has been influenced from the launch and prerequisite NASA safety review for the mission. The RemoveDebris mission aims to be one of the world's first in-orbit demonstrations of key technologies for active debris removal and is a vital prerequisite to achieving the ultimate goal of a cleaner Earth orbital environment.

  6. Psycho-social picture of sexually active adolescent girls: Results of research survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Biljana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In a demographic sense, adolescents are a population group which is yet to take part in birth giving. Therefore, their sexual behavior and especially sexual activity at early ages which is not only unfavorable from the aspect of the individual, meaning risk for psycho-physical health, but from the aspect of society as well, as regards population fertility, deserves special attention. This paper shows the results of in-depth research carried out in Belgrade from September 2001 to October 2002 with an aim to establish which factors determine a young person, of sixteen years old or younger, to become sexually active. It was carried out on a sample of 111 adolescent girls between 14 and 20 years old which turned to the Republic Family Planning Center Youth Counseling Clinic of the Institute for Mother and Child Health Care of Serbia. The research showed that sexual experience, realized at an early age was an integral part of development and maturing for the largest number of surveyed girls. In the largest number of cases it was a positive experience, induced by love and experienced with a partner, mainly of the same age, with which they were in a longer, stable relationship. Nevertheless, it could be concluded from the results obtained by the research that the surveyed girls could have more easily and efficiently solved their problems and dilemmas regarding sexuality had they had the possibility to obtain a better insight into their personal feelings and feelings of others at the right time, as well as developed social experience and experience in mastering control of their impulses. With a certain number of surveyed girls that would have meant a delay in their sexual activities to a later age. This also refers to the prevention of other risky behavior such as use of alcohol and drugs, which also have an influence on changing sexual behavior, making it more risky. It is important to stress that the surveyed adolescent girls themselves recognized the

  7. Intravenous Tissue Plasminogen Activator Can Be Safely Given without Complete Blood Count Results Back.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Dong

    Full Text Available It is well known that the efficacy of intravenous (i.v. tissue plasminogen activator (tPA is time-dependent when used to treat patients with acute ischemic strokes.Our study examines the safety issue of giving IV tPA without complete blood count (CBC resulted.This is a retrospective observational study by examining the database from Huashan Hospital in China and OSF/INI Comprehensive Stroke Center in United States. Patient data collected included demographics, occurrence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, door to needle intervals, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale scores on admission, CBC results on admission and follow-up modified Rankin Scale scores. Linear regression and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to identify factors that would have an impact on door-to-needle intervals.Our study included 120 patients from Huashan Hospital and 123 patients from INI. Among them, 36 in Huashan Hospital and 51 in INI received i.v. tPA prior to their CBC resulted. Normal platelet count was found in 98.8% patients after tPA was given. One patient had thrombocytopenia but no hemorrhagic event. A significantly shorter door to needle interval (DTN was found in the group without CBC resulted. There was also a difference in treatment interval between the two hospitals. Door to needle intervals had a strong correlation to onset to treatment intervals and NIHSS scores on admission.In patients presented with acute ischemic stroke, the risk of developing hemorrhagic event is low if i.v. tPA is given before CBC has resulted. The door to needle intervals can be significantly reduced.

  8. Test-beam activities and results for the ATLAS ITk pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bisanz, Tobias; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Phase-II upgrade of the LHC will result in an increase of the instantaneous luminosity up to about 5×1034 cm−2s−1. To cope with the challenges the current Inner Detector will be replaced by an all-silicon Inner Tracker (ITk) system. The Pixel Detector will have to deal with occupancies of about 300~hits/FE/s as well as a fluence of 2×1016neqcm−2. Various sensor layouts are under development, aiming at providing a high performance, cost effective pixel instrumentation to cover an active area of about 10~m2. These range from thin planar silicon, over 3D silicon, to active CMOS sensors. After extensive characterization of the sensors in the lab, their charge collection properties and hit efficiency are measured in common testbeam campaigns, which provide valuable feedback for improvements of the layout. Testbeam measurements of the final prototypes will be used for the decision of which sensor types will be installed in ITk. The setups used in the ITk Pixel testbeam campaigns will be presented, inclu...

  9. Loss of succinate dehydrogenase activity results in dependency on pyruvate carboxylation for cellular anabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussey-Lepoutre, Charlotte; Hollinshead, Kate E. R.; Ludwig, Christian; Menara, Mélanie; Morin, Aurélie; Castro-Vega, Luis-Jaime; Parker, Seth J.; Janin, Maxime; Martinelli, Cosimo; Ottolenghi, Chris; Metallo, Christian; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-Paule; Favier, Judith; Tennant, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is a central metabolic pathway responsible for supplying reducing potential for oxidative phosphorylation and anabolic substrates for cell growth, repair and proliferation. As such it thought to be essential for cell proliferation and tissue homeostasis. However, since the initial report of an inactivating mutation in the TCA cycle enzyme complex, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) in paraganglioma (PGL), it has become clear that some cells and tissues are not only able to survive with a truncated TCA cycle, but that they are also able of supporting proliferative phenotype observed in tumours. Here, we show that loss of SDH activity leads to changes in the metabolism of non-essential amino acids. In particular, we demonstrate that pyruvate carboxylase is essential to re-supply the depleted pool of aspartate in SDH-deficient cells. Our results demonstrate that the loss of SDH reduces the metabolic plasticity of cells, suggesting vulnerabilities that can be targeted therapeutically. PMID:26522426

  10. Effective methods of protection of the intellectual activity results in infosphere of global telematics networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Lovtsov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is perfection of using metodology of technological and organization and legal protect of intellectual activity results and related intellectual rights in information sphere of Global Telematics Networks (such as of «Internet», «Relkom», «Sitek», «Sedab», «Remart», and others. On the conduct analysis base of the peculiarities and possibilities of using of different technological, organization and legal methods and ways protection of information objects the offers of perfection of corresponding organization and legal safeguarding are formulated. The effectiveness of the protection is provided on the basis of rational aggregation technological, organization and legal methods and ways possible in a particular situation.

  11. Fuzzy-logic-based hybrid locomotion mode classification for an active pelvis orthosis: Preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kebin; Parri, Andrea; Yan, Tingfang; Wang, Long; Munih, Marko; Vitiello, Nicola; Wang, Qining

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a fuzzy-logic-based hybrid locomotion mode classification method for an active pelvis orthosis. Locomotion information measured by the onboard hip joint angle sensors and the pressure insoles is used to classify five locomotion modes, including two static modes (sitting, standing still), and three dynamic modes (level-ground walking, ascending stairs, and descending stairs). The proposed method classifies these two kinds of modes first by monitoring the variation of the relative hip joint angle between the two legs within a specific period. Static states are then classified by the time-based absolute hip joint angle. As for dynamic modes, a fuzzy-logic based method is proposed for the classification. Preliminary experimental results with three able-bodied subjects achieve an off-line classification accuracy higher than 99.49%.

  12. MED resulting from recessively inherited mutations in the gene encoding calcium-activated nucleotidase CANT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Karthika; Li, Bing; Krakow, Deborah; Nevarez, Lisette; Ho, Patric J; Ainsworth, Julia A; Nickerson, Deborah A; Bamshad, Michael J; Immken, LaDonna; Lachman, Ralph S; Cohn, Daniel H

    2017-09-01

    Multiple Epiphyseal Dysplasia (MED) is a relatively mild skeletal dysplasia characterized by mild short stature, joint pain, and early-onset osteoarthropathy. Dominantly inherited mutations in COMP, MATN3, COL9A1, COL9A2, and COL9A3, and recessively inherited mutations in SLC26A2, account for the molecular basis of disease in about 80-85% of the cases. In two families with recurrent MED of an unknown molecular basis, we used exome sequencing and candidate gene analysis to identify homozygosity for recessively inherited missense mutations in CANT1, which encodes calcium-activated nucleotidase 1. The MED phenotype is thus allelic to the more severe Desbuquois dysplasia phenotype and the results identify CANT1 as a second locus for recessively inherited MED. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Loss of succinate dehydrogenase activity results in dependency on pyruvate carboxylation for cellular anabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussey-Lepoutre, Charlotte; Hollinshead, Kate E R; Ludwig, Christian; Menara, Mélanie; Morin, Aurélie; Castro-Vega, Luis-Jaime; Parker, Seth J; Janin, Maxime; Martinelli, Cosimo; Ottolenghi, Chris; Metallo, Christian; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-Paule; Favier, Judith; Tennant, Daniel A

    2015-11-02

    The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is a central metabolic pathway responsible for supplying reducing potential for oxidative phosphorylation and anabolic substrates for cell growth, repair and proliferation. As such it thought to be essential for cell proliferation and tissue homeostasis. However, since the initial report of an inactivating mutation in the TCA cycle enzyme complex, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) in paraganglioma (PGL), it has become clear that some cells and tissues are not only able to survive with a truncated TCA cycle, but that they are also able of supporting proliferative phenotype observed in tumours. Here, we show that loss of SDH activity leads to changes in the metabolism of non-essential amino acids. In particular, we demonstrate that pyruvate carboxylase is essential to re-supply the depleted pool of aspartate in SDH-deficient cells. Our results demonstrate that the loss of SDH reduces the metabolic plasticity of cells, suggesting vulnerabilities that can be targeted therapeutically.

  14. LPS-induced galectin-3 oligomerization results in enhancement of neutrophil activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marise Lopes Fermino

    Full Text Available Galectin-3 (Gal 3 is a glycan-binding protein that can be secreted by activated macrophages and mast cells at inflammation sites and plays an important role in inflammatory diseases caused by Bacteria and their products, such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS. Although it is well established that Gal 3 can interact with LPS, the pathophysiological importance of LPS/Gal 3 interactions is not fully understood. Data presented herein demonstrate for the first time that the interaction of Gal 3, either via its carbohydrate binding C-terminal domain or via its N-terminal part, with LPS from different bacterial strains, enhances the LPS-mediated neutrophil activation in vitro. Gal 3 allowed low LPS concentrations (1 µg/mL without serum, 1 ng/mL with serum to upregulate CD11b expression and reactive oxygen species (ROS generation on human neutrophils in vitro and drastically enhanced the binding efficiency of LPS to the neutrophil surface. These effects required LPS preincubation with Gal 3, before neutrophil stimulation and involved specific Gal 3/LPS interaction. A C-terminal Gal-3 fragment, which retains the lectin domain but lacks the N-terminal part, was still able to bind both to Escherichia coli LPS and to neutrophils, but had lost the ability to enhance neutrophil response to LPS. This result emphasizes the importance of an N-terminus-mediated Gal 3 oligomerization induced by its interaction with LPS. Finally we demonstrated that Balb/C mice were more susceptible to LPS-mediated shock when LPS was pretreated with Gal 3. Altogether, these results suggest that multimeric interactions between Gal 3 oligomers and LPS potentiate its pro-inflammatory effects on neutrophils.

  15. Sustainability via Active Garden Education (SAGE: results from two feasibility pilot studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low physical activity (PA and fruit and vegetable (F&V consumption in early childhood are continued public health challenges. This manuscript describes outcomes from two pilot studies for Sustainability via Active Garden Education (SAGE, a program designed to increase PA and F&V consumption among 3 to 5 year old children. Methods SAGE was developed using community-based participatory research (CBPR and delivered to children (N = 89 in early care and education centers (ECEC, N = 6 in two US cities. Children participated in 12 one-hour sessions that included songs, games, and interactive learning activities involving garden maintenance and taste tests. We evaluated reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation, and potential for maintenance of SAGE following the RE-AIM framework. Reach was evaluated by comparing demographic characteristics among SAGE participants and residents of target geographic areas. Efficacy was evaluated with accelerometer-measured PA, F&V consumption, and eating in the absence of hunger among children, parenting practices regarding PA, and home availability of F&V. Adoption was evaluated by the number of ECEC that participated relative to the number of ECEC that were recruited. Implementation was evaluated by completion rates of planned SAGE lessons and activities, and potential for maintenance was evaluated with a parent satisfaction survey. Results SAGE reached ECEC in neighborhoods representing a wide range of socioeconomic status, with participants’ sociodemographic characteristics representing those of the intervention areas. Children significantly increased PA during SAGE lessons compared to usual lessons, but they also consumed more calories in the absence of hunger in post- vs. pre-intervention tests (both p < .05. Parent reports did not suggest changes in F&V consumption, parenting PA practices, or home F&V availability, possibly due to low parent engagement. ECEC had moderate

  16. Increases in lifestyle activities as a result of experience Corps® participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Jeanine M; Kuo, Julie; Rebok, George W; Xue, Qian-Li; Fried, Linda P; Gruenewald, Tara L; Huang, Jin; Seeman, Teresa E; Roth, David L; Tanner, Elizabeth K; Carlson, Michelle C

    2015-02-01

    Experience Corps® (EC) was designed to simultaneously increase cognitive, social, and physical activity through high-intensity volunteerism in elementary school classrooms. It is, therefore, highly likely that EC participation may alter pre-existing patterns of lifestyle activity. This study examined the impact of "real-world" volunteer engagement on the frequency of participation in various lifestyle activities over a 2-year period. Specifically, we examined intervention-related changes on reported activity levels at 12 and 24 months post-baseline using Intention-to-Treat (ITT) and Complier Average Causal Effect (CACE) analyses, which account for the amount of program exposure. ITT analyses indicated that, compared to the control group, EC participants reported modest increases (approximately half a day/month) in overall activity level, especially in intellectual and physical activities 12 months post-baseline. Increases in activity were not found at the 24-month assessment. CACE models revealed similar findings for overall activity as well as for intellectual and physical activities at 12 months. Additionally, CACE findings suggested modest increases in social activity at 12 months and in intellectual and passive activities at 24 months post-baseline. This community-based, health promotion intervention has the potential to impact lifestyle activity, which may lead to long-term increases in activity and to other positive cognitive, physical, and psychosocial health outcomes.

  17. Interleukin 2 Activates Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells Resulting in Destabilization of Adherens Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylezinski, Lukasz S; Hawiger, Jacek

    2016-10-28

    The pleiotropic cytokine interleukin 2 (IL2) disrupts the blood-brain barrier and alters brain microcirculation, underlying vascular leak syndrome that complicates cancer immunotherapy with IL2. The microvascular effects of IL2 also play a role in the development of multiple sclerosis and other chronic neurological disorders. The mechanism of IL2-induced disruption of brain microcirculation has not been determined previously. We found that both human and murine brain microvascular endothelial cells express constituents of the IL2 receptor complex. Then we established that signaling through this receptor complex leads to activation of the transcription factor, nuclear factor κB, resulting in expression of proinflammatory interleukin 6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1. We also discovered that IL2 induces disruption of adherens junctions, concomitant with cytoskeletal reorganization, ultimately leading to increased endothelial cell permeability. IL2-induced phosphorylation of vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin), a constituent of adherens junctions, leads to dissociation of its stabilizing adaptor partners, p120-catenin and β-catenin. Increased phosphorylation of VE-cadherin was also accompanied by a reduction of Src homology 2 domain-containing protein-tyrosine phosphatase 2, known to maintain vascular barrier function. These results unravel the mechanism of deleterious effects induced by IL2 on brain microvascular endothelial cells and may inform the development of new measures to improve IL2 cancer immunotherapy, as well as treatments for autoimmune diseases affecting the central nervous system. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. DETERMINING INCLINATIONS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI VIA THEIR NARROW-LINE REGION KINEMATICS. I. OBSERVATIONAL RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, T. C.; Crenshaw, D. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Astronomy Offices, 25 Park Place, Suite 600, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Kraemer, S. B. [Institute for Astrophysics and Computational Sciences, Department of Physics, The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Schmitt, H. R., E-mail: fischer@chara.gsu.edu [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are axisymmetric systems to first order; their observed properties are likely strong functions of inclination with respect to our line of sight (LOS). However, except for a few special cases, the specific inclinations of individual AGNs are unknown. We have developed a promising technique for determining the inclinations of nearby AGNs by mapping the kinematics of their narrow-line regions (NLRs), which are often easily resolved with Hubble Space Telescope [O III] imaging and long-slit spectra from the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. Our studies indicate that NLR kinematics dominated by radial outflow can be fit with simple biconical outflow models that can be used to determine the inclination of the bicone axis, and hence the obscuring torus, with respect to our LOS. We present NLR analysis of 53 Seyfert galaxies and the resulting inclinations from models of 17 individual AGNs with clear signatures of biconical outflows. Our model results agree with the unified model in that Seyfert 1 AGNs have NLRs inclined further toward our LOS than Seyfert 2 AGNs. Knowing the inclinations of these AGN NLRs, and thus their accretion disk and/or torus axes, will allow us to determine how their observed properties vary as a function of polar angle. We find no correlation between the inclinations of the AGN NLRs and the disks of their host galaxies, indicating that the orientation of the gas in the torus is independent of that of the host disk.

  19. GFAP-Cre-mediated transgenic activation of Bmi1 results in pituitary tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart A Westerman

    Full Text Available Bmi1 is a member of the polycomb repressive complex 1 and plays different roles during embryonic development, depending on the developmental context. Bmi1 over expression is observed in many types of cancer, including tumors of astroglial and neural origin. Although genetic depletion of Bmi1 has been described to result in tumor inhibitory effects partly through INK4A/Arf mediated senescence and apoptosis and also through INK4A/Arf independent effects, it has not been proven that Bmi1 can be causally involved in the formation of these tumors. To see whether this is the case, we developed two conditional Bmi1 transgenic models that were crossed with GFAP-Cre mice to activate transgenic expression in neural and glial lineages. We show here that these mice generate intermediate and anterior lobe pituitary tumors that are positive for ACTH and beta-endorphin. Combined transgenic expression of Bmi1 together with conditional loss of Rb resulted in pituitary tumors but was insufficient to induce medulloblastoma therefore indicating that the oncogenic function of Bmi1 depends on regulation of p16(INK4A/Rb rather than on regulation of p19(ARF/p53. Human pituitary adenomas show Bmi1 overexpression in over 50% of the cases, which indicates that Bmi1 could be causally involved in formation of these tumors similarly as in our mouse model.

  20. Physical Activity in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients: Preliminary Results of the Italian Project

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mosconi, Giovanni; Cuna, Vania; Tonioli, Maddalena; Totti, Valentina; Roi, Giulio S; Sarto, Patrizio; Stefoni, Sergio; Trerotola, Manuela; Costa, Alessandro Nanni

    2014-01-01

    The role of physical activity in transplanted patients is often underestimated. We discuss the Italian National Transplant Centre experience, which started in 2008 studying transplanted patients involved in sports activities...

  1. Factors influencing nurse participation in continuing professional development activities : Survey results from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brekelmans, G.A.; Maassen, S.; Poell, R.F.; Weststrate, J.; Geurdes, E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Professionals are individually responsible for planning and carrying out continuing professional development (CPD) activities, ensuring their relevance to current practice and career development. The key factors that encourage nurses to undertake CPD activities are not yet clear. Several

  2. Active and passive cigarette smoking and breast cancer risk: results from the EPIC cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossus, Laure; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Gram, Inger T; Vilier, Alice; Fervers, Béatrice; Manjer, Jonas; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Sarantopoulou, Maria; Palli, Domenico; Berrino, Franco; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J B; Bakker, Marieke F; Peeters, Petra Hm; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Bjerkaas, Eivind; Braaten, Tonje; Menéndez, Virginia; Agudo, Antonio; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Amiano, Pilar; Tormo, Maria-Jose; Barricarte, Aurelio; Butt, Salma; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Key, Tim J; Travis, Ruth C; Rinaldi, Sabina; McCormack, Valerie; Romieu, Isabelle; Cox, David G; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise

    2014-04-15

    Recent cohort studies suggest that increased breast cancer risks were associated with longer smoking duration, higher pack-years and a dose-response relationship with increasing pack-years of smoking between menarche and first full-term pregnancy (FFTP). Studies with comprehensive quantitative life-time measures of passive smoking suggest an association between passive smoking dose and breast cancer risk. We conducted a study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition to examine the association between passive and active smoking and risk of invasive breast cancer and possible effect modification by known breast cancer risk factors. Among the 322,988 women eligible for the study, 9,822 developed breast cancer (183,608 women with passive smoking information including 6,264 cases). When compared to women who never smoked and were not being exposed to passive smoking at home or work at the time of study registration, current, former and currently exposed passive smokers were at increased risk of breast cancer (hazard ratios (HR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] 1.16 [1.05-1.28], 1.14 [1.04-1.25] and 1.10 [1.01-1.20], respectively). Analyses exploring associations in different periods of life showed the most important increase in risk with pack-years from menarche to FFTP (1.73 [1.29-2.32] for every increase of 20 pack-years) while pack-years smoked after menopause were associated with a significant decrease in breast cancer risk (HR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.34-0.82 for every increase of 20 pack-years). Our results provide an important replication, in the largest cohort to date, that smoking (passively or actively) increases breast cancer risk and that smoking between menarche and FFTP is particularly deleterious. © 2013 UICC.

  3. Repeated activation of a CS-US-contingency memory results in sustained conditioned responding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Els eJoos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Individuals seem to differ in conditionability, i.e., the ease by which the contingent presentation of two stimuli will lead to a conditioned response. In contemporary learning theory, individual differences in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders are, among others, explained by individual differences in temperamental variables (Mineka & Zinbarg, 2006. One such individual difference variable is how people process a learning experience when the conditioning stimuli are no longer present. Repeatedly thinking about the conditioning experience, as in worry or rumination, might prolong the initial (fear reactions and as such, might leave certain individuals more vulnerable to developing an anxiety disorder.However, in human conditioning research, relatively little attention has been devoted to the processing of a memory trace after its initial acquisition, despite its potential influences on subsequent performance. Post-acquisition processing can be induced by mental reiteration of a CS-US-contingency. Using a human conditioned suppression paradigm, we investigated the effect of repeated activations of a CS-US-contingency memory on the level of conditioned responding at a later test. Results of three experiments showed more sustained responding to a ‘rehearsed’ CS+ as compared to a ‘non-rehearsed’ CS+. Moreover, the second experiment showed no effect of rehearsal when only the CS was rehearsed instead of the CS-US-contingency. The third experiment demonstrated that mental CS-US-rehearsal has the same effect regardless of whether it was cued by the CS and a verbal reference to the US or by a neutral signal, making the rehearsal ‘purely mental’. In sum, it was demonstrated that post-acquisition activation of a CS-US-contingency memory can impact conditioned responding, underlining the importance of post-acquisition processes in conditioning. This might indicate that individuals who are more prone to mentally rehearse

  4. 78 FR 26748 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary... duty order on certain activated carbon from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') for the period of... The merchandise subject to the order is certain activated carbon.\\1\\ The products are currently...

  5. Avoidance of Activities in Early Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis: Results from the CHECK Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holla, J.F.M.; van der Leeden, M.; Knol, D.L.; Peter, W.F.H.; Roorda, L.D.; Lems, W.F.; Wesseling, J.; Steultjens, M.P.; Dekker, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Pain-related avoidance of activities is hypothesized to lead to lower muscle strength and thereby activity limitations. Negative affect (e.g., low vitality, depression) is thought to strengthen the tendency to avoid activities. Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the validity of

  6. Results from Scotland's 2013 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John J; Dick, Smita; McNeill, Geraldine; Tremblay, Mark S

    2014-05-01

    The Active Healthy Kids Scotland Report Card aims to consolidate existing evidence, facilitate international comparisons, encourage more evidence-informed physical activity and health policy, and improve surveillance of physical activity. Application of the Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card process and methodology to Scotland, adapted to Scottish circumstances and availability of data. The Active Healthy Kids Scotland Report Card 2013 consists of indicators of 7 Health Behaviors and Outcomes and 3 Influences on Health Behaviors and Outcomes. Grades of F were assigned to Overall Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior (recreational screen time), and Obesity Prevalence. A C was assigned to Active Transportation and a D- was assigned to Diet. Two indicators, Active and Outdoor Play and Organized Sport Participation, could not be graded. Among the Influences, Family Influence received a D, while Perceived Safety, Access, and Availability of Spaces for Physical Activity and the National Policy Environment graded more favorably with a B. The Active Healthy Kids Canada process and methodology was readily generalizable to Scotland. The report card illustrated low habitual physical activity and extremely high levels of screen-based sedentary behavior, and highlighted several opportunities for improved physical activity surveillance and promotion strategies.

  7. 77 FR 33420 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Final Results... certain activated carbon from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') pursuant to section 751(c) of the... certain activated carbon from the PRC would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of dumping at...

  8. The global unified parallel file system (GUPFS) project: FY 2002 activities and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, Gregory F.; Lee, Rei Chi; Welcome, Michael L.

    2003-04-07

    The Global Unified Parallel File System (GUPFS) project is a multiple-phase, five-year project at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing (NERSC) Center to provide a scalable, high performance, high bandwidth, shared file system for all the NERSC production computing and support systems. The primary purpose of the GUPFS project is to make it easier to conduct advanced scientific research using the NERSC systems. This is to be accomplished through the use of a shared file system providing a unified file namespace, operating on consolidated shared storage that is directly accessed by all the NERSC production computing and support systems. During its first year, FY 2002, the GUPFS project focused on identifying, testing, and evaluating existing and emerging shared/cluster file system, SAN fabric, and storage technologies; identifying NERSC user input/output (I/O) requirements, methods, and mechanisms; and developing appropriate benchmarking methodologies and benchmark codes for a parallel environment. This report presents the activities and progress of the GUPFS project during its first year, the results of the evaluations conducted, and plans for near-term and longer-term investigations.

  9. The NOD2 defect in Blau syndrome does not result in excess interleukin 1 activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Tammy M.; Zhang, Zili; Kurz, Paul; Rose, Carlos D.; Chen, Hong; Lu, Huiying; Planck, Stephen R.; Davey, Michael P.; Rosenbaum, James T.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Blau syndrome is a rare, autosomal dominant, autoinflammatory disorder characterized by granulomatous arthritis, uveitis, and dermatitis. Genetic studies have shown that the disease is caused by single, nonsynonymous substitutions in NOD2, a member of the NOD-like receptor, or NACHT-LRR, (NLR) family of intracellular proteins. Several NLR function in the innate immune system as sensors of pathogen components and participate in immune-mediated cellular responses via the caspase 1 inflammasome. Mutations in a gene related to NOD2, NLRP3, are responsible for excess caspase 1-dependent IL-1β in cryopyrinopathies like Muckle-Wells syndrome. Furthermore, functional studies demonstrate that caspase 1-mediated release of IL-1β also involves NOD2. Here we test the hypothesis that IL-1β may mediate the inflammation seen in Blau syndrome patients. Methods IL-1β release was measured from peripheral blood mononuclear cells cultured in vitro from five Blau syndrome individuals who have a NOD2 mutation. Results We report no evidence for increased IL-1β production in the cells obtained from Blau syndrome subjects compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, we present two Blau syndrome cases in which recombinant human IL-1 receptor antagonist (anakinra) was ineffective treatment. Conclusion Together, these data suggest that in contrast to related IL-1β dependent autoinflammatory cryopyrinopathies, Blau syndrome is not mediated by excess IL-1β or other IL-1 activity. PMID:19180500

  10. Memory Training and Strategy Use in Older Adults: Results from the ACTIVE Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Alden L.; Rebok, George W.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the long-term effects of memory training in later life on strategy use. Data from the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) study (n = 1,401) were used to describe strategy use in a community-dwelling sample of older adults. Strategy clustering scores on verbal list learning tasks of episodic memory were used to test the impact of memory training on strategy use and study longitudinal associations between strategy clustering, memory performance, and everyday functioning. Results suggested that younger, female, white, healthier, and more educated participants show higher strategy clustering scores initially but no characteristics were consistently associated with different trajectories in strategy clustering across all strategy clustering measures together. Memory training had significant immediate effects on all measures of strategy use that were maintained through five years of follow-up. With respect to longitudinal mediation, pre-post training changes in most strategy clustering scores mediate changes in objective memory performance and everyday functioning, implying that strategies can be modified and are closely related to both memory ability and the ability to function independently. This study provides evidence that older adults can be trained to use cognitive strategies, the effects are durable, and strategies are associated with memory and everyday functioning. PMID:21443356

  11. Results of combined antiangiogenic activity on corneal neovascularization. Experimental and morphological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Mamikpnyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of comparative experimental and morphological study of activity on corneal neovascularization in rabbit’s eye of photodynamic therapy with Photosense and antiangiogenic therapy with Avastin (bevacizumab alone, and in its combination are represented. The treatment was performed in regimens: 1 photodynamic therapy with Photosense (single intravenous injection in dose of 0.3 mg/kg 72 h prior to laser irradiation, power density of irradiation 500 mW/cm2, wavelength 675 nm; 2 drug antiangiogenic therapy with Avastin (single subconjuctival introduction at dose of 1.25 mg; 3 photodynamic therapy with Photosense (in described regimen in combination with subconjuctival introduction of Avastin at dose of 1.25 mg immediately prior to irradiation. Combined photodynamic therapy with antiangiogenic therapy allows to obtain almost complete occlusion in all regions of corneal neovascular bed with shorter time interval comparing with those for monoregimens. In case of blood flow retention in great vessels courses of combined modality treatment may be repeated. The absence of side-effects on surrounding tissues and the recovery of optical characteristics of cornea may allow to use this upcoming method in clinical practice. 

  12. Results From Japan's 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Chiaki; Tanaka, Shigeho; Inoue, Shigeru; Miyachi, Motohiko; Suzuki, Koya; Reilly, John J

    2016-11-01

    The Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth aims to consolidate existing evidence, encourage greater evidence-informed physical activity, and improve surveillance of physical activity. The Japan report card followed the methodology of the Canadian and Scottish report cards, but was adapted to reflect the Japanese context. Nationally representative data were used to score each of the respective indicators. The 2016 Japan Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth consists of Health Behaviors and Outcomes (7 indicators), and Influences on Health Behaviors (4 indicators). Three Health Behaviors and Outcomes received C grades (Participation in Sport; Sedentary Behavior; Recreational Screen Time; Physical Fitness), while 2 indicators could not be graded (Overall Physical Activity, and Active Play). The indicators Active Transportation (B) and Weight Status were favorable (A). In the Influences domain, Family Influence and Community and the Built Environment were graded as D, while School and Government Strategies and Investments were favorable (B). The Japan report card illustrated some favorable health behaviors, health outcomes, and influences. There is a need for more evidence especially on overall physical activity levels, active play, and community and the built environment.

  13. Physical activity recommendations from general practitioners in Australia. Results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Camille E; Hayman, Mel; Rebar, Amanda L; Gunn, Kate M; De Cocker, Katrien; Duncan, Mitch J; Turnbull, Deborah; Dollman, James; van Uffelen, Jannique G Z; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2016-02-01

    To identify subgroups of Australian adults likely to receive physical activity advice from their general practitioner and to evaluate the content of the advice provided. Participants (n=1,799), recruited from the Australian Health and Social Science panel, completed an online survey. Signal Detection Analysis was used to identify subgroups that were more/less likely to have received physical activity recommendations. Overall, 18% of participants received a physical activity recommendation from their general practitioner in the past 12 months and eight unique subgroups were identified. The subgroup with the highest proportion (54%) of participants reporting that they received a physical activity recommendation was those with poor physical and mental health-related quality of life and an average daily sitting time of physical activity type was aerobic activity. Few participants received specific physical activity advice. General practitioners are incorporating physical activity promotion into their practice, but primarily as a disease management tool and with limited specificity. Strategies to assist Australian general practitioners to effectively promote physical activity are needed. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  14. Comparison of the LUNA 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be activation results with earlier measurements and model calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Gyurky, Gy; Confortola, F; Costantini, H; Formicola, A; Bonetti, R; Broggini, C; Corvisiero, P; Elekes, Z; Fülöp, Z; Gervino, G; Guglielmetti, A; Gustavino, C; Imbriani, G; Junker, M; Laubenstein, M; Lemut, A; Limata, B; Lozza, V; Marta, M; Menegazzo, R; Prati, P; Roca, V; Rolfs, C; Alvarez, C Rossi; Somorjai, E; Straniero, O; Strieder, F; Terrasi, F; Trautvetter, H P

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the LUNA collaboration has carried out a high precision measurement on the 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be reaction cross section with both activation and on-line gamma-detection methods at unprecedented low energies. In this paper the results obtained with the activation method are summarized. The results are compared with previous activation experiments and the zero energy extrapolated astrophysical S factor is determined using different theoretical models.

  15. Gender, body mass index and rheumatoid arthritis disease activity: results from the QUEST-RA Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jawaheer, D; Olsen, J; Lahiff, M

    2010-01-01

    To investigate whether body mass index (BMI), as a proxy for body fat, influences rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity in a gender-specific manner.......To investigate whether body mass index (BMI), as a proxy for body fat, influences rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity in a gender-specific manner....

  16. Results From South Korea's 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yoonkyung; Yang, Hyuk In; Lee, Eun-Young; Yu, Mi-Seong; Kang, Min Jae; Kang, Hyun Joo; Song, Wook; Kim, YeonSoo; Park, Hyon; Lee, Han Joo; Suh, Sang-Hoon; Spence, John C; Jeon, Justin Y

    2016-11-01

    South Korea's 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth is the first assessment of physical activity according to the indicators set by Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance. National surveys were used as preferred sources of data. This was then supported by peer-reviewed papers and government reports identified by a systematic search of the literature written in English or Korean. A Research Working Group then graded indicators based on the collected evidence. Each indicator was graded as follows: Overall Physical Activity, D-; Organized Sport and Physical Activity Participation, C-; Active Transport, C+; Sedentary Behavior, F; School, D; Government and Investment, C; Active Play, Physical Literacy, Family and Peers, and Community and Built Environment were graded INC (incomplete) due to lack of available evidence. Though the final grades of key indicators for South Korean children and youth are not satisfactory, increasing interests and investments have been demonstrated at a national level. More evidence is required for comprehensive assessment on all indicators to better inform policy and practice. This should be accompanied by the use of consistent criteria to contribute to global efforts for active healthy kids.

  17. Exergame Apps and Physical Activity: The Results of the ZOMBIE Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowdery, Joan; Majeske, Paul; Frank, Rebecca; Brown, Devin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although there are thousands of health and fitness smartphone apps currently available, little research exists regarding the effects of mobile app technology on physical activity behavior. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test whether Exergame smartphone applications increase physical activity levels. Methods: This was a…

  18. Forefoot disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis patients in remission: results of a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Leeden, M.; Steultjens, M.P.M.; van Schaardenburg, D.; Dekker, J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of our study was to investigate the presence of disease activity in the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints of the forefoot in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in remission according to the Disease Activity Score based on 28 joints (DAS28) remission criterion.Methods: A total of

  19. The influence of medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction on clinical results and sports activity level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrožič, Bogdan; Novak, Samo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate postoperative outcomes and return to regular physical and sports activities at average of 6 years after patellar stabilization with medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction. Between November 2006 and January 2010, 31 isolated MPFL reconstructions in 29 patients with recurrent patellar dislocation were performed. Radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging were evaluated preoperatively. Knee function was assessed pre- and postoperative using Kujala score and the patient satisfaction, according to the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score. Tegner activity score was used for the evaluation of sports activity level. The average follow-up was 6.4±1.2 years. All measured scores increased significantly at follow-up. The average Kujala score increased from 75±10 to 95±10, patient satisfaction according to IKDC score from 6.1±1.4 to 8.7±1.4 and Tegner activity score from 4.4±1.6 to 5.7±1.3. The Tegner activity score after surgery was significantly lower than the score before the patellar dislocation (6.7±1.3). There were no significant differences in Kujala postoperative score between women's and men's group (P=0.25). There was no significant correlation between body mass index and Kujala score postoperatively (P=0.11) and between age at surgery and Kujala scores postoperatively (P=0.56). Patients who were active in sports preoperatively had resumed sports activities in 88.5% after surgery, 69.6% of them returned to the same levels and 30.4% return to the lower levels. Patellar stabilization with MPFL reconstruction is a safe and effective treatment method for all patients with patellofemoral instability and allows most patients to return to regular physical and sports activities after surgical intervention. Although sports activity level increased significantly after surgery, the same level of sports activity before the patellar dislocation has not been achieved.

  20. First results on enzymatic activities in two salt marsh soils under different hydromorphic level and vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Trasar-Cepeda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Salt-marsh soils are soils characterized by non-permanent hydric saturation that, depending on factors like duration of submersion periods, are dominated by different salt-tolerant plant species. The composition of microbial communities is an essential component in trophic dynamics and biogeochemical processes in salt marshes, and determines the level of enzymatic activities, which catalyze the conversion of complex molecules into simpler ones. Despite of this, the enzymatic activities in marsh-soils has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to analyze the enzymatic activities in two soil profiles of marsh-soils under different water saturation level and dominated by different plant species [Juncus maritimus Lam and Spartina maritima (Curtis Fernald (Sp]. In both soils, the enzymatic activities were much lower than the levels typically found in terrestrial ecosystems. The enzymatic activities were measured both in air-dried and in re-moistened and incubated soil samples. In air-dried samples, the enzymatic activities were higher in Juncus than in Spartina soil and tended to decrease with depth, being sharper the decrease in Juncus than in Spartina soil. Re-moistened and pre-incubated soils showed a general increase in all the enzymatic activities and throughout the whole soil profile, especially in Spartina soils. Hydrolase activities showed a strong and positive relationship with organic matter content both in air-dried and in re-moistened soil samples, higher in these latter. In general, oxidoreductase activities only showed this relationship in re-moistened soil samples. More studies, preferably using freshly collected soil samples, are needed to understand the relationship between enzymatic activities and these environmental conditions.

  1. [Physical activity in adult working population: results from the European National Health Survey for Spain (2009)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado-Pérez, Carmen; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, Cesar; Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo

    2015-11-01

    1) To describe physical activity in the Spanish adult working population aged 16-70 years in 2009, and 2) to describe the prevalence of physical activity according to socio-demographic features, self-perceived health status, co-morbidity, and lifestyle habits. An epidemiological population based descriptive study was conducted using individual data taken from the European Health Survey for Spain. Community. The number of subjects aged 16-70 years included in the study was 10,928 (5,628 women and 5,300 men). None. Physical activity and intensity were assessed from questions included in the interview-survey. An analysis was performed on the socio-demographic characteristics and self-rated physical and mental health, using multivariate logistic regression models. Not having a partner (OR 1.44; P<.001), have university studies (OR 1.62; P<.001), non-smoker (OR 1.50; P<.001), and taking medications (OR 1.22; P<.5) were a predictor of intense physical activity in men. The first 3 factors are equal for intense activity in women. In contrast, obesity (OR 0.58; P<.001), and 36-50 years (OR 0.68; P<.001) were factors related to low activity in men. Aged between 36-50 years (OR 1.26; P<.01), suffering≥2 co-morbid conditions (OR 1.30; P<.001), and non-smoker (OR 1.17; P<.5) were also associated with higher probability of reporting moderate physical activity in women. The positive mental health was significant for physical activity in both sexes (OR 1.01; P<.5). This study identified several factors that appear to influence physical activity in the Spanish adult working population, with potential implications for healthcare providers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. A conceptual framework for effectively anticipating water-quality changes resulting from changes in agricultural activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capel, Paul D.; Wolock, David M.; Coupe, Richard H.; Roth, Jason L.

    2018-01-10

    Agricultural activities can affect water quality and the health of aquatic ecosystems; many water-quality issues originate with the movement of water, agricultural chemicals, and eroded soil from agricultural areas to streams and groundwater. Most agricultural activities are designed to sustain or increase crop production, while some are designed to protect soil and water resources. Numerous soil- and water-protection practices are designed to reduce the volume and velocity of runoff and increase infiltration. This report presents a conceptual framework that combines generalized concepts on the movement of water, the environmental behavior of chemicals and eroded soil, and the designed functions of various agricultural activities, as they relate to hydrology, to create attainable expectations for the protection of—with the goal of improving—water quality through changes in an agricultural activity.The framework presented uses two types of decision trees to guide decision making toward attainable expectations regarding the effectiveness of changing agricultural activities to protect and improve water quality in streams. One decision tree organizes decision making by considering the hydrologic setting and chemical behaviors, largely at the field scale. This decision tree can help determine which agricultural activities could effectively protect and improve water quality in a stream from the movement of chemicals, or sediment, from a field. The second decision tree is a chemical fate accounting tree. This decision tree helps set attainable expectations for the permanent removal of sediment, elements, and organic chemicals—such as herbicides and insecticides—through trapping or conservation tillage practices. Collectively, this conceptual framework consolidates diverse hydrologic settings, chemicals, and agricultural activities into a single, broad context that can be used to set attainable expectations for agricultural activities. This framework also enables

  3. Immunopathology as a result of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foudraine, N. A.; Hovenkamp, E.; Notermans, D. W.; Meenhorst, P. L.; Klein, M. R.; Lange, J. M.; Miedema, F.; Reiss, P.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Unusual clinical inflammatory syndromes associated with underlying previously unrecognized opportunistic infections are increasingly being noted shortly after starting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This study examined the possible relationship between such unexpected

  4. Assessing and Promoting Physical Activity in African American Barbershops: Results of the FITStop Pilot Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Linnan, Laura A; Reiter, Paul L; Duffy, Courtney; Hales, Derek; Ward, Dianne S; Viera, Anthony J

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the feasibility of recruiting African American men in barbershops, assessing their physical activity, conducting physical measurements, and gauging their interest in barbershop-based health research...

  5. Disease activity trajectories in early axial spondyloarthritis: results from the DESIR cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molto, Anna; Tezenas du Montcel, Sophie; Wendling, Daniel; Dougados, Maxime; Vanier, Antoine; Gossec, Laure

    2017-06-01

    Disease activity may change over time in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). The objectives were to identify patterns of disease activity evolution in patients with early axSpA. Patients from the prospective early axSpA cohort (DEvenir des Spondyloarthrites Indifférenciées Récentes (DESIR)) who fulfilled the Assessment in SpondyloArthritis Society (ASAS) criteria for axSpA at baseline and with at least three Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) values available over the 3 years of follow-up were analysed. Statistical analyses: trajectories were estimated by group-based trajectory modelling; predisposing baseline factors for such trajectories were identified by univariate and multivariable multinomial (logit) regression; work disability over time was compared between the trajectories by Cox hazard model. In all, 370 patients were analysed: mean disease duration was 1.6 (±0.9) years. The five distinct trajectories of disease activity over the 3 years were (t1) 'persistent moderate disease activity' (n=134 (36.2%)); (t2) 'persistent inactive disease' (n=66 (17.8%); (t3) 'changing from very high disease activity to inactive disease' ((n=29 (7.8%)); (t4) 'persistent high disease activity' (n=126 (34.1%)) and (t5) 'persistent very high disease activity' (n=15 (4.1%)). After adjustment for other characteristics, t2 was associated with a white-collar job (OR=2.6 (95% CI 1.0 to 6.7)) and t3 with male gender (OR=7.1 (1.6 to 32.2)), higher education level (OR=9.4 (1.4 to 63.4)) and peripheral joint involvement (OR=6.2 (1.23 to 31.32)). Patients from (t4) and (t5) were more often declared work disabled over follow-up (HR=5.2 (1.5 to 18.0) and HR=8.0 (1.3 to 47.9), respectively). Trajectory modelling of disease activity was feasible in early axSpA: more than 30% patients (141/370) were in a trajectory with a persistent high disease activity. Persistent high disease activity trajectories were significantly associated with consequences on work. NCT01648907

  6. Studies on free radical scavenging activity in Chinese seaweeds part I. Screening results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-Jun; Fang, Guo-Ming; Lou, Qing-Xiang

    1999-09-01

    Antioxidants have attracted the attention of researchers due to their beneficial effects as free radical scavengers. Application of a stable free radical named 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) to screen the free radical scavenging activity in 27 species of Chinese seaweed showed that 15 of them had significant activity in at least one of the organic solvent extracts. The most interesting seaweed species were Gelidium amansii, Gloiosiphonia capillaris, Polysiphonia urceolata, Sargassum kjellmanianum, Desmarestia viridis, and Rhodomela teres.

  7. Participation in Leisure Activities among Canadian Children with Arthritis: Results from a National Representative Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Sabrina; Majnemer, Annette; Mazer, Barbara; Chilingaryan, Gevorg; Ehrmann Feldman, Debbie

    2015-06-01

    To describe the level of participation in leisure activities among children and youth with arthritis, as well as to identify the sociodemographic (age, sex, family income), disease-related (functional limitations, disease duration, pain, medication use, child's need for assistance), and contextual factors (use of rehabilitation services, proximity of local recreation facilities, cost of activities) that may be associated. Data from the Participation and Activity Limitation Survey (PALS) 2006, a Canadian postcensus survey, was analyzed. Bivariate and multivariable linear regression analyses were applied to examine the associations between the sample's level of participation in leisure activities, and sociodemographic, disease-related, and contextual characteristics. In Canada in 2006, an estimated 4350 children ranging in age from 5 to 14 years were living with arthritis. Fifty-six percent of parents reported that arthritis restricted their child's participation in leisure activities. Bivariate analysis showed that the availability of local recreational facilities, the affordability of activities, and the child not requiring any assistance were all associated (modified Bonferroni correction α leisure activities. Multiple linear regressions showed that higher family income (β 0.47, 95% CI 0.09, 0.85) and greater perceived pain (β 0.59, 95% CI 0.07, 1.10) were positively associated with involvement in informal leisure. Our findings underline the importance of considering contextual factors in developing treatment plans aimed at improving participation in leisure activities among children with arthritis. Future longitudinal studies targeting children living with arthritis could provide pertinent information on participation over fluctuations in disease status.

  8. Extracurricular Activities and Bullying Perpetration: Results From a Nationally Representative Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riese, Alison; Gjelsvik, Annie; Ranney, Megan L

    2015-08-01

    Bullying is a widespread problem for school-aged children and adolescents. Interventions to reduce bullying are not well disseminated. Extracurricular involvement is, however, common. This study aims to examine the relationship between parent-reported participation in extracurricular activities and bullying perpetration. Using the 2011 National Survey of Children's Health, 62,215 interviews with parents of children 6 to 17 were analyzed. Extracurricular categories of sports only, sports + nonsport, nonsport only, and no activities were based on parental response to questions regarding sport teams/lessons, clubs, and organizations. Bullying was derived from report of the child "bullying or being cruel/mean to others." Weighted bivariate analyses, logistic regression, and sex/race/ethnicity/age stratified analyses were conducted. Eighty percent of children participated in extracurricular activities: 8% sports, 48% sports + nonsports, and 24% nonsports. Bullying perpetration was reported in 15% of the sample. Compared with those not participating in extracurricular activities, the odds of bullying were significantly lower for children who participated in sports + nonsports (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57-0.79) and nonsport only (AOR 0.82, 95% CI 0.70-0.97). Stratified analyses showed attenuated effects of extracurricular activities for boys and for Hispanics. Children who participate in a variety of extracurricular activities exhibit the least frequent bullying perpetration. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  9. Results From the United Arab Emirates' 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaabi, Mouza Al; Shah, Syed Mahboob; Sheek-Hussein, Mohamud; Abdulle, Abdishakur; Junaibi, Abdulla Al; Loney, Tom

    2016-11-01

    The Active Healthy Kids 2016 United Arab Emirates (UAE) Report Card provides a systematic evaluation of how the UAE is performing in supporting and engaging physical activity (PA) in children and adolescents. The Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance framework and standardized set of procedures were used to perform the systematic assessment of PA in UAE youth and children. Indicator grades were based on the proportion of children and youth achieving a defined benchmark: A = 81% to 100%; B = 61% to 80%; C = 41% to 60%; D = 21% to 40%; F = 0% to 20%; INC = incomplete data. Overall Physical Activity Level and Active Transportation both received a grade of D-/F-. Sedentary Behavior and Family and Peers both received a C- minus grade and School was graded D. Minus grades indicate PA disparities related to age, gender, nationality, socioeconomic status, and geographic location. Government Strategies and Investments received a B+ grade. Sport Participation, Active Play, and Community and the Built Environment were graded INC due to a lack of nationally representative data for all 7 emirates. The majority of UAE children are not achieving the daily recommended level of PA. The UAE leadership has invested significant resources into improving PA through school- and community-based PA interventions; however, inter- and intraemirate population-based strategies remain fragmented.

  10. Holocene glacier activity on Kerguelen Island: preliminary results from a novel proglacial lake sediment record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støren, Eivind; Bakke, Jostein; Arnaud, Fabien; Poulenard, Jérôme; Fanget, Bernard; Malet, Emmanuel; Sabatier, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The Polar-regions are changing rapidly as greenhouse warming is continuing with huge impact on e.g. sea ice extent and snow cover. This change triggers teleconnections to low latitude areas challenging societies and human activity. We have, however, very little quantitative information of past climate in the Polar-regions that can be used to evaluate the potential responses and the response patterns to forcing changes and changes in boundary conditions. Whatever anthropogenic changes may occur in the future, they will be superimposed on, and interact with, natural climate variations due to all the forcing we are aware of. This means we need to better document past climate/environmental variability of the Polar-regions. Especially in the Southern Ocean there are few time series recording past climate due to few suitable land areas and the few Sub-Antarctic Islands is remote and has cumbersome logistics. Continuous terrestrial records from this region are therefore urgently needed for constraining future scenarios from earth system models. Glaciers and ice caps are still ubiquitous in the Polar-regions, although they are rapidly shrinking due to the on-going warming. The continuous sedimentary records produced by glaciers, which are stored in downstream lakes, represent supreme archives of past variability wherefrom quantitative information of key climate system components can be extracted. Kerguelen Island is located within the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the Southern Westerly wind belt and contains several glaciers and smaller ice caps. Terrestrial archives recording past history of the glaciers at Kerguelen thus have a unique potential to record past changes in oceanic and atmospheric circulation patterns from southern mid-latitudes. Here we present preliminary results from the first distal glacier-fed lake that is sampled from Kerguelen Island. A 2.8 m long sediment core was obtained from Lac Guynemer (121masl.) located at the Peninsule Loranchet at the

  11. Development of Visualizations and Loggable Activities for the Geosciences. Results from Recent TUES Sponsored Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paor, D. G.; Bailey, J. E.; Whitmeyer, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    Our TUES research centers on the role of digital data, visualizations, animations, and simulations in undergraduate geoscience education. Digital hardware (smartphones, tablets, GPSs, GigaPan robotic camera mounts, etc.) are revolutionizing field data collection. Software products (GIS, 3-D scanning and modeling programs, virtual globes, etc.) have truly transformed the way geoscientists teach, learn, and do research. Whilst Google-Earth-style visualizations are famously user-friend for the person browsing, they can be notoriously unfriendly for the content creator. Therefore, we developed tools to help educators create and share visualizations as easily as if posting on Facebook. Anyone whoIf you wish to display geological cross sections on Google Earth, go to digitalplanet.org, upload image files, position them on a line of section, and share with the world through our KMZ hosting service. Other tools facilitate screen overlay and 3-D map symbol generation. We advocate use of such technology to enable undergraduate students to 'publish' their first mapping efforts even while they are working in the field. A second outcome of our TUES projects merges Second-Life-style interaction with Google Earth. We created games in which students act as first responders for natural hazard mitigation, prospectors for natural resource explorations, and structural geologist for map-making. Students are represented by avatars and collaborate by exchange of text messages - the natural mode of communication for the current generation. Teachers view logs showing student movements as well as transcripts of text messages and can scaffold student learning and geofence students to prevent wandering. Early results of in-class testing show positive learning outcomes. The third aspect of our program emphasizes dissemination. Experience shows that great effort is required to overcome activation energy and ensure adoption of new technology into the curriculum. We organized a GSA Penrose

  12. Sinuosity change of the Po River near Cremona (Northern Italy) - a result of neotectonic activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovszki, Judit; Timár, Gábor

    2010-05-01

    In the map sheets of the Second Military Survey of the Habsburg Empire, Lombardia, Parma, Modena and Venice also can be seen (Timár et al., 2006). This area was surveyed between 1818 and 1829. In these map sheets, we can also follow the river Po from Vaccarizza to the delta. This river reach is about 350 km long. This river reach was digitized and sinuosity values were calculated with different window sizes, and displayed in a spectrum-like diagram (sinuosity spectra; after van Balen et al., 2008). At Cremona, a significante sinuosity change were identified. The sinuosity increasing, and we have high sinuosity values. In the summarizing geological map of Italy (Compagnoni and Calluzzo, 2004), at this place, a tectonic line was identified. So probably this fault line invokes the sinuosity change on the river. The vertical movements indicated on the maps are just the opposite like they would be according to the flume experiments of Ouchi (1985). In the case of the Po River at Cremona, the decrease of the channel slope results higher sinuosity. The reason is that the rate of the slope and water discharge is higher than it is required by the self-organized meandering and the river parameters fell to the range of the unorganized meandering (cf. Timár, 2003). Another possible explanation could be that the northern tributary, the Adda River has significant sediment load that lowers the sinuosity of the trunk river at the confluence. Compagnoni, B., Galluzzo, F. (eds., 2004): Geological Map of Italy. Agenzia per la Protezione dell'Ambiente per I Servizi Tecnici - Dipartimento Difesa del Suolo, Servizio Geologico d'Italia, Rome-Florence-Genoa. Map, scale=1:1250000, especially printed for the 32nd International Geological Congress. Ouchi, S. (1985): Response of alluvial rivers to slow active tectonic movement. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 96: 504-515. Timár, G. (2003): Controls on channel sinuosity changes: a case study of the Tisza River, the Great Hungarian Plain. Quaternary

  13. Activating seniors to improve chronic disease care: results from a pilot intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosch, Dominick L; Rincon, David; Ochoa, Socorro; Mangione, Carol M

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of an activation intervention delivered in community senior centers to improve health outcomes for chronic diseases that disproportionately affect older adults. Two-group quasi-experimental study. Two Los Angeles community senior centers. One hundred sixteen senior participants. Participants were invited to attend group screenings of video programs intended to inform about and motivate self-management of chronic conditions common in seniors. Moderated discussions reinforcing active patient participation in chronic disease management followed screenings. Screenings were scheduled over the course of 12 weeks. One center was assigned by coin toss to an encouragement condition in which participants received a $50 gift card if they attended at least three group screenings. Participants in the nonencouraged center received no incentive for attendance. Validated study measures for patient activation, physical activity, and health-related quality of life were completed at baseline and 12 weeks and 6 months after enrollment. Participants attending the encouraged senior center were more likely to attend three or more group screenings (77.8% vs 47.2%, P=.001). At 6-month follow-up, participants from either center who attended three or more group screenings (n=74, 64%) reported significantly greater activation (P<.001), more minutes walking (P<.001) and engaging in vigorous physical activity (P=.006), and better health-related quality of life (Medical Outcomes Study 12-item Short-Form Survey (SF-12) mental component summary, P<.001; SF-12 physical component summary, P=.002). Delivering this pilot intervention in community senior centers is a potentially promising approach to activating seniors that warrants further investigation for improving chronic disease outcomes. © 2010, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2010, The American Geriatrics Society.

  14. Excitotoxic insult results in a long-lasting activation of CaMKIIα and mitochondrial damage in living hippocampal neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Otmakhov

    Full Text Available Over-activation of excitatory NMDA receptors and the resulting Ca2+ overload is the main cause of neuronal toxicity during stroke. CaMKII becomes misregulated during such events. Biochemical studies show either a dramatic loss of CaMKII activity or its persistent autonomous activation after stroke, with both of these processes being implicated in cell toxicity. To complement the biochemical data, we monitored CaMKII activation in living hippocampal neurons in slice cultures using high spatial/temporal resolution two-photon imaging of the CaMKIIα FRET sensor, Camui. CaMKII activation state was estimated by measuring Camui fluorescence lifetime. Short NMDA insult resulted in Camui activation followed by a redistribution of its protein localization: an increase in spines, a decrease in dendritic shafts, and concentration into numerous clusters in the cell soma. Camui activation was either persistent (> 1-3 hours or transient (~20 min and, in general, correlated with its protein redistribution. After longer NMDA insult, however, Camui redistribution persisted longer than its activation, suggesting distinct regulation/phases of these processes. Mutational and pharmacological analysis suggested that persistent Camui activation was due to prolonged Ca2+ elevation, with little impact of autonomous states produced by T286 autophosphorylation and/or by C280/M281 oxidation. Cell injury was monitored using expressible mitochondrial marker mito-dsRed. Shortly after Camui activation and clustering, NMDA treatment resulted in mitochondrial swelling, with persistence of the swelling temporarily linked to the persistence of Camui activation. The results suggest that in living neurons excitotoxic insult produces long-lasting Ca2+-dependent active state of CaMKII temporarily linked to cell injury. CaMKII function, however, is to be restricted due to strong clustering. The study provides the first characterization of CaMKII activation dynamics in living neurons

  15. Synergy between antibiotics and natural agents results in increased antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, Syed Hani; Ahmed, Khalid; Sherwani, Sikander Khan; Kazmi, Shahana Urooj

    2015-09-27

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is one of the most frequent causes of biofilm-associated infections on indwelling medical devices. With the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE), there is an urgent need to discover novel active agents against a range of Gram-positive pathogens. We screened the clinical isolates of S. epidermidis for susceptibility/resistance against commonly prescribed antibiotics. Furthermore, we tested some natural agents alone and in combination with antibiotics to find possible synergistic antimicrobial effects. S. epidermidis clinical isolates were screened for susceptibility/resistance against vancomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, ofloxacin, cephalexin, and gentamicin using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The antimicrobial potential of Camellia sinensis, Juglans regia, and Hippophae rhamnoides alone and in combination with antibiotics were examined using the disk diffusion method, where the antimicrobial potential activity was measured in terms of formation of zones of inhibition. Most S. epidermidis isolates were found to be resistant to one or more antibiotics. Gentamycin and ofloxacin were found to be the most effective antibiotics against S. epidermidis isolates. Extracts of Hippophae rhamnoides, Juglans regia, and Camellia sinensis were found to be equally effective against S. epidermidis isolates. In combination with antibiotics, these extracts exhibited appreciable synergistic activity; the highest synergistic activity was observed with erythromycin and cephalexin. In the case of cephalexin, a reversion in resistance was observed. The plant extracts used in the study exhibited additive and synergistic antibacterial activity against S. epidermidis, hence providing an effective alternative to deal with the problem of multidrug resistance.

  16. Reorienting the Fab domains of trastuzumab results in potent HER2 activators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin M Scheer

    Full Text Available The structure of the Fab region of antibodies is critical to their function. By introducing single cysteine substitutions into various positions of the heavy and light chains of the Fab region of trastuzumab, a potent antagonist of HER2, and using thiol chemistry to link the different Fabs together, we produced a variety of monospecific F(ab'(2-like molecules with activities spanning from activation to inhibition of breast tumor cell growth. These isomers (or bis-Fabs of trastuzumab, with varying relative spatial arrangements between the Fv-regions, were able to either promote or inhibit cell-signaling activities through the PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathways. A quantitative phosphorylation mapping of HER2 indicated that the agonistic isomers produced a distinct phosphorylation pattern associated with activation. This study suggests that antibody geometric isomers, found both in nature and during synthetic antibody development, can have profoundly different biological activities independent of their affinities for their target molecules.

  17. Results From Venezuela's 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Cuenca, Marianella; Méndez-Perez, Betty; Morales, Vanessa Castro; Martín-Rojo, Joana; Tristan, Bianca; Bandy, Amilid Torín; Landaeta-Jiménez, Maritza; Macías-Tomei, Coromoto; López-Blanco, Mercedes

    2016-11-01

    The Venezuelan Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth is the first assessment of information related to physical activity in Venezuela. It provides a compilation of existing information throughout the country and assesses how well it is doing at promoting opportunities for children and youth. The aim of this article is to summarize the information available. Thirteen physical activity indicators were graded by a committee of experts using letters A to F (A, the highest, to F, the lowest) based on national surveys, peer review studies, and policy documents. Some indicators report incomplete information or a lack of data. Overweight and Obesity were classified as A; Body Composition and Nongovernmental Organization Policies as B; Municipal Level Policies as C; and Overall Physical Activity Levels and National Level Policies as D. 63% of children and youth have low physical activity levels. Venezuela needs to undergo a process of articulation between the several existing initiatives, and for said purposes, political will and a methodological effort is required. Investments, infrastructure, and opportunities will be more equal for all children and youth if more cooperation between institutions is developed and communication strategies are applied.

  18. Results From Estonia's 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruusamäe, Helena; Kull, Merike; Mooses, Kerli; Riso, Eva-Maria; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2016-11-01

    The 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth, the first of its kind, aims to set baseline physical activity (PA) indicators using the Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance grading system. A research work group analyzed and selected data for the grade assignment meeting (GAM). During the GAM, 17 leading researchers and policy experts from Estonia assessed the data and assigned grades for each of the 9 PA indicators. In addition, recommendations were provided for further actions to improve the grades. Grades from A (highest) to F (lowest) were assigned as follows: 1) Overall PA (F); 2) Organized Sport (C); 3) Active Play [incomplete data (INC)]; 4) Active Transportation (INC); 5) Sedentary Behaviors (F); 6) Family and Peers (C); 7) School (C); 8) Community and the Built Environment (B); and 9) Government (C). An indicator was marked as incomplete (INC) when there was a lack of representative quality data. Evidence suggests that PA levels of Estonian children remain very low, despite moderately supportive social, environmental, and regulatory factors. There are many challenges to overcome in supporting and promoting PA of children and youth (eg, cross-sectional cooperation, implementing interventions, changing social norms, empowerment of parents and educational institutions).

  19. Aging in Activity Space: Results From Smartphone-Based GPS-Tracking of Urban Seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York Cornwell, Erin; Cagney, Kathleen A

    2017-09-01

    Prior research emphasizes the importance of the residential neighborhood context during later life but little attention has been afforded to other areas that older adults encounter as they move beyond their residential environments for daily activities and social interactions. This study examines the predominance of the residential context within older adults' everyday lives. We provided 60 older adults in four New York City neighborhoods with iPhones, which captured Global Positioning Systems (GPS) locations at 5-min intervals over 1 week (n = 55,561) and 17 ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) over 4 days (n = 757) to assess real-time activities. Older adults in our sample spent nearly 40% of their time outside of their residential tracts and they visited 28 other tracts, on average. Exercising, shopping, socializing, and social activities were especially likely to take place outside of residential tracts. Differences in residential and nonresidential poverty exposure vary across gender, race/ethnicity, education, car ownership, and residential areas. Measuring activity space, rather than relying on residential tracts, allows examination of the social environments that are relevant for older adults' everyday lives. Variation in characteristics of activity spaces may be an underexplored source of differences in health and well-being during later life.

  20. Loss of putzig Activity Results in Apoptosis during Wing Imaginal Development in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Zimmermann

    Full Text Available The Drosophila gene putzig (pzg encodes a nuclear protein that is an integral component of the Trf2/Dref complex involved in the transcription of proliferation-related genes. Moreover, Pzg is found in a complex together with the nucleosome remodeling factor NURF, where it promotes Notch target gene activation. Here we show that downregulation of pzg activity in the developing wing imaginal discs induces an apoptotic response, accompanied by the induction of the pro-apoptotic gene reaper, repression of Drosophila inhibitor of apoptosis protein accumulation and the activation of the caspases Drice, Caspase3 and Dcp1. As a further consequence 'Apoptosis induced Proliferation' (AiP and 'Apoptosis induced Apoptosis' (AiA are triggered. As expected, the activity of the stress kinase Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, proposed to mediate both processes, is ectopically induced in response to pzg loss. In addition, the expression of the mitogen wingless (wg but not of decapentaplegic (dpp is observed. We present evidence that downregulation of Notch activates Dcp1 caspase and JNK signaling, however, neither induces ectopic wg nor dpp expression. In contrast, the consequences of Dref-RNAi were largely indistinguishable from pzg-RNAi with regard to apoptosis induction. Moreover, overexpression of Dref ameliorated the downregulation of pzg compatible with the notion that the two are required together to maintain cell and tissue homeostasis in Drosophila.

  1. Results from Ireland's 2014 Report Card on Physical Activity in Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Deirdre M; Belton, Sarahjane; Coppinger, Tara; Cullen, Muireann; Donnelly, Alan; Dowd, Kieran; Keating, Teresa; Layte, Richard; Murphy, Marie; Murphy, Niamh; Murtagh, Elaine; Woods, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    Physical activity (PA) levels are a key performance indicator for policy documents in Ireland. The first Ireland Report Card on Physical Activity in Children and Youth aims to set a robust baseline for future surveillance of indicators related to PA in children and youth. Data collected between 2003-2010 on more than 35,000 7- to 18-year-old children and youth were used and graded using a standardized grading system for 10 indicators. Grades assigned for the indicators were as follows: overall physical activity levels, D-; sedentary behavior (TV viewing), C-; organized sport participation, C-: physical education, D-; active play, inconclusive (INC); active transportation, D; school, C-, community and the built environment, B; family, INC; and government, INC. PA recommendations exist in Ireland but this Report Card has shown that participation is still low. A number of promising policies, programs and services are in place but these require thorough evaluation and adequate resourcing. Agreement and implementation of a common framework for the systematic surveillance of indictors related to PA of children and youth is necessary to monitor change over time and ensure the impact of promising work is captured.

  2. Sport activity and the risk of breast cancer: results from a case - control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Kruk

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A case – control study of 257 women with breast cancer and 565 control women was conducted to investigate the effect of life-time sport activity on breast cancer risk. Information was collected by questionnaire about sports played, frequency of participation and duration. The activity levels were determined using frequency variable weighted for metabolic equivalents of energy expenditure (MET. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to compute odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. A full assessment of confounding and effect modification was undertaken. The odds ratios for increasing tertiles of sport activity were 1.00 (referent, 0.50 (CI: 0.33-0.76 and 0.44 (CI: 0.28-0.64, respectively (P-trend = 0.000. Comparing sport active women to inactive women the OR was 0.49 (CI: 0.35-0.69. Models stratified according to body mass index, age at menarche, age at first full term pregnancy, intake of vegetables and fruits, and experience of stress were examined. In models stratified the risks of breast cancer were also reduced with higher levels of activity in sport. The conclusion is that women who participated in sports have a reduced risk of breast cancer.

  3. Results From the Bipartisan Policy Center's CEO Council Physical Activity Challenge to American Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berko, Jeff; Goetzel, Ron Z; Roemer, Enid Chung; Kent, Karen; Marchibroda, Janet

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe findings from a survey of employees at 10 businesses participating in the "Building Better Health: Physical Activity Challenge," an effort led by the Bipartisan Policy Center's CEO Council on Health and Innovation. Employers provided employees with pedometers as part of an 8-week Physical Activity Challenge (Challenge). Employees were then asked to complete a survey about their awareness of, participation in, and satisfaction with the Challenge. One hundred three thousand three hundred eighty-three employees participated in the Challenge, averaging 6886 steps per day per participant. Of the 3820 respondents to an employee survey sent to all workers, 62% reported enrolling in the program, and of those, the majority reported positive impacts on health (76%), fitness (73%), and lifestyle (70%). A brief, workplace-based physical activity challenge can achieve positive self-reported health impacts when supported by senior management of the company.

  4. Physical activity and pancreatic cancer risk among urban Chinese: Results from two prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lang; Zheng, Wei; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Li, Hong-Lan; Cai, Hui; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2018-02-23

    Associations between physical activity and pancreatic cancer risk are unclear. In two prospective cohort studies: the Shanghai Women's Health Study and Shanghai Men's Health Study, physical activity and other information were collected at the baseline interview of 72,451 women and 60,037 men. Participants were followed up through annual linkage with cancer registry in combination with in-person interviews taking place every 2-4 years. We identified 225 female and 159 male cases during a median follow up of 16.1 and 10.3 years, respectively. Adult exercise participation was significantly associated with a decreased pancreatic cancer risk in men [hazard ratio (HR), 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.71 (0.50-1.00)]. Meeting the recommended minimum exercise threshold to achieve health benefits of 150 min/week of moderate-intensity or 75 min/week of vigorous-intensity exercise was associated with further decreased pancreatic cancer risk [HR (95% CI): 0.59 (0.40-0.87)]. We also observed an inverse association between adolescent physical activity and pancreatic cancer risk in men [HR (95% CI): 0.54 (0.33-0.90)]. Exercise throughout one's lifetime was associated with a 68% decrease in pancreatic cancer risk [HR (95% CI): 0.32 (0.16-0.66)]. No significant association was found in women. Adult non-exercise daily activity and occupational activity were not associated with pancreatic cancer risk in either men or women. Adult exercise and adolescent physical activity were significantly associated with a decreased pancreatic cancer risk in men but not in women. These findings underscore the importance of investigating the possible modification by sex on the exercise and pancreatic cancer risk association. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Commissioning activities and first results from the collective Thomson scattering diagnostic on ASDEX Upgrade (invited)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meo, Fernando; Bindslev, Henrik; Korsholm, Søren Bang

    2008-01-01

    The collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic installed on ASDEX Upgrade uses millimeter waves generated by the newly installed 1 MW dual frequency gyrotron as probing radiation at 105 GHz. It measures backscattered radiation with a heterodyne receiver having 50 channels (between 100 and 110...... of the diagnostic. It then describes the commissioning activities carried out to date. These activities include gyrotron studies, transmission line alignment, and beam pattern measurements in the vacuum vessel. Overlap experiments in near perpendicular and near parallel have confirmed the successful alignment...

  6. Results From Denmark's 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lisbeth Runge; Troelsen, Jens; Kirkegaard, Kasper Lund

    2016-01-01

    ; incomplete), 4) Active Transportation (B), 5) Sedentary Behaviors (INC), 6) Family and Peers (INC), 7) School (B), 8) Community and the Built Environment (B+), and 9) Government strategies and investments (A-). CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of children in Denmark do not meet the recommendations for PA......BACKGROUND: The first Danish Report Card on Physical Activity (PA) for Children and Youth describes Denmark's efforts in promoting and facilitating PA and PA opportunities for children and youth. METHODS: The report card relies primarily on a synthesis of the best available research and policy...

  7. Determinants of activity-friendly neighborhoods for children: Results from the SPACE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, S.I. de; Bakker, I.; Mechelen, W. van; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the association between children's physical activity and factors of the built environment. Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. Ten neighborhoods in six cities in the Netherlands. Subjects. Four hundred twenty-two children (age range, 6-11 years; 49% male). Measures. Physical

  8. Physical activity and risk of ovarian cancer: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study (The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesma, R.G.; Schouten, L.J.; Dirx, M.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between nonoccupational physical activity and the risk of ovarian cancer among post-menopausal women. Methods: The Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer consists of 62,573 women aged 55-69 years at baseline. Information regarding baseline

  9. Physical Activity Related to Depression and Predicted Mortality Risk: Results from the Americans' Changing Lives Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pai-Lin; Lan, William; Lee, Charles C.-L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between three types of physical activities (PA) and depression, and the relationship between PA and later mortality. Previous studies rarely assessed these associations in one single study in randomly selected population samples. Few studies have assessed these relations by adjusting the covariate of…

  10. Anthropometry, physical activity, and endometrial cancer risk: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2004-01-01

    Although obesity is an established risk factor for endometrial cancer, evidence linking risk to height, weight change since age 20, and physical activity is limited. In this case-cohort study, 62 573 women from The Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer were followed up from 1986 to 1995, and

  11. DEACTIVATION OF THE ACTIVATED SLUDGE AS A RESULT OF MECHANICAL DISINTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Walczak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse the impact of hydrodynamic disintegra-tion of thickened excess activated sludge, performed at different levels of energy density (70, 140, 210 280 and 350 kJ/l, on the respiratory activity of microorganisms. For this purpose the oxygen uptake rate test (OUR was used. The experiment also included determination of the sludge disintegra-tion degree (DD. Studies have shown, that the value of the energy density and sludge disintegration degree affected the respiratory activity of micro-organisms. With a relatively low DD, below approx. 9 % (corresponding to an energy density of approx. 140 kJ/l, increase of microbial activity was observed (6,2 − 30,2 %, as compared with untreated sludge. However, above this value of DD, inactivation of microorganisms occurred. Deactiva-tion of microorganisms higher than 85 % was observed when the sludge disintegration degree was greater than approx. 24 % (corresponding to an energy density of approx. 210 kJ/l.

  12. Extracurricular Activities and Bullying Perpetration: Results from a Nationally Representative Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riese, Alison; Gjelsvik, Annie; Ranney, Megan L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bullying is a widespread problem for school-aged children and adolescents. Interventions to reduce bullying are not well disseminated. Extracurricular involvement is, however, common. This study aims to examine the relationship between parent-reported participation in extracurricular activities and bullying perpetration. Methods: Using…

  13. Results from Ghana's 2014 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocansey, Reginald; Aryeetey, Richmond; Sofo, Seidu; Delali, Margaret Badasu; Pambo, Prince; Nyawornota, Vida Korleki

    2014-05-01

    Limited evidence exists on indicators of physical activity (PA) and guidelines for children and youth in Ghana, despite the growing burden of physical inactivity, obesity, and related morbidity. A baseline description of PA indicators of Ghanaian children and youth is hereby presented in the 2014 Ghanaian Physical Activity Report Card. Data for the report card were obtained from a very limited available literature on PA among children and youth in Ghana. PA experts independently assigned grades to indicators based on available evidence, which were then harmonized and agreed to by group consensus. The report card is based on limited evidence. Thus, 2 indicators were not graded (Active Play, and Family and Peer Support). For sedentary behavior, a B grade was assigned based on evidence from the 2012 Ghana School Health Survey which indicated that 21% of children and youth were sedentary. Organized Sports was graded a C, while the remainder of indicators (Overall PA levels, Active Transportation, School, Community, and Government) were graded a D. About one-third of Ghanaian children and youth engage in inadequate PA. More research on PA behavior and enabling environments is needed to better grade the indicators of PA in the future and to inform policy and interventions in Ghana. Appropriate school physical education and after-school sports policies and programs are warranted.

  14. METHODICAL APPROACHES TO THE ANALYSIS OF THE RESULTS OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Trushchelev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The value of scientific medical information and its impact indicators (researcher’s publishing activity, citation, impact factor, Hirsch index, etc is considered. Sources of relevant indicators are specified. Data on scientometric indicators of Russian and international scientific cardiology journals are presented.

  15. Potentials of Physical Activity Promotion in Preschools--An Overview of Results of an Ethnographic Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Natalie; Sterdt, Elena; Azouagh, Karima; Kramer, Silke; Walter, Ulla; Urban, Michael; Werning, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses exemplary differences between preschools with systematic physical activity (PA) programmes and preschools without PA programmes in Germany. Two preschools from each group were visited in the context of a focused ethnographic observation to examine the educational practice, PA and social behaviour of preschool children. The…

  16. Design of a website on nutrition and physical activity for adolescents: results from formative research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teens do not meet guidelines for healthy eating and physical activity. The internet may be an effective method for delivering programs that help them adopt healthy behaviors. Our objective was to collect information to design content and structure for a teen-friendly web site promoting healthy eati...

  17. Elevated p21-Activated Kinase 2 Activity Results in Anchorage-Independent Growth and Resistance to Anticancer Drug–Induced Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry W. Marlin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available p21-Activated kinase 2 (PAK-2 seems to be a regulatory switch between cell survival and cell death signaling. We have shown previously that activation of full-length PAK-2 by Rac or Cdc42 stimulates cell survival, whereas caspase activation of PAK-2 to the proapoptotic PAK-2p34 fragment is involved in the cell death response. In this study, we present a role of elevated activity of full-length PAK-2 in anchorage-independent growth and resistance to anticancer drug–induced apoptosis of cancer cells. Hs578T human breast cancer cells that have low levels of PAK-2 activity were more sensitive to anticancer drug–induced apoptosis and showed higher levels of caspase activation of PAK-2 than MDA-MB435 and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells that have high levels of PAK-2 activity. To examine the role of elevated PAK-2 activity in breast cancer, we have introduced a conditionally active PAK-2 into Hs578T human breast cells. Conditional activation of PAK-2 causes loss of contact inhibition and anchorage-independent growth of Hs578T cells. Furthermore, conditional activation of PAK-2 suppresses activation of caspase 3, caspase activation of PAK-2, and apoptosis of Hs578T cells in response to the anticancer drug cisplatin. Our data suggest a novel mechanism by which full-length PAK-2 activity controls the apoptotic response by regulating levels of activated caspase 3 and thereby its own cleavage to the proapoptotic PAK-2p34 fragment. As a result, elevated PAK-2 activity interrupts the apoptotic response and thereby causes anchorage-independent survival and growth and resistance to anticancer drug–induced apoptosis.

  18. Differential MR/GR Activation in Mice Results in Emotional States Beneficial or Impairing for Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Brinks

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Corticosteroids regulate stress response and influence emotion, learning, and memory via two receptors in the brain, the high‐affinity mineralocorticoid (MR and low‐affinity glucocorticoid receptor (GR. We test the hypothesis that MR- and GR-mediated effects interact in emotion and cognition when a novel situation is encountered that is relevant for a learning process. By adrenalectomy and additional constant corticosterone supplement we obtained four groups of male C57BL/6J mice with differential chronic MR and GR activations. Using a hole board task, we found that mice with continuous predominant MR and moderate GR activations were fast learners that displayed low anxiety and arousal together with high directed explorative behavior. Progressive corticosterone concentrations with predominant action via GR induced strong emotional arousal at the expense of cognitive performance. These findings underline the importance of a balanced MR/GR system for emotional and cognitive functioning that is critical for mental health.

  19. Differential MR/GR Activation in Mice Results in Emotional States Beneficial or Impairing for Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinks, Vera; H. van der Mark, Maaike; de Kloet, E. Ron; S. Oitzl, Melly

    2007-01-01

    Corticosteroids regulate stress response and influence emotion, learning, and memory via two receptors in the brain, the high-affinity mineralocorticoid (MR) and low-affinity glucocorticoid receptor (GR). We test the hypothesis that MR- and GR-mediated effects interact in emotion and cognition when a novel situation is encountered that is relevant for a learning process. By adrenalectomy and additional constant corticosterone supplement we obtained four groups of male C57BL/6J mice with differential chronic MR and GR activations. Using a hole board task, we found that mice with continuous predominant MR and moderate GR activations were fast learners that displayed low anxiety and arousal together with high directed explorative behavior. Progressive corticosterone concentrations with predominant action via GR induced strong emotional arousal at the expense of cognitive performance. These findings underline the importance of a balanced MR/GR system for emotional and cognitive functioning that is critical for mental health. PMID:17710249

  20. Recurrent hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetes mellitus resulting from intensive academic activity: an illustrative case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyiriuka Alphonsus N.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a common diabetes management problem illustrated by an adolescent female university student with recurrent episodes of hypoglycaemia on Tuesdays when she has intensive academic activity lasting most of the day. Steps taken to reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia were patient education and empowerment, frequent self monitoring of blood glucose, reduction in insulin dose on Tuesdays and emphasizing availability of ongoing professional guidance and support anytime she may need it. One of the challenges encountered in the management of this patient was her family’s inability to afford the cost of basal-bolus regimen or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion via insulin pump; the two insulin regimens that best fit into university lifestyle. Conclusion: Adolescents with diabetes mellitus attending tertiary educational institutions may be at increased risk of hypoglycaemia, particularly on days when they have intensive academic activities.

  1. Activating seniors to improve chronic disease care: Results from a pilot intervention study

    OpenAIRE

    Frosch, DL; Rincon, D.; Ochoa, S; Mangione, CM

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of an activation intervention delivered in community senior centers to improve health outcomes for chronic diseases that disproportionately affect older adults. Design: Two-group quasi-experimental study. Setting: Two Los Angeles community senior centers. Participants: One hundred sixteen senior participants. Intervention: Participants were invited to attend group screenings of video programs intended to inform about and motivate self-management of chronic c...

  2. Results of a Nutrition and Physical Activity Peer Counseling Intervention among Nontraditional College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintiliani, Lisa M; Whiteley, Jessica A

    2016-06-01

    Health promotion efforts targeting nontraditional college students (older, part-time enrollment, and working) may be an optimal way to reach large populations that potentially face health disparities. A randomized trial was undertaken to examine the feasibility of a nutrition and physical activity behavioral intervention among nontraditional undergraduate college students at a large urban public university. Over 8 weeks, participants received either (1) a brief tailored feedback report plus three motivational interviewing-based calls from trained peer counselors (intervention; n = 40) or (2) the report only (control; n = 20). Participants mean age was 32 years (SD = 10), 58 % were female, 47 % were racial/ethnic minorities, and 25 % reported receiving public health insurance. Most (78 %) intervention group participants completed at least two of three peer counseling calls. At follow-up, those in the intervention vs. control group self-reported beneficial, but non-statistically significant changes in fruits and vegetables (+0.7 servings/day), sugary drinks (-6.2 oz/day), and fast food visits (-0.2 visits/week). For physical activity, there was a non-statistically significant decrease in moderate-vigorous physical activity (107.2 min/week) in the intervention vs. Overall satisfaction with the program was high, although there were recommendations made for improving the structure and number of calls. Findings indicate that the intervention was feasible with promising effects on nutrition behaviors and the need to better target physical activity behaviors. Future work entails implementation in a larger sample with objectively measured behaviors.

  3. Results from South Africa's 2014 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Catherine; Basset, Susan; de Villiers, Anniza; Lambert, Estelle V

    2014-05-01

    There is current concern for the health and well-being of children and youth in South Africa, including habits of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior. The 2014 Healthy Active Kids South Africa Report Card evaluates the current activity status of children and youth. The Research Working Group was comprised of 23 experts in physical education, nutrition, sport science, public health and journalism. The search was based on a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature (previous 5 years), dissertations, and nonpeer-reviewed reports ('gray' literature) dealing with the PA and nutritional status of South African children and youth 6-18 years of age. Key indicators were identified and data extracted. Grades for each indicator were discussed and assigned. Overall PA levels received a D grade, as roughly 50% or more of children and youth were not meeting recommended levels. Organized sports participation fared better with a C, and government policies were promising, receiving a B. Screen time and sedentary behavior were a major concern and received a grade of F. Under- and over-weight were highlighted, but overweight is on the rise and this indicator was assigned a D grade. Most of the other indicators in South Africa remained the same or became worse so that grades declined from C- to D. In particular, sedentary behavior, soft-drink and fast food consumption, and an ineffectual regulatory environment to control advertising to children were a concern. There is need to engage parents and communities for advocacy and social mobilization.

  4. Fetal heart rate and motor activity associations with maternal organochlorine levels: Results of an exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Davis, Meghan F.; Costigan, Kathleen A; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2015-01-01

    Contemporaneous associations between circulating maternal organochlorines and measures of fetal heart rate and motor activity were evaluated. A panel of 47 organochlorines (OCs), including pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), was analyzed from serum of 50 pregnant women at 36 weeks gestation. Data were empirically reduced into four factors and six individual compounds. All participants had detectable concentrations of at least one-quarter of the assayed OCs and, in general, higher socioeconomic level was associated with higher OC concentrations. Fetal heart rate measures were not consistently associated with maternal OCs. In contrast, one or more indicators of greater fetal motor activity were significantly associated with higher levels of the DDT and low chlorinated OC factors and five of the six individual compounds (heptachlor epoxide, trans nonachlor, oxychlordane, and PCBs 18 and 52). This preliminary demonstration of associations between fetal motor activity and maternal concentrations of persistent and pervasive environmental contaminants suggests that fetal assessment may be useful in ascertaining the potential early effects of these compounds on development. PMID:23591698

  5. Assessing and promoting physical activity in African American barbershops: results of the FITStop pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnan, Laura A; Reiter, Paul L; Duffy, Courtney; Hales, Derek; Ward, Dianne S; Viera, Anthony J

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the feasibility of recruiting African American men in barbershops, assessing their physical activity, conducting physical measurements, and gauging their interest in barbershop-based health research. The authors recruited African American shop owners (n = 4), barbers (n = 6), and customers (n = 90) from four barbershops in Raleigh and Durham, North Carolina, during 2009. The participation levels were high among owners (100%), barbers (67%), and customers (81%). In addition to completing a self-administered survey, 57% (51/90) of the customers completed physical measurements. According to self-reported data, 34% (30/88) of the customers met national physical activity recommendations within the last week. Customers expressed moderately high interest in learning more about health at barbershops and joining a barbershop-based physical activity contest. The estimated recruiting cost per customer was $105.92. Barbershops offer an effective setting for recruiting African American men and conducting physical measurements as well as an interesting possible location for conducting future interventions.

  6. Intervention centred on adolescents' physical activity and sedentary behaviour (ICAPS): concept and 6-month results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, C; Wagner, A; DiVita, C; Rauscher, E; Klein-Platat, C; Arveiler, D; Schweitzer, B; Triby, E

    2004-11-01

    To evaluate the 6-month impact of a physical activity (PA) multilevel intervention on activity patterns and psychological predictors of PA among adolescents. The intervention was directed at changing knowledge and attitudes and at providing social support and environmental conditions that encourage PA of adolescents inside and outside school. Randomised, controlled ongoing field trial (ICAPS) in middle-school's first-level adolescents from eight schools selected in the department of the Bas-Rhin (Eastern France) with a cohort of 954 adolescents (92% of the eligible students) initially aged 11.7+/-0.6 y. The 6-month changes in participation in leisure organised PA (LOPA), high sedentary (SED) behaviour (>3 h/day), self-efficacy (SELF) and intention (INTENT) towards PA were analysed after controlling for baseline measures and different covariables (age, overweight, socioprofessional occupation), taking into account the cluster randomisation design. The proportion of intervention adolescents not engaged in organised PA was reduced by 50% whereas it was unchanged among control students. After adjustment for baseline covariables, LOPA participation significantly increased among the intervention adolescents (odds ratio (95% confidence interval) (OR)=3.38 (1.42-8.05) in girls; 1.73 (1.12-2.66) in boys), while high SED was reduced (OR=0.54 (0.38-0.77) in girls; 0.52 (0.35-0.76) in boys). The intervention improved SELF in girls, whatever their baseline LOPA (PLOPA (P=0.04). SELF tended to improve in boys with no baseline LOPA, without reaching statistical significance. When included in the regression, follow-up LOPA was associated with improvement of SELF in girls (P=0.02) and of INTENT in girls with no baseline PA (P<0.02). The intervention effect was then attenuated. After 6 months of intervention, ICAPS was associated with a significant improvement of activity patterns and psychological predictors, indicating a promising approach for modifying the long-term PA level of

  7. Myths about oral contraceptives. Does OC availability result in increased sexual activity among teens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney

    1993-11-01

    Parents, educators, public health officials, health-care providers, religious organizations, and advocacy groups are very concerned about the rise in teenage pregnancy and the increase in sexually transmitted diseases among the young. Some say the increased availability and acceptance of oral contraceptives is directly related to an increase in sexual activity among teens. Less than 50% of women use a contraceptive method at first intercourse. Use is much lower in Hispanic and African-American women than among White women; women with low socioeconomic status, living in one-parent households, or having sex at an early age are the least likely to use a contraceptive method at first intercourse. According to the National Survey of Family Growth, teens engaging in sexual intercourse for the first time, who use a contraceptive method, typically choose the condom. Oral contraceptive use is very low and use at first intercourse has not increased over time. It is only after the establishment of routine sexual intercourse that the pill becomes the preferred method. The use of a condom has more than doubled for the period from 1982 to 1988. Adolescents under age 16 are at greatest risk for unintended pregnancies because this group is the least likely to use any method of contraception. The increase in teen sexual activity over the years does not coincide with an increase in pill use. Education must begin in elementary schools, stressing abstinence, but also include facts about sex, contraception, and disease prevention, because 40% of teens are sexually active by 9th grade. Skills can focus on changing behavior, such as learning to delay intercourse, building self-esteem as well as proper use of contraceptives. Easy, nonthreatening access to medical care can prevent many unintended pregnancies and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases.

  8. Hydrothermal Petroleum in Active Continental Rift: Lake Chapala, Western Mexico, Initial Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate-del Valle, P. F.; Simoneit, B. R.; Ramirez-Sanchez, H. U.

    2003-12-01

    Lake Chapala in western Mexico is located partially in the Citala Rift, which belongs to the well-known neotectonic Jalisco continental triple junction. The region is characterized by active volcanism (Ceboruco, Volcan de Fuego), tectonic (1995 earthquake, M=8, 40-50 mm to SW) and hydrothermal (San Juan Cosala & Villa Corona spas and La Calera sinter deposit) activities. Hydrothermal petroleum has been described in active continental rift (East African Rift) and marine spreading zones (Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California). In 1868 the Mexican local press reported that manifestations of bitumen were appearing in front of the Columba Cap on the mid south shore of Lake Chapala. This bitumen is linked to the lake bottom and when the water level decreases sufficiently it is possible to access these tar bodies as islands. Because of these manifestations the Mexican oil company (PEMEX) drilled an exploration well (2,348m) at Tizapan El Alto without success. Hydrothermal activity is evident in the tar island zone as three in-shore thermal springs (26.8 m depth, 48.5° C, pH 7.8 and oriented N-S). The preliminary analyses by GC-MS of the tar from these islands indicate hydrothermal petroleum derived from lake sedimentary organic matter, generated at low temperatures (150° -200° C). The tars contain no n-alkanes, no PAH or other aromatics, but a major UCM of branched and cyclic hydrocarbons and mature biomarkers derived from lacustrine biota. The biomarkers consist of mainly 17α (H),21β (H)-hopanes ranging from C27 to C34 (no C28), gammacerane, tricyclic terpanes (C20-C26), carotane and its cracking products, and drimanes (C14-C16). The biomarker composition indicates an organic matter source from bacteria and algae, typical of lacustrine ecosystems. 14C dating of samples from two tar islands yielded ages exceeding 40 kyrs, i.e., old carbon from hydrothermal/tectonic remobilization of bitumen from deeper horizons to the surface. The occurrence of hydrothermal petroleum in

  9. Integrity management and optimization of planning activities from results of the ILI run

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farinas, Jaime [TRANSIERRA S.A., Santa Cruz (Bolivia)

    2009-07-01

    Transierra owns and operates the Yacuiba - Rio Grande pipeline (GASYRG), 432 kilometers in length and 32 inches in diameter, which transports natural gas from the fields of San Alberto and San Antonio (southern Bolivia) to the Rio Grande compression station (Santa Cruz), and is part of the gas export system to Brazil. This pipeline system has a sustained capacity to transport 17,6 million of cubic meter per day. Within the Integrity Management Program (IMP) has been developing and implementing activities and techniques that seeking to ensure the technical integrity of the pipeline, from the good practices of the industry, which also get an optimization for the use of resources for inspection, operation and maintenance activities. In response to that goal at the beginning of 2008, it was concluded the baseline of the GASYRG ILI runs, getting a very good stage of both the internal and external condition of the pipeline, found some stables anomalies (manufacturing and construction) which do not affect the safe operation status of the pipeline, in this way, it was appropriate to re-planning the maintenance programs of all facilities and main elements, in order to achieve a balance between safety operation condition of the pipeline and the resources used for these purposes, which means that there is a 'before' and an 'after' regarding to planning and maintenance activities are concerned. All of this re-planning gives us a cost optimization for the main activities in the order of 30%. Additionally there has been a very particular approach to care for and prevent threats related to corrosion, maintaining a stable cathodic protection system, taking into account the presence of interfering elements (crossing with pipelines, power lines, railroads, etc.). Also important steps have been taken regarding to the changing dynamic to the action of third parties, it is part of a specific program for strengthening contingency plans. Concluding the above, the

  10. Sustainability via Active Garden Education (SAGE): results from two feasibility pilot studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rebecca E; Parker, Nathan H; Soltero, Erica G; Ledoux, Tracey A; Mama, Scherezade K; McNeill, Lorna

    2017-03-10

    Low physical activity (PA) and fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption in early childhood are continued public health challenges. This manuscript describes outcomes from two pilot studies for Sustainability via Active Garden Education (SAGE), a program designed to increase PA and F&V consumption among 3 to 5 year old children. SAGE was developed using community-based participatory research (CBPR) and delivered to children (N = 89) in early care and education centers (ECEC, N = 6) in two US cities. Children participated in 12 one-hour sessions that included songs, games, and interactive learning activities involving garden maintenance and taste tests. We evaluated reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation, and potential for maintenance of SAGE following the RE-AIM framework. Reach was evaluated by comparing demographic characteristics among SAGE participants and residents of target geographic areas. Efficacy was evaluated with accelerometer-measured PA, F&V consumption, and eating in the absence of hunger among children, parenting practices regarding PA, and home availability of F&V. Adoption was evaluated by the number of ECEC that participated relative to the number of ECEC that were recruited. Implementation was evaluated by completion rates of planned SAGE lessons and activities, and potential for maintenance was evaluated with a parent satisfaction survey. SAGE reached ECEC in neighborhoods representing a wide range of socioeconomic status, with participants' sociodemographic characteristics representing those of the intervention areas. Children significantly increased PA during SAGE lessons compared to usual lessons, but they also consumed more calories in the absence of hunger in post- vs. pre-intervention tests (both p SAGE lessons and curriculum. Potential for maintenance was strong, with parents rating SAGE favorably and reporting increases in knowledge about PA and nutrition guidelines for young children. SAGE successfully translated national PA

  11. [Fluctuations in biophysical measurements as a result of variations in solar activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, T F

    1995-01-01

    A theory is proposed to explain variations in the net electrical charge of biological substances at the Earth's surface. These are shown to occur in association with changes in the solar wind and geomagnetic field. It is suggested that a liquid dielectric's net volume charge will imitate pH effects, influence chemical reaction rates, and alter ion transfer mechanisms in biophysical systems. An experiment is described which measures dielectric volume charge, or non-neutrality, to allow correlation of this property with daily, 28-day, and 11-year fluctuation patterns in geophysical and satellite data associated with solar activity and the interplanetary magnetic field.

  12. Exfoliation properties of acid-activated montmorillonites and their resulting organoclays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooli, Fethi

    2009-01-20

    The intercalation process of acid-treated montmorillonite clays by a cationinc surfactant (decyltrimethylammonuium) from a hydroxide solution was affected by the temperature of acid activation. Although the cation exchange capacity of the treated clay at 90 degrees C (0.74 mequiv g(-1)) was lower compared to that treated at room temperature (0.84 mequiv g(-1)), the uptaken amount of the surfactant (1.24 mmol g(-1)) and thus the basal spacing (3.83 nm) were higher. These values depended on the initial loading concentrations. However, when the clay was treated at room temperature, the uptaken amounts of surfactant (0.81 mmol g(-1)) and the basal spacing (2.20 nm) were lower. These values were independent of the initial loading concentration. The higher basal spacing (3.83 nm) was also affected by the type of the exchange medium and the washing solution by a mixture of ethanolic solutions. The intercalation of the surfactants occurred in two different ways, and was related to exfoliation properties of the acid activated clays. The intercalated surfactant exhibited different conformations in the interlayer space and different thermal stability.

  13. Mesangial Cell Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 Activation Results in Mesangial Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Kojiro; Tominaga, Tatsuya; Ueda, Sayo; Shibata, Eriko; Tamaki, Masanori; Matsuura, Motokazu; Kishi, Seiji; Murakami, Taichi; Moriya, Tatsumi; Abe, Hideharu; Doi, Toshio

    2017-10-01

    Human glomerular diseases can be caused by several different diseases, many of which include mesangial expansion and/or proliferation followed by glomerulosclerosis. However, molecular mechanisms underlying the pathologic mesangial changes remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)-S6 kinase pathway in mesangial expansion and/or proliferation by ablating an upstream negative regulator, tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1), using tamoxifen-induced Foxd1-Cre mice [Foxd1ER(+) TSC1 mice]. Foxd1ER(+) TSC1 mice showed mesangial expansion with increased production of collagen IV, collagen I, and α-smooth muscle actin in glomeruli, but did not exhibit significant mesangial proliferation or albuminuria. Furthermore, rapamycin treatment of Foxd1ER(+) TSC1 mice suppressed mesangial expansion. Among biopsy specimens from patients with glomerular diseases, analysis of phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 revealed mesangial cell mTORC1 activation in IgA nephropathy and in lupus mesangial proliferative nephritis but not in the early phase of diabetic nephropathy. In summary, mesangial cell mTORC1 activation can cause mesangial expansion and has clinical relevance for human glomerular diseases. This report also confirms that the tamoxifen-induced mesangium-specific Cre-loxP system is useful for studies designed to clarify the role of the mesangium in glomerular diseases in adults. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  14. Does wastewater treatment plant upgrading with activated carbon result in an improvement of fish health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Sabrina; Henneberg, Anja; Köhler, Heinz-R; Rault, Magali; Richter, Doreen; Scheurer, Marco; Suchail, Séverine; Triebskorn, Rita

    2017-11-01

    In the present study, the efficiency of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) upgraded with a powdered activated carbon unit for the reduction of micropollutants and the related advantages for fish health have been analyzed by means of different biomarkers, i.e. histopathological investigations, analyses of glycogen content and stress proteins, as well as by chemical analyses in different matrices. Comparative analyses were conducted prior and subsequent to the installation of the additional purification unit. Chemical analyses revealed a significant reduction of several pharmaceuticals, including diclofenac, carbamazepine and metoprolol, in samples of effluent and surface water downstream of the WWTP after its upgrade. In addition, diminished concentrations of diclofenac and PFOS were detected in tissues of analyzed fish. Histopathological investigations of fish liver, gills, and kidney revealed improved tissue integrity in fish after improved wastewater treatment. In parallel, biochemical measurements of glycogen revealed increased energy resources in fish liver and, furthermore, hsp70 levels in livers of exposed rainbow trout and in kidneys of exposed brown trout were lower after than before the WWTP upgrade. In summary, additional treatment with powdered activated carbon led to a reduction of potentially hazardous chemicals in the effluent and the adjacent river and, consequently, to an improvement of fish health in the receiving water course. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Cholinergic pairing with visual activation results in long-term enhancement of visual evoked potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Il Kang

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine (ACh contributes to learning processes by modulating cortical plasticity in terms of intensity of neuronal activity and selectivity properties of cortical neurons. However, it is not known if ACh induces long term effects within the primary visual cortex (V1 that could sustain visual learning mechanisms. In the present study we analyzed visual evoked potentials (VEPs in V1 of rats during a 4-8 h period after coupling visual stimulation to an intracortical injection of ACh analog carbachol or stimulation of basal forebrain. To clarify the action of ACh on VEP activity in V1, we individually pre-injected muscarinic (scopolamine, nicotinic (mecamylamine, alpha7 (methyllycaconitine, and NMDA (CPP receptor antagonists before carbachol infusion. Stimulation of the cholinergic system paired with visual stimulation significantly increased VEP amplitude (56% during a 6 h period. Pre-treatment with scopolamine, mecamylamine and CPP completely abolished this long-term enhancement, while alpha7 inhibition induced an instant increase of VEP amplitude. This suggests a role of ACh in facilitating visual stimuli responsiveness through mechanisms comparable to LTP which involve nicotinic and muscarinic receptors with an interaction of NMDA transmission in the visual cortex.

  16. Association between Natural Resources for Outdoor Activities and Physical Inactivity: Results from the Contiguous United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jiang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas including national/state parks and recreational waters are excellent natural resources that promote physical activity and interaction with Nature, which can relieve stress and reduce disease risk. Despite their importance, however, their contribution to human health has not been properly quantified. This paper seeks to evaluate quantitatively how national/state parks and recreational waters are associated with human health and well-being, taking into account of the spatial dependence of environmental variables for the contiguous U.S., at the county level. First, we describe available natural resources for outdoor activities (ANROA, using national databases that include features from the Protected Areas Database, NAVSTREETS, and ATTAINSGEO 305(b Waters. We then use spatial regression techniques to explore the association of ANROA and socioeconomic status factors on physical inactivity rates. Finally, we use variance analysis to analyze ANROA’s influence on income-related health inequality. We found a significantly negative association between ANROA and the rate of physical inactivity: ANROA and the spatial effect explained 69%, nationwide, of the variation in physical inactivity. Physical inactivity rate showed a strong spatial dependence—influenced not only by its own in-county ANROA, but also by that of its neighbors ANROA. Furthermore, community groups at the same income level and with the highest ANROA, always had the lowest physical inactivity rate. This finding may help to guide future land use planning and community development that will benefit human health and well-being.

  17. Results of the survey activities and mobile gamma scanning in Monticello, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, C.A.; Berven, B.A.

    1985-11-01

    The town of Monticello, Utah, was once the site of an active mill which processed vanadium ore (1942 to 1948), and uranium ore (1948 to 1960). Properties in the vicinity of that mill have become contaminated with radioactive material from ore processing. The Radiological Survey Activities (RASA) group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was requested by the Division of Remedial Action Projects (DRAP) in the Department of Energy (DOE) to: (1) identify potentially contaminated properties; (2) assess natural background radiation levels; and (3) rapidly assess the magnitude, extent, and type (i.e. ore, tailings, etc.) of contamination present on these properties (if any). This survey was conducted by RASA during April 1983. In addition to the 114 properties previously identified from historical information, the ORNL mobile gamma scanning van located 36 new properties exhibiting anomalous gamma radiation levels. Onsite surveys were conducted on 145 of the 150 total properties identified either historically or with the gamma scanning van. Of these 145 properties, 122 of them appeared to have some type of contaminated material present on them; however, only 48 appeared to be contaminated to the extent where they were in excess of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) criteria (40 CFR 192). Twenty-one other properties were recommended for additional investigation (indoor gamma scanning and radon daughter measurements); of these, only ten required further analysis. This report provides the detailed data and analyses related to the radiological survey efforts performed by ORNL in Monticello, Utah.

  18. Evolution of the Active Region NOAA 12443 based on magnetic field extrapolations: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicrala, André; Dallaqua, Renato Sergio; Antunes Vieira, Luis Eduardo; Dal Lago, Alisson; Rodríguez Gómez, Jenny Marcela; Palacios, Judith; Coelho Stekel, Tardelli Ronan; Rezende Costa, Joaquim Eduardo; da Silva Rockenbach, Marlos

    2017-10-01

    The behavior of Active Regions (ARs) is directly related to the occurrence of some remarkable phenomena in the Sun such as solar flares or coronal mass ejections (CME). In this sense, changes in the magnetic field of the region can be used to uncover other relevant features like the evolution of the ARs magnetic structure and the plasma flow related to it. In this work we describe the evolution of the magnetic structure of the active region AR NOAA12443 observed from 2015/10/30 to 2015/11/10, which may be associated with several X-ray flares of classes C and M. The analysis is based on observations of the solar surface and atmosphere provided by HMI and AIA instruments on board of the SDO spacecraft. In order to investigate the magnetic energy buildup and release of the ARs, we shall employ potential and linear force free extrapolations based on the solar surface magnetic field distribution and the photospheric velocity fields.

  19. Results of an Active Neurodynamic Mobilization Program in Patients With Fibromyalgia Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Janet Rodríguez; Martos, Irene Cabrera; Sánchez, Irene Torres; Rubio, Araceli Ortíz; Pelegrina, Ana Díaz; Valenza, Marie Carmen

    2015-10-01

    To examine the effects of an active neurodynamic mobilization program on pain, neurodynamics, perceived health state, and fatigue in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Randomized controlled trial. Local fibromyalgia association. Patients with FMS (N=48). Patients were randomly allocated to an active neurodynamic mobilization program or a control group. The intervention was performed twice a week. Pain was assessed with the Brief Pain Inventory and Pain Catastrophizing Scale; neurodynamics were evaluated using neurodynamic tests for upper and lower limbs. The functional state was evaluated with the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index, and perceived fatigue was evaluated with the Fatigue Severity Scale. Significant (Pneurodynamics, functional state, and fatigue. Also, significant pre- to postintervention within-group differences were found in the intervention group, whereas no significant changes were found in the control group. A neurodynamic mobilization program is effective in improving pain, neurodynamics, functional status, and fatigue in patients with FMS. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Association between Natural Resources for Outdoor Activities and Physical Inactivity: Results from the Contiguous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Yuan, Yongping; Neale, Anne; Jackson, Laura; Mehaffey, Megan

    2016-08-17

    Protected areas including national/state parks and recreational waters are excellent natural resources that promote physical activity and interaction with Nature, which can relieve stress and reduce disease risk. Despite their importance, however, their contribution to human health has not been properly quantified. This paper seeks to evaluate quantitatively how national/state parks and recreational waters are associated with human health and well-being, taking into account of the spatial dependence of environmental variables for the contiguous U.S., at the county level. First, we describe available natural resources for outdoor activities (ANROA), using national databases that include features from the Protected Areas Database, NAVSTREETS, and ATTAINSGEO 305(b) Waters. We then use spatial regression techniques to explore the association of ANROA and socioeconomic status factors on physical inactivity rates. Finally, we use variance analysis to analyze ANROA's influence on income-related health inequality. We found a significantly negative association between ANROA and the rate of physical inactivity: ANROA and the spatial effect explained 69%, nationwide, of the variation in physical inactivity. Physical inactivity rate showed a strong spatial dependence-influenced not only by its own in-county ANROA, but also by that of its neighbors ANROA. Furthermore, community groups at the same income level and with the highest ANROA, always had the lowest physical inactivity rate. This finding may help to guide future land use planning and community development that will benefit human health and well-being.

  1. Statistical Modelling of Global Tectonic Activity and some Physical Consequences of its Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Statnikov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of global earthquake data bank for the last thirty years, a global tectonic activity indicator was proposed comprising a weekly globally averaged mean earthquake magnitude value. It was shown that 84% of indicator variability is a harmonic oscillation with a fundamental period of 37.2 years, twice the maximum period in the tidal oscillation spectrum (18.6 years. From this observation, a conclusion was drawn that parametric resonance (PR exists between global tectonic activity and low-frequency tides. The conclusion was also confirmed by the existence of the statistically significant PR response at the second lowest tidal frequency i.e. 182.6 days. It was shown that the global earthquake flow, with a determination factor 93%, is a sum of two Gaussian streams, nearly equally intense, with mean values of 23 and 83 events per week and standard deviations of 9 and 30 events per week, respectively. The Earth periphery to 'mean time interval between earthquakes' ratios in the first and the second flow modes described above match, by the order of magnitude, the sound velocity in the fluid (~1500 m/s and in elastic medium (5500 m/s.

  2. Variability in activity and results from drug assessments by pharmacy and therapeutics committees in Spanish hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puigventós Latorre, F; Santos-Ramos, B; Ortega Eslava, A; Durán-García, M E

    2011-01-01

    To quantify the Spanish Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committees (P&TC) activity with regard to assessing and selecting drugs and describing variability in decisions made to include them. Descriptive, cross-sectional study based on a questionnaire aimed to 513 hospitals with more than 75 beds. We included questions referring to the P&TC resolutions, the therapeutic positioning and assessment reports. Recruitment was carried out between November 2007 and January 2008. Variability among P&TC conclusions were presented in five categories or levels of coincidence. One hundred and seventy-five hospitals participated, with a response rate of 34% (54% of beds). The mean (SD) number of drug-indications assessed per hospital was 10.35 (7.45). The proportion of assessments that conclude with drug inclusion or rejection was 75.3 and 21.4%, respectively. 16.2% concluded with therapeutic equivalence. Conditions for use were established for 64% of them, and 33% were included in a clinical guide. With regard to variability, 81.0% of assessments coincided with the conclusion to include or reject the drug. A contradictory decision was made for 19.0%. Drug assessment and selection activity in hospitals involve an amount of work. The proportion of drugs approved is similar in different types of hospitals. There is extensive variability as regards deciding upon inclusion and is similar to studies conducted in other countries. They indicate that a standardising methodology would be recommendable. Copyright © 2010 SEFH. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Cognitive and collaborative demands of freight conductor activities: results and implications of a cognitive task analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    This report presents the results of a cognitive task analysis (CTA) that examined the cognitive and collaborative demands placed on conductors, as well as the knowledge and skills that experienced conductors have developed that enable them to operate...

  4. Associations between active commuting and physical activity in working adults: Cross-sectional results from the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Panter, Jenna; Griffin, Simon J.; Ogilvie, David

    2012-01-01

    Objective To quantify the association between time spent in active commuting and in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in a sample of working adults living in both urban and rural locations. Methods In 2009, participants in the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study were sent questionnaires enquiring about sociodemographic characteristics and weekly time spent in active commuting. They were also invited to wear an accelerometer for seven days. Accelerometer data were used to compute the time spent in MVPA. Multiple regression models were used to examine the association between time spent in active commuting and MVPA. Results 475 participants (70% female) provided valid data. On average, participants recorded 55 (SD: 23.02) minutes of MVPA per day. For women, reporting 150 or more minutes of active commuting per week was associated with an estimated 8.50 (95% CI: 1.75 to 51.26, p = 0.01) additional minutes of daily MVPA compared to those who reported no time in active commuting. No overall associations were found in men. Conclusions Promoting active commuting might be an important way of increasing levels of physical activity, particularly in women. Further research should assess whether increases in time spent in active commuting are associated with increases in physical activity. PMID:22964003

  5. Certified peer specialist roles and activities: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, Mark S; Schwenk, Edward; Brusilovskiy, Eugene

    2010-05-01

    In 2001 Georgia became the first state to allow services provided by certified peer specialists (CPSs) to be reimbursed by Medicaid. Six other states have since followed Georgia's lead, with many others in the process of doing so. This study examined where CPSs work and what they do. CPSs (N=291) from 28 states completed an online survey. CPSs primarily did their work within the agency rather than in the community and worked most often with individuals rather than groups. CPSs frequently provided peer support and focus on self-determination, health and wellness, hope, communication with providers, illness management, and stigma. They spent the least amount of time supporting people's family, parenting, dating, or spiritual relationships. CPS work settings and modalities varied greatly, although a core set of activities was identified. Implications for developing and refining CPS roles in the system are discussed, along with suggestions for additional training and supervision.

  6. Active ion emission onboard the Double Star TC-1 spacecraft - results from initial science operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkar, K.; Steiger, W.; Narheim, B. T.; Svenes, K.; Fehringer, M.; Escoubet, C. P.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Zhao, H.

    An ion emitter instrument ASPOC (Active Spacecraft Potential Control) belongs to the payload of the Chinese-European Double Star mission (TC-1) launched in December 2003. The instrument is a further development to the ones flown in the Cluster mission. Its objective is a reduction of the spacecraft potential in order to minimise the perturbations to the plasma measurements on board. The operation of the scientific payload began after commissioning in February 2004. Comparisons to Cluster are being made based on data from the first half year of the Double Star mission. The enhanced capabilities of the instrument allow to achieve even lower potentials than on Cluster. Differences to Cluster can also be expected because of the plasma environment at the equatorial orbit of TC-1. The effects of spacecraft potential control on the electron measurements by the instrument PEACE as observed during the first months of science operations are discussed.

  7. Results of a European interlaboratory comparison on CO2 sorption on activated carbon and coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensterblum, Yves; Busch, Andreas; Krooss, Bernhard; de Weireld, Guy; Billemont, Pierre; van Hemert, Patrick; Wolf, Karl-Heinz

    2013-04-01

    For the assessment of CO2 storage in coal seams or enhanced coalbed methane production (ECBM), the sorption properties of natural coals are important parameters. Since more and more laboratories worldwide are concerned with measurements of gas sorption on coal it is indispensable to establish quality standards for such experiments. The first two interlaboratory studies on CO2 sorption on coal (Goodman et al. 2004, 2007) revealed a poor agreement of sorption isotherms among the participating laboratories, particularly in the high-pressure range. During the MOVECBM (http://www.movecbm.eu/) project funded by the European Commission (6th framework), an interlaboratory comparison of CO2 sorption on selected coals and activated carbon was initiated. Measurements were performed on dry samples at 45° C using the manometric and the gravimetric method. up to a final pressure of 15 MPa. The first set of high-pressure sorption measurements was performed on a Filtrasorb 400 activated carbon sample in order to minimise heterogeneity effects and to optimize the experimental procedures for the individual (manometric or gravimetric) methods (Gensterblum et al. 2009). Since comparability for the activated carbon was excellent, the measurements were continued using natural coals of various rank (anthracite, bituminous coal and lignite) to study the influence of heterogeneities and varying starting conditions on the CO2 sorption properties (Gensterblum et al. 2010). Compared to the poor reproducibility observed in previous interlaboratory studies (Goodman et al., 2004, 2007) this European study showed excellent agreement (sorption data and technical information on the different experimental setups have been used to investigate errors and potential pitfalls in the assessment of high-pressure CO2 sorption isotherms. References Gensterblum Y., P. van Hemert, P. Billemont, A. Busch, B.M. Krooss, G. de Weireld, D. Prinz , K.-H.A.A. Wolf, "European inter-laboratory comparison of high

  8. Active spacecraft potential control for Cluster – implementation and first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Torkar

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrostatic charging of a spacecraft modifies the distribution of electrons and ions before the particles enter the sensors mounted on the spacecraft body. The floating potential of magnetospheric satellites in sunlight very often reaches several tens of volts, making measurements of the cold (several eV component of the ambient ions impossible. The plasma electron data become contaminated by large fluxes of photoelectrons attracted back into the sensors. The Cluster spacecraft are equipped with emitters of the liquid metal ion source type, producing indium ions at 5 to 9 keV energy at currents of some tens of microampere. This current shifts the equilibrium potential of the spacecraft to moderately positive values. The design and principles of the operation of the instrument for active spacecraft potential control (ASPOC are presented in detail. Experience with spacecraft potential control from the commissioning phase and the first two months of the operational phase are now available. The instrument is operated with constant ion current for most of the time, but tests have been carried out with varying currents and a "feedback" mode with the instrument EFW, which measures the spacecraft potential . That has been reduced to values according to expectations. In addition, the low energy electron measurements show substantially reduced fluxes of photoelectrons as expected. The flux decrease in photoelectrons returning to the spacecraft, however, occurs at the expense of an enlarged sheath around the spacecraft which causes problems for boom-mounted probes.Key words. Space plasma physics (spacecraft sheaths, wakes, charging; Instruments and techniques; Active perturbation experiments

  9. Active spacecraft potential control for Cluster – implementation and first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Torkar

    Full Text Available Electrostatic charging of a spacecraft modifies the distribution of electrons and ions before the particles enter the sensors mounted on the spacecraft body. The floating potential of magnetospheric satellites in sunlight very often reaches several tens of volts, making measurements of the cold (several eV component of the ambient ions impossible. The plasma electron data become contaminated by large fluxes of photoelectrons attracted back into the sensors. The Cluster spacecraft are equipped with emitters of the liquid metal ion source type, producing indium ions at 5 to 9 keV energy at currents of some tens of microampere. This current shifts the equilibrium potential of the spacecraft to moderately positive values. The design and principles of the operation of the instrument for active spacecraft potential control (ASPOC are presented in detail. Experience with spacecraft potential control from the commissioning phase and the first two months of the operational phase are now available. The instrument is operated with constant ion current for most of the time, but tests have been carried out with varying currents and a "feedback" mode with the instrument EFW, which measures the spacecraft potential . That has been reduced to values according to expectations. In addition, the low energy electron measurements show substantially reduced fluxes of photoelectrons as expected. The flux decrease in photoelectrons returning to the spacecraft, however, occurs at the expense of an enlarged sheath around the spacecraft which causes problems for boom-mounted probes.

    Key words. Space plasma physics (spacecraft sheaths, wakes, charging; Instruments and techniques; Active perturbation experiments

  10. Dissection of malonyl-coenzyme A reductase of Chloroflexus aurantiacus results in enzyme activity improvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changshui Liu

    Full Text Available The formation of fusion protein in biosynthetic pathways usually improves metabolic efficiency either channeling intermediates and/or colocalizing enzymes. In the metabolic engineering of biochemical pathways, generating unnatural protein fusions between sequential biosynthetic enzymes is a useful method to increase system efficiency and product yield. Here, we reported a special case. The malonyl-CoA reductase (MCR of Chloroflexus aurantiacus catalyzes the conversion of malonyl-CoA to 3-hydroxypropionate (3HP, and is a key enzyme in microbial production of 3HP, an important platform chemical. Functional domain analysis revealed that the N-terminal region of MCR (MCR-N; amino acids 1-549 and the C-terminal region of MCR (MCR-C; amino acids 550-1219 were functionally distinct. The malonyl-CoA was reduced into free intermediate malonate semialdehyde with NADPH by MCR-C fragment, and further reduced to 3HP by MCR-N fragment. In this process, the initial reduction of malonyl-CoA was rate limiting. Site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that the TGXXXG(AX(1-2G and YXXXK motifs were important for enzyme activities of both MCR-N and MCR-C fragments. Moreover, the enzyme activity increased when MCR was separated into two individual fragments. Kinetic analysis showed that MCR-C fragment had higher affinity for malonyl-CoA and 4-time higher K cat/K m value than MCR. Dissecting MCR into MCR-N and MCR-C fragments also had a positive effect on the 3HP production in a recombinant Escherichia coli strain. Our study showed the feasibility of protein dissection as a new strategy in biosynthetic systems.

  11. Dissection of malonyl-coenzyme A reductase of Chloroflexus aurantiacus results in enzyme activity improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changshui; Wang, Qi; Xian, Mo; Ding, Yamei; Zhao, Guang

    2013-01-01

    The formation of fusion protein in biosynthetic pathways usually improves metabolic efficiency either channeling intermediates and/or colocalizing enzymes. In the metabolic engineering of biochemical pathways, generating unnatural protein fusions between sequential biosynthetic enzymes is a useful method to increase system efficiency and product yield. Here, we reported a special case. The malonyl-CoA reductase (MCR) of Chloroflexus aurantiacus catalyzes the conversion of malonyl-CoA to 3-hydroxypropionate (3HP), and is a key enzyme in microbial production of 3HP, an important platform chemical. Functional domain analysis revealed that the N-terminal region of MCR (MCR-N; amino acids 1-549) and the C-terminal region of MCR (MCR-C; amino acids 550-1219) were functionally distinct. The malonyl-CoA was reduced into free intermediate malonate semialdehyde with NADPH by MCR-C fragment, and further reduced to 3HP by MCR-N fragment. In this process, the initial reduction of malonyl-CoA was rate limiting. Site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that the TGXXXG(A)X(1-2)G and YXXXK motifs were important for enzyme activities of both MCR-N and MCR-C fragments. Moreover, the enzyme activity increased when MCR was separated into two individual fragments. Kinetic analysis showed that MCR-C fragment had higher affinity for malonyl-CoA and 4-time higher K cat/K m value than MCR. Dissecting MCR into MCR-N and MCR-C fragments also had a positive effect on the 3HP production in a recombinant Escherichia coli strain. Our study showed the feasibility of protein dissection as a new strategy in biosynthetic systems.

  12. Macrophage activation associated with chronic murine cytomegalovirus infection results in more severe experimental choroidal neovascularization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott W Cousins

    Full Text Available The neovascular (wet form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD leads to vision loss due to choroidal neovascularization (CNV. Since macrophages are important in CNV development, and cytomegalovirus (CMV-specific IgG serum titers in patients with wet AMD are elevated, we hypothesized that chronic CMV infection contributes to wet AMD, possibly by pro-angiogenic macrophage activation. This hypothesis was tested using an established mouse model of experimental CNV. At 6 days, 6 weeks, or 12 weeks after infection with murine CMV (MCMV, laser-induced CNV was performed, and CNV severity was determined 4 weeks later by analysis of choroidal flatmounts. Although all MCMV-infected mice exhibited more severe CNV when compared with control mice, the most severe CNV developed in mice with chronic infection, a time when MCMV-specific gene sequences could not be detected within choroidal tissues. Splenic macrophages collected from mice with chronic MCMV infection, however, expressed significantly greater levels of TNF-α, COX-2, MMP-9, and, most significantly, VEGF transcripts by quantitative RT-PCR assay when compared to splenic macrophages from control mice. Direct MCMV infection of monolayers of IC-21 mouse macrophages confirmed significant stimulation of VEGF mRNA and VEGF protein as determined by quantitative RT-PCR assay, ELISA, and immunostaining. Stimulation of VEGF production in vivo and in vitro was sensitive to the antiviral ganciclovir. These studies suggest that chronic CMV infection may serve as a heretofore unrecognized risk factor in the pathogenesis of wet AMD. One mechanism by which chronic CMV infection might promote increased CNV severity is via stimulation of macrophages to make pro-angiogenic factors (VEGF, an outcome that requires active virus replication.

  13. Acute Exposure to High Dose γ-Radiation Results in Transient Activation of Bone Lining Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Russell T.; Iwaniec, Urszula T.; Wong, Carmen P.; Lindenmaier, Laurence B.; Wagner, Lindsay A.; Branscum, Adam J.; Menn, Scott A.; Taylor, James; Zhang, Ye; Wu, Honglu; Sibonga, Jean D.

    2014-01-01

    The present studies investigated the cellular mechanisms for the detrimental effects of high dose whole body γ-irradiation on bone. In addition, radioadaptation and bone marrow transplantation were assessed as interventions to mitigate the skeletal complications of irradiation. Increased trabecular thickness and separation and reduced fractional cancellous bone volume, connectivity density, and trabecular number were detected in proximal tibia and lumbar vertebra 14 days following γ-irradiation with 6 Gy. To establish the cellular mechanism for the architectural changes, vertebrae were analyzed by histomorphometry 1, 3, and 14 days following irradiation. Marrow cell density decreased within 1 day (67% reduction, pbone perimeter was increased by 290% (1 day, p=0.04), 1230% (3 days, pmarrow cell death and activation of bone lining cells to express the osteoblast phenotype (Pearson correlation −0.85, pbone perimeter was also detected with irradiation. A priming dose of γ-radiation (0.5 mGy), previously shown to reduce mortality, had minimal effect on the cellular responses to radiation and did not prevent detrimental changes in bone architecture. Bone marrow transplantation normalized marrow cell density, bone turnover, and most indices of bone architecture following irradiation. In summary, radiation-induced death of marrow cells is associated with 1) a transient increase in bone formation due, at least in part, to activation of bone lining cells, and 2) an increase in bone resorption due to increased osteoclast perimeter. Bone marrow transplantation is effective in mitigating the detrimental effects of acute exposure to high dose whole body γ-radiation on bone turnover. PMID:23954507

  14. IP D10 Analysis and results of validation procedures for preventive and active ssafety functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholliers, J.; Blosseville, J.M.; Anttila, V.; Sihvola, N.; Leanderson, S.; Dozza, M.; Netto, M.; Heinig, K.; Hendriks, F.M.; Janssen, W.H.; Wilmink, I.R.; Noort, M. van; Chen, J.; Tango, F.; Hiller, A.; Ljung, M.; Engström, J.; Koskinen, S.; Luoma, J.; Gemou, M.; Kutzner, R.

    2007-01-01

    PReVAL addresses the possible safety impacts of functions developed and demonstrated in the PReVENT integrated project. One of the major aims of the PReVAL project is the assessment of the work performed in the PReVENT subprojects. This deliverable reviews the evaluation results from the different

  15. Little Shrimp, Big Results: A Model of an Integrative, Cross-Curricular Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerson, Nicole; Piser, Carol; Walka, Keith

    2010-01-01

    This integrative, cross-curricular lab engages middle school biology students in an exercise involving ecology, arthropod biology, and mathematics. Students research the anatomy and behavioral patterns of a species of brine shrimp, compare the anatomy of adult and juvenile brine shrimp, and graph and interpret results. In this article, the authors…

  16. Proprioception, laxity, muscle strength and activity limitations in early symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: results from the CHECK cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holla, Jasmijn F M; van der Leeden, Marike; Peter, Wilfred F H; Roorda, Leo D; van der Esch, Martin; Lems, Willem F; Gerritsen, Martijn; Voorneman, Ramon E; Steultjens, Martijn P M; Dekker, Joost

    2012-10-01

    To establish whether proprioception and varus-valgus laxity moderate the association between muscle strength and activity limitations in patients with early symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. A cross-sectional study. A sample of 151 participants with early symptomatic knee osteoarthritis from the Cohort Hip and Cohort Knee study. Regression analyses were performed to establish the associations between muscle strength, proprioception (knee joint motion detection threshold in the anterior--posterior direction), varus-valgus laxity and activity limitations (self-reported and performance-based). Interaction terms were used to establish whether proprioception and laxity moderated the association between muscle strength and activity limitations. Proprioception moderated the association between muscle strength and activity limitations: the negative association between muscle strength and activity limitations was stronger in participants with poor proprioception than in participants with accurate proprioception (performance-based activity limitations p = 0.02; self-reported activity limitations p = 0.08). The interaction between muscle strength and varus-valgus laxity was not significantly associated with activity limitations. The results of the present study support the theory that in the absence of adequate proprioceptive input, lower muscle strength affects a patient's level of activities to a greater degree than in the presence of adequate proprioceptive input.

  17. Computer-based procedure for field activities: Results from three evaluations at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxstrand, Johanna [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); bly, Aaron [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); LeBlanc, Katya [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Nearly all activities that involve human interaction with the systems of a nuclear power plant are guided by procedures. The paper-based procedures (PBPs) currently used by industry have a demonstrated history of ensuring safety; however, improving procedure use could yield tremendous savings in increased efficiency and safety. One potential way to improve procedure-based activities is through the use of computer-based procedures (CBPs). Computer-based procedures provide the opportunity to incorporate context driven job aids, such as drawings, photos, just-in-time training, etc into CBP system. One obvious advantage of this capability is reducing the time spent tracking down the applicable documentation. Additionally, human performance tools can be integrated in the CBP system in such way that helps the worker focus on the task rather than the tools. Some tools can be completely incorporated into the CBP system, such as pre-job briefs, placekeeping, correct component verification, and peer checks. Other tools can be partly integrated in a fashion that reduces the time and labor required, such as concurrent and independent verification. Another benefit of CBPs compared to PBPs is dynamic procedure presentation. PBPs are static documents which limits the degree to which the information presented can be tailored to the task and conditions when the procedure is executed. The CBP system could be configured to display only the relevant steps based on operating mode, plant status, and the task at hand. A dynamic presentation of the procedure (also known as context-sensitive procedures) will guide the user down the path of relevant steps based on the current conditions. This feature will reduce the user’s workload and inherently reduce the risk of incorrectly marking a step as not applicable and the risk of incorrectly performing a step that should be marked as not applicable. As part of the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Light Water Reactors Sustainability Program

  18. Sport facility proximity and physical activity: Results from the Study of Community Sports in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiujin; Dai, Jian; Xun, Pengcheng; Jamieson, Lynn M; He, Ka

    2015-01-01

    Increased sport facility proximity is associated with higher likelihood of meeting physical activity (PA) recommendations in western studies, but it is uncertain whether the findings can be generalized to the Chinese population. From September 2012 to December 2012, 3926 participants drawn from China using a multi-stage sampling strategy were invited to participate in the Study of Community Sports in China. Participants' demographics, commuting time to the nearest sport facility and PA levels were assessed. Among 3926 participants included (51.2% female) in the final analysis, 878 (22.4%) of them met the PA recommendation. Participants who spent ≥30 minutes in commuting time had 80% odds [odds ratio (OR): 0.80 (95% CI: 0.65-0.98)] of meeting the PA recommendation compared to those who spent less than 10 minutes. For every 10-minute increment in commuting time, the odds reduced by 6% [OR = 0.94 (0.88-0.99)]. The observed associations were not appreciably modified by age, gender or education level. In this cross-sectional community-based study, we found that residents in China were less likely to meet the PA recommendation if they needed more commuting time to the nearest sport facility. Increasing sport facility proximity may be effective in improving the PA levels in the Chinese population.

  19. The NOD2 defect in Blau syndrome does not result in excess interleukin-1 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Tammy M; Zhang, Zili; Kurz, Paul; Rosé, Carlos D; Chen, Hong; Lu, Huiying; Planck, Stephen R; Davey, Michael P; Rosenbaum, James T

    2009-02-01

    Blau syndrome is a rare, autosomal-dominant, autoinflammatory disorder characterized by granulomatous arthritis, uveitis, and dermatitis. Genetics studies have shown that the disease is caused by single nonsynonymous substitutions in NOD-2, a member of the NOD-like receptor or NACHT-leucine-rich repeat (NLR) family of intracellular proteins. Several NLRs function in the innate immune system as sensors of pathogen components and participate in immune-mediated cellular responses via the caspase 1 inflammasome. Mutations in a gene related to NOD-2, NLRP3, are responsible for excess caspase 1-dependent interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) in cryopyrinopathies such as Muckle-Wells syndrome. Furthermore, functional studies demonstrate that caspase 1-mediated release of IL-1beta also involves NOD-2. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that IL-1beta may mediate the inflammation seen in patients with Blau syndrome. IL-1beta release was measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells cultured in vitro, obtained from 5 Blau syndrome individuals with a NOD2 (CARD15) mutation. We observed no evidence for increased IL-1beta production in cells obtained from subjects with Blau syndrome compared with healthy control subjects. Furthermore, we presented 2 cases of Blau syndrome in which recombinant human IL-1 receptor antagonist (anakinra) was ineffective treatment. Taken together, these data suggest that in contrast to related IL-1beta-dependent autoinflammatory cryopyrinopathies, Blau syndrome is not mediated by excess IL-1beta or other IL-1 activity.

  20. Adaptive wave field synthesis for active sound field reproduction: experimental results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Philippe-Aubert; Berry, Alain

    2008-04-01

    Sound field reproduction has applications in music reproduction, spatial audio, sound environment reproduction, and experimental acoustics. Sound field reproduction can be used to artificially reproduce the spatial character of natural hearing. The objective is then to reproduce a sound field in a real reproduction environment. Wave field synthesis (WFS) is a known open-loop technology which assumes that the reproduction environment is anechoic. The room response thus reduces the quality of the physical sound field reproduction by WFS. In recent research papers, adaptive wave field synthesis (AWFS) was defined as a potential solution to compensate for these quality reductions from which WFS objective performance suffers. In this paper, AWFS is experimentally investigated as an active sound field reproduction system with a limited number of reproduction error sensors to compensate for the response of the listening environment. Two digital signal processing algorithms for AWFS are used for comparison purposes, one of which is based on independent radiation mode control. AWFS performed propagating sound field reproduction better than WFS in three tested reproduction spaces (hemianechoic chamber, standard laboratory space, and reverberation chamber).

  1. Current activities and results of the Long Duration Exposure Facility Meteoroid and Debris Special Investigation Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Thomas H.; Leago, Kimberly S.; Warren, Jack L.; Bernhard, Ronald P.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1994-01-01

    Fiscal Year 1994 will bring to a close the initial investigative activities associated with the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). LDEF was a 14-faced spacecraft (i.e., 12-sided cylinder and two ends) which housed 54 different experimental packages in low-Earth orbit (LEO) from Apr. 1984 to Jan. 1990 (i.e., for approx. 5.75 years). Since LDEF's return, the Meteoroid & Debris Special Investigation Group (M&D SIG) has been examining various LDEF components in order to better understand and define the LEO particulate environment. Members of the M&D SIG at JSC in Houston, TX have been contributing to these studies by carefully examining and documenting all impact events found on LDEF's 6061-T6 aluminum Intercostals (i.e., one of the spacecraft's structural frame components). Unlike all other hardware on LDEF, the frame exposed significantly large surface areas of a single homogeneous material in all (i.e., 26) possible LDEF pointing directions. To date, 28 of the 68 Intercostals in the possession of the M&D SIG have been documented. This data, as well as similar information from various LDEF investigators, can be accessed through the M&D SIG Database which is maintained at JSC.

  2. Thoron detection with an active Radon exposure meter—First results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irlinger, J., E-mail: josef.irlinger@helmholtz-muenchen.de; Wielunski, M.; Rühm, W. [ISS, Helmholtz Center Munich, Research Center for Environment and Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    For state-of-the-art discrimination of Radon and Thoron several measurement techniques can be used, such as active sampling, electrostatic collection, delayed coincidence method, and alpha-particle-spectroscopy. However, most of the devices available are bulky and show high power consumption, rendering them unfeasible for personal exposition monitoring. Based on a Radon exposure meter previously realized at the Helmholtz Center Munich (HMGU), a new electronic prototype for Radon/Thoron monitoring is currently being developed, which features small size and weight. Operating with pin-diode detectors, the low-power passive-sampling device can be used for continuous concentration measurements, employing alpha-particle-spectroscopy and coincidence event registration to distinguish decays originating either from Radon or Thoron isotopes and their decay products. In open geometry, preliminary calibration measurements suggest that one count per hour is produced by a 11 Bq m{sup −3} Radon atmosphere or by a 15 Bq m{sup −3} Thoron atmosphere. Future efforts will concentrate on measurements in mixed Radon/Thoron atmospheres.

  3. Insignificance of active flow for neural diffusion weighted imaging: A negative result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussel, Matan; Inzelberg, Lilah; Nevo, Uri

    2017-08-01

    To provide a biophysical basis to estimate the effect of cytoplasmic flow in neurons, and assess their contribution to the drop in the Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) in a nerve tissue following extreme conditions, such as brain injury and epileptic seizures. Three mechanisms are treated using the relevant physics of hydrodynamics and electrostatics: cargo induced streaming, electroosmosis, and membrane swelling. We begin by discussing the lack of experimental evidence on the necessary velocities required to influence the Magnetic Resonance (MR) experiments. This is followed by demonstrating that cargo induced streaming, a widely known phenomenon in plant cells, has a minor effect on the ADC in neurons. Subsequently, we suggest and analyze two additional mechanisms that may induce fluid displacement in neurons, and are related to the electrical activity: electroosmosis and membrane swelling. Although these mechanisms may induce interesting fluid displacements, these cannot explain the significant drop in the ADC. We conclude by outlining the criteria that any future mechanism should meet to have an influence on standard diffusion-MR measurements. Magn Reson Med 78:746-753, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  4. Experimental Results from the Active Aeroelastic Wing Wind Tunnel Test Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeg, Jennifer; Spain, Charles V.; Florance, James R.; Wieseman, Carol D.; Ivanco, Thomas G.; DeMoss, Joshua; Silva, Walter A.; Panetta, Andrew; Lively, Peter; Tumwa, Vic

    2005-01-01

    The Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) program is a cooperative effort among NASA, the Air Force Research Laboratory and the Boeing Company, encompassing flight testing, wind tunnel testing and analyses. The objective of the AAW program is to investigate the improvements that can be realized by exploiting aeroelastic characteristics, rather than viewing them as a detriment to vehicle performance and stability. To meet this objective, a wind tunnel model was crafted to duplicate the static aeroelastic behavior of the AAW flight vehicle. The model was tested in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel in July and August 2004. The wind tunnel investigation served the program goal in three ways. First, the wind tunnel provided a benchmark for comparison with the flight vehicle and various levels of theoretical analyses. Second, it provided detailed insight highlighting the effects of individual parameters upon the aeroelastic response of the AAW vehicle. This parameter identification can then be used for future aeroelastic vehicle design guidance. Third, it provided data to validate scaling laws and their applicability with respect to statically scaled aeroelastic models.

  5. Results from Active Excitation of Toroidal Alfvén Eigenmodes in Alcator C-Mod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, J.; Burke, W.; Parker, R.; Snipes, J.; Tang, V.; Wolfe, S.; Fasoli, A.

    2006-10-01

    Toroidal Alfvén Eigenmodes (TAEs) are weakly damped MHD waves in tokamak plasmas. Interaction with fast particles such as fusion-born alphas can overcome the damping and lead to the spontaneous appearance of unstable TAEs. The Active MHD diagnostic on Alcator C-Mod is used to investigate the relationship between the TAE margin to instability and controllable plasma parameters. The diagnostic identifies the frequency response of the plasma in the TAE frequency range, fTAE=vA/4πqR. It perturbs the magnetic field with two antennas and detects the plasma response with an array of pick-up coils. The total damping rate and toroidal mode number of the TAE are extracted from a parametric model fitted to the frequency response. Particular attention is paid to signal processing techniques for minimizing uncertainty. The relationship between the TAE damping rate and ICRF heating is investigated with the aid of a neutral particle analyzer to quantify the fast ion population. Other parameters investigated for their effect on damping rate are collisionality, normalized ion gyro-radius, beta, triangularity, and the direction of the ∇B drift with respect to the x-point in diverted plasmas.

  6. Coalbed natural gas exploration, drilling activities, and geologic test results, 2007-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Arthur C.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in partnership with the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, the North Slope Borough, and the Arctic Slope Regional Corporation conducted a four-year study designed to identify, define, and delineate a shallow coalbed natural gas (CBNG) resource with the potential to provide locally produced, affordable power to the community of Wainwright, Alaska. From 2007 through 2010, drilling and testing activities conducted at three sites in or near Wainwright, identified and evaluated an approximately 7.5-ft-thick, laterally continuous coalbed that contained significant quantities of CBNG. This coalbed, subsequently named the Wainwright coalbed, was penetrated at depths ranging from 1,167 ft to 1,300 ft below land surface. Core samples were collected from the Wainwright coalbed at all three drill locations and desorbed-gas measurements were taken from seventeen 1-ft-thick sections of the core. These measurements indicate that the Wainwright coalbed contains enough CBNG to serve as a long-term energy supply for the community. Although attempts to produce viable quantities of CBNG from the Wainwright coalbed proved unsuccessful, it seems likely that with proper well-field design and by utilizing currently available drilling and reservoir stimulation techniques, this CBNG resource could be developed as a long-term economically viable energy source for Wainwright.

  7. Ideological Consumerism in Colombian Elections, 2015: Links Between Political Ideology, Twitter Activity, and Electoral Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Jorge E.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Propagation of political ideologies in social networks has shown a substantial impact on voting behavior. Both the contents of the messages (the ideology) and the politicians' influence on their online audiences (their followers) have been associated with such an impact. In this study we evaluate which of these factors exerted a major role in deciding electoral results of the 2015 Colombian regional elections by evaluating the linguistic similarity of political ideologies and their influence on the Twitter sphere. The electoral results proved to be strongly associated with tweets and retweets and not with the linguistic content of their ideologies or politicians' followers in Twitter. Finally, suggestions for new ways to analyze electoral processes are discussed. PMID:28080152

  8. Ideological Consumerism in Colombian Elections, 2015: Links Between Political Ideology, Twitter Activity, and Electoral Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Juan C; Camargo, Jorge E

    2017-01-01

    Propagation of political ideologies in social networks has shown a substantial impact on voting behavior. Both the contents of the messages (the ideology) and the politicians' influence on their online audiences (their followers) have been associated with such an impact. In this study we evaluate which of these factors exerted a major role in deciding electoral results of the 2015 Colombian regional elections by evaluating the linguistic similarity of political ideologies and their influence on the Twitter sphere. The electoral results proved to be strongly associated with tweets and retweets and not with the linguistic content of their ideologies or politicians' followers in Twitter. Finally, suggestions for new ways to analyze electoral processes are discussed.

  9. ADAM12 redistributes and activates MMP-14, resulting in gelatin degradation, reduced apoptosis and increased tumor growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Reidar; Kveiborg, Marie; Hansen, Dorte Stautz

    2013-01-01

    that there is a positive correlation between MMP-14 and ADAM12 expression in human breast cancer. We demonstrated that in 293-VnR and human breast cancer cells expressing ADAM12 at the cell surface, endogenous MMP-14 was recruited to the cell surface, resulting in its activation. Subsequent to this activation, gelatin...... degradation was stimulated and tumor cell apoptosis was decreased, with reduced expression of the pro-apoptotic proteins BCL2L11 and BIK. The effect on gelatin degradation was abrogated by inhibition of the MMP-14 activity and appeared to be dependent on cell surface αVβ3 integrin localization, but neither...... the catalytic activity of ADAM12 nor the cytoplasmic tail of ADAM12 were required. The significance of ADAM12-induced activation of MMP-14 was underscored by a reduction in MMP-14-mediated gelatin degradation and abolition of apoptosis-protective effects by specific monoclonal antibodies against ADAM12...

  10. Phagolysosome acidification is required for silica and engineered nanoparticle-induced lysosome membrane permeabilization and resultant NLRP3 inflammasome activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessop, Forrest; Hamilton, Raymond F; Rhoderick, Joseph F; Fletcher, Paige; Holian, Andrij

    2017-03-01

    NLRP3 inflammasome activation occurs in response to hazardous particle exposures and is critical for the development of particle-induced lung disease. Mechanisms of Lysosome Membrane Permeabilization (LMP), a central pathway for activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by inhaled particles, are not fully understood. We demonstrate that the lysosomal vATPases inhibitor Bafilomycin A1 blocked LMP in vitro and ex vivo in primary murine macrophages following exposure to silica, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and titanium nanobelts. Bafilomycin A1 treatment of particle-exposed macrophages also resulted in decreased active cathepsin L in the cytosol, a surrogate measure for leaked cathepsin B, which was associated with less NLRP3 inflammasome activity. Silica-induced LMP was partially dependent upon lysosomal cathepsins B and L, whereas nanoparticle-induced LMP occurred independent of cathepsin activity. Furthermore, inhibition of lysosomal cathepsin activity with CA-074-Me decreased the release of High Mobility Group Box 1. Together, these data support the notion that lysosome acidification is a prerequisite for particle-induced LMP, and the resultant leak of lysosome cathepsins is a primary regulator of ongoing NLRP3 inflammasome activity and release of HMGB1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Association between Dry Eye Disease and Physical Activity as well as Sedentary Behavior: Results from the Osaka Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoko Kawashima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the association of dry eye disease (DED with physical activity and sedentary behavior. Methods. The cross-sectional survey conducted included Japanese office workers who use visual display terminals (n=672. DED was assessed according to the Japanese Dry Eye Diagnostic Criteria, and participants were categorized into “definite DED,” “probable DED,” or “non-DED” groups based on the results of DED examinations. Physical activity and sedentary behavior of participants were assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, and physical activity level was calculated in metabolic equivalent units per week (MET, min/week. Participants were classified as having a high, moderate, or low level of physical activity. Results. Participants with abnormal tear break-up time (BUT (≤5 s were involved in sedentary behavior for significantly longer duration than those with normal BUT (P=0.035. Non-DED participants (14.5% tended to have higher levels of physical activity than definite DED participants (2.5%. Participants with definite DED had significantly lower MET scores than those with non-DED (P=0.025. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that a lower level of physical activity and sedentary behavior are associated with DED; however, longitudinal/intervention studies with large groups of participants are needed to validate these findings.

  12. Leisure time physical activity and quality of life in medical students: results from a multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleias, Munique; Tempski, Patricia; Paro, Helena Bms; Perotta, Bruno; Mayer, Fernanda B; Enns, Sylvia C; Gannam, Silmar; Pereira, Maria Amelia D; Silveira, Paulo S; Santos, Itamar S; Carvalho, Celso Rf; Martins, Milton A

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the association between leisure time physical activity (PA) and quality of life (QoL) in medical students. Our hypothesis was that there was a positive association between volume of PA and various domains of perception of QoL. Data were evaluated from a random sample of 1350 medical students from 22 Brazilian medical schools. Information from participants included the WHO Quality of Life questionnaire-short form (WHOQOL-BREF), a questionnaire specifically designed to evaluate QoL in medical students (VERAS-Q) and questions for both global QoL self-assessment and leisure time PA. According to the amount of metabolic equivalents (METs) spend during PA, volunteers were divided into four groups, according to the volume of PA: (a) no PA; (b) low PA, ≤540 MET min/week; (c) moderate PA, from 541 to 1260 MET min/week and (d) high PA, > 1261 MET min/week. Forty per cent of the medical students reported no leisure time PA (46.0% of females and 32.3% of males). In contrast, 27.2% were classified in the group of high PA (21.0% of females and 34.2% of males). We found significant associations between moderate and high levels of PA and better QoL for all measurements. For low levels of PA, this association was also significant for most QoL measurements, with the exceptions of WHOQOL physical health (p=0.08) and social relationships (p=0.26) domains. We observed a strong dose-effect relationship between the volume of leisure time PA and QoL in both male and female medical students.

  13. Early and late results of surgical treatment for isolated active native mitral valve infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomšic, Anton; Versteegh, Michel I M; Ajmone Marsan, Nina; van Brakel, Thomas J; Klautz, Robert J M; Palmen, Meindert

    2017-12-18

    Native mitral valve infective endocarditis (IE) is a complicated disease with high mortality and morbidity rates. Mitral valve repair (MVRep) is feasible when limited valve destruction is present. However, recurrent valve dysfunction and reintervention are common. Between January 2000 and March 2016, 83 patients underwent surgery for isolated active native mitral valve IE. We applied an early surgery, MVRep-oriented approach with progressive utilization of patch techniques to secure a durable repair; MVRep was attempted in 67% of patients. Fifty-one (61%) patients underwent MVRep (including full-ring annuloplasty in 94%) and 32 (39%) patients underwent mitral valve replacement. Early mortality was 13%. No cases of early recurrent IE occurred. Predischarge echocardiography demonstrated good MVRep function in all, except 1 patient with residual (Grade 2+) regurgitation. The mean duration of follow-up was 3.7 years (interquartile range 1.5-8.4). For hospital survivors, 8-year overall survival rates were 92.4% (95% confidence interval 84.0-100%) and 74.2% (95% confidence interval 53.8-94.6%) for the MVRep and mitral valve replacement groups, respectively. Propensity score-adjusted Cox regression analysis revealed no significant difference in survival between the 2 groups (hazard ratio 0.359, 95% confidence interval 0.107-1.200; P = 0.096). Four reinterventions occurred, 2 in each group. Echocardiographic follow-up demonstrated excellent MVRep durability; no cases of mitral regurgitation and 1 case of mitral valve stenosis were seen. Native mitral valve IE is linked to high mortality and morbidity rates. A durable MVRep is feasible in most patients and provides excellent mid-term durability. Mitral valve replacement is a reasonable alternative when a durable repair is not likely.

  14. Physical activity after commitment lotteries: examining long-term results in a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Swaluw, Koen; Lambooij, Mattijs S; Mathijssen, Jolanda J P; Schipper, Maarten; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Berkhout, Stef; Polder, Johan J; Prast, Henriëtte M

    2018-02-26

    To overcome self-control difficulties, people can commit to their health goals by voluntarily accepting deadlines with consequences. In a commitment lottery, the winners are drawn from all participants, but can only claim their prize if they also attained their gym-attendance goals. In a 52-week, three-arm trial across six company gyms, we tested if commitment lotteries with behavioral economic underpinnings would promote physical activity among overweight adults. In previous work, we presented an effective 26-week intervention. In the present paper we analyzed maintenance of goal attainment at 52-week follow-up and the development of weight over time. We compared weight and goal attainment (gym attendance ≥ 2 per week) between three arms that-in the intervention period- consisted of (I) weekly short-term lotteries for 13 weeks; (II) the same short-term lotteries in combination with an additional long-term lottery after 26 weeks; and (III) a control arm without lottery-deadlines. After a successful 26-week intervention, goal attainment declined between weeks 27 and 52 in the long-term lottery arm, but remained higher than in the control group. Goal attainment did not differ between the short-term lottery arm and control arm. Weight declined slightly in all arms in the first 13 weeks of the trial and remained stable from there on. Commitment lotteries can support regular gym attendance up to 52 weeks, but more research is needed to achieve higher levels of maintenance and weight loss.

  15. Marine Hazards, a Result of Naval War Activities in the Pacific 1942-1945?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaerts, A.

    2014-12-01

    The clash between the United States and Japan in the Pacific from December 1942 to August 1945 presumably caused marine geohazards exceeding significantly many submarine earthquakes, explosive volcanic eruptions and tsunamis. Most significantly the most pronounced shift in Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) took place within the shortest period of time ever observed, and when the Allies navies approached Japan's coast line two years later, winter air temperatures (December to February 1944/45) fell to the lowest level ever observed. The Naval War in the Pacific from 1943 - 1945 was not only devastating to man and material, but also substantially altered the structure of the sea surface layer down to 100 meter and more, with a subsequent impact on air temperatures, and PDO balance across the Northern Pacific. Until now the question has received little attention although it is obvious that a global rising temperature trend prior the early 1940s turned into a decreasing mode during the time when huge naval war activities took place across the oceans in the Northern Hemisphere that eventually lasted for three decades until the mid-1970s While the impact of screw driven vessels since their invention in the 19th Century on the sea surface structure is difficult to assess, and no investigations have been made yet . The naval war in the Pacific from 1943 - 1945 could be regarded as a huge scale 'field experiment' on manmade marine geohazards due to the suddenness, the magnitude and the intensity, penetrating the ocean to considerable depths. Naval operations and available sea and climate data need to be identified, linked, evaluated and discussed. What kind of impact did the Pacific War have on climate? It seems due time to pay attention to this issue.

  16. Oncogene Activation Induces Metabolic Transformation Resulting in Insulin-Independence in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollig-Fischer, Aliccia; Dewey, T. Gregory; Ethier, Stephen P.

    2011-01-01

    Normal breast epithelial cells require insulin and EGF for growth in serum-free media. We previously demonstrated that over expression of breast cancer oncogenes transforms MCF10A cells to an insulin-independent phenotype. Additionally, most breast cancer cell lines are insulin-independent for growth. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which oncogene over expression transforms MCF10A cells to an insulin-independent phenotype. Analysis of the effects of various concentrations of insulin and/or IGF-I on proliferation of MCF10A cells demonstrated that some of the effects of insulin were independent from those of IGF-I, suggesting that oncogene over expression drives a true insulin-independent proliferative phenotype. To test this hypothesis, we examined metabolic functions of insulin signaling in insulin-dependent and insulin-independent cells. HER2 over expression in MCF10A cells resulted in glucose uptake in the absence of insulin at a rate equal to insulin-induced glucose uptake in non-transduced cells. We found that a diverse set of oncogenes induced the same result. To gain insight into how HER2 oncogene signaling affected increased insulin-independent glucose uptake we compared HER2-regulated gene expression signatures in MCF10A and HER2 over expressing MCF10A cells by differential analysis of time series gene expression data from cells treated with a HER2 inhibitor. This analysis identified genes specifically regulated by the HER2 oncogene, including VAMP8 and PHGDH, which have known functions in glucose uptake and processing of glycolytic intermediates, respectively. Moreover, these genes specifically implicated in HER2 oncogene-driven transformation are commonly altered in human breast cancer cells. These results highlight the diversity of oncogene effects on cell regulatory pathways and the importance of oncogene-driven metabolic transformation in breast cancer. PMID:21437235

  17. Oncogene activation induces metabolic transformation resulting in insulin-independence in human breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliccia Bollig-Fischer

    Full Text Available Normal breast epithelial cells require insulin and EGF for growth in serum-free media. We previously demonstrated that over expression of breast cancer oncogenes transforms MCF10A cells to an insulin-independent phenotype. Additionally, most breast cancer cell lines are insulin-independent for growth. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which oncogene over expression transforms MCF10A cells to an insulin-independent phenotype. Analysis of the effects of various concentrations of insulin and/or IGF-I on proliferation of MCF10A cells demonstrated that some of the effects of insulin were independent from those of IGF-I, suggesting that oncogene over expression drives a true insulin-independent proliferative phenotype. To test this hypothesis, we examined metabolic functions of insulin signaling in insulin-dependent and insulin-independent cells. HER2 over expression in MCF10A cells resulted in glucose uptake in the absence of insulin at a rate equal to insulin-induced glucose uptake in non-transduced cells. We found that a diverse set of oncogenes induced the same result. To gain insight into how HER2 oncogene signaling affected increased insulin-independent glucose uptake we compared HER2-regulated gene expression signatures in MCF10A and HER2 over expressing MCF10A cells by differential analysis of time series gene expression data from cells treated with a HER2 inhibitor. This analysis identified genes specifically regulated by the HER2 oncogene, including VAMP8 and PHGDH, which have known functions in glucose uptake and processing of glycolytic intermediates, respectively. Moreover, these genes specifically implicated in HER2 oncogene-driven transformation are commonly altered in human breast cancer cells. These results highlight the diversity of oncogene effects on cell regulatory pathways and the importance of oncogene-driven metabolic transformation in breast cancer.

  18. Development of sinkholes resulting from man's activities in the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, John G.

    1987-01-01

    Development of induced sinkholes in carbonate terranes in the Eastern United States has resulted in costly damage and water pollution. Previously, detailed investigations of sinkholes were limited to Alabama and Missouri, with the most comprehensive being in Alabama. An investigation of the remainder of the area was made in 1981 to regionalize previous findings. More than 850 sites of sinkhole development have been identified in 19 States. It is estimated that more than 6,500 sinkholes or related features have formed at these sites. Most have occurred since 1950. Based on information available, States most impacted are Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Missouri, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee.

  19. Modeling Learning and Memory Using Verbal Learning Tests: Results From ACTIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Alden L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the influence of memory training on initial recall and learning. Method. The Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly study of community-dwelling adults older than age 65 (n = 1,401). We decomposed trial-level recall in the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) and Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT) into initial recall and learning across trials using latent growth models. Results. Trial-level increases in words recalled in the AVLT and HVLT at each follow-up visit followed an approximately logarithmic shape. Over the 5-year study period, memory training was associated with slower decline in Trial 1 AVLT recall (Cohen’s d = 0.35, p = .03) and steep pre- and posttraining acceleration in learning (d = 1.56, p learning, d = 3.10, p memory-trained group had a higher level of recall than the control group through the end of the 5-year study period despite faster decline in learning. Discussion. This study contributes to the understanding of the mechanisms by which training benefits memory and expands current knowledge by reporting long-term changes in initial recall and learning, as measured from growth models and by characterization of the impact of memory training on these components. Results reveal that memory training delays the worsening of memory span and boosts learning. PMID:22929389

  20. Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the International Space Station (ISS): Launch, Installation, Activation, and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Mach, D. M.; Buechler, D. E.; Koshak, W. J.; Walker, T. D.; Bateman, M. G.; Stewart, M. F.; O'Brien, S.; Wilson, T. O.; Pavelitz, S. D.; Coker, C.

    2016-12-01

    Over the past 20 years, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, and their partners developed and demonstrated the effectiveness and value of space-based lightning observations as a remote sensing tool for Earth science research and applications, and, in the process, established a robust global lightning climatology. The observations included measurements from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and its Optical Transient Detector (OTD) predecessor that acquired global observations of total lightning (i.e., intracloud and cloud-to-ground discharges) spanning a period from May 1995 through April 2015. As an exciting follow-on to these prior missions, a space-qualified LIS built as a flight-spare for TRMM will be delivered to the International Space Station (ISS) for a 2 year or longer mission, flown as a hosted payload on the Department of Defense (DoD) Space Test Program-Houston 5 (STP-H5) mission. The STP-H5 payload containing LIS is scheduled launch from NASA's Kennedy Space Center to the ISS in November 2016, aboard the SpaceX Cargo Resupply Services-10 (SpaceX-10) mission, installed in the unpressurized "trunk" of the Dragon spacecraft. After the Dragon is berth to ISS Node 2, the payload will be removed from the trunk and robotically installed in a nadir-viewing location on the external truss of the ISS. Following installation on the ISS, the LIS Operations Team will work with the STP-H5 and ISS Operations Teams to power-on LIS and begin instrument checkout and commissioning. Following successful activation, LIS orbital operations will commence, managed from the newly established LIS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) located at the National Space Science Technology Center (NSSTC) in Huntsville, AL. The well-established and robust processing, archival, and distribution infrastructure used for TRMM was easily adapted to the ISS mission, assuring that lightning

  1. The ACTIVATE study: results from a group-randomized controlled trial comparing a traditional worksite health promotion program with an activated consumer program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Paul E; Fowles, Jinnet Briggs; Xi, Min; Harvey, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. This study compares a traditional worksite-based health promotion program with an activated consumer program and a control program DESIGN. Group randomized controlled trial with 18-month intervention. SETTING. Two large Midwestern companies. SUBJECTS. Three hundred and twenty employees (51% response). INTERVENTION. The traditional health promotion intervention offered population-level campaigns on physical activity, nutrition, and stress management. The activated consumer intervention included population-level campaigns for evaluating health information, choosing a health benefits plan, and understanding the risks of not taking medications as prescribed. The personal development intervention (control group) offered information on hobbies. The interventions also offered individual-level coaching for high risk individuals in both active intervention groups. MEASURES. Health risk status, general health status, consumer activation, productivity, and the ability to evaluate health information. ANALYSIS. Multivariate analyses controlled for baseline differences among the study groups. RESULTS. At the population level, compared with baseline performance, the traditional health promotion intervention improved health risk status, consumer activation, and the ability to recognize reliable health websites. Compared with baseline performance, the activated consumer intervention improved consumer activation, productivity, and the ability to recognize reliable health websites. At the population level, however, only the activated consumer intervention improved any outcome more than the control group did; that outcome was consumer activation. At the individual level for high risk individuals, both traditional health coaching and activated consumer coaching positively affected health risk status and consumer activation. In addition, both coaching interventions improved participant ability to recognize a reliable health website. Consumer activation coaching also

  2. Depolymerization of Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfate with a Modified Fenton-System and Anticoagulant Activity of the Resulting Fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-hui Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (fCS from sea cucumber Isostichopus badionotus (fCS-Ib with a chondroitin sulfate type E (CSE backbone and 2,4-O-sulfo fucose branches has shown excellent anticoagulant activity although has also show severe adverse effects. Depolymerization represents an effective method to diminish this polysaccharide’s side effects. The present study reports a modified controlled Fenton system for degradation of fCS-Ib and the anticoagulant activity of the resulting fragments. Monosaccharides and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analysis of the resulting fragments indicate that no significant chemical changes in the backbone of fCS-Ib and no loss of sulfate groups take place during depolymerization. A reduction in the molecular weight of fCS-Ib should result in a dramatic decrease in prolonging activated partial thromboplastin time and thrombin time. A decrease in the inhibition of thrombin (FIIa by antithromin III (AT III and heparin cofactor II (HCII, and the slight decrease of the inhibition of factor X activity, results in a significant increase of anti-factor Xa (FXa/anti-FIIa activity ratio. The modified free-radical depolymerization method enables preparation of glycosaminoglycan (GAG oligosaccharides suitable for investigation of clinical anticoagulant application.

  3. Project Deep Drilling KLX02 - Phase 2. Methods, scope of activities and results. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekman, L. [GEOSIGMA AB/LE Geokonsult AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2001-04-01

    Geoscientific investigations performed by SKB, including those at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, have so far comprised the bedrock horizon down to about 1000 m. The primary purposes with the c. 1700 m deep, {phi}76 mm, sub vertical core borehole KLX02, drilled during the autumn 1992 at Laxemar, Oskarshamn, was to test core drilling technique at large depths and with a relatively large diameter and to enable geoscientific investigations beyond 1000 m. Drilling of borehole KLX02 was fulfilled very successfully. Results of the drilling commission and the borehole investigations conducted in conjunction with drilling have been reported earlier. The present report provides a summary of the investigations made during a five year period after completion of drilling. Results as well as methods applied are described. A variety of geoscientific investigations to depths exceeding 1600 m were successfully performed. However, the investigations were not entirely problem-free. For example, borehole equipment got stuck in the borehole at several occasions. Special investigations, among them a fracture study, were initiated in order to reveal the mechanisms behind this problem. Different explanations seem possible, e.g. breakouts from the borehole wall, which may be a specific problem related to the stress situation in deep boreholes. The investigation approach for borehole KLX02 followed, in general outline, the SKB model for site investigations, where a number of key issues for site characterization are studied. For each of those, a number of geoscientific parameters are investigated and determined. One important aim is to erect a lithological-structural model of the site, which constitutes the basic requirement for modelling mechanical stability, thermal properties, groundwater flow, groundwater chemistry and transport of solutes. The investigations in borehole KLX02 resulted in a thorough lithological-structural characterization of the rock volume near the borehole. In order

  4. Test beam results of a depleted monolithic active pixel sensor (DMAPS) prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obermann, Theresa; Hemperek, Tomasz; Huegging, Fabian; Krueger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert [Bonn Univ. (Germany); Schwenker, Benjamin [Goettingen Univ. (Germany); Collaboration: ATLAS Pixel-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    New monolithic detector concepts are currently being explored for future particle physics experiments, in particular for the upgrade of the ATLAS detector. Common to monolithic pixel detectors is the integration of the front-end circuitry and the sensor on the same silicon substrate. The DMAPS concept makes use of high resistive silicon as substrate. It enables the application of a high bias voltage to create a drift field for the charge collection in the sensor part as well as the full usage of CMOS logic in the same piece of silicon. DMAPS prototypes from several foundries are available since three years and have been extensively characterized in the lab. In this talk, results of test beam campaigns, with neutron irradiated prototypes implemented in the ESPROS process, are presented.

  5. Quaternary sedimentation and active faulting along the Ecuadorian shelf: preliminary results of the ATACAMES Cruise (2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, F.; Proust, J. N.; Collot, J. Y.; Lebrun, J. F.; Witt, C.; Ratzov, G.; Pouderoux, H.; Martillo, C.; Hernández, M. J.; Loayza, G.; Penafiel, L.; Schenini, L.; Dano, A.; Gonzalez, M.; Barba, D.; De Min, L.; Ponce, G.; Urresta, A.; Calderon, M.

    2015-03-01

    Selected high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles and multibeam bathymetry acquired along the convergent Ecuador margin during the ATACAMES cruise on onboard the R/V L'Atalante (Jan.15-Feb.18, 2012) allow a preliminary evaluation of the neotectonic development and stratigraphic evolution of the margin based on the sismo-stratigraphic analysis of Quaternary sediment preserved on the margin shelf and upper slope. We present three major preliminary results. (1) The evolution of the Esmeraldas, Guayaquil and Santa Elena canyons. The head of the Esmeraldas canyon is the location of a continuous significant sediment transport. The Guayaquil canyon shows several episodes of deposition and incision. Aggrading sedimentation pattern in the canyon records several changes in relative sea-level. The subsidence of the Gulf of Guayaquil probably contributes to the good preservation of the canyon filling stages. The Santa Elena canyon is controlled by a SW-NE trending normal fault. (2) Variations of sediment accumulation and relative vertical motions are shown along-strike the shelf edge. Offshore the uplifted Manta peninsula, a pronounced subsidence of the shelf edge is documented by sedimentary clinoforms that have deposited in a morphological reentrant, and have migrated upslope testifying of a local subsidence meanwhile the adjacent La Plata Island area underwent uplift. In the Esmeraldas canyon area, a local uplift of the shelf is documented. (3) Two neotectonic fault systems with a possible transcurrent component are imaged across the shelf edge and upper margin slope offshore Jama, and Cape Galera. This possible transcurrent motion could be related to the reactivation of ancient faults of the upper plate by the subduction. These preliminary results indicate that the ATACAMES data set has a strong potential to evaluate the spatial and temporal contribution of tectonic and climate changes on the structural development and stratigraphic evolution of the Ecuador continental

  6. Tuberculin skin test result and risk of death among persons with active TB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara C Auld

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the tuberculin skin test (TST is frequently used to aid in the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB disease and to identify persons with latent TB infection, it is an imperfect test and approximately 10-25% of persons with microbiologically confirmed TB disease have a negative TST. Previous studies have suggested that persons with a negative TST are more likely to present with severe TB disease and have an increased rate of TB-related death. METHODS: We analyzed culture-confirmed TB cases captured in US TB surveillance data from 1993 to 2008 and performed multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine the association between TST result and death. RESULTS: Of 284,866 cases of TB reported in the US, 58,180 persons were eligible for inclusion in the analysis and 3,270 of those persons died after initiating TB treatment. Persons with a negative TST accounted for only 14% of the eligible cases but accounted for 42% of the deaths. Persons with a TST≥15 mm had 67% lower odds of death than persons with a negative TST (adjusted odds ratio 0.33, 95% confidence interval 0.30-0.36. CONCLUSIONS: A negative TST is associated with an increased risk of death among persons with culture-confirmed TB disease, even after adjustment for HIV status, site of TB disease, sputum smear AFB status, drug susceptibility, age, sex, and origin of birth. In addition to indicating risk of developing disease, the TST may also be a marker for increased risk of death.

  7. Effects of Home Access to Active Videogames on Child Self-Esteem, Enjoyment of Physical Activity, and Anxiety Related to Electronic Games: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Rebecca A; Smith, Anne J; Howie, Erin K; Pollock, Clare; Straker, Leon

    2014-08-01

    Active-input videogames could provide a useful conduit for increasing physical activity by improving a child's self-confidence, physical activity enjoyment, and reducing anxiety. Therefore this study evaluated the impact of (a) the removal of home access to traditional electronic games or (b) their replacement with active-input videogames, on child self-perception, enjoyment of physical activity, and electronic game use anxiety. This was a crossover, randomized controlled trial, conducted over a 6-month period in participants' family homes in metropolitan Perth, Australia, from 2007 to 2010. Children 10-12 years old were recruited through school and community media. Of 210 children who were eligible, 74 met inclusion criteria, and 8 withdrew, leaving 66 children (33 girls) for analysis. A counterbalanced randomized order of three conditions sustained for 8 weeks each: No home access to electronic games, home access to traditional electronic games, and home access to active-input electronic games. Perception of self-esteem (Harter's Self Perception Profile for Children), enjoyment of physical activity (Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale questionnaire), and anxiety toward electronic game use (modified Loyd and Gressard Computer Anxiety Subscale) were assessed. Compared with home access to traditional electronic games, neither removal of all electronic games nor replacement with active-input games resulted in any significant change to child self-esteem, enjoyment of physical activity, or anxiety related to electronic games. Although active-input videogames have been shown to be enjoyable in the short term, their ability to impact on psychological outcomes is yet to be established.

  8. Myosin7a deficiency results in reduced retinal activity which is improved by gene therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasqualina Colella

    Full Text Available Mutations in MYO7A cause autosomal recessive Usher syndrome type IB (USH1B, one of the most frequent conditions that combine severe congenital hearing impairment and retinitis pigmentosa. A promising therapeutic strategy for retinitis pigmentosa is gene therapy, however its pre-clinical development is limited by the mild retinal phenotype of the shaker1 (sh1(-/- murine model of USH1B which lacks both retinal functional abnormalities and degeneration. Here we report a significant, early-onset delay of sh1(-/- photoreceptor ability to recover from light desensitization as well as a progressive reduction of both b-wave electroretinogram amplitude and light sensitivity, in the absence of significant loss of photoreceptors up to 12 months of age. We additionally show that subretinal delivery to the sh1(-/- retina of AAV vectors encoding the large MYO7A protein results in significant improvement of sh1(-/- photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelium ultrastructural anomalies which is associated with improvement of recovery from light desensitization. These findings provide new tools to evaluate the efficacy of experimental therapies for USH1B. In addition, although AAV vectors expressing large genes might have limited clinical applications due to their genome heterogeneity, our data show that AAV-mediated MYO7A gene transfer to the sh1(-/- retina is effective.

  9. Quantitative study on Vancomycin release from cement in 3 different formulations: preliminary results and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenga, D; Currò, M; Rosi, M; Ortolà, D J; Cantivalli, A; Ientile, R; Rosa, M A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the best preparation method of the cement powder mixture, solvent and antibiotic in order to obtain the greatest amount of antibiotic in the joint for the longest time as possible. At time T0 the three samples, packed in a sterile environment in different formulations, were placed in sterile tubes, adding to each one 5 ml of saline phosphate buffer solution (PBS) and put in a stove at 37°C for 24 h. A sample of PBS without cement (T control) was also created. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of the incubated liquid with cement was performed along with biochemical analysis with High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The analysis of the raw data demonstrated that at T1 there was a prevalence of antibiotic release from sample , compared to sample 2 and 3. This difference was maintained until the T20; from T21 the antibiotic release gradually leveled in 3 samples. The elution of the antibiotic remained detectable up to T60. Our work shows that the sample preparation is decisive on the quantity of released antibiotic. These results are confirmed by microbiological tests. It is useful to know the actual kinetics of antibiotics in articulation. Further studies are necessary to determine the effectiveness of antibiotic against micro-organisms and how long it acts.

  10. MHD activity in the ISX-B tokamak: experimental results and theoretical interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreras, B.A.; Dunlap, J.L.; Bell, J.D.; Charlton, L.A.; Cooper, W.A.; Dory, R.A.; Hender, T.C.; Hicks, H.R.; Holmes, J.A.; Lynch, V.E.

    1982-01-01

    The observed spectrum of MHD fluctuations in the ISX-B tokamak is clearly dominated by the n=1 mode when the q=1 surface is in the plasma. This fact agrees well with theoretical predictions based on 3-D resistive MHD calculations. They show that the (m=1; n=1) mode is then the dominant instability. It drives other n=1 modes through toroidal coupling and n>1 modes through nonlinear couplings. These theoretically predicted mode structures have been compared in detail with the experimentally measured wave forms (using arrays of soft x-ray detectors). The agreement is excellent. More detailed comparisons between theory and experiment have required careful reconstructions of the ISX-B equilibria. The equilibria so constructed have permitted a precise evaluation of the ideal MHD stability properties of ISX-B. The present results indicate that the high ..beta.. ISX-B equilibria are marginally stable to finite eta ideal MHD modes. The resistive MHD calculations also show that at finite ..beta.. there are unstable resistive pressure driven modes.

  11. Modeling learning and memory using verbal learning tests: results from ACTIVE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Alden L; Rebok, George W; Brandt, Jason; Tommet, Doug; Marsiske, Michael; Jones, Richard N

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the influence of memory training on initial recall and learning. The Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly study of community-dwelling adults older than age 65 (n = 1,401). We decomposed trial-level recall in the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) and Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT) into initial recall and learning across trials using latent growth models. Trial-level increases in words recalled in the AVLT and HVLT at each follow-up visit followed an approximately logarithmic shape. Over the 5-year study period, memory training was associated with slower decline in Trial 1 AVLT recall (Cohen's d = 0.35, p = .03) and steep pre- and posttraining acceleration in learning (d = 1.56, p memory-trained group had a higher level of recall than the control group through the end of the 5-year study period despite faster decline in learning. This study contributes to the understanding of the mechanisms by which training benefits memory and expands current knowledge by reporting long-term changes in initial recall and learning, as measured from growth models and by characterization of the impact of memory training on these components. Results reveal that memory training delays the worsening of memory span and boosts learning.

  12. BRIDGE - Behavioural reaching interfaces during daily antigravity activities through upper limb exoskeleton: Preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolla, Marta; Costa, Andrea; Aquilante, Lorenzo; Gfoehler, Margit; Puchinger, Markus; Braghin, Francesco; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2017-07-01

    People with neuromuscular diseases such as muscular dystrophy experience a distributed and evolutive weakness in the whole body. Recent technological developments have changed the daily life of disabled people strongly improving the perceived quality of life, mostly concentrating on powered wheelchairs, so to assure autonomous mobility and respiratory assistance, essential for survival. The key concept of the BRIDGE project is to contrast the everyday experience of losing functions by providing them of a system able to exploit the best their own residual capabilities in arm movements so to keep them functional and autonomous as much as possible. BRIDGE is composed by a light, wearable and powered five degrees of freedom upper limb exoskeleton under the direct control of the user through a joystick or gaze control. An inverse kinematic model allows to determine joints position so to track patient desired hand position. BRIDGE prototype has been successfully tested in simulation environment, and by a small group of healthy volunteers. Preliminary results show a good tracking performance of the implemented control scheme. The interaction procedure was easy to understand, and the interaction with the system was successful.

  13. Regional differences and correlates of leisure time physical activity in Brazil: results from the Brazilian National Health Survey-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Grégore Iven; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; de Sá, Gisele Balbino Araújo Rodrigues; Reis, Rodrigo Siqueira; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2015-12-01

    To analyze the regional differences and factors associated with physical activity during the leisure time in the adult participants of the National Health Survey, 2013. This study was carried out with the data from the National Health Survey, conducted in 2013 with an approximate sample of 63,000 adults (18+ years). For each of the five regions of Brazil, the prevalence of physically active adults during the leisure time was calculated, and the participants were classified as active if they practiced at least 150 minutes per week of physical activity during leisure time. The prevalence of individuals who were active during the leisure time varied from 21.9% in the south to 24.4% in the midwest. The men were 1.48 (95%CI 1.40-1.57) times more active than women, with the northern region showing the highest difference between the sexes. The prevalence of active individuals was 67% lower among those aged 75+ years when compared with the 18-24 age group, and this difference was more marked in the north. Those with higher levels of education were on average three times more active than the participants with lower education levels. In terms of education level, the lowest difference was observed in the northeast. Despite the slight variations in the prevalence of physical activity during the leisure time among the regions, when population subgroups are considered, important differences were observed. These results suggest the need for promotion initiatives on physical activity with different approaches in each of the five regions of Brazil.

  14. The relationship between physical activity, fitness, physical complaints and BMI in German adults - results of a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittlbach, Susanne A; Jekauc, Darko; Schmidt, Steffen C E; Woll, Alexander; Bös, Klaus

    2017-09-01

    This study's aims were to describe the development of physical activity, physical fitness (PF), subjective (physical complaints (PC)) and objective (Body mass index (BMI)) health measures and to examine the relationship between the development trajectories. In addition, the study also aimed to assess the influence of sociodemographic determinants (age, sex, socioeconomic status (SES)) in German adults over a period of 18 years. The longitudinal study population comprises of 721 men and women, aged 33-76 years over the study period. There was self-report of physical activity and PC and testing of physical fitness and BMI in each study year (1992, 1997, 2002 and 2010). Latent growth curve models were used to analyse the development. Physical activity slightly increased while fitness, PC and BMI worsened over the course of 18 years. Sex, age and SES play important roles concerning physical activity, fitness and health. Several integrative associations could be detected between physical activity, fitness, PC and BMI as well as their trajectories. In particular, high initial levels of physical activity and fitness protect from high PC and BMI.The slope of physical activity was not significantly associated with slopes of fitness, PC and BMI. However, increase of fitness resulted in decrease of PC. A general positive development regarding the amount of physical activity could be detected. However, if it is only an unsystematic increase of physical activity, this is not in itself enough to achieve health benefits. The strengthening of fitness should be focused when increasing physical activity, since only then a health benefit is possible.

  15. The role of gamma probe activity counts in minimally invasive parathyroidectomy. Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekis, R.; Aydin, A.; Tasci, C.; Durak, H. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Dokuz Eyluel Univ. School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Atila, K.; Kocdor, M.A.; Sevinc, A.; Harmancioglu, Oe. [Dept. of Surgery, Dokuz Eyluel Univ. School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Canda, S. [Dept. of Pathology, Dokuz Eyluel Univ. School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey)

    2004-12-01

    Aim: The benefit of preoperative gamma probe in the diagnosis of adenoma in patients with histopathologically proven parathyroid (PT) adenomas was examined. Patients, material, methods: 20 patients with positive {sup 99m}Tc MIBI uptake in PT scintigraphy with primary hyperparathyroidism were enrolled in this study. 740 MBq {sup 99m}Tc MIBI were injected 3 h before operation. Counts of four PT regions were obtained with gamma probe before surgery in the operation room. All suspected PT adenomas were resected and histopathologically diagnosed as adenomas. We also obtained counts of the resection region and the resected adenoma with gamma probe after the parathyroidectomy. Preoperative counts of adenoma bearing regions (ABR), non-adenoma bearing regions (NABR), postoperative resection region (PRR), resected adenoma counts (RA) were registered. Statistical analysis was performed by Wilcoxon rank test. Results: The mean counts of ABR, NABR, the PRR and RA were 462{+-}106, 230{+-}66, 164{+-}42, 374{+-}87, respectively. The mean counts from ABR were twofold higher than those of NABR. The PRR mean counts decreased by 64% when compared to the mean counts of ABR and by 55% when compared to the mean counts of RA. The differences in mean counts of ABR and NABR, PRR and ABR, PRR and RA (p<0.01) turned out as statistically significant. Discussion: According to our preliminary results, the region with the highest counts is at least 2{+-}0,4 times higher than the mean of the other three PT regions. Thus, it seems to be significant for PT adenoma. Resection of adenoma may be accepted as successful, if the count of ABR decreased more than 64% with decreased postoperative parathoromone levels. Conclusion: This technique should not yet be applied instead of parathormone measurement or frozen technique. But it may replace the frozen technique used for confirmation of the diagnosis during the operation in the future. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Der Vorteil der praeoperativen Sondermessung

  16. The status of the CABRI test program: Recent results and future activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, F.; Gonnier, Ch.; Papin, J. [Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    1997-01-01

    The first five CABRI experiments of the REP-Na series, all with UO2 fuel and up to a maximum local burnup of 64 GWd/t, have been examined and analyzed and are now reasonably well understood. In March 1996, the first MOX test with a 3 cycle irradiated fuel at 47 GWd/t radially averaged, local maximum burnup has been successfully performed. The rod did not fail and detailed examinations are being obtained and still in progress presently. The available results and findings are presented in this paper. Three experiments of the REP-Na test matrix are still to be performed, REP-Na7, a 4 cycle MOX test, is scheduled in November 1996. The last two experiments, REP-Na 8 the key experiment of the UO2 matrix, and REP-Na 9, a 2 cycle MOX fuel test, will be performed during the first half of 1997. The CABRI tests made with sodium cooling have a good representativity of reactor conditions during some tens of milliseconds. For better simulation on a longer time range, a project study has been undertaken in view of the implementation of a pressurized-water loop into the CABRI reactor. The design of this loop and the performance parameters of the upgraded driver core of CABRI is presented. Finally, the planning of the CABRI transformation and the outlines of the future test matrix is given. The most optimistic estimation allows to predict that the first tests under prototypical test conditions could be performed before the end of 1999.

  17. Frontopolar and anterior temporal cortex activation in a moral judgment task. Preliminary functional MRI results in normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moll, Jorge [LABS and Rede D' Or Hospitais, Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Neuroimagem e Neurologia do Comportamento; Eslinger, Paul J. [Pensylvania State Univ. (United States). College of Medicine. Div. of Neurology and Behavioral Science; The Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PN (United States); Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo de [Universidade do Rio de Janeiro (UNI-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Gaffree e Guinle]. E-mail: neuropsychiatry@hotmail.com

    2001-09-01

    The objective was to study the brain areas which are activated when normal subjects make moral judgments. Ten normal adults underwent BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the auditory presentation of sentences that they were instructed to silently judge as either 'right' or 'wrong'. Half of the sentences had an explicit moral content ('We break the law when necessary'), the other half comprised factual statements devoid of moral connotation ('Stones are made of water'). After scanning, each subject rated the moral content, emotional valence, and judgment difficulty of each sentence on Likert-like scales. To exclude the effect of emotion on the activation results, individual responses were hemo dynamically modeled for event-related f MRI analysis. The general linear model was used to evaluate the brain areas activated by moral judgment. Regions activated during moral judgment included the frontopolar cortex (FPC), medial frontal gyrus, right anterior temporal cortex, lenticular nucleus, and cerebellum. Activation of FPC and medial frontal gyrus (B A 10/46 and 9) were largely independent of emotional experience and represented the largest areas of activation. These results concur with clinical observations assigning a critical role for the frontal poles and right anterior temporal cortex in the mediation of complex judgment processes according to moral constraints. The FPC may work in concert with the orbitofrontal and dorsolateral cortex in the regulation of human social conduct. (author)

  18. Differential effects of adrenergic antagonists (Carvedilol vs Metoprolol on parasympathetic and sympathetic activity: a comparison of clinical results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L. Bloom

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN is recognized as a significant health risk, correlating with risk of heart disease, silent myocardial ischemia or sudden cardiac death. Beta-blockers are often prescribed to minimize risk. Objectives In this second of two articles, the effects on parasympathetic and sympathetic activity of the alpha/beta-adrenergic blocker, Carvedilol, are compared with those of the selective beta-adrenergic blocker, Metoprolol. Methods Retrospective, serial autonomic nervous system test data from 147 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients from eight ambulatory clinics were analyzed. Patients were grouped according to whether a beta-blocker was (1 introduced, (2 discontinued or (3 continued without adjustment. Group 3 served as the control. Results Introducing Carvedilol or Metoprolol decreased heart rate and blood pressure, and discontinuing them had the opposite effect. Parasympathetic activity increased with introducing Carvedilol. Sympathetic activity increased more after discontinuing Carvedilol, suggesting better sympathetic suppression. With ongoing treatment, resting parasympathetic activity decreased with Metoprolol but increased with Carvedilol. Conclusion Carvedilol has a more profound effect on sympathovagal balance than Metoprolol. While both suppress sympathetic activity, only Carvedilol increases parasympathetic activity. Increased parasympathetic activity may underlie the lower mortality risk with Carvedilol.

  19. Insensitivity of Astrocytes to Interleukin-10 Signaling following Peripheral Immune Challenge Results in Prolonged Microglial Activation in the Aged Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norden, Diana M.; Trojanowski, Paige J.; Walker, Frederick R.; Godbout, Jonathan P.

    2017-01-01

    Immune-activated microglia from aged mice produce exaggerated levels of cytokines. Despite high levels of microglial IL-10 in the aged brain, neuroinflammation was prolonged and associated with depressive-like deficits. Because astrocytes respond to IL-10 and, in turn, attenuate microglial activation, we investigated if astrocyte-mediated resolution of microglial activation was impaired with age. Here, aged astrocytes had a dysfunctional profile with higher GFAP, lower glutamate transporter expression, and significant cytoskeletal re-arrangement. Moreover, aged astrocytes had reduced expression of growth factors and IL-10 Receptor-1 (IL-10R1). Following in vivo LPS immune challenge, aged astrocytes had a molecular signature associated with reduced responsiveness to IL-10. This IL-10 insensitivity of aged astrocytes resulted in a failure to induce IL-10R1 and TGFβ and resolve microglial activation. Additionally, adult astrocytes reduced microglial activation when co-cultured ex vivo, while aged astrocytes did not. Consistent with the aging studies, IL-10RKO astrocytes did not augment TGFβ after immune challenge and failed to resolve microglial activation. Collectively, a major cytokine-regulatory loop between activated microglia and astrocytes is impaired in the aged brain. PMID:27318131

  20. Cloud droplet activation of mixed model HULIS and NaCl particles: Experimental results and κ-Köhler theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Thomas B.; Prisle, Nønne L.; Bilde, Merete

    2014-02-01

    Significant amounts of humic-like substances (HULIS) are present in marine submicrometer particles. The cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activation was investigated for marine model particles comprised of Nordic Aquatic Fulvic Acid Reference (NAFA) and sodium chloride (NaCl) in mass ratios of 100:0, 80:20, 50:50, 20:80 and 0:100 respectively. The CCN activity of NAFA was found to be represented by a κ value of 0.028. The CCN activities of the mixed particles were overestimated by volume weighted addition of the κ values of the pure compounds, which indicates that synergistic effects of the mixtures tend to lower the CCN activity. Parameterizations of water activity (aw) and surface tension (σ) versus solute concentration were obtained from measurements on aqueous solutions. The CCN activity was modeled on the basis of the parameterizations of aw and σ using Köhler theory. For the particles containing 50% or more NAFA the model overpredicted the CCN activity compared to observations. Reasonable model results were obtained by assuming a surface tension of pure water.

  1. Preliminary Results of Ancillary Safety Analyses Supporting TREAT LEU Conversion Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunett, A. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Fei, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Strons, P. S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Papadias, D. D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hoffman, E. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kontogeorgakos, D. C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Connaway, H. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wright, A. E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Report (FSAR) [3]. Depending on the availability of historical data derived from HEU TREAT operation, results calculated for the LEU core are compared to measurements obtained from HEU TREAT operation. While all analyses in this report are largely considered complete and have been reviewed for technical content, it is important to note that all topics will be revisited once the LEU design approaches its final stages of maturity. For most safety significant issues, it is expected that the analyses presented here will be bounding, but additional calculations will be performed as necessary to support safety analyses and safety documentation. It should also be noted that these analyses were completed as the LEU design evolved, and therefore utilized different LEU reference designs. Preliminary shielding, neutronic, and thermal hydraulic analyses have been completed and have generally demonstrated that the various LEU core designs will satisfy existing safety limits and standards also satisfied by the existing HEU core. These analyses include the assessment of the dose rate in the hodoscope room, near a loaded fuel transfer cask, above the fuel storage area, and near the HEPA filters. The potential change in the concentration of tramp uranium and change in neutron flux reaching instrumentation has also been assessed. Safety-significant thermal hydraulic items addressed in this report include thermally-induced mechanical distortion of the grid plate, and heating in the radial reflector.

  2. Preliminary results of the ice_sheet_CCI round robin activity on the estimation of surface elevation changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ticconi, F.; Fredenslund Levinsen, Joanna; Khvorostovsky, K.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the first results of a research activity aiming to compare estimates of Surface Elevation Changes (SEC) over the Jakobshavn Isbræ basin (Greenland) using different repeat altimetry techniques and different sensors (laser vs. radar altimetry). The goal of this comparison...

  3. Transgenic overexpression of active calcineurin in beta-cells results in decreased beta-cell mass and hyperglycemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Bernal-Mizrachi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Glucose modulates beta-cell mass and function through an initial depolarization and Ca(2+ influx, which then triggers a number of growth regulating signaling pathways. One of the most important downstream effectors in Ca(2+ signaling is the calcium/Calmodulin activated serine threonine phosphatase, calcineurin. Recent evidence suggests that calcineurin/NFAT is essential for beta-cell proliferation, and that in its absence loss of beta-cells results in diabetes. We hypothesized that in contrast, activation of calcineurin might result in expansion of beta-cell mass and resistance to diabetes.To determine the role of activation of calcineurin signaling in the regulation of pancreatic beta-cell mass and proliferation, we created mice that expressed a constitutively active form of calcineurin under the insulin gene promoter (caCn(RIP. To our surprise, these mice exhibited glucose intolerance. In vitro studies demonstrated that while the second phase of Insulin secretion is enhanced, the overall insulin secretory response was conserved. Islet morphometric studies demonstrated decreased beta-cell mass suggesting that this was a major component responsible for altered Insulin secretion and glucose intolerance in caCn(RIP mice. The reduced beta-cell mass was accompanied by decreased proliferation and enhanced apoptosis.Our studies identify calcineurin as an important factor in controlling glucose homeostasis and indicate that chronic depolarization leading to increased calcineurin activity may contribute, along with other genetic and environmental factors, to beta-cell dysfunction and diabetes.

  4. Loss of EZH2 results in precocious mammary gland development and activation of STAT5-dependent genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Kyung Hyun; Oh, Sumin; Kang, Keunsoo; Hensel, Tim; Robinson, Gertraud W.; Hennighausen, Lothar

    2015-01-01

    Establishment and differentiation of mammary alveoli during pregnancy are controlled by prolactin through the transcription factors STAT5A and STAT5B (STAT5), which also regulate temporal activation of mammary signature genes. This study addressed the question whether the methyltransferase and transcriptional co-activator EZH2 controls the differentiation clock of mammary epithelium. Ablation of Ezh2 from mammary stem cells resulted in precocious differentiation of alveolar epithelium during pregnancy and the activation of mammary-specific STAT5 target genes. This coincided with enhanced occupancy of these loci by STAT5, EZH1 and RNA Pol II. Limited activation of differentiation-specific genes was observed in mammary epithelium lacking both EZH2 and STAT5, suggesting a modulating but not mandatory role for STAT5. Loss of EZH2 did not result in overt changes in genome-wide and gene-specific H3K27me3 profiles, suggesting compensation through enhanced EZH1 recruitment. Differentiated mammary epithelia did not form in the combined absence of EZH1 and EZH2. Transplantation experiments failed to demonstrate a role for EZH2 in the activity of mammary stem and progenitor cells. In summary, while EZH1 and EZH2 serve redundant functions in the establishment of H3K27me3 marks and the formation of mammary alveoli, the presence of EZH2 is required to control progressive differentiation of milk secreting epithelium during pregnancy. PMID:26250110

  5. EFFECTS OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING MODEL TYPE NUMBERED HEADS TOGETHER USING SIMULATION MEDIA PHET AND ACTIVITIES TOWARD STUDENT RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Mawaddah Lubis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the differences in learning outcomes of students taught by cooperative learning model NHT using simulation PhET and conventional learning, analyzing the differences in learning outcomes of students who have high activity and low activity, as well as the  interaction between learning model with the level of student activity in  influencing the outcome students learn physics. This research is a quasi experimental. The population in this study were students of class X SMK Tritech Informatika Medan. The tests were used to obtain the data is in the form of multiple choice. Test requirements have been carried out in the form of normality and homogeneity, which showed that the normal data and homogeneous. The data were analyzed using Anova analysis of two paths. The results showed that: The physics learning outcomes of students who use cooperative learning model NHT using PhET simulations media is better than students who use conventional learning models. The physics learning outcomes of students who have high learning activities is better than students who have Low learning activities. There is an interaction between cooperative learning model NHT PhET simulations using the media and the level of learning activity in influencing student learning outcomes. Average increase learning outcomes in the control class is greater than the experimental class.

  6. Long-term active-layer dynamics: results of 22 years of field observations in Northern Hemisphere permafrost regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiklomanov, N. I.; Nelson, F. E.; Streletskiy, D. A.; Klene, A. E.; Biskaborn, B. K.

    2016-12-01

    The uppermost layer of seasonal thawing above permafrost (the active layer) is an important regulator of energy and mass fluxes between the surface and the atmosphere in the polar regions. Active layer monitoring is an important component of efforts to assess the effects of global change in permafrost environments. The Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) program, established in the early 1990s, is designed to observe temporal and spatial variability of the active layer and its response to changes and variations in climatic conditions. The CALM network is an integral part of the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P), operating under the auspices of the Global Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS) /Global Climate Observing System (GCOS). Standardized thaw depth observations in the Northern Hemisphere are available for more than 200 GTN-P/CALM sites in the Northern Hemisphere. At each of the sites spatially distributed ALT measurements have been conducted annually by mechanical probing. The locations of sites represent generalized surface and subsurface conditions characteristic of broader regions. The data are assimilated and distributed though the CALM (www.gwu.edu/ calm) and GTN-P (gtnpdatabase.org) online databases. In this presentation we use data from approximately 20 years of continuous observations to examine temporal trends in active-layer thickness for several representative Arctic regions. Results indicate substantial interannual fluctuations in active-layer thickness, primarily in response to variations in air temperature. Decadal trends in ALT vary by region. A progressive increase in ALT has been observed in the Nordic countries, the Russian European North, West Siberia, East Siberia, the Russian Far East, and the Interior of Alaska. North American Arctic sites show no apparent thaw depth trend over 22-years of record. However, combined active layer, ground temperature and heave/subsidence observations conducted in northern Alaska

  7. Relationship of sedentary behavior and physical activity to incident cardiovascular disease: results from the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomistek, Andrea K; Manson, JoAnn E; Stefanick, Marcia L; Lu, Bing; Sands-Lincoln, Megan; Going, Scott B; Garcia, Lorena; Allison, Matthew A; Sims, Stacy T; LaMonte, Michael J; Johnson, Karen C; Eaton, Charles B

    2013-06-11

    The aim of this study was to examine the independent and joint associations of sitting time and physical activity with risk of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). Sedentary behavior is recognized as a distinct construct beyond lack of leisure-time physical activity, but limited data exist on the interrelationship between these 2 components of energy balance. Participants in the prospective Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (n = 71,018), 50 to 79 years of age and free of CVD at baseline (1993 to 1998), provided information on sedentary behavior, defined as hours of sitting/day, and usual physical activity at baseline and during follow-up through September 2010. First CVD (coronary heart disease or stroke) events were centrally adjudicated. Sitting ≥10 h/day compared with ≤5 h/day was associated with increased CVD risk (hazard ratio: 1.18, 95% confidence interval: 1.09 to 1.29) in multivariable models including physical activity. Low physical activity was also associated with higher CVD risk (p for trend physical activity (p for interaction = 0.94), CVD risk was highest in inactive women (≤1.7 metabolic equivalent task-h/week) who also reported ≥10 h/day of sitting. Results were similar for coronary heart disease and stroke when examined separately. Associations between prolonged sitting and risk of CVD were stronger in overweight versus normal weight women and women 70 years of age and older compared with younger women. Prolonged sitting time was associated with increased CVD risk, independent of leisure-time physical activity, in postmenopausal women without a history of CVD. A combination of low physical activity and prolonged sitting augments CVD risk. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Development and usage of Geosites: new results from research and conservation activities in the Piemonte Region (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Ghiraldi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a series of activities carried out by public institutions, whose aim is to identify possible ways of acquiring knowledge and of allowing enjoyment of the Piemonte Region’s geological heritage. The activities concern the inventory, the evaluation, the storage and the publication of information, both alphanumerical and geographical, in relation to geosites. A database accessible directly from Web and a Web-GIS application has been developed in order to supply valuable and comprehensive instruments for both, representing the results of research and promoting the knowledge of the geological heritage to a large number of people.

  9. Modification of the activity of some C cycle hydrolases in soils afforested with Populus alba L. Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorita, Félix; García-Campos, Elena; Gil-Sotres, Fernando; Leirós, Mā Carmen; Trasar-Cepeda, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    Since 1992 a large part of the agricultural land in Galicia (NW Spain) has disappeared as a result of the EU policy of providing grants and aid for transforming marginal land into forest terrain. In Galicia, this policy (EU Regulation 2080/1992) has mainly been applied to good quality agricultural land rather than to marginal land. As a result, the land has undergone a change in use, so that previously good quality agricultural land is now planted with various species of trees, usually of young age. Despite the large area of land transformed, until now the environmental cost of such changes has not been evaluated. Taking into account that one of the possible environmental effects derived from land transformation is changes in emissions of CO2 (a major greenhouse gas), it is therefore essential to evaluate any possible modifications undergone in such soils, with special attention given to biochemical properties, i.e. the properties that determine edaphic metabolism. With this aim, we are currently investigating the effect of afforestation on diverse biochemical properties, including the activity of hydrolytic enzymes involved in the C, N, P and S cycles, in a large number of afforested soils, planted with different trees and located in different areas throughout Galicia. In each case, an agricultural soil located close to the afforested soil, but under the original land use (usually maize cropped soils or pasture soils), is also collected and analysed, and the results obtained for afforested soils compared with those for the corresponding agricultural soils. Here we report some preliminary results on modifications in the activities of some C cycle hydrolases in six soils now planted with poplars, Populus alba L, but originally cropped with maize. Samples of all soils were collected in autumn, after harvesting and before any other agricultural activities were carried out. In all cases, the upper 10 cm of the soils were collected. The soils were sieved (4 mm) prior to

  10. Active social participation and mortality risk among older people in Japan: results from a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minagawa, Yuka; Saito, Yasuhiko

    2015-07-01

    A large literature suggests that active social participation contributes to the well-being of older people. Japan provides a compelling context to test this hypothesis due to its rapidly growing elderly population and the phenomenal health of the population. Using the Nihon University Japanese Longitudinal Study of Aging, this study examines how social participation, measured by group membership, is related to the risk of overall mortality among Japanese elders aged 65 and older. Results from Cox proportional hazards models show that group affiliation confers advantages against mortality risk, even after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, physical health measures, and family relationship variables. In particular, activities geared more toward self-development, such as postretirement employment and lifelong learning, are strongly associated with lower levels of mortality. Findings suggest that continued social participation at advanced ages produces positive health consequences, highlighting the importance of active aging in achieving successful aging in the Japanese context. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Hourly activity of Lutzomyia neivai in the endemic zone of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tucumán, Argentina: preliminary results

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    Ana Denise Fuenzalida

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the hourly activity of Lutzomyia neivai was studied in the southern part of the province of Tucumán, Argentina, in an area of transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis during two months of higher activity. In addition, the variables that influenced the abundance of Lu. neivai were evaluated. A total of 1,146 individuals belonging to Lu. neivai (97% and Lutzomyia migonei (3% were captured. The hourly activity of Lu. neivai was mainly nocturnal, with a bimodal pattern in both months. In January, the variable that most influenced the abundance of Lu. neivai was the temperature, whereas in April, that variable was humidity. These results may contribute to the design of anti-vectorial control measures at a micro-focal scale.

  12. Mouse strain-dependent caspase activation during acetaminophen hepatotoxicity does not result in apoptosis or modulation of inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, C. David [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Koerner, Michael R., E-mail: mkoern2@illinois.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Lampe, Jed N. [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Farhood, Anwar [Department of Pathology, Brackenridge Hospital, Austin, TX 78701 (United States); Jaeschke, Hartmut, E-mail: hjaeschke@kumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    The mechanisms of acetaminophen (APAP)-mediated hepatic oncotic necrosis have been extensively characterized. However, it was recently demonstrated that fed CD-1 mice have a transient caspase activation which initiates apoptosis. To evaluate these findings in more detail, outbred (Swiss Webster, SW) and inbred (C57BL/6) mice were treated with APAP with or without pan-caspase inhibitor and compared to the apoptosis model of galactosamine (GalN)/endotoxin (ET). Fasted or fed APAP-treated C57BL/6 mice showed no evidence of caspase-3 processing or activity. Interestingly, a minor, temporary increase in caspase-3 processing and activity (150% above baseline) was observed after APAP treatment only in fed SW mice. The degree of caspase-3 activation in SW mice after APAP was minor compared to that observed in GalN/ET-treated mice (1600% above baseline). The pancaspase inhibitor attenuated caspase activation and resulted in increased APAP-induced injury (plasma ALT, necrosis scoring). The caspase inhibitor did not affect apoptosis because regardless of treatment only < 0.5% of hepatocytes showed consistent apoptotic morphology after APAP. In contrast, > 20% apoptotic cells were observed in GalN/ET-treated mice. Presence of the caspase inhibitor altered hepatic glutathione levels in SW mice, which could explain the exacerbation of injury. Additionally, the infiltration of hepatic neutrophils was not altered by the fed state of either mouse strain. Conclusion: Minor caspase-3 activation without apoptotic cell death can be observed only in fed mice of some outbred strains. These findings suggest that although the severity of APAP-induced liver injury varies between fed and fasted animals, the mechanism of cell death does not fundamentally change. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer During acetaminophen overdose caspase-3 can be activated in fed mice of certain outbred strains. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hepatic ATP levels are not the determining factor for caspase

  13. Feasibility of multi-sector policy measures that create activity-friendly environments for children: results of a Delphi study

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    Aarts Marie-Jeanne

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although multi-sector policy is a promising strategy to create environments that stimulate physical activity among children, little is known about the feasibility of such a multi-sector policy approach. The aims of this study were: to identify a set of tangible (multi-sector policy measures at the local level that address environmental characteristics related to physical activity among children; and to assess the feasibility of these measures, as perceived by local policy makers. Methods In four Dutch municipalities, a Delphi study was conducted among local policy makers of different policy sectors (public health, sports, youth and education, spatial planning/public space, traffic and transportation, and safety. In the first Delphi round, respondents generated a list of possible policy measures addressing three environmental correlates of physical activity among children (social cohesion, accessibility of facilities, and traffic safety. In the second Delphi round, policy makers weighted different feasibility aspects (political feasibility, cultural/community acceptability, technical feasibility, cost feasibility, and legal feasibility and assessed the feasibility of the policy measures derived from the first round. The third Delphi round was aimed at reaching consensus by feedback of group results. Finally, one overall feasibility score was calculated for each policy measure. Results Cultural/community acceptability, political feasibility, and cost feasibility were considered most important feasibility aspects. The Delphi studies yielded 16 feasible policy measures aimed at physical and social environmental correlates of physical activity among children. Less drastic policy measures were considered more feasible, whereas environmental policy measures were considered less feasible. Conclusions This study showed that the Delphi technique can be a useful tool in reaching consensus about feasible multi-sector policy measures. The

  14. AMPK activation through mitochondrial regulation results in increased substrate oxidation and improved metabolic parameters in models of diabetes.

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    Yonchu Jenkins

    Full Text Available Modulation of mitochondrial function through inhibiting respiratory complex I activates a key sensor of cellular energy status, the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK. Activation of AMPK results in the mobilization of nutrient uptake and catabolism for mitochondrial ATP generation to restore energy homeostasis. How these nutrient pathways are affected in the presence of a potent modulator of mitochondrial function and the role of AMPK activation in these effects remain unclear. We have identified a molecule, named R419, that activates AMPK in vitro via complex I inhibition at much lower concentrations than metformin (IC50 100 nM vs 27 mM, respectively. R419 potently increased myocyte glucose uptake that was dependent on AMPK activation, while its ability to suppress hepatic glucose production in vitro was not. In addition, R419 treatment of mouse primary hepatocytes increased fatty acid oxidation and inhibited lipogenesis in an AMPK-dependent fashion. We have performed an extensive metabolic characterization of its effects in the db/db mouse diabetes model. In vivo metabolite profiling of R419-treated db/db mice showed a clear upregulation of fatty acid oxidation and catabolism of branched chain amino acids. Additionally, analyses performed using both (13C-palmitate and (13C-glucose tracers revealed that R419 induces complete oxidation of both glucose and palmitate to CO2 in skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue, confirming that the compound increases mitochondrial function in vivo. Taken together, our results show that R419 is a potent inhibitor of complex I and modulates mitochondrial function in vitro and in diabetic animals in vivo. R419 may serve as a valuable molecular tool for investigating the impact of modulating mitochondrial function on nutrient metabolism in multiple tissues and on glucose and lipid homeostasis in diabetic animal models.

  15. Predictors of Postpartum Weight Change Among Overweight and Obese Women: Results from the Active Mothers Postpartum Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Bercedis L.; Krause, Katrina M.; Swamy, Geeta K.; Lovelady, Cheryl A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The postpartum period may be critical for the development of midlife obesity. Identifying factors associated with postpartum weight change could aid in targeting women for healthy lifestyle interventions. Methods Data from Active Mothers Postpartum (AMP), a study of overweight and obese postpartum women (n=450), were analyzed to determine the effect of baseline characteristics, breastfeeding, diet, physical activity, and contraception on weight change from 6 weeks to 12, 18, and 24 months postpartum. The repeated measures mixed model was used to test the association of these effects with weight change. Results Although mean weight loss was modest (0.49 kg by 24 months), the range of weight change was striking (+21.5 kg to −24.5 kg, standard deviation [SD] 7.4). Controlling only for baseline weight, weight loss was associated with breastfeeding, hormonal contraception, lower junk food and greater healthy food intake, and greater physical activity. Only junk food intake and physical activity were significant after controlling for all other predictors. Conclusions Eating less healthy foods and being less physically active put overweight and obese women at risk of gaining more weight after a pregnancy. PMID:22092110

  16. Validating a Coarse-Grained Voltage Activation Model by Comparing Its Performance to the Results of Monte Carlo Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myungjin; Kolev, Vesselin; Warshel, Arieh

    2017-12-21

    Simulating the nature of voltage-activated systems is a problem of major current interest, ranging from the action of voltage-gated ion channels to energy storage batteries. However, fully microscopic converging molecular simulations of external voltage effects present a major challenge, and macroscopic models are associated with major uncertainties about the dielectric treatment and the underlying physical basis. Recently we developed a coarse-grained (CG) model that represents explicitly the electrodes, the electrolytes, and the membrane/protein system. The CG model provides a semimacroscopic way of capturing the microscopic physics of voltage-activated systems. Our method was originally validated by reproducing macroscopic and analytical results for key test cases and then used in modeling voltage-activated ion channels and related problems. In this work, we further establish the reliability of the CG voltage model by comparing it to the results of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations with a microscopic electrolyte model. The comparison explores different aspects of membrane, electrolyte, and electrode systems ranging from the Gouy-Chapman model to the determination of the electrolyte charge distribution in the solution between two electrodes (without and with a separating membrane), as well as the evaluation of gating charges. Overall the agreement is very impressive. This provides confidence in the CG model and also shows that the MC model can be used in realistic simulation of voltage activation of membrane proteins with sufficient computer time.

  17. Are We Driving Our Kids to Unhealthy Habits? Results of the Active Healthy Kids Canada 2013 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth

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    Casey E. Gray

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the time trends in patterns of school travel mode among Canadian children and youth to inform the Active Transportation (AT indicator of the 2013 Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth. The AT grade was assigned based on a comprehensive synthesis of the 2000 and 2010 Physical Activity Monitor studies from the Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute and the 1992, 1998, 2005, and 2010 General Social Survey from Statistics Canada. The results showed that in 2013, AT was graded a D, because less than half of Canadian children and youth used only active modes of transportation to get to and from school. The proportion of Canadian children and youth who used only inactive modes of transportation for school travel increased significantly from 51% to 62% over the last decade. Children and youth from larger communities and those with lower household income levels were significantly more likely to use AT than those living in smaller communities and those in higher income households, respectively. In conclusion, motorized transport for school travel has increased steadily over the last decade across Canada. Regional and socio-demographic disparities should be considered in efforts to increase the number of children using AT.

  18. Physical activity on prescription schemes (PARS): do programme characteristics influence effectiveness? Results of a systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenijevic, Jelena; Groot, Wim

    2017-02-02

    Physical activity on prescription schemes (PARS) are health promotion programmes that have been implemented in various countries. The aim of this study was to outline the differences in the design of PARS in different countries. This study also explored the differences in the adherence rate to PARS and the self-reported level of physical activity between PARS users in different countries. A systematic literature review and meta-analyses were conducted. We searched PubMed and EBASCO in July 2015 and updated our search in September 2015. Studies that reported adherence to the programme and self-reported level of physical activity, published in the English language in a peer-reviewed journal since 2000, were included. The difference in the pooled adherence rate after finishing the PARS programme and the adherence rate before or during the PARS programme was 17% (95% CI 9% to 24%). The difference in the pooled physical activity was 0.93 unit score (95 CI -3.57 to 1.71). For the adherence rate, a meta-regression was conducted. In total, 37 studies conducted in 11 different countries met the inclusion criteria. Among them, 31 reported the adherence rate, while the level of physical activity was reported in 17 studies. Results from meta-analyses show that PARS had an effect on the adherence rate of physical activity, while the results from the meta-regressions show that programme characteristics such as type of chronic disease and the follow-up period influenced the adherence rate. The effects of PARS on adherence and self-reported physical activity were influenced by programme characteristics and also by the design of the study. Future studies on the effectiveness of PARS should use a prospective longitudinal design and combine quantitative and qualitative data. Furthermore, future evaluation studies should distinguish between evaluating the adherence rate and the self-reported physical activity among participants with different chronic diseases. Published by the BMJ

  19. Policy assessment and policy development for physical activity promotion: results of an exploratory intervention study in 15 European Nations

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    Rütten Alfred

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Purpose of the study was to test a theoretical model to assess and develop policies for the promotion of physical activity among older people as part of an international intervention study. Methods 248 semi-standardized interviews with policy-makers were conducted in 15 European nations. The questionnaire assessed policy-makers' perceptions of organizational goals, resources, obligations, as well as organizational, political and public opportunities in the area of physical activity promotion among older people. In order to develop policies, workshops with policy-makers were conducted. Workshop outputs and outcomes were assessed for four nations nine months after the workshops. Results Policy assessment: Results of the policy assessment were diverse across nations and policy sectors. For example, organizational goals regarding actions for physical activity promotion were perceived as being most favorably by the sports sector. Organizational obligations for the development of such policies were perceived as being most favorably by the health sector. Policy development: The workshops resulted in different outputs: a national intersectoral action plan (United Kingdom, a national alliance (Sweden, an integrated policy (the Netherlands, and a continuing dialogue (Germany. Conclusions Theory-driven policy assessment and policy-maker workshops might be an important means of scientific engagement in policy development for health promotion.

  20. Resonance surface enhanced Raman optical activity of myoglobin as a result of optimized resonance surface enhanced Raman scattering conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdali, Salim; Johannessen, Christian; Nygaard, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    Using Surface enhanced ROA (SEROA), novel results are achieved by combining Raman Optical Activity (ROA) and resonance Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERRS), applied on myoglobin. The novelty of this work is ascribed the first time reporting on chiral results of a study performed on a protein...... has shown that the SERS effect behaves consequently, depending on the concentration ratio of each component, i.e., myoglobin, Ag colloids and NaCl. Accordingly, it is shown here that SERS intensity has its maximum at certain concentration of these components, whereas below or above this value...

  1. Cannabis cue-induced brain activation correlates with drug craving in limbic and visual salience regions: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charboneau, Evonne J.; Dietrich, Mary S.; Park, Sohee; Cao, Aize; Watkins, Tristan J; Blackford, Jennifer U; Benningfield, Margaret M.; Martin, Peter R.; Buchowski, Maciej S.; Cowan, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    Craving is a major motivator underlying drug use and relapse but the neural correlates of cannabis craving are not well understood. This study sought to determine whether visual cannabis cues increase cannabis craving and whether cue-induced craving is associated with regional brain activation in cannabis-dependent individuals. Cannabis craving was assessed in 16 cannabis-dependent adult volunteers while they viewed cannabis cues during a functional MRI (fMRI) scan. The Marijuana Craving Questionnaire was administered immediately before and after each of three cannabis cue-exposure fMRI runs. FMRI blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity was determined in regions activated by cannabis cues to examine the relationship of regional brain activation to cannabis craving. Craving scores increased significantly following exposure to visual cannabis cues. Visual cues activated multiple brain regions, including inferior orbital frontal cortex, posterior cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, amygdala, superior temporal pole, and occipital cortex. Craving scores at baseline and at the end of all three runs were significantly correlated with brain activation during the first fMRI run only, in the limbic system (including amygdala and hippocampus) and paralimbic system (superior temporal pole), and visual regions (occipital cortex). Cannabis cues increased craving in cannabis-dependent individuals and this increase was associated with activation in the limbic, paralimbic, and visual systems during the first fMRI run, but not subsequent fMRI runs. These results suggest that these regions may mediate visually cued aspects of drug craving. This study provides preliminary evidence for the neural basis of cue-induced cannabis craving and suggests possible neural targets for interventions targeted at treating cannabis dependence. PMID:24035535

  2. Combustion of dried animal dung as biofuel results in the generation of highly redox active fine particulates

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    Kelly Frank J

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burning of biomass in the developing world for heating and cooking results in high indoor particle concentrations. Long-term exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM has been associated with increased rates of acute respiratory infections, chronic obstructive lung disease and cancer. In this study we determined the oxidative activity of combustion particles derived from the biomass fuel dung cake by examining their capacity to deplete antioxidants from a model human respiratory tract lining fluid (RTLF. For comparison, the observed oxidative activity was compared with that of particles derived from industrial and vehicular sources. Results Incubation of the dung cake particle suspensions in the RTLF for 4 h resulted in a mean loss of ascorbate of 72.1 ± 0.7 and 89.7 ± 2.5% at 50 and 100 μg/ml, respectively. Reduced glutathione was depleted by 49.6 ± 4.3 and 63.5 ± 22.4% under the same conditions. The capacity of these samples to deplete ascorbate was in excess of that observed with diesel or gasoline particles, but comparable to that seen with residual oil fly ash and considerably in excess of all three control particles in terms of glutathione depletion. Co-incubation with the metal chelator diethylenetriaminepentaacetate inhibited these losses, whilst minimal inhibition was seen with superoxide dismutase and catalase treatment. The majority of the activity observed appeared to be contained within aqueous particle extracts. Conclusion These data demonstrate that biomass derived particles have considerable oxidative activity, largely attributable to their transition metal content.

  3. Neighborhood built environment and physical activity of Japanese older adults: results from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES

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    Hirai Hiroshi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although many studies have reported the association between neighborhood built environment (BE and physical activity (PA, less is known about the associations for older populations or in countries besides the US and Australia. The aim of this paper is to examine the associations for older adult populations in Japan. Methods Our analyses were based on cross-sectional data from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES, conducted in 2003. The respondents were older adults, aged 65 years or over (n = 9,414, from 8 municipalities across urban, suburban, and rural areas. The frequency of leisure time sports activity and total walking time were used as the outcome variables. Using geographic information systems (GIS, we measured residential density, street connectivity, number of local destinations, access to recreational spaces, and land slope of the respondents' neighborhoods, based on network distances with multiple radii (250 m, 500 m, 1,000 m. An ordinal logistic regression model was used to analyze the association between PA and BE measures. Results Population density and presence of parks or green spaces had positive associations with the frequency of sports activity, regardless of the selected buffer zone. The analysis of total walking time, however, showed only a few associations. Conclusions Our findings provide mixed support for the association between PA and the characteristics of BE measures, previously used in Western settings. Some characteristics of the neighborhood built environment may facilitate leisure time sports activity, but not increase the total walking time for Japanese older adults.

  4. Expression of activated PIK3CA in ovarian surface epithelium results in hyperplasia but not tumor formation.

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    Shun Liang

    Full Text Available The Phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase is a key regulator in various cancer-associated signal transduction pathways. Genetic alterations of its catalytic subunit alpha, PIK3CA, have been identified in ovarian cancer. Our in vivo data suggests that PIK3CA activation is one of the early genetic events in ovarian cancer. However, its role in malignant transformation of ovarian surface epithelium (OSE is largely unclear.Using the Müllerian inhibiting substance type II receptor (MISIIR promoter, we generated transgenic mice that expressed activated PIK3CA in the Müllerian epithelium. Overexpression of PIK3CA in OSE induced remarkable hyperplasia, but was not able to malignantly transform OSE in vivo. The consistent result was also observed in primary cultured OSEs. Although enforced expression of PIK3CA could not induce OSE anchorage-independent growth, it significantly increased anchorage-independent growth of OSE transformed by mutant K-ras.While PIK3CA activation may not be able to initiate OSE transformation, we conclude that activation of PIK3CA may be an important molecular event contributing to the maintenance of OSE transformation initiated by oncogenes such as K-ras.

  5. Optogenetics in Mice Performing a Visual Discrimination Task: Measurement and Suppression of Retinal Activation and the Resulting Behavioral Artifact.

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    Bethanny Danskin

    Full Text Available Optogenetic techniques are used widely to perturb and interrogate neural circuits in behaving animals, but illumination can have additional effects, such as the activation of endogenous opsins in the retina. We found that illumination, delivered deep into the brain via an optical fiber, evoked a behavioral artifact in mice performing a visually guided discrimination task. Compared with blue (473 nm and yellow (589 nm illumination, red (640 nm illumination evoked a greater behavioral artifact and more activity in the retina, the latter measured with electrical recordings. In the mouse, the sensitivity of retinal opsins declines steeply with wavelength across the visible spectrum, but propagation of light through brain tissue increases with wavelength. Our results suggest that poor retinal sensitivity to red light was overcome by relatively robust propagation of red light through brain tissue and stronger illumination of the retina by red than by blue or yellow light. Light adaptation of the retina, via an external source of illumination, suppressed retinal activation and the behavioral artifact without otherwise impacting behavioral performance. In summary, long wavelength optogenetic stimuli are particularly prone to evoke behavioral artifacts via activation of retinal opsins in the mouse, but light adaptation of the retina can provide a simple and effective mitigation of the artifact.

  6. Primary and Secondary Organic Marine Aerosol and Oceanic Biological Activity: Recent Results and New Perspectives for Future Studies

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    Matteo Rinaldi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important natural aerosol systems at the global level is marine aerosol that comprises both organic and inorganic components of primary and secondary origin. The present paper reviews some new results on primary and secondary organic marine aerosol, achieved during the EU project MAP (Marine Aerosol Production, comparing them with those reported in the recent literature. Marine aerosol samples collected at the coastal site of Mace Head, Ireland, show a chemical composition trend that is influenced by the oceanic biological activity cycle, in agreement with other observations. Laboratory experiments show that sea-spray aerosol from biologically active sea water can be highly enriched in organics, and the authors highlight the need for further studies on the atmospheric fate of such primary organics. With regard to the secondary fraction of organic aerosol, the average chemical composition and molecular tracer (methanesulfonic-acid, amines distribution could be successfully characterized by adopting a multitechnique analytical approach.

  7. The DOSIS and DOSIS 3D Experiments onboard the International Space Station - Results from the Active DOSTEL Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Soenke; Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Guenther; Beaujean, Rudolf; Boehme, Matthias; Haumann, Lutz; Labrenz, Johannes; Kortmann, Onno

    2012-07-01

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems experienced in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long duration human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature from that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones present on earth for occupational radiation workers. Accurate knowledge of the physical characteristics of the space radiation field in dependence on the solar activity, the orbital parameters and the different shielding configurations of the International Space Station ISS is therefore needed. For the investigation of the spatial and temporal distribution of the radiation field inside the European COLUMBUS module the experiment DOSIS (Dose Distribution Inside the ISS) under the lead of DLR was launched on July 15th 2009 with STS-127 to the ISS. The experimental package was transferred from the Space Shuttle into COLUMBUS on July 18th. It consists of a combination of passive detector packages (PDP) distributed at 11 locations inside the European Columbus Laboratory and two active radiation detectors (DOSTELs) with a DDPU (DOSTEL Data and Power Unit) in a nomex pouch (DOSIS MAIN BOX) mounted at a fixed location beneath the European Physiology Module rack (EPM) inside COLUMBUS. The DOSTELs measured during the lowest solar minimum conditions in the space age from July 18th 2009 to June 16th 2011. In July 2011 the active hardware was transferred to ground for refurbishment and preparation for the DOSIS-3D experiment. The hardware will be launched with the Soyuz 30S flight to the ISS on May 15th 2012 and activated approximately ten days later. Data will be transferred from the DOSTEL units to ground via the EPM rack which is activated approximately every four weeks for this action. First Results for the active DOSIS-3D measurements such as count rate profiles

  8. Does a variation in self-reported physical activity reflect variation in objectively measured physical activity, resting heart rate, and physical fitness? Results from the Tromso study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emaus, Aina; Degerstrøm, Jorid; Wilsgaard, Tom

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To study the association between self-reported physical activity (PA) and objectively measured PA, resting heart rate, and physical fitness. METHODS: During 2007-08, 5017 men and 5607 women aged 30-69 years attended the sixth survey of the Tromsø study. Self-reported PA during leisure......-time and work were assessed and resting heart rate was measured. In a sub-study, the activity study, PA (Actigraph LLC) and physical fitness (VO₂(max)) were objectively measured among 313 healthy men and women aged 40-44 years. RESULTS: Self-reported leisure PA was significantly correlated with VO₂(max) (ml....../kg/min) (women 0.40, p men 0.44 p 2000 counts/min) (women 0.28, p men 0.25, p

  9. A mobile phone intervention increases physical activity in people with cardiovascular disease: Results from the HEART randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddison, Ralph; Pfaeffli, Leila; Whittaker, Robyn; Stewart, Ralph; Kerr, Andrew; Jiang, Yannan; Kira, Geoffrey; Leung, William; Dalleck, Lance; Carter, Karen; Rawstorn, Jonathan

    2015-06-01

    To determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a mobile phone intervention to improve exercise capacity and physical activity behaviour in people with ischaemic heart disease (IHD). In this single-blind, parallel, two-arm, randomized controlled trial adults (n = 171) with IHD were randomized to receive a mobile phone delivered intervention (HEART; n = 85) plus usual care, or usual care alone (n = 86). Adult participants aged 18 years or more, with a diagnosis of IHD, were clinically stable as outpatients, able to perform exercise, able to understand and write English, and had access to the Internet. The HEART (Heart Exercise And Remote Technologies) intervention involved a personalized, automated package of text messages and a secure website with video messages aimed at increasing exercise behaviour, delivered over 24 weeks. All participants were able to access usual community-based cardiac rehabilitation, which involves encouragement of physical activity and an offer to join a local cardiac support club. All outcomes were assessed at baseline and 24 weeks and included peak oxygen uptake (PVO2; primary outcome), self-reported physical activity, health-related quality of life, self-efficacy and motivation (secondary outcomes). Results showed no differences in PVO2 between the two groups (difference -0.21 ml kg(-1)min(-1), 95% CI: -1.1, 0.7; p = 0.65) at 24 weeks. However significant treatment effects were observed for selected secondary outcomes, including leisure time physical activity (difference 110.2 min/week, 95% CI: -0.8, 221.3; p = 0.05) and walking (difference 151.4 min/week, 95% CI: 27.6, 275.2; p = 0.02). There were also significant improvements in self-efficacy to be active (difference 6.2%, 95% CI: 0.2, 12.2; p = 0.04) and the general health domain of the SF36 (difference 2.1, 95% CI: 0.1, 4.1; p = 0.03) at 24 weeks. The HEART programme was considered likely to be cost-effective for leisure time activity and walking. A mobile phone intervention

  10. Readiness of educational activity subjects for results-oriented cooperation in the inclusive educational practice of higher school

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    Vladimir Ts. Tsyrenov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the research is due to the necessity of integration of persons with health limitations and disabilities into the educational space of higher education institutions. With regard to this, the paper is aimed at finding out the extent of readiness of the educational activity subjects for results-oriented cooperation in inclusive educational practice of the higher school. The leading approach to studying this problem is the retrospective interdisciplinary analysis that allows an integrated consideration of the universities' readiness for full-fledged integration of people with health limitations and disabilities into the educational process. In the paper, the results of research into students' attitude toward the disabled and HL people and their readiness for results-oriented cooperation are presented, and the specific problems of psychological and social support rendering are described. The value references system of students with health limitations and disabilities has been found out, and grounds have been provided for having to include the subjects that form a tolerant attitude to special needs people into the student-training content. It has also been proven that qualified professional training has to be ensured for the academic teaching staff, infrastructure has to be provided, and an integrated program has to be developed that would allow personifying the academic process adjusted for the development particularities of students with health limitations. The materials of the paper are of practical importance for educational activity subjects involved into the higher-school inclusive educational practice.

  11. Decomposition of old organic matter as a result of deeper active layers in a snow depth manipulation experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowinski, Nicole S; Taneva, Lina; Trumbore, Susan E; Welker, Jeffrey M

    2010-07-01

    A snow addition experiment in moist acidic tussock tundra at Toolik Lake, Alaska, increased winter snow depths 2-3 m, and resulted in a doubling of the summer active layer depth. We used radiocarbon (Delta(14)C) to (1) determine the age of C respired in the deep soils under control and deepened active layer conditions (deep snow drifts), and (2) to determine the impact of increased snow and permafrost thawing on surface CO(2) efflux by partitioning respiration into autotrophic and heterotrophic components. Delta(14)C signatures of surface respiration were higher in the deep snow areas, reflecting a decrease in the proportion of autotrophic respiration. The radiocarbon age of soil pore CO(2) sampled near the maximum mid-July thaw depth was approximately 1,000 years in deep snow treatment plots (45-55 cm thaw depth), while CO(2) from the ambient snow areas was approximately 100 years old (30-cm thaw depth). Heterotrophic respiration Delta(14)C signatures from incubations were similar between the two snow depths for the organic horizon and were extremely variable in the mineral horizon, resulting in no significant differences between treatments in either month. Radiocarbon ages of heterotrophically respired C ranged from permafrost soils may be metabolized upon thawing. In the surface fluxes, this old C signal is obscured by the organic horizon fluxes, which are significantly higher. Our results indicate that, as permafrost in tussock tundra ecosystems of arctic Alaska thaws, carbon buried up to several thousands of years ago will become an active component of the carbon cycle, potentially accelerating the rise of CO(2) in the atmosphere.

  12. Twofold reduction of phosphofructokinase activity in Lactococcus lactis results in strong decreases in growth rate and in glycolytic flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Heidi Winterberg; Solem, Christian; Hammer, Karin

    2001-01-01

    kinase and lactate dehydrogenase remained closer to the wild-type level. In defined medium supplemented with glucose, the growth rate of the mutants was reduced to 57 to 70% of wild-type levels and the glycolytic flux was reduced to 62 to 76% of wild-type levels. In complex medium growth was even further...... reduced. Surprisingly, the mutants still showed homolactic fermentation, which indicated that the limitation was different from standard glucose-limited conditions, One explanation could be that the reduced activity of phosphofructokinase resulted in the accumulation of sugar-phosphates. Indeed, when one...

  13. Charpy impact test results of four low activation ferritic alloys irradiated at 370{degrees}C to 15 DPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, L.E.; Hamilton, M.L.; Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Miniature CVN specimens of four low activation ferritic alloys have been impact tested following irradiation at 370{degrees}C to 15 dpa. Comparison of the results with those of control specimens indicates that degradation in the impact behavior occurs in each of these four alloys. The 9Cr-2W alloy referred to as GA3X and the similar alloy F82H with 7.8Cr-2W appear most promising for further consideration as candidate structural materials in fusion energy system applications. These two alloys exhibit a small DBTT shift to higher temperatures but show increased absorbed energy on the upper shelf.

  14. Effects of geomagnetic activity variations on the physiological and psychological state of functionally healthy humans: Some results of Azerbaijani studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayev, Elchin S.; Allahverdiyeva, Aysel A.

    There are collaborative and cross-disciplinary space weather studies in the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences conducted with purposes of revealing possible effects of solar, geomagnetic and cosmic ray variability on certain technological, biological and ecological systems. This paper describes some results of the experimental studies of influence of the periodical and aperiodical changes of geomagnetic activity upon human brain, human health and psycho-emotional state. It also covers the conclusions of studies on influence of violent solar events and severe geomagnetic storms of the solar cycle 23 on the mentioned systems in middle-latitude location. It is experimentally established that weak and moderate geomagnetic storms do not cause significant changes in the brain's bioelectrical activity and exert only stimulating influence while severe disturbances of geomagnetic conditions cause negative influence, seriously disintegrate brain's functionality, activate braking processes and amplify the negative emotional background of an individual. It is concluded that geomagnetic disturbances affect mainly emotional and vegetative spheres of human beings while characteristics reflecting personality properties do not undergo significant changes.

  15. The Impact of Exercise, Cognitive Activities, and Socialization on Cognitive Function: Results From the National Long-Term Care Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrziewski, M Kathryn; Ewbank, Douglas C; Wang, Haidong; Trojanowski, John Q

    2014-06-01

    Currently, there are no effective treatments for Alzheimer's disease and related disorders and age continues to be a robust risk factor. Thus, population aging in the United States may have catastrophic results if interventions are not found and implemented. This study examines possible associations between cognitive impairment and exercise, cognitive activities, and socialization. Cognitive activities, socialization, and exercise were assessed at baseline, and cognitive function was measured at baseline, 5-year, and 10-year follow-up. Controlling for baseline cognitive function, age, sex, education, diabetes, and hypertension, linear regression was performed. Engagement in cognitive activities was inversely associated with the onset of cognitive impairment at 5-year follow-up but was no longer significant at 10-year follow-up. Exercise was associated with a lower risk of cognitive impairment at 10-year follow-up but was not significant at 5-year follow-up. Associations with socialization were not statistically significant at either follow-up. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Can we use digital life-log images to investigate active and sedentary travel behaviour? Results from a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodges Steve

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active travel such as walking and cycling has potential to increase physical activity levels in sedentary individuals. Motorised car travel is a sedentary behaviour that contributes to carbon emissions. There have been recent calls for technology that will improve our ability to measure these travel behaviours, and in particular evaluate modes and volumes of active versus sedentary travel. The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate the potential efficacy of a new electronic measurement device, a wearable digital camera called SenseCam, in travel research. Methods Participants (n = 20 were required to wear the SenseCam device for one full day of travel. The device automatically records approximately 3,600 time-stamped, first-person point-of-view images per day, without any action required by the wearer. Participants also completed a self-report travel diary over the same period for comparison, and were interviewed afterwards to assess user burden and experience. Results There were a total of 105 confirmed journeys in this pilot. The new SenseCam device recorded more journeys than the travel diary (99 vs. 94. Although the two measures demonstrated an acceptable correlation for journey duration (r = 0.92, p Conclusions Direct observation of travel behaviour from time-stamped images shows considerable potential in the field of travel research. Journey duration derived from direct observation of travel behaviour from time-stamped images appears to suggest over-reporting of self-reported journey duration.

  17. The DOSIS -Experiment onboard the Columbus Laboratory of the International Space Station -First Mission Results from the Active DOSTEL Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Soenke; Berger, Thomas; Beaujean, Rudolf; Boehme, Matthias; Haumann, Lutz; Kortmann, Onno; Labrenz, Johannes; Reitz, Guenther

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long dura-tion human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature from that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Accurate knowledge of the physical characteristics of the space radiation field in dependence on the solar activity, the orbital parameters and the different shielding configurations of the International Space Station ISS is therefore needed. For the investigation of the spatial and temporal distribution of the radiation field inside the European COLUMBUS module the DLR experiment DOSIS (Dose Distribution Inside the ISS) was launched on July 15th 2009 with STS-127 to the ISS. The experimental package was transferred from the Space Shuttle into COLUMBUS on July 18th. It consists in a first part of a combination of passive detector packages (PDP) distributed at 11 locations inside the European Columbus Laboratory. The second part are two active radiation detectors (DOSTELs) with a DDPU (DOSIS Data and Power Unit) in a nomex pouch (DOSIS MAIN BOX) mounted at a fixed location beneath the European Physiology Module (EPM) inside COLUMBUS. After the successful installation the active part has been activated on the 18th July 2009. Each of the DOSTEL units consists of two 6.93 cm PIPS silicon detectors forming a telescope with an opening angle of 120. The two DOSTELs are mounted with their telescope axis perpendicular to each other to investigate anisotropies of the radiation field inside the COLUMBUS module especially during the passes through the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) and during Solar Particle Events (SPEs). The data from the DOSTEL units are transferred to ground via the EPM rack which is activated

  18. Optical properties and CCN activity of aerosols in a high-altitude Himalayan environment: Results from RAWEX-GVAX: CCN activity of aerosols over Himalayas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogoi, Mukunda M. [Space Physics Laboratory, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram India; Babu, S. Suresh [Space Physics Laboratory, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram India; Jayachandran, V. [Space Physics Laboratory, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram India; Moorthy, K. Krishna [Indian Space Research Organization Head Quarters, Bangalore India; Satheesh, S. K. [Centre for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore India; Naja, Manish [Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences, Nainital India; Kotamarthi, V. R. [Environmental Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois USA

    2015-03-27

    The seasonality and mutual dependence of aerosol optical properties and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity under varying meteorological conditions at the high-altitude Nainital site (~2 km) in the Indo-Gangetic Plains were examined using nearly year-round measurements (June 2011 to March 2012) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) mobile facility as part of the RAWEX-GVAX experiment of the Indian Space Research Organization and the U.S. Department of Energy. The results from collocated measurements provided enhanced aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients, CCN concentrations and total condensation nuclei (CN) concentrations during the dry autumn and winter months. The CCN concentration (at a supersaturation of 0.46) was higher during periods of high aerosol absorption (single-scattering albedo (SSA) < 0.80) than during periods of high aerosol scattering (SSA > 0.85), indicating that the aerosol composition seasonally changes and influences the CCN activity. The monthly mean CCN activation ratio (at a supersaturation of 0.46) was highest (> 0.7) in late autumn (November); this finding is attributed to the contribution of biomass-burning aerosols to CCN formation at high supersaturation conditions.

  19. Target Residence Time-Guided Optimization on TTK Kinase Results in Inhibitors with Potent Anti-Proliferative Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitdehaag, Joost C M; de Man, Jos; Willemsen-Seegers, Nicole; Prinsen, Martine B W; Libouban, Marion A A; Sterrenburg, Jan Gerard; de Wit, Joeri J P; de Vetter, Judith R F; de Roos, Jeroen A D M; Buijsman, Rogier C; Zaman, Guido J R

    2017-07-07

    The protein kinase threonine tyrosine kinase (TTK; also known as Mps1) is a critical component of the spindle assembly checkpoint and a promising drug target for the treatment of aggressive cancers, such as triple negative breast cancer. While the first TTK inhibitors have entered clinical trials, little is known about how the inhibition of TTK with small-molecule compounds affects cellular activity. We studied the selective TTK inhibitor NTRC 0066-0, which was developed in our own laboratory, together with 11 TTK inhibitors developed by other companies, including Mps-BAY2b, BAY 1161909, BAY 1217389 (Bayer), TC-Mps1-12 (Shionogi), and MPI-0479605 (Myrexis). Parallel testing shows that the cellular activity of these TTK inhibitors correlates with their binding affinity to TTK and, more strongly, with target residence time. TTK inhibitors are therefore an example where target residence time determines activity in in vitro cellular assays. X-ray structures and thermal stability experiments reveal that the most potent compounds induce a shift of the glycine-rich loop as a result of binding to the catalytic lysine at position 553. This "lysine trap" disrupts the catalytic machinery. Based on these insights, we developed TTK inhibitors, based on a (5,6-dihydro)pyrimido[4,5-e]indolizine scaffold, with longer target residence times, which further exploit an allosteric pocket surrounding Lys553. Their binding mode is new for kinase inhibitors and can be classified as hybrid Type I/Type III. These inhibitors have very potent anti-proliferative activity that rivals classic cytotoxic therapy. Our findings will open up new avenues for more applications for TTK inhibitors in cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Preliminary clinical results: an analyzing tool for 2D optical imaging in detection of active inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adi Aizudin Bin Radin Nasirudin, Radin; Meier, Reinhard; Ahari, Carmen; Sievert, Matti; Fiebich, Martin; Rummeny, Ernst J.; No"l, Peter B.

    2011-03-01

    Optical imaging (OI) is a relatively new method in detecting active inflammation of hand joints of patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis (RA). With the high number of people affected by this disease especially in western countries, the availability of OI as an early diagnostic imaging method is clinically highly relevant. In this paper, we present a newly in-house developed OI analyzing tool and a clinical evaluation study. Our analyzing tool extends the capability of existing OI tools. We include many features in the tool, such as region-based image analysis, hyper perfusion curve analysis, and multi-modality image fusion to aid clinicians in localizing and determining the intensity of inflammation in joints. Additionally, image data management options, such as the full integration of PACS/RIS, are included. In our clinical study we demonstrate how OI facilitates the detection of active inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis. The preliminary clinical results indicate a sensitivity of 43.5%, a specificity of 80.3%, an accuracy of 65.7%, a positive predictive value of 76.6%, and a negative predictive value of 64.9% in relation to clinical results from MRI. The accuracy of inflammation detection serves as evidence to the potential of OI as a useful imaging modality for early detection of active inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. With our in-house developed tool we extend the usefulness of OI imaging in the clinical arena. Overall, we show that OI is a fast, inexpensive, non-invasive and nonionizing yet highly sensitive and accurate imaging modality.-

  1. Disruption of Trichoderma reesei cre2, encoding an ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase, results in increased cellulase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denton Jai A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina is an important source of cellulases for use in the textile and alternative fuel industries. To fully understand the regulation of cellulase production in T. reesei, the role of a gene known to be involved in carbon regulation in Aspergillus nidulans, but unstudied in T. reesei, was investigated. Results The T. reesei orthologue of the A. nidulans creB gene, designated cre2, was identified and shown to be functional through heterologous complementation of a creB mutation in A. nidulans. A T. reesei strain was constructed using gene disruption techniques that contained a disrupted cre2 gene. This strain, JKTR2-6, exhibited phenotypes similar to the A. nidulans creB mutant strain both in carbon catabolite repressing, and in carbon catabolite derepressing conditions. Importantly, the disruption also led to elevated cellulase levels. Conclusions These results demonstrate that cre2 is involved in cellulase expression. Since the disruption of cre2 increases the amount of cellulase activity, without severe morphological affects, targeting creB orthologues for disruption in other industrially useful filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus oryzae, Trichoderma harzianum or Aspergillus niger may also lead to elevated hydrolytic enzyme activity in these species.

  2. REMUNERATION FOR THE AUTHOR FOR THE CREATION AND USE OF THE SERVICE RESULT OF INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY: HISTORIC AND PHILOSOPHICAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Aleksandrovna Vilmova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the civil legislation in the field of regulation of legal relations between the author-worker and the employer concerning the creation and use of the service results of intellectual activity (RIA, there are a number of unresolved issues. One of them concerns the size, the procedure for determining and paying remuneration to the author of the work. Despite the availability to date of a sufficient number of legal and by-laws (which refer to each other, but do not provide answers to the questions posed, the question of the legal nature of remuneration remains unresolved, as a material benefit paid to the author. As a result, employers or third parties often abuse legislative gaps in order to obtain an object of creative work without payment to the employee for the fairness of the due goods. After the creation of the official RIA, the question arises of the payment or non-payment of remuneration to the employee. After all, it will be profitable for the employer to recognize an object created by a thoughtful way, performed by an employee in the framework of a labor activity or a specific job of the employer. At what, such task should not go beyond the scope of the job description. As compensation, as a rule, will be small. And what if the object is created outside the scope of the labor function? What will be the fair and lawful amount of remuneration? Therefore, it is precisely such concepts as «labor duty» and «specific task of the employer» that become a stumbling block in practice. And when solving the questions posed, the authors often begin to search for answers from the philosophical origins of the origin of remuneration for creative work, using methods of comparative analysis, historical legal methods and even the philosophical teachings of ancient thinkers. Let’s demonstrate this on this topic. The purpose of the scientific article is to solve the problem when collecting the author’s performance results of intellectual activity

  3. Correlates of physical activity among colorectal cancer survivors: results from the longitudinal population-based profiles registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putten, M van; Husson, O.; Mols, F.; Luyer, M.D.; Poll-Franse, L.V. van de; Ezendam, N.P.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Physical activity can improve health of cancer survivors. To increase physical activity levels among colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors, we need to understand which factors affect physical activity. Therefore, this study examined the longitudinal relationship between symptom-related,

  4. Ocean Pollution as a Result of Onshore Offshore Petroleum Activities in the African Gulf of Guinea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, B.

    2007-05-01

    The Gulf of Guinea region is located on the Atlantic side of Africa; the sub region has a total population of approximately 190million people. It comprises of five different countries and their territorial waters, which are as follows: Nigeria, Sao Tome & Principe, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and Cameroon. The sub region is blessed with so many types of natural resources ranging from petroleum, Natural gas, Bitumen, Uranium Diamond and Gold to mention but a few. However the region since the last two decades started attracting the World's attention as a result of the continuous increasing discoveries of new oil fields on both its on shores and off shores. In view of this extra ordinary increasing discoveries of new oil fields in the region, the Gulf of Guinea has become a "Gold rush" to the oil companies and it has so far attracted almost all the top oil firms in the world including; Exxon Mobil, Shell, Total, Texaco, Agip, Chevron, Slumberger, Stat Oil and Conoco Phillips among many other oil giants. In the more recent time even the U.S. Marine Corp have stationed their War Ship in the territorial waters of the Gulf in the name of providing protection to the "Liquid Gold" (Petroleum) underlying the beneath of the region. OIL ACTIVITIES AND ITS ASSOCIATED PROBLEMS IN THE GULF OF GUINEA As a result of the geometrically increasing oil activities in the region ranging from Drilling, Gas flaring, Bunkering and Exploration activities, there was increase in the general pollution of the region. For example recent reports released in June, 2005 by the internationally renown nongovernmental organization on environmental pollution the Netherlands based Climate Justice programme and the Nigeria's Environmental Rights Action, Under the aegis of friends of the Earth, had it that the region is ranked top on the world's total flare with Nigeria along accounting for 16 percent of the world's total flare. Another example is the increasing cases of oil spillages leading to the

  5. Active foot synovitis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: applying clinical criteria for disease activity and remission may result in underestimation of foot joint involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechalekar, Mihir D; Lester, Susan; Proudman, Susanna M; Cleland, Leslie G; Whittle, Samuel L; Rischmueller, Maureen; Hill, Catherine L

    2012-05-01

    To determine whether application of criteria for remission in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may result in underestimation of foot joint involvement among patients in a clinic setting. RA patients (n = 123) were assessed at baseline and 6 months after commencement of a response-driven combination disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) protocol. Remission was assessed using disease activity measures (the 28-joint Disease Activity Score using the erythrocyte sedimentation rate [DAS28-ESR], Simplified Disease Activity Index [SDAI], and Clinical Disease Activity Index [CDAI]) as well as Boolean-based criteria for remission (the 1981 American College of Rheumatology [ACR] preliminary criteria and the 2011 ACR/European League Against Rheumatism [EULAR] provisional criteria). The prevalence of foot synovitis and the mean swollen/tender foot joint count in RA patients meeting any of these remission criteria were estimated by hurdle (mixed distribution) regression. In patients who received 6 months of combination DMARD treatment, application of the 1981 ACR criteria and the newly proposed 2011 ACR/EULAR criteria, each utilizing full joint counts (which includes assessment of the feet), classified the least number of patients as being in remission (8-10%), and evidence of foot synovitis was minimal among these patients. In contrast, ongoing foot synovitis was present in a substantial proportion of patients (>20%) meeting the 28-joint count criteria for remission, including the DAS28-ESR, SDAI, CDAI, and 2011 ACR/EULAR criteria (clinical practice setting or clinical trials). Furthermore, applying the 2011 ACR/EULAR composite remission criterion of a SDAI score ≤3.3 to define remission did not adequately capture the resolution of foot synovitis (i.e., residual foot involvement was still detected in a substantial proportion of patients classified as being in remission by this definition). Although the DAS28-ESR, CDAI, and SDAI have been validated for assessment of remission

  6. Nutrigenomic activity of plant derived compounds in health and disease: Results of a dietary intervention study in dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgorlon, Sandy; Stefanon, Bruno; Sandri, Misa; Colitti, Monica

    2016-12-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary administrations of four nutraceuticals in dogs. Seventy four dogs were enrolled in the trials, 24 healthy dogs were fed with a control diet (CT) and the experimental groups received for 60days the same diet supplemented with nutraceuticals, namely Echinacea angustifolia (EA, 0.10mg/kg live weight as echinacoside; 14 dogs), Vaccinium myrtillus (VM, 0.20mg/kg live weight as anthocyanidin, 13 dogs), Curcuma longa (CL, 6.60mg/kg live weight as curcumin, 18 dogs with arthrosis), and Sylibum marianum (SM, 1.5mg/kg live weight as sylibin, 8 dogs with hepatopathy). Dogs were weighted at the beginning of study and blood samples were collected at the beginning (T0) and at the end (T60) of the study. VM significantly down regulated TNF, CXCL8, NFKB1 and PTGS2 and decreased plasma ceruloplasmin (CuCp). The activity of EA was evidenced by the significant decrease of TNF and NFKB1 expression and CuCp levels and by the increase of plasma Zn. Administration of CL caused a significant decrease of CuCp and increase of Zn and a down regulation of TNF, CXCL8, NFKB1 and PTGS2, corroborating the anti-inflammatory action of curcuminoids. After 60days of treatment with SM, plasma ALT/GPT activity was reduced and paraoxonase was increased, supporting the antioxidant activity of silymarin, also confirmed by the significant up regulation of SOD2. Results indicated that nutraceutical administrations in dogs can be an interesting approach to modulate immune response in order to improve health condition of animals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Arsenic absorption by members of the Brassicacea family, analysed by neutron activation, k{sub 0}-method - preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uemura, George; Matos, Ludmila Vieira da Silva; Silva, Maria Aparecida da; Ferreira, Alexandre Santos Martorano; Menezes, Maria Angela de Barros Correia [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: george@cdtn.br, e-mail: menezes@cdtn.br

    2009-07-01

    Natural arsenic contamination is a cause for concern in many countries of the world including Argentina, Bangladesh, Chile, China, India, Mexico, Thailand and the United States of America and also in Brazil, specially in the Iron Quadrangle area, where mining activities has been contributing to aggravate natural contamination. Brassicacea is a plant family with edible species (arugula, cabbage, cauliflower, cress, kale, mustard, radish), ornamental ones (alysssum, field pennycress, ornamental cabbages and kales) and some species are known as metal and metalloid accumulators (Indian mustard, field pennycress), like chromium, nickel, and arsenic. The present work aimed at studying other taxa of the Brassicaceae family to verify their capability in absorbing arsenic, under controlled conditions, for possible utilisation in remediation activities. The analytical method chosen was neutron activation analysis, k{sub 0} method, a routine technique at CDTN, and also very appropriate for arsenic studies. To avoid possible interference from solid substrates, like sand or vermiculite, attempts were carried out to keep the specimens in 1/4 Murashige and Skoog basal salt solution (M and S). Growth was stumped, plants withered and perished, showing that modifications in M and S had to be done. The addition of nickel and silicon allowed normal growth of the plant specimens, for periods longer than usually achieved (more than two months); yielding samples large enough for further studies with other techniques, like ICP-MS, and other targets, like speciation studies. The results of arsenic absorption are presented here and the need of nickel and silicon in the composition of M and S is discussed. (author)

  8. Effects of Cognitive Leisure Activity on Cognition in Mild Cognitive Impairment: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Takehiko; Verghese, Joe; Makizako, Hyuma; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Hotta, Ryo; Nakakubo, Sho; Suzuki, Takao; Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2017-08-01

    To test the hypothesis that a long-term, structured cognitive leisure activity program is more effective than a health education program at reducing the risk of further cognitive decline in older adults with mild cognitive impairment syndrome (MCI), a high risk for dementia. A 3-arm, single-blind randomized controlled trial. Community. A total of 201 Japanese adults with MCI (mean age: 76.0 years, 52% women). Participants were randomized into 1 of 2 cognitive leisure activity programs (60 minutes weekly for 40 weeks): dance (n = 67) and playing musical instruments (n = 67), or a health education control group (n = 67). Primary outcomes were memory function changes at 40 weeks. Secondary outcomes included changes in Mini-Mental State Examination and nonmemory domain (Trail Making Tests A and B) scores. At 40 weeks, the dance group showed improved memory recall scores compared with controls [mean change (SD): dance group 0.73 (1.9) vs controls 0.01 (1.9); P = .011], whereas the music group did not show an improvement compared with controls (P = .123). Both dance [mean change (SD): 0.29 (2.6); P = .026] and music groups [mean change (SD): 0.46 (2.1); P = .008] showed improved Mini-Mental State Examination scores compared with controls [mean change (SD): -0.36 (2.3)]. No difference in the nonmemory cognitive tests was observed. Long-term cognitive leisure activity programs involving dance or playing musical instruments resulted in improvements in memory and general cognitive function compared with a health education program in older adults with MCI. UMIN-CTR UMIN000014261. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Behavioral activation for smoking cessation and mood management following a cardiac event: results of a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Andrew M; Tooley, Erin M; Dunsiger, Shira; Chattillion, Elizabeth A; Srour, John Fani; Pagoto, Sherry L; Kahler, Christopher W; Borrelli, Belinda

    2017-04-17

    Smoking cessation following hospitalization for Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) significantly reduces subsequent mortality. Depressed mood is a major barrier to cessation post-ACS. Although existing counseling treatments address smoking and depression independently in ACS patients, no integrated treatment addresses both. We developed an integrated treatment combining gold standard cessation counseling with behavioral activation-based mood management; Behavioral Activation Treatment for Cardiac Smokers (BAT-CS). The purpose of this pilot randomized controlled trial was to test feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of BAT-CS vs. Standard of Care (SC). Participants were recruited during hospitalization for ACS and were randomly assigned to BAT-CS or SC. The nicotine patch was offered in both conditions. Smoking, mood, and stress outcomes were collected at end-of-treatment and 24-week follow-up. Fifty-nine participants (28 BAT-CS, 31 SC) were recruited over 42 weeks, and assessment completion was above 80% in both conditions. Treatment acceptability and fidelity were high. At 24 week follow-up adjusted odds ratios favoring BAT-CS were 1.27 (95% CI: 0.41-3.93) for 7-day point prevalence abstinence and 1.27 (95% CI: 0.42-3.82) for continuous abstinence. Time to first smoking lapse was significantly longer in BAT-CS (62.4 vs. 31.8 days, p = 0.03). At 24-weeks, effect sizes for mood and stress outcomes ranged from η(2)partial of.07-.11, with significant between treatment effects for positive affect, negative affect, and stress. The design of this study proved feasible and acceptable. Results provide preliminary evidence that combining behavioral activation with standard smoking cessation counseling could be efficacious for this high risk population. A larger trial with longer follow-up is warranted. NCT01964898 . First received by clinicaltrials.gov October 15, 2013.

  10. Effectiveness of a low-threshold physical activity intervention in residential aged care – results of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cichocki M

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Martin Cichocki,1 Viktoria Quehenberger,1 Michael Zeiler,1 Tanja Adamcik,1 Matthias Manousek,1 Tanja Stamm,2 Karl Krajic1 1Ludwig Boltzmann Institute Health Promotion Research, 2Medical University of Vienna & University of Applied Sciences FH Campus, Wien, Vienna, Austria Purpose: Research on effectiveness of low-threshold mobility interventions that are viable for users of residential aged care is scarce. Low-threshold is defined as keeping demands on organizations (staff skills, costs and participants (health status, discipline rather low. The study explored the effectiveness of a multi-faceted, low-threshold physical activity program in three residential aged-care facilities in Austria. Main goals were enhancement of mobility by conducting a multi-faceted training program to foster occupational performance and thus improve different aspects of health-related quality of life (QoL.Participants and methods: The program consisted of a weekly session of 60 minutes over a period of 20 weeks. A standardized assessment of mobility status and health-related QoL was applied before and after the intervention. A total of 222 of 276 participants completed the randomized controlled trial study (intervention group n=104, control group n=118; average age 84 years, 88% female.Results: Subjective health status (EuroQoL-5 dimensions: P=0.001, d=0.36 improved significantly in the intervention group, and there were also positive trends in occupational performance (Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. No clear effects were found concerning the functional and cognitive measures applied.Conclusion: Thus, the low-threshold approach turned out to be effective primarily on subjective health-related QoL. This outcome could be a useful asset for organizations offering low-threshold physical activity interventions. Keywords: physical activity, intervention, residential aged care, effectiveness, aged

  11. The analysis of the influence of the intellectual capital on the results of the commercial activity of financial institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkolik, Oleg; Chirkova, Larisa; Chirkova, Polina

    2016-08-01

    Developing (underdeveloped) countries are territories of slow economic growth (catch-up growth). Perspectives of their economic growth largely depend on developing and introducing financial and technological innovations in the sphere of the financial markets. The level and quality of those innovations should enable provision of faster growth of the financial sector of the national economy by rising stability and effectiveness of the financial institutions. Powerful and stable financial sector is the basic element for attracting investments and upsurge of liquidity in the economic system of a developing country that aims to have developed economy. Intellectual capital is the most important of the fundamental factors of production in the financial sphere. It is a catalytic element of the process of the economic development. From this position, the researchers' collective develops and presents a mathematical model which characterizes the connection between the intellectual capital and financial results of the commercial activity of financial institutions. The model is applied in the analysis of the activity of financial institutions that are part of the EEU.

  12. PD98059 Protects Brain against Cells Death Resulting from ROS/ERK Activation in a Cardiac Arrest Rat Model

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    Phuong Anh Nguyen Thi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical and experimental postcardiac arrest treatment has not reached therapeutic success. The present study investigated the effect of PD98059 (PD in rats subjected to cardiac arrest (CA/cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. Experimental rats were divided randomly into 3 groups: sham, CA, and PD. The rats except for sham group were subjected to CA for 5 min followed by CPR operation. Once spontaneous circulation was restored, saline and PD were injected in CA and PD groups, respectively. The survival rates and neurologic deficit scores (NDS were observed, and the following indices of brain tissue were evaluated: ROS, MDA, SOD, p-ERK1/2/ERK1/2, caspase-3, Bax, Bcl-2, TUNEL positive cells, and double fluorescent staining of p-ERK/TUNEL. Our results indicated that PD treatment significantly reduced apoptotic neurons and improved the survival rates and NDS. Moreover, PD markedly downregulated the ROS, MDA, p-ERK, and caspase-3, Bax and upregulated SOD and Bcl-2 levels. Double staining p-ERK/TUNEL in choroid plexus and cortex showed that cell death is dependent on ERK activation. The findings in present study demonstrated that PD provides neuroprotection via antioxidant activity and antiapoptosis in rats subjected to CA/CPR.

  13. Improving Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies in Afterschool Programs: Results from a Group-Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Erica L.; Giles, Catherine M.; deBlois, Madeleine E.; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Chinfatt, Sherene; Cradock, Angie L.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Afterschool programs can be health-promoting environments for children. Written policies positively influence nutrition and physical activity (PA) environments, but effective strategies for building staff capacity to write such policies have not been evaluated. This study measures the comprehensiveness of written nutrition, PA, and screen time policies in afterschool programs and assesses impact of the Out of School Nutrition and Physical Activity (OSNAP) intervention on key policies. METHODS Twenty afterschool programs in Boston, MA participated in a group-randomized, controlled trial from September 2010 to June 2011. Intervention program staff attended learning collaboratives focused on practice and policy change. The Out-of-School Time (OST) Policy Assessment Index evaluated written policies. Inter-rater reliability and construct validity of the measure and impact of the intervention on written policies were assessed. RESULTS The measure demonstrated moderate to excellent inter-rater reliability (Spearman’s r=0.53 to 0.97) and construct validity. OSNAP was associated with significant increases in standards-based policy statements surrounding snacks (+2.6, p=0.003), beverages (+2.3, p=0.008), screen time (+0.8, p=0.046), family communication (+2.2, p=0.002), and a summary index of OSNAP goals (+3.3, p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS OSNAP demonstrated success in building staff capacity to write health-promoting policy statements. Future research should focus on determining policy change impact on practices. PMID:24941286

  14. Change in snow avalanche and debris flow hazards in the region of Krasnaya Polyana as the result of anthropogenic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnyparkov, A. L.; Seliverstov, Y. G.; Sokratov, S. A.; Koltermann, K. P.

    2012-04-01

    The first evaluations of the snow avalanches and debris flow danger in the region of Krasnaya Polyana (Winter Olympic Games 2014 site) were made by the staff of LSADF in 1960s. In those times the danger was estimated as medium and low. Active development of the region started in 2000, when the ski (mountain climatic health) resort Alpika Service was constructed at the north slope of Aibga mountain range. Then the Alpine resorts Rosa Khutor and Gornaya Karusel [Mountain Carousel] were put into operation on the same slope. OAO Gazprom was also developing its own ski resort at the neighbouring Psekhako ridge. As the result of deforestation the quantity of small snow avalanches increased on the Aibga slopes. Skiers were caught several times by avalanches initiated by them in the reported avalanche events. The construction of ski runs, motorways, roads, as well as building of other related infrastructure has resulted in considerable change in relief. The sediment capping was dumped into stream canals, which resulted in the formation of debris flows, threatening the infrastructure of the ski resorts. The relief change related to the on going Olympic constructions is especially pronounced, when newly formed landfilling on some slopes becomes the material for landslides and debris flows and beds for avalanches. Thus, the degree of snow avalanche and debris flows danger increased considerably in the recent years, requiring originally unplanned mitigation measures.

  15. Stereoselectivity of enoyl-CoA hydratase results from preferential activation of one of two bound substrate conformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Alasdair F; Feng, Yuguo; Hofstein, Hilary A; Parikh, Sapan; Wu, Jiaquan; Rudolph, Michael J; Kisker, Caroline; Whitty, Adrian; Tonge, Peter J

    2002-11-01

    Enoyl-CoA hydratase catalyzes the hydration of trans-2-crotonyl-CoA to 3(S)- and 3(R)-hydroxybutyryl-CoA with a stereoselectivity (3(S)/3(R)) of 400,000 to 1. Importantly, Raman spectroscopy reveals that both the s-cis and s-trans conformers of the substrate analog hexadienoyl-CoA are bound to the enzyme, but that only the s-cis conformer is polarized. This selective polarization is an example of ground state strain, indicating the existence of catalytically relevant ground state destabilization arising from the selective complementarity of the enzyme toward the transition state rather than the ground state. Consequently, the stereoselectivity of the enzyme-catalyzed reaction results from the selective activation of one of two bound substrate conformers rather than from selective binding of a single conformer. These findings have important implications for inhibitor design and the role of ground state interactions in enzyme catalysis.

  16. Earliest Results in the Use of Activated Composite Membranes for the Transport of Silver Ions from Aqueous Solutions

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    Yucundo Mendoza-Tolentino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results concerning the first use of activated composite membranes (ACMs for the facilitated transport of silver ions containing di-(2-ethylhexyl-dithiophosphoric acid (DTPA as the carrier. DTPA was immobilized by interfacial polymerization in a dense layer that was deposited in a porous layer, which was prepared on a nonwoven fabric support by phase inversion. The influence of fundamental parameters affecting the transport of silver ion as the carrier concentration in the membrane phase and stripping agent variation of the stripping solution have been studied. In the optimal conditions, the amount of silver transported across the ACMs was greater than 50%, whereas if the content of the carrier is modified, more than the 90% of the initial silver is removed from the feed phase.

  17. NK-, NKT- and CD8-Derived IFNγ Drives Myeloid Cell Activation and Erythrophagocytosis, Resulting in Trypanosomosis-Associated Acute Anemia.

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    Jennifer Cnops

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available African trypanosomes are the causative agents of Human African Trypanosomosis (HAT/Sleeping Sickness and Animal African Trypanosomosis (AAT/Nagana. A common hallmark of African trypanosome infections is inflammation. In murine trypanosomosis, the onset of inflammation occurs rapidly after infection and is manifested by an influx of myeloid cells in both liver and spleen, accompanied by a burst of serum pro-inflammatory cytokines. Within 48 hours after reaching peak parasitemia, acute anemia develops and the percentage of red blood cells drops by 50%. Using a newly developed in vivo erythrophagocytosis assay, we recently demonstrated that activated cells of the myeloid phagocytic system display enhanced erythrophagocytosis causing acute anemia. Here, we aimed to elucidate the mechanism and immune pathway behind this phenomenon in a murine model for trypanosomosis. Results indicate that IFNγ plays a crucial role in the recruitment and activation of erythrophagocytic myeloid cells, as mice lacking the IFNγ receptor were partially protected against trypanosomosis-associated inflammation and acute anemia. NK and NKT cells were the earliest source of IFNγ during T. b. brucei infection. Later in infection, CD8+ and to a lesser extent CD4+ T cells become the main IFNγ producers. Cell depletion and transfer experiments indicated that during infection the absence of NK, NKT and CD8+ T cells, but not CD4+ T cells, resulted in a reduced anemic phenotype similar to trypanosome infected IFNγR-/- mice. Collectively, this study shows that NK, NKT and CD8+ T cell-derived IFNγ is a critical mediator in trypanosomosis-associated pathology, driving enhanced erythrophagocytosis by myeloid phagocytic cells and the induction of acute inflammation-associated anemia.

  18. Promoting physical activity in worksite settings: results of a German pilot study of the online intervention Healingo fit

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    Kevin Dadaczynski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide, one third of the adult population is insufficiently physically active. This fact has led to a strong demand for public health initiatives. Given the mixed evidence on the effectiveness of worksite interventions promoting physical activity (PA, a pedometer-based and gamified intervention, Healingo Fit, was developed and evaluated over a period of six weeks. Methods The effectiveness of Healingo Fit was evaluated as part of a randomized controlled trial (RCT with two measurement points involving employees of an automobile manufacturer. Direct health promotion outcomes were assessed using self-developed items on PA knowledge, the HAPA brief scales and the exercise self-efficacy scale. IPAQ short version was used to assess different forms of PA behavior. Intervention effects were identified using a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA with repeated measurements. Results A total of 144 participants took part in the study (intervention group = 80, control group = 64. The results of the ANOVA show significant interaction effects (group x time for health promotion outcomes (knowledge, intention, and self-efficacy, with medium to high effect sizes. In the health behavior related outcomes, there were significant improvements, with large effect sizes for low levels of PA, but not for moderate and high PA. Walking time increased by 125 min/week in the intervention group, corresponding to a percentage increase of 30% compared to baseline. Conclusions Pedometer-based interventions using gamification elements can have positive effects not only on health promotion parameters but can also lead to an increase in PA behavior. The online format of Healingo Fit is suitable for reaching large numbers of people and achieving population effects. Trial registration German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS: DRKS00006105 , date of registration: 2017–03-24.

  19. Behavioral activation for smoking cessation and mood management following a cardiac event: results of a pilot randomized controlled trial

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    Andrew M. Busch

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking cessation following hospitalization for Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS significantly reduces subsequent mortality. Depressed mood is a major barrier to cessation post-ACS. Although existing counseling treatments address smoking and depression independently in ACS patients, no integrated treatment addresses both. We developed an integrated treatment combining gold standard cessation counseling with behavioral activation-based mood management; Behavioral Activation Treatment for Cardiac Smokers (BAT-CS. The purpose of this pilot randomized controlled trial was to test feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of BAT-CS vs. Standard of Care (SC. Methods Participants were recruited during hospitalization for ACS and were randomly assigned to BAT-CS or SC. The nicotine patch was offered in both conditions. Smoking, mood, and stress outcomes were collected at end-of-treatment and 24-week follow-up. Results Fifty-nine participants (28 BAT-CS, 31 SC were recruited over 42 weeks, and assessment completion was above 80% in both conditions. Treatment acceptability and fidelity were high. At 24 week follow-up adjusted odds ratios favoring BAT-CS were 1.27 (95% CI: 0.41–3.93 for 7-day point prevalence abstinence and 1.27 (95% CI: 0.42–3.82 for continuous abstinence. Time to first smoking lapse was significantly longer in BAT-CS (62.4 vs. 31.8 days, p = 0.03. At 24-weeks, effect sizes for mood and stress outcomes ranged from η2 partial of.07–.11, with significant between treatment effects for positive affect, negative affect, and stress. Conclusions The design of this study proved feasible and acceptable. Results provide preliminary evidence that combining behavioral activation with standard smoking cessation counseling could be efficacious for this high risk population. A larger trial with longer follow-up is warranted. Trial registration NCT01964898 . First received by clinicaltrials.gov October 15, 2013.

  20. COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar": first-year activities and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; Loizos, Andreas; Slob, Evert; Tosti, Fabio

    2014-05-01

    This work aims at presenting the first-year activities and results of COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar". This Action was launched in April 2013 and will last four years. The principal aim of COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of GPR techniques in civil engineering, whilst simultaneously promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of infrastructures and structures. Moreover, the Action is oriented to the following specific objectives and expected deliverables: (i) coordinating European scientists to highlight problems, merits and limits of current GPR systems; (ii) developing innovative protocols and guidelines, which will be published in a handbook and constitute a basis for European standards, for an effective GPR application in civil- engineering tasks; safety, economic and financial criteria will be integrated within the protocols; (iii) integrating competences for the improvement and merging of electromagnetic scattering techniques and of data- processing techniques; this will lead to a novel freeware tool for the localization of buried objects, shape-reconstruction and estimation of geophysical parameters useful for civil engineering needs; (iv) networking for the design, realization and optimization of innovative GPR equipment; (v) comparing GPR with different NDT techniques, such as ultrasonic, radiographic, liquid-penetrant, magnetic-particle, acoustic-emission and eddy-current testing; (vi) comparing GPR technology and methodology used in civil engineering with those used in other fields; (vii) promotion of a more widespread, advanced and efficient use of GPR in civil engineering; and (viii) organization of a high-level modular training program for GPR European users. Four Working Groups (WGs) carry out the research activities. The first WG

  1. Comparison of radon exposure assessment results: {sup 210}Po surface activity on glass objects vs. contemporary air radon concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochicchio, F. E-mail: francesco.bochicchio@iss.it; McLaughlin, J.P.; Walsh, C

    2003-06-01

    Radon exposure assessment in case-control studies on radon and lung cancer is generally based on contemporary radon concentration measurements, which can be affected by significant changes in the building structures or in living habits. Another method to estimate the radon exposure of the subjects is the recently developed retrospective dosimetry technique based on the {sup 210}Po surface activity from glass objects. In order to compare the results obtained by the two methods, a study has been carried out in a sample of 26 dwellings in Rome, with radon concentration values ranging from 28 to 623 Bq m{sup -3}. Retrospective detectors based on CR-39 and LR 115 were exposed on 50 glass objects in bedrooms and living rooms. The correlation factor between the two sets of data, after removing six extreme values, is 0.67, which is similar to results obtained in other validation studies of similar sample size. The correlation increases to 0.83 if the 21 objects exposed in non-smoky dwellings are selected, while it vanishes to -0.01 for the 23 objects exposed in smoky dwellings, suggesting quite larger variations of plate-out in presence of environmental tobacco smoke.

  2. Long term effects of preventive activities of youth health care in The Netherlands: results of a four-part study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter A. Wiegersma

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background. In this article the results are presented of a four part study on the effect of screening for scoliosis and (repeated well-care visits and freely accessible consultation hours at secondary schools, on the incidence and prevalence of (parasuicide, mental health, adolescent health compromising behaviour and lastly obesity.

    Methods. An ecologic case-referent study design was used with data from the Netherlands Bureau of Statistics, the Ministry of Defence, the 1992 High-School Student Study, all of the youth health care departments in The Netherlands and relevant censuses.

    Results. Attention to mental and physical health and health compromising behaviour, either during screening, open consultation hours or during well-care visits seems to be ineffective and in some instances even detrimental to youth health.

    Of the 18 different outcome measurements, 5 were significantly negative and none were significantly positive.

    Conclusions. This four part study does not support the hypothesis that on a population level, the preventive activities of youth health care departments such as screening for scoliosis, (more frequent well-care visits or offering open consultation hours at secondary schools, have a beneficial effect on prevention of (parasuicide, poor mental health, health compromising behaviour or obesity.

  3. Characterizing longitudinal patterns of physical activity in mid-adulthood using latent class analysis: results from a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverwood, Richard J; Nitsch, Dorothea; Pierce, Mary; Kuh, Diana; Mishra, Gita D

    2011-12-15

    The authors aimed to describe how longitudinal patterns of physical activity during mid-adulthood (ages 31-53 years) can be characterized using latent class analysis in a population-based birth cohort study, the Medical Research Council's 1946 National Survey of Health and Development. Three different types of physical activity-walking, cycling, and leisure-time physical activity-were analyzed separately using self-reported data collected from questionnaires between 1977 and 1999; 3,847 study members were included in the analysis for one or more types of activity. Patterns of activity differed by sex, so stratified analyses were conducted. Two walking latent classes were identified representing low (52.8% of males in the cohort, 33.5% of females) and high (47.2%, 66.5%) levels of activity. Similar low (91.4%, 82.1%) and high (8.6%, 17.9%) classes were found for cycling, while 3 classes were identified for leisure-time physical activity: "low activity" (46.2%, 48.2%), "sports and leisure activity" (31.0%, 35.3%), and "gardening and do-it-yourself activities" (22.8%, 16.5%). The classes were reasonably or very well separated, with the exception of walking in females. Latent class analysis was found to be a useful tool for characterizing longitudinal patterns of physical activity, even when the measurement instrument differs slightly across ages, which added value in comparison with observed activity at a single age.

  4. Cortical axons, isolated in channels, display activity-dependent signal modulation as a result of targeted stimulation

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    Marta K. Lewandowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian cortical axons are extremely thin processes that are difficult to study as a result of their small diameter: they are too narrow to patch while intact, and super-resolution microscopy is needed to resolve single axons. We present a method for studying axonal physiology by pairing a high-density microelectrode array with a microfluidic axonal isolation device, and use it to study activity-dependent modulation of axonal signal propagation evoked by stimulation near the soma. Up to three axonal branches from a single neuron, isolated in different channels, were recorded from simultaneously using 10-20 electrodes per channel. The axonal channels amplified spikes such that propagations of individual signals along tens of electrodes could easily be discerned with high signal to noise. Stimulation from 10 Hz up to 160 Hz demonstrated similar qualitative results from all of the cells studied: extracellular action potential characteristics changed drastically in response to stimulation. Spike height decreased, spike width increased, and latency increased, as a result of reduced propagation velocity, as the number of stimulations and the stimulation frequencies increased. Quantitatively, the strength of these changes manifested itself differently in cells at different frequencies of stimulation. Some cells’ signal fidelity fell to 80% already at 10 Hz, while others maintained 80% signal fidelity at 80 Hz. Differences in modulation by axonal branches of the same cell were also seen for many different stimulation frequencies, starting at 10 Hz. Potassium ion concentration changes altered the behavior of the cells causing propagation failures at lower concentrations and improving signal fidelity at higher concentrations.

  5. Pleiotropic enhancement of bacterial pathogenesis resulting from the constitutive activation of the Listeria monocytogenes regulatory factor PrfA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Kimberly J; Freitag, Nancy E

    2005-04-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes serious disease in immunocompromised individuals, pregnant women, and neonates. Bacterial virulence is mediated by the expression of specific gene products that facilitate entry into host cells and enable bacterial replication; the majority of these gene products are regulated by a transcriptional activator known as PrfA. L. monocytogenes strains containing prfA E77K or prfA G155S mutations exhibit increased expression of virulence genes in broth culture and are hypervirulent in mice. To define the scope of the influences of the prfA E77K and prfA G155S mutations on L. monocytogenes pathogenesis, multiple aspects of bacterial invasion and intracellular growth were examined. Enhanced bacterial invasion of host epithelial cells was dependent on the expression of a number of surface proteins previously associated with invasion, including InlA, InlB, and ActA. In addition to these surface proteins, increased production of the hly-encoded secreted hemolysin listeriolysin O (LLO) was also found to significantly enhance bacterial invasion into epithelial cell lines for both prfA mutant strains. Although prfA E77K and prfA G155S strains were similar in their invasive phenotypes, the infection of epithelial cells with prfA E77K strains resulted in host cell plasma membrane damage, whereas prfA G155S strains did not alter plasma membrane integrity. Bacterial infection of human epithelial cells, in which the production of LLO is not required for bacterial entry into the cytosol, indicated that prfA E77K cytotoxic effects were mediated via LLO. Both prfA E77K and prfA G155S strains were more efficient than wild-type bacteria in gaining access to the host cell cytosol and in initiating the polymerization of host cell actin, and both were capable of mediating LLO-independent lysis of host cell vacuoles in cell lines for which L. monocytogenes vacuole disruption normally requires LLO activity

  6. Correlates of pedometer use: Results from a community-based physical activity intervention trial (10,000 Steps Rockhampton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schofield Grant

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pedometers have become common place in physical activity promotion, yet little information exists on who is using them. The multi-strategy, community-based 10,000 Steps Rockhampton physical activity intervention trial provided an opportunity to examine correlates of pedometer use at the population level. Methods Pedometer use was promoted across all intervention strategies including: local media, pedometer loan schemes through general practice, other health professionals and libraries, direct mail posted to dog owners, walking trail signage, and workplace competitions. Data on pedometer use were collected during the 2-year follow-up telephone interviews from random population samples in Rockhampton, Australia, and a matched comparison community (Mackay. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine the independent influence of interpersonal characteristics and program exposure variables on pedometer use. Results Data from 2478 participants indicated that 18.1% of Rockhampton and 5.6% of Mackay participants used a pedometer in the previous 18-months. Rockhampton pedometer users (n = 222 were more likely to be female (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.23, aged 45 or older (OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.16, 2.46 and to have higher levels of education (university degree OR = 4.23, 95% CI: 1.86, 9.6. Respondents with a BMI > 30 were more likely to report using a pedometer (OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.54 than those in the healthy weight range. Compared with those in full-time paid work, respondents in 'home duties' were significantly less likely to report pedometer use (OR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.53. Exposure to individual program components, in particular seeing 10,000 Steps street signage and walking trails or visiting the website, was also significantly associated with greater pedometer use. Conclusion Pedometer use varies between population subgroups, and alternate strategies need to be investigated to engage men, people with lower levels

  7. Accuracy of immunodiagnostic tests for active tuberculosis using single and combined results: a multicenter TBNET-Study.

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    Delia Goletti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The clinical application of IFN-gamma release assays (IGRAs has recently improved the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection. In a multicenter study of the Tuberculosis Network European Trialsgroup (TBNET we aimed to ascertain in routine clinical practice the accuracy of a novel assay using selected peptides encoded in the mycobacterial genomic region of difference (RD 1 for the diagnosis of active tuberculosis in comparison with tuberculin skin test (TST, QuantiFERON-TB GOLD In-Tube (Cellestis Ltd., Carnegie, Australia and T-SPOT.TB (Oxfordimmunotec, Abingdon, UK. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 425 individuals from 6 different European centres were prospectively enrolled. We found that sensitivity of the novel test, TST, QuantiFERON-TB GOLD In-Tube and T-SPOT.TB was respectively 73.1%, 85.3%, 78.1%, and 85.2%; specificity was respectively 70.6%, 48.0%, 61.9% and 44.3%; positive likelihood ratios were respectively 2.48, 1.64, 2.05, and 1.53; negative likelihood ratios were respectively 0.38, 0.31, 0.35, 0.33. Sensitivity of TST combined with the novel test, QuantiFERON-TB GOLD In-Tube and T-SPOT.TB increased up to 92.4%, 97.7% and 97.1%, respectively. The likelihood ratios of combined negative results of TST with, respectively, the novel test, QuantiFERON-TB GOLD In-Tube and T-SPOT.TB were 0.19, 0.07 and 0.10. CONCLUSIONS: The assay based on RD1 selected peptides has similar accuracy for active tuberculosis compared with TST and commercial IGRAs. Then, independently of the spectrum of antigens used in the assays to elicit mycobacterial specific immune responses, the novel test, IGRAs, and the TST do not allow an accurate identification of active tuberculosis in clinical practice. However, the combined use of the novel assay or commercial IGRAs with TST may allow exclusion of tuberculosis.

  8. Environmental systems and management activities on the Kennedy Space Center, Merritt Island, Florida: results of a modeling workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, David B.; Andrews, Austin K.; Auble, Gregor T.; Ellison, Richard A.; Farmer, Adrian H.; Roelle, James E.

    1985-01-01

    In the early 1960's, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) began purchasing 140,000 acres on Merritt Island, Florida, in order to develop a center for space exploration. Most of this land was acquired to provide a safety and security buffer around NASA facilities. NASA, as the managing agency for the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), is responsible for preventing or controlling environmental pollution from the Federal facilities and activities at the Space Center and is committed to use all practicable means to protect and enhance the quality of the surrounding environment. The Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1963 when management authority for undeveloped lands at KSC was transferred to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. In addition to manage for 11 Federally-listed threatened and endangered species and other resident and migratory fish and wildlife populations, the Refuge has comanagement responsibility for 19,000 acres of mosquito control impoundments and 2,500 acres of citrus groves. The Canaveral National Seashore was developed in 1975 when management of a portion of the coastal lands was transferred from NASA to the National Park Service. This multiagency jurisdiction on Merritt Island has resulted in a complex management environment. The modeling workshop described in this report was conducted May 21-25, 1984, at the Kennedy Space Center to: (1) enhance communication among the agencies with management responsibilities on Merritt Island; (2) integrate available information concerning the development, management, and ecology of Merritt Island; and (3) identify key research and monitoring needs associated with the management and use of the island's resources. The workshop was structured around the formulation of a model that would simulate primary management and use activities on Merritt Island and their effects on upland, impoundment, and estuarine vegetation and associated wildlife. The simulation model is composed of

  9. COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar": ongoing research activities and third-year results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; Loizos, Andreas; Tosti, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    This work aims at disseminating the ongoing research activities and third-year results of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar." About 350 experts are participating to the Action, from 28 COST Countries (Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Malta, Macedonia, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom), and from Albania, Armenia, Australia, Colombia, Egypt, Hong Kong, Jordan, Israel, Philippines, Russia, Rwanda, Ukraine, and United States of America. In September 2014, TU1208 has been recognised among the running Actions as "COST Success Story" ("The Cities of Tomorrow: The Challenges of Horizon 2020," September 17-19, 2014, Torino, IT - A COST strategic workshop on the development and needs of the European cities). The principal goal of the COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of GPR techniques in civil engineering, whilst simultaneously promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of infrastructures and structures. Moreover, the Action is oriented to the following specific objectives and expected deliverables: (i) coordinating European scientists to highlight problems, merits and limits of current GPR systems; (ii) developing innovative protocols and guidelines, which will be published in a handbook and constitute a basis for European standards, for an effective GPR application in civil- engineering tasks; safety, economic and financial criteria will be integrated within the protocols; (iii) integrating competences for the improvement and merging of electromagnetic scattering techniques and of data- processing techniques; this will lead to a novel freeware tool for the localization of

  10. Energy of relief as useful geomorphic index to record seabed tectonic activity: preliminary results from the Sardinia Basin (Tyrrhenian Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baioni, Davide; Tramontana, Mario

    2017-04-01

    a detailed map of this parameter for the entire study area. Moreover, a complementary method of calculation and representation of this parameter has been developed to increase the quantity and the quality of data. Preliminary results seem to suggest that in the study area tectonic activity is prevalent in the northern rather than the southern part of the basin, probably related to a different evolutive stage of the margin. Moreover in the northern sector the tectonic activity generally increases toward north. In particular, observing the difference between the areas to the north and to the south of the Orosei canyon appear that the extensional rate is higher in the northern sector. In the northern boundary of the basin the Baronie Seamounts appears to be characterized both by an higher faults activity along the eastern part and a possible tilting toward ENE in the northern part. Moreover, this study highlights the capability of energy relief to detect the effects of regional tectonic structures regardless of style and rate of deformation.

  11. Performance test results of noninvasive characterization of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act surrogate waste by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrke, R.J.; Streier, G.G.

    1997-03-01

    During FY-96, a performance test was carried out with funding from the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) to determine the noninvasive elemental assay capabilities of commercial companies for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals present in 8-gal drums containing surrogate waste. Commercial companies were required to be experienced in the use of prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) techniques and to have a prototype assay system with which to conduct the test assays. Potential participants were identified through responses to a call for proposals advertised in the Commerce Business Daily and through personal contacts. Six companies were originally identified. Two of these six were willing and able to participate in the performance test, as described in the test plan, with some subsidizing from the DOE MWFA. The tests were conducted with surrogate sludge waste because (1) a large volume of this type of waste awaits final disposition and (2) sludge tends to be somewhat homogeneous. The surrogate concentrations of the above RCRA metals ranged from {approximately} 300 ppm to {approximately} 20,000 ppm. The lower limit was chosen as an estimate of the expected sensitivity of detection required by noninvasive, pretreatment elemental assay systems to be of value for operational and compliance purposes and to still be achievable with state-of-the-art methods of analysis. The upper limit of {approximately} 20,000 ppm was chosen because it is the opinion of the author that assay above this concentration level is within current state-of-the-art methods for most RCRA constituents. This report is organized into three parts: Part 1, Test Plan to Evaluate the Technical Status of Noninvasive Elemental Assay Techniques for Hazardous Waste; Part 2, Participants` Results; and Part 3, Evaluation of and Comments on Participants` Results.

  12. Race, Plasma Renin Activity, and Morning Blood Pressure Surge—Results From the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The association of preawake (difference between pre- and postwaking blood pressure (BP)) and sleep-through surge (difference between sleeping nadir and postwaking BP) with cardiovascular events is unclear. Examination of factors associated with surge may provide novel insights. We examined the association of race, which associates with nocturnal dipping, and plasma renin activity (PRA) with preawake and sleep-through surge among individuals on a controlled diet. METHODS We performed a post hoc analysis of 323 subjects from the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension trial who had available 24-hour BP data and who ingested a control diet during a 3-week run-in period. Linear regression models were fit to estimate the association of race and PRA with preawake and sleep-through surge. RESULTS Of the 323 individuals, 55% were black, 53% were men, and the average age was 45 years. After controlling for other factors, black race was associated with a 3.2mm Hg lower preawake and a 3.7mm Hg lower sleep-through surge compared with nonblacks. In nonblacks, higher PRA was associated with greater preawake surge only. There was no association of PRA with either preawake or sleep-through surge in blacks. Additional adjustment for dipping status resulted in attenuation of the race–surge associations. CONCLUSIONS Black race is associated with lower preawake and sleep-through surge compared with nonblacks, but the effect is partially attenuated by dipping status. Higher PRA appears to be associated with a higher preawake surge in nonblacks only. Further research should address if morning surge is definitively associated with clinical outcomes in racial subgroups, independent of dipping. PMID:23475701

  13. Loss of FBXO7 (PARK15) results in reduced proteasome activity and models a parkinsonism-like phenotype in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingill, Siv; Brockelt, David; Lancelin, Camille; Tatenhorst, Lars; Dontcheva, Guergana; Preisinger, Christian; Schwedhelm-Domeyer, Nicola; Joseph, Sabitha; Mitkovski, Miso; Goebbels, Sandra; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Schulz, Jörg B; Marquardt, Till; Lingor, Paul; Stegmüller, Judith

    2016-09-15

    Mutations in the FBXO7 (PARK15) gene have been implicated in a juvenile form of parkinsonism termed parkinsonian pyramidal syndrome (PPS), characterized by Parkinsonian symptoms and pyramidal tract signs. FBXO7 (F-box protein only 7) is a subunit of the SCF (SKP1/cullin-1/F-box protein) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, but its relevance and function in neurons remain to be elucidated. Here, we report that the E3 ligase FBXO7-SCF binds to and ubiquitinates the proteasomal subunit PSMA2. In addition, we show that FBXO7 is a proteasome-associated protein involved in proteasome assembly. In FBXO7 knockout mice, we find reduced proteasome activity and early-onset motor deficits together with premature death. In addition, we demonstrate that NEX (neuronal helix-loop-helix protein-1)-Cre-induced deletion of the FBXO7 gene in forebrain neurons or the loss of FBXO7 in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons results in motor defects, reminiscent of the phenotype in PARK15 patients. Taken together, our study establishes a vital role for FBXO7 in neurons, which is required for proper motor control and accentuates the importance of FBXO7 in proteasome function. © 2016 The Authors.

  14. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Microwave Radiometer Radio-Frequency Interference (RFI) Mitigation: Initial On-Orbit Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Priscilla N.; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Johnson, Joel T.; Aksoy, Mustafa; Bringer, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, launched in January 2015, provides global measurements of soil moisture using a microwave radiometer. SMAPs radiometer passband lies within the passive frequency allocation. However, both unauthorized in-band transmitters as well as out-of-band emissions from transmitters operating at frequencies adjacent to this allocated spectrum have been documented as sources of radio frequency interference (RFI) to the L-band radiometers on SMOS and Aquarius. The spectral environment consists of high RFI levels as well as significant occurrences of low level RFI equivalent to 0.1 to 10 K. The SMAP ground processor reports the antenna temperature both before and after RFI mitigation is applied. The difference between these quantities represents the detected RFI level. The presentation will review the SMAP RFI detection and mitigation procedure and discuss early on-orbit RFI measurements from the SMAP radiometer. Assessments of global RFI properties and source types will be provided, as well as the implications of these results for SMAP soil moisture measurements.

  15. Prevalence and social burden of active chronic low back pain in the adult Portuguese population: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Nélia; Rodrigues, Ana; Eusébio, Mónica; Ramiro, Sofia; Machado, Pedro; Canhão, Helena; Branco, Jaime C

    2016-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of active chronic low back pain (CLBP) in the adult Portuguese population; to compare the active CLBP population with the population without CLBP; and to explore factors associated with active CLBP. The present study was conducted under the scope of EpiReumaPt a population-based study. Active CLBP was self-reported and considered if present on the day of the interview and for ≥90 days. Prevalence estimates were calculated. Association of active CLBP with quality of life, functional ability and healthcare consumption were evaluated. Factors associated with active CLBP were identified through logistic regression. Among 10.661 EpiReumaPt subjects, 1487 self-reported active CLBP. The prevalence of active CLBP was 10.4 % (95 % CI 9.6; 11.9 %). After adjustment, active CLBP subjects had a higher likelihood for anxiety symptoms (OR 2.77), early retirement due to disease (OR 1.88) and more physician visits (β = 2.65). Factors significantly and independently associated with the presence of active CLBP were: female gender (OR 1.34), overweight/obesity (OR 1.27), presence of self-reported rheumatic musculoskeletal disease (RMD) (OR 2.93), anxiety symptoms (OR 2.67), age (OR 1.02) and higher number of self-reported comorbidities (OR 1.12). Active CLBP is highly prevalent in the Portuguese population and is associated with disability and with a high consumption of healthcare resources. Female gender, older age, anxiety symptoms, overweight/obesity, the presence of other RMD and the number of comorbidities were independently associated with the presence of active CLBP. These factors should be taken into account when new cohort prospective studies will be developed.

  16. HPV 5 and 8 E6 abrogate ATR activity resulting in increased persistence of UVB induced DNA damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Wallace

    Full Text Available The role of the E6 oncoprotein from high-risk members of the α human papillomavirus genus in anogenital cancer has been well established. However, far less is known about the E6 protein from the β human papillomavirus genus (β-HPVs. Some β-HPVs potentially play a role in non-melanoma skin cancer development, although they are not required for tumor maintenance. Instead, they may act as a co-factor that enhances the carcinogenic potential of UV damage. Indeed, the E6 protein from certain β-HPVs (HPV 5 and 8 promotes the degradation of p300, a histone acetyl transferase involved in UV damage repair. Here, we show that the expression of HPV 5 and 8 E6 increases thymine dimer persistence as well as the likelihood of a UVB induced double strand break (DSB. Importantly, we provide a mechanism for the increased DNA damage by showing that both extended thymine dimer persistence as well as elevated DSB levels are dependent on the ability of HPV 8 E6 to promote p300 degradation. We further demonstrate that HPV 5 and 8 E6 expression reduces the mRNA and protein levels of ATR, a PI3 kinase family member that plays a key role in UV damage signaling, but that these levels remain unperturbed in cells expressing a mutated HPV 8 E6 incapable of promoting p300 degradation. We confirm that the degradation of p300 leads to a reduction in ATR protein levels, by showing that ATR levels rebound when a p300 mutant resistant to HPV 8 mediated degradation and HPV 8 E6 are co-transfected. Conversely, we show that ATR protein levels are reduced when p300 is targeted for degradation by siRNA. Moreover, we show the reduced ATR levels in HPV 5 and 8 E6 expressing cells results in delayed ATR activation and an attenuated ability of cells to phosphorylate, and as a result accumulate, p53 in response to UVB exposure, leading to significantly reduced cell cycle arrest. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that β-HPV E6 expression can enhance the carcinogenic potential of

  17. The role of pneumolysin in mediating lung damage in a lethal pneumococcal pneumonia murine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirofski Liise-Anne

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intranasal inoculation of Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 serotype 2 causes fatal pneumonia in mice. The cytotoxic and inflammatory properties of pneumolysin (PLY have been implicated in the pathogenesis of pneumococcal pneumonia. Methods To examine the role of PLY in this experimental model we performed ELISA assays for PLY quantification. The distribution patterns of PLY and apoptosis were established by immunohistochemical detection of PLY, caspase-9 activity and TUNEL assay on tissue sections from mice lungs at various times, and the results were quantified with image analysis. Inflammatory and apoptotic cells were also quantified on lung tissue sections from antibody treated mice. Results In bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL, total PLY was found at sublytic concentrations which were located in alveolar macrophages and leukocytes. The bronchoalveolar epithelium was PLY-positive, while the vascular endothelium was not PLY reactive. The pattern and extension of cellular apoptosis was similar. Anti-PLY antibody treatment decreased the lung damage and the number of apoptotic and inflammatory cells in lung tissues. Conclusion The data strongly suggest that in vivo lung injury could be due to the pro-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory activity of PLY, rather than its cytotoxic activity. PLY at sublytic concentrations induces lethal inflammation in lung tissues and is involved in host cell apoptosis, whose effects are important to pathogen survival.

  18. Long-term Results of Active Surveillance in the Göteborg Randomized, Population-based Prostate Cancer Screening Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godtman, Rebecka Arnsrud; Holmberg, Erik; Khatami, Ali; Pihl, Carl-Gustaf; Stranne, Johan; Hugosson, Jonas

    2016-11-01

    missing the possibility of being able to cure the cancer. It is questionable whether men who are not in the lowest tumor risk group and who have a long remaining life expectancy are suitable candidates for this strategy. Long-term results from this study indicate that some men will miss their chance of cure with active surveillance and it is questionable whether active surveillance is a suitable strategy for men who are not in the lowest tumor risk group and who have a very long remaining life expectancy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Is our Youth Cycling to Health? : Results From the Netherlands' 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghard, Marcella; Knitel, Karlijn; van Oost, Iris; Tremblay, Mark S; Takken, Tim

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Active Healthy Kids the Netherlands (AHKN) Report Card consolidates and translates research and assesses how the Netherlands is being responsible in providing physical activity (PA) opportunities for children and youth (<18 years). The primary aim of this article is to summarize the

  20. Does a Higher Incidence of Break Times in Primary Schools Result in Children Being More Physically Active?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobel, Susanne; Kettner, Sarah; Erkelenz, Nanette; Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Steinacker, Jürgen M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Regular physical activity (PA) has multiple benefits to health; however, the majority of schoolchildren do not reach PA guidelines of 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) daily. During the school day, break times are often the only opportunity for children to be physically active. This study investigated PA levels during school…

  1. Relationship between Eating Behaviors and Physical Activity among Primary and Secondary School Students: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Pascale; Turcotte, Sylvain; Perreault, Gino

    2013-01-01

    Background: With a view toward developing concerted efforts in fostering healthy eating habits and a physically active lifestyle among young people, a study was carried out to explore associations between eating behavior and physical activity (PA). Methods: In the school district, questionnaires were completed at home by parents of primary school…

  2. Growth hormone (GH)-independent dimerization of GH receptor by a leucine zipper results in constitutive activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behncken, S N; Billestrup, Nils; Brown, R

    2000-01-01

    and cytoplasmic domains of the GHR in the absence of the extracellular domain can lead to the constitutive activation of known GH signaling end points, supporting the view that proximity of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) kinases is the essential element in signaling. Such constitutively active GH receptors may have...

  3. First results of an INGV project for the integrated analysis of the active tectonics in SW Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattia, Mario; Giovanni, Barreca; Carla, Bottari; Valentina, Bruno; Pierfrancesco, Burrato; Fabrizio, Cultrera; Luigi, Dardanelli; Sofia, De Gregorio; Luigi, Ferranti; Laura, Guzzetta; Paolo, Madonia; Carmelo, Monaco; Claudia, Pipitone; Fabrizio, Pepe; Francesco, Guglielmino

    2017-04-01

    We present the first results of a project financed by the "Struttura Terremoti" of INGV to study the potential sources of earthquakes in south-western Sicily, including the area hit by the 1968 Belice earthquake sequence and the archaeological area of Selinunte, affected by two earthquakes in historical times. We adopt in this project a multi-disciplinary approach, with the goal of addressing the following points: 1) define the active tectonic framework of south-western Sicily, 2) investigate and characterize on-shore and off-shore faults, potential sources of damaging earthquakes, and 3) evaluate the current deformation rates. To do this, we collected a new set of geodetic (GPS and InSAR) and geochemical data, and performed geological and geomorphological surveys on-land in the area between Mazara, Castelvetrano and Selinunte. We also acquired high-resolution Sparker seismic profiles off-shore Sciacca. Geological and geomorphological surveys have been focused around the 10 km long Castelvetrano-Campobello di Mazara (CCM) lineament, where previous research (Barreca et al., 2014) showed geodetic and geoarchaeological evidence of recent deformation. In particular, a detailed survey of Quaternary coastal forms and deposits was performed, in order to reconstruct the sequence of uplifted paleoshorelines and to search for differential motions between adjacent coastal sectors spanning the CCM. Preliminary observations indicate that the footwall of the CCM hosts a larger number, and a more elevated position of paleo-shorelines suggestive of syntectonic uplift . A grid of about 200 km of high-resolution reflection seismic profiles was recorded along the continental shelf in the offshore of Sciacca. Profiles are mostly oriented in the WNW-ESE direction, with tie lines acquired in ENE-WSW direction. The acoustic source used during seismic prospecting was a 1 kJ Sparker power supply with a multi-tips Sparker array. Preliminary seismic data interpretation indicates that a

  4. Dynamics of activity free radical oxidation reactions in students with cerebral palsy results over the course of the educational process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makarova E.V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of changes activity of reactions is studied freely radical oxidize for students with the consequences of child's cerebral paralysis. 20 students took part in an experiment. Found that the course of study they have more active free radical oxidation reactions and decreases the activity of antiradical protection. Given the use of additional physical activity in aerobic training indicators intracellular antioxidant defense system increased, decreased content of reaction products of lipid peroxidation. However, increased rates of maximum oxygen consumption and increased tolerance of students with cerebral palsy to the consequences of physical activity. It is set that the pathological changes of metabolism for students ground the necessity of application of the differentiated physical loadings. The optimum forms of physical rehabilitation of the aerobic training is the dosed walking, medical swimming, dosed after distance, sometimes and by the corner of getting up pedestrian ascents. Loading is increased due to a volume, but not intensity of exercises.

  5. Physical Activity, Bone Health, and Obesity in Peri-/Pre- and Postmenopausal Women: Results from the EPIC-Potsdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Juliane; di Giuseppe, Romina; Wientzek, Angelika; Kroke, Anja; Boeing, Heiner; Weikert, Cornelia

    2015-10-01

    Physical activity (PA) is suggested to increase the peak bone mass and to minimize age-related bone loss, and thereby to reduce the risk of osteoporosis. However, the relation between PA and bone health considering the obesity status is unclear so far. The present study examines the association between PA levels and calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), particularly under consideration of obesity. Data from a population-based sample of 6776 German women from the EPIC-Potsdam cohort were analyzed. Calibrated PA data were used. Statistical analyses were stratified by menopausal and obesity status. Multiple linear regression was used to model the relationship between PA and BUA levels after adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, education, alcohol and calcium intake, and hormone use. Peri-/premenopausal had higher BUA levels (112.39 ± 10.05 dB/MHz) compared to postmenopausal women (106.44 ± 9.95 dB/MHz). In both groups, BUA levels were higher in the fourth compared to the lowest quartile of PA (p for trend < 0.05). In women with BMI < 30, but not BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2), PA remained positively associated with BUA levels (p for interaction = 0.03). However, when waist circumference higher than 88 cm or body fat percentage (BF%) measures above the median were used to define obesity, a significant positive relationship was also observed in women with BMI < 30 kg/m(2) but with higher waist circumference or BF%. In conclusion, our results strengthen the hypothesis that PA has a positive influence on BUA levels, though dependent on weight.

  6. Traumatic Dental Injuries Resulting from Sports Activities; Immediate Treatment and Five Years Follow-Up: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinas, Enrico; Mameli, Antonello; Giannetti, Luca

    2018-01-01

    Background: Traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) represent 18-30% of all oral pathologies and a considerable number of these are sports related. It is very important to treat sports-related injuries and prevent complications. However, very few studies investigate the most expedient therapeutic strategies for the treatment of dental trauma correlated to sports. Objective: The aim of this work was to focus on the average recovery time for different lesions, to assess adequate times for each athlete, to identify any association with complications and to investigate whether or not the use of mouth-guards interfered with a full recovery to normal health. Methods: This study involved a group of 30 athletes (15 male and 15 female) who had dental injuries of varying severity. For the purposes of data collection, two classifications were taken into account: a classification for hard tissue trauma and another for periodontal lesions. The athletes were subdivided in “type of lesion’ groups”.They were then treated depending on their individual lesions and followed up for 5 years. A statistical analysis was carried out to study the association between recovery time, lesion types and occurrence of complications. Results: The time for recovery was different for each type of lesion and ranged from 3-5 days (only uncomplicated fractures) to 14 days (all hard-periodontal tissue traumas). The total number of recorded pulp complications amounted to 6 cases. Among 30 athletes, 20 had begun and maintained, during the five-year follow-up period, the habit of using mouth-guards when practicing their sport activities. Conclusions: Recovery time and the severity of lesions are statistically associated: the more serious the injury, the more time an athlete needs to recover and return to competitive sports events. Furthermore, recovery time and precautionary measures (mouth-guards) did not influence the onset of complications. The subjects’ habit of wearing a mouth guard continued even

  7. Race, plasma renin activity, and morning blood pressure surge--results from the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Causland, Finnian R; McMullan, Ciaran J; Sacks, Frank M; Forman, John P

    2014-04-01

    The association of preawake (difference between pre- and postwaking blood pressure (BP)) and sleep-through surge (difference between sleeping nadir and postwaking BP) with cardiovascular events is unclear. Examination of factors associated with surge may provide novel insights. We examined the association of race, which associates with nocturnal dipping, and plasma renin activity (PRA) with preawake and sleep-through surge among individuals on a controlled diet. We performed a post hoc analysis of 323 subjects from the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension trial who had available 24-hour BP data and who ingested a control diet during a 3-week run-in period. Linear regression models were fit to estimate the association of race and PRA with preawake and sleep-through surge. Of the 323 individuals, 55% were black, 53% were men, and the average age was 45 years. After controlling for other factors, black race was associated with a 3.2mm Hg lower preawake and a 3.7mm Hg lower sleep-through surge compared with nonblacks. In nonblacks, higher PRA was associated with greater preawake surge only. There was no association of PRA with either preawake or sleep-through surge in blacks. Additional adjustment for dipping status resulted in attenuation of the race-surge associations. Black race is associated with lower preawake and sleep-through surge compared with nonblacks, but the effect is partially attenuated by dipping status. Higher PRA appears to be associated with a higher preawake surge in nonblacks only. Further research should address if morning surge is definitively associated with clinical outcomes in racial subgroups, independent of dipping.

  8. Preliminary Results from a Survey of DPS Scientist’s Attitudes, Activities and Needs in Education and Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Jennifer A.; Buxner, Sanlyn; Schneider, Nick

    2014-11-01

    The NASA SMD Planetary Sciences Forum, in partnership with the AAS DPS Education officer has conducted a semi-structured series of interviews with two-dozen DPS members to ascertain: the nature E/PO activities pursued by scientists, what resources and professional development opportunities are needed by scientists, how to increase the impact of scientists’ E/PO efforts, scientists’ concerns and questions regarding E/PO, and what we can do to identify opportunities to address these issues, both from the SMD and DPS perspectives. Members were contacted by phone, and responded to a loose script of questions over a time span of 20 to 90 minutes, depending on the individual. Members were chosen to represent a variety of career experience, home institutions and affiliations, and level of involvement with E/PO. Questions included: What is your level of involvement in E/PO? What sort of professional development or resources would you like to have to increase the efficiency of your E/PO efforts? What barriers to E/PO involvement have you encountered? How do you use social media in your E/PO efforts, if at all? What are your motivations for involvement in E/PO? etc. Our results are consistent with previous research conducted regarding this issue, but they do offer insight specific to the nature of DPS members and their views about E/PO. We will present a subset of these results, the opportunities they present, and the responses of both the PS Forum and the DPS. Based on this survey, the SMD PS Forum was able to identify specific new resources needed by scientists, and therefore developed the brief-one page guides, “The Quick Introduction to Education and Public Outreach,” and “Making the Most of Your E/PO Time - Increasing Your Efficiency and Impact.” Further resources and professional development opportunities will be developed as the data continue to be reviewed. This data collection effort is ongoing. If you would like to become involved, contact Jennifer

  9. Enzymatic treatment of whey proteins in cow's milk results in differential inhibition of IgE-mediated mast cell activation compared to T-cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipping, Karen; van Esch, Betty C A M; van Ieperen-van Dijk, Adrie G; van Hoffen, Els; van Baalen, Ton; Knippels, Léon M J; van der Heide, Sicco; Dubois, Anthony E J; Garssen, Johan; Knol, Edward F

    2012-01-01

    Cow's milk (CM) hydrolysates are frequently used as milk substitutes for children with CM allergy. In hydrolysates, allergenic epitopes within CM proteins are diminished by enzymatic treatment. The aim of this study was to examine the allergenic and immunogenic properties of whey proteins during hydrolysis. During hydrolysis, samples were obtained at 0, 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 min. Degradation was checked by HPLC and SDS-PAGE. Allergenic potential was analyzed by IgE crosslinking capacity of human Fcε receptor type 1-transduced rat basophilic leukemia cells sensitized with serum of CM-allergic patients. Whey-sensitized C3H/HeOuJ mice were ear challenged intracutaneously with the hydrolysates. Immunogenicity was tested using whey-specific human T-cell clones and T-cell lines at the level of proliferation and release of IL-4, IL-10, IL-13 and IFN-γ. After 15 min of hydrolysis, the majority of the proteins were degraded. Hydrolysis for 15 min resulted in 92% inhibition of mast cell degranulation and in 82% reduction of ear swelling in the mouse model. In contrast, T-cell-stimulatory capacity was less affected by hydrolysis: reduction of human T-cell proliferation was only 9%. This was further reduced to 57 and 74% after 30 and 45 min of hydrolysis, respectively. Cytokine production followed the pattern of T-cell proliferation. Via differential analysis of allergenic versus immunogenic properties of the time kinetics of hydrolysis of whey proteins, we have demonstrated specific hydrolysis conditions with reduced IgE-crosslinking responses but retained T-cell activating properties. This approach might be useful in better defining CM hydrolysates. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Leisure activities and the risk of dementia in the elderly: results from the Three-City Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbaraly, T N; Portet, F; Fustinoni, S; Dartigues, J-F; Artero, S; Rouaud, O; Touchon, J; Ritchie, K; Berr, C

    2009-09-15

    There is accumulating evidence that involvement in leisure activities may be related to risk of dementia; however, there is no consensus concerning the underlying mechanism of this association. Hypothesizing that leisure activities may contribute to cognitive reserve (CR), we examined the association between leisure activities and risk of incident dementia and its subtypes within a general population sample, categorizing leisure activity as stimulating, passive, physical, and social. The possibility that these associations may be driven by other proxies of CR was also examined. Analyses were carried out on 5,698 dementia-free participants aged 65 and over included in the Three-City cohort study in Dijon and Montpellier (France) in 1999-2001. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated for incident dementia and its subtypes (mixed/vascular dementia and Alzheimer disease) in relation to category of leisure activity. Stimulating leisure activities were found to be significantly associated with a reduced risk of dementia (n = 161, HR = 0.49, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.31; 0.79) and Alzheimer disease (n = 105, HR = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.21; 0.71) over the 4-year follow-up 1) independently of other proxies of CR, 2) after adjusting for vascular risk factors, depressive symptoms, and physical functioning, and 3) independently of other leisure activities. Furthermore, no significant association was found with other leisure activities and dementia after controlling for the potential confounders. Our findings support the hypothesis that cognitively stimulating leisure activities may delay the onset of dementia in community-dwelling elders.

  11. Psychological functioning and adherence to the recommended dose of physical activity in later life: results from a national health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netz, Yael; Dunsky, Ayelet; Zach, Sima; Goldsmith, Rebecca; Shimony, Tal; Goldbourt, Uri; Zeev, Aviva

    2012-12-01

    Official health organizations have established the dose of physical activity needed for preserving both physical and psychological health in old age. The objective of this study was to explore whether adherence to the recommended criterion of physical activity accounted for better psychological functioning in older adults in Israel. A random sample of 1,663 (799 men) Israelis reported their physical activity routine, and based on official guidelines were divided into sufficiently active, insufficiently active, and inactive groups. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was used for assessing mental health and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for assessing cognitive functioning. Factor analysis performed on the GHQ yielded two factors - positive and negative. Logistic regressions for the GHQ factors and for the MMSE were conducted for explaining their variance, with demographic variables entered first, followed by health and then physical activity. The explained variance in the three steps was Cox and Snell R2 = 0.022, 0.023, 0.039 for the positive factor, 0.066, 0.093, 0.101 for the negative factor, and 0.204, 0.206, 0.209 for the MMSE. Adherence to the recommended dose of physical activity accounted for better psychological functioning beyond demographic and health variables; however, the additional explained variance was small. More specific guidelines of physical activity may elucidate a stronger relationship, but only randomized controlled trials can reveal cause-effect relationship between physical activity and psychological functioning. More studies are needed focusing on the positive factor of psychological functioning.

  12. Proprioception, Laxity, Muscle Strength and Activity Limitations in Early Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis: Results from the Check Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holla, J.F.M.; van der Leeden, M.; Peter, W.F.H.; Roorda, L.D.; van der Esch, M.; Lems, W.F.; Gerritsen, M.; Voorneman, R.E.; Steultjens, M.P.; Dekker, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish whether proprioception and varusvalgus laxity moderate the association between muscle strength and activity limitations in patients with early symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Design: A cross-sectional study. Subjects: A sample of 151 participants with early symptomatic knee

  13. The knife that cuts both ways: Facilitated and inhibited access to traits as a result of stereotype activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksterhuis, A.; Knippenberg, A. van

    1996-01-01

    Facilitatory and inhibitory effects of stereotype activation were studied in three experiments. It was proposed that, in semantic memory, social categories are positively associated with stereotype-consistent traits and negatively with stereotype-inconsistent traits. Based on these postulated

  14. Effect of a tailored physical activity intervention delivered in general practice settings: results of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sluijs, E.M.F.; van Poppel-Bruinvels, M.N.M.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Calfas, K.J.; van Mechelen, W.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the effectiveness of a minimal intervention physical activity strategy (physician-based assessment and counseling for exercise [PACE]) applied in general practice settings in the Netherlands. Methods. Randomization took place at the general practice level. Participants were

  15. Socioeconomic and lifestyle factors related to instrumental activity of daily living dynamics: results from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Orsi, Eleonora; Xavier, Andre Junqueira; Steptoe, Andrew; de Oliveira, Cesar; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Orrell, Martin; Demakakos, Panayotes; Marmot, Michael Gideon

    2014-09-01

    To investigate socioeconomic, demographic, and lifestyle factors that predict incident instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) impairment and recovery. Data from English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), a biennial prospective observational study. Individuals aged 50 and older living in England. A sample of 8,154 individuals without any difficulty in activities of daily living (ADLs) or IADLs was selected from the initial 11,391 participants. The first outcome was impairment in at least one IADL, and the second was IADL recovery. Main predictor: baseline socioeconomic position measured according to wealth. Outcomes and predictors were measured at each of the five follow-up interviews. Unadjusted and adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated through 2-year lagged Poisson regression in generalized estimating equation models, adjusted for sociodemographic, lifestyle, quality-of-life, and health variables. Between any two consecutive waves, 1,656 (20.3%) participants developed some IADL impairment. Those with higher socioeconomic position, better quality of life, vigorous physical activity, paid work, digital literacy (use of Internet or e-mail), and cultural leisure activities had significantly lower risk of IADL impairment. There was a significant association between smoking, cardiovascular disease, arthritis, poor memory, diabetes mellitus, and depressive symptoms and IADL impairment. Better quality of life, good self-rated memory and vigorous physical activity were independent predictors of IADL recovery. Better quality of life, vigorous physical activity, not smoking, paid work, cultural leisure activities, and digital literacy are modifiable factors that can decrease the incidence of IADL impairment. Good quality of life and vigorous physical activity have a significant role in recovery. Low socioeconomic position was a predictor of incident impairment of IADLs but not recovery. © 2014, Copyright the Authors

  16. COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar:" ongoing research activities and mid-term results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; Loizos, Andreas; Slob, Evert; Tosti, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    This work aims at presenting the ongoing activities and mid-term results of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar.' Almost three hundreds experts are participating to the Action, from 28 COST Countries (Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Malta, Macedonia, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom), and from Albania, Armenia, Australia, Egypt, Hong Kong, Jordan, Israel, Philippines, Russia, Rwanda, Ukraine, and United States of America. In September 2014, TU1208 has been praised among the running Actions as 'COST Success Story' ('The Cities of Tomorrow: The Challenges of Horizon 2020,' September 17-19, 2014, Torino, IT - A COST strategic workshop on the development and needs of the European cities). The principal goal of the COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of GPR techniques in civil engineering, whilst simultaneously promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of infrastructures and structures. Moreover, the Action is oriented to the following specific objectives and expected deliverables: (i) coordinating European scientists to highlight problems, merits and limits of current GPR systems; (ii) developing innovative protocols and guidelines, which will be published in a handbook and constitute a basis for European standards, for an effective GPR application in civil- engineering tasks; safety, economic and financial criteria will be integrated within the protocols; (iii) integrating competences for the improvement and merging of electromagnetic scattering techniques and of data- processing techniques; this will lead to a novel freeware tool for the localization of buried objects

  17. Ultrafine particles and platelet activation in patients with coronary heart disease – results from a prospective panel study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wichmann H Erich

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies on health effects of air pollution have consistently shown adverse cardiovascular effects. Toxicological studies have provided evidence for thrombogenic effects of particles. A prospective panel study in a susceptible population was conducted in Erfurt, Germany, to study the effects of daily changes in ambient particles on various blood cells and soluble CD40ligand (sCD40L, also known as CD154, a marker for platelet activation that can cause increased coagulation and inflammation. Blood cells and plasma sCD40L levels were repeatedly measured in 57 male patients with coronary heart disease (CHD during winter 2000/2001. Fixed effects linear regression models were applied, adjusting for trend, weekday and meteorological parameters. Hourly data on ultrafine particles (UFP, number concentration of particles from 0.01 to 0.1 μm, mass concentration of particles less than 10 and 2.5 μm in diameter (PM10, PM2.5, accumulation mode particle counts (AP, 0.1–1.0 μm, elemental and organic carbon, gaseous pollutants and meteorological data were collected at central monitoring sites. Results An immediate increase in plasma sCD40L was found in association with UFP and AP (% change from geometric mean: 7.1; CI: [0.1, 14.5] and 6.9; CI: [0.5, 13.8], respectively. Platelet counts decreased in association with UFP showing an immediate, a three days delayed (lag 3 and a 5-day average response (% change from the mean: -1.8; CI: [-3.4,-0.2]; -2.4; CI: [-4.5,-0.3] and -2.2; CI: [-4.0,-0.3] respectively. Conclusion The increased plasma sCD40L levels support the hypothesis that higher levels of ambient air pollution lead to an inflammatory response in patients with CHD thus providing a possible explanation for the observed association between air pollution and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in susceptible parts of the population.

  18. Overview of research activities associated with the World Health Organization: results of a survey covering 2006/07

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Robert F

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents the first comprehensive effort to provide an overview of the research associated with the World Health Organization (WHO headquarters in 2006/07. Methods Information was obtained by questionnaire and interviews with senior staff operating at WHO headquarters in Geneva. Research type, purpose and resources (both financial and staff were defined and compared for each of the 37 departments identified and a comparative analysis was made with the global burden of disease as expressed by Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY. Results Research expenditure in 2006/07 was estimated at US$215 million. WHO is involved in more than 60 research networks/partnerships and often WHO itself is the network host. Using the DALY model, 84% of the funding WHO allocates to research goes to DALY Type I diseases (communicable, maternal, perinatal and nutritional diseases which represents 40% of DALY. 4% is allocated to Daly Type II (non-communicable diseases which contributes to 48% of DALY. 45% of WHO permanent staff are involved with health research and the WHO's approach to research is predominantly focused on policy, advocacy, health systems and population based research. The Organization principally undertakes secondary research using published data and commissions others to conduct this work through contracts or research grants. This approach is broadly in line with the stated strategy of the Organization. Conclusions The difficulty in undertaking this survey highlights the complexity of obtaining an Organization-wide assessment of research activity in the absence of common standards for research classification, methods for priority setting and a mechanism across WHO, or within the governance of global health research more generally, for managing a research portfolio. This paper presents a strategic birds-eye view of the WHO research portfolio using methodologies that, with further development, may provide the strategic

  19. Preliminary results of ESA Category-1 Project 5834 "Application of DInSAR technique to areas of active ground deformations"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, B.; D'Auria, L.

    2009-04-01

    We have established a processing chain of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data for identification and parametrisation of deformation sources in areas of active ground deformation (e.g. seismogenic areas, volcanic districts). SAR data from European Space Agency (ESA) satellites ERS-2 and ENVISAT are used. SAR and InSAR data processing LEVEL 0 SAR data are focussed to Single Look Complex (SLC) through ROI_PAC (Copyright 2002-2008, Caltech/Jet Propulsion Laboratory). We perform an advanced data processing using Doris (Kampes and Usai, 1999) a single program that can do most common steps of the interferometric radar processing starting from SLC data to generation of interferometric products and geocoding. Unwrapping of interferometric phase is performed using the public domain software snaphu (Chen and Zebker, 2001). Modeling of deformation sources We propose a novel inversion approach base on non-linear inversion. The forward modeling is provided by the semi-analytic deformation model for point sources and finite faults. The parameters of the fault (center position, width, height, rake and seismic moment) are inverted using a combination of non-linear optimization algorithms (as Monte-Carlo, Nelder&Mead Simplex and Simulated Annealing). The misfit function defined for the optimization is based on the L2 norm of the error weighted by the coherence of the considered spatial point. Test datasets To test our modeling procedure we chose three different study areas, refer to mainly strike-slip seismogenic sources with different orientation to respect satellite Line Of Sight (LOS): December 26 2003 Iranian earthquake (Bam e.), data from both ascending and descending passes of ENVISAT ASAR narrow swath IS2 (RAW and SLCs); August 17 1999 Turkey earthquake (Izmit e.), data from both ascending and descending passes of ERS-2 AMI SAR (SLCs); June 17-21 2000 Iceland earthquakes, data from both ascending and descending passes of ERS-2 AMI SAR (SLCs). Tests carried over real

  20. Helping Italian science teachers to make earth and climate active lessons. Results of 3 years support with the ICLEEN project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattadori, M.

    2013-12-01

    It has been demonstrated that in Italy Earth and Climate System Sciences Education (ESS) is one of the scientific disciplines where science teachers show a greatest need in terms of professional support. Among the causes that have been reported we should mention: the predominance of science teachers with a degree in biological disciplines rather then geo-logical or physical topics, and the high interdisciplinarity of certain topics, in particular those related to the climate system. Furthermore, it was found that ESS topics are predominant in the science curricula of those grades in which have been reported the major students dropout rates during the whole italian school cycle . In this context, in 2010, the MUSE, the Museum of Science of Trento (Italy), created a web-based service named I-Cleen (Inquring on Climate and Energy www.icleen.muse.it). This is a tool aimed at promoting the collaboration among science teachers in order to share resources and enhance the professional collaboration by means of participatory methods and models belonging to the world of open source and open content. The main instrument of the I-CLEEN project is an online repository (with metadata compliant with the DCMI and LOM international standards) of teaching resources focused on Earth and Climate Sciences all published under the Creative Commons license Attribution 3.0 and therefore, belonging to the model of OER (Open Educational Resources). The service has been designed, developed and managed by a team consisting of very experiencing science teachers and scientists from the Museum and other partners research institutions. The editorial work is carried out online utilizing a specific platform made with LifeRay, a CMS (Content Management System) software that is open source and manageable in a single Java-frameworked environment using the dbase, the website, the editorial process and several web 2.0 services. The project has been subjected to two distinct testing activities in

  1. Loss of tumor suppressor Merlin results in aberrant activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, K Adam; Das, Shamik; Meng, Erhong; Menezes, Mitchell E; Bailey, Sarah K; Metge, Brandon J; Buchsbaum, Donald J; Samant, Rajeev S; Shevde, Lalita A

    2016-04-05

    The expression of the tumor suppressor Merlin is compromised in nervous system malignancies due to genomic aberrations. We demonstrated for the first time, that in breast cancer, Merlin protein expression is lost due to proteasome-mediated elimination. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor tissues from patients with metastatic breast cancer revealed characteristically reduced Merlin expression. Importantly, we identified a functional role for Merlin in impeding breast tumor xenograft growth and reducing invasive characteristics. We sought to determine a possible mechanism by which Merlin accomplishes this reduction in malignant activity. We observed that breast and pancreatic cancer cells with loss of Merlin show an aberrant increase in the activity of β-catenin concomitant with nuclear localization of β-catenin. We discovered that Merlin physically interacts with β-catenin, alters the sub-cellular localization of β-catenin, and significantly reduces the protein levels of β-catenin by targeting it for degradation through the upregulation of Axin1. Consequently, restoration of Merlin inhibited β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity in breast and pancreatic cancer cells. We also present evidence that loss of Merlin sensitizes tumor cells to inhibition by compounds that target β-catenin-mediated activity. Thus, this study provides compelling evidence that Merlin reduces the malignant activity of pancreatic and breast cancer, in part by suppressing the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Given the potent role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in breast and pancreatic cancer and the flurry of activity to test β-catenin inhibitors in the clinic, our findings are opportune and provide evidence for Merlin in restraining aberrant activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

  2. Augmentation of VAMP-catalytic activity of botulinum neurotoxin serotype B does not result in increased potency in physiological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Mark; Maignel, Jacquie; Liu, Sai Man; Favre-Guilmard, Christine; Mir, Imran; Farrow, Paul; Hornby, Fraser; Marlin, Sandra; Palan, Shilpa; Beard, Matthew; Krupp, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are used extensively as therapeutic agents. Serotypes A and B are available as marketed products. Higher doses of BoNT/B are required to reach an efficacy similar to that of products containing BoNT/A. Advances in our understanding of BoNT/B mechanism of action have afforded the opportunity to make rational modifications to the toxin aimed at increasing its activity. Recently, a mutation in the light chain of BoNT/B (S201P) was described that increases the catalytic activity of the isolated BoNT/B light chain in biochemical assays. In this study, we have produced two full-length recombinant BoNT/B toxins in E.coli-one wild type (rBoNT/B1) and one incorporating the S201P mutation (rBoNT/B1(S201P)). We have compared the activity of these two molecules along with a native BoNT/B1 in biochemical cell-free assays and in several biological systems. In the cell-free assay, which measured light-chain activity alone, rBoNT/B1(S201P) cleaved VAMP-2 and VAMP-1 substrate with an activity 3-4-fold higher than rBoNT/B1. However, despite the enhanced catalytic activity of rBoNT/B1(S201P), there was no significant difference in potency between the two molecules in any of the in vitro cell-based assays, using either rodent spinal cord neurons or cortical neurons. Similarly in ex vivo tissue preparations rBoNT/B1(S201P) was not significantly more potent than rBoNT/B1 at inhibiting either diaphragm or detrusor (bladder) muscle activity in C57BL/6N and CD1 mice. Finally, no differences between rBoNT/B1 and rBoNT/B1(S201P) were observed in an in vivo digit abduction score (DAS) assay in C57BL/6N mice, either in efficacy or safety parameters. The lack of translation from the enhanced BoNT/B1(S201P) catalytic activity to potency in complex biological systems suggests that the catalytic step is not the rate-limiting factor for BoNT/B to reach maximum efficacy. In order to augment the efficacy of BoNT/B in humans, strategies other than enhancing light chain

  3. Predictors of postpartum weight change among overweight and obese women: results from the Active Mothers Postpartum study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østbye, Truls; Peterson, Bercedis L; Krause, Katrina M; Swamy, Geeta K; Lovelady, Cheryl A

    2012-02-01

    The postpartum period may be critical for the development of midlife obesity. Identifying factors associated with postpartum weight change could aid in targeting women for healthy lifestyle interventions. Data from Active Mothers Postpartum (AMP), a study of overweight and obese postpartum women (n=450), were analyzed to determine the effect of baseline characteristics, breastfeeding, diet, physical activity, and contraception on weight change from 6 weeks to 12, 18, and 24 months postpartum. The repeated measures mixed model was used to test the association of these effects with weight change. Although mean weight loss was modest (0.49 kg by 24 months), the range of weight change was striking (+21.5 kg to -24.5 kg, standard deviation [SD] 7.4). Controlling only for baseline weight, weight loss was associated with breastfeeding, hormonal contraception, lower junk food and greater healthy food intake, and greater physical activity. Only junk food intake and physical activity were significant after controlling for all other predictors. Eating less healthy foods and being less physically active put overweight and obese women at risk of gaining more weight after a pregnancy.

  4. Sedentary Behavior as a Risk Factor for Physical Frailty Independent of Moderate Activity: Results From the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jing; Lindquist, Lee A; Chang, Rowland W; Semanik, Pamela A; Ehrlich-Jones, Linda S; Lee, Jungwha; Sohn, Min-Woong; Dunlop, Dorothy D

    2015-07-01

    This prospective longitudinal study investigated the association between baseline objectively measured sedentary time and 2-year onset of physical frailty. We studied 1333 Osteoarthritis Initiative participants 55 to 83 years of age who were at risk for physical frailty, as assessed via low gait speed (factors. The incidence of physical frailty in this high-risk group was 20.7 per 1000 person-years. Greater baseline sedentary time (adjusted HR = 1.36 per sedentary hour; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02, 1.79) was significantly related to incident physical frailty after control for time spent in moderate-intensity activities and other covariates. Our prospective data demonstrated a strong relationship between daily sedentary time and development of physical frailty distinct from insufficient moderate activity. Interventions that promote reductions in sedentary behaviors in addition to increases in physical activity may help decrease physical frailty onset.

  5. Results from the CDE phase activity on neutron dosimetry for the international fusion materials irradiation facility test cell

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, B; Maruccia, G; Petrizzi, L; Bignon, G; Blandin, C; Chauffriat, S; Lebrun, A; Recroix, H; Trapp, J P; Kaschuck, Y

    2000-01-01

    The international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF) project deals with the study of an accelerator-based, deuterium-lithium source, producing high energy neutrons at sufficient intensity and irradiation volume to test samples of candidate materials for fusion energy reactors. IFMIF would also provide calibration and validation of data from fission reactor and other accelerator based irradiation tests. This paper describes the activity on neutron/gamma dosimetry (necessary for the characterization of the specimens' irradiation) performed in the frame of the IFMIF conceptual design evaluation (CDE) neutronics tasks. During the previous phase (conceptual design activity (CDA)) the multifoil activation method was proposed for the measurement of the neutron fluence and spectrum and a set of suitable foils was defined. The cross section variances and covariances of this set of foils have now been used for tests on the sensitivity of the IFMIF neutron spectrum determination to cross section uncertainties...

  6. Effect of Physical Activity on Self-Reported Disability in Older Adults: Results from the LIFE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manini, Todd M; Beavers, Daniel P; Pahor, Marco; Guralnik, Jack M; Spring, Bonnie; Church, Timothy S; King, Abby C; Folta, Sara C; Glynn, Nancy W; Marsh, Anthony P; Gill, Thomas M

    2017-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that a long-term structured, moderate intensity physical activity (PA) program is more effective than a health education (HE) program in reducing the risk of s elf-reported dependency and disability in basic activities of daily living (BADLs), disability in instrumental ADLs (IADL), and mobility disability. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) study was a multicenter, single-blinded randomized trial. University-based research clinic. Thousand six hundred and thirty five sedentary men and women aged 70-89 years, who had functional limitations, defined as a score ≤9 on the Short Physical Performance Battery. Participants were randomized to a structured, moderate intensity PA program (n = 818) that included aerobic, resistance, and flexibility exercises or to a HE program (n = 817). All outcomes were derived by self-report using periodic interviews that asked about the degree of difficulty and receipt of help during the past month. Dependency was defined as "receiving assistance" or "unable" to do ≥1 activities. Disability was defined as having "a lot of difficulty" or "unable" doing ≥1 activities. Severe disability was defined as reporting difficulty or being unable to perform ≥3 activities. Over an average follow-up of 2.6 years, the cumulative incidence of BADL dependency was 15.2% among PA and 15.1% among HE participants (HR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.78-0.1.3). Intervention groups had similar rates of incident BADL disability, IADL disability and reported mobility disability. Reporting severe mobility disability (HR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.64-0.96) and ratings of difficulty on mobility tasks were reduced in the PA group. A structured physical activity intervention reduces reported severe mobility disability and difficulty on mobility tasks, but not BADL and IADL disability in older adults with functional limitations. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  7. Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Sedentary Behaviour and Physical Activity Are Independently Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome, Results from the SCAPIS Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekblom, Örjan; Ekblom-Bak, Elin; Rosengren, Annika; Hallsten, Mattias; Bergström, Göran; Börjesson, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on the relation between lifestyle and the metabolic syndrome lack one or several aspects of the physical activity pattern in the analyses or cardiorespiratory fitness. Likewise, both uni- and triaxial accelerometry have been used, though, the predictive validity of these two modes has not been compared. The aims of the present study were firstly to investigate the independent relation between cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity pattern to the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and secondly to examine the predictive validity of uni- and triaxial accelerometry, respectively. Data was extracted from the SCAPIS pilot study (n=930, mean age 57.7 yrs). Physical activity pattern was assessed by accelerometry. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated using cycle ergometry. MetS was defined per the Adult Treatment Panel III from the National Cholesterol Education Program definition. Time spent sedentary (OR: 2.38, 95% CI: 1.54-4.24 for T3 vs T1), in light intensity (OR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.28-0.90) and in moderate-to-vigorous activity (OR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.18-0.61), as well as cardiorespiratory fitness (OR: 0.24, 95% CI:0.12-0.48), were all independently related to the prevalence of MetS after adjustment for potential confounders, fitness and/or the other aspects of the physical activity pattern. In addition, we found that triaxial analyses were more discriminant, with ORs farther away from the reference group and additional significant ORs. The finding that several aspects of the physical activity pattern reveal independent relations to the MetS makes new possible targets for behaviour change of interest, focusing on both exercise and everyday life. When assessing the risk status of a patient, it is advised that triaxial accelerometry is used.

  8. Vancomycin activates σ(B in vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus resulting in the enhancement of cytotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Yi Chen

    Full Text Available The alternative transcription factor σ(B is responsible for transcription in Staphylococcus aureus during the stress response. Many virulence-associated genes are directly or indirectly regulated by σ(B. We hypothesized that treatment with antibiotics may act as an environmental stressor that induces σ(B activity in antibiotic-resistant strains. Several antibiotics with distinct modes of action, including ampicillin (12 µg/ml, vancomycin (16 or 32 µg/ml, chloramphenicol (15 µg/ml, ciprofloxacin (0.25 µg/ml, and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SXT, 0.8 µg/ml, were investigated for their ability to activate this transcription factor. We were especially interested in the stress response in vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA strains treated with vancomycin. The transcription levels of selected genes associated with virulence were also measured. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR was employed to evaluate gene transcription levels. Contact hemolytic and cytotoxicity assays were used to evaluate cell damage following antibiotic treatment. Antibiotics that target the cell wall (vancomycin and ampicillin and SXT induced σ(B activity in VRSA strains. Expression of σ(B-regulated virulence genes, including hla and fnbA, was associated with the vancomycin-induced σ(B activity in VRSA strains and the increase in cytotoxicity upon vancomycin treatment. These effects were not observed in the sigB-deficient strain but were observed in the complemented strain. We demonstrate that sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (sub-MIC levels of antibiotics act as environmental stressors and activate the stress response sigma factor, σ(B. The improper use of antibiotics may alter the expression of virulence factors through the activation of σ(B in drug-resistant strains of S. aureus and lead to worse clinical outcomes.

  9. The association between patient activation and accessing online health information: results from a national survey of US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Samuel G; Pandit, Anjali; Rush, Steven R; Wolf, Michael S; Simon, Carol

    2015-12-01

    There are increasing opportunities for the public to access online health information, but attitudinal barriers to use are less well-known. Patient activation is associated with key health outcomes, but its relationship with using online health information is not known. We examined the relationship between patient activation and the likelihood of accessing a range of different types of online health information in a nationally representative US sample. Cross-sectional nationally representative survey. Data were from an online (n = 2700) and random digit dial telephone survey (n = 700) of US adults (total n = 3400). Respondent characteristics and the Patient Activation Measure. Self-reported access of five types of online health information in the past 12 months (online medical records, cost estimation tools, quality comparison tools, health information about a specific condition, preventive health information). Approximately, one-fifth of the sample had accessed their medical record (21.6%), treatment cost estimation tools (17.3%) and hospital and physician quality comparison tools (21.8%). Nearly half of the sample had accessed information about medical conditions or treatments (48.3%) or preventive health and well-being (45.9%). In multivariable analyses adjusted for participant characteristics, respondents with greater patient activation were more likely to have accessed all types of health information other than cost estimation tools. Activated people are more likely to make use of online heath information. Increasing patient activation could improve the public's ability to participate in health care and personal health self-management by encouraging health information seeking. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Sedentary Behaviour and Physical Activity Are Independently Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome, Results from the SCAPIS Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Örjan Ekblom

    Full Text Available Previous studies on the relation between lifestyle and the metabolic syndrome lack one or several aspects of the physical activity pattern in the analyses or cardiorespiratory fitness. Likewise, both uni- and triaxial accelerometry have been used, though, the predictive validity of these two modes has not been compared.The aims of the present study were firstly to investigate the independent relation between cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity pattern to the metabolic syndrome (MetS and secondly to examine the predictive validity of uni- and triaxial accelerometry, respectively.Data was extracted from the SCAPIS pilot study (n=930, mean age 57.7 yrs. Physical activity pattern was assessed by accelerometry. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated using cycle ergometry. MetS was defined per the Adult Treatment Panel III from the National Cholesterol Education Program definition.Time spent sedentary (OR: 2.38, 95% CI: 1.54-4.24 for T3 vs T1, in light intensity (OR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.28-0.90 and in moderate-to-vigorous activity (OR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.18-0.61, as well as cardiorespiratory fitness (OR: 0.24, 95% CI:0.12-0.48, were all independently related to the prevalence of MetS after adjustment for potential confounders, fitness and/or the other aspects of the physical activity pattern. In addition, we found that triaxial analyses were more discriminant, with ORs farther away from the reference group and additional significant ORs.The finding that several aspects of the physical activity pattern reveal independent relations to the MetS makes new possible targets for behaviour change of interest, focusing on both exercise and everyday life. When assessing the risk status of a patient, it is advised that triaxial accelerometry is used.

  11. False Positive STEMI Activations in a Regional Network: Comprehensive Analysis and Clinical Impact. Results From the Catalonian Codi Infart Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regueiro, Ander; Fernández-Rodríguez, Diego; Freixa, Xavier; Bosch, Xavier; Martín-Yuste, Victoria; Brugaletta, Salvatore; Roqué, Mercè; Sabaté, Manel; Masotti, Mónica

    2017-07-12

    ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) network activation by a noncardiologist reduces delay times but may increase the rate of false-positive STEMI diagnoses. We aimed to determine the prevalence, predictors, and clinical impact of false-positive activations within the Catalonian STEMI network (Codi Infart). From January 2010 through December 2011, all consecutive patients treated within the Codi Infart network were included. Code activations were classified as appropriate if they satisfied both electrocardiogram and clinical STEMI criteria. Appropriate activations were classified as false positives using 2 nonexclusive definitions: a) "angiographic" if a culprit coronary artery was not identified, and b) "clinical" if the discharge diagnosis was other than STEMI. In total, 5701 activations were included. Appropriate activation was performed in 87.8% of the episodes. The rate of angiographic false positives was 14.6%, while the rate of clinical false positives was 11.6%. Irrespective of the definition, female sex, left bundle branch block, and previous myocardial infarction were independent predictors of false-positive STEMI diagnoses. Using the clinical definition, hospitals without percutaneous coronary intervention and patients with complications during the first medical contact also had a false-positive STEMI diagnoses rate higher than the mean. In-hospital and 30-day mortality rates were similar for false-positive and true-positive STEMI patients after adjustment for possible confounders. False-positive STEMI diagnoses were frequent. Outcomes were similar for patients with a true-positive or false-positive STEMI diagnosis treated within a STEMI network. The presence of any modifiable predictors of a false-positive STEMI diagnosis warrants careful assessment to optimize the use of STEMI networks. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. [Changing health, activity and mood Department of day care clients comprehensive social service center: training program, methods, results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgova, V I

    2016-01-01

    The comparative analysis of changes in the self-assessment of health, activity and mood of older clients (men and women) separating the daycare center of the complex of social services. Used psychodiagnostic method of self-assessment of the functional state of the differential «Test SAN» (V.A.Doskin, N.A. Lavrentiev, V.B.Sphere, M.P.Miroshnikov). The study of these states conducted before and after the implementation of targeted training programs, simulation and which goal setting made from the standpoint of the system and subject-activity approach.

  13. Morphological changes in vascular and circulating blood cells following exposure to detergent sclerosants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley-Andrade, O; Connor, D E; Ma, D D F; Weisel, J W; Parsi, K

    2016-04-01

    To investigate morphological changes in vascular and circulating blood cells following exposure to detergent sclerosants sodium tetradecyl sulfate and polidocanol. Samples of whole blood, isolated leukocytes, platelets, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts were incubated with varying concentrations of sclerosants. Whole blood smears were stained with Giemsa and examined by light and bright field microscopy. Phalloidin and Hoechst stains were used to analyze cytoplasmic and nuclear morphology by fluorescence microscopy. Endothelial cell and fibroblasts were analyzed by live cell imaging. Higher concentrations of sclerosants induced cell lysis. Morphological changes in intact cells were observed at sublytic concentrations of detergents. Low concentration sodium tetradecyl sulfate induced erythrocyte acanthocytosis and macrocytosis, while polidocanol induced Rouleaux formation and increased the population of target cells and stomatocytes. Leukocytes showed swelling, blebbing, vacuolation, and nuclear degradation following exposure to sodium tetradecyl sulfate, while polidocanol induced pseudopodia formation, chromatin condensation, and fragmentation. Platelets exhibited pseudopodia with sodium tetradecyl sulfate and a "fried egg" appearance with polidocanol. Exposure to sodium tetradecyl sulfate resulted in size shrinkage in both endothelial cell and fibroblasts, while endothelial cell developed distinct spindle morphology. Polidocanol induced cytoplasmic microfilament bundles in both endothelial cell and fibroblasts. Patchy chromatin condensation was observed following exposure of fibroblasts to either agent. Detergent sclerosants are biologically active at sublytic concentrations. The observed morphological changes are consistent with cell activation, apoptosis, and oncosis. The cellular response is concentration dependent, cell-specific, and sclerosant specific. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Preliminary results of a functional MRI study of brain activation patterns in stuttering and nonstuttering speakers during a lexical access task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomgren, Michael; Nagarajan, Srikantan S; Lee, James N; Li, Tianhao; Alvord, Lynn

    2003-01-01

    An fMRI study examining lexical access and lexical generation in nine non-stuttering and seven stuttering speakers is presented. Lexical access was examined during a word description task that was presented auditorily while subjects "silently" thought of the target words. Participants alternated between four 30-s rest blocks and four 30-s "active" blocks. Activation patterns were assessed utilizing a standard subtraction paradigm, where the activation during the rest blocks was subtracted from the activation during the active blocks. High levels of variability characterized activation patterns within both speaker groups. Group comparisons using random effects statistical analyses did not identify significant differences between the groups when corrected for multiple comparisons. Analyses were subsequently conducted by comparing the trends in the group activation patterns between the speaker groups using fixed (corrected) and random effects (uncorrected) analyses. Non-stuttering control speakers activated primarily left hemisphere cortical speech and language areas while the stuttering speakers appeared to produce more bilateral activation. Discussion of these results focuses on the specific within- and between-hemispheric activation patterns and possible interpretations of these patterns. The reader will learn about: (1) issues related to interpreting brain activation findings in stuttering speakers; (2) the role and neurological substrates of lexical access during speech production in non-stuttering and stuttering speakers; (3) the basics of functional MRI; and (4) the brain activation areas involved during a silent lexical retrieval task in non-stuttering and stuttering speakers.

  15. Can in vitro mammalian cell genotoxicity test results be used to complement positive results in the Ames test and help predict carcinogenic or in vivo genotoxic activity? I. Reports of individual databases presented at an EURL ECVAM Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, David; Zeiger, Errol; Madia, Federica; Gooderham, Nigel; Kasper, Peter; Lynch, Anthony; Morita, Takeshi; Ouedraogo, Gladys; Parra Morte, Juan Manuel; Pfuhler, Stefan; Rogiers, Vera; Schulz, Markus; Thybaud, Veronique; van Benthem, Jan; Vanparys, Philippe; Worth, Andrew; Corvi, Raffaella

    2014-12-01

    Positive results in the Ames test correlate well with carcinogenic potential in rodents. This correlation is not perfect because mutations are only one of many stages in tumour development. Also, situations can be envisaged where the mutagenic response may be specific to the bacteria or the test protocol, e.g., bacterial-specific metabolism, exceeding a detoxification threshold, or the induction of oxidative damage to which bacteria may be more sensitive than mammalian cells in vitro or tissues in vivo. Since most chemicals are also tested for genotoxicity in mammalian cells, the pattern of mammalian cell results may help identify whether Ames-positive results predict carcinogenic or in vivo mutagenic activity. A workshop was therefore organised and sponsored by the EU Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM) to investigate this further. Participants presented results from other genotoxicity tests with Ames-positive compounds. Data came from published, regulatory agency, and industry sources. The question was posed whether negative results in mammalian cell tests were associated with absence of carcinogenic or in vivo genotoxic activity despite a positive Ames test. In the limited time available, the presented data were combined and an initial analysis suggested that the association of negative in vitro mammalian cell test results with lack of in vivo genotoxic or carcinogenic activity could have some significance. Possible reasons why a positive Ames test may not be associated with in vivo activity and what additional investigations/tests might contribute to a more robust evaluation were discussed. Because a considerable overlap was identified among the different databases presented, it was recommended that a consolidated database be built, with overlapping chemicals removed, so that a more robust analysis of the predictive capacity for potential carcinogenic and in vivo genotoxic activity could be derived from the patterns of mammalian

  16. Sexual desire and sexual activity of men and women across their lifespans: results from a representative German community survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Manfred E; Stöbel-Richter, Yve; Brähler, Elmar

    2008-01-01

    To present data on sexual desire and sexual activity from a representative survey of men and women covering the total age range of the adult German population, as previous studies have usually been based on samples selected for gender (either men or women) and age (ageing populations). A representative sample of 2341 men and women aged 18-93 years were surveyed to determine frequency and intensity of sexual desire and sexual activity, and their social, individual and interpersonal characteristics. Sexual desire declined with advancing age; overall, men reported more frequent and stronger sexual desire than women. However, there were important interactions between gender and age indicating an earlier decline among women. For both men and women, sexual activity in older participants was mostly an issue of the presence of a partnership. There were additional social and personality determinants of a lack of sexual desire and sexual inactivity: in men, sexual desire was compromised by social factors (unemployment, low income), while in women these were previous sexual traumas (childhood sexual abuse, rape). Community surveys elucidate the trajectory of sexual desire and activity across the lifespan. Further research on the determinants and risk factors for a lack of sexual desire and sexual inactivity is recommendable taking gender and age composition of the samples into account.

  17. A physical activity intervention to treat the frailty syndrome in older persons-results from the LIFE-P study

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: The frailty syndrome is as a well-established condition of risk for disability. Aim of the study is to explore whether a physical activity (PA) intervention can reduce prevalence and severity of frailty in a community-dwelling elders at risk of disability. METHODS: Exploratory analyses ...

  18. A clinically prognostic scoring system for patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy: results from the EuroSIDA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Mocroft, Amanda; Gatell, Jose M

    2002-01-01

    The risk of clinical progression for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons receiving treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is poorly defined. From an inception cohort of 8457 HIV-infected persons, 2027 patients who started HAART during prospective follow-up wer...

  19. Enhancement of daily physical activity increases physical fitness of outclinic COPD patients : Results of an exercise counseling program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospes, Gieneke; Bossenbroek, Linda; ten Hacken, Nick H. T.; van Hengel, Peter; de Greef, Mathieu H. G.

    Objective: To investigate whether a 12-week pedometer-based exercise counseling strategy is feasible and effectively enhances daily physical activity in outclinic Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) patients who do not participate in a rehabilitation program in a controlled way. Methods: 35

  20. Physical activity, depressed mood and pregnancy worries in European obese pregnant women: results from the DALI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, L.; Jelsma, J.G.M.; van Poppel, M.N.M.; Bogaerts, A.; Simmons, D.; Desoye, G.; Corcoy, R.; Kautzky-Willer, A.; Harreiter, J.; van Assche, A.; Devlieger, R.; Timmerman, D.; Hill, D.; Damm, P.; Mathiesen, E.R.; Wender-Ozegowska, E.; Zawiejska, A.; Rebollo, P.; Lapolla, A.; Dalfra, M.G.; Del Prato, S.; Bertolotto, A.; Dunne, F.; Jensen, D.M.; Andersen, L.; Snoek, F.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between mental health status (i.e. depressed mood and pregnancy-related worries) and objectively measured physical activity levels in obese pregnant women from seven European countries. Methods: Baseline data from the vitamin D and

  1. An Original Approach for an Automatic Bulletin of Volcanic Activity in Indonesia : the First Results of Infrasound Array in Kalimantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, J.; Harjadi, P.; Purbawinata, M.; James, S.; Le Pichon, A.

    2005-12-01

    The infrasound technology has already shown a unique low-level detectability for the detection of volcanic activity as ash clouds or explosions. This kind of detection and characterization of the volcanic activity is very important for a country like Indonesia where the volcanoes are aligned along more than 5000km of the arc of subduction. Due to the mutual experience and knowledge on meteorological observations, infrasound observation and modelling, the BMG (Indonesia), VSI (Indonesia) and the CEA (France) have decided to cooperate to validate this technology. The central position the Kalimantan Island (Borneo) was identified as the best area to monitor with a good resolution in azimuth all the Indonesian volcanoes. The PMCC bulletins of detection will be presented. These detections are crossed with the available reports of volcanic activity of Indonesia and Philippines. The high sensibility of the infrasound technology is clearly proved. To validate this bulletin, we cross these detections with the detections obtained using the IMS stations around Indonesia to localize the sources. This comparison proves that the Kalimantan infrasound array is ideally situated to survey an important part of the volcanic activity along the Indonesia-Philippines arc. In parallel, we use these infrasonic observations to improve the atmospheric models of wind.

  2. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Physical Activity Behavior among Elementary School Personnel: Baseline Results from the ACTION! Worksite Wellness Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Larry S.; Rice, Janet C.; Johnson, Carolyn C.; Rose, Donald; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Berenson, Gerald S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although the prevalence of obesity is increasing during adulthood, there have been few assessments of obesity, cardiovascular risk factors, and levels of physical activity among adult elementary school staff. Methods: Data were collected from 745 African-American and White female school personnel in a suburban school district in…

  3. Associations between Grades and Physical Activity and Food Choices: Results from YRBS from a Large Urban School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelling, Anastasia; Belson, Sarah Irvine; Beard, Jonathan; Young, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between television viewing time, physical activity level, food consumption patterns, and academic performance of adolescents in a large urban school district in the USA where health disparities are prevalent, particularly among minority residents. Design/Methodology/Approach: The…

  4. Neighborhood built environment and physical activity of Japanese older adults: results from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanibuchi, Tomoya; Kawachi, Ichiro; Nakaya, Tomoki; Hirai, Hiroshi; Kondo, Katsunori

    2011-08-19

    Although many studies have reported the association between neighborhood built environment (BE) and physical activity (PA), less is known about the associations for older populations or in countries besides the US and Australia. The aim of this paper is to examine the associations for older adult populations in Japan. Our analyses were based on cross-sectional data from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES), conducted in 2003. The respondents were older adults, aged 65 years or over (n = 9,414), from 8 municipalities across urban, suburban, and rural areas. The frequency of leisure time sports activity and total walking time were used as the outcome variables. Using geographic information systems (GIS), we measured residential density, street connectivity, number of local destinations, access to recreational spaces, and land slope of the respondents' neighborhoods, based on network distances with multiple radii (250 m, 500 m, 1,000 m). An ordinal logistic regression model was used to analyze the association between PA and BE measures. Population density and presence of parks or green spaces had positive associations with the frequency of sports activity, regardless of the selected buffer zone. The analysis of total walking time, however, showed only a few associations. Our findings provide mixed support for the association between PA and the characteristics of BE measures, previously used in Western settings. Some characteristics of the neighborhood built environment may facilitate leisure time sports activity, but not increase the total walking time for Japanese older adults.

  5. Enhanced curriculum intervention did not result in increased postnatal physical activity in rural, Southern, primarily African American women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose. To test the impact of two home visiting curricula on postnatal physical activity in rural, Southern, African American mothers. Design. Randomized controlled trial. Setting. Three rural counties in Mississippi. Subjects. Between September 2013 and May 2016, 54 postpartum women randomized...

  6. 75 FR 26927 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... , regardless of the raw material, grade, mixture, additives, further washing or post-activation chemical treatment (chemical or water washing, chemical impregnation or other treatment), or product form. Unless... Department determined that India, Indonesia, Philippines, Colombia, Thailand, and Peru are countries...

  7. Self-reported knee instability and activity limitations in patients with knee osteoarthritis: results of the Amsterdam osteoarthritis cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Esch, M.; Knoop, J.; van der Leeden, M.; Voorneman, R.; Gerritsen, M.; Reiding, D.; Romviel, S.; Knol, D.L.; Lems, W.F.; Dekker, J.; Roorda, L.D.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether self-reported knee instability is associated with activity limitations in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), in addition to knee pain and muscle strength. A cohort of 248 patients diagnosed with knee OA was examined. Self-reported knee

  8. Once-daily budesonide MMX in active, mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis: results from the randomised CORE II study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travis, Simon P. L.; Danese, Silvio; Kupcinskas, Limas; Alexeeva, Olga; D'Haens, Geert; Gibson, Peter R.; Moro, Luigi; Jones, Richard; Ballard, E. David; Masure, Johan; Rossini, Matteo; Sandborn, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Budesonide MMX is a novel oral formulation of budesonide that uses Multi-Matrix System (MMX) technology to extend release to the colon. This study compared the efficacy of budesonide MMX with placebo in patients with active, mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis (UC). Patients were randomised 1:1:1:1

  9. Eagle Adventure: School-Based Type 2 Diabetes Prevention Program Results in Improved Outcomes Related to Food and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall-Amos, Angelina; Parker, Stephany; Mata, Sara; Fox, Jill; Jackson, Teresa; Miracle, Sarah; Hermann, Janice

    2014-01-01

    The Eagle Adventure program was designed as a semester-long, SNAP-Ed program to address food and physical activity choices important for prevention of type 2 diabetes, obesity, and other chronic diseases. The program was developed for implementation in Grades 1-3. This article presents findings from two participating grade centers inclusive of…

  10. Maternal immune activation results in complex microglial transcriptome signature in the adult offspring that is reversed by minocycline treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattei, D.; Ivanov, A.; Ferrai, C.; Jordan, P.; Guneykaya, D.; Buonfiglioli, A.; Schaafsma, W.; Przanowski, P.; Deuther-Conrad, W.; Brust, P.; Hesse, S.; Patt, M.; Sabri, O.; Ross, T. L.; Eggen, B. J. L.; Boddeke, E. W. G. M.; Kaminska, B.; Beule, D.; Pombo, A.; Kettenmann, H.; Wolf, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    Maternal immune activation (MIA) during pregnancy has been linked to an increased risk of developing psychiatric pathologies in later life. This link may be bridged by a defective microglial phenotype in the offspring induced by MIA, as microglia have key roles in the development and maintenance of

  11. Physical activity prevents progression for cognitive impairment and vascular dementia: results from the LADIS (Leukoaraiosis and Disability) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdelho, Ana; Madureira, Sofia; Ferro, José M; Baezner, Hansjörg; Blahak, Christian; Poggesi, Anna; Hennerici, Michael; Pantoni, Leonardo; Fazekas, Franz; Scheltens, Philip; Waldemar, Gunhild; Wallin, Anders; Erkinjuntti, Timo; Inzitari, Domenico

    2012-12-01

    We aimed to study if physical activity could interfere with progression for cognitive impairment and dementia in older people with white matter changes living independently. The LADIS (Leukoaraiosis and Disability) prospective multinational European study evaluates the impact of white matter changes on the transition of independent elderly subjects into disability. Subjects were evaluated yearly during 3 years with a comprehensive clinical protocol and cognitive assessment with classification of cognitive impairment and dementia according to usual clinical criteria. Physical activity was recorded during the clinical interview. MRI was performed at entry and at the end of the study. Six hundred thirty-nine subjects were included (74.1±5 years old, 55% women, 9.6±3.8 years of schooling, 64% physically active). At the end of follow-up, 90 patients had dementia (vascular dementia, 54; Alzheimer disease with vascular component, 34; frontotemporal dementia, 2), and 147 had cognitive impairment not dementia. Using Cox regression analysis, physical activity reduced the risk of cognitive impairment (dementia and not dementia: β=-0.45, P=0.002; hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.48-0.85), dementia (β=-0.49, P=0.043; hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.38-0.98), and vascular dementia (β=-0.86, P=0.008; hazard ratio, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.22-0.80), independent of age, education, white matter change severity, medial temporal atrophy, previous and incident stroke, and diabetes. Physical activity reduces the risk of cognitive impairment, mainly vascular dementia, in older people living independently.

  12. Accelerometer assessed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and successful ageing: results from the Whitehall II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menai, Mehdi; van Hees, Vincent T; Elbaz, Alexis; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Sabia, Séverine

    2017-04-03

    Physical activity is key for successful ageing, but questions remain regarding the optimal physical activity pattern. We examined the cross-sectional association between physical activity and successful ageing using data on 3,749 participants (age range = 60-83years) of the Whitehall II study. The participants underwent a clinical assessment, completed a 20-item physical activity questionnaire, and wore a wrist-mounted accelerometer for 9 days. Successful ageing was defined as good cognitive, motor, and respiratory functioning, along with absence of disability, mental health problems, and major chronic diseases. Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) episodes assessed by accelerometer was classified as "short" (1-9.59 minutes) and "long" (≥10 minutes) bouts. Linear multivariate regression showed that successful agers (N = 789) reported 3.79 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.39-6.19) minutes more daily MVPA than other participants. Accelerometer data showed this difference to be 3.40 (95% CI:2.44-4.35) minutes for MVPA undertaken in short bouts, 4.16 (95% CI:3.11-5.20) minutes for long bouts, and 7.55 (95% CI:5.86-9.24) minutes for all MVPA bouts lasting 1 minute or more. Multivariate logistic regressions showed that participants undertaking ≥150 minutes of MVPA per week were more likely to be successful agers with both self-reported (Odd Ratio (OR) = 1.29,95% (CI):1.09-1.53) and accelerometer data (length bout ≥1 minute:OR = 1.92, 95%CI:1.60-2.30). Successful agers practice more MVPA, having both more short and long bouts, than non-successful agers.

  13. Community-Based Culturally Preferred Physical Activity Intervention Targeting Populations at High Risk for Type 2 Diabetes: Results and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Chip P; Riddell, Michael C; Gledhill, Norman; Jamnik, Veronica K

    2016-12-01

    In Canada, an ageing population, obesity rates and high risk among certain ethnocultural populations are driving diabetes prevalence. Given the burden associated with type 2 diabetes and its link to modifiable risk factors, this study aimed to implement culturally preferred physical activities at the community level, targeting individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes. Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) levels were used to detect potential improvements in glycemic control. Participants were screened for diabetes risk using a questionnaire and capillary point-of-care A1C blood testing. Participants were offered community-based physical activity classes 2 to 3 times per week for 6 months. A subset of participants (n=84) provided additional measurements. In total, 718 subjects were reached during recruitment. Substantial participant dropout took place, and 487 participants were exposed to the intervention. Among those who participated in the physical activity and provided follow up, mean A1C levels were reduced by 0.17 (p=0.002) after 3 months (n=84) and by 0.06 (p=0.35; n=49) after 6 months. The homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-beta) showed a significant improvement of 23.6% after 3 months (n=20; p=0.03) and 45.2% after 6 months (n=12; p=0.02). Resting systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure plus combined hand-grip strength improved after 6 months (n=12). Implementation of this community-based, culturally preferred physical activity program presented several challenges and was associated with significant participant dropout. After considering participant dropout, the relatively small group who participated and provided follow-up measures showed improvements various physiologic measures. Despite efforts to enhance accessibility, it appears that several barriers to physical activity participation remain and need to be explored to enhance the success of future programs. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  14. Effects of voluntary exercise on spontaneous physical activity and food consumption in mice: Results from an artificial selection experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copes, Lynn E; Schutz, Heidi; Dlugosz, Elizabeth M; Acosta, Wendy; Chappell, Mark A; Garland, Theodore

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated the effect of voluntary exercise on spontaneous physical activity (SPA) and food consumption in mice from 4 replicate lines bred for 57 generations for high voluntary wheel running (HR) and from 4 non-selected control (C) lines. Beginning at ~24 days of age, mice were housed in standard cages or in cages with attached wheels. Wheel activity and SPA were monitored in 1-min intervals. Data from the 8th week of the experiment were analyzed because mice were sexually mature and had plateaued in body mass, weekly wheel running distance, SPA, and food consumption. Body mass, length, and masses of the retroperitoneal fat pad, liver, and heart were recorded after the 13th week. SPA of both HR and C mice decreased with wheel access, due to reductions in both duration and average intensity of SPA. However, total activity duration (SPA+wheel running; min/day) was ~1/3 greater when mice were housed with wheels, and food consumption was significantly increased. Overall, food consumption in both HR and C mice was more strongly affected by wheel running than by SPA. Duration of wheel running had a stronger effect than average speed, but the opposite was true for SPA. With body mass as a covariate, chronic wheel access significantly reduced fat pad mass and increased heart mass in both HR and C mice. Given that both HR and C mice housed with wheels had increased food consumption, the energetic cost of wheel running was not fully compensated by concomitant reductions in SPA. The experiment demonstrates that both duration and intensity of both wheel running and SPA were significant predictors of food consumption. This sort of detailed analysis of the effects of different aspects of physical activity on food consumption has not previously been reported for a non-human animal, and it sets the stage for longitudinal examination of energy balance and its components in rodent models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Acceptable knowledge summary report for combustible/noncombustible, metallic, and HEPA filter waste resulting from {sup 238}Pu fabrication activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, P.S.Z.; Foxx, C.L.

    1998-02-19

    All transuranic (TRU) waste must be sufficiently characterized and certified before it is shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) allows use of acceptable knowledge (AK) for waste characterization. EPA uses the term AK in its guidance document and defines AK and provides guidelines on how acceptable knowledge should be obtained and documented. This AK package has been prepared in accordance with Acceptable Knowledge Documentation (TWCP-QP-1.1-021,R.2). This report covers acceptable knowledge information for five waste streams generated at TA-55 during operations to fabricate various heat sources using feedstock {sup 238}Pu supplied by the Savannah River Site (SRS). The {sup 238}Pu feedstock itself does not contain quantities of RCRA-regulated constituents above regulatory threshold limits, as known from process knowledge at SRS and as confirmed by chemical analysis. No RCRA-regulated chemicals were used during {sup 238}Pu fabrication activities at TA-55, and all {sup 238}Pu activities were physically separated from other plutonium processing activities. Most of the waste generated from the {sup 238}Pu fabrication activities is thus nonmixed waste, including waste streams TA-55-43, 45, and 47. The exceptions are waste streams TA-55-44, which contains discarded lead-lined rubber gloves used in the gloveboxes that contained the {sup 238}Pu material, and TA-55-46, which may contain pieces of discarded lead. These waste streams have been denoted as mixed because of the presence of the lead-containing material.

  16. ON THE WAY AND RESULT REFORMATION ECONOMICS AND CHANGE PRIORITIS OF THE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC ACTIVITY CHINE`S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Maslennikov

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In article analyses common and specific chine’s problems reformation, adaptation and modernization national economy on the way globalization processes in the world, including such forms us international trade. Chine is quickly development state postsocialist type, very activities integrities in world economy systems, across very high temps of the economic rate and adopting national economy to specific going and methods industrialization, scientific-technical, social and economic progress, formation on this base of the postindustrial economy.

  17. E-Media Use and Preferences for Physical Activity and Public Health Information: Results of a Web-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jake-Schoffman, Danielle E; Wilcox, Sara; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Friedman, Daniela B; West, Delia S

    2017-07-31

    As social media (eg, Twitter) continues to gain widespread popularity, health research and practice organizations may consider combining it with other electronic media (e-media) channels (eg, Web sites, e-newsletters) within their communication plans. However, little is known about added benefits of using social media when trying to reach public health audiences about physical activity. Learn about current use and preference for e-media communication channels among physical activity researchers and practitioners. A Web-based survey was used, open for responses from August 20, 2015, through January 5, 2016. Survey participation was voluntary and anonymous. The survey was advertised through multiple channels targeting physical activity researchers and practitioners, including announcements on professional listservs and in e-newsletters, Twitter, and posts on Facebook pages of public health organizations. A total of 284 survey respondents had complete data. Typical use of e-media to receive, seek out, and share information about physical activity and health and what appeals to researchers and practitioners for professional use. Most respondents preferred non-social media channels to social media and these preferences did not differ widely when examining subgroups such as researchers versus practitioners or social media users versus nonusers. There were few differences by respondent demographics, though younger respondents reported using social media more than older respondents. However, limiting analyses to respondents who identified as social media users, only about 1% of respondents ranked social media sources as their preferred channels for information; thus, most people would continue to be reached if communication remained largely via non-social media e-media channels. The present study supports growing evidence that careful surveying of a target audience should be undertaken when considering new communication channels, as preference and use may not support the

  18. Can we use digital life-log images to investigate active and sedentary travel behaviour? Results from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Paul; Doherty, Aiden; Berry, Emma; Hodges, Steve; Batterham, Alan M; Foster, Charlie

    2011-05-20

    Active travel such as walking and cycling has potential to increase physical activity levels in sedentary individuals. Motorised car travel is a sedentary behaviour that contributes to carbon emissions. There have been recent calls for technology that will improve our ability to measure these travel behaviours, and in particular evaluate modes and volumes of active versus sedentary travel. The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate the potential efficacy of a new electronic measurement device, a wearable digital camera called SenseCam, in travel research. Participants (n = 20) were required to wear the SenseCam device for one full day of travel. The device automatically records approximately 3,600 time-stamped, first-person point-of-view images per day, without any action required by the wearer. Participants also completed a self-report travel diary over the same period for comparison, and were interviewed afterwards to assess user burden and experience. There were a total of 105 confirmed journeys in this pilot. The new SenseCam device recorded more journeys than the travel diary (99 vs. 94). Although the two measures demonstrated an acceptable correlation for journey duration (r = 0.92, p travel behaviour from time-stamped images shows considerable potential in the field of travel research. Journey duration derived from direct observation of travel behaviour from time-stamped images appears to suggest over-reporting of self-reported journey duration.

  19. Results from Kenya's 2014 Report Card on the Physical Activity and Body Weight of Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachira L, Joy M; Muthuri, Stella K; Tremblay, Mark S; Onywera, Vincent O

    2014-05-01

    The report card presents available evidence on the physical activity (PA) and body weight status of Kenyan children and youth. It highlights areas where Kenya is succeeding and those in which more action is needed. Comprehensive review and analysis of available data on core indicators for Kenyan children and youth 5-17 years were conducted. The grading system used was based on a set of specific criteria and existing grading schemes from similar report cards in other countries. Of the 10 core indicators discussed, body composition was favorable (grade B) while overall PA levels, organized sport participation, and active play were assigned grades of C. Active transportation and sedentary behaviors were also favorable (grade B). Family/peers, school, governmental and nongovernmental strategies were graded C. The majority of Kenyan children and youth have healthy body composition levels and acceptable sedentary time, but are not doing as well in attaining the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation on PA. Although Kenya seems to be doing well in most indicators compared with some developed countries, there is a need for action to address existing trends toward unhealthy lifestyles. More robust and representative data for all indicators are required.

  20. Benefits of using customized instrumentation in total knee arthroplasty: results from an activity-based costing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibesku, Carsten O; Hofer, Pamela; Portegies, Wesley; Ruys, C J M; Fennema, Peter

    2013-03-01

    The growing demand for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) associated with the efforts to contain healthcare expenditure by advanced economies necessitates the use of economically effective technologies in TKA. The present analysis based on activity-based costing (ABC) model was carried out to estimate the economic value of patient-matched instrumentation (PMI) compared to standard surgical instrumentation in TKA. The costs of the two approaches, PMI and standard instrumentation in TKA, were determined by the use of ABC which measures the cost of a particular procedure by determining the activities involved and adding the cost of each activity. Improvement in productivity due to increased operating room (OR) turn-around times was determined and potential additional revenue to the hospital by the efficient utilization of gained OR time was estimated. Increased efficiency in the usage of OR and utilization of surgical trays were noted with patient-specific approach. Potential revenues to the hospital were estimated with the use of PMI by efficient utilization of time saved in OR. Additional revenues of 78,240 per year were estimated considering utilization of gained OR time to perform surgeries other than TKA. The analysis suggests that use of PMI in TKA is economically effective when compared to standard instrumentation.

  1. Impact of baseline physical activity and diet behavior on metabolic syndrome in a pharmaceutical trial: results from NAVIGATOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Kim M; Sun, Jie-Lena; Thomas, Laine; Bales, Connie W; Califf, Robert M; Yates, Thomas; Davies, Melanie J; Holman, Rury R; McMurray, John J V; Bethel, M Angelyn; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Haffner, Steven M; Kraus, William E

    2014-04-01

    The cardiometabolic risk cluster metabolic syndrome (MS) includes ≥3 of elevated fasting glucose, hypertension, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and increased waist circumference. Each can be affected by physical activity and diet. Our objective was to determine whether determine whether baseline physical activity and/or diet behavior impact MS in the course of a large pharmaceutical trial. This was an observational study from NAVIGATOR, a double-blind, randomized (nateglinide, valsartan, both, or placebo), controlled trial between 2002 and 2004. We studied data from persons (n=9306) with impaired glucose tolerance and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or CVD risk factors; 7118 with pedometer data were included in this analysis. Physical activity was assessed with 7-day pedometer records; diet behavior was self-reported on a 6-item survey. An MS score (MSSc) was calculated using the sum of each MS component, centered around the Adult Treatment Panel III threshold, and standardized according to sample standard deviation. Excepting HDL-c, assessed at baseline and year 3, MS components were assessed yearly. Follow-up averaged 6 years. For every 2000-step increase in average daily steps, there was an associated reduction in average MSSc of 0.29 (95% CI (-)0.33 to (-)0.25). For each diet behavior endorsed, there was an associated reduction in average MSSc of 0.05 (95% CI (-)0.08 to (-)0.01). Accounting for the effects of pedometer steps and diet behavior together had minimal impact on parameter estimates with no significant interaction. Relations were independent of age, sex, race, region, smoking, family history of diabetes, and use of nateglinide, valsartan, aspirin, antihypertensive, and lipid-lowering agent. Baseline physical activity and diet behavior were associated independently with reductions in MSSc such that increased attention to these lifestyle elements provides cardiometabolic benefits. Thus, given the potential to

  2. An internet-supported school physical activity intervention in low socioeconomic status communities: results from the Activity and Motivation in Physical Education (AMPED) cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Chris; Lester, Aidan; Owen, Katherine B; White, Rhiannon L; Peralta, Louisa; Kirwan, Morwenna; Diallo, Thierno M O; Maeder, Anthony J; Bennie, Andrew; MacMillan, Freya; Kolt, Gregory S; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Gore, Jennifer M; Cerin, Ester; Cliff, Dylan P; Lubans, David R

    2017-10-09

    Quality physical education (PE) is the cornerstone of comprehensive school physical activity (PA) promotion programmes. We tested the efficacy of a teacher professional learning intervention, delivered partially via the internet, designed to maximise opportunities for students to be active during PE lessons and enhance adolescents' motivation towards PE and PA. A two-arm cluster randomised controlled trial with teachers and Grade 8 students from secondary schools in low socioeconomic areas of Western Sydney, Australia. The Activity and Motivation in Physical Education (AMPED) intervention for secondary school PE teachers included workshops, online learning, implementation tasks and mentoring sessions. The primary outcome was the proportion of PE lesson time that students spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), measured by accelerometers at baseline, postintervention (7-8 months after baseline) and maintenance (14-15 months). Secondary outcomes included observed PE teachers' behaviour during lessons, students' leisure-time PA and students' motivation. Students (n=1421) from 14 schools completed baseline assessments and were included in linear mixed model analyses. The intervention had positive effects on students' MVPA during lessons. At postintervention, the adjusted mean difference in the proportion of lesson time spent in MVPA was 5.58% (peffect was 2.64% (peffects on teachers' behaviour, but did not impact students' motivation. AMPED produced modest improvements in MVPA and compares favourably with previous interventions delivered exclusively face-to-face. Online teacher training could help facilitate widespread dissemination of professional learning interventions. ACTRN12614000184673. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Relationship between neighborhood walkability and older adults' physical activity: results from the Belgian Environmental Physical Activity Study in Seniors (BEPAS Seniors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Holle, Veerle; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Van Dyck, Delfien; Deforche, Benedicte; Van de Weghe, Nico; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2014-08-23

    Adequate knowledge on environmental correlates of physical activity (PA) in older adults is needed to develop effective health promotion initiatives. However, research in this age group is scarce and most existing studies were conducted in North America. The present study aimed to examine relationships between GIS-based neighborhood walkability and objective and self-reported PA in community-dwelling Belgian older adults. Furthermore, moderating effects of neighborhood income levels were investigated. The Belgian Environmental Physical Activity Study (BEPAS) for Seniors is a cross-sectional study in older adults (≥65 yrs) and was conducted between October 2010 and September 2012. Data from 438 older adults living in 20 neighborhoods across Ghent (Belgium) were analyzed. Stratification of selected neighborhoods was based upon objective walkability and neighborhood income. Participants wore an accelerometer during seven consecutive days to obtain objective levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Self-reported levels of transportation walking/cycling and recreational walking/cycling were assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long, last 7 days version) adapted for the elderly. Multi-level regression analyses were conducted. Findings showed a positive relationship between neighborhood walkability and weekly minutes of older adults' self-reported walking for transportation (B = 4.63 ± 1.05;p walkability and accelerometer-derived low-light PA (B = -1.38 ± 0.62;p = 0.025). Walkability was not related to any measure of recreational PA. A walkability x income interaction was found for accelerometer-derived MVPA (B = -1.826 ± 1.03;p = 0.075), showing only a positive association between walkability and MVPA in low-income neighborhood residents. This was the first European study to examine walkability-PA relationships in older adults. These Belgian findings suggest that a high neighborhood walkability relates to higher levels

  4. Active Combustion Control for Aircraft Gas-Turbine Engines-Experimental Results for an Advanced, Low-Emissions Combustor Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaat, John C.; Kopasakis, George; Saus, Joseph R.; Chang, Clarence T.; Wey, Changlie

    2012-01-01

    Lean combustion concepts for aircraft engine combustors are prone to combustion instabilities. Mitigation of instabilities is an enabling technology for these low-emissions combustors. NASA Glenn Research Center s prior activity has demonstrated active control to suppress a high-frequency combustion instability in a combustor rig designed to emulate an actual aircraft engine instability experience with a conventional, rich-front-end combustor. The current effort is developing further understanding of the problem specifically as applied to future lean-burning, very low-emissions combustors. A prototype advanced, low-emissions aircraft engine combustor with a combustion instability has been identified and previous work has characterized the dynamic behavior of that combustor prototype. The combustor exhibits thermoacoustic instabilities that are related to increasing fuel flow and that potentially prevent full-power operation. A simplified, non-linear oscillator model and a more physics-based sectored 1-D dynamic model have been developed to capture the combustor prototype s instability behavior. Utilizing these models, the NASA Adaptive Sliding Phasor Average Control (ASPAC) instability control method has been updated for the low-emissions combustor prototype. Active combustion instability suppression using the ASPAC control method has been demonstrated experimentally with this combustor prototype in a NASA combustion test cell operating at engine pressures, temperatures, and flows. A high-frequency fuel valve was utilized to perturb the combustor fuel flow. Successful instability suppression was shown using a dynamic pressure sensor in the combustor for controller feedback. Instability control was also shown with a pressure feedback sensor in the lower temperature region upstream of the combustor. It was also demonstrated that the controller can prevent the instability from occurring while combustor operation was transitioning from a stable, low-power condition to

  5. Physical activity and academic achievement across the curriculum: Results from a 3-year cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Joseph E; Hillman, Charles H; Greene, Jerry L; Hansen, David M; Gibson, Cheryl A; Sullivan, Debra K; Poggio, John; Mayo, Matthew S; Lambourne, Kate; Szabo-Reed, Amanda N; Herrmann, Stephen D; Honas, Jeffery J; Scudder, Mark R; Betts, Jessica L; Henley, Katherine; Hunt, Suzanne L; Washburn, Richard A

    2017-06-01

    We compared changes in academic achievement across 3years between children in elementary schools receiving the Academic Achievement and Physical Activity Across the Curriculum intervention (A+PAAC), in which classroom teachers were trained to deliver academic lessons using moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) compared to a non-intervention control. Elementary schools in eastern Kansas (n=17) were cluster randomized to A+PAAC (N=9, target ≥100min/week) or control (N=8). Academic achievement (math, reading, spelling) was assessed using the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition (WIAT-III) in a sample of children (A+PAAC=316, Control=268) in grades 2 and 3 at baseline (Fall 2011) and repeated each spring across 3years. On average 55min/week of A+PACC lessons were delivered each week across the intervention. Baseline WIAT-III scores (math, reading, spelling) were significantly higher in students in A+PAAC compared with control schools and improved in both groups across 3years. However, linear mixed modeling, accounting for baseline between group differences in WIAT-III scores, ethnicity, family income, and cardiovascular fitness, found no significant impact of A+PAAC on any of the academic achievement outcomes as determined by non-significant group by time interactions. A+PAAC neither diminished or improved academic achievement across 3-years in elementary school children compared with controls. Our target of 100min/week of active lessons was not achieved; however, students attending A+PAAC schools received an additional 55min/week of MVPA which may be associated with both physical and mental health benefits, without a reduction in time devoted to academic instruction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Once-daily budesonide MMX in active, mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis: results from the randomised CORE II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Simon P L; Danese, Silvio; Kupcinskas, Limas; Alexeeva, Olga; D'Haens, Geert; Gibson, Peter R; Moro, Luigi; Jones, Richard; Ballard, E David; Masure, Johan; Rossini, Matteo; Sandborn, William J

    2014-03-01

    Budesonide MMX is a novel oral formulation of budesonide that uses Multi-Matrix System (MMX) technology to extend release to the colon. This study compared the efficacy of budesonide MMX with placebo in patients with active, mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis (UC). Patients were randomised 1:1:1:1 to receive budesonide MMX 9 mg or 6 mg, or Entocort EC 9 mg (budesonide controlled ileal-release capsules; reference arm) or placebo once daily for 8 weeks. The primary endpoint was combined clinical and endoscopic remission, defined as UC Disease Activity Index score ≤1 with a score of 0 for rectal bleeding and stool frequency, no mucosal friability on colonoscopy, and a ≥1-point reduction in endoscopic index score from baseline. 410 patients were evaluated for efficacy. Combined clinical and endoscopic remission rates with budesonide MMX 9 mg or 6 mg, Entocort EC and placebo were 17.4%, 8.3%, 12.6% and 4.5%, respectively. The difference between budesonide MMX 9 mg and placebo was significant (OR 4.49; 95% CI 1.47 to 13.72; p=0.0047). Budesonide MMX 9 mg was associated with numerically higher rates of clinical (42.2% vs 33.7%) and endoscopic improvement (42.2% vs 31.5%) versus placebo. The rate of histological healing (16.5% vs 6.7%; p=0.0361) and proportion of patients with symptom resolution (23.9% vs 11.2%; p=0.0220) were significantly higher for budesonide MMX 9 mg than placebo. Adverse event profiles were similar across groups. Budesonide MMX 9 mg was safe and more effective than placebo at inducing combined clinical and endoscopic remission in patients with active, mild-to-moderate UC.

  7. An evaluation of a model for the systematic documentation of hospital based health promotion activities: results from a multicentre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne; Christensen, Mette E; Groene, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    of two parts; first part includes motivational counselling (7 codes) and the second part comprehends intervention, rehabilitation and after treatment (8 codes).The objective was to evaluate in an international study the usefulness, applicability and sufficiency of a simple model for the systematic...... and in patient administrative systems have been sparse. Therefore, the activities are mostly invisible in the registers of hospital services as well as in budgets and balances.A simple model has been described to structure the registration of the HP procedures performed by the clinical staff. The model consists...

  8. CR2-mediated activation of the complement alternative pathway results in formation of membrane attack complexes on human B lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C H; Marquart, H V; Prodinger, W M

    2001-01-01

    Normal human B lymphocytes activate the alternative pathway of complement via complement receptor type 2 (CR2, CD21), that binds hydrolysed C3 (iC3) and thereby promotes the formation of a membrane-bound C3 convertase. We have investigated whether this might lead to the generation of a C5...... convertase and consequent formation of membrane attack complexes (MAC). Deposition of C3 fragments and MAC was assessed on human peripheral B lymphocytes in the presence of 30% autologous serum containing 4.4 mM MgCl2/20 mM EGTA, which abrogates the classical pathway of complement without affecting...

  9. Golimumab in combination with methotrexate in Japanese patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: results of the GO-FORTH study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshiya; Harigai, Masayoshi; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Ishiguro, Naoki; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Koike, Takao; Kanazawa, Minoru; Oba, Takuya; Yoshinari, Toru; Baker, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of golimumab + methotrexate (MTX) in Japanese patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). 269 Japanese patients with active RA despite treatment with MTX were randomised (1:1:1) to placebo + MTX (Group 1), golimumab 50 mg + MTX (Group 2) or golimumab 100 mg + MTX (Group 3). Subcutaneous golimumab/placebo was injected every 4 weeks; stable doses of oral MTX (6-8 mg/week) were continued. Patients were allowed to enter early escape (Group 1 added golimumab 50 mg, Group 2 increased golimumab to 100 mg, Group 3 continued golimumab 100 mg) based on swollen/tender joint counts at week 14. The primary study endpoint was achievement of at least 20% improvement in the American College of Rheumatology (ACR20) response criteria at week 14. To control for multiplicity of testing, treatment group comparisons were first made between combined Groups 2 and 3 versus Group 1, followed by comparisons of Group 2 and Group 3 versus Group 1. The proportion of patients with an ACR20 response at week 14 was significantly higher in combined Groups 2 and 3 (73.4%, 127/173) and in each of Group 2 (72.1%, 62/86) and Group 3 (74.7%, 65/87) compared with Group 1 (27.3%, 24/88; p<0.0001 for all comparisons). Golimumab + MTX also elicited a significantly better response than placebo + MTX in other efficacy parameters, including disease activity score (DAS28) response/remission and radiographic assessments. During the 16-week fixed treatment regimen study period, 72.7%, 75.6% and 78.2% of patients had adverse events and 1.1%, 1.2% and 2.3% had serious adverse events in Groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. In Japanese patients with active RA despite MTX therapy, golimumab + MTX was significantly more effective than MTX monotherapy in reducing RA signs/symptoms and limiting radiographic progression with no unexpected safety concerns.

  10. Coffee, alcohol, smoking, physical activity and QT interval duration: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyi Zhang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abnormalities in the electrocardiographic QT interval duration have been associated with an increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. However, there is substantial uncertainty about the effect of modifiable factors such as coffee intake, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity on QT interval duration.We studied 7795 men and women from the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994. Baseline QT interval was measured from the standard 12-lead electrocardiogram. Coffee and tea intake, alcohol consumption, leisure-time physical activities over the past month, and lifetime smoking habits were determined using validated questionnaires during the home interview.In the fully adjusted model, the average differences in QT interval comparing participants drinking ≥6 cups/day to those who did not drink any were -1.2 ms (95% CI -4.4 to 2.0 for coffee, and -2.0 ms (-11.2 to 7.3 for tea, respectively. The average differences in QT interval duration comparing current to never smokers was 1.2 ms (-0.6 to 2.9 while the average difference in QT interval duration comparing participants drinking ≥7 drinks/week to non-drinkers was 1.8 ms (-0.5 to 4.0. The age, race/ethnicity, and RR-interval adjusted differences in average QT interval duration comparing men with binge drinking episodes to non-drinkers or drinkers without binge drinking were 2.8 ms (0.4 to 5.3 and 4.0 ms (1.6 to 6.4, respectively. The corresponding differences in women were 1.1 (-2.9 to 5.2 and 1.7 ms (-2.3 to 5.7. Finally, the average differences in QT interval comparing the highest vs. the lowest categories of total physical activity was -0.8 ms (-3.0 to 1.4.Binge drinking was associated with longer QT interval in men but not in women. QT interval duration was not associated with other modifiable factors including coffee and tea intake, smoking, and physical activity.

  11. Results from the EPOXI and StardustNExT Missions - A Changing View of Comet Volatiles and Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meech, Karen; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Veverka, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    Within a period of ~3 months there were two extended mission flybys of comets. Both encounters have provided an exciting new view of comet activity and volatile composition that is changing our paradigm of these small early solar system remnants. The EPOXI mission flew past the nucleus of comet 103P/Hartley 2 on 4 Nov. 2010. This small nucleus was known to be exceptionally active prior to the encounter, by virtue of a very large water production rate relative to its surface area. Both the encounter and ground-based data showed that comet Hartley 2fs perihelion activity was dominated by sub-surface CO2 outgassing rather than by water, suggesting our classic comet formation picture is not correct. The gas flow carried large grains (up to >10 cm in diameter) from the nucleus, and the icy grains contributed to the large observed water production. The CO2 abundance relative to water varies with rotation between 10-20% between the two lobes of the nucleus. The bi-lobed nucleus is rotating in an excited state, with a period that varied rapidly from ~16.5 hrs to longer than 18.5 hrs over 3 months. The nucleus morphology was different from that of other nuclei visited by space craft, with some regions of rough topography in which surface ice was visible. On 2011 Feb. 14 the Stardust-NExT spacecraft flew past the nucleus of comet 9P/Tempel 1, the target of the Deep Impact (DI) experiment in July 2005. The mission goal was to look at the nucleus after and intervening perihelion passage, extending the surface area imaged during the DI encounter and also image the 2005 impact site. The layering seen during the DI flyby was exhibited over the areas newly imaged in the NExT flyby, and it was found that 30% of the nucleus was covered by smooth deposits that were likely caused by eruption of subsurface materials. Although it has long been known that comets lose on average ~ a meter of their surface per perihelion passage, it was surprising to see that in the regions imaged by both

  12. Global Terrestrial Water Cycle Mapping and Science Results from the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Satellite Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entekhabi, D.; Yueh, S. H.; O'Neill, P. E.; Entin, J. K.; You, T. H.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission was launched on January 31, 2015 and started science data acquisition at the beginning of April, 2015. The science data acquisition with the radiometer now covers nearly a one-year-and-half period. The coincident active L-band and passive L-band measurements cover only two months in Summer 2015 due to the radar instrument malfunction. In this presentation we report on the SMAP global L-band radiometry, the capability to detect and, where possible, mitigate Radio-Frequency Interference, and exploit the radiometer over-sampling to enhance data resolution. The global surface soil moisture inferred from the L-band brightness temperature fields are used to estimate water cycle characteristics over land surfaces. The focus of the data analyses has been on finding the linkages between the water, energy and carbon cycles over land. The data are also used to infer vegetation characteristics, ocean surface salinity, ocean surface winds, and sea ice thickness. The model value-added data products are used to estimate root-zone soil moisture and land surface water, energy and carbon fluxes.

  13. Ongoing egocentric spatial processing during learning of non-spatial information results in temporal-parietal activity during retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice eGomez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Deficits in amnesic patients suggest that spatial cognition and episodic memory are intimately related. Among the different types of spatial processing, the allocentric, relying on the hippocampal formation and the egocentric-updated, relying on parieto-temporal connections have both been considered to functionally underlie episodic memory encoding and retrieval. We explore the cerebral correlates underlying the episodic retrieval of words previously learnt outside the magnet while performing different spatial processes, allocentric and egocentric-updated. Subsequently and during fMRI, participants performed an episodic word recognition task. Data processing revealed that the correct recognition of words learnt in egocentric-updated condition enhanced activity of the medial and lateral parietal, as well as temporal cortices. No additional regions were activated in the present study by retrieving words learnt in allocentric condition. This study sheds new light on the functional links between episodic memory and spatial processing: The temporo-parietal network is confirmed to be crucial in episodic memory in healthy participants and could be linked to the egocentric-updated process.

  14. Dengue incidence in urban and rural Cambodia: results from population-based active fever surveillance, 2006-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirenda Vong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue vaccines are now in late-stage development, and evaluation and robust estimates of dengue disease burden are needed to facilitate further development and introduction. In Cambodia, the national dengue case-definition only allows reporting of children less than 16 years of age, and little is known about dengue burden in rural areas and among older persons. To estimate the true burden of dengue in the largest province of Cambodia, Kampong Cham, we conducted community-based active dengue fever surveillance among the 0-to-19-year age group in rural villages and urban areas during 2006-2008. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Active surveillance for febrile illness was conducted in 32 villages and 10 urban areas by mothers trained to use digital thermometers combined with weekly home visits to identify persons with fever. An investigation team visited families with febrile persons to obtain informed consent for participation in the follow-up study, which included collection of personal data and blood specimens. Dengue-related febrile illness was defined using molecular and serological testing of paired acute and convalescent blood samples. Over the three years of surveillance, 6,121 fever episodes were identified with 736 laboratory-confirmed dengue virus (DENV infections for incidences of 13.4-57.8/1,000 person-seasons. Average incidence was highest among children less than 7 years of age (41.1/1,000 person-seasons and lowest among the 16-to-19-year age group (11.3/1,000 person-seasons. The distribution of dengue was highly focal, with incidence rates in villages and urban areas ranging from 1.5-211.5/1,000 person-seasons (median 36.5. During a DENV-3 outbreak in 2007, rural areas were affected more than urban areas (incidence 71 vs. 17/1,000 person-seasons, p<0.001. CONCLUSION: The large-scale active surveillance study for dengue fever in Cambodia found a higher disease incidence than reported to the national surveillance system, particularly

  15. Correlates of pedometer use: results from a community-based physical activity intervention trial (10,000 Steps Rockhampton).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, Elizabeth G; Mummery, Kerry; Reeves, Marina M; Lawler, Sheleigh P; Schofield, Grant; Marshall, Alison J; Brown, Wendy J

    2007-07-27

    Pedometers have become common place in physical activity promotion, yet little information exists on who is using them. The multi-strategy, community-based 10,000 Steps Rockhampton physical activity intervention trial provided an opportunity to examine correlates of pedometer use at the population level. Pedometer use was promoted across all intervention strategies including: local media, pedometer loan schemes through general practice, other health professionals and libraries, direct mail posted to dog owners, walking trail signage, and workplace competitions. Data on pedometer use were collected during the 2-year follow-up telephone interviews from random population samples in Rockhampton, Australia, and a matched comparison community (Mackay). Logistic regression analyses were used to determine the independent influence of interpersonal characteristics and program exposure variables on pedometer use. Data from 2478 participants indicated that 18.1% of Rockhampton and 5.6% of Mackay participants used a pedometer in the previous 18-months. Rockhampton pedometer users (n = 222) were more likely to be female (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.23), aged 45 or older (OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.16, 2.46) and to have higher levels of education (university degree OR = 4.23, 95% CI: 1.86, 9.6). Respondents with a BMI > 30 were more likely to report using a pedometer (OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.54) than those in the healthy weight range. Compared with those in full-time paid work, respondents in 'home duties' were significantly less likely to report pedometer use (OR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.53). Exposure to individual program components, in particular seeing 10,000 Steps street signage and walking trails or visiting the website, was also significantly associated with greater pedometer use. Pedometer use varies between population subgroups, and alternate strategies need to be investigated to engage men, people with lower levels of education and those in full-time 'home duties', when

  16. Research regarding the changes that occur in the structure of benthic macro invertebrates communities as a result of anthropogenic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca-Andreea Marin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An important role in the monitoring of the water quality is represented by the benthic macro invertebrates. They are a key component in the transfer of matter and energy in the aquatic ecosystems. In May 2015, 20 quantitative samples of benthic sample were collected at different seasons in the Bega River water. Samples were collected from the upstream, middle and downstream of Timisoara city. The aim of this paper is to identify the changes that occur in the structure of benthic macro invertebrates communities due to anthropogenic activities. Once the identification of  saprobionte organisms has done, it have been performed the density, abundance and frequency of the sample. Based on these values, we can say that the upstream segment waters falls into the category of superior quality compared to the waters of the central segment, especially in the downstream segment.

  17. A case of pediatric virilizing adrenocortical tumor resulting in hypothalamic-pituitary activation and central precocious puberty following surgical removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Yoko; Oue, Takaharu; Oowari, Mitsugu; Soh, Hideki; Tachibana, Makiko; Kimura, Sadami; Kiyohara, Yuki; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Bessyo, Kazuhiko; Mushiake, Sotaro; Homma, Keiko; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Sasano, Hironobu; Ozono, Keiichi

    2009-01-01

    We present a 6-year-old boy with a virilizing adrenocortical tumor who initially presented with peripheral precocious puberty. Development of facial acne, pubic hair and a growth spurt were noted at the age of five. A low-pitched voice as well as maturation of external genitalia was noted at the age of six. Both serum and urinary levels of adrenal androgens were elevated. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a large right suprarenal mass and he underwent surgical resection without any complications. The histological diagnosis was adrenocortical carcinoma according to the criteria of Weiss. Following surgical removal of the androgen-producing tumor, the patient subsequently developed hypothalamic-pituitary activation and demonstrated central precocious puberty. He was treated with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in order to delay further pubertal progression. Clinical follow-up of potential secondary effects of excess hormone secretion after removal is important in some pediatric patients with virilizing adrenocortical tumor.

  18. Differences in daily in-hospital physical activity and geriatric nutritional risk index in older cardiac inpatients: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Kazuhiro P; Watanabe, Satoshi; Oka, Koichiro; Osada, Naohiko; Omiya, Kazuto; Brubaker, Peter H; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about the differences in the geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) status in older patients and their relationship to accelerometer-derived measures of physical activity (PA) levels. We determined both differences in daily measured PA based on the GNRI and related cut-off values for PA in elderly cardiac inpatients. We divided 235 consecutive elderly cardiac inpatients (mean age 73.6 years, men 70.6%) into four groups by age and GNRI: older-high group, 65-74 years with high GNRI (≥92 points) (n = 111); older-low group, low GNRI (nutritional status, as indicated by a low GNRI, may be a useful predictor of step counts and PAEE. The cut-off values determined in this study might be target values to be attained by older cardiac inpatients.

  19. Patterns of Gambling Activities and Gambling Problems Among Italian High School Students: Results from a Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luigi, Nicola; Gibertoni, Dino; Randon, Emanuela; Scorcu, Antonello E

    2017-04-22

    This study aims to provide an estimate of the prevalence of gambling among Italian adolescents and a description of their patterns of gambling activities (PGAs) using a latent class analysis on 13 different types of games. A nationwide sample of 10,959 Italian high school students was recruited in 2013. We assessed problem gambling using the South Oaks Gambling Screen: Revisited for Adolescent (SOGS-RA) scale. Approximately half (50.6%) of students reported gambling at least once in the previous year; 5.0% of them were problem gamblers and 9.1% were at-risk gamblers according to their SOGS-RA scores. Eight PGAs were identified, among which heavy players (1.7% of students) could be classified as problem gamblers and broad skill players (2.0%) and lotteries & sports players (2.4%) as "at-risk" players. These high-risk classes were consistently associated with risky behaviours in terms of substance use, school performance, money spent on gambling and family environment; the other five classes identified low-risk players associated with safe behaviours. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to identify PGAs among Italian adolescents. Problem gamblers are not a homogeneous group in terms of patterns of gambling activities and are associated with different risk factors, among which environmental factors, such as parents' gambling attitude and behaviour, deserve special attention. The acknowledgment of such patterns and risk factors could be useful in developing sensible public policies addressing prevention strategies and regulatory instruments.

  20. Job strain associated CRP is mediated by leisure time physical activity: results from the MONICA/KORA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emeny, Rebecca; Lacruz, Marie-Elena; Baumert, Jens; Zierer, Astrid; von Eisenhart Rothe, Alexander; Autenrieth, Christine; Herder, Christian; Koenig, Wolfgang; Thorand, Barbara; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

    2012-10-01

    Psychological stress at work is considered a cardiac risk factor, yet whether it acts directly through neuroimmune processes, or indirectly by increasing behavioral risk factors, is uncertain. Cross-sectional associations between job strain and serum biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction were investigated. Secondary analyses explored the role of psychosocial/cardiometabolic risk factors as mediators of job stress associated inflammation in healthy workers. Information on risk factors was obtained in standardized personal interviews of a subcohort of working participants in the MONICA/KORA population (n = 951). Work stress was measured by the Karasek job strain index. Biomarkers were measured from non-fasting venous blood. Multivariate regression analyses were used to examine the association of job strain with inflammatory biomarkers. Mediation analysis (Sobel test) was used to determine the effect of psychosocial risk factors on the association between job strain and C-reactive protein (CRP). High job strain was reported by half (n = 482, 50.7%) of the study participants. While workers with high job strain were more likely to have adverse workplace conditions (competition with coworkers, job dissatisfaction and insecurity), sleeping problems, depressive symptoms, a Type A personality, and be physically inactive, no differences in cardiometabolic risk factors were detected. A strong and robust association between job strain and CRP was observed in age and sex adjusted models, as well as models adjusted for classic coronary heart disease risk factors (β = 0.39, p = 0.006 and β = 0.27, p = 0.03, respectively). Adjustment for physical activity abrogated this effect (β = 0.23, p = 0.07), and a mediating effect of physical activity on stress-associated inflammation was demonstrated (p = 0.04). The analyses provide evidence for both a direct and an indirect effect of job strain on inflammation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Health Experts' Opinions about Tobacco Control Activities in Iran: Results from a Delphi Panel of National Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Hooman; Hessami, Zahra; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza

    2012-01-01

    Iran signed the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control on June 16, 2003 and it was ratified by the parliament and the House of Representatives on November 6, 2005. Finally, it came into force on February 4, 2006. In this study, we aimed to evaluate health experts' opinion about tobacco control activities in Iran. This was a qualitative case study. We used a series of open-ended questionnaires to assess important information regarding Iranian National Tobacco Control law and FCTC implementation. The study population comprised of health experts. Use of this method ensured the validity of questionnaires' contents. The first round of the questionnaire had been pre-tested in a pilot study. The final structure and lay out of questionnaires consisted of three main parts. The first part was designed with 7 multiple choice questions. Participants were able to rank answers from five (the most important) to one (the least important). The second part comprised four questions mainly on National Tobacco Control Program (NTCP) and the final part was about FCTC. Data collection was carried out between May 2010 and May 2011. In the analysis process each interview was considered as a separate case and then compared to other cases to ascertain variations in answers. All 40 members (100%) of the panel completed the entire process. All the participants had a consensus on tobacco control program in Iran. They believed the prevention programs to be important priorities in this regard. Tobacco Company as a governmental organization is believed to be the main barrier against tobacco control activities in Iran, and banning sales of tobacco to minors and controlling its smuggling are important factors for decreasing the supply of tobacco products. It is essential to implement comprehensive tobacco control law in Iran. It is essential to implement comprehensive tobacco control law in Iran that covers all the priorities mentioned above. Considering the chronological aspect of law

  2. Obesity, physical activity and cancer risks: Results from the Cancer, Lifestyle and Evaluation of Risk Study (CLEAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Carlos; Bauman, Adrian; Egger, Sam; Sitas, Freddy; Nair-Shalliker, Visalini

    2017-04-01

    Physical activity (PA) has been associated with lower risk of cardiovascular diseases, but the evidence linking PA with lower cancer risk is inconclusive. We examined the independent and interactive effects of PA and obesity using body mass index (BMI) as a proxy for obesity, on the risk of developing prostate (PC), postmenopausal breast (BC), colorectal (CRC), ovarian (OC) and uterine (UC) cancers. We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for cancer specific confounders, in 6831 self-reported cancer cases and 1992 self-reported cancer-free controls from the Cancer Lifestyle and Evaluation of Risk Study, using unconditional logistic regression. For women, BMI was positively associated with UC risk; specifically, obese women (BMI≥30kg/m2) had nearly twice the risk of developing UC compared to women with healthy-BMI-range (risk of developing any cancer type, CRC and PC. In particular, obese men had 37% (OR=1.37;CI:1.11-1.70), 113% (OR=2.13;CI:1.55-2.91) and 51% (OR=1.51;CI:1.17-1.94) higher risks of developing any cancer, CRC and PC respectively, when compared to men with healthy-BMI-range (BMIrisks of CRC, UC and BC. In particular, the highest level of PA (versus nil activity) was associated with reduced risks of CRC (OR=0.60;CI:0.44-0.84) and UC (OR=0.47;CI:0.27-0.80). Reduced risks of BC were associated with low (OR=0.66;CI:0.51-0.86) and moderate (OR=0.72;CI:0.57-0.91) levels of PA. There was no association between PA levels and cancer risks for men. We found no evidence of an interaction between BMI and PA in the CLEAR study. These findings suggest that PA and obesity are independent cancer risk factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Arginase 2 deficiency results in spontaneous steatohepatitis: a novel link between innate immune activation and hepatic de novo lipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Laura A; Wree, Alexander; Povero, Davide; Berk, Michael P; Eguchi, Akiko; Ghosh, Sudakshina; Papouchado, Bettina G; Erzurum, Serpil C; Feldstein, Ariel E

    2015-02-01

    Innate immune activation has been postulated as a central mechanism for disease progression from hepatic steatosis to steatohepatitis in obesity-related fatty liver disease. Arginase 2 competes with inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) for its substrate and the balance between these two enzymes plays a crucial role in regulating immune responses and macrophage activation. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that arginase 2 deficiency in mice favours progression from isolated hepatic steatosis, induced by high fat feeding, to steatohepatitis. Arginase 2-knockout (Arg2(-/-)) mice were studied for changes in liver histology and metabolic phenotype at baseline and after a short term course (7 week) feeding with a high fat (HFAT) diet. In additional experiments, Arg2(-/-) mice received tail vein injections of liposome-encapsulated clodronate (CLOD) over a three-week period to selectively deplete liver macrophages. Unexpectedly, Arg2(-/-) mice showed profound changes in their livers at baseline, characterized by significant steatosis as demonstrated with histological and biochemical analysis. These changes were independent of systemic metabolic parameters and associated with marked mRNA level increases of genes involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. Liver injury and inflammation were present with elevated serum ALT, marked infiltration of F4/80 positive cells, and increased mRNA levels of inflammatory genes. HFAT feeding exacerbated these changes. Macrophage depletion after CLOD injection significantly attenuated lipid deposition and normalized lipogenic mRNA profile of livers from Arg2(-/-) mice. This study identifies arginase 2 as a novel link between innate immune responses, hepatic lipid deposition, and liver injury. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Knockdown of Expression of Cdk5 or p35 (a Cdk5 Activator Results in Podocyte Apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Li Zheng

    Full Text Available Podocytes are terminally differentiated glomerular epithelial cells. Podocyte loss has been found in many renal diseases. Cdk5 is a cyclin-dependent protein kinase which is predominantly regulated by p35. To study the role of Cdk5/p35 in podocyte survival, we first applied western blotting (WB analysis to confirm the time-course expression of Cdk5 and p35 during kidney development and in cultured immortalized mouse podocytes. We also demonstrated that p35 plays an important role in promoting podocyte differentiation by overexpression of p35 in podocytes. To deregulate the expression of Cdk5 or p35 in mouse podocytes, we used RNAi and analyzed cell function and apoptosis assaying for podocyte specific marker Wilms Tumor 1 (WT1 and cleaved caspase 3, respectively. We also counted viable cells using cell counting kit-8. We found that depletion of Cdk5 causes decreased expression of WT1 and apoptosis. It is noteworthy, however, that downregulation of p35 reduced Cdk5 activity, but had no effect on cleaved caspase 3 expression. It did, however, reduce expression of WT1, a transcription factor, and produced podocyte dysmorphism. On the other hand increased apoptosis could be detected in p35-deregulated podocytes using the TUNEL analysis and immunofluorescent staining with cleaved caspase3 antibody. Viability of podocytes was decreased in both Cdk5 and p35 knockdown cells. Knocking down Cdk5 or p35 gene by RNAi does not affect the cycline I expression, another Cdk5 activator in podocyes. We conclude that Cdk5 and p35 play a crucial role in maintaining podocyte differentiation and survival, and suggest these proteins as targets for therapeutic intervention in podocyte-damaged kidney diseases.

  5. EZH2 Inhibition by Tazemetostat Results in Altered Dependency on B-cell Activation Signaling in DLBCL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brach, Dorothy; Johnston-Blackwell, Danielle; Drew, Allison; Lingaraj, Trupti; Motwani, Vinny; Warholic, Natalie M; Feldman, Igor; Plescia, Christopher; Smith, Jesse J; Copeland, Robert A; Keilhack, Heike; Chan-Penebre, Elayne; Knutson, Sarah K; Ribich, Scott A; Raimondi, Alejandra; Thomenius, Michael J

    2017-11-01

    The EZH2 small-molecule inhibitor tazemetostat (EPZ-6438) is currently being evaluated in phase II clinical trials for the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). We have previously shown that EZH2 inhibitors display an antiproliferative effect in multiple preclinical models of NHL, and that models bearing gain-of-function mutations in EZH2 were consistently more sensitive to EZH2 inhibition than lymphomas with wild-type (WT) EZH2 Here, we demonstrate that cell lines bearing EZH2 mutations show a cytotoxic response, while cell lines with WT-EZH2 show a cytostatic response and only tumor growth inhibition without regression in a xenograft model. Previous work has demonstrated that cotreatment with tazemetostat and glucocorticoid receptor agonists lead to a synergistic antiproliferative effect in both mutant and wild-type backgrounds, which may provide clues to the mechanism of action of EZH2 inhibition in WT-EZH2 models. Multiple agents that inhibit the B-cell receptor pathway (e.g., ibrutinib) were found to have synergistic benefit when combined with tazemetostat in both mutant and WT-EZH2 backgrounds of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL). The relationship between B-cell activation and EZH2 inhibition is consistent with the proposed role of EZH2 in B-cell maturation. To further support this, we observe that cell lines treated with tazemetostat show an increase in the B-cell maturation regulator, PRDM1/BLIMP1, and gene signatures corresponding to more advanced stages of maturation. These findings suggest that EZH2 inhibition in both mutant and wild-type backgrounds leads to increased B-cell maturation and a greater dependence on B-cell activation signaling. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(11); 2586-97. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Understanding Scientists' Involvement in Education--Their Interests, Activities, and Needs: Research Results from the ReSciPE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiry, H.; Hunter, A.; Laursen, S.; Melton, G.

    2006-12-01

    The involvement of scientists in education has been cited by national leaders as essential for strengthening US science education at the K-12 and higher levels. While many individuals and groups have developed expertise in designing and implementing programs that engage scientists with students or teachers, there is little research evidence that helps us understand what motivates or discourages scientists from such involvement, the benefits and costs to them of participating, and the barriers they face that must be addressed to involve them effectively. The ReSciPE Project (Resources for Scientists in Partnership with Education) has offered a workshop on "Scientific Inquiry in the K-12 Classroom" to over 300 scientists and science educators across the US. These workshops have reached a wide audience of science professionals who undertake activities in science education, whether individual or institution-based work, for work or as a volunteer. The project aims to help these "education-engaged scientists" pursue their education work more effectively, but has also drawn on this group as a research sample for an evaluation-with-research study to investigate scientists' involvement in education. Pre- and post-surveys have enabled us to characterize the demographics of the participants and measure their self-reported knowledge and learning about education, especially inquiry-based science. Follow- up interviews have provided insight into their education activities, motivations, interests, difficulties, and needs. We will report on recent research findings from this study and place them in context of national needs and efforts to engage scientists in education.

  7. A cluster randomized controlled trial of strategies to increase adolescents' physical activity and motivation in physical education: results of the Motivating Active Learning in Physical Education (MALP) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Chris; Rosenkranz, Richard R; Sanders, Taren; Peralta, Louisa R; Bennie, Andrew; Jackson, Ben; Taylor, Ian M; Lubans, David R

    2013-11-01

    Physical education (PE) programs aim to promote physical activity (PA) and reach most school-aged youth. However, PA levels within PE lessons are often low. In this cluster-randomized controlled trial, we examined the effects of three self-determination theory-based motivational strategies on PA and sedentary behavior, as well as their hypothesized antecedents during PE lessons. Data were collected in Sydney, Australia (October-December 2011). After baseline testing, teachers (n=16) and their classes (n=288 students; M=13.6 years, 50.4% male) were randomly assigned to one of four teaching strategy conditions: (1) explaining relevance; (2) providing choice; (3) complete free choice; or (4) usual practice. Teachers then delivered the assigned strategy. Primary outcomes were accelerometer-assessed PA and student motivation during lessons. Secondary outcomes included sedentary behavior, perceptions of teachers' support and psychological needs satisfaction. The 'free choice' intervention increased PA (pPE lessons. © 2013.

  8. SlamZ: Slide activity on the Hikurangi margin, New Zealand - First results of the RV Sonne expedition SO247

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, Katrin; Kukowski, Nina; Freudenthal, Tim; Crutchley, Gareth; Goepel, Andreas; Henrys, Stuart; Kasten, Sabine; Kaul, Norbert; Kuhlmann, Jannis; Mountjoy, Joshu; Orpin, Alan; Pape, Thomas; Schwarze, Cornelius; Totsche, Kai-Uwe; Torres, Marta; Villinger, Heiner

    2017-04-01

    Submarine landslides are important geologic hazards. Although they have been the focus of research for decades, there is still a clear lack in knowledge with respect to the interplay between tectonic movements, slope architecture and sediment physical properties of slope strata, as well as gas hydrate dissociation as controlling factors of slope stability or respectively slope failure processes. The main scientific goal of the Sonne expedition SO247 undertaken in spring 2016 was to gain a better understanding of the factors controlling slope destabilization, especially the interaction of tectonic steepening and gas hydrate transformation, at different tectonic settings along the Hikurangi subduction zone east of New Zealand's North Island. This active continental margin is characterized by various potential triggers for slope failure, e.g. (I) a wide range of tectonic movements which are associated with high seismicity, numerous active faults, sediment uplift and slope over-steepening, and (II) large gas hydrate deposits whose current upper stability limit in some places correlates with the breakoff points of slides. The target areas of SO247 were the frontal accretionary ridge at Rock Garden and the Tuaheni landslide complex (TLC) further north offshore Gisborne. Bathymetric as well as high-resolution seismic reflection and Parasound data were used to select suitable position for 53 gravity cores with a total length of 150 m which were recovered along systematic transects from the undisturbed slope sections to the slid masses in both working areas. In addition, six long sediment cores (three in both working areas) with a total length of approx. 470 m were drilled utilizing the MARUM Bremen drill rig MeBo200. These include a 105 m long continuous sediment core (core recovery > 95%) from an undisturbed slope section in the vicinity of the Tuaheni slide complex. This core represented the first long (i.e. longer than 50 m) sediment record from the Hikurangi margin

  9. Periodontal pathogens and associated factors in aggressive periodontitis: results 5-17 years after active periodontal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Bäumer, Amelie; Eick, Sigrun; Mertens, Christian; Uhlmann, Lorenz; Hagenfeld, Daniel; Eickholz, Peter; Kim, Ti-Sun; Cosgarea, Raluca

    2014-07-01

    To assess the association between presence of periodontal pathogens and recurrence of disease in patients with aggressive periodontitis (AgP) after active periodontal therapy (APT) and further influencing factors. Microbiological samples were taken from 73 patients with AgP 5-17 years after APT at 292 sites (deepest site per quadrant). Real-time polymerase chain reactions were used to detect the periodontal pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola. Uni- and multivariate analyses evaluated the associations between pathogens and recurrence of disease, smoking and adjunctive antibiotic therapy. At re-examination A. actinomycetemcomitans could be detected in six patients (8.2%), P. gingivalis in 24 (32.9%), T. forsythia in 31 (42.5%) and T. denticola in 35 (48.0%). Increased levels of T. forsythia and T. denticola at re-examination were significantly associated with recurrence of disease in multivariate analyses (OR: 12.72, p disease T. forsythia and T. denticola were detected more frequently and in higher counts. Furthermore, T. denticola was found more frequently in patients with increased CAL. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Spatio-temporal analysis of lightning activity over Greece - Preliminary results derived from the recent state precision lightning network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastos, P. T.; Matsangouras, I. T.; Chronis, T. G.

    2014-07-01

    Lightning is a natural phenomenon in the atmosphere, being a major cause of storm related deaths, main trigger of forest fires and affects many electrochemical systems of the body. Significant scientific interest has come up in the last decades, as numerous lightning detection networks have been established in operational basis, providing lightning data to assess and mitigate lightning impact to the local society by spatio-temporal analysis. In this study, a preliminary analysis of spatial and temporal variabilities of recorded lightnings over Greece during the period from January 2008 to December 2009 is presented. The data for retrieving the location and time-of-occurrence (TOA) of lightning were acquired from the Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS). An operational precision lightning network (PLN) has been established since 2007 by HNMS, consisting of eight time-of-arrival (TOA) sensors, spatially distributed across Greek territory. The spatial variability of lightnings revealed their incidence within specific geographical sub-regions while the temporal variability concerns the seasonal and monthly distributions. All the analyses were carried out with respect to cloud to cloud (CC), cloud to ground (CG) and ground to cloud (GC) lightnings, within the examined time period. During the autumn season, lightning activity was the highest, followed by summer and spring. Higher frequencies of stokes appear over Ionian Sea and Aegean Sea than over land during winter period against continental mountainous regions during summer period.

  11. Zinc Intake and Its Dietary Sources: Results of the 2007 Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Rangan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The current Australian Nutrient Reference Values (NRV use different Estimated Average Requirements (EAR for zinc for adolescent boys and girls compared to the previous recommendations. The adequacy of zinc intakes of 2–16 years old children (n = 4834 was examined in the 2007 Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Zinc intakes were estimated from two 24-h recalls and compared with age- and gender-specific NRV. Food sources of zinc were assessed and compared with those of the 1995 National Nutrition Survey. The mean (SD zinc intake was 10.2 (3.0 mg/day for all children. Nearly all children met the EAR for zinc except for 14–16 years old boys (29% did not meet EAR. Children (2–3 years were at highest risk of excessive zinc intakes with 79% exceeding the Upper Level of Intake. Meat and poultry; milk products; and cereals and cereal products contributed 68% of total zinc intake. The contribution of cereals to total zinc intake has increased significantly since 1995, due to the greater market-availability of zinc-fortified breakfast cereals. We conclude that sub-groups of Australian children are at-risk of inadequate (boys 14–16 years or excessive (children 2–3 years zinc intakes, and monitoring of zinc status is required.

  12. Radioactive and other environmental threats to the United States and the Arctic resulting from past Soviet activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Earlier this year the Senate Intelligence Committee began to receive reports from environmental and nuclear scientists in Russia detailing the reckless nuclear waste disposal practices, nuclear accidents and the use of nuclear detonations. We found that information disturbing to say the least. Also troubling is the fact that 15 Chernobyl style RBMK nuclear power reactors continue to operate in the former Soviet Union today. These reactors lack a containment structure and they`re designed in such a way that nuclear reaction can actually increase when the reactor overheats. As scientists here at the University of Alaska have documented, polar air masses and prevailing weather patterns provide a pathway for radioactive contaminants from Eastern Europe and Western Russia, where many of these reactors are located. The threats presented by those potential radioactive risks are just a part of a larger Arctic pollution problem. Every day, industrial activities of the former Soviet Union continue to create pollutants. I think we should face up to the reality that in a country struggling for economic survival, environment protection isn`t necessarily the high priority. And that could be very troubling news for the Arctic in the future.

  13. On-orbit application of H-infinity to the middeck active controls experiment: Overview of results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods-Vedeler, Jessica A.; Horta, Lucas G.

    1996-01-01

    The Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE) was successfully completed during the flight of STS-67 in March 1995. MACE provided an on-orbit validation of modem robust control theory and system identification techniques through the testing of a flexible, multi-instrument, science platform in the micro-gravity environment of the Space Shuttle's Middeck. As part of this experiment, H-infinity control design was validated in zero gravity (0-G) environment. The control objective was to isolate a payload sensor from a 5O Hz bandwidth disturbance occurring on the test article. Controllers were designed with the use of finite element models developed using 1 -G measurements and a measurement model obtained by applying system identification techniques to open loop data obtained on orbit. Over 50 single-input, single-output and multi-input, multi-output, single and multi-axis H-infinity control designs were evaluated on-orbit. Up to 19 dB reduction in vibration levels and 25 Hz bandwidth of control were achieved.

  14. Transient activation of PKC results in long-lasting detrimental effects on systolic [Ca2+]i in cardiomyocytes by altering actin cytoskeletal dynamics and T-tubule integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ang; Chen, Rong; Wang, Yihui; Huang, Chun-Kai; Chen, Biyi; Kutschke, William; Hong, Jiang; Song, Long-Sheng

    2018-01-04

    Protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes contribute to the development of heart failure through dysregulation of Ca2+ handling properties and disruption of contractile function in cardiomyocytes. However, the mechanisms by which PKC activation leads to Ca2+ dysfunction are incompletely understood. Shortly upon ventricular pressure overload in mice, we detected transient PKC activation that was associated with pulsed actin cytoskeletal rearrangement. In cultured cardiomyocytes, transient activation of PKC promoted long-term deleterious effects on the integrity of the transverse (T)- tubule system, resulting in a significant decrease in the amplitude and increase in the rising kinetics of Ca2+ transients. Treatment with a PKCα/β inhibitor restored the synchronization of Ca2+ transients and maintained T-tubule integrity in cultured cardiomyocytes. Supporting these data, PKCα/β inhibition protected against T-tubule remodeling and cardiac dysfunction in a mouse model of pressure overload-induced heart failure. Mechanistically, transient activation of PKC resulted in biphasic actin cytoskeletal rearrangement, consistent with in vivo observations in the pressure overloaded mouse model. Transient inhibition of actin polymerization or depolymerization resulted in severe T-tubule damage, recapitulating the T-tubule damage induced by PKC activation. Moreover, inhibition of stretch activated channels (SAC) protected against T-tubule remodeling and E-C coupling dysfunction induced by transient PKC activation and actin cytoskeletal rearrangement. These data identify a key mechanistic link between transient PKC activation and long-term Ca2+ handling defects through PKC-induced actin cytoskeletal rearrangement and resultant T-tubule damage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Active latent heat storage with a screw heat exchanger - experimental results for heat transfer and concept for high pressure steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipf, Verena; Willert, Daniel; Neuhäuser, Anton

    2016-05-01

    An innovative active latent heat storage concept was invented and developed at Fraunhofer ISE. It uses a screw heat exchanger (SHE) for the phase change during the transport of a phase change material (PCM) from a cold to a hot tank or vice versa. This separates heat transfer and storage tank in comparison to existing concepts. A test rig has been built in order to investigate the heat transfer coefficients of the SHE during melting and crystallization of the PCM. The knowledge of these characteristics is crucial in order to assess the performance of the latent heat storage in a thermal system. The test rig contains a double shafted SHE, which is heated or cooled with thermal oil. The overall heat transfer coefficient U and the convective heat transfer coefficient on the PCM side hPCM both for charging and discharging have been calculated based on the measured data. For charging, the overall heat transfer coefficient in the tested SHE was Uch = 308 W/m2K and for discharging Udis = 210 W/m2K. Based on the values for hPCM the overall heat transfer coefficients for a larger SHE with steam as heat transfer fluid and an optimized geometry were calculated with Uch = 320 W/m2K for charging and Udis = 243 W/m2K for discharging. For pressures as high as p = 100 bar, an SHE concept has been developed, which uses an organic fluid inside the flight of the SHE as working media. With this concept, the SHE can also be deployed for very high pressure, e.g. as storage in solar thermal power plants.

  16. Serial prostate biopsy and risk of lower urinary tract symptoms: results from a large, single-institution active surveillance cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Allison S; Hilton, Joan F; Cowan, Janet E; Washington, Samuel L; Carroll, Peter R

    2014-01-01

    To describe the effect of serial prostate biopsy on lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men who undergo active surveillance (AS) at a large academic institution. This is a retrospective study of men enrolled in AS for ≥6 months who underwent ≥1 biopsy and completed ≥1 International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire. In additional to total IPSS, we report the mean difference between the first and last questionnaires for patients who completed ≥2 questionnaires. Multivariate models, adjusting for disease features, age, race, prostate volume and baseline, or incident benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), were used to assess relationships between IPSS and total biopsy exposure. Four hundred eighty-two men were eligible, and 291 completed ≥2 IPSS questionnaires. Overall, mean (standard deviation) age was 61.7 (7.8) years, and median prostate volume (interquartile range) was 42 (34-61) mL. At baseline, 11% provided history of BPH. Among men who completed multiple questionnaires, 25% experienced clinically significant worsening (IPSS increase ≥4 points). In regression model, total IPSS was not significantly associated with greater biopsy exposure (P = .25). IPSS change from initial and the latest questionnaire was not significantly associated with initial or interval biopsy exposure in an adjusted longitudinal model (P = .64 and .50, respectively), but a trend was observed with greater age decade (+4.07 points, 95% CI -0.30 to 8.4; P = .07). Repeated prostate biopsy does not appear to independently pose additional risk of LUTS in an AS population. In unadjusted analyses, greater biopsy exposure is a surrogate for increasing follow-up time, age, and BPH risk, and thus, risk of LUTS onset and progression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Scientific activity and working hours of physicians in university hospitals: results from the Innsbruck and Salzburg physician lifestyle assessment (TISPLA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, Bernhard; Colvin, Hans Peter; Rieder, Josef

    2009-01-01

    Controllable lifestyle has become an important factor influencing career decision-making among physicians. In academic medicine, doctors are required to combine both patient care and research in their daily routine. Insufficient release of clinicians for research during contracted work hours may lead to increased weekly working hours in academic medical centers and deter medical graduates from academia. We tested for an association between numbers of scientific publications and an increased hourly workload among physicians. This was a cross-sectional online survey among all salaried physicians working in the university hospitals of Innsbruck and Salzburg, Austria. The main outcome measures were the self-reported total number of scientific papers published in peer-reviewed medical journals over the past two years and self-reported working hours. Of 590 returned surveys, 393 were fully completed and included in the study. The sample was stratified into three groups according to scientific output in the past two years: Group A, >/= 6 publications; Group B, 1-5 publications; Group C, no publications. Men were more likely than women to have a scientific publication: in Group A there was a male predominance of 75%, whereas in Group C only 48% were men (P = 0.0034). A total of 59% (n = 232) of all participants had not published a scientific article in the past two years (Group C) and worked a mean of 58.3 +/- 12 h/week. Physicians in Group B (n = 113) had published 2.4 +/- 1.4 papers and worked 62.8 +/- 12.9 h/week; those in Group A (n = 48) had published 11.5 +/- 6.6 papers and worked 73 +/- 13.1 h/week (P hours, reflecting the fact that research was mainly performed during overtime. Research activity among clinicians in academic medical centers is associated with significantly increased overtime hours. Measures need to be taken to allow medical graduates an academic career at reasonable impairment of personal lifestyle.

  18. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Computer-Based Procedures for Field Activities: Results from Three Evaluations at Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxstrand, Johanna [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Le Blanc, Katya [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bly, Aaron [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The Computer-Based Procedure (CBP) research effort is a part of the Light-Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, which is a research and development (R&D) program sponsored by Department of Energy (DOE) and performed in close collaboration with industry R&D programs that provides the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. One of the primary missions of the LWRS program is to help the U.S. nuclear industry adopt new technologies and engineering solutions that facilitate the continued safe operation of the plants and extension of the current operating licenses. One area that could yield tremendous savings in increased efficiency and safety is in improving procedure use. Nearly all activities in the nuclear power industry are guided by procedures, which today are printed and executed on paper. This paper-based procedure process has proven to ensure safety; however, there are improvements to be gained. Due to its inherent dynamic nature, a CBP provides the opportunity to incorporate context driven job aids, such as drawings, photos, and just-in-time training. Compared to the static state of paper-based procedures (PBPs), the presentation of information in CBPs can be much more flexible and tailored to the task, actual plant condition, and operation mode. The dynamic presentation of the procedure will guide the user down the path of relevant steps, thus minimizing time spent by the field worker to evaluate plant conditions and decisions related to the applicability of each step. This dynamic presentation of the procedure also minimizes the risk of conducting steps out of order and/or incorrectly assessed applicability of steps.

  19. Medical-surgical activity and the current state of training of urology residents in Spain: Results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Socarrás, M E; Gómez Rivas, J; García-Sanz, M; Pesquera, L; Tortolero-Blanco, L; Ciappara, M; Melnick, A; Colombo, J; Patruno, G; Serrano-Pascual, Á; Bachiller-Burgos, J; Cozar-Olmo, J M

    To determine the actual state of medical-surgical activity and training for urology residents in Spain. We designed 2 anonymous surveys, which were uploaded with the Google Docs© tool so that the respondents could answer the surveys online. The online collection period was September 2015 to January 2016. The collected data were processing using the statistical programme IBM SPSS for Windows, Version 21.0 and the programme R version 3.2.3. The total number of responders was 163. In reference to the number of physically present on-call residents, the majority conducted between 4 and 6 shifts a month. Eighty-four of those surveyed indicated that they were in the operating room less than 20hours a week, and 43 of these even less than 10hours. Thirty percent of those surveyed had not performed any transurethral resection. The majority had performed at least one prostatic adenomectomy, but had not performed any major oncologic procedure, either laparoscopically or openly. In the questions concerning training and training courses, we found that most of the residents trained in laparoscopy at the hospital or at home. The overall satisfaction for the residence was assessed at 2.6. Based on this score, the overall satisfaction could be considered moderate. Efforts should be directed towards standardising the acquisition of surgical and nonsurgical skills, ensuring access to training courses, establishing a minimum of required operations per year and achieving an objective assessment of the specialty. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Traumatic Dental Injuries Resulting from Sports Activities; Immediate Treatment and Five Years Follow-Up: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinas, Enrico; Mameli, Antonello; Giannetti, Luca

    2018-01-01

    Traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) represent 18-30% of all oral pathologies and a considerable number of these are sports related. It is very important to treat sports-related injuries and prevent complications. However, very few studies investigate the most expedient therapeutic strategies for the treatment of dental trauma correlated to sports. The aim of this work was to focus on the average recovery time for different lesions, to assess adequate times for each athlete, to identify any association with complications and to investigate whether or not the use of mouth-guards interfered with a full recovery to normal health. This study involved a group of 30 athletes (15 male and 15 female) who had dental injuries of varying severity.For the purposes of data collection, two classifications were taken into account: a classification for hard tissue trauma and another for periodontal lesions. The athletes were subdivided in "type of lesion' groups".They were then treated depending on their individual lesions and followed up for 5 years. A statistical analysis was carried out to study the association between recovery time, lesion types and occurrence of complications. The time for recovery was different for each type of lesion and ranged from 3-5 days (only uncomplicated fractures) to 14 days (all hard-periodontal tissue traumas). The total number of recorded pulp complications amounted to 6 cases. Among 30 athletes, 20 had begun and maintained, during the five-year follow-up period, the habit of using mouth-guards when practicing their sport activities. Recovery time and the severity of lesions are statistically associated: the more serious the injury, the more time an athlete needs to recover and return to competitive sports events. Furthermore, recovery time and precautionary measures (mouth-guards) did not influence the onset of complications. The subjects' habit of wearing a mouth guard continued even after the end of the therapy and follow-up periods.

  1. [Activity and results of liver transplantation in Spain during 1984-2012. Analysis of the Spanish Liver Transplant Registry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuervas-Mons, Valentín; de la Rosa, Gloria; Pardo, Fernando; San Juan, Fernando; Valdivieso, Andrés

    2015-04-20

    Liver transplantation (LT) is a proven effective treatment of severe liver disease. The aim of this paper is to analyze the results of LT in Spain during the period 1984-2012. We analyze the results of the database of Spanish Liver Transplant Registry. A total of 20,288 transplants were performed in 18,568 patients. The median age of the donor and recipient increased during the analysis period: 25 years (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 18-40) and 47 years (95% CI 34-55), respectively, in the period 1984-1994 compared to 59 years (95% CI 33-65; P<.05) and 55 years (95% CI 48-61; P<.01), respectively, in the period 2010-2012. The most frequent indications were liver cirrhosis (63.18%) and hepatocellular carcinoma (19.62%). The overall patient and graft survival was respectively 85.1 and 77.8% in the first year, 72.6 and 63.5% the fifth year and 62 and 52.6% in the tenth year. First year patients and graft survival increased respectively from 77.8 and 66.3% in the period 1984-1994 to 88.5 and 83% in 2010-2012 (P<.01). Donor and recipient age, etiology of underlying disease, and hepatitis C virus serological status, were factors associated with decreased survival in univariate and multivariate analysis. Results of LT improved significantly over the review period, despite a progressive increase in donor and recipient age. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. [Physician Counseling about Physical and Sports Activity in Neurological Practices in Germany: Results of a Survey Among Members of the German Neurological Society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, C D; Reuter, I; Straube, A; Tettenborn, B; Braumann, K M; Reimers, A K

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a major but modifiable risk factor for morbidity and mortality. Regular physical activity has preventive and therapeutic effects on numerous diseases including neurological disorders. Therefore, it is desirable that physicians motivate their patients to increase their physical and sports activities and that they help them to overcome barriers to exercising. The present study is a survey of neurologists who are members of the German Neurological Society with their own practices; they were asked whether they advised their patients on the benefits of physical activity. Details on physician counseling on physical activity were obtained, such as the frequency of counseling, the neurological disorders considered by the practitioners to be worth the effort of counseling, and the barriers to exercise on the part of patients. More than 80 % of the participants who responded to the survey stated that they frequently provide their patients with advice on the preventive and therapeutic aspects of physical activity. Almost all of them recommended endurance sports; this was followed by Far Eastern types of sport such as tai chi or yoga (70 % of all physicians who advice sports activities). The frequency of counseling about physical activity significantly correlated to the physician's own sports activity. Frequency of counseling was reduced if the physician assessed the patients to be incapable of adopting and maintaining a lifestyle of habitual physical activity. Lack of time as well as an insufficient reimbursement of the counseling, however, did not significantly influence the frequency of counseling. The physician's own sports activity matched that of individuals with similar social status. Thus, a selection bias does not seem to be of importance regarding the results of the survey. However, since only 169 of the 784 invited neurologists (21.6 %) responded to the questionnaire, the representativeness of the survey may be limited. Counseling about

  3. Physical activity and screen use policy and practices in childcare: results from a survey of early childhood education services in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, Sarah; Morton, Susan M B; Wall, Clare R

    2016-08-01

    To investigate written policies, equipment, strategies and barriers to children's activity in early childhood education settings, including participation in health promotion programs and reported time children spend in active play and using screens while in care. Cross-sectional online survey of licensed childcare services in Auckland and Waikato. Policies were scored using a validated tool (WellCCAT-NZ). Results were analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate regression. Managers, head teachers or similar from 237 services completed the survey (28% of invited services). Of these, 35% had a written activity policy; most policies scored low on the WellCCAT-NZ. Comprehensive and strongly worded policies were associated with a lower adult-to-child ratio (p=0.03, adjusted for ECE characteristics). No policies addressed screen use. Children were reported to have teacher-led activity 80 minutes/day, and child-led activity five hours/day (indoor and outdoor). Children watched television daily in 2% and weekly in 11% the services; and used computers daily in 11% and weekly in 22% of services. Fewer than half of services participated in health promotion programs with a physical activity component. Childcare services reported having adequate equipment, space and time for physical activity of children; however, there are low participation rates in activity programs and a notable absence of written policy. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  4. [Long-term results of active-passive ligament repair of the external lateral ligament of the ankle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farizon, F; Paris, D; Azoulai, J J; Bousquet, G

    1996-03-01

    We reviewed 95 ankles at an average of 9 years after an "activo-passive" operation performed for chronic lateral instability. All the patients had suffered recurrent ankle sprain or instability, with pain in 67 patients. Ten ankles showed a subtalar injury at operation. Degenerative changes were noted in 11 ankle joints. On review, 81 ankles (85%) were stable. The 14 cases with persistent instability had developed the problem one to five years after operation. Two cases presented with limitation in mobility. Osteoarthritis, found in 15 ankles, was severe in only two, and had been present on preoperative films. We found no correlation between functional results (talar tilt, anterior-drawer test) and radiological evaluation. The "activo-passive" operation provides long-term stabilization with preservation of the ankle and of subtalar mobility without severe osteoarthritis.

  5. Physical Activity Level and Sedentary Behaviors among Public School Children in Dakar (Senegal Measured by PAQ-C and Accelerometer: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adama Diouf

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical inactivity and sedentary lifestyles are major risk factors of childhood obesity. This study aimed to measure physical activity (PA levels by accelerometer and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C among Senegalese school children and the relation with Body Mass Index (BMI and body composition. Methodology: 156 pupils 8–11 years old were randomly selected in four elementary public schools of Dakar. BMI z-score was used to categorize children according to their weight status. PA was measured by PAQ-C in the 156 pupils and by accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X+, Pensacola, FL, USA in a subsample of 42 children. Body composition was determined by deuterium dilution method. Results: PAQ-C results were comparable in the 156 and 42 pupils. The 42 pupils presented a light activity measured by accelerometer, while PAQ-C classified the majority of them (57%; n = 24 in the moderate PA level. Children spent most of their time (min/day in sedentary activities and light activities than in moderate and intense activity levels. Accumulation of 60 min/day Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA was achieved by 54.8% (n = 23 of the pupils. MVPA decreased in girls in relation to their body fatness. There was a significant difference in MVPA between boys and girls. Similarly, overweight/obese (45 ± 16 min/day children had lower MVPA than their normal and underweight peers (88 ± 34 and 74 ± 36 min/day, respectively; p = 0.004. Conclusions: The two methods are inconsistent for measuring light and moderate PA levels. Although PAQ-C is an uncomplicated routine method, various activities were not adapted for genuine activities in Senegalese children and therefore needs to be validated in African children.

  6. The effect of a communications campaign on middle school students' nutrition and physical activity: results of the HEALTHY study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Margaret; DeBar, Lynn; Calingo, Ashley; Hall, Will; Hindes, Katie; Sleigh, Adriana; Thompson, Debbe; Volpe, Stella L; Zeveloff, Abby; Pham, Trang; Steckler, Allan

    2013-01-01

    The HEALTHY Study was a 3-year school-based intervention designed to change the behaviors of middle school students to reduce their risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. This report examines the relation between exposure to communications campaign materials and behavior change among students in the HEALTHY intervention schools. Using data from campaign tracking logs and student interviews, the authors examined communications campaign implementation and exposure to the communications campaign as well as health behavior change. Campaign tracking documents revealed variability across schools in the quantity of communications materials disseminated. Student interviews confirmed that there was variability in the proportion of students who reported receiving information from the communication campaign elements. Correlations and regression analysis controlling for semester examined the association between campaign exposure and behavior change across schools. There was a significant association between the proportion of students exposed to the campaign and the proportion of students who made changes in health behavior commensurate with study goals. The results suggest that, in the context of a multifaceted school-based health promotion intervention, schools that achieve a higher rate of exposure to communication campaign materials among the students may stimulate greater health behavior change.

  7. Effects of health information in youth on adult physical activity: 20-year study results from the Amsterdam growth and health longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Han C G; Verhagen, E A L M; Milo, D; Post, G B; Van Lenthe, F; Van Mechelen, W; Twisk, J W R; De Vente, W

    2002-01-01

    In the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study (AGAHLS), a group of apparently healthy males and females (n = 200) were interviewed about their physical activities on eight separate occasions over a period of 20 years between 13 and 33 years of age (multi-measured group: MM). Information about their health was given based on their personally measured lifestyle (activity, diet, smoking) and biological risk characteristics for chronic diseases (medical check-ups). A comparable group of boys and girls (n = 200) was only measured on two occasions (bi-measured group: BM): at 13 and 33 years. Physical activity was estimated with a structured interview. Total physical activity and sports activity were estimated in three intensity levels (light, moderate, and heavy). It was hypothesized that the eight repeated medical check-ups with health information in the MM group would result in a healthier lifestyle with respect to the determinants and levels of habitual physical activity compared to the BM group. Contrary to the hypothesis, males and females in the BM group showed a significantly higher increase or a lower decrease in physical activities compared to the MM group. This negative effect on the physical activity pattern at 33 years in the MM group may have been caused by more underreporting of physical activities than in the BM group. In conclusion, there does not appear to be a significant effect of long-term (multi-measured) health information with medical check-ups during adolescence and young adulthood on level of physical activity in males and females at 33 years of age. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. [Physical activity and electronic media use in children and adolescents: results of the KiGGS study: first follow-up (KiGGS wave 1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manz, K; Schlack, R; Poethko-Müller, C; Mensink, G; Finger, J; Lampert, T

    2014-07-01

    Physical activity during childhood and adolescence has numerous health benefits, while sedentary behavior, especially electronic media use, is associated with the development of overweight. Therefore, the promotion of physical activity during childhood and adolescence is an integral part of national public health efforts. The aim of this article is to describe the physical activity behavior of German children and adolescents based on the nationwide data of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS wave 1). Furthermore, the association between physical activity and sports participation and use of screen-based media in youth aged 11 to 17 years was analyzed. The analyses included data from 10,426 children and adolescents aged 3-17 years collected by telephone interviews. Children older than 11 years answered the questions by themselves, whereas a parent was interviewed for younger children. The descriptive analyses were performed under consideration of social and demographic factors. According to the results of KiGGS wave 1 a total of 77.5% (95% Cl 76.0-78.9 %) of the children and adolescents participated in sports activities, and 59.7% (58.1-61.3 %) were members of a sports club. The recommendation of the World Health Organization (WHO) to be physically active at least 60 min per day was achieved by 27.5% (26.0-28.9 %). Children and adolescents with a low socioeconomic status (SES) participated less in sports activities than children of higher SES groups. Excessive use of screen-based media was more likely to be associated with lack of sports participation than with a lack of physical activity. In the future, preventive measures should promote the daily physical activity of children and adolescents and additionally encourage children and adolescents with low SES to participate in sports activities.

  9. Co-Administration of Piperine and Docetaxel Results in Improved Anti-Tumor Efficacy via Inhibition of CYP3A4 Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhov, Peter; Golovine, Konstantin; Canter, Daniel; Kutikov, Alexander; Simhan, Jay; Corlew, Melany M.; Uzzo, Robert G.; Kolenko, Vladimir M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Docetaxel is the mainline treatment approved by the FDA for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) yet its administration only increases median survival by two to four months. Docetaxel is metabolized in the liver by hepatic CYP3A4 activity. Piperine, a major plant alkaloid/amide, has been shown to inhibit the CYP3A4 enzymatic activity in a cell-free system. Thus, we investigated whether the co-administration of piperine and docetaxel could increase docetaxel’s pharmacokinetic activity in vitro and in vivo. Methods Liver CYP3A4 enzymatic activity was measured by fluorescence. In vivo docetaxel pharmacokinetic activity was analyzed by liquid chromatography. An in vivo xenograft model of human CRPC was utilized to assess the anti-tumor effect of docetaxel when co-administered with piperine. Results Inhibition of hepatic CYP3A4 activity resulted in an increased area under the curve (AUC), half-life and maximum plasma concentration of docetaxel when compared to docetaxel alone administration. The synergistic administration of piperine and docetaxel significantly improved the anti-tumor efficacy of docetaxel in a xenograft model of human CRPC. Conclusions Docetaxel is one of the most widely used cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents and is currently the mainstay treatment for metastatic CRPC. Dietary constituents are important agents modifying drug metabolism and transport. In our studies, dietary consumption of piperine increases the therapeutic efficacy of docetaxel in a xenograft model without inducing more adverse effects on the treated mice. PMID:21796656

  10. Associations between built environment and physical activity of 7–8-year-old children. Cross-sectional results from the Lithuanian COSI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Žaltauskė

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Results from the national survey of 7–8-year-old children of Lithuania reveal that urban living area of families, availability of playgrounds and recreational facilities were associated with higher possibilities of children to be sufficiently physically active.

  11. Specific prebiotics modulate gut microbiota and immune activation in HAART-naive HIV-infected adults : results of the "COPA" pilot randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gori, A.; Rizzardini, G.; van't Land, B.; Amor, K. B.; van Schaik, J.; Torti, C.; Quirino, T.; Tincati, C.; Bandera, A.; Knol, J.; Benlhassan-Chahour, K.; Trabattoni, D.; Bray, D.; Vriesema, A.; Welling, G.; Garssen, J.; Clerici, M.

    Intestinal mucosal immune system is an early target for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, resulting in CD4(+) T-cell depletion, deterioration of gut lining, and fecal microbiota composition. We evaluated the effects of a prebiotic oligosaccharide mixture in highly active

  12. High Dose Atorvastatin Decreases Cellular Markers of Immune Activation Without Affecting HIV-1 RNA Levels: Results of a Double-Blind Randomized Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    test to assess drug carryover revealed no differential effect by period. Overall, atorvastatin use did not result in a statistically signifi- cant... Proteinuria , creatinine clearance, and immune activation in antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected subjects. J Infect Dis 2009; 200:614–8. 31. Crowe SM

  13. Familial partial lipodystrophy phenotype resulting from a single-base mutation in deoxyribonucleic acid-binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monajemi, Houshang; Zhang, Lin; Li, Gang; Jeninga, Ellen H.; Cao, Henian; Maas, Mario; Brouwer, C. B.; Kalkhoven, Eric; Stroes, Erik; Hegele, Robert A.; Leff, Todd

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: Familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD) results from coding sequence mutations either in LMNA, encoding nuclear lamin A/C, or in PPARG, encoding peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma). The LMNA form is called FPLD2 (MIM 151660) and the PPARG form is called FPLD3 (MIM

  14. The contribution of organised sports to physical activity in Australia: Results and directions from the Active Healthy Kids Australia 2014 Report Card on physical activity for children and young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Stewart A; Schranz, Natasha K; Davern, Melanie; Hardy, Louise L; Hills, Andrew P; Morgan, Philip J; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Tomkinson, Grant

    2016-05-01

    Youth participation in organised sport and physical activity is important for healthy development, growth and wellbeing. In 2014, Active Healthy Kids Australia released its inaugural Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Young People, which synthesised the best available national- and state-level data for children and young people (physical activity such as active transportation, active play and school based physical activity. This finding reflects Australia's position as one of the global leaders for participating in organised sport. Future research and surveillance methodologies however, need to incorporate standardised metrics that aim to capture more detailed data regarding organised sport participation. Facilitating access for all children and preventing dropout from organised sports are important initiatives to improve current levels of sport participation. However, given that 80% of Australians aged 5-17 years are not sufficiently physically active to achieve the daily recommendation, participation in sport alone is not enough to ensure that children can accrue the health benefits associated with being physically active. As such, there is a pressing need to develop strategies that engage children in other forms of physical activity such as active transportation and active play. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Is intergenerational social mobility related to the type and amount of physical activity in mid-adulthood? Results from the 1946 British birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverwood, Richard J; Pierce, Mary; Nitsch, Dorothea; Mishra, Gita D; Kuh, Diana

    2012-07-01

    Greater levels of leisure-time or moderate-vigorous physical activity have consistently been found in those with greater socioeconomic position (SEP). Less is known about the effects of intergenerational social mobility. We examined the influence of SEP and social mobility on mid-adulthood physical activity in the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development. Two sub-domains of SEP were used: occupational class and educational attainment. Latent classes for walking, cycling, and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) were used, plus sedentary behavior at age 36. Associations between types of physical activity and SEP were examined with the use of logistic or multinomial logistic regression. Being a manual worker oneself or having a father who was a manual worker was, relative to nonmanual work, associated with lower levels of sedentary behavior and greater walking activity, but also with lower LTPA. Compared with those who remained in a manual occupational class, upward occupational mobility was associated with more sedentary behavior, less walking, and increased LTPA. Associations with downward mobility were in the opposite directions. Similar results were obtained for educational attainment. This study found clear evidence of social differences in physical activity. Persistently high SEP and upward social mobility were associated with greater levels of LTPA but also increased sedentary behavior and less walking. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Decreasing population blood pressure is not mediated by changes in habitual physical activity. Results from 15 years of follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, UO; Jensen, Gorm Boje

    2007-01-01

    is not explained by a change in the population physical activity habits. This fact illustrates the difference between the high-risk strategy and the population strategy. In the first, the preventive strategy identifies hypertensive individuals and offers them antihypertensive medication and lifestyle modulation...... of follow-up. This decrease leads to significant reductions in cardiovascular (CV) and cerebrovascular risk. The major aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of habitual physical activity on PBP. Design. Copenhagen City Heart Study is a longitudinal epidemiological study of CV risk in a random...... population sample. Three surveys were performed with 15 years of follow-up. Methods. BP was measured under standardized circumstances. A questionnaire concerning physical exercise was completed. Two scales were used, describing physical activity at work and during leisure-time, respectively. Results. Most...

  17. Exposure of aconitase to smoking-related oxidants results in iron loss and increased iron response protein-1 activity: potential mechanisms for iron accumulation in human arterial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talib, Jihan; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Smokers have an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease, but the origin(s) of this increased risk are incompletely defined. Evidence supports an accumulation of the oxidant-generating enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the inflamed artery wall, and smokers have high levels of SCN−, a preferred MPO...... of the cytosolic isoform to iron response protein-1, which regulates intracellular iron levels. We show that exposure of isolated aconitase to increasing concentrations of HOSCN releases iron from the aconitase [Fe-S]4 cluster, and decreases enzyme activity. This is associated with protein thiol loss...... and modification of specific Cys residues in, and around, the [Fe-S]4 cluster. Exposure of HCAEC to HOSCN resulted in increased intracellular levels of chelatable iron, loss of aconitase activity and increased iron response protein-1 (IRP-1) activity. These data indicate HOSCN, an oxidant associated with oxidative...

  18. An interpolated activity during the knowledge-of-results delay interval eliminates the learning advantages of self-controlled feedback schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Michael J; Ste-Marie, Diane M

    2017-03-01

    The learning advantages of self-controlled knowledge-of-results (KR) schedules compared to yoked schedules have been linked to the optimization of the informational value of the KR received for the enhancement of one's error-detection capabilities. This suggests that information-processing activities that occur after motor execution, but prior to receiving KR (i.e., the KR-delay interval) may underlie self-controlled KR learning advantages. The present experiment investigated whether self-controlled KR learning benefits would be eliminated if an interpolated activity was performed during the KR-delay interval. Participants practiced a waveform matching task that required two rapid elbow extension-flexion reversals in one of four groups using a factorial combination of choice (self-controlled, yoked) and KR-delay interval (empty, interpolated). The waveform had specific spatial and temporal constraints, and an overall movement time goal. The results indicated that the self-controlled + empty group had superior retention and transfer scores compared to all other groups. Moreover, the self-controlled + interpolated and yoked + interpolated groups did not differ significantly in retention and transfer; thus, the interpolated activity eliminated the typically found learning benefits of self-controlled KR. No significant differences were found between the two yoked groups. We suggest the interpolated activity interfered with information-processing activities specific to self-controlled KR conditions that occur during the KR-delay interval and that these activities are vital for reaping the associated learning benefits. These findings add to the growing evidence that challenge the motivational account of self-controlled KR learning advantages and instead highlights informational factors associated with the KR-delay interval as an important variable for motor learning under self-controlled KR schedules.

  19. Biochemical differences in the mass and activity tests of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 explain the discordance in results between the two assay methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Shaoqiu; Wolfert, Robert L; Yuan, Chong

    2017-12-01

    There are two platforms for the detection of Lp-PLA2 in sera or plasmas: by its enzymatic activity (PLAC® activity test) and by its mass concentration (PLAC® mass test). It has been long recognized that these two platforms are not correlated well. The underlying cause for this is therefore investigated by the biochemical characterization of the two PLAC tests. Human sera with and without the treatment by detergent were fractionated by using a Superose-6 column in phosphate buffered saline and the phospholipid associated Lp-PLA2 was assessed by both PLAC mass and activity tests. The Lp-PLA2 values of the two PLAC tests were compared under such conditions. Fractionation of sera and plasmas indicates that the association of Lp-PLA2 with phospholipids, especially LDL and other large size phospholipid vesicles, may block the detection of the enzyme by antibodies in the immunoassay format under the conditions of the PLAC mass test. Inclusion of high concentration (>CMC, critical micelle concentration) of detergents in the assay buffer of PLAC mass test dissociates Lp-PLA2 from phospholipid vesicles and results in the full detection of all Lp-PLA2 in sera or plasmas for concentration. Such assay modification significantly improves the correlation between the PLAC mass and PLAC activity tests. PLAC mass test only detects a small portion of the total Lp-PLA2, mainly the Lp-PLA2 associated with HDL. This is the main cause of the discordance and poor correlation between the PLAC mass and activity tests. Our results demonstrate the PLAC activity test is more accurate in assessing the total level of circulating Lp-PLA2. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Leisure time physical activity in middle age predicts the metabolic syndrome in old age: results of a 28-year follow-up of men in the Oslo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sogaard Anne

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data are scarce on the long term relationship between leisure time physical activity, smoking and development of metabolic syndrome and diabetes. We wanted to investigate the relationship between leisure time physical activity and smoking measured in middle age and the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes in men that participated in two cardiovascular screenings of the Oslo Study 28 years apart. Methods Men residing in Oslo and born in 1923–32 (n = 16 209 were screened for cardiovascular diseases and risk factors in 1972/3. Of the original cohort, those who also lived in same area in 2000 were invited to a repeat screening examination, attended by 6 410 men. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to a modification of the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. Leisure time physical activity, smoking, educational attendance and the presence of diabetes were self-reported.