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Sample records for sublimation growth yanxin

  1. Laboratory studies of the growth, sublimation, and light- scattering properties of single levitated ice particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Neil Julian

    2001-12-01

    I describe experiments to investigate the properties of microscopic ice particles. The goal of the work was to measure parameters that are important in cloud processes and radiative transfer, using a novel technique that avoids the use of substrates. The experiments were conducted in two separate electrodynamic balance chambers. Single, charged ice particles were formed from frost particles or from droplets frozen either homogeneously or heteroge neously with a bionucleant. The particles were trapped at temperatures between -38°C and -4°C and grown or sublimated according to the temperature gradient in the cham ber. I describe observations of breakup of sublimating frost particles, measurements of light scattering by hexagonal crystals, and observations of the morphology of ice particles grown from frozen water droplets and frost particles. The breaking strength of frost particles was an order of magnitude less than that of bulk ice. Light scattering features not previously observed were analyzed and related to crystal dimension. Initial results from a computer model failed to reproduce these features. The widths of scattering peaks suggest that surface roughness may play a role in determining the angular distribution of scattered light. Ice particle mass evolution was found to be consistent with diffusion- limited growth. Crystals grown slowly from frozen droplets adopted isometric habits, while faster growth resulted in thin side-planes, although there was not an exact correspondence between growth conditions and particle morphology. From the morphological transition, I infer lower limits for the critical supersaturation for layer nucleation on the prism face of 2.4% at -15°C, 4.4% at -20°C, and 3.1% at -25°C. Analytic expressions for the size dependence of facet stability are developed, indicating a strong dependence of stability on both crystal size and surface kinetics, and compared with data. I discuss the role of complex particle morphologies in

  2. On Sublimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civitarese, Giuseppe

    2016-10-01

    Although it encapsulates the Freudian theory of art, the theory of sublimation has become outmoded. What is more, since its inception there has always been something ill-defined about it. Does it use sexualized or de-sexualized drive energy? Is it a defence or an alternative to defence? Does it serve Eros or Thanatos? Is it useful in clinical work or is it unusable? The only, albeit uncertain, aid to a definition relies on the extrinsic criterion of concrete artistic realization. My aim here to revisit and possibly 'reinvent' sublimation in the light of certain principles of the pre-Romantic aesthetics of the sublime. Both are theories of spiritual elevation, in other words, elevation that moves towards abstract thinking, and of man's 'moral' achievement; and both attempt to explain the mystery of aesthetic experience. On the one hand, the aesthetics of the sublime offers a modern myth that helps us articulate a series of factors occasionally referred to by various authors as constitutive of sublimation but which have not been incorporated into a single organic framework: loss and early mourning work; the earlier existence of a catastrophic factor - to be regarded, depending on the situation, as either traumatic or simply 'negative'; the correspondence with a process of somatopsychic categorization which coincides with subjectivity. On the other hand, it also helps us grasp the experience of negative pleasure empathically, living it 'from the inside'. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  3. CURVED WALLS: GRAIN GROWTH, SETTLING, AND COMPOSITION PATTERNS IN T TAURI DISK DUST SUBLIMATION FRONTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure, M. K.; Calvet, N.; Hartmann, L.; Ingleby, L. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, 830 Dennison Building., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); D' Alessio, P. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 58089 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Espaillat, C. [Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Sargent, B. [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Watson, D. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Hernández, J., E-mail: melisma@umich.edu, E-mail: ncalvet@umich.edu, E-mail: lhartm@umich.edu, E-mail: lingleby@umich.edu, E-mail: p.dalessio@astrosmo.unam.mx, E-mail: cespaillat@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: baspci@rit.edu, E-mail: dmw@pas.rochester.edu, E-mail: hernandj@cida.ve [Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía (CIDA), Mérida 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2013-10-01

    The dust sublimation walls of disks around T Tauri stars represent a directly observable cross-section through the disk atmosphere and midplane. Their emission properties can probe the grain size distribution and composition of the innermost regions of the disk, where terrestrial planets form. Here we calculate the inner dust sublimation wall properties for four classical T Tauri stars with a narrow range of spectral types and inclination angles and a wide range of mass accretion rates to determine the extent to which the walls are radially curved. Best fits to the near- and mid-IR excesses are found for curved, two-layer walls in which the lower layer contains larger, hotter, amorphous pyroxene grains with Mg/(Mg+Fe) = 0.6 and the upper layer contains submicron, cooler, mixed amorphous olivine and forsterite grains. As the mass accretion rates decrease from 10{sup –8} to 10{sup –10} M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, the maximum grain size in the lower layer decreases from ∼3 to 0.5 μm. We attribute this to a decrease in fragmentation and turbulent support for micron-sized grains with decreasing viscous heating. The atmosphere of these disks is depleted of dust with dust-gas mass ratios 1 × 10{sup –4} of the interstellar medium (ISM) value, while the midplane is enhanced to eight times the ISM value. For all accretion rates, the wall contributes at least half of the flux in the optically thin 10 μm silicate feature. Finally, we find evidence for an iron gradient in the disk, suggestive of that found in our solar system.

  4. CURVED WALLS: GRAIN GROWTH, SETTLING, AND COMPOSITION PATTERNS IN T TAURI DISK DUST SUBLIMATION FRONTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, M. K.; Calvet, N.; Hartmann, L.; Ingleby, L.; D'Alessio, P.; Espaillat, C.; Sargent, B.; Watson, D. M.; Hernández, J.

    2013-01-01

    The dust sublimation walls of disks around T Tauri stars represent a directly observable cross-section through the disk atmosphere and midplane. Their emission properties can probe the grain size distribution and composition of the innermost regions of the disk, where terrestrial planets form. Here we calculate the inner dust sublimation wall properties for four classical T Tauri stars with a narrow range of spectral types and inclination angles and a wide range of mass accretion rates to determine the extent to which the walls are radially curved. Best fits to the near- and mid-IR excesses are found for curved, two-layer walls in which the lower layer contains larger, hotter, amorphous pyroxene grains with Mg/(Mg+Fe) = 0.6 and the upper layer contains submicron, cooler, mixed amorphous olivine and forsterite grains. As the mass accretion rates decrease from 10 –8 to 10 –10 M ☉ yr –1 , the maximum grain size in the lower layer decreases from ∼3 to 0.5 μm. We attribute this to a decrease in fragmentation and turbulent support for micron-sized grains with decreasing viscous heating. The atmosphere of these disks is depleted of dust with dust-gas mass ratios 1 × 10 –4 of the interstellar medium (ISM) value, while the midplane is enhanced to eight times the ISM value. For all accretion rates, the wall contributes at least half of the flux in the optically thin 10 μm silicate feature. Finally, we find evidence for an iron gradient in the disk, suggestive of that found in our solar system

  5. Plasma assisted growth of MoO{sub 3} films on different substrate locations relative to sublimation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Rabindar K., E-mail: rkrksharma6@gmail.com; Saini, Sujit K.; Kumar, Prabhat; Singh, Megha; Reddy, G. B. [Thin film laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi – 110016 (India)

    2016-05-06

    In the present paper, we reported the role of substrate locations relative to source on the growth of MoO{sub 3} films deposited on Ni coated glass substrates using plasma assisted sublimation process (PASP). According to the XRD and SEM results, substrate location is very crucial factor to control the morphology of MoO{sub 3} films and the best nanostructure growth (in terms of alignments and features) is obtained in case of Sample B (in which substrate is placed on source). The structural results point out that all films exhibit only orthorhombic phase of molybdenum oxide (i.e. α-MoO{sub 3})but the most preferential growth is recorded in Sample B due to the presence of intense peaks crossponding to only (0 k 0) family of crystal planes (k = 2, 4,6..). The Raman analysis again confirms the orthorhombic nature of MoO{sub 3} NFs and details of vibrational bondsin Sample B have been given in the present report. The MoO{sub 3} NFs show intense PL emission in wavelength range of 300-700 nm with three peaks located at 415, 490, and 523 nm in accordance to the improved crystallinity in Sample B.

  6. Instant Sublime Text starter

    CERN Document Server

    Haughee, Eric

    2013-01-01

    A starter which teaches the basic tasks to be performed with Sublime Text with the necessary practical examples and screenshots. This book requires only basic knowledge of the Internet and basic familiarity with any one of the three major operating systems, Windows, Linux, or Mac OS X. However, as Sublime Text 2 is primarily a text editor for writing software, many of the topics discussed will be specifically relevant to software development. That being said, the Sublime Text 2 Starter is also suitable for someone without a programming background who may be looking to learn one of the tools of

  7. Sublimation, culture, and creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Emily; Zeppenfeld, Veronika; Cohen, Dov

    2013-10-01

    Combining insights from Freud and Weber, this article explores whether Protestants (vs. Catholics and Jews) are more likely to sublimate their taboo feelings and desires toward productive ends. In the Terman sample (Study 1), Protestant men and women who had sexual problems related to anxieties about taboos and depravity had greater creative accomplishments, as compared to those with sexual problems unrelated to such concerns and to those reporting no sexual problems. Two laboratory experiments (Studies 2 and 3) found that Protestants produced more creative artwork (sculptures, poems, collages, cartoon captions) when they were (a) primed with damnation-related words, (b) induced to feel unacceptable sexual desires, or (c) forced to suppress their anger. Activating anger or sexual attraction was not enough; it was the forbidden or suppressed nature of the emotion that gave the emotion its creative power. The studies provide possibly the first experimental evidence for sublimation and suggest a cultural psychological approach to defense mechanisms.

  8. Sublime Imperfections : Annotated Reading List

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, E.

    2016-01-01

    In this reading list, I share thoughts on scholars and journalists from which the Sublime Imperfections project takes its inspiration. The authors of the texts that I clustered ponder the nexus between the imperfect and the sublime, they rethink repair and breakdown, they critically interrogate and

  9. Modelling Sublimation of Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Brian

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author reports results in their efforts to model sublimation of carbon dioxide and the associated kinetics order and parameter estimation issues in their model. They have offered the reader two sets of data and several approaches to determine the rate of sublimation of a piece of solid dry ice. They presented several models…

  10. Los cuerpos sublimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Zangara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available La narración de crímenes en la prensa de masas y las pantallas parece constituir una versión contemporánea del magnetismo según Edgar Allan Poe. La estetización mediática (ya no la información de una serie reciente de feminicidios permite reconocer una cierta lógica de lo sublime como clave de la producción de noticias-mercancías. En su variante clásica, la ficción policial funciona como una matriz ideológica decisiva de la enunciación periodística.

  11. Scanning electron microscope observations of sublimates from Merapi Volcano, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, R.

    1993-01-01

    Sublimates were sampled from high-temperature (up to 800??C) fumaroles at Merapi volcano in January 1984. Sampling is accomplished by inserting silica tubes into high-temperature vents. Volcanic glass flows through the tubes and sublimates precipitate on the inner walls in response to the temperature gradient. With decreasing temperature (800-500??C) in the tubes, there are five sublimate zones. Texturally, the sublimate phases grade from large, well-formed crystals at their highest-temperature occurrence to more numerous, smaller crystals that are less perfect at lower temperatures. These changes imply that the crystal nucleation and growth rates increase and decrease, respectively, as temperature decreases. Overall, the textural data suggest that the gas is saturated or slightly super-saturated with the phases at their hottest occurrence, but that the gas becomes increasingly super-saturated with the phases at lower temperatures. -from Author

  12. Sublime Views and Beautiful Explanations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barry, Daved; Meisiek, Stefan; Hatch, Mary Jo

    To create a generative theory that provides beautiful explanations and sublime views requires both a crafts and an art approach to scientific theorizing. The search for generativity leads scholars to perform various theorizing moves between the confines of simple, yet eloquent beauty...

  13. The Sublime in churches and mosques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doudouh, N.; van Ginderen, S.

    2012-01-01

    Fear gives us the ability to experience the sublime in various situations when we talk about the sublime in architecture.According to Edmund Burke what causes this fear on a person, is darkness and vastness. Can it be that places of worship have been built for the purpose of expressing the sublime?

  14. Enthalpies of sublimation of fullerenes by thermogravimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Herrera, Melchor; Campos, Myriam; Torres, Luis Alfonso; Rojas, Aarón, E-mail: arojas@cinvestav.mx

    2015-12-20

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Enthalpies of sublimation of fullerenes were measured by thermogravimetry. • Results of enthalpies of sublimation are comparable with data reported in literature. • Not previously reported enthalpy of sublimation of C{sub 78} is supplied in this work. • Enthalpies of sublimation show a strong dependence with the number of carbon atoms in the cluster. • Enthalpies of sublimation are congruent with dispersion forces ruling cohesion of solid fullerene. - Abstract: The enthalpies of sublimation of fullerenes, as measured in the interval of 810–1170 K by thermogravimetry and applying the Langmuir equation, are reported. The detailed experimental procedure and its application to fullerenes C{sub 60}, C{sub 70}, C{sub 76}, C{sub 78} and C{sub 84} are supplied. The accuracy and uncertainty associated with the experimental results of the enthalpy of sublimation of these fullerenes show that the reliability of the measurements is comparable to that of other indirect high-temperature methods. The results also indicate that the enthalpy of sublimation increases proportionally to the number of carbon atoms in the cluster but there is also a strong correlation between the enthalpy of sublimation and the polarizability of each fullerene.

  15. Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, and the Aesthetically Sublime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenabeele, Bart

    2003-01-01

    Much has been written on the relationship between Arthur Schopenhauer and Friedrich Nietzsche. Much remains to be said, however, concerning their respective theories of the sublime. In this article, the author first argues against the traditional, dialectical view of Schopenhauer's theory of the sublime that stresses the crucial role the sublime…

  16. Sacred Space and Sublime Sacramental Piety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2012-01-01

    Analyses and Discussions of Mozart's Sacramental Litanies K. 125 and K. 243 in relation to the notions of the Sacred and the Sublime.......Analyses and Discussions of Mozart's Sacramental Litanies K. 125 and K. 243 in relation to the notions of the Sacred and the Sublime....

  17. Sublimation thermodynamics of four fluoroquinolone antimicrobial compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhina, Svetlana; Sharapova, Angelica; Ol’khovich, Marina; Perlovich, German

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The vapor pressures of ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, norfloxacin and levofloxacin were measured. • The values of enthalpies, entropies and Gibbs energies of sublimation were calculated at T = 298.15 K. • Thermophysical characteristics of the studied compounds were determined. • The influence hydrogen bonds in crystal lattices on the sublimation enthalpy was discussed. - Abstract: The transpiration method was used to measure the vapor pressures as a function of temperature of the following antimicrobial drugs: ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, norfloxacin and levofloxacin. Based on these results standard molar enthalpies, entropies and Gibbs energies of sublimation at T = 298.15 K were calculated and a correlation between the crystal lattice energy and the saturation vapor pressure in a number of fluoroquinolones was found. The thermophysical characteristics of the compounds studied were determined by DSC. The influence of different structural fragments of molecules substituents and the effects of hydrogen bonds in crystal lattices on the sublimation enthalpy was discussed.

  18. Schopenhauer e os paradoxos do sublime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Arnaud

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2012v11nesp1p153 A principal distinção entre a concepção schopenhaueriana e kantiana do sublime reside, segundo este artigo, no fato que o observador, no último caso, deve ser submetido a um perigo apenas possível, enquanto no primeiro caso ele deve ser realmente amedrontado. O principal impulso do sentimento do sublime é de fato, em Schopenhauer, a intervenção da vontade, que deve ser portanto realmente ameaçada. Daí resultam alguns paradoxos e originalidades da teoria do sublime de Schopenhauer, principalmente de um ponto de vista ético, cujos vestígios eu tento seguir.

  19. The enthalpy of sublimation of cubane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir-Hashemi, A.; Chickos, James S.; Hanshaw, William; Zhao Hui; Farivar, Behzad S.; Liebman, Joel F.

    2004-01-01

    The sublimation enthalpy of cubane, a key reference material for force field and quantum mechanical computations, was measured by combining the vaporization enthalpy at T = 298.15 K to the sum of the fusion enthalpy measured at T = 405 K and a solid-solid phase transition that occurs at T 394 K. The fusion and solid-solid phase transitions were measured previously. A sublimation enthalpy value of (55.2 ± 2.0) kJ mol -1 at T = 298.15 K was obtained. This value compares quite favorably the value obtained by comparing the sublimation enthalpy of similar substances as a function of their molar masses but is at odds with earlier measurements

  20. The enthalpy of sublimation of cubane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashir-Hashemi, A.; Chickos, James S.; Hanshaw, William; Zhao Hui; Farivar, Behzad S.; Liebman, Joel F

    2004-12-15

    The sublimation enthalpy of cubane, a key reference material for force field and quantum mechanical computations, was measured by combining the vaporization enthalpy at T = 298.15 K to the sum of the fusion enthalpy measured at T = 405 K and a solid-solid phase transition that occurs at T 394 K. The fusion and solid-solid phase transitions were measured previously. A sublimation enthalpy value of (55.2 {+-} 2.0) kJ mol{sup -1} at T = 298.15 K was obtained. This value compares quite favorably the value obtained by comparing the sublimation enthalpy of similar substances as a function of their molar masses but is at odds with earlier measurements.

  1. Recommended sublimation pressure and enthalpy of benzene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, K.; Fulem, Michal; Červinka, C.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 68, Jan (2014), s. 40-47 ISSN 0021-9614 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : benzene * vapor pressure * heat capacity * ideal - gas thermodynamic properties * sublimation enthalpy * recommended vapor pressure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.679, year: 2014

  2. Sublimation From Snow in Northern Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, J. W.

    2002-12-01

    Sublimation from snow is an often neglected component of water and energy balances. Research under the Mackenzie GEWEX Study has attempted to understand the snow and atmospheric processes controlling sublimation and to estimate the magnitude of sublimation in high latitude catchments. Eddy correlation units were used to measure vertical water vapour fluxes from a high latitude boreal forest, snow-covered tundra and shrub-covered tundra in Wolf Creek Research Basin, near Whitehorse Yukon, Territory Canada. Over Jan-Apr. water vapour fluxes from the forest canopy amounted to 18.3 mm, a significant loss from winter snowfall of 54 mm. Most of this loss occurred when the canopy was snow-covered. The weight of snow measured on a suspended, weighed tree indicates that this flux is dominated by sublimation of intercepted snow. In the melt period (April), water vapour fluxes were uniformly small ranging from 0.21 mm/day on the tundra slope, 0.23 mm/day for the forest and 0.27 mm/day for the shrub-tundra. During the melt period the forest and shrub canopies was snow-free and roots were frozen, so the primary source of water vapour from all sites was the surface snow.

  3. Low Temperature Growth of In2O3and InN Nanocrystals on Si(111 via Chemical Vapour Deposition Based on the Sublimation of NH4Cl in In

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsokkou Demetra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Indium oxide (In2O3 nanocrystals (NCs have been obtained via atmospheric pressure, chemical vapour deposition (APCVD on Si(111 via the direct oxidation of In with Ar:10% O2at 1000 °C but also at temperatures as low as 500 °C by the sublimation of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl which is incorporated into the In under a gas flow of nitrogen (N2. Similarly InN NCs have also been obtained using sublimation of NH4Cl in a gas flow of NH3. During oxidation of In under a flow of O2the transfer of In into the gas stream is inhibited by the formation of In2O3around the In powder which breaks up only at high temperatures, i.e.T > 900 °C, thereby releasing In into the gas stream which can then react with O2leading to a high yield formation of isolated 500 nm In2O3octahedrons but also chains of these nanostructures. No such NCs were obtained by direct oxidation forT G < 900 °C. The incorporation of NH4Cl in the In leads to the sublimation of NH4Cl into NH3and HCl at around 338 °C which in turn produces an efficient dispersion and transfer of the whole In into the gas stream of N2where it reacts with HCl forming primarily InCl. The latter adsorbs onto the Si(111 where it reacts with H2O and O2leading to the formation of In2O3nanopyramids on Si(111. The rest of the InCl is carried downstream, where it solidifies at lower temperatures, and rapidly breaks down into metallic In upon exposure to H2O in the air. Upon carrying out the reaction of In with NH4Cl at 600 °C under NH3as opposed to N2, we obtain InN nanoparticles on Si(111 with an average diameter of 300 nm.

  4. Alan Paton's Sublime: Race, Landscape and the Transcendence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article develops a postcolonial reading of the sublime by suggesting that aesthetic theories of the sublime were, in their classical philosophical formulations by Edmund Burke and Immanuel Kant, founded on problematic assumptions of racial difference. In the colonial sphere, it is argued, the sublime could discursively ...

  5. Freezer-sublimer for gaseous diffusion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reti, G.R.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for freezing and subliming uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) as part of a gaseous diffusion plant from which a quantity of the UF 6 inventory is intermittently withdrawn and frozen to solidify it. A plurality of upright heat pipes holds a coolant and is arranged in a two compartment vessel, the lower compartment is exposed to UF 6 , the higher one serves for condensing the evaporated coolant by means of cooling water. In one embodiment, each pipe has a quantity of coolant such as freon, hermetically sealded therein. In the other embodiment, each pipe is sealed only at the lower end while the upper end communicates with a common vapor or cooling chamber which contains a water cooled condenser. The cooling water has a sufficiently low temperature to condense the evaporated coolant. The liquid coolant flows gravitationally downward to the lower end portion of the pipe. UF 6 gas is flowed into the tank where it contacts the finned outside surface of the heat pipes. Heat from the gas evaporates the coolant and the gas in turn is solidified on the exterior of the heat pipe sections in the tank. To recover UF 6 gas from the tank, the solidified UF 6 is sublimed by passing compressed UF 6 gas over the frozen UF 6 gas on the pipes or by externally heating the lower ends of the pipes sufficiently to evaporate the coolant therein above the subliming temperature of the UF 6 . The subliming UF 6 gas then condenses the coolant in the vertical heat pipes, so that it can gravitationally flow back to the lower end portions

  6. Art, Terrorism and the Negative Sublime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Berleant

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The range of the aesthetic has expanded to cover not only a wider range of objects and situations of daily life but also to encompass the negative. This includes terrorism, whose aesthetic impact is central to its use as a political tactic. The complex of positive and negative aesthetic values in terrorism are explored, introducing the concept of the sublime as a negative category to illuminate the analysis and the distinctive aesthetic of terrorism.

  7. Rare earths refining by vacuum sublimation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rytus, N.N.

    1983-01-01

    The process of rare earths refining by the sUblimation; method in high and superhigh oil-free vacuum, is investigated. The method is effective for rare earths obtaining and permits to prepare metal samples with a high value of electric resistance ratio γ=RsUb(298 K)/Rsub(4.2 K). The estimation of general purity is performed for Sm, Eu, Yb, Tm, Dy, Ho, Er and Se

  8. Kinetics of dihydro-dibenz[b,f]azepine derivatives sublimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krongauz, V.V.; Ling, M.T.K.; Woo, L.; Purohit, U.

    2007-01-01

    Sublimation of dihydro-dibenz[b,f]azepine derivatives upon heating was studied and confirmed by thermogravimetry (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). DSC was used to analyze thermodynamics of melting. The kinetics of dihydro-dibenz[b,f]azepine derivatives sublimation were monitored by TGA as a function of temperature. Activation energies of sublimation were deduced and correlated with melting enthalpies and molecular structure. The results indicated that the sublimation was controlled by intermolecular forces in the crystalline lattice of dihydro-dibenz[b,f]azepine derivatives

  9. Reassessing Aesthetic Appreciation of Nature in the Kantian Sublime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Emily

    2012-01-01

    The sublime has been a relatively neglected topic in recent work in philosophical aesthetics, with existing discussions confined mainly to problems in Kant's theory. Given the revival of interest in his aesthetic theory and the influence of the Kantian sublime compared to other eighteenth-century accounts, this focus is not surprising. Kant's…

  10. Por uma metafísica do sublime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha de Almeida

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The sublime has been analyzed since ancient times with a striking compared with tragedy, whether as a literary genre, whether through Poetics, Aristotle's catharsis we translate the feeling the sublime. In modernity, new names were coming to work with this theory: Hume himself, in his essay The Tragedy, was impressed by the ability of this art form has to produce such strong effects on the viewer. But who else has strengthened analysis of the sublime in modernity, providing the basis for their own Kant was Edmund Burke, with his piece A philosophical investigation on the ideas of the sublime and the beautiful. The third criticism of Kant devoted a special moment to the analysis of the sublime, which had served as basis also for Schopenhauer, however, from her built his own aesthetic that would be of paramount importance Nieztsche for the young, mainly due to the consideration of music as sublime art. Nietzsche, then built his tragic wisdom, with based on the experience of the sublime tragedy.The question this paper wants to treat it exactly: It is possible think of a metaphysics of the sublime, based on Nietzsche?

  11. The Sublime, Ugliness and Contemporary Art: A Kantian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Kuplen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is twofold. First, to explain the distinction between Kant’s notions of the sublime and ugliness, and to answer an important question that has been left unnoticed in contemporary studies, namely why it is the case that even though both sublime and ugliness are contrapurposive for the power of judgment, occasioning the feeling of displeasure, yet that after all we should feel pleasure in the former, while not in the latter. Second, to apply my interpretation of the sublime and ugliness to contemporary art, and to resolve certain issues that have been raised in accounting for the possibility of artistic sublimity. I argue that an experience of a genuine artistic sublimity is an uncommon occurrence. I propose that the value of contemporary art can be best explained by referring to Kant’s notion of ugliness and his theory of aesthetic ideas.

  12. Sublime science: Teaching for scientific sublime experiences in middle school classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Shane

    Due to a historical separation of cognition and emotion, the affective aspects of learning are often seen as trivial in comparison to the more 'essential' cognitive qualities - particularly in the domain of science. As a result of this disconnect, feelings of awe, wonder, and astonishment as well as appreciation have been largely ignored in the working lives of scientists. In turn, I believe that science education has not accurately portrayed the world of science to our students. In an effort to bring the affective qualities of science into the science classroom, I have drawn on past research in the field of aesthetic science teaching and learning as well as works by, Burke, Kant, and Dewey to explore a new construct I have called the "scientific sublime". Scientific sublime experiences represent a sophisticated treatment of the cognitive as well as affective qualities of science learning. The scientific sublime represents feelings of awe, wonder, and appreciation that come from a deep understanding. It is only through this understanding of a phenomenon that we can appreciate its true complexity and intricacies, and these understandings when mixed with the emotions of awe and reverence, are sublime. Scientific sublime experiences are an attempt at the re-integration of cognition and feeling. The goal of this research was twofold: to create and teach a curriculum that fosters scientific sublime experiences in middle school science classes, and to better understand how these experiences are manifested in students. In order to create an approach to teaching for scientific sublime experiences, it was first necessary for me to identify key characteristics of such an experience and a then to create a pedagogical approach, both of which are described in detail in the dissertation. This research was conducted as two studies in two different middle schools. My pedagogical approach was used to create and teach two five-week 7 th grade science units---one on weather

  13. Sublime frequencies:  The construction of sublime listening experiences in the sonification of scientific data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supper, Alexandra

    2014-02-01

    In the past two decades, the sonification of scientific data - an auditory equivalent of data visualization in which data are turned into sounds - has become increasingly widespread, particularly as an artistic practice and as a means of popularizing science. Sonification is thus part of the recent trend, discussed in public understanding of science literature, towards increased emphasis on 'interactivity' and 'crossovers' between science and art as a response to the perceived crisis in the relationship between the sciences and their publics. However, sonification can also be understood as the latest iteration in a long tradition of theorizing the relations between nature, science and human experience. This article analyses the recent public fascination with sonification and argues that sonification grips public imaginations through the promise of sublime experiences. I show how the 'auditory sublime' is constructed through varying combinations of technological, musical and rhetorical strategies. Rather than maintain a singular conception of the auditory sublime, practitioners draw on many scientific and artistic repertoires. However, sound is often situated as an immersive and emotional medium in contrast to the supposedly more detached sense of vision. The public sonification discourse leaves intact this dichotomy, reinforcing the idea that sound has no place in specialist science.

  14. Origin and effective reduction of inversion domains in aluminum nitride grown by a sublimation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigetoh, Keisuke; Horibuchi, Kayo; Nakamura, Daisuke

    2017-11-01

    Owing to the large differences in the chemical properties between Al and N polarities in aluminum nitride (AlN), the choice of the polar direction for crystal growth strongly affects not only the quality but also the shape (facet formation) of the grown crystal. In particular, N-polar (0 0 0 -1) has been considered to be a more preferable direction than Al-polar (0 0 0 1) for sublimation growth because compared to Al-polar (0 0 0 1), N-polar (0 0 0 -1) exhibits better stability at high growth rate (high supersaturation) conditions and enables easier lateral enlargement of the crystal. However, some critical growth conditions induce polarity inversion and hinder stable N-polar growth. Furthermore, the origin of the polarity inversion in AlN growth by the sublimation method is still unclear. To ensure stable N-polar growth without polarity inversion, the formation mechanism of the inversion domain during AlN sublimation growth must be elucidated. Therefore, herein, we demonstrate homoepitaxial growth on an N-polar seed and carefully investigate the obtained crystal that shows polarity inversion. Annular bright-field scanning transmission electron microscopy reveals that polarity is completely converted to the Al polarity via the formation of a 30 nm thick mixed polar layer (MPL) just above the seed. Moreover, three-dimensional atom probe tomography shows the segregation of the oxygen impurities in the MPL with a high concentration of about 3 atom%. Finally, by avoiding the incorporation of oxygen impurity into the crystal at the initial stage of the growth, we demonstrate an effective reduction (seven orders of magnitude) of the inversion domain boundary formation.

  15. The Religious-Sublime in Music, Literature and Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cifuentes-Aldunate, Claudio

    2018-01-01

    The present article is an attempt to propose the semiotic aspect that produces the ”religious- sublime”. Most of the semiotic characteristics that we use to represent (and produce) the signifiers of the religious-sublime, nevertheless, share their mechanisms with other modalities of ”sublimeness......”. The sublime will be regarded as the representation (in the sense of staging) of a perception. I will propose how the subjective perception – in this case of the divinity - is (re)constructed by the subject in a piece of Spanish Gothic literature, in sacred music and in architecture – the room which houses...

  16. Nietzsche's View of Sublimation in the Educational Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Ann Margaret

    1975-01-01

    Article outlined Nietzsche's beliefs on the primary aim of education, the conscious production of the free man through the process of sublimation, the active redirecting of one's life energy in the service of creativity. (Editor/RK)

  17. Some attributes of snow occurrence and snowmelt/sublimation rates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some attributes of snow occurrence and snowmelt/sublimation rates in the Lesotho ... and trimmed MODIS SNOMAP image using the ArcGIS Spatial Analyst tool. ... and hydrology, earth surface processes, and rural livelihoods in the Lesotho ...

  18. The Kantian theory of the sublime and humanist politics

    OpenAIRE

    Ayas, Tuğba

    2013-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Art, Design and Architecture, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2013. Thesis (Ph. D.) -- Bilkent University, 2013. Includes bibliographical refences. The German philosopher Immanuel Kant’s rendition of cosmopolitanism and the sublime have been quite popular separately in various discussions on politics and aesthetics since the late 90s. In today’s political conjuncture the Kantian sublime is consulted in describing the social disasters that had b...

  19. O Sublime explicado às crianças

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Figueiredo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Como o próprio título indica, este ensaio pretende dialogar com a recepção do sublime kantiano pela filosofia francesa contemporânea, sobretudo com Jean-François Lyotard. Dessa forma, ao invés de ressaltar as consequências inevitável ou sistematicamente morais do sublime kantiano, como fez, de um modo geral, o comentário mais tradicional da filosofia crítica de Kant, este ensaio tenta interpretar o sublime como sendo essencialmente uma experiência da arte, seguindo assim de perto aquela tradição francesa. Mas, ao mesmo tempo, tomando alguma distância, este texto quer fazer uma objeção ao fundamento exclusivamente burkiano da concepção de sublime de Lyotard. Em suma, quero defender que é possível privilegiar o tempo (aspecto central do sublime de Edmund Burke, segundo Lyotard também na experiência do sublime kantiano.

  20. Sublimity and beauty: A view from nursing aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles-González, José; Solano-Ruiz, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    Several authors have focused on the aesthetics of nursing care from diverse perspectives; however, there are few studies about the sublime and the beautiful in nursing. To identify beautiful and sublime moments in the context of the aesthetics of nursing care. A theoretical reflection has been contemplated about sublime and beautiful values in the context of the aesthetics of nursing care from the cultural history perspective. For that purpose, a revision of this issue has been completed. The terms 'beautiful' and 'sublime' have been analysed to identify the characteristics of both in the context of nursing care. We have followed all ethical requirements regarding the sources, conducting research and authorship. There is no conflict of interest in this paper. With aesthetic knowledge, the nurse expresses the artistic nature of nursing care by appreciating the act of caring for individuals. The sublime is a complex phenomenon, since apparently contrary feelings are interwoven. Nursing care is an art with an anthropological object-subject on which the 'artist' applies their prior knowledge and skills. Feelings and emotions that develop during the clinical nursing practice - especially at times sublime and beautiful, aesthetic - constitute experiences which are professionally significant. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. O paradoxo sublime ou a alforria da arte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgínia Figueiredo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste texto, pretendo analisar a tese principal do ensaio “A verdade sublime” de Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe, a qual poderia ser formulada do seguinte modo: a verdade sublime é o Ereignis, esse é o fundamento a partir do qual se desenvolveu uma dificílima operação que consistiu em modificar a tradição do sublime sempre apresentado negativamente naquilo que Lacoue-Labarthe chamou de "compreensão afirmativa do sublime ou da grande arte". O autor estabelece uma astuciosa aliança entre o que há de mais radical no pensamento de Heidegger e o sublime, tratado de maneira bastante polêmica, como a principal teoria da arte de Kant. Dessa articulação fundamental, pode-se concluir que ele não está apenas à procura de uma “Estética” (sequer de uma “Teoria da Arte” sublime, mas, em busca de algo que é muito mais ambicioso, a saber: de um pensamento do sublime. Portanto, na minha opinião, o ensaio lacouelabarthiano constitui, por um lado, uma referência indispensável não só a quem quer que pretenda estudar a tradição do sublime, mas, por outro, compreender o pensamento heideggeriano sobre a arte e sua tentativa de encontrar uma determinação mais essencial e, sobretudo, ousaria dizer, mais política da arte.

  2. Vapor pressures and sublimation enthalpies of novel bicyclic heterocycle derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhina, Svetlana V.; Ol’khovich, Marina V.; Sharapova, Angelica V.; Perlovich, German L.; Proshin, Alexey N.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The vapor pressures of novel bicyclo-derivatives of amine were measured. • Thermodynamic functions of sublimation were calculated. • The influence of substituent structure and chemical nature on the vapor pressure was studied. -- Abstract: The vapor pressures of five novel bicyclic heterocycle derivatives were measured over the temperature 341.15 to 396.15 K using the transpiration method by means of an inert gas carrier. From these results the standard enthalpies and Gibbs free energies of sublimation at the temperature 298.15 K were calculated. The effects of alkyl- and chloro-substitutions on changes in the thermodynamic functions have been investigated. Quantitative structure–property relationship on the basis HYBOT physico-chemical descriptors for biologically active compounds have been developed to predict the sublimation enthalpies and Gibbs free energies of the compounds studied

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF VACUUM SUBLIMATION DRYERS USING THERMOELECTRIC MODULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Barykin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The main directions of use of freeze-dryed products and ingredients are revealed. The analysis of sales markets of freeze-dryed products is provided. It is shown that introduction of innovative production technologies will allow to develop dynamically not only to the large companies, but also small firms that will create prerequisites for growth of the Russian market of freeze-dryed products. Tendencies of development of the freeze-drying equipment are analysed. Relevance of development of energy saving freeze-dryers is proved The integrated approach to creation of competitive domestic technologies and the equipment for sublimation dehydration of thermolabile products consists in use of the effective combined remedies of a power supply, a process intensification, reduction of specific energy consumption and, as a result, decrease in product cost at achievement of high quality indicators. Advantages of thermoelectric modules as alternative direction to existing vapor-compression and absorbing refrigerating appliances are given. Researches of process of freeze-drying dehydration with use of thermoelectric modules are conducted. It is scientifically confirmed, that the thermoelectric module working at Peltier effect, promotes increase in refrigerating capacity due to use of the principle of the thermal pump. Options of use of thermoelectric modules in designs of dryers are offered. Optimum operating modes and number of modules in section are defined. Ways of increase of power efficiency of freeze-dryers with use of thermoelectric modules are specified. The received results will allow to make engineering calculations and design of progressive freeze-drying installations with various ways of a power supply.

  4. Enthalpy of sublimation as measured using a silicon oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, Hamza; Pomeroy, J. M.

    In this study, we report the enthalpy of sublimation of common gases (nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, neon, krypton, xenon, and water vapor) using a large area silicon oscillator with a sub-ng (~0.027 ng/cm2) mass sensitivity. The double paddle oscillator design enables high frequency stability (17 ppb) at cryogenic temperatures and provides a consistent technique for enthalpy measurements. The enthalpies of sublimation are derived from the rate of mass loss during programmed thermal desorption and are detected as a change in the resonance frequency of the self-tracking oscillator. These measured enthalpy values show excellent agreement with the accepted literature values.

  5. Of images and ills. Uses and malaises of sublimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Didi-Huberman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This text is published as postface to the new edition of Invention de l'hystérie. Charcot et l’iconographie photographique de l’hystérie (Macula, Paris, 2012, pp. 364-405 with the title Des images et des maux. It’s also the full version of the lecture organized by the Association Psychanalytique de France (September 24, 2011, entitled L’Usage de la sublimation. Starting from some considerations on his first book, the Author examines limits and potentials of the notion of sublimation in reference with art and artistic creation, and suggests a different way to approach it.

  6. Kinetic and diffusion evaporation of substances on sublimation in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinson, I.G.

    2006-01-01

    Diffusion-kinetic model of sublimation of substances in vacuum determining fields of the evaporation according to temperature - kinetic and diffusion is performed. The model is experimentally confirmed in the tests with benzoic acid and naphthalene, by calculation of the rate of Zn, Co, V, W sublimation and the value of coefficient of evaporation α. The model provides an explanation for derivation of low values of evaporation coefficient α, to 10 -10 , for easy to fusible substances, and α=1 for substances with high temperature of fusion [ru

  7. Thick epitaxial CdTe films grown by close space sublimation on Ge substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Q; Haliday, D P; Tanner, B K; Brinkman, A W [Department of Physics, University of Durham. Science Site, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Cantwell, B J; Mullins, J T; Basu, A [Durham Scientific Crystals Ltd., NetPark, Thomas Wright Way, Sedgefield, County Durham, TS21 3FD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Q.Z.Jiang@durham.ac.uk

    2009-01-07

    This paper reports, for the first time, the successful growth of 200 {mu}m thick CdTe films on mis-oriented Ge(1 0 0) substrates by a cost-effective optimized close space sublimation method. It is found that, as the thickness increases to a few hundred micrometres, subgrains are formed probably as a result of the large density of dislocations and strain within the initial interfacial layers. The films are of high quality (x-ray rocking curve width {approx}100 arcsec) and high resistance ({approx}10{sup 9} {omega} cm), and are thus candidates for x-ray and {gamma}-ray detectors. (fast track communication)

  8. Induced Recrystallization of CdTe Thin Films Deposited by Close-Spaced Sublimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, B.

    1998-01-01

    We have deposited CdTe thin films by close-spaced sublimation at two different temperature ranges. The films deposited at the lower temperature partially recrystallized after CdCl2 treatment at 350C and completely recrystallized after the same treatment at 400C. The films deposited at higher temperature did not recrystallize at these two temperatures. These results confirmed that the mechanisms responsible for changes in physical properties of CdTe films treated with CdCl2 are recrystallization and grain growth, and provided an alternative method to deposit CSS films using lower temperatures

  9. Snow sublimation in mountain environments and its sensitivity to forest disturbance and climate warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexstone, Graham A.; Clow, David W.; Fassnacht, Steven R.; Liston, Glen E.; Hiemstra, Christopher A.; Knowles, John F.; Penn, Colin A.

    2018-01-01

    Snow sublimation is an important component of the snow mass balance, but the spatial and temporal variability of this process is not well understood in mountain environments. This study combines a process‐based snow model (SnowModel) with eddy covariance (EC) measurements to investigate (1) the spatio‐temporal variability of simulated snow sublimation with respect to station observations, (2) the contribution of snow sublimation to the ablation of the snowpack, and (3) the sensitivity and response of snow sublimation to bark beetle‐induced forest mortality and climate warming across the north‐central Colorado Rocky Mountains. EC‐based observations of snow sublimation compared well with simulated snow sublimation at stations dominated by surface and canopy sublimation, but blowing snow sublimation in alpine areas was not well captured by the EC instrumentation. Water balance calculations provided an important validation of simulated sublimation at the watershed scale. Simulated snow sublimation across the study area was equivalent to 28% of winter precipitation on average, and the highest relative snow sublimation fluxes occurred during the lowest snow years. Snow sublimation from forested areas accounted for the majority of sublimation fluxes, highlighting the importance of canopy and sub‐canopy surface sublimation in this region. Simulations incorporating the effects of tree mortality due to bark‐beetle disturbance resulted in a 4% reduction in snow sublimation from forested areas. Snow sublimation rates corresponding to climate warming simulations remained unchanged or slightly increased, but total sublimation losses decreased by up to 6% because of a reduction in snow covered area and duration.

  10. The sublime and the grotesque: obscenity in Hilda Hilst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo A-mi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to discuss the dialogical relationship between sublime and grotesque in the work A obscena Senhora D by Hilda Hilst, based on its status of contemporary fiction permeated by reconditioning of the language in its performance in the non-linear time. In this sense, it was used studies of the sublime, as a historical and philosophical and literary concept in the works of Longinus, Edmund Burke, Immanuel Kant, Victor Hugo and François Lyotard; issues relating to discussions on the grotesque and its dialogue with the sublime ways, the works of Mikhail Bakhtin and Michel Maffesoli had great importance - the poetic and obscene relationship of the work discussed in convergent concepts such as obscenity, eroticism, sacred and profane. From these analyzes, it was concluded that in A obscena senhora D the sublime and the grotesque show in a multifaceted character, contradictory, interlocutory, and therefore not exclusionary: solidifying the hybrid linguistic-imagistic flow of the hilstiana literature.

  11. Sublimation-Induced Shape Evolution of Silver Cubes

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Yong

    2009-12-18

    The heat is on: Surface sublimation and shape transformation of silver cubes, enclosed by {100} surfaces and about 100nm in size, are examined by in situ transmission electron microscopy (see picture). High-index surfaces, such as {110}, of face-centered cubic metals are more stable when the temperature is close to the melting point.

  12. Sublimation as a landform-shaping process on Pluto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.; Howard, Alan D.; Umurhan, Orkan M.; White, Oliver L.; Schenk, Paul M.; Beyer, Ross A.; McKinnon, William B.; Spencer, John R.; Grundy, Will M.; Lauer, Tod R.; Nimmo, Francis; Young, Leslie A.; Stern, S. Alan; Weaver, Harold A.; Olkin, Cathy B.; Ennico, Kimberly; New Horizons Science Team

    2017-05-01

    Fields of pits, both large and small, in Tombaugh Regio (Sputnik Planitia, and the Pitted Uplands to the east), and along the scarp of Piri Rupes, are examples of landscapes on Pluto where we conclude that sublimation drives their formation and evolution. Our heuristic modeling closely mimics the form, spacing, and arrangement of a variety of Tombaugh Regio's pits. Pluto's sublimation modified landforms appear to require a significant role for (diffusive) mass wasting as suggested by our modeling. In our models, the temporal evolution of pitted surfaces is such that initially lots of time passes with little happening, then eventually, very rapid development of relief and rapid sublimation. Small pits on Sputnik Planitia are consistent with their formation in N2-dominated materials. As N2-ice readily flows, some other ``stiffer'' volatile ice may play a role in supporting the relief of sublimation degraded landforms that exhibit several hundred meters of relief. A strong candidate is CH4, which is spectroscopically observed to be associated with these features, but the current state of rheological knowledge for CH4 ice at Pluto conditions is insufficient for a firm assessment.

  13. The Religious-Sublime in Music, Literature and Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cifuentes-Aldunate, Claudio

    2018-01-01

    The present article is an attempt to propose the semiotic aspect that produces the ”religious- sublime”. Most of the semiotic characteristics that we use to represent (and produce) the signifiers of the religious-sublime, nevertheless, share their mechanisms with other modalities of ”sublimeness”...

  14. Sublimation-Induced Shape Evolution of Silver Cubes

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Yong; Fan, Fengru; Tian, Zhongqun; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2009-01-01

    The heat is on: Surface sublimation and shape transformation of silver cubes, enclosed by {100} surfaces and about 100nm in size, are examined by in situ transmission electron microscopy (see picture). High-index surfaces, such as {110}, of face

  15. System for NO reduction using sublimation of cyanuric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, R.A.

    1989-01-24

    An arrangement for reducing the NO content of a gas stream comprises contacting the gas stream with HNCO at a temperature effective for heat induced decomposition of HNCO and for resultant lowering of the NO content of the gas stream. Preferably, the HNCO is generated by sublimation of cyanuric acid. 1 fig.

  16. Modular Porous Plate Sublimator /MPPS/ requires only water supply for coolant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathbun, R. J.

    1966-01-01

    Modular porous plate sublimators, provided for each location where heat must be dissipated, conserve the battery power of a space vehicle by eliminating the coolant pump. The sublimator requires only a water supply for coolant.

  17. Aerosol volatility and enthalpy of sublimation of carboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Kent; Jonsson, Asa M; Andersson, Patrik U; Hallquist, Mattias

    2010-04-08

    The enthalpy of sublimation has been determined for nine carboxylic acids, two cyclic (pinonic and pinic acid) and seven straight-chain dicarboxylic acids (C(4) to C(10)). The enthalpy of sublimation was determined from volatility measurements of nano aerosol particles using a volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer (VTDMA) set-up. Compared to the previous use of a VTDMA, this novel method gives enthalpy of sublimation determined over an extended temperature range (DeltaT approximately 40 K). The determined enthalpy of sublimation for the straight-chain dicarboxylic acids ranged from 96 to 161 kJ mol(-1), and the calculated vapor pressures at 298 K are in the range of 10(-6)-10(-3) Pa. These values indicate that dicarboxylic acids can take part in gas-to-particle partitioning at ambient conditions and may contribute to atmospheric nucleation, even though homogeneous nucleation is unlikely. To obtain consistent results, some experimental complications in producing nanosized crystalline aerosol particles were addressed. It was demonstrated that pinonic acid "used as received" needed a further purification step before being suspended as a nanoparticle aerosol. Furthermore, it was noted from distinct differences in thermal properties that aerosols generated from pimelic acid solutions gave two types of particles. These two types were attributed to crystalline and amorphous configurations, and based on measured thermal properties, the enthalpy of vaporization was 127 kJ mol(-1) and that of sublimation was 161 kJ mol(-1). This paper describes a new method that is complementary to other similar methods and provides an extension of existing experimental data on physical properties of atmospherically relevant compounds.

  18. Surface and snowdrift sublimation at Princess Elisabeth station, East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Thiery

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the near-coastal regions of Antarctica, a significant fraction of the snow precipitating onto the surface is removed again through sublimation – either directly from the surface or from drifting snow particles. Meteorological observations from an Automatic Weather Station (AWS near the Belgian research station Princess Elisabeth in Dronning Maud Land, East-Antarctica, are used to study surface and snowdrift sublimation and to assess their impacts on both the surface mass balance and the surface energy balance during 2009 and 2010. Comparison to three other AWSs in Dronning Maud Land with 11 to 13 yr of observations shows that sublimation has a significant influence on the surface mass balance at katabatic locations by removing 10–23% of their total precipitation, but at the same time reveals anomalously low surface and snowdrift sublimation rates at Princess Elisabeth (17 mm w.e. yr−1 compared to 42 mm w.e. yr−1 at Svea Cross and 52 mm w.e. yr−1 at Wasa/Aboa. This anomaly is attributed to local topography, which shields the station from strong katabatic influence, and, therefore, on the one hand allows for a strong surface inversion to persist throughout most of the year and on the other hand causes a lower probability of occurrence of intermediately strong winds. This wind speed class turns out to contribute most to the total snowdrift sublimation mass flux, given its ability to lift a high number of particles while still allowing for considerable undersaturation.

  19. Sublimator Driven Coldplate Engineering Development Unit Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Rubik B.; Stephan, Ryan A.; Leimkuehler, Thomas O.

    2010-01-01

    The Sublimator Driven Coldplate (SDC) is a unique piece of thermal control hardware that has several advantages over a traditional thermal control scheme. The principal advantage is the possible elimination of a pumped fluid loop, potentially increasing reliability and reducing complexity while saving both mass and power. Because the SDC requires a consumable feedwater, it can only be used for short mission durations. Additionally, the SDC is ideal for a vehicle with small transport distances and low heat rejection requirements. An SDC Engineering Development Unit was designed and fabricated. Performance tests were performed in a vacuum chamber to quantify and assess the performance of the SDC. The test data was then used to develop correlated thermal math models. Nonetheless, an Integrated Sublimator Driven Coldplate (ISDC) concept is being developed. The ISDC couples a coolant loop with the previously described SDC hardware. This combination allows the SDC to be used as a traditional coldplate during long mission phases and provides for dissimilar system redundancy

  20. Robust Magnetic Properties of a Sublimable Single-Molecule Magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefl, Evan; Mannini, Matteo; Bernot, Kevin; Yi, Xiaohui; Amato, Alex; Leviant, Tom; Magnani, Agnese; Prokscha, Thomas; Suter, Andreas; Sessoli, Roberta; Salman, Zaher

    2016-06-28

    The organization of single-molecule magnets (SMMs) on surfaces via thermal sublimation is a prerequisite for the development of future devices for spintronics exploiting the richness of properties offered by these magnetic molecules. However, a change in the SMM properties due to the interaction with specific surfaces is usually observed. Here we present a rare example of an SMM system that can be thermally sublimated on gold surfaces while maintaining its intact chemical structure and magnetic properties. Muon spin relaxation and ac susceptibility measurements are used to demonstrate that, unlike other SMMs, the magnetic properties of this system in thin films are very similar to those in the bulk, throughout the full volume of the film, including regions near the metal and vacuum interfaces. These results exhibit the robustness of chemical and magnetic properties of this complex and provide important clues for the development of nanostructures based on SMMs.

  1. Trust: the sublime duty in health care leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Llewellyn E

    2010-01-01

    Trust is the essence of human social existence. From the moment of birth, trust is the basic component in any human relationship and interaction. Trust is the Holy Grail for human confidence in others. From human survival to organizational survival, trust is the primordial bond. No organization is more dependent on trust than health care. This article views trust as the most basic fundamental quality for leadership. Trust is a sublime duty of a leader and the leadership of an organization. Leadership sets the culture of trust. Trust is the one quality that is essential for guiding an organization toward serving others. This article addresses trust from many perspectives. Trust is viewed from our subordinates, our peers, our superiors, and the public we serve. This article postulates how trust in an organization is the sublime duty of leadership that unites all human understanding and without it destroys all human relationships.

  2. TRIGGERING SUBLIMATION-DRIVEN ACTIVITY OF MAIN BELT COMETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghighipour, N. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96825 (United States); Maindl, T. I.; Dvorak, R. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Schäfer, C. [Institut für Astronomie und Astrophysik, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany); Speith, R., E-mail: nader@ifa.hawaii.edu [Physikalisches Institut, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany)

    2016-10-10

    It has been suggested that the comet-like activity of main belt comets (MBCs) is due to the sublimation of sub-surface water–ice that has been exposed as a result of their surfaces being impacted by meter-sized bodies. We have examined the viability of this scenario by simulating impacts between meter-sized and kilometer-sized objects using a smooth particle hydrodynamics approach. Simulations have been carried out for different values of the impact velocity and impact angle, as well as different target material and water-mass fractions. Results indicate that for the range of impact velocities corresponding to those in the asteroid belt, the depth of an impact crater is slightly larger than 10 m, suggesting that if the activation of MBCs is due to the sublimation of sub-surface water–ice, this ice has to exist no deeper than a few meters from the surface. Results also show that ice exposure occurs in the bottom and on the interior surface of impact craters, as well as on the surface of the target where some of the ejected icy inclusions are re-accreted. While our results demonstrate that the impact scenario is indeed a viable mechanism to expose ice and trigger the activity of MBCs, they also indicate that the activity of the current MBCs is likely due to ice sublimation from multiple impact sites and/or the water contents of these objects (and other asteroids in the outer asteroid belt) is larger than the 5% that is traditionally considered in models of terrestrial planet formation, providing more ice for sublimation. We present the details of our simulations and discuss their results and implications.

  3. Optimization of fast dissolving etoricoxib tablets prepared by sublimation technique

    OpenAIRE

    Patel D; Patel M

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop fast dissolving tablets of etoricoxib. Granules containing etoricoxib, menthol, crospovidone, aspartame and mannitol were prepared by wet granulation technique. Menthol was sublimed from the granules by exposing the granules to vacuum. The porous granules were then compressed in to tablets. Alternatively, tablets were first prepared and later exposed to vacuum. The tablets were evaluated for percentage friability and disintegration time. A 3 2 ...

  4. El Silencio de la Sirena: lo Sublime en Alejandra Pizarnik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Lerman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Algunas poéticas de las décadas del cincuenta y del sesenta parecerían constituirse en torno a un vacío, un silencio que a veces inspira la palabra poética y otras veces la aborta. Esa ambigüedad, característica de la poética de Alejandra Pizarnik, podemos entenderla como una “reedición” de la estética de lo sublime. Lo sublime es un concepto estético-filosófico que plantearon filósofos como Inmanuel Kant y Edmund Burke para pensar el arte romántico y, en el siglo XX, otros autores como Jean-François Lyotard, lo retomaron para analizar el arte de vanguardia. Así, lo sublime nos permite repensar la poética de Pizarnik en sus coincidencias y oposiciones a otras de la tradición moderna (como la de Charles Baudelaire o de las vanguardias latinoamericanas (como Oliverio Girondo y Vicente Huidobro.

  5. Ad infinitum: implicaciones de lo sublime en la contemporaneidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Gaete Cáceres

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente texto es un estudio que ofrece una revisión crítica al concepto de lo sublime basándose en la teorización clásica de esta idea, es decir, la adjudicada a Longino, Edmund Burke e Immanuel Kant. A partir de aquí, se intentará descubrir la presencia de lo sublime como un factor relevante en la configuración cultural del mundo contemporáneo, pasando por su presencia innegable en el arte de las vanguardias o en la concepción de la Naturaleza y el entorno. Finalmente, el objetivo central de este escrito es demostrar como lo sublime ofrece también una alternativa para comprender el problema de "lo infinito" y "lo ilimitado" en el marco de las tecnologías, la eclosión de las grandes ciudades y su filtración en el sustrato retórico del capitalismo, ofreciendo así una vía diferente en el estudio de este tema clásico de la estética.

  6. El Silencio de la Sirena: lo Sublime en Alejandra Pizarnik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Lerman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1984-784X.2012v12n17p85 Algunas poéticas de las décadas del cincuenta y del sesenta parecerían constituirse en torno a un vacío, un silencio que a veces inspira la palabra poética y otras veces la aborta. Esa ambigüedad, característica de la poética de Alejandra Pizarnik, podemos entenderla como una “reedición” de la estética de lo sublime. Lo sublime es un concepto estético-filosófico que plantearon filósofos como Inmanuel Kant y Edmund Burke para pensar el arte romántico y, en el siglo XX, otros autores como Jean-François Lyotard, lo retomaron para analizar el arte de vanguardia. Así, lo sublime nos permite repensar la poética de Pizarnik en sus coincidencias y oposiciones a otras de la tradición moderna (como la de Charles Baudelaire o de las vanguardias latinoamericanas (como Oliverio Girondo y Vicente Huidobro.

  7. The enthalpy of sublimation and thermodynamic functions of fermium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, R.G.; Gibson, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    The enthalpy of sublimation of fermium (Fm), element 100, has now been determined directly by measuring the partial pressure of Fm over alloys, for the temperature range of 642 to 905 K. The partial pressures were determined using Knudsen effusion and target collection techniques. Dilute (10 -5 --10 -7 atom %) solid alloys of Fm and mixtures of Fm and Es in both Sm and Yb solvents were studied. The presence of Es in two of the alloys allowed a direct comparison of the behavior of Fm and Es, where the latter could be used as a reference. It was possible to calculate enthalpies of sublimation and a hypothetical vapor pressure/temperature relationship for pure Fm metal by selecting Yb as the solvent most likely to form a nearly ideal alloy with Fm. From the experimental vapor pressure data, we derived average Second Law values of 33.8±3 kcal/mol and 23.5±3 cal/mol deg for the enthalpy and entropy of sublimation of Fm at 298 K. Third Law enthalpy values were also calculated using the experimental partial pressure data and entropies estimated from derived free energy functions and heat capacities for the solid and gaseous forms of Fm. The average Third Law values (34.8 kcal/mol and 25.1 cal/mol deg, respectively, at 298 K) are in agreement with those obtained via the Second Law. These results establish that Fm, like Es (element 99), is a divalent metal. The finding that Fm metal is the second divalent actinide element experimentally establishes the trend towards metallic divalency expected in the second half of the actinide series

  8. Synthesis of gallium nitride and related oxides via ammonobasic reactive sublimation (ARS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Aguilar-Hernández, Jorge R.; Mejía-García, Concepción; Cruz-Gandarilla, Francisco; Contreras-Puente, Gerardo [Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Ciudad de México (Mexico); Moure-Flores, Francisco de [Facultad de Química, Materiales-Energía, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro (Mexico); Melo-Pereira, Osvaldo de, E-mail: schwarzerengelxv@hotmail.com [Facultad de Física, Universidad de La Habana, La Habana (Cuba)

    2017-11-15

    Ammonobasic reactive sublimation (ARS) is proposed as a novel method to synthesize GaN and related oxides. Results indicate that GaN growth occurs by a nitriding process of Ga and related oxides, establishing a direct dependence on NH{sub 4} OH amount added as a primary chemical reactive. The samples were grown on p-type Si (111) substrates inside a tube furnace, employing GaN powder and NH{sub 4} OH. The characterizations of the samples were carried out by XRD, SEM, EDS and PL techniques, revealing the influence of NH{sub 4} OH on the improvement of GaN synthesis and the enhancement of its optical and structural properties. (author)

  9. Selective Area Sublimation: A Simple Top-down Route for GaN-Based Nanowire Fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damilano, B; Vézian, S; Brault, J; Alloing, B; Massies, J

    2016-03-09

    Post-growth in situ partial SiNx masking of GaN-based epitaxial layers grown in a molecular beam epitaxy reactor is used to get GaN selective area sublimation (SAS) by high temperature annealing. Using this top-down approach, nanowires (NWs) with nanometer scale diameter are obtained from GaN and InxGa1-xN/GaN quantum well epitaxial structures. After GaN regrowth on InxGa1-xN/GaN NWs resulting from SAS, InxGa1-xN quantum disks (QDisks) with nanometer sizes in the three dimensions are formed. Low temperature microphotoluminescence experiments demonstrate QDisk multilines photon emission around 3 eV with individual line widths of 1-2 meV.

  10. The sublimation kinetics of GeSe single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irene, E. A.; Wiedemeier, H.

    1975-01-01

    The sublimation kinetics of (001) oriented GeSe single crystal platelets was studied by high-temperature mass spectroscopy, quantitative vacuum microbalance techniques, and hot stage optical microscopy. For a mean experimental temperature of 563 K, the activation enthalpy and entropy are found to equal 32.3 kcal/mole and 19.1 eu, respectively. The vaporization coefficient is less than unity for the range of test temperatures, and decreases with increasing temperature. The combined experimental data are correlated by means of a multistep surface adsorption mechanism.

  11. Figure del desiderio: l'amore fra distruzione e sublime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Franzone

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Attraverso due racconti di Cortázar, l'analisi di due figure del desiderio ci permette esplorare due estremi seguendo una verticalità. La distruzione, doppio tenebroso della nostra anima, ci rivela un erotismo legato alla morte e al desiderio morboso di possedere l'Altro; il suo contraltare è un'ascesa vertiginosa accompagnata da un godimento estetico, dall'amore sublime prossimo all'esperienza mistica che si concluderà con una discesa progressiva e nel rispetto di questo Altro. La creazione letteraria si presenta come uno sfogo alle nostre angosce, che sono anche una sorta d'espressione dell'erotismo.

  12. Measured and modelled sublimation on the tropical Glaciar Artesonraju, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    M. Winkler; I. Juen; T. Mölg; G. Kaser

    2008-01-01

    Sublimation plays a decisive role in the surface energy balance of tropical glaciers. During the dry season low specific humidity and high surface roughness favour the direct transition from ice to vapour and drastically reduce the energy available for melting. However, field measurements are scarce and little is known about the performance of sublimation parametrisations in glacier mass balance and runoff models.

    During 15 days in August 2005 sublimation was measured on ...

  13. Past, present, and future of sublimation transfer imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akada, Masanori

    1990-07-01

    SONY's announcement of tlavica system shaked the world in 1981. In the new nonphotographic imaging system, image is acquired with CCD to be converted into electric image-signal, stored in magnetic recording media,displayed on a CR1 and printed on a special sheet. To get a hard copy, Sublimation Transfer technology was developed. That announcement brought about world-wide R&D of competitive color imaging systems: Ink-jet, Wax transfer,. Sublimation Transfer(ST) and Electrophotography. In spite of much effort,most of those were insufficient for getting a good hard copy. Developing sufficient ST recording media, Dai Nippon Printing started ST recording media business in 1986. It was the first manufacturing scale production and sale of ST recording media in the world. Nowadays ST technology is known for its advantages: high image quality, consistency from copy to copy, smooth tone-reproduction from high-light to maximum density, and easiness to use. In the following paper progress of ST recording media and the present situation and future markets of the media will be presented.

  14. Matrix isolation sublimation: An apparatus for producing cryogenic beams of atoms and molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacramento, R. L.; Alves, B. X.; Silva, B. A.; Wolff, W.; Cesar, C. L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, A. N. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); INMETRO, Av. Nossa Senhora das Graças, 50 25250-020 Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Li, M. S. [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Ave. Trabalhador São Carlense, 400, 13565-590 São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-15

    We describe the apparatus to generate cryogenic beams of atoms and molecules based on matrix isolation sublimation. Isolation matrices of Ne and H{sub 2} are hosts for atomic and molecular species which are sublimated into vacuum at cryogenic temperatures. The resulting cryogenic beams are used for high-resolution laser spectroscopy. The technique also aims at loading atomic and molecular traps.

  15. Uranium hexaflouride freezer/sublimer process simulator/trainer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnal, C.L.; Belcher, J.D.; Tapp, P.A.; Ruppel, F.R.; Wells, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a software and hardware simulation of a freezer/sublimer unit used in gaseous diffusion processing of uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ). The objective of the project was to build a plant simulator that reads control signals and produces plant signals to mimic the behavior of an actual plant. The model is based on physical principles and process data. Advanced Continuous Simulation Language (ACSL) was used to develop the model. Once the simulation was validated with actual plant process data, the ACSL model was translated into Advanced Communication and Control Oriented Language (ACCOL). A Bristol Babcock Distributed Process Controller (DPC) Model 3330 was the hardware platform used to host the ACCOL model and process the real world signals. The DPC will be used as a surrogate plant to debug control system hardware/software and to train operators to use the new distributed control system without disturbing the process. 2 refs., 4 figs

  16. Methods of conveying fluids and methods of sublimating solid particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M

    2013-10-01

    A heat exchanger and associated methods for sublimating solid particles therein, for conveying fluids therethrough, or both. The heat exchanger includes a chamber and a porous member having a porous wall having pores in communication with the chamber and with an interior of the porous member. A first fluid is conveyed into the porous member while a second fluid is conveyed into the porous member through the porous wall. The second fluid may form a positive flow boundary layer along the porous wall to reduce or eliminate substantial contact between the first fluid and the interior of the porous wall. The combined first and second fluids are conveyed out of the porous member. Additionally, the first fluid and the second fluid may each be conveyed into the porous member at different temperatures and may exit the porous member at substantially the same temperature.

  17. Calculational criticality analyses of 10- and 20-MW UF6 freezer/sublimer vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, W.C.

    1993-02-01

    Calculational criticality analyses have been performed for 10- and 20-MW UF 6 freezer/sublimer vessels. The freezer/sublimers have been analyzed over a range of conditions that encompass normal operation and abnormal conditions. The effects of HF moderation of the UF 6 in each vessel have been considered for uranium enriched between 2 and 5 wt % 235 U. The results indicate that the nuclearly safe enrichments originally established for the operation of a 10-MW freezer/sublimer, based on a hydrogen-to-uranium moderation ratio of 0.33, are acceptable. If strict moderation control can be demonstrated for hydrogen-to-uranium moderation ratios that are less than 0.33, then the enrichment limits for the 10-MW freezer/sublimer may be increased slightly. The calculations performed also allow safe enrichment limits to be established for a 20-NM freezer/sublimer under moderation control

  18. On the use of semiempirical models of (solid + supercritical fluid) systems to determine solid sublimation properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabernero, Antonio; Martin del Valle, Eva M.; Galan, Miguel A.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We propose a method to determine sublimation properties of solids. → Low deviations were produced calculating sublimation enthalpies and pressures. → It is a required step to determine the vaporization enthalpy of the solid. → It is possible to determine solid properties using semiempirical models solid-SCF. - Abstract: Experimental solubility data of solid-supercritical fluids have significantly increased in the last few years, and semiempirical models are emerging as one of the best choices to fit this type of data. This work establishes a methodology to calculate sublimation pressures using this type of equations. It requires the use of Bartle's equation to model equilibria data solid-supercritical fluids with the aim of determining the vaporization enthalpy of the compound. Using this method, low deviations were obtained by calculating sublimation pressures and sublimation enthalpies. The values of the sublimation pressures were subsequently used to successfully model different multiphasic equilibria, as solid-supercritical fluids and solid-solvent-supercritical fluids with the Peng-Robinson equation of state (without considering the sublimation pressure as an adjustable parameter). On the other hand, the sublimation pressures were also used to calculate solid sublimation properties and acetaminophen solvation properties in some solvents. Also, solubility data solid-supercritical fluids from 62 pharmaceuticals were fitted with different semiempirical equations (Chrastil, Kumar-Johnston and Bartle models) in order to present the values of solvation enthalpies in sc-CO 2 and vaporization enthalpies for these compounds. All of these results highlight that semiempirical models can be used for any other purpose as well as modeling (solid + supercritical fluids) equilibria.

  19. Mass spectrometry study of sublimation of rare earth acetylacetonate adducts with hexamethylphosphorustriamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'mina, N.P.; Semyannikov, P.P.; Martynenko, L.I.; Ch'eu Tkhi Nguet; AN SSSR, Novosibirsk

    1991-01-01

    Process of vacuum sublimation of MA 3 ·Q adducts (M=Nd,Ho,Er; A - -acetylacetonate-ion; Q-hexamethylphosphorustriamide) was studied by mass-spectrometry method. Composinion of gaseous phase, formed in 20-140 deg C range at 10 -5 mm Hg, was determined. Scheme of MA 3 ·Q sublimation, including Q splitting and transition of MA 3 ·Q adducts and MA 3 and Q products of their thermodestruction to gaseous phase, was suggested. ΔH values of MA 3 ·Q thermodestruction and MA 3 sublimation were calculated

  20. The oxidation kinetics for sublimates formed during niobium electron-beam remelting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumarev, V.M.; Gulyaeva, R.I.; Mar'evich, V.P.; Upolovnikova, A.G.; Udoeva, L.Yu.

    2003-01-01

    The oxidation of sublimates of Nb-Al electron beam remelting is investigated under conditions of isothermal and continuous heating in the air. It is stated that basic oxidation products are niobium and aluminium oxides, as well as aluminium niobates of variable composition of Al 2 O 3 · mNb 2 O 5 . The more aluminium enriched sublimates possess an increased resistance to oxidation. Formed in sublimates NbAl 3 intermetallic compound features the highest heat resistance. Oxidation parameters are determined by the method of nonisothermic kinetics. It is noted that the running processes exhibit a multistage nature and are limited by internal diffusion [ru

  1. Debate on sublime in the end of 18th century: Burke, Kant, Schiller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremić-Molnar Dragana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors are examining three positions within the 18th Century aesthetic discussion on the sublime - Edmund Burke's, Immanuel Kant's and Friedrich Schiller's. They are also trying to reconstruct the political backgrounds of each of this theoretical positions: old regime conservatism (Burke, republican liberalism (Schiller and romantic longing for the 'third way' (Kant. The most sophisticated and mature theory of sublime is found in Schiller's aesthetic works, especially in those following his disappointment in French Revolution, in which the relationship between sublime and paradoxes of historical violence is most thoroughly reflected.

  2. Bion and the sublime: the origins of an aesthetic paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civitarese, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    In constructing his theory Bion drew on a number of symbolic matrices: psychoanalysis, philosophy, mathematics, literature, aesthetics. The least investigated of these is the last. True, we know that Bion cites many authors of the Romantic period, such as Coleridge, Keats, Blake and Wordsworth, as well as others who were held in high esteem in the Romantic period, such as Milton. However, less is known about the influence exerted on him by the aesthetics of the sublime, which while chronologically preceding Romanticism is in fact one of its components. My working hypothesis is that tracing a number of Bion's concepts back to this secret model can serve several purposes: firstly, it contributes to the study of the sources, and, secondly, it makes these concepts appear much less occasional and idiosyncratic than we might believe, being as they are mostly those less immediately understandable but not less important (O, negative capability, nameless dread, the infinite, the language of achievement, unison etc.). Finally, connecting these notions to a matrix, that is, disclosing the meaning of elements that are not simply juxtaposed but dynamically interrelated, in my view significantly increases not only their theoretical intelligibility but also their usefulness in clinical practice. In conclusion, one could legitimately argue that Bion gradually subsumed all the other paradigms he drew on within the aesthetic paradigm. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  3. Mimeses do sublime: a recepção de Kant pelo Romantismo e pelo Expressionismo Mimesis of sublime: the Romantism and Expressionism reception of Kant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Rossinetti Rufinoni

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Partindo das analises do criticismo kantiano, este texto investiga as concepções romântica e moderna de sublime e de imaginação. Se, por um lado, a concepção romântica inaugura o mundo moderno, por outro, a expressionista mostra os limites dessa mesma modernidade. Para ambas, entretanto, a Crítica do Juízo de Kant é o âmbito privilegiado no qual podemos precisar as distinções.Starting from the analysis of the Kantian criticism, this text investigates the romantic and the modern conceptions of sublime and imagination. On the one hand, the romantic conceptions of sublime inaugurate the modern world. On the other hand, the expressionist conceptions show the confines of this world. The Critique of Judgment is the very locus where such distinctions can be drawn with precision.

  4. Spectroscopic, microscopic, and internal stress analysis in cadmium telluride grown by close-space sublimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manciu, Felicia S.; Salazar, Jessica G.; Diaz, Aryzbe; Quinones, Stella A.

    2015-01-01

    High quality materials with excellent ordered structure are needed for developing photovoltaic and infrared devices. With this end in mind, the results of our research prove the importance of a detailed, comprehensive spectroscopic and microscopic analysis in assessing cadmium telluride (CdTe) characteristics. The goal of this work is to examine not only material crystallinity and morphology, but also induced stress in the deposit material. A uniform, selective growth of polycrystalline CdTe by close-space sublimation on patterned Si(111) and Si(211) substrates is demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy images. Besides good crystallinity of the samples, as revealed by both Raman scattering and Fourier transform infrared absorption investigations, the far-infrared transmission data also show the presence of surface optical phonon modes, which is direct evidence of confinement in such a material. The qualitative identification of the induced stress was achieved by performing confocal Raman mapping microscopy on sample surfaces and by monitoring the existence of the rock-salt and zinc-blende structural phases of CdTe, which were associated with strained and unstrained morphologies, respectively. Although the induced stress in the material is still largely due to the high lattice mismatch between CdTe and the Si substrate, the current results provide a direct visualization of its partial release through the relaxation effect at crystallite boundaries and of preferential growth directions of less strain. Our study, thus offers significant value for improvement of material properties, by targeting the needed adjustments in the growth processes. - Highlights: • Assessing the characteristics of CdTe deposited on patterned Si substrates • Proving the utility of confocal Raman microscopy in monitoring the induced stress • Confirming the partial stress release through the grain boundary relaxation effect • Demonstrating the phonon confinement effect in low

  5. Thermodynamics of sublimation and solvation for bicyclo-derivatives of 1,3-thiazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ol’khovich, Marina V.; Blokhina, Svetlana V.; Sharapova, Angelica V.; Perlovich, German L.; Proshin, Alexey N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Temperature dependencies of saturated vapor pressure of new bicyclo-derivatives were obtained. • Thermodynamic functions of sublimation and solvation were calculated. • The correlations between thermodynamic functions and molecular descriptors are discussed. - Abstract: Temperature dependencies of saturated vapor pressure of novel bicyclo-derivatives of 1,3-thiazine with methoxy- and carbonyl-substituents have been obtained by method of transference by means of an inert gas carrier. Thermodynamic functions of sublimation have been calculated. Correlations between thermodynamic functions of sublimation and thermophysical properties of the substances and molecular descriptors have been established. The enthalpies of solvation of compounds were calculated using the measured values of enthalpies of sublimation and of standard enthalpies of solution in hexane and buffer

  6. Potential Identification of Sublimation-Driven Downslope Mass Movement on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malliband, C. C.; Conway, S. J.; Rothery, D. A.; Balme, M. R.

    2018-05-01

    We have identified a further example of mass movement, in addition to the previously identified example in the pyroclastic vent NE of Rachmaninoff. Both examples show evidence of hollow sublimation being a cause of the mass movements.

  7. Schiller Goes to the Movies: Locating the Sublime in "Thelma and Louise."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyng, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Endeavors to make students aware of similarities between today's movie culture and the theater of the 18th century; parallels between a traditional drama and a movie script; and Schiller's understanding of the sublime. (36 references) (Author/CK)

  8. Measured and modelled sublimation on the tropical Glaciar Artesonraju, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler , M.; Juen , I.; Mölg , T.; Wagnon , Patrick; Gómez , J.; Kaser , G.

    2009-01-01

    Sublimation plays a decisive role in the surface energy and mass balance of tropical glaciers. During the dry season (May–September) low specific humidity and high surface roughness favour the direct transition from ice to vapour and drastically reduce the energy available for melting. However, field measurements are scarce and little is known about the performance of sublimation parameterisations in glacier mass balance and runoff models.

    During 15 days in August 2005 su...

  9. Experimental Analysis of Sublimation Dynamics for Buried Glacier Ice in Beacon Valley, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenfeucht, S.; Dennis, D. P.; Marchant, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    The age of the oldest known buried ice in Beacon Valley, McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) Antarctica is a topic of active debate due to its implications for the stability of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Published age estimates range from as young as 300 ka to as old as 8.1 Ma. In the upland MDV, ablation occurs predominantly via sublimation. The relict ice in question (ancient ice from Taylor Glacier) lies buried beneath a thin ( 30-70 cm) layer of sublimation till, which forms as a lag deposit as underlying debris-rich ice sublimes. As the ice sublimates, the debris held within the ice accumulates slowly on the surface, creating a porous boundary between the buried-ice surface and the atmosphere, which in turn influences gas exchange between the ice and the atmosphere. Additionally, englacial debris adds several salt species that are ultimately concentrated on the ice surface. It is well documented the rate of ice sublimation varies as a function of overlying till thickness. However, the rate-limiting dynamics under varying environmental conditions, including the threshold thicknesses at which sublimation is strongly retarded, are not yet defined. To better understand the relationships between sublimation rate, till thickness, and long-term surface evolution, we build on previous studies by Lamp and Marchant (2017) and evaluate the role of till thickness as a control on ice loss in an environmental chamber capable of replicating the extreme cold desert conditions observed in the MDV. Previous work has shown that this relationship exhibits exponential decay behavior, with sublimation rate significantly dampened under less than 10 cm of till. In our experiments we pay particular attention to the effect of the first several cm of till in order to quantify the dynamics that govern the transition from bare ice to debris-covered ice. We also examine this transition for various forms of glacier ice, including ice with various salt species.

  10. Relationships between fusion, solution, vaporization and sublimation enthalpies of substituted phenols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagofarov, Mikhail I.; Nagrimanov, Ruslan N.; Solomonov, Boris N.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Method for determination of sublimation and vaporization enthalpies of phenols was developed. • Vaporization enthalpies of 28 phenols at 298 K were calculated. • Sublimation enthalpies of 26 phenols at 298 K were calculated using fusion enthalpies at melting temperatures. • Obtained values are in good agreement with the results of conventional methods. - Abstract: In this work a method for determination of sublimation and vaporization enthalpies of substituted phenols was developed. This method is a modification of solution calorimetry approach. Modification is based on the novel relations, which bind solution, vaporization and sublimation enthalpies at 298.15 K and fusion enthalpy at the melting temperature. According to novel relations the equations for calculating sublimation and vaporization enthalpies at 298.15 K were offered. Calculated values of sublimation and vaporization enthalpies of phenol derivatives containing alkyls, halogens, –OCH 3 , –NO 2 , –COCH 3 , –COOCH 3 groups, and dihydroxybenzenes were compared with literature data (298.15 K) obtained by conventional methods. In most of the cases divergence does not exceed 2–3%.

  11. Transient thermal protection of film covering circular aperture by sublimation and weak decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havstad, Mark A.; Miles, Robin R.; Hsieh, Henry, E-mail: hsieh6@llnl.gov

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Precise sublimating layers can provide protection in transient thermal environments. • Sensitivity analysis shows that the uncertainty in properties has modest influence. • It is likely that methane layers are a good choice for IFE targets. - Abstract: Unwanted heating of sensitive surfaces in harsh thermal environments can be prevented by precise application of sacrificial materials such as sublimation layers and pyrolyzing films. The use of sublimation for the protection of circular polyimide membranes subjected to brief (∼100 ms) heating by infrared radiation and hot (6000 K) inert gas convection is analyzed. Selection of sublimation material and sublimation layer and membrane thickness is considered with emphasis on providing sufficient thermal protection yet negligible unwanted material remaining at the end of a specified heating period. Though the analysis here is general, the motivation is protection of the polyimide films covering the laser entrance holes on IFE (inertial fusion energy) hohlraums being injected into the hot gas (xenon) protecting IFE reactor chambers. Both one and two dimensional thermal models are used to develop a robust thermal concept. Sensitivity analyses (SA) methods are exercised to show where the design may be vulnerable and which input parameters have the greatest effect on performance and likelihood of success. For the design and conditions considered, methane sublimating layers are probably preferred over xenon or pentane.

  12. Measured and modelled sublimation on the tropical Glaciar Artesonraju, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Winkler

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Sublimation plays a decisive role in the surface energy and mass balance of tropical glaciers. During the dry season (May–September low specific humidity and high surface roughness favour the direct transition from ice to vapour and drastically reduce the energy available for melting. However, field measurements are scarce and little is known about the performance of sublimation parameterisations in glacier mass balance and runoff models.

    During 15 days in August 2005 sublimation was measured on the tongue of Glaciar Artesonraju (8°58' S, 77°38' W in the Cordillera Blanca, Perú, using simple lysimeters. Indicating a strong dependence on surface roughness, daily totals of sublimation range from 1–3 kg m−2 for smooth to 2–5 kg m−2 for rough conditions. (The 15-day means at that time of wind speed and specific humidity were 4.3 m s−1 and 3.8 g kg−1, respectively.

    Measured sublimation was related to characteristic surface roughness lengths for momentum (zm and for the scalar quantities of temperature and water vapour (zs, using a process-based mass balance model. Input data were provided by automatic weather stations, situated on the glacier tongue at 4750 m a.s.l. and 4810 m a.s.l., respectively. Under smooth conditions the combination zm=2.0 mm and zs=1.0 mm appeared to be most appropriate, for rough conditions zm=20.0 mm and zs=10.0 mm fitted best.

    Extending the sublimation record from April 2004 to December 2005 with the process-based model confirms, that sublimation shows a clear seasonality. 60–90% of the energy available for ablation is consumed by sublimation in the dry season, but only 10–15% in the wet season (October–April. The findings are finally used to evaluate the parameterisation of sublimation in the lower-complexity mass

  13. Measured and modelled sublimation on the tropical Glaciar Artesonraju, Perú

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, M.; Juen, I.; Mölg, T.; Wagnon, P.; Gómez, J.; Kaser, G.

    2009-02-01

    Sublimation plays a decisive role in the surface energy and mass balance of tropical glaciers. During the dry season (May-September) low specific humidity and high surface roughness favour the direct transition from ice to vapour and drastically reduce the energy available for melting. However, field measurements are scarce and little is known about the performance of sublimation parameterisations in glacier mass balance and runoff models. During 15 days in August 2005 sublimation was measured on the tongue of Glaciar Artesonraju (8°58' S, 77°38' W) in the Cordillera Blanca, Perú, using simple lysimeters. Indicating a strong dependence on surface roughness, daily totals of sublimation range from 1-3 kg m-2 for smooth to 2-5 kg m-2 for rough conditions. (The 15-day means at that time of wind speed and specific humidity were 4.3 m s-1 and 3.8 g kg-1, respectively.) Measured sublimation was related to characteristic surface roughness lengths for momentum (zm) and for the scalar quantities of temperature and water vapour (zs), using a process-based mass balance model. Input data were provided by automatic weather stations, situated on the glacier tongue at 4750 m a.s.l. and 4810 m a.s.l., respectively. Under smooth conditions the combination zm=2.0 mm and zs=1.0 mm appeared to be most appropriate, for rough conditions zm=20.0 mm and zs=10.0 mm fitted best. Extending the sublimation record from April 2004 to December 2005 with the process-based model confirms, that sublimation shows a clear seasonality. 60-90% of the energy available for ablation is consumed by sublimation in the dry season, but only 10-15% in the wet season (October-April). The findings are finally used to evaluate the parameterisation of sublimation in the lower-complexity mass balance model ITGG, which has the advantage of requiring precipitation and air temperature as only input data. It turns out that the implementation of mean wind speed is a possible improvement for the representation of

  14. Mechanism and kinetics for ammonium dinitramide (ADN) sublimation: a first-principles study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, R S; Chen, Hui-Lung; Lin, M C

    2012-11-08

    The mechanism for sublimation of NH(4)N(NO(2))(2) (ADN) has been investigated quantum-mechanically with generalized gradient approximation plane-wave density functional theory calculations; the solid surface is represented by a slab model and the periodic boundary conditions are applied. The calculated lattice constants for the bulk ADN, which were found to consist of NH(4)(+)[ON(O)NNO(2)](-) units, instead of NH(4)(+)[N(NO(2))(2)](-), agree quite well with experimental values. Results show that three steps are involved in the sublimation/decomposition of ADN. The first step is the relaxation of the surface layer with 1.6 kcal/mol energy per NH(4)ON(O)NNO(2) unit; the second step is the sublimation of the surface layer to form a molecular [NH(3)]-[HON(O)NNO(2)] complex with a 29.4 kcal/mol sublimation energy, consistent with the experimental observation of Korobeinichev et al. (10) The last step is the dissociation of the [H(3)N]-[HON(O)NNO(2)] complex to give NH(3) and HON(O)NNO(2) with the dissociation energy of 13.9 kcal/mol. Direct formation of NO(2) (g) from solid ADN costs a much higher energy, 58.3 kcal/mol. Our calculated total sublimation enthalpy for ADN(s) → NH(3)(g) + HON(O)NNO(2)) (g), 44.9 kcal/mol via three steps, is in good agreement with the value, 42.1 kcal/mol predicted for the one-step sublimation process in this work and the value 44.0 kcal/mol computed by Politzer et al. (11) using experimental thermochemical data. The sublimation rate constant for the rate-controlling step 2 can be represented as k(sub) = 2.18 × 10(12) exp (-30.5 kcal/mol/RT) s(-1), which agrees well with available experimental data within the temperature range studied. The high pressure limit decomposition rate constant for the molecular complex H(3)N···HON(O)NNO(2) can be expressed by k(dec) = 3.18 × 10(13) exp (-15.09 kcal/mol/RT) s(-1). In addition, water molecules were found to increase the sublimation enthalpy of ADN, contrary to that found in the ammonium

  15. Distributed modelling of climate change impacts on snow sublimation in Northern Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Menzel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sublimation of snow is an important factor of the hydrological cycle in Mongolia and is likely to increase according to future climate projections. In this study the hydrological model TRAIN was used to assess spatially distributed current and future sublimation rates based on interpolated daily data of precipitation, air temperature, air humidity, wind speed and solar radiation. An automated procedure for the interpolation of the input data is provided. Depending on the meteorological parameter and the data availability for the individual days, the most appropriate interpolation method is chosen automatically from inverse distance weighting, Ordinary Least Squares interpolation, Ordinary or Universal Kriging. Depending on elevation simulated annual sublimation in the period 1986–2006 was 23 to 35 mm, i.e. approximately 80% of total snowfall. Moreover, future climate projections for 2071–2100 of ECHAM5 and HadCM3, based on the A1B emission scenario of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, were analysed with TRAIN. In the case of ECHAM5 simulated sublimation increases by up to 17% (26...41 mm while it remains at the same level for HadCM3 (24...34 mm. The differences are mainly due to a distinct increase in winter precipitation for ECHAM5. Simulated changes of the all-season hydrological conditions, e.g. the sublimation-to-precipitation ratio, were ambiguous due to diverse precipitation patterns derived by the global circulation models.

  16. Experiments On Sublimating Carbon Dioxide Ice And Implications For Contemporary Surface Processes On Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Keown, L E; Bourke, M C; McElwaine, J N

    2017-10-27

    Carbon dioxide is Mars' primary atmospheric constituent and is an active driver of Martian surface evolution. CO 2 ice sublimation mechanisms have been proposed for a host of features that form in the contemporary Martian climate. However, there has been very little experimental work or quantitative modelling to test the validity of these hypotheses. Here we present the results of the first laboratory experiments undertaken to investigate if the interaction between sublimating CO 2 ice blocks and a warm, porous, mobile regolith can generate features similar in morphology to those forming on Martian dunes today. We find that CO 2 sublimation can mobilise grains to form (i) pits and (ii) furrows. We have documented new detached pits at the termini of linear gullies on Martian dunes. Based on their geomorphic similarity to the features observed in our laboratory experiments, and on scaling arguments, we propose a new hypothesis that detached pits are formed by the impact of granular jets generated by sublimating CO 2 . We also study the erosion patterns formed underneath a sublimating block of CO 2 ice and demonstrate that these resemble furrow patterns on Mars, suggesting similar formation mechanisms.

  17. Blowing snow sublimation and transport over Antarctica from 11 years of CALIPSO observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Palm

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Blowing snow processes commonly occur over the earth's ice sheets when the 10 m wind speed exceeds a threshold value. These processes play a key role in the sublimation and redistribution of snow thereby influencing the surface mass balance. Prior field studies and modeling results have shown the importance of blowing snow sublimation and transport on the surface mass budget and hydrological cycle of high-latitude regions. For the first time, we present continent-wide estimates of blowing snow sublimation and transport over Antarctica for the period 2006–2016 based on direct observation of blowing snow events. We use an improved version of the blowing snow detection algorithm developed for previous work that uses atmospheric backscatter measurements obtained from the CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization lidar aboard the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation satellite. The blowing snow events identified by CALIPSO and meteorological fields from MERRA-2 are used to compute the blowing snow sublimation and transport rates. Our results show that maximum sublimation occurs along and slightly inland of the coastline. This is contrary to the observed maximum blowing snow frequency which occurs over the interior. The associated temperature and moisture reanalysis fields likely contribute to the spatial distribution of the maximum sublimation values. However, the spatial pattern of the sublimation rate over Antarctica is consistent with modeling studies and precipitation estimates. Overall, our results show that the 2006–2016 Antarctica average integrated blowing snow sublimation is about 393 ± 196 Gt yr−1, which is considerably larger than previous model-derived estimates. We find maximum blowing snow transport amount of 5 Mt km−1 yr−1 over parts of East Antarctica and estimate that the average snow transport from continent to ocean is about 3.7 Gt yr−1. These

  18. Vacuum sublimation of interaction products of neodymium and erbium dipivaloyl methanates with pivalic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Z.A.; Kuz'mina, N.P.; Martynenko, L.I.

    1993-01-01

    Processes taking place during vacuum sublimation of solid complexes of individual rare earths prepared in the systems MDpm 3 -nHPiv-hexane (M = Nd, Er, HDpm - dipivaloylmethane, HPiv - pivalic acid, n = 1, 2, 3) were studied. It is pointed out that at n = 1 in the systems considered mixed ligand complexes of the composition ErDpm 3 · HPiv and NdDpm 2 Piv are formed which disproportionate at different temperatures when heated in vacuum. It is revealed that the processes of the complexes disproportionation can be used to increase the efficiency of sublimation methods of neodymium and erbium dipivaloylmethanates mixture separation. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  19. Determination of vapor pressures, enthalpies of sublimation, and enthalpies of fusion of benzenetriols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verevkin, Sergey P.; Schick, Christoph

    2004-01-01

    Molar enthalpies of sublimation of 1,2,4-, 1,2,3-, and 1,3,5-tri-hydroxy-benzene, were obtained from the temperature dependence of the vapor pressure measured by the transpiration method. The molar enthalpies of fusion and molar heat capacities of these compounds were measured by DSC. The measured data sets of vaporization, sublimation and fusion enthalpies were checked for internal consistency. Strength of the inter- and intra-molecular hydrogen bonding in di- and tri-hydroxy-benzenes have been assessed

  20. How to Kill a Journalism School: The Digital Sublime in the Discourse of Discontinuance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Michael; Sindorf, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    The authors argue that journalism's uncertain identity in academia has made it vulnerable to unreflective instrumentalism in the digital era. They show how instrumentalism intertwined with the digital sublime constitutes a rhetorically resonate rationale for closing a journalism school. Evidence comes from documents and testimony associated with…

  1. A re-determination and re-assessment of the thermodynamics of sublimation of uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, R.J.; Rauh, E.G.; Rand, M.H.

    1980-01-01

    New mass-spectrometric measurements on the ion-intensity of UO 2 + over urania from 1813 to 2463 K are reported. Although the mean value for the enthalpy of sublimation calculated from these measurements is close to previous values, a detailed examination of the results indicates that there is an appreciable curvature in the log p versus reciprocal-temperature curve for the process: UO 2 (s)→UO 2 (g). This is attributed to a large negative ΔCsub(p) for the sublimation reaction, arising from the sharp increase in Csub(p) (UO 2 (s)) above approximately 1750 K. A thorough re-assessment of the previous studies on the sublimation of urania suggests an 'international' average value of psub(UO 2 )=(1.3+-0.1)x10 -6 atm at 2150 K; Knudsen effusion measurements above 2450 K (p>1x10 -4 atm) are thought to be in error due to departures from molecular flow. Thermal functions for UO 2 (g) have been calculated, assuming a linear molecule and electronic contributions to the partition function based on those of ThO(g). Anharmonicity corrections have been included. When these functions are combined with the thermal functions for UO 2 (s), recently assessed, the third law heat of sublimation at 298.15 K becomes 147.8 kcal.mol -1 with a trend of only 0.2 kcal.mol -1 across the temperature range 1800 to 2400 K. (author)

  2. Structure-property relationships in halogenbenzoic acids: Thermodynamics of sublimation, fusion, vaporization and solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zherikova, Kseniya V; Svetlov, Aleksey A; Kuratieva, Natalia V; Verevkin, Sergey P

    2016-10-01

    Temperature dependences of vapor pressures for 2-, 3-, and 4-bromobenzoic acid, as well as for five isomeric bromo-methylbenzoic acids were studied by the transpiration method. Melting temperatures and enthalpies of fusion for all isomeric bromo-methylbenzoic acids and 4-bromobenzoic acid were measured with a DSC. The molar enthalpies of sublimation and vaporization were derived. These data together with results available in the literature were collected and checked for internal consistency using a group-additivity procedure and results from X-ray structural diffraction studies. Specific (hydrogen bonding) interactions in the liquid and in the crystal phase of halogenbenzoic acids were quantified based on experimental values of vaporization and sublimation enthalpies. Structure-property correlations of solubilities of halogenobenzoic acids with sublimation pressures and sublimation enthalpies were developed and solubilities of bromo-benzoic acids were estimated. These new results resolve much of the ambiguity in the available thermochemical and solubility data on bromobenzoic acids. The approach based on structure property correlations can be applied for the assessment of water solubility of sparingly soluble drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Application of ion beam analysis to the selective sublimation processing of thin films for gas sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vomiero, A.; Scian, C.; Della Mea, G.; Guidi, V.; Martinelli, G.; Schiffrer, G.; Comini, E.; Ferroni, M.; Sberveglieri, G.

    2006-01-01

    Ion beam analysis was successfully applied to a novel technique, named selective sublimation process (SSP), for deposition of nanostructured gas-sensing films through reactive sputtering. The method consists of the co-deposition of a mixed oxide, one of which has a relatively low sublimation temperature. Annealing at suitable temperature causes the sublimation of the most volatile compound, leaving a layer with adjustable composition. The appropriate choice of thermal treatments and the consequent tailoring of the composition play a crucial role in the determination of the microstructural properties. We developed a model based on diffusion equations that provides a useful guide to control the deposition and processing parameters and we applied the model on the systems TiO 2 -WO 3 and TiO 2 -MoO 3 . Rutherford backscattering (RBS) was demonstrated to be effective for the characterization of the diffusion and sublimation processes during SSP. Experimental results fully agree with theoretical prediction, and allowed the calculation of all the parameters involved in SSP

  4. Glacier mass balance reconstruction by sublimation induced enrichment of chemical species on Cerro Tapado (Chilean Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ginot

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A 36 m long ice core down to bedrock from the Cerro Tapado glacier (5536 m a.s.l, 30°08' S, 69°55' W was analyzed to reconstruct past climatic conditions for Northern Chile. Because of the marked seasonality in the precipitation (short wet winter and extended dry summer periods in this region, major snow ablation and related post-depositional processes occur on the glacier surface during summer periods. They include predominantly sublimation and dry deposition. Assuming that, like measured during the field campaign, the enrichment of chloride was always related to sublimation, the chemical record along the ice core may be applied to reconstruct the history of such secondary processes linked to the past climatic conditions over northern Chile. For the time period 1962–1999, a mean annual net accumulation of 316 mm water equivalent (weq and 327 mm weq loss by sublimation was deduced by this method. This corresponds to an initial total annual accumulation of 539 mm weq. The annual variability of the accumulation and sublimation is related with the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI: higher net-accumulation during El-Niño years and more sublimation during La Niña years. The deepest part of the ice record shows a time discontinuity; with an ice body deposited under different climatic conditions: 290 mm higher precipitation but with reduced seasonal distribution (+470 mm in winter and –180 mm in summer and –3°C lower mean annual temperature. Unfortunately, its age is unknown. The comparison with regional proxy data however let us conclude that the glacier buildup did most likely occur after the dry mid-Holocene.

  5. Snowmelt and sublimation: field experiments and modelling in the High Atlas Mountains of Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Schulz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Snow in the High Atlas Mountains is a major source for freshwater renewal and for water availability in the semi-arid lowlands of south-eastern Morocco. Snowfall- and snow-ablation monitoring and modelling is important for estimating potential water delivery from the mountain water towers to the forelands. This study is part of GLOWA-IMPETUS, an integrated management project dealing with scarce water resources in West Africa. The Ameskar study area is located to the south of the High Atlas Mountains, in their rain shadow. As a part of the M’Goun river basin within the upper Drâa valley, the study area is characterised by high radiation inputs, low atmospheric humidity and long periods with sub-zero temperatures. Its altitude ranges between 2000 m and 4000 m, with dominant north- and south-facing slopes. Snowfall occurs mainly from November to April but even summit regions can become repeatedly devoid of snow cover. Snow cover maps for the M’Goun basin (1240 km2 are derived from calculations of NDSI (Normalized Difference Snow Index from MODIS satellite images and snow depth is monitored at four automatic weather stations between 2000–4000 m. Snowfall events are infrequent at lower altitudes. The presence of snow penitentes at altitudes above 3000 m indicates that snow sublimation is an important component of snow ablation. Snow ablation was modelled with the UEB Utah Energy Balance Model (Tarboton and Luce, 1996. This single layer, physically-based, point energy and mass balance model is driven by meteorological variables recorded at the automatic weather stations at Tounza (2960 m and Tichki (3260 m. Data from snow pillows at Tounza and Tichki are used to validate the model’s physical performance in terms of energy and water balances for a sequence of two snowfall events in the winter of 2003/4. First UEB modelling results show good overall performance and timing of snowmelt and sublimation compared to field investigations. Up to 44

  6. "Back-fire to lust": G. Stanley Hall, sex-segregated schooling, and the engine of sublimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graebner, William

    2006-08-01

    G. Stanley Hall was an advocate of sex-segregated schooling long after most Americans had accepted coeducation. His position was based in part on personal experience: observations of his father and mother, a repressed and guilt-ridden boyhood sexuality, and his conviction that his own career success was a product of sublimated sexual desire, of erotic energy converted into mental energy. Hall theorized that coeducation put sublimation at risk, and that sex-segregated schools, by contributing to proper gendered development and by prolonging and sublimating the sexual tensions of adolescence, would produce social progress.

  7. Orbital Evolution of Dust Particles in the Sublimation Zone near the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shestakova, L. I.; Demchenko, B. I.

    2018-03-01

    We have performed the calculations of the orbital evolution of dust particles from volcanic glass ( p-obsidian), basalt, astrosilicate, olivine, and pyroxene in the sublimation zone near the Sun. The sublimation (evaporation) rate is determined by the temperature of dust particles depending on their radius, material, and distance to the Sun. All practically important parameters that characterize the interaction of spherical dust particles with the radiation are calculated using the Mie theory. The influence of radiation and solar wind pressure, as well as the Poynting-Robertson drag force effects on the dust dynamics, are also taken into account. According to the observations (Shestakova and Demchenko, 2016), the boundary of the dust-free zone is 7.0-7.6 solar radii for standard particles of the zodiacal cloud and 9.1-9.2 solar radii for cometary particles. The closest agreement is obtained for basalt particles and certain kinds of olivine, pyroxene, and volcanic glass.

  8. Concurrent freezing and sublimation of a liquid-saturated porous slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidyanathan, N.; Shamsundar, N.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper analytical models are formulated for describing heat and mass transport during concurrent freezing and sublimation of a one-dimensional liquid-saturated porous slab. The models are based on transient heat transfer in the frozen and wet regions, and quasi-steady heat and mass transfer in the dried region. The enthalpy method in conjunction with a fully implicit finite-difference scheme is employed to obtain the solution in the frozen and wet regions. A quasi-steady solution is used in the dried region. The governing equations are nondimensionalized and parametric studies are performed. The results indicate that the Luikov number, the ambient vapor pressure, and the heat transfer Biot number are important parameters. The results also confirm that the sublimation interface temperature may show significant variations, in contrast to earlier studies in which it was assumed constant

  9. Poetiche del sublime. Il Coro di morti dalle Operette morali a Goffredo Petrassi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Vito Distefano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In un autore come Leopardi, incline al serio in misura apparentemente esclusiva e poco votato all’arte drammatica, è tuttavia in un piccolo capolavoro tragicomico che possono individuarsi le prime tracce di una moderna estetica del sublime. L’articolo propone innanzitutto una lettura in chiave metapoetica del Coro di morti, volta ad osservare la salda convergenza che nella scrittura leopardiana lega reciporcamente gli avanzamenti del pensiero – la verità di una condizione umana irresolubilmente e incomprensibilmente priva della felicità – e gli sviluppi attinenti al piano formale e a quello della riflessione filosofico-estetica – con la messa in discussione tanto della classicistica estetica della mimesis, quanto di quella romantica del sentimentale. Infine, nella seconda parte, il paradigma estetico del sublime fornirà i termini entro i quali tracciare una ricostruzione del procedimento adattivo che lega all’originale leopardiano la trasposizione musicale realizzata nel 1941 da Goffredo Petrassi.

  10. Standard molar enthalpies of formation and of sublimation of the terphenyl isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.; Santos, Luis M.N.B.F.; Lima, Luis M. Spencer S.

    2008-01-01

    The standard (p 0 = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation in the crystalline phases of ortho, meta and para-terphenyl isomers, at T = 298.15 K, were derived from the standard molar energies of combustion, measured by mini-bomb combustion calorimetry. The Knudsen mass-loss effusion technique was used to measure the dependence of the vapour pressure of the crystals with the temperature, thus deriving their standard molar enthalpies of sublimation by means of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Combining the standard molar enthalpies of formation and sublimation of the crystalline terphenyls, the standard molar enthalpies of formation in the gaseous state, at T = 298.15 K, were derived for the three isomers. Results are provided in a table. The results show small but detectable isomerization enthalpies between the terphenyls, indicating the following relative enthalpic stabilities: m- > p- ∼ o-terphenyl

  11. Thermodynamic study of sublimation, melting and vaporization of scandium(III) dipivaloylmethanate derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zherikova, Kseniya V.; Zelenina, Ludmila N.; Chusova, Tamara P.; Gelfond, Nikolay V.; Morozova, Natalia B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal properties of two volatile fluorinated Sc(III) beta-diketonates were studied. • Saturated and unsaturated vapor pressures were measured. • DSC analysis was carried out. • Sublimation, evaporation and melting enthalpies and entropies were derived. • Effect of fluorine introduction on volatility and thermal stability was established. - Abstract: The present work deals with the investigation of thermal properties of two volatile scandium(III) beta-diketonates with 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-fluoro-3,5-heptanedione and 1,1,1-trifluoro-5,5-dimethyl-2,4-hexanedione which have been synthesized and purified. Using the static method with glass membrane gauge-manometer the temperature dependencies of saturated and unsaturated vapor pressure were measured for the first time. The temperatures and enthalpies of melting were measured for these compounds by differential scanning calorimetry. The standard thermodynamic characteristics of enthalpy and entropy for sublimation, vaporization and melting processes were derived.

  12. Titanium sublimation pumping systems and performances on the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pico, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a brief history of the TMX-U Titanium Sublimation Pumping process (gettering). Titanium sublimation pumps offer an economical means of pumping chemically active gases (especially hydrogen) at high speeds, and serves as additional pumps, along with liquid nitrogen-cooled panels, to provide pumping during each physics experiment. Because of the size of the system, a complex computer program was written which is run-time compiled, and then run by the computer. With the multi-tasking capability of the computer, five programs are used in operation and run simultaneously. All getter wire history, deposition, and system notes are stored on the external disc drive. The progress and performance in the four years the system has been used, two year manually controlled, and two computer controlled with be covered. Emphasis on the computer control system and its by-products, which enhance the operation of the TMX-U, will be the subject of this paper

  13. Practical sublimation source for large-scale chromium gettering in fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpkins, J E; Gabbard, W A; Emerson, L C; Mioduszewski, P K [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1984-05-01

    This paper describe the fabrication and testing of a large-scale chromium sublimation source that resembles the VARIAN Ti-ballsup(TM) in its design. The device consists of a hollow chromium sphere with a diameter of approximately 3 cm and an incandescent filament for radiation heating from inside the ball. We also discuss the gettering technique utilizing this source. The experimental arrangement consists of an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) system instrumented for total and partial pressure measurements, a film thickness monitor, thermocouples, an optical pyrometer, and appropriate instrumentation to measure the heating power. The results show the temperature and corresponding sublimation rate of the Cr-ball as functions of input power. In addition, an example of the total pumping speed of a gettered surface is shown.

  14. A practical sublimation source for large-scale chromium gettering in fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpkins, J.E.; Gabbard, W.A.; Emerson, L.C.; Mioduszewski, P.K.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describe the fabrication and testing of a large-scale chromium sublimation source that resembles the VARIAN Ti-ballsup(TM) in its design. The device consists of a hollow chromium sphere with a diameter of approximately 3 cm and an incandescent filament for radiation heating from inside the ball. We also discuss the gettering technique utilizing this source. The experimental arrangement consists of an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) system instrumented for total and partial pressure measurements, a film thickness monitor, thermocouples, an optical pyrometer, and appropriate instrumentation to measure the heating power. The results show the temperature and corresponding sublimation rate of the Cr-ball as functions of input power. In addition, an example of the total pumping speed of a gettered surface is shown. (orig.)

  15. Practical sublimation source for large-scale chromium gettering in fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpkins, J.E.; Emerson, L.C.; Mioduszewski, P.K.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the technique of chromium gettering with a large-scale sublimation source which resembles in its design the VARIAN Ti-Ball. It consists of a hollow chromium sphere with a diameter of approximately 3 cm and an incandescent filament for radiation heating from inside the ball. While the fabrication of the source is described in a companion paper, we discuss here the gettering technique. The experimental arrangement consists of an UHV system instrumented for total- and partial-pressure measurements, a film-thickness monitor, thermocouples, an optical pyrometer, and appropriate instrumentation to measure the heating power. The results show the temperature and corresponding sublimation rate of the Cr-Ball as function of input power. In addition, an example of the total pumping speed of a gettered surface is shown

  16. Spectroscopy of lithium atoms sublimated from isolation matrix of solid Ne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacramento, R L; Scudeller, L A; Lambo, R; Crivelli, P; Cesar, C L

    2011-10-07

    We have studied, via laser absorption spectroscopy, the velocity distribution of (7)Li atoms released from a solid neon matrix at cryogenic temperatures. The Li atoms are implanted into the Ne matrix by laser ablation of a solid Li precursor. A heat pulse is then applied to the sapphire substrate sublimating the matrix together with the isolated atoms at around 12 K. We find interesting differences in the velocity distribution of the released Li atoms from the model developed for our previous experiment with Cr [R. Lambo, C. C. Rodegheri, D. M. Silveira, and C. L. Cesar, Phys. Rev. A 76, 061401(R) (2007)]. This may be due to the sublimation regime, which is at much lower flux for the Li experiment than for the Cr experiment, as well as to the different collisional cross sections between those species to the Ne gas. We find a drift velocity compatible with Li being thermally sublimated at 11-13 K, while the velocity dispersion around this drift velocity is low, around 5-7 K. With a slow sublimation of the matrix we can determine the penetration depth of the laser ablated Li atoms into the Ne matrix, an important information that is not usually available in most matrix isolation spectroscopy setups. The present results with Li, together with the previous results with Cr suggest this to be a general technique for obtaining cryogenic atoms, for spectroscopic studies, as well as for trap loading. The release of the isolated atoms is also a useful tool to study and confirm details of the matrix isolated atoms which are masked or poorly understood in the solid. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  17. New Perspectives on Blowing Snow Transport, Sublimation, and Layer Thermodynamic Structure over Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Steve; Kayetha, Vinay; Yang, Yuekui; Pauly, Rebecca M.

    2017-01-01

    Blowing snow over Antarctica is a widespread and frequent event. Satellite remote sensing using lidar has shown that blowing snow occurs over 70% of the time over large areas of Antarctica in winter. The transport and sublimation of blowing snow are important terms in the ice sheet mass balance equation and the latter is also an important part of the hydrological cycle. Until now the only way to estimate the magnitude of these processes was through model parameterization. We present a technique that uses direct satellite observations of blowing snow and model (MERRA-2) temperature and humidity fields to compute both transport and sublimation of blowing snow over Antarctica for the period 2006 to 2016. The results show a larger annual continent-wide integrated sublimation than current published estimates and a significant transport of snow from continent to ocean. The talk will also include the lidar backscatter structure of blowing snow layers that often reach heights of 200 to 300 m as well as the first dropsonde measurements of temperature, moisture and wind through blowing snow layers.

  18. Vapor pressures and sublimation enthalpies of seven heteroatomic aromatic hydrocarbons measured using the Knudsen effusion technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfarb, Jillian L.; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2010-01-01

    The vapor pressures of seven heteroatom-containing cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, ranging in molecular weight from (168.19 to 208.21) g . mol -1 were measured over the temperature range of (301 to 486) K using the isothermal Knudsen effusion technique. The compounds measured include: anthraquinone, 9-fluorenone, 9-fluorenone oxime, phenoxazine, phenoxathiin, and 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole. These solid-state sublimation measurements provided values that are compared to vapor pressures of parent aromatic compounds (anthracene and fluorene) and to others with substituent groups in order to examine the effects of alcohol, ketone, pyridine, and pyrrole functionality on this property. The enthalpies and entropies of sublimation for each compound were determined from the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Though there is no consistent trend in terms of the effects of substitutions on changes in the enthalpy or entropy of sublimation, we note that the prevalence of enthalpic or entropic driving forces on vapor pressure depend on molecule-specific factors and not merely molecular weight of the substituents.

  19. Vapor pressures and sublimation enthalpies of seven heteroatomic aromatic hydrocarbons measured using the Knudsen effusion technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldfarb, Jillian L., E-mail: JillianLGoldfarb@gmail.co [Division of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Suuberg, Eric M., E-mail: Eric_Suuberg@brown.ed [Division of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    The vapor pressures of seven heteroatom-containing cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, ranging in molecular weight from (168.19 to 208.21) g . mol{sup -1} were measured over the temperature range of (301 to 486) K using the isothermal Knudsen effusion technique. The compounds measured include: anthraquinone, 9-fluorenone, 9-fluorenone oxime, phenoxazine, phenoxathiin, and 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole. These solid-state sublimation measurements provided values that are compared to vapor pressures of parent aromatic compounds (anthracene and fluorene) and to others with substituent groups in order to examine the effects of alcohol, ketone, pyridine, and pyrrole functionality on this property. The enthalpies and entropies of sublimation for each compound were determined from the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Though there is no consistent trend in terms of the effects of substitutions on changes in the enthalpy or entropy of sublimation, we note that the prevalence of enthalpic or entropic driving forces on vapor pressure depend on molecule-specific factors and not merely molecular weight of the substituents.

  20. A analítica kantiana do sublime em Friedrich Schiller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Bispo dos Santos Neto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available O nosso texto tem como propósito apontar a articulação existente entre a estética kantiana, expressa na sua obra basilar Crítica da faculdade do juízo, e a reflexão estética constituída por Friedrich Schiller mediante a sua noção de sublime. Embora Schiller se inscreva sob o signo da influência da terceira Crítica, vamos mostrar na tessitura deste texto como consegue libertar-se da influência kantiana, ao recusar a centralidade do juízo de gosto na definição do belo e afirmar a beleza (puchritudo como liberdade no fenômeno. Schiller não se limita à investigação do sublime no âmbito da beleza livre (natureza, mas investiga-a especialmente no campo da beleza aderente. Embora o próprio Kant tenha atribuído ao gosto o significado de uma transição do prazer dos sentidos à disposição moral, será Schiller quem radicalizará o propósito de uma educação moral do homem pela mediação do sublime e do patético na arte.

  1. Application of a Kalman filter to UF6 gaseous diffusion plant freezer/sublimer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruppel, F.R.

    1992-03-01

    A signal is required to control the flow of UF 6 in gaseous diffusion plant freezer/sublimer systems. The original strategy envisioned for deriving a flow signal was to take the derivative of the freezer/sublimer weigh cell signal. However, the derivative of the digitized weight signal is noisy, preventing good control. In addition, a bias is introduced into the weight derivative signal because a refrigerant is circulated through a shell-and-tube heat exchanger inside the freezer/sublimer. The weight of the refrigerant is included in the weight measured by the weigh cell. If the circulation rate of the refrigerent is not steady state, a bias exists. Measurements of upstream pressure, vessel pressure, and output to the system control valve are available to the control system. Thus, if the flow through the control valve is characterized properly by the measurements, a Kalman filter can be used in conjunction with these auxiliary inputs and the weigh cell input to overcome the noise and bias problem and provide an improve estimate of flow rate. A discussion of the development and the current status of a Kalman filter used for this application is given. 5 refs

  2. GROTESQUE ENCOUNTERS: READING SHAKESPEARE’S THE MERCHANT OF VENICE ALONG THE PRINCIPLES OF THE SUBLIME, BEAUTIFUL AND GROTESQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Bartha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to apply the basic principles of the aesthetic discourse on the sublime, beautiful and grotesque to William Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice. Even though it is a discourse that only begins in the course of the eighteenth century, I will argue that the structure of the play parallels the model of the traditional sublime, as it deals with a subject-object binary and meditates on the relationship between the material (body and the transcendental (mind. However, the play is also rich in disruptive — or grotesque — forces that unsettle this binary structure. The parallels between the play and the aesthetic discourse could not only help our understanding of postmodern criticism and rewriting of the sublime, but the sublime can also, in turn, shed light on the reception of the play.

  3. Shades of Grey: The Role of the Sublime in the Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Wilson Baptist

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As a ‘post-disaster’ landscape, the Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe does, arguably, occupy ground where the mass extermination of the Jewish people of Europe was masterminded, but it is not physically a site of death. Commonly, memorial landscapes are erected upon the location where violence, tragedy and disaster have occurred. Divorced from the diasporic dead it seeks to honour, the memorial employs spatial form, the surrounding atmosphere and human memory to potentialise a sublime experience for visitors. The sublime plays an essential role in memorial landscapes because sublime experiences are heightened, unforgettable and enduring. This reduces the possibility that visitors will depart the memorial unscathed, leaving the monument to bear the burden of memory. While a sublime experience can be optimised, it cannot be given, thus, the onus of remembering the Holocaust remains our responsibility.

  4. Preparation, structural and luminescent properties of nanocrystalline ZnO films doped Ag by close space sublimation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomchenko, Viktoriya; Mazin, Mikhail; Sopinskyy, Mykola; Lytvyn, Oksana; Dan'ko, Viktor; Piryatinskii, Yurii; Demydiuk, Pavlo

    2018-05-01

    The simple way for silver doping of ZnO films is presented. The ZnO films were prepared by reactive rf-magnetron sputtering on silicon and sapphire substrates. Ag doping is carried out by sublimation of the Ag source located at close space at atmospheric pressure in air. Then the ZnO and ZnO-Ag films were annealed in wet media. The microstructure and optical properties of the films were compared and studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL). XRD results indicated that all the ZnO films have a polycrystalline hexagonal structure and a preferred orientation with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. The annealing and Ag doping promote increasing grain's sizes and modification of grain size distribution. The effect of substrate temperature, substrate type, Ag doping and post-growth annealing of the films was studied by PL spectroscopy. The effect of Ag doping was obvious and identical for all the films, namely the wide visible bands of PL spectra are suppressed by Ag doping. The intensity of ultraviolet band increased 15 times as compared to their reference films on sapphire substrate. The ultraviolet/visible emission ratio was 20. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) for a 380 nm band was 14 nm, which is comparable with that of epitaxial ZnO. The data implies the high quality of ZnO-Ag films. Possible mechanisms to enhance UV emission are discussed.

  5. Additive scheme for calculation of solvation enthalpies of heterocyclic aromatic compounds. Sublimation/vaporization enthalpy at 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomonov, Boris N.; Nagrimanov, Ruslan N.; Mukhametzyanov, Timur A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Additivity scheme for solvation enthalpies estimation of heteroaromatic compounds was proposed. • Method for determination of vaporization/sublimation enthalpies directly at 298.15 K was developed. • Solution enthalpies of 25 heteroaromatic compounds were measured. • Vaporization/sublimation enthalpies of 44 heteroaromatic compounds were determined. • Obtained values are in good agreement with the results of conventional methods. - Abstract: Hereby we propose a method for determination of vaporization and sublimation enthalpies of heterocyclic and carbonyl-containing aromatic compounds at 298.15 K. According to this method vaporization and sublimation enthalpies at 298.15 K are determined based on enthalpies of solvation and solution. Solvation enthalpies of heteroatomatic and carbonyl-containing compounds are calculated using an additive scheme from the solvation enthalpy of closest aromatic hydrocarbon and contributions related to the exchange of CH-groups of hydrocarbon with corresponding substituent atoms or groups. Measured solution enthalpies together with calculated solvation enthalpies allowed to calculate corresponding vaporization and sublimation enthalpies at 298.15 K for a large number of heterocyclic and carbonyl-containing compounds. We have also found that in a number of cases instead of solution enthalpy in benzene at 298.15 K fusion enthalpy at the melting temperature can be used. Comparison between literature data and calculated vaporization and sublimation enthalpies demonstrates satisfactory performance of the proposed method.

  6. Additive scheme for calculation of solvation enthalpies of heterocyclic aromatic compounds. Sublimation/vaporization enthalpy at 298.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomonov, Boris N., E-mail: boris.solomonov@kpfu.ru; Nagrimanov, Ruslan N.; Mukhametzyanov, Timur A.

    2016-06-10

    Highlights: • Additivity scheme for solvation enthalpies estimation of heteroaromatic compounds was proposed. • Method for determination of vaporization/sublimation enthalpies directly at 298.15 K was developed. • Solution enthalpies of 25 heteroaromatic compounds were measured. • Vaporization/sublimation enthalpies of 44 heteroaromatic compounds were determined. • Obtained values are in good agreement with the results of conventional methods. - Abstract: Hereby we propose a method for determination of vaporization and sublimation enthalpies of heterocyclic and carbonyl-containing aromatic compounds at 298.15 K. According to this method vaporization and sublimation enthalpies at 298.15 K are determined based on enthalpies of solvation and solution. Solvation enthalpies of heteroatomatic and carbonyl-containing compounds are calculated using an additive scheme from the solvation enthalpy of closest aromatic hydrocarbon and contributions related to the exchange of CH-groups of hydrocarbon with corresponding substituent atoms or groups. Measured solution enthalpies together with calculated solvation enthalpies allowed to calculate corresponding vaporization and sublimation enthalpies at 298.15 K for a large number of heterocyclic and carbonyl-containing compounds. We have also found that in a number of cases instead of solution enthalpy in benzene at 298.15 K fusion enthalpy at the melting temperature can be used. Comparison between literature data and calculated vaporization and sublimation enthalpies demonstrates satisfactory performance of the proposed method.

  7. Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; George A. Schier

    1985-01-01

    This chapter considers aspen growth as a process, and discusses some characteristics of the growth and development of trees and stands. For the most part, factors affecting growth are discussed elsewhere, particularly in the GENETICS AND VARIATION chapter and in chapters in PART 11. ECOLOGY. Aspen growth as it relates to wood production is examined in the WOOD RESOURCE...

  8. Time Variability of the Dust Sublimation Zones in Pre-Main Sequence Disk Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitko, Michael L.; Carpenter, W. J.; Grady, C. A.; Russel, R. W.; Lynch, D. K.; Rudy, R. J.; Mazuk, S. M.; Venturini, C. C.; Kimes, R. L.; Beerman, L. C.; hide

    2007-01-01

    The dust sublimation zone (DSZ) is the region of pre-main sequence (PMS) disks where dust grains most easily anneal, sublime, and condense out of the gas. Because of this, it is a location where crystalline material may be enhanced and redistributed throughout the rest of the disk. A decade-long program to monitor the thermal emission of the grains located in this region demonstrates that large changes in emitted flux occur in many systems. Changes in the thermal emission between 3 and 13.5 microns were observed in HD 31648 (MWC 480), HD 163296 (MWC 275), and DG Tau. This emission is consistent with it being produced at the DSZ, where the transition from a disk of gas to one of gas+dust occurs. In the case of DG Tau, the outbursts were accompanied by increased emission on the 10 micron silicate band on one occasion, while on another occasion it went into absorption. This requires lofting of the material above the disk into the line of sight. Such changes will affect the determination of the inner disk structure obtained through interferometry measurements, and this has been confirmed in the case of HD 163296. Cyclic variations in the heating of the DSZ will lead to the annealing of large grains, the sublimation of smaller grains, possibly followed by re-condensation as the zone enters a cooling phase. Lofting of dust above the disk plane, and outward acceleration by stellar winds and radiation pressure, can re-distribute the processed material to cooler regions of the disk, where cometesimals form. This processing is consistent with the detection of the preferential concentration of large crystalline grains in the inner few AU of PMS disks using interferometric spectroscopy with the VLTI.

  9. Wasting the Future: The Technological Sublime, Communications Technologies, and E-waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebine Label

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Literally speaking, e-waste is the future of communications. E-waste is the fastest growing waste stream in the world, much of it communications technologies from cell phones to laptops, televisions to peripherals. As a result of policies of planned obsolescence working computers, cell phones, and tablets are routinely trashed. One of the most powerful and enduring discourses associated with emerging technologies is the technological sublime, in which technology is seen as intellectually, emotionally, or spiritually transcendent. It comprises a contradictory impulse that elevates technology with an almost religious fervor, while simultaneously overlooking some of the consequences of industrialism, as well as ignoring the necessity of social, economic, and governmental infrastructures necessary to the implementation and development of new technologies. The idea that a new technology will not pollute or harm the environment is a persistent, though often quickly passed over, theme in the technological sublime, echoed in discourses about emerging technologies such as the silicon chip, the internet, and other ICTs. In this paper, I make connections between the discourse of newness, the practice of planned obsolescence, and the mountains of trashed components and devices globally. Considering the global context demonstrates the realities of the penetration of ICTs and their enduring pollution and negative implications for the health of humans and nonhumans, including plants, animals, waterways, soil, air and so on. I use the discourse of the technological sublime to open up and consider the future of communications, to argue that this discourse not only stays with us but also contains within it two important and related components, the promise of ecological harmony and a future orientation. I argue that these lingering elements keep us from considering the real future of communications – e-waste – and that, as communications scholars, we must also

  10. Measuring Enthalpy of Sublimation of Volatiles by Means of Piezoelectric Crystal Microbalances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirri, Fabrizio; Palomba, Ernesto; Longobardo, Andrea; Zampetti, Emiliano

    2017-12-01

    Piezoelectric Crystal Microbalances (PCM's) are widely used to study the chemical processes involving volatile compounds in any environment, such as condensation process. Since PCM's are miniaturized sensor, they are very suitable for planetary in situ missions, where can be used to detect and to measure the mass amount of astrobiologically significant compounds, such as water and organics. This work focuses on the realization and testing of a new experimental setup, able to characterize volatiles which can be found in a planetary environment. In particular the enthalpy of sublimation of some dicarboxylic acids has been measured. The importance of dicarboxylic acids in planetology and astrobiology is due to the fact that they have been detected in carbonaceous chondritic material (e.g. Murchinson), among the most pristine material present in our Solar System. In this work, a sample of acid was heated in an effusion cell up to its sublimation. For a set of temperatures (from 30 °C to 75 °C), the deposition rate on the PCM surface has been measured. From these measurements, it has been possible to infer the enthalpy of sublimation of Adipic acid, i.e. ΔH = 141.6 ± 0.8 kJ/mol and Succinic acid, i.e. ΔH = 113.3 ± 1.3 kJ/mol. This technique has so demonstrated to be a good choice to recognise a single compound or a mixture (with an analysis upstream) even if some improvements concerning the thermal stabilization of the system will be implemented in order to enhance the results' accuracy. The experiment has been performed in support of the VISTA (Volatile In Situ Thermogravimetry Analyzer) project, which is included in the scientific payload of the ESA MarcoPolo-R mission study.

  11. Piezoelectric crystal microbalance measurements of enthalpy of sublimation of C2-C9 dicarboxylic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirri, F.; Palomba, E.; Longobardo, A.; Zampetti, E.

    2016-02-01

    We present here a novel experimental set-up that is able to measure the enthalpy of sublimation of a given compound by means of piezoelectric crystal microbalances (PCMs). The PCM sensors have already been used for space measurements, such as for the detection of organic and non-organic volatile species and refractory materials in planetary environments. In Earth atmospherics applications, PCMs can be also used to obtain some physical-chemical processes concerning the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in atmospheric environments. The experimental set-up has been developed and tested on dicarboxylic acids. In this work, a temperature-controlled effusion cell was used to sublimate VOC, creating a molecular flux that was collimated onto a cold PCM. The VOC recondensed onto the PCM quartz crystal, allowing the determination of the deposition rate. From the measurements of deposition rates, it has been possible to infer the enthalpy of sublimation of adipic acid, i.e. ΔHsub : 141.6 ± 0.8 kJ mol-1, succinic acid, i.e. 113.3 ± 1.3 kJ mol-1, oxalic acid, i.e. 62.5 ± 3.1 kJ mol-1, and azelaic acid, i.e. 124.2 ± 1.2 kJ mol-1. The results obtained show an accuracy of 1 % for succinic, adipic, and azelaic acid and within 5 % for oxalic acid and are in very good agreement with previous works (within 6 % for adipic, succinic, and oxalic acid and within 11 % or larger for azelaic acid).

  12. Sublimation and thermal decomposition of ammonia borane: Competitive processes controlled by pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondrat’ev, Yu.V.; Butlak, A.V.; Kazakov, I.V.; Timoshkin, A.Y., E-mail: a.y.timoshkin@spbu.edu

    2015-12-20

    Highlights: • We measured sublimation enthalpy of ammonia borane at 357 K by drop-calorimetry. • We determined activation energy for ammonia borane decomposition by tensimetry. • At 357 K decomposition and sublimation are competitive and depend on the pressure. • We propose new values for the Δ{sub f}H° of solid ammonia borane and polyamidoborane. - Abstract: Thermal behavior of ammonia borane BH{sub 3}NH{sub 3} (AB) has been studied by calorimetry, tensimetry and mass spectrometry methods. It is shown, that depending on vapor pressure in the system two competitive processes are taking place at 357 K. At atmospheric pressure thermal decomposition with hydrogen evolution is the dominant process: BH{sub 3}NH{sub 3(s)} = 1/n (BH{sub 2}NH{sub 2}){sub n(s)} + H{sub 2(g)} (1). At low pressures (circa 4 mTorr) the major process is endothermic sublimation of AB: BH{sub 3}NH{sub 3(s)} = BH{sub 3}NH{sub 3(g)} (2). At intermediate pressures both processes occur simultaneously. Enthalpies for the processes (1) and (2) have been determined by drop-calorimetry method: Δ{sub (1)}H{sub 357}° = −24.8 ± 2.3 kJ mol{sup −1} and Δ{sub sub}H{sub 357}°(BH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}) = 76.3 ± 3.0 kJ mol{sup −1}. Solid products after sublimation and decomposition have been characterized by IR and NMR spectroscopy; gaseous forms were studied by mass spectrometry. Activation energy of 94 ± 11 kJ mol{sup −1} for the process (1) in range 327–351 K was determined by static tensimetry method. Based on the analysis of available thermodynamic characteristics, new values for the standard formation enthalpy of solid AB −133.4 ± 5.2 kJ mol{sup −1} and polyamidoborane −156.7 ± 5.8 kJ mol{sup −1} are recommended.

  13. Low-level precipitation sublimation on the coasts of East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazioli, Jacopo; Genthon, Christophe; Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste; Lemonnier, Florentin; Gallée, Hubert; Krinner, Gerhard; Berne, Alexis

    2017-04-01

    The weather of East Antarctica is affected by the peculiar morphology of this large continent and by its isolation from the surroundings. The high-elevation interior of the continent, very dry in absolute terms, originates winds that can reach the coastal areas with very high speed and persistence in time. The absence of topographic barriers and the near-ground temperature inversion allow these density-driven air movements to fall from the continent towards the coasts without excessive interaction and mixing with the atmosphere aloft. Thus, the air remains dry in absolute terms, and very dry in relative terms because of the higher temperatures near the coast and the adiabatic warming due to the descent. The coasts of Antarctica are less isolated and more exposed to incoming moist air masses than the rest of the continent, and precipitation in the form of snowfall more frequently occurs. Through its descent, however, snowfall encounters the layer of dry air coming from the continent and the deficit in humidity can lead to the partial or complete sublimation of the precipitating flux. This phenomenon is named here LPS (Low-level Precipitation Sublimation) and it has been observed by means of ground-based remote sensing instruments (weather radars) and atmospheric radio-sounding balloons records in the framework of the APRES3 campaign (Antarctic Precipitation: REmote Sensing from Surface and Space) in the coastal base of Dumont d' Urville (Terre Adélie), and then examined at the continental scale thanks to numerical weather models. LPS occurs over most of the coastal locations, where the total sublimated snowfall can be a significant percentage of the total snowfall. For example, in Dumont d' Urville the total yearly snowfall at 341 m height is less than 80% of the snowfall at 941 m height (the height of maximum yearly accumulation), and at shorter time scales complete sublimation (i.e. virga) often occurs. At the scale of individual precipitation events, LPS is

  14. Simulation of wind-induced snow transport and sublimation in alpine terrain using a fully coupled snowpack/atmosphere model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vionnet, V.; Martin, E.; Masson, V.; Guyomarc'h, G.; Naaim-Bouvet, F.; Prokop, A.; Durand, Y.; Lac, C.

    2014-03-01

    In alpine regions, wind-induced snow transport strongly influences the spatio-temporal evolution of the snow cover throughout the winter season. To gain understanding on the complex processes that drive the redistribution of snow, a new numerical model is developed. It directly couples the detailed snowpack model Crocus with the atmospheric model Meso-NH. Meso-NH/Crocus simulates snow transport in saltation and in turbulent suspension and includes the sublimation of suspended snow particles. The coupled model is evaluated against data collected around the experimental site of Col du Lac Blanc (2720 m a.s.l., French Alps). First, 1-D simulations show that a detailed representation of the first metres of the atmosphere is required to reproduce strong gradients of blowing snow concentration and compute mass exchange between the snowpack and the atmosphere. Secondly, 3-D simulations of a blowing snow event without concurrent snowfall have been carried out. Results show that the model captures the main structures of atmospheric flow in alpine terrain. However, at 50 m grid spacing, the model reproduces only the patterns of snow erosion and deposition at the ridge scale and misses smaller scale patterns observed by terrestrial laser scanning. When activated, the sublimation of suspended snow particles causes a reduction of deposited snow mass of 5.3% over the calculation domain. Total sublimation (surface + blowing snow) is three times higher than surface sublimation in a simulation neglecting blowing snow sublimation.

  15. An investigation on the mechanism of sublimed DHB matrix on molecular ion yields in SIMS imaging of brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowlatshahi Pour, Masoumeh; Malmberg, Per; Ewing, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    We have characterized the use of sublimation to deposit matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) matrices in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis, i.e. matrix-enhanced SIMS (ME-SIMS), a common surface modification method to enhance sensitivity for larger molecules and to increase the production of intact molecular ions. We use sublimation to apply a thin layer of a conventional MALDI matrix, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB), onto rat brain cerebellum tissue to show how this technique can be used to enhance molecular yields in SIMS while still retaining a lateral resolution around 2 μm and also to investigate the mechanism of this enhancement. The results here illustrate that cholesterol, which is a dominant lipid species in the brain, is decreased on the tissue surface after deposition of matrix, particularly in white matter. The decrease of cholesterol is followed by an increased ion yield of several other lipid species. Depth profiling of the sublimed rat brain reveals that the lipid species are de facto extracted by the DHB matrix and concentrated in the top most layers of the sublimed matrix. This extraction/concentration of lipids directly leads to an increase of higher mass lipid ion yield. It is also possible that the decrease of cholesterol decreases the potential suppression of ion yield caused by cholesterol migration to the tissue surface. This result provides us with significant insights into the possible mechanisms involved when using sublimation to deposit this matrix in ME-SIMS.

  16. Sublimator Driven Coldplate Engineering Development Unit Test Results and Development of Second Generation SDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Ryan A.; Sheth, Rubik B.

    2009-01-01

    The Sublimator Driven Coldplate (SDC) is a unique piece of thermal control hardware that has several advantages over a traditional thermal control scheme. The principal advantage is the possible elimination of a pumped fluid loop, potentially increasing reliability and reducing complexity while saving both mass and power. Furthermore, the Integrated Sublimator Driven Coldplate (ISDC) concept couples a coolant loop with the previously described SDC hardware. This combination allows the SDC to be used as a traditional coldplate during long mission phases. The previously developed SDC technology cannot be used for long mission phases due to the fact that it requires a consumable feedwater for heat rejection. Adding a coolant loop also provides for dissimilar redundancy on the Altair Lander ascent module thermal control system, which is the target application for this technology. Tests were performed on an Engineering Development Unit at NASA s Johnson Space Center to quantify and assess the performance of the SDC. Correlated thermal math models were developed to help explain the test data. The paper also outlines the preliminary results of an ISDC concept being developed.

  17. Experimental and molecular dynamics simulation study of the sublimation energetics of cyclopentadienyltricarbonylmanganese (Cymantrene).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciochi, Ricardo; Canongia Lopes, José N; Diogo, Hermínio P; Minas da Piedade, Manuel E

    2008-10-16

    The standard molar enthalpy of sublimation of monoclinic cyclopentadienyltricarbonylmanganese, Mn(eta (5)-C 5H 5)(CO) 3, at 298.15 K, was determined as Delta sub H m (o)[Mn(eta (5)-C 5H 5)(CO) 3] = 75.97 +/- 0.37 kJ x mol (-1) from Knudsen effusion and Calvet-drop microcalorimetry measurements, thus considerably improving the very large inaccuracy (>10 kJ x mol (-1)) of the published data. The obtained value was used to assess the extension of the OPLS-based all-atom force field we previously developed for iron metallocenes to manganese organometallic compounds. The modified force field was able to reproduce the volumetric properties (density and unit-cell volume) of crystalline Mn(eta (5)-C 5H 5)(CO) 3 with a deviation of 0.6% and the experimentally determined enthalpy of sublimation with an accuracy of 1 kJ x mol (-1). The interaction (epsilon) and atomic-diameter (sigma) parameters of the Lennard-Jones (12-6) potential function used to calculate dispersion contributions within the framework of the force field were found to be transferable from iron to manganese.

  18. Verdad sublime y madre asesina en Christine V., versión de Marguerite Duras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana González Holguín

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Todo relato es ficción, versión y, así mismo, verdad, bajo una u otra concepción de la misma, es decir, desde una perspectiva que se enfoca según la intención y la subjetividad de uno o más actores, de uno o más narradores. El texto de Marguerite Duras intitulado Sublime forcément sublime Christine V. involucra, por su contenido y su contexto, varias versiones que contrastan y se interrogan entre sí. La escritora se posiciona de tal manera que, a través de recursos propios del oficio literario, desentraña una verdad que puede no ajustarse a la realidad o al saber, pero que nos enfrenta a los límites de lo pulsional y lo ominoso.

  19. Formulation and evaluation of fast dissolving tablets of cinnarizine using superdisintegrant blends and subliming material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswajit Basu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to develop fast dissolving tablet of cinnarizine. A combination of super disintegrants, i.e., sodium starch glycolate (SSG and crosscarmellose sodium (CCS were used along with camphor as a subliming material. An optimized concentration of camphor was added to aid the porosity of the tablet. A 3 2 full factorial design was applied to investigate the combined effect of two formulation variables: Amount of SSG and CCS. Infrared (IR spectroscopy was performed to identify the physicochemical interaction between drug and polymer. IR spectroscopy showed that there is no interaction of drug with polymer. In the present study, direct compression was used to prepare the tablets. The powder mixtures were compressed into tablet using flat face multi punch tablet machine. Camphor was sublimed from the tablet by exposing the tablet to vacuum drier at 60°C for 12 hours. All the formulations were evaluated for their characteristics such as average weight, hardness, wetting time, friability, content uniformity, dispersion time (DT, and dissolution rate. An optimized tablet formulation (F 9 was found to have good hardness of 3.30 ± 0.10 kg/cm 2 , wetting time of 42.33 ± 4.04 seconds, DT of 34.67 ± 1.53 seconds, and cumulative drug release of not less than 99% in 16 minutes.

  20. Enthalpies of fusion and enthalpies of solvation of aromatic hydrocarbons derivatives: Estimation of sublimation enthalpies at 298.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomonov, Boris N., E-mail: boris.solomonov@kpfu.ru; Nagrimanov, Ruslan N.; Varfolomeev, Mikhail A.; Buzyurov, Aleksey V.; Mukhametzyanov, Timur A.

    2016-03-20

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Solution enthalpies of aromatic hydrocarbons derivatives (ArHD) were measured at 298.15 K. • Solution enthalpies of ArHD in benzene at 298.15 K are equal to their fusion enthalpy at melting point. • Sublimation enthalpies of 80 ArHD were calculated as a sum of fusion and solvation enthalpies. • Obtained sublimation enthalpies are in good agreement with the recommended literature data. - Abstract: Enthalpy of sublimation of solid compound can be found using the values of solution enthalpy and solvation enthalpy in any solvent. In this work enthalpies of solution at infinite dilution of a number of aromatic hydrocarbons derivatives in benzene were measured at 298.15 K. Comparison between experimental and literature solution enthalpies in benzene at 298.15 K and fusion enthalpies at melting temperature of aromatic hydrocarbon derivatives showed, that these values are approximately equal. Thereby, fusion enthalpies at melting temperature can be used instead of their solution enthalpies in benzene at 298.15 K for calculation of sublimation enthalpies at 298.15 K. Solvation enthalpies in benzene at 298.15 K required for this procedure were calculated using group additivity scheme. The sublimation enthalpies of 80 aromatic hydrocarbons derivatives at 298.15 K were evaluated as a difference between fusion enthalpies at melting temperature and solvation enthalpies in benzene at 298.15 K. Obtained in this work values of sublimation enthalpy at 298.15 K for studied compounds were in a good agreement with available literature data.

  1. Measurement of the enthalpies of vaporization and sublimation of solids aromatic hydrocarbons by differential scanning calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, Aaron; Orozco, Eulogio

    2003-01-01

    An experimental procedure is proposed for direct measurement of the heat involved in the vaporization of a solid organic compound above its normal melting temperature. This technique consists on the fusion of a solid aromatic hydrocarbon, which is then vaporized by a sudden decrease of the pressure. The direct register of heat flow as function of time by differential scanning calorimetry allows the quantifying of the enthalpy of vaporization of compounds such as phenanthrene, β-naphthol, pyrene, and anthracene. Enthalpies of vaporization were measured in an isothermal mode over a range of temperatures from 10 to 20 K above the melting temperatures of each compound, while enthalpies of fusion were determined from separate experiments performed in a scanning mode. Enthalpies of sublimation are computed from results of fusion and vaporization, and then compared with results from the literature, which currently are obtained by calorimetric or indirect techniques

  2. Lepanto, before and after: Between the Republic and the Sublime Porte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem KUMRUlAR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The loss of Cyprus to the ottoman Turks, hand in hand with the Battle of Lepanto was the major reason of a period of frozen politics and caused the breaking of the traditional peace between Venice and Constantinople. Yet there is a notable difference between the historical and political Conseptualization of these two major episodes. The ottoman state didn’t interpret this catastrophe as the Republic did. As, it could be seen from the bilateral diplomacy carried out by both states, neither the loss of Cyprus, nor the myth-creating Lepanto could change the classical oriental policy of the Serenissima. The case was not different for the Sublime Porte. The aim of this paper is to analyse the post-war politics of these two states and the noteable change in the political polarization in Europe in the milieu of the ottoman-Hapsburg rivalry.

  3. Concentration of noble metals by sublimation during the analysis of massive samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuburkov, Yu.T.; Zhujkov, B.L.; Gehrbish, Sh.; Al'pert, L.K.; Chan Zuj Ty

    1990-01-01

    The possibility of concentrating noble metals from terrestrial samples of various composition by chemical sublimation in an air stream at a temperature of 1000-1200 deg C was examined. It was found that the chemical yields of Au, Pt, Ir, Ru, Os and Re for all the samples increased by introducing solid additives of FeCl 2 , TiO 2 and Nb 2 O 5 . The concentration technique provides the possibility of determining some noble metals in massive samples (up to 50 g) with widely ranging element contents. By using gamma and neutron activation on a microtron, the detection limits of 3x10 -2 ppm for Pt and Ir and 4x10 -3 ppm for Au were achieved. In the case of X-ray fluorescence analysis, the detection limit for these elements was 0.4 ppm

  4. Formation of the molecular crystal structure during the vacuum sublimation of paracetamol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, A. P.; Rubets, V. P.; Antipov, V. V.; Bordei, N. S.

    2015-04-01

    The results from structural and thermal studies on the formation of molecular crystals during the vacuum sublimation of paracetamol from its vapor phase are given. It is established that the vapor-crystal phase transition proceeds in a complicated way as the superposition of two phase transitions: a first-order phase transition with a change in density, and a second-order phase transition with a change in ordering. It is shown that the latter is a smeared phase transition that proceeds with the formation of a pretransitional phase that is irreversibly dissipated during phase transformation, leading to the formation of crystals of the rhombic syngony. Data from differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction analysis are presented along with microphotographs.

  5. Paths of the Sublime: Alain de Botton’s The Art of Travel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C.C. Mendes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bearing in mind the central place of literary, academic, and religious tourism in Cultural Studies and in Alain de Botton’s The Art of Travel (2002, the paper seeks: 1 to identify some remarkable travels of famous writers – the British Wordsworth; the French Karl-Joris Huysmans, Gustave Flaubert, and Charles Baudelaire; 2 to show that in the analysis of such authors’ itineraries (from Europe to the East, there is a search for cultural roots, a mapping of spaces and people, and a deconstruction of labels often related to the Other; 3 to point out that the tourist is also a storyteller, a protagonist, and a creator of fictional worlds; 4 to bring together literary tourism and artistic tourism, through the identification of allusions to other cultural events (painting, music, and architecture; 5 to characterize tourism as a literary and aesthetic experience of the Sublime.

  6. Characteristics of Vacuum Freeze Drying with Utilization of Internal Cooling and Condenser Waste Heat for Sublimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Alhamid

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Vacuum freeze drying is an excellent drying method, but it is very energy-intensive because a relatively long drying time is required. This research investigates the utilization of condenser waste heat for sublimation as a way of accelerating the drying rate. In addition, it also investigates the effect of internal cooling combined with vacuum cooling in the pressure reduction process. Jelly fish tentacles were used as the specimen, with different configurations for condenser heat waste and internal cooling valve opening. The results show that heating with condenser heat waste can accelerate the drying rate up to 0.0035 kg/m2.s. In addition, pre-freezing by internal cooling prevents evaporation until the mass of the specimen is 0.47 g and promotes transition of the specimen into the solid phase.

  7. The role of defects in fluorescent silicon carbide layers grown by sublimation epitaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schimmel, Saskia; Kaiser, Michl; Jokubavicius, Valdas

    Donor-acceptor co-doped silicon carbide layers are promising light converters for novel monolithic all-semiconductor LEDs due to their broad-band donor-acceptor pair luminescence and potentially high internal quantum efficiency. Besides appropriate doping concentrations yielding low radiative...... lifetimes, high nonradiative lifetimes are crucial for efficient light conversion. Despite the excellent crystalline quality that can generally be obtained by sublimation epitaxy according to XRD measurements, the role of defects in f-SiC is not yet well understood. Recent results from room temperature...... photoluminescence, charge carrier lifetime measurements by microwave detected photoconductivity and internal quantum efficiency measurements suggest that the internal quantum efficiency of f-SiC layers is significantly affected by the incorporation of defects during epitaxy. Defect formation seems to be related...

  8. A Low Cost Inflatable CubeSat Drag Brake Utilizing Sublimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Adam Charles

    The United Nations Inter-Agency Debris Coordination Committee has adopted a 25-year post-mission lifetime requirement for any satellite orbiting below 2000 km in order to mitigate the growing orbital debris threat. Low-cost CubeSats have become important satellite platforms with startling capabilities, but this guideline restricts them to altitudes below 600 km because they remain in orbit too long. In order to enable CubeSat deployments at higher release altitudes, a low-cost, ultra-reliable deorbit device is needed. This thesis reports on efforts to develop a deployable and passively inflatable drag brake that can deorbit from higher orbital altitudes, thereby complying with the 25-year orbital lifetime guideline. On the basis of concepts first implemented during the NASA Echo Satellite Project, this study investigated the design of an inflatable CubeSat drag device that utilizes sublimating benzoic acid powder as the inflation propellant. Testing has focused on demonstrating the functionality of charging a Mylar drag brake bladder with appropriate quantities of benzoic acid powder, and the exposure to a controlled-temperature vacuum chamber causing the bladder to inflate. Although results show a measureable increase in internal pressure when introduced to anticipated orbital temperatures, a significant air-derived expansion prior to sublimation was encountered due to the undetectable volume of ambient residual air in the fabricated membrane bladders. These tests have demonstrated the feasibility of this approach, thereby demonstrating that this concept can create a potentially smaller and less expensive drag device, eliminating inflation gas tanks and valves. In that way, this system can provide a low-cost, miniaturized system that reduces a CubeSat's orbital lifetime to less than 25 years, when placed at higher orbital altitude.

  9. The political sublime. reading Kok Nam, Mozambican photographer (1939-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Assubuji

    Full Text Available Kok Nam began his photographic career at Studio Focus in Lourenco Marques in the 1950s, graduated to the newspaper Noticias and joined Tempo magazine in the early 1970s. Most recently he worked at the journal Savana as a photojournalist and later director. This article opens with an account of the relationship that developed between Kok Nam and the late President Samora Machel, starting with the photographer's portrait of Machel in Nachingwea in November 1974 before Independence. It traces an arc through the Popular Republic (1976-1990 from political revelation at its inception to the difficult years of civil war and Machel's death in the plane crash at Mbuzini in 1986. The article then engages in a series of photo-commentaries across a selection of Kok Nam's photographs, several published in their time but others selected retrospectively by Kok Nam for later exhibition and circulation. The approach taken is that of 'association', exploring the connections between the photographs, their histories both then and in the intervening years and other artifacts and mediums of cultural expression that deal with similar issues or signifiers picked up in the images. Among the signifiers picked up in the article are soldiers, pigs, feet, empty villages, washing, doves and bridges. The central argument is that Kok Nam participated with many others in a kind of collective hallucination during the Popular Republic, caught up in the 'political sublime'. Later Kok Nam shows many signs of a photographic 'second thinking' that sought out a more delicate sublime in his own archive.

  10. Iapetus Surface Temperatures, and the Influence of Sublimation on the Albedo Dichotomy: Cassini CIRS Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, J. R.; Pearl, J. C.; Segura, M.; Cassini CIRS Team

    2005-08-01

    The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on the Cassini orbiter obtained extensive observations of Iapetus' thermal emission during the New Year 2005 flyby, with best 8 - 16 μ m spatial resolution of 35 km per pixel. Observed subsolar temperatures on the dark terrain reach nearly 130 K, much warmer than any other satellite surface in the Saturn system, due to the combination of low albedo and slow rotation. These high temperatures mean that, uniquely in the Saturn system, water ice sublimation rates are significant at low latitudes on Iapetus' dark side, and surface water ice is probably not stable there on geological timescales. This result is consistent with the lack of water ice at low latitudes on the dark terrain inferred from Cassini UVIS UV spectra (Hendrix et al., 2005 LPSC). Thermally-controlled migration of water ice may thus contribute to the curious shape of the light/dark boundary on Iapetus, with bright poles and dark terrain extending round the equator onto the trailing side. Impacts of Saturn-centric or prograde heliocentric material cannot alone explain this shape, as their impact flux depends only on distance from the apex of motion (though the impact distribution of Oort cloud comet dust may be consistent with the observed albedo pattern (Cook and Franklin 1970)). We model the ballistic migration of water ice across the surface of Iapetus, determining temperatures and sublimation rates assuming CIRS-constrained thermal inertia and a simple dependence of albedo on distance from the apex of motion. Water ice is lost rapidly from low latitudes on the dark leading side and accumulates near the poles, and is also lost, though more slowly, in equatorial regions near the sub-Saturn and anti-Saturn points. The resulting water ice distribution pattern matches the distribution of Iapetus' bright terrain remarkably well. Albedo modification by thermal migration can thus help to reconcile Iapetus' albedo patterns with albedo control by Saturn-centric or

  11. Taking a Hike and Hucking the Stout: The Troublesome Legacy of the Sublime in Outdoor Recreation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Drennig

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As Henry Thoreau noted in the 1850s, the simple act of walking can be loaded with political and spiritual meaning. Today, taking a hike as an act of engaging in outdoor recreation is equally non-trivial, and therefore subject of the following analysis. As this paper argues, outdoors recreation is still influenced by the legacy of the Sublime and its construction of wilderness. This troublesome legacy means that the cultural self-representation of outdoor sports – and the practice itself – lays claim to the environment in ways that are socially and sometimes even ethni-cally exclusive. This essay uses William Cronon’s critique of the cultural constructedness of wilderness as a point of departure to see how Western notions of sublime nature have an impact on spatial practice. The elevation of specific parts of the environ-ment into the category of wilderness prescribes certain uses and meanings as na-ture is made into an antidote against the ills of industrial civilization, and a place where the alienated individual can return to a more authentic self. This view then has become a troublesome legacy, informing the cultural self-representation of those uses of “wilderness” that are known as outdoor recreation. In its cultural production, outdoors recreation constructs “healthy” and “athlet-ic” bodies exercising in natural settings and finding refuge from the everyday al-ienation of postmodern society. Yet these bodies are conspicuously white, and the obligatory equipment and fashion expensive. Outdoor recreation is a privileged assertion of leisure, often denoting an urban, affluent, and white, background of the practitioner. These practitioners then lay exclusive claim on the landscapes they use. As trivial as taking a hike or any other form of outdoors recreation may thus seem, they put a cultural legacy into practice that is anything but trivial.

  12. Fe embedded in ice: The impacts of sublimation and energetic particle bombardment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankland, Victoria L.; Plane, John M. C.

    2015-05-01

    Icy particles containing a variety of Fe compounds are present in the upper atmospheres of planets such as the Earth and Saturn. In order to explore the role of ice sublimation and energetic ion bombardment in releasing Fe species into the gas phase, Fe-dosed ice films were prepared under UHV conditions in the laboratory. Temperature-programmed desorption studies of Fe/H2O films revealed that no Fe atoms or Fe-containing species co-desorbed along with the H2O molecules. This implies that when noctilucent ice cloud particles sublimate in the terrestrial mesosphere, the metallic species embedded in them will coalesce to form residual particles. Sputtering of the Fe-ice films by energetic Ar+ ions was shown to be an efficient mechanism for releasing Fe into the gas phase, with a yield of 0.08 (Ar+ energy=600 eV). Extrapolating with a semi-empirical sputtering model to the conditions of a proton aurora indicates that sputtering by energetic protons (>100 keV) should also be efficient. However, the proton flux in even an intense aurora will be too low for the resulting injection of Fe species into the gas phase to compete with that from meteoric ablation. In contrast, sputtering of the icy particles in the main rings of Saturn by energetic O+ ions may be the source of recently observed Fe+ in the Saturnian magnetosphere. Electron sputtering (9.5 keV) produced no detectable Fe atoms or Fe-containing species. Finally, it was observed that Fe(OH)2 was produced when Fe was dosed onto an ice film at 140 K (but not at 95 K). Electronic structure theory shows that the reaction which forms this hydroxide from adsorbed Fe has a large barrier of about 0.7 eV, from which we conclude that the reaction requires both translationally hot Fe atoms and mobile H2O molecules on the ice surface.

  13. Sublimation of icy planetesimals and the delivery of water to the habitable zone around solar type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunini, Adrián; López, María Cristina

    2018-06-01

    We present a semi analytic model to evaluate the delivery of water to the habitable zone around a solar type star carried by icy planetesimals born beyond the snow line. The model includes sublimation of ice, gas drag and scattering by an outer giant planet located near the snow line. The sublimation model is general and could be applicable to planetary synthesis models or N-Body simulations of the formation of planetary systems. We perform a short series of simulations to asses the potential relevance of sublimation of volatiles in the process of delivery of water to the inner regions of a planetary system during early stages of its formation. We could anticipate that erosion by sublimation would prevent the arrival of much water to the habitable zone of protoplanetary disks in the form of icy planetesimals. Close encounters with a massive planet orbiting near the outer edge of the snow line could make possible for planetesimals to reach the habitable zone somewhat less eroded. However, only large planetesimals could provide appreciable amounts of water. Massive disks and sharp gas surface density profiles favor icy planetesimals to reach inner regions of a protoplanetary disk.

  14. Thermodynamic study of alkane-α,ω-diamines - evidence of odd-even pattern of sublimation properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fulem, Michal; Růžička, K.; Červinka, C.; Bazyleva, A.; Della Gatta, G.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 371, Jun (2014), s. 93-105 ISSN 0378-3812 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : alkane-diamines * odd–even effect * vapor pressure * sublimation and vaporization thermodynamic properties * statistical thermodynamics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.200, year: 2014

  15. Modified solution calorimetry approach for determination of vaporization and sublimation enthalpies of branched-chain aliphatic and alkyl aromatic compounds at T = 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varfolomeev, Mikhail A.; Novikov, Vladimir B.; Nagrimanov, Ruslan N.; Solomonov, Boris N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Solution enthalpies of 18 branching-chain alkyl aromatic and aliphatic compounds in cyclohexane were measured. • Group contributions to the enthalpy of solvation due to branching and substitution in carbon chain were evaluated. • Modified solution calorimetry based approach for determination of vaporization/sublimation enthalpies was proposed. • This approach provides vaporization/sublimation enthalpies directly at T = 298.15 K. • Vaporization/sublimation enthalpies of 35 branched-chain alkyl aromatic and aliphatic compounds were determined. - Abstract: The enthalpies of solution, solvation and vaporization/sublimation are interrelated values combined in the simplest thermodynamic circle. Hence, experimental determination of vaporization/sublimation enthalpy can be substituted by experimentally simpler determination of solution enthalpy when solvation enthalpy is known. Previously it was found that solvation enthalpies of a wide range of unbranched aliphatic and aromatic solutes in saturated hydrocarbons are in good linear correlation with their molar refraction values. This allows to estimate the vaporization/sublimation enthalpy of any unbranched organic compound from its solution enthalpy in saturated hydrocarbon and molar refraction. In the present work this approach was modified for determination of vaporization/sublimation enthalpy of branched-chain alkyl aromatic and aliphatic compounds. Group contributions to the enthalpy of solvation due to the branching of carbon chain were evaluated. Enthalpies of solution at infinite dilution of 18 branched-chain aliphatic and alkyl aromatic compounds were measured at T = 298.15 K. Vaporization/sublimation enthalpies for 35 branched aliphatic and alkyl aromatic compounds were determined by using modified solution calorimetry approach. These values are in good agreement with available literature data on vaporization/sublimation enthalpies obtained by conventional methods.

  16. The impacts of moisture transport on drifting snow sublimation in the saltation layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Huang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drifting snow sublimation (DSS is an important physical process related to moisture and heat transfer that happens in the atmospheric boundary layer, which is of glaciological and hydrological importance. It is also essential in order to understand the mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheets and the global climate system. Previous studies mainly focused on the DSS of suspended snow and ignored that in the saltation layer. Here, a drifting snow model combined with balance equations for heat and moisture is established to simulate the physical DSS process in the saltation layer. The simulated results show that DSS can strongly increase humidity and cooling effects, which in turn can significantly reduce DSS in the saltation layer. However, effective moisture transport can dramatically weaken the feedback effects. Due to moisture advection, DSS rate in the saltation layer can be several orders of magnitude greater than that of the suspended particles. Thus, DSS in the saltation layer has an important influence on the distribution and mass–energy balance of snow cover.

  17. ZnO sublimation using a polyenergetic pulsed electron beam source: numerical simulation and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tricot, S; Semmar, N; Lebbah, L; Boulmer-Leborgne, C, E-mail: sylvain.tricot@univ-orleans.f [GREMI, UMR 6606-CNRS/Universite d' Orleans, 14 rue d' Issoudun, BP 6744, 45067 Orleans cedex 2 (France)

    2010-02-17

    This paper details the electro-thermal study of the sublimation phase on a zinc oxide surface. This thermodynamic process occurs when a ZnO target is bombarded by a pulsed electron beam source composed of polyenergetic electrons. The source delivers short pulses of 180 ns of electrons with energies up to 16 keV. The beam total current reaches 800 A and is focused onto a spot area 2 mm in diameter. The Monte Carlo CASINO program is used to study the first stage of the interaction and to define the heat source space distribution inside the ZnO target. Simulation of the second stage of interaction is developed in a COMSOL multiphysics project. The simulated thermal field induced by space and time heat conduction is presented. Typically for a pulsed electron beam 2 mm in diameter of electrons having energies up to 16 keV, the surface temperature reaches a maximum of 7000 K. The calculations are supported by SEM pictures of the target irradiated by various beam energies and numbers of pulses.

  18. ZnO sublimation using a polyenergetic pulsed electron beam source: numerical simulation and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tricot, S; Semmar, N; Lebbah, L; Boulmer-Leborgne, C

    2010-01-01

    This paper details the electro-thermal study of the sublimation phase on a zinc oxide surface. This thermodynamic process occurs when a ZnO target is bombarded by a pulsed electron beam source composed of polyenergetic electrons. The source delivers short pulses of 180 ns of electrons with energies up to 16 keV. The beam total current reaches 800 A and is focused onto a spot area 2 mm in diameter. The Monte Carlo CASINO program is used to study the first stage of the interaction and to define the heat source space distribution inside the ZnO target. Simulation of the second stage of interaction is developed in a COMSOL multiphysics project. The simulated thermal field induced by space and time heat conduction is presented. Typically for a pulsed electron beam 2 mm in diameter of electrons having energies up to 16 keV, the surface temperature reaches a maximum of 7000 K. The calculations are supported by SEM pictures of the target irradiated by various beam energies and numbers of pulses.

  19. Modelling of pulsed electron beam induced graphite ablation: Sublimation versus melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muddassir; Henda, Redhouane

    2017-12-01

    Pulsed electron beam ablation (PEBA) has recently emerged as a very promising technique for the deposition of thin films with superior properties. Interaction of the pulsed electron beam with the target material is a complex process, which consists of heating, phase transition, and erosion of a small portion from the target surface. Ablation can be significantly affected by the nature of thermal phenomena taking place at the target surface, with subsequent bearing on the properties, stoichiometry and structure of deposited thin films. A two stage, one-dimensional heat conduction model is presented to describe two different thermal phenomena accounting for interaction of a graphite target with a polyenergetic electron beam. In the first instance, the thermal phenomena are comprised of heating, melting and vaporization of the target surface, while in the second instance the thermal phenomena are described in terms of heating and sublimation of the graphite surface. In this work, the electron beam delivers intense electron pulses of ∼100 ns with energies up to 16 keV and an electric current of ∼400 A to a graphite target. The temperature distribution, surface recession velocity, ablated mass per unit area, and ablation depth for the graphite target are numerically simulated by the finite element method for each case. Based on calculation findings and available experimental data, ablation appears to occur mainly in the regime of melting and vaporization from the surface.

  20. Thin film CdTe solar cells by close spaced sublimation: Recent results from pilot line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siepchen, B.; Drost, C.; Späth, B.; Krishnakumar, V.; Richter, H.; Harr, M.; Bossert, S.; Grimm, M.; Häfner, K.; Modes, T.; Zywitzki, O.; Morgner, H.

    2013-01-01

    CdTe is an attractive material to produce high efficient and low cost thin film solar cells. The semiconducting layers of this kind of solar cell can be deposited by the Close Spaced Sublimation (CSS) process. The advantages of this technique are high deposition rates and an excellent utilization of the raw material, leading to low production costs and competitive module prices. CTF Solar GmbH is offering equipment and process knowhow for the production of CdTe solar modules. For further improvement of the technology, research is done at a pilot line, which covers all relevant process steps for manufacture of CdTe solar cells. Herein, we present the latest results from the process development and our research activities on single functional layers as well as for complete solar cell devices. Efficiencies above 13% have already been obtained with Cu-free back contacts. An additional focus is set on different transparent conducting oxide materials for the front contact and a Sb 2 Te 3 based back contact. - Highlights: ► Laboratory established on industrial level for CdTe solar cell research ► 13.0% cell efficiency with our standard front contact and Cu-free back contact ► Research on ZnO-based transparent conducting oxide and Sb 2 Te 3 back contacts ► High resolution scanning electron microscopy analysis of ion polished cross section

  1. An examination of the thermodynamics of fusion, vaporization, and sublimation of ibuprofen and naproxen by correlation gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Rachel; Chickos, James

    2012-02-01

    The vaporization enthalpies of (S)-ibuprofen and (S)-naproxen measured by correlation gas chromatography at T = 298.15 K are reported and compared with literature values. Adjustment of the fusion enthalpies of (RS)- and (S)-ibuprofen and (S)-naproxen to T = 298.15 K and combined with the vaporization enthalpy of the (S)-enantiomer of both ibuprofen and naproxen also at T = 298.15 K resulted in the sublimation enthalpies of both (S)-enantiomers. On the assumption that the vaporization enthalpy of the racemic form of ibuprofen is within the experimental uncertainty of the chiral form, the sublimation enthalpy of racemic ibuprofen was also evaluated. The vaporization and sublimation enthalpies compare favorably to the most of the literature values for the racemic form of ibuprofen but differ from the value reported for chiral ibuprofen. The literature values of (S)-naproxen are somewhat smaller than the values measured in this work. The following vaporization enthalpies were measured for (S)-ibuprofen and (S)-naproxen, respectively: ΔH(vap) (298.15 K), 106.0 ± 5.5, 132.2 ± 5.0 kJ·mol(-1) . Sublimation enthalpies of 122.7 ± 5.6 and 155.2 ± 7.1 kJ·mol(-1) were calculated for the (S)-enantiomers of ibuprofen and naproxen and a value of 128.9 ± 5.8 kJ·mol(-1) was estimated for the racemic form of ibuprofen. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. An examination of the thermodynamics of fusion, vaporization, and sublimation of several parabens by correlation gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umnahanant, Patamaporn; Chickos, James

    2011-05-01

    The vaporization, fusion, and sublimation enthalpies of methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl paraben are reported and compared with literature values. The vaporization enthalpies were measured by correlation gas chromatography and the fusion enthalpies by differential scanning calorimetry. Adjusted to T = 298.15 K, these enthalpies were combined to yield the sublimation enthalpy. The results compare favorably to some of the literature values but do not support the reversal in magnitude of both the vaporization and sublimation enthalpy previously reported for propyl and butyl paraben. The following fusion and vaporization enthalpies were measured for methyl through to butyl paraben, respectively: ΔH(fus) (T(fus) ) 26.3 ± 0.1 (398.6 K), 26.5 ± 0.1 (388.5 K), 27.3 ± 0.1 (368.8), and 25.9 ± 0.3 (340.7 K) kJ·mol(-1); ΔH(vap) (298.15 K) 79.5 ± 0.5, 84.0 ± 0.5, 89.7 ± 0.6, and 95.8 ± 0.6 kJ·mol(-1). The results are believed to be accurate to ± 4 kJ·mol(-1). Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Control and calculation of the titanium sublimation pumping speed and re-ionisation in the MAST neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAdams, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The titanium sublimation pumps for the MAST neutral beam injectors are described. • Evaporation regimes are established to give constant pumping speed for the titanium sublimation pumps. • The MCNP code is used to calculate the pumping speeds and gas profiles in the neutral beam injectors. • The gas profiles are then used to calculate the level of re-ionisation in the beamline. - Abstract: A high pumping speed is required in neutral beam injectors to minimise re-ionisation of the neutral beams. The neutral beam injectors on MAST use titanium sublimation pumps. These pumps do not have a constant pumping speed; their pumping speed depends on the gettering surface history and on both the integrated and applied gas load. In this paper we describe a method of maintaining a constant pumping speed, through different evaporation schemes, specifically suitable for operations of the MAST neutral beam injector beamlines for both short and relatively long beam pulses by measurement of the pressure in the beamline. In addition the MCNP code is then used to calculate the pumping speed and gas profile in the beamline by adjusting the input pumping speed to match the measured pressure. This allows the resulting gas profile to be used for calculation of the re-ionisation levels and an example is given

  4. Meteorological conditions associated to high sublimation amounts in semiarid high-elevation Andes decrease the performance of empirical melt models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Alvaro; Pellicciotti, Francesca; MacDonell, Shelley; McPhee, James; Burlando, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Empirical melt (EM) models are often preferred to surface energy balance (SEB) models to calculate melt amounts of snow and ice in hydrological modelling of high-elevation catchments. The most common reasons to support this decision are that, in comparison to SEB models, EM models require lower levels of meteorological data, complexity and computational costs. However, EM models assume that melt can be characterized by means of a few index variables only, and their results strongly depend on the transferability in space and time of the calibrated empirical parameters. In addition, they are intrinsically limited in accounting for specific process components, the complexity of which cannot be easily reconciled with the empirical nature of the model. As an example of an EM model, in this study we use the Enhanced Temperature Index (ETI) model, which calculates melt amounts using air temperature and the shortwave radiation balance as index variables. We evaluate the performance of the ETI model on dry high-elevation sites where sublimation amounts - that are not explicitly accounted for the EM model - represent a relevant percentage of total ablation (1.1 to 8.7%). We analyse a data set of four Automatic Weather Stations (AWS), which were collected during the ablation season 2013-14, at elevations between 3466 and 4775 m asl, on the glaciers El Tapado, San Francisco, Bello and El Yeso, which are located in the semiarid Andes of central Chile. We complement our analysis using data from past studies in Juncal Norte Glacier (Chile) and Haut Glacier d'Arolla (Switzerland), during the ablation seasons 2008-09 and 2006, respectively. We use the results of a SEB model, applied to each study site, along the entire season, to calibrate the ETI model. The ETI model was not designed to calculate sublimation amounts, however, results show that their ability is low also to simulate melt amounts at sites where sublimation represents larger percentages of total ablation. In fact, we

  5. Characterization of the Sublimation and Vapor Pressure of 2-(2-Nitrovinyl) Furan (G-0) Using Thermogravimetric Analysis: Effects of Complexation with Cyclodextrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruz, Vivian; González, Mirtha Mayra; Winant, Danny; Rodríguez, Zenaida; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2015-08-19

    In the present work, the sublimation of crystalline solid 2-(2-nitrovinyl) furan (G-0) in the temperature range of 35 to 60 °C (below the melting point of the drug) was studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The sublimated product was characterized using Fourier-transformed-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thin layer chromatography (TLC). The sublimation rate at each temperature was obtained using the slope of the linear regression model and followed apparent zero-order kinetics. The sublimation enthalpy from 35 to 60 °C was obtained from the Eyring equation. The Gückel method was used to estimate the sublimation rate and vapor pressure at 25 °C. Physical mixtures, kneaded and freeze-dried complexes were prepared with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and sulfobutyl ether-β-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD) and analyzed using isothermal TGA at 50 °C. The complexation contributed to reducing the sublimation process. The best results were achieved using freeze-dried complexes with both cyclodextrins.

  6. AdS/QCD, Light-Front Holography, and Sublimated Gluons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.

    2012-02-16

    The gauge/gravity duality leads to a simple analytical and phenomenologically compelling nonperturbative approximation to the full light-front QCD Hamiltonian - 'Light-Front Holography', which provides a Lorentz-invariant first-approximation to QCD, and successfully describes the spectroscopy of light-quark meson and baryons, their elastic and transition form factors, and other hadronic properties. The bound-state Schroedinger and Dirac equations of the soft-wall AdS/QCD model predict linear Regge trajectories which have the same slope in orbital angular momentum L and radial quantum number n for both mesons and baryons. Light-front holography connects the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z to an invariant impact separation variable {zeta} in 3+1 space at fixed light-front time. A key feature is the determination of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions of hadrons - the relativistic analogs of the Schroedinger wavefunctions of atomic physics which allow one to compute form factors, transversity distributions, spin properties of the valence quarks, jet hadronization, and other hadronic observables. One thus obtains a one-parameter color-confining model for hadron physics at the amplitude level. AdS/QCD also predicts the form of the non-perturbative effective coupling {alpha}{sub s}{sup AdS} (Q) and its {beta}-function with an infrared fixed point which agrees with the effective coupling a{sub g1} (Q{sup 2}) extracted from measurements of the Bjorken sum rule below Q{sup 2} < 1 GeV{sup 2}. This is consistent with a flux-tube interpretation of QCD where soft gluons with virtualities Q{sup 2} < 1 GeV{sup 2} are sublimated into a color-confining potential for quarks. We discuss a number of phenomenological hadronic properties which support this picture.

  7. Analyses of hypothetical nuclear criticality excursions in 10- and 20-MW freezer/sublimer vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haught, C.F.; Jordan, W.C.; Basoglu, B.; Dodds, H.L.; Wilkinson, A.D.

    1995-01-01

    A theoretical model is used to predict the consequences of a postulated hypothetical nuclear criticality excursion in a freezer/sublimer (F/S). Previous work has shown that an intrusion of water into a F/S may result in a critical configuration. A first attempt is made to model the neutronic and thermal-hydraulic phenomena occurring during a criticality excursion involving both uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) and uranyl fluoride (UO 2 F 2 ) solution, which is present in the F/S during upset conditions. The model employs point neutronics coupled with simple thermal hydraulics. Reactivity feedback from changes in the properties of the system are included in the model. The excursion is studied in a 10-MW F/S with an initial load of 3,500 kg of 5% weight enriched UF 6 and in a 20-MW F/S with an initial load of 6,800 kg of 2% weight enriched UF 6 . The magnitude of the fission release determined in this work is 5.93 x 10 18 fissions in the 10-MW F/S and 4.21 x 10 18 fissions in the 20-MW F/S. In order to demonstrate the reliability of the techniques used in this work, a limited validation study was conducted by comparing the fission release and peak fission rate determined by this work with experimental results for a limited number of experiments. The agreement between calculations and experiments in the validation study is considered to be satisfactory. The calculational results for the hypothetical accidents in the two F/S vessels appear reasonable

  8. SUBLIMATION-DRIVEN ACTIVITY IN MAIN-BELT COMET 313P/GIBBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Henry H. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hainaut, Olivier [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Novaković, Bojan [Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Bolin, Bryce [Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, Boulevard de l’Observatoire, B.P. 4229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Denneau, Larry; Haghighipour, Nader; Kleyna, Jan; Meech, Karen J.; Schunova, Eva; Wainscoat, Richard J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Fitzsimmons, Alan [Astrophysics Research Centre, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Kokotanekova, Rosita; Snodgrass, Colin [Planetary and Space Sciences, Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Lacerda, Pedro [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Micheli, Marco [ESA SSA NEO Coordination Centre, Frascati, RM (Italy); Moskovitz, Nick; Wasserman, Lawrence [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W. Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Waszczak, Adam, E-mail: hhsieh@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-02-10

    We present an observational and dynamical study of newly discovered main-belt comet 313P/Gibbs. We find that the object is clearly active both in observations obtained in 2014 and in precovery observations obtained in 2003 by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, strongly suggesting that its activity is sublimation-driven. This conclusion is supported by a photometric analysis showing an increase in the total brightness of the comet over the 2014 observing period, and dust modeling results showing that the dust emission persists over at least three months during both active periods, where we find start dates for emission no later than 2003 July 24 ± 10 for the 2003 active period and 2014 July 28 ± 10 for the 2014 active period. From serendipitous observations by the Subaru Telescope in 2004 when the object was apparently inactive, we estimate that the nucleus has an absolute R-band magnitude of H{sub R} = 17.1 ± 0.3, corresponding to an effective nucleus radius of r{sub e} ∼ 1.00 ± 0.15 km. The object’s faintness at that time means we cannot rule out the presence of activity, and so this computed radius should be considered an upper limit. We find that 313P’s orbit is intrinsically chaotic, having a Lyapunov time of T{sub l} = 12,000 yr and being located near two three-body mean-motion resonances with Jupiter and Saturn, 11J-1S-5A and 10J+12S-7A, yet appears stable over >50 Myr in an apparent example of stable chaos. We furthermore find that 313P is the second main-belt comet, after P/2012 T1 (PANSTARRS), to belong to the ∼155 Myr old Lixiaohua asteroid family.

  9. Vapor pressures and standard molar enthalpies, entropies and Gibbs energies of sublimation of two hexachloro herbicides using a TG unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vecchio, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    The vapor pressures above the solid hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and above both the solid and liquid 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane) were determined in the ranges 332-450 K and 347-429 K, respectively, by measuring the mass loss rates recorded by thermogravimetry under both isothermal and nonisothermal conditions. The results obtained were compared with those taken from literature. From the temperature dependence of vapor pressure derived by the experimental thermogravimetry data the molar enthalpies of sublimation Δ cr g H m o ( ) were selected for HCB and lindane as well as the molar enthalpy of vaporization Δ l g H m o ( ) for lindane only, at the middle of the respective temperature intervals. The melting temperatures and the molar enthalpies of fusion Δ cr l H m o (T fus ) of lindane were measured by differential scanning calorimetry. Finally, the standard molar enthalpies of sublimation Δ cr g H m o (298.15 K) were obtained for both chlorinated compounds at the reference temperature of 298.15 K using the Δ cr g H m o ( ), Δ l g H m o ( ) and Δ cr l H m o (T fus ) values, as well as the heat capacity differences between gas and liquid and the heat capacity differences between gas and solid, Δ l g C p,m o and Δ cr g C p,m o , respectively, both estimated by applying a group additivity procedure. Therefore, the averages of the standard (p o = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies, entropies and Gibbs energies of sublimation at 298.15 K, have been derived.

  10. Determination of molar enthalpy of sublimation in case of orotic acid as obtained from experimental and computational data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marochkin, Ilya I.; Altova, Ekaterina P.; Chilingarov, Norbert S.; Vilkova, Anna L.; Shishkov, Igor F.

    2018-03-01

    Saturated vapor pressure, ln(p/Pa) = (-21316 ± 511)/(T/K)+(41.64 ± 0.11), and enthalpy of sublimation of orotic acid, Δsub Hm0 (Tm) = 177 ± 4 kJ/mol, were determined by means of Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry in the temperature range of 423÷493 K. The computational approaches supported the experimental results reported. The theoretical estimation of the gas-phase enthalpy of formation for orotic acid was done with different working reactions used.

  11. On adequacy of reference sample composition to metal oxide composition in spectral analysis by the method of sublimating additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhariya, N.F.; Turulina, O.P.

    1983-01-01

    The problem on adequacy of zirconium dioxide reference samples to analysed samples is considered. The mechanism of impurities evaporation process in the presence of the sublimating addition for elements of different nature is studied and limiting it stages have been found. It is shown that kinetic probability of impurities transfer into the form of more high-volatile compounds depending on conditions of preparing zirconium dioxide samples may not coincide with the thermodynamic one. With this connected are systematic deviations of the analytical signal value for samples of different technological prehistory

  12. A centre-triggered magnesium fuelled cathodic arc thruster uses sublimation to deliver a record high specific impulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Patrick R. C.; Bilek, Marcela; McKenzie, David R.

    2016-08-01

    The cathodic arc is a high current, low voltage discharge that operates in vacuum and provides a stream of highly ionised plasma from a solid conducting cathode. The high ion velocities, together with the high ionisation fraction and the quasineutrality of the exhaust stream, make the cathodic arc an attractive plasma source for spacecraft propulsion applications. The specific impulse of the cathodic arc thruster is substantially increased when the emission of neutral species is reduced. Here, we demonstrate a reduction of neutral emission by exploiting sublimation in cathode spots and enhanced ionisation of the plasma in short, high-current pulses. This, combined with the enhanced directionality due to the efficient erosion profiles created by centre-triggering, substantially increases the specific impulse. We present experimentally measured specific impulses and jet power efficiencies for titanium and magnesium fuels. Our Mg fuelled source provides the highest reported specific impulse for a gridless ion thruster and is competitive with all flight rated ion thrusters. We present a model based on cathode sublimation and melting at the cathodic arc spot explaining the outstanding performance of the Mg fuelled source. A further significant advantage of an Mg-fuelled thruster is the abundance of Mg in asteroidal material and in space junk, providing an opportunity for utilising these resources in space.

  13. A field study of the geomorphic effects of sublimating CO2 blocks on dune slopes at Coral Pink Dunes, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Mary; Nield, Jo; Diniega, Serina; Hansen, Candy; McElwaine, Jim

    2016-04-01

    The seasonal sublimation of CO2 ice is an active driver of present-day surface change on Mars. Diniega et al (2013) proposed that a discrete type of Martian gully, found on southern hemisphere dunes, were formed by the movement of CO2 seasonal ice blocks. These 'Linear Gullies' consist primarily of long (100 m - 2.5 km) grooves with near-uniform width (few-10 m wide), and typical depth of nudge it moved downslope. The dynamics of the block movement were recorded using a pair of high resolution video cameras. Geomorphological observations were noted and topographic change was quantified using a Leica P20 terrestrial laser scanner with a resolution of 0.8 mm at 10 m, and change detection limits less than 3 mm. The block run was repeated a total of 10 times and launched from the same location at the dune brink. The experiment ran for 45 minutes. The block size was reduced to (45 x 190 x 195 mm) by the end of the run series. The resultant geomorphology shows that the separate block runs occupied different tracks leading to a triangular plan form shape with a maximum width of 3.5 m. This is different from the findings in Arizona where a narrower track span was recorded (1.7m) (Bourke et al, 2016). Similar block dynamics were observed at both sites (as blocks moved straight, swiveled and bounced downslope). Distinctive pits with arcuate rims on their downslope edge were formed where blocks bounced on the surface. These pits are at an almost equidistant spacing. Despite a longer slope (16 m as opposed to 8m at Grand Falls), no depositional apron was formed. Levee development was less consistent compared to the Arizona site, but a pronounced unpaired-levee formed towards the base of the lee slope. These data show that sublimating blocks of CO2 ice leave signatures of transport paths and are capable of eroding and transporting sediment. Diniega,S. et al (2013) A new dry hypothesis for the formation of Martian linear gullies. Icarus. Vol. 225, 1, p. 526-537. Bourke, M.C. et

  14. The role of oxygen in CdS/CdTe solar cells deposited by close-spaced sublimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, D.H.; Levi, D.H.; Matson, R.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    The presence of oxygen during close-spaced sublimation (CSS) of CdTe has been previously reported to be essential for high-efficiency CdS/CdTe solar cells because it increases the acceptor density in the absorber. The authors find that the presence of oxygen during CSS increases the nucleation site density of CdTe, thus decreasing pinhole density and grain size. Photoluminescence showed that oxygen decreases material quality in the bulk of the CdTe film, but positively impacts the critical CdS/CdTe interface. Through device characterization the authors were unable to verify an increase in acceptor density with increased oxygen. These results, along with the achievement of high-efficiency cells (13% AM1.5) without the use of oxygen, led the authors to conclude that the use of oxygen during CSS deposition of CdTe can be useful but is not essential.

  15. Enthalpies of solution, enthalpies of fusion and enthalpies of solvation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons: Instruments for determination of sublimation enthalpy at 298.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomonov, Boris N., E-mail: boris.solomonov@ksu.ru; Varfolomeev, Mikhail A.; Nagrimanov, Ruslan N.; Mukhametzyanov, Timur A.; Novikov, Vladimir B.

    2015-12-20

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Solution enthalpies of aromatic hydrocarbons were measured at 298.15 K. • Solution enthalpy of aromatic hydrocarbons in benzene is equal to their fusion enthalpy. • Method for calculation of solvation enthalpy of aromatic hydrocarbons was proposed. • Approach for estimation of aromatic hydrocarbons sublimation enthalpy was developed. • Obtained sublimation enthalpies coincide well with the recommended literature data. - Abstract: In this work a simple method for calculation of solvation enthalpies of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in various solvents at 298.15 K was proposed. According to this method the enthalpy of solvation of any polyaromatic hydrocarbon in a particular solvent can be calculated on the basis of the general formula of the compound, the solvation enthalpy of benzene in the same solvent and parameter related to the contribution of hydrogen atom into solvation enthalpy. The validity of the proposed method was confirmed by the comparison of calculated and experimentally measured values of solvation enthalpies of PAHs in benzene, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile. This method was used for determination of the sublimation enthalpy of PAHs at 298.15 K based on the general relationship between the enthalpy of sublimation/vaporization of the compound of interest and its enthalpies of solution and solvation in the same solvent at 298.15 K. Enthalpies of solution at infinite dilution of several PAHs were measured in acetonitrile, benzene and tetrahydrofuran at 298.15 K. It was shown that solution enthalpies of PAHs in benzene at 298.15 K are approximately equal to their fusion enthalpies at the melting temperature. Solvation enthalpies of 15 PAHs at 298.15 K calculated according to the proposed method together with corresponding fusion enthalpy values (at the melting temperature) were used to calculate the sublimation enthalpy values at 298.15 K. Comparison of the obtained results with recommended values of

  16. Sublimation pit distribution indicates convection cell surface velocities of ∼10 cm per year in Sputnik Planitia, Pluto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhler, Peter B.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    2018-01-01

    The ∼106 km2 Sputnik Planitia, Pluto is the upper surface of a vast basin of nitrogen ice. Cellular landforms in Sputnik Planitia with areas in the range of a few × 102-103 km2 are likely the surface manifestation of convective overturn in the nitrogen ice. The cells have sublimation pits on them, with smaller pits near their centers and larger pits near their edges. We map pits on seven cells and find that the pit radii increase by between 2.1 ± 0.4 × 10-3 and 5.9 ± 0.8 × 10-3 m m-1 away from the cell center, depending on the cell. This is a lower bound on the size increase because of the finite resolution of the data. Accounting for resolution yields upper bounds on the size vs. distance distribution of between 4.2 ± 0.2 × 10-3 and 23.4 ± 1.5 × 10-3 m m-1. We then use an analytic model to calculate that pit radii grow via sublimation at a rate of 3.6-0.6+2.1 ×10-4 m yr-1, which allows us to convert the pit size vs. distance distribution into a pit age vs. distance distribution. This yields surface velocities between 1.5-0.2+1.0 and 6.2-1.4+3.4 cm yr-1 for the slowest cell and surface velocities between 8.1-1.0+5.5 and 17.9-5.1+8.9 cm yr-1 for the fastest cell. These convection rates imply that the surface ages at the edge of cells reach ∼4.2-8.9 × 105 yr. The rates are comparable to rates of ∼6 cm yr-1 that were previously obtained from modeling of the convective overturn in Sputnik Planitia (McKinnon et al., 2016). Finally, we investigate the surface rheology of the convection cells and estimate that the minimum ice viscosity necessary to support the geometry of the observed pits is of order 1016-1017 Pa s, based on the argument that pits would relax away before growing to their observed radii of several hundred meters if the viscosity were lower than this value.

  17. Sublimation-assisted graphene transfer technique based on small polyaromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingguang; Stekovic, Dejan; Li, Wangxiang; Arkook, Bassim; Haddon, Robert C.; Bekyarova, Elena

    2017-06-01

    Advances in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of graphene have made this material a very attractive candidate for a number of applications including transparent conductors, electronics, optoeletronics, biomedical devices and energy storage. The CVD method requires transfer of graphene on a desired substrate and this is most commonly accomplished with polymers. The removal of polymer carriers is achieved with organic solvents or thermal treatment which makes this approach inappropriate for application to plastic thin films such as polyethylene terephthalate substrates. An ultraclean graphene transfer method under mild conditions is highly desired. In this article, we report a naphthalene-assisted graphene transfer technique which provides a reliable route to residue-free transfer of graphene to both hard and flexible substrates. The quality of the transferred graphene was characterized with atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Field effect transistors, based on the naphthalene-transfered graphene, were fabricated and characterized. This work has the potential to broaden the applications of CVD graphene in fields where ultraclean graphene and mild graphene transfer conditions are required.

  18. Vaporization, fusion and sublimation enthalpies of the dicarboxylic acids from C4 to C14 and C16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, Maria Victoria; Temprado, Manuel; Chickos, James S.

    2005-01-01

    The fusion enthalpies of the series butanedioic acid through to tetradecanedioic acid and hexadecanedioic acids have been measured by DSC. In addition to fusion, a number of solid-solid phase transitions have also been detected in these diacids. The vaporization enthalpies of these compounds have been measured by correlation gas chromatography using the vaporization enthalpies of butanedioic, hexanedioic and decanedioic acids as standards. The vaporization enthalpies of the diacids from C 4 to C 10 correlated linearly with the number of methylene groups present. Above C 10 , the vaporization enthalpies of C 11 -C 14 and C 16 begin to deviate from linearity. The vaporization enthalpies for these compounds are dependent on the temperature of the GC column used. Similar departure from linearity has also been observed previously in the sublimation enthalpies for these compounds. The results are discussed in terms of formation of a cyclic intramolecular hydrogen bonded network in the gas phase similar to the bimolecular association observed in smaller mono-carboxylic acids at ambient temperatures

  19. Study of a micro-sublimation apparatus with removal of the vapours by pumping; application to the analysis of fluorinated products (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delvalle, P.

    1963-01-01

    Micro-sublimation analysis presents definite advantages both from the qualitative and quantitative points of view. An automatic micro-sublimation analysis apparatus has been developed for the analysis of fluorinated products (ClF 3 , HF, UF 6 , etc.) but this is only one particular application of a method which has a far wider field of possible applications. We give first the most favorable conditions for the operation of such an apparatus. These conditions are the use of a detector which is linear and independent of the nature of the gas, the flow of the sublimed vapours in the conditions of molecular flow, and finally a reproducible and linear re-heating of the separating trap. The apparatus thus built has the advantage of yielding any analysis without prior calibration. It also makes possible the easy identification of an unknown product by the determination of its vapour pressure curve and its molecular weight. The analysis of fluorinated products with this apparatus has shown that the experimental results agree well with what is expected. (author) [fr

  20. Vapor pressures and standard molar enthalpies, entropies, and Gibbs free energies of sublimation of 2,4- and 3,4-dinitrobenzoic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vecchio, Stefano; Brunetti, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    The vapor pressures of the solid and liquid 2,4- and 3,4-dinitrobenzoic acids were determined by torsion-effusion and thermogravimetry under both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions, respectively. From the temperature dependence of vapor pressure derived by the experimental torsion-effusion and thermogravimetry data the molar enthalpies of sublimation Δ cr g H m 0 ( ) and vaporization Δ l g H m 0 ( ) were determined, respectively, at the middle of the respective temperature intervals. The melting temperatures and the molar enthalpies of fusion of these compounds were measured by d.s.c. Finally, the results obtained by all the methods proposed were corrected at the reference temperature of 298.15 K using the estimated heat capacity differences between gas and liquid for vaporization experiments and the estimated heat capacity differences between gas and solid for sublimation experiments. Therefore, the averages of the standard (p o = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies, entropies and Gibbs free energies of sublimation at 298.15 K, have been derived.

  1. Ülev ei Kivisildniku luules. Üks lugemisviis. The Sublime „No” in Kivisildnik’s Poetry: A Way of Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Luks

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims toward a phenomenological interpretation of the unmediated experience of reading Sven Kivisildnik’s poetry. As the basic theoretical thesis of the article, I assert that there is always an inherent negativity in the feeling of the sublime, since this feeling is caused by unrepresentable experience. Likewise, I claim that this negativity is not merely a lack in aesthetic representation, but that it has deep ontological meaning in itself. I make connections between the inherent negativity in the feeling of the sublime and the concept of failure of linguistic utterance worked out by Jaan Undusk, Jaak Tomberg and Jüri Lipping. I come to the conclusion that the „no” in the feeling of sublimity is given to us in unmediated form. The practical (or applied intention of this article is to show that the dominant sociocentric interpretation of Kivisildnik’s poetry is one-sided and limiting. From the theoretical positions I have worked out, I outline the fundamental motifs of Kivisildnik’s poetry, and by means of examples drawn from the text, demonstrate how the „no” of the sublime is found there. I come to the conclusion that the dominant direction in Kivisildnik’s poetry is destruction. The article consists of an introduction, five sections, and a summary. In the first section („Approaches”, I briefly introduce the phenomenological approach. My position is that the work is always created during the act of reading, as the outcome of the union of text and reader. However, I leave the reader as subject open to definition, leaving it to drift as it were, since I am sceptical about the possibility of defining the subject. I do not claim that the sublime is the only possible conceptual framework for understanding poetry; rather, I consider the sublime as one proper theoretical metaphor for conceptualizing personal experience of reading. In the second section of the article („Defining poetry”, I make use of Rein Raud

  2. Jovellanos en sus escritos íntimos: el paisaje y la emoción estética de lo sublime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rueda, Ana

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Diario (Diary foregrounds Jovellanos’s interest in recording Spain and its geography in a historical, statistical, economic and political sense. Like his celebrated report on political economy, the Informe sobre la ley agraria (Report on Agricultural Law, the Diario creates a moral and civil conscience that is profoundly oriented toward the social reform of Spain. Even so, the circumstance of his exile causes his gaze to acquire in this intimate work a quality unlike that of the Report. Jovellanos describes the disturbing beauty of wild landscapes and experiences in his Diary the emotional commotion that Burke (Philosophical Enquiry, 1757 and Kant (Critique of Judgment, 1790 recorded as the sublime. The pages of his Diary on which the word “sublime” and its accompanying emotions appear reveal an anxiety that threatens to undermine Jovellanos’s commitment to societal progress and the power of reason; that is, the suppositions of rational subjectivity that underlay his work as politician and writer. The concept of the sublime introduces narrative spaces of great emotion that reveal an important turn toward an epiphanic subjectivity that in successive decades would come to the fore in Romanticism. However, Jovellanos tempers his enthusiasm. On the threshold of the sublime he takes a step back. His self-alienation appears to prohibit the reader entry into zones of his private person and to frustrate the expectation of the reader of such intimate literature that he will come to know the man. And yet, it is precisely in these moments of hesitation where the reader is allowed access to the diarist´s inner struggle and to his negotiations between his private self and his social persona.El Diario recoge el interés de Jovellanos por consignar España y su geografía en un sentido histórico, estadístico, económico y político. Como hizo constar en su célebre informe de economía política aplicado al estado de la agricultura en la Espa

  3. An examination of the thermodynamics of fusion, vaporization, and sublimation of (R,S)- and (R)-flurbiprofen by correlation gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umnahanant, Patamaporn; Hasty, Darrell; Chickos, James

    2012-06-01

    The vaporization, fusion, and sublimation enthalpies of (R,S)- and (R)-flurbiprofen at T = 298.15 K are reported and compared with literature values when available. Correlation gas chromatography experiments were first performed to identify appropriate standards that could be used for materials containing a single fluorine substituent. Subsequent correlations resulted in a vaporization enthalpy for (R,S)-flurbiprofen and (R)-flurbiprofen, ΔH(vap) (298.15 K), of (127.5 ± 5.5) and (127.4 ± 4.7) kJ mol, respectively. Fusion enthalpies, ΔH(fus) (387 K), of (28.2 ± and, ΔH(fus) (381 K), (22.8 ± kJ mol(-1) were also measured by differential scanning calorimetry for the racemic and chiral forms of flurbiprofen. Adjusted to T = 298.15 K and combined with the vaporization enthalpy resulted in sublimation enthalpies, ΔH(sub) (298.15 K), of (155.6 ± 5.8) and (145.1 ± 5.7) kJ mol(-1) for (R,S)- and (R)-flurbiprofen, respectively. The fusion enthalpy measured for the racemic form was in excellent agreement with the literature value, while the sublimation enthalpy varies substantially from previous work. Two weak solid-solid phase transitions were also observed for (R)-flurbiprofen at T = 353.9 K (0.30 ± 0.1) and 363.2 K (0.21 ± 0.03) kJ · mol(-1). Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A sublimate sorbent for stir-bar sorptive extraction of aqueous endocrine disruptor pesticides for gas chromatography-electron capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Wen; Lee, Hua Kwang; Shih, Hou-Kuang; Jen, Jen-Fon

    2018-06-06

    A dumbbell-shaped magnetic stir-bar with sublimate sorbent was prepared for the stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) of pesticides in an aqueous sample prior to gas chromatography-micro-electron capture detection (GC-μECD). Cyclododecane (CDD) was coated onto a magnetic stir-bar surface as a sublimate sorbent, and steel balls were placed on both ends to form a dumbbell-shaped magnetic stir-bar for SBSE. Four EDC pesticides including chlorpyrifos, ethion, bromopropylate, and λ-cyhalothrin in aqueous samples were selected as model species to examine the proposed SBSE and the following desorption. The parameters studied were those affecting the extraction efficiencies including the coating (solvent for CDD and thickness), extraction (sample pH, stirring rate, time, and salting out effect), dissolution solvent volume, and the loss of CDD sublimated in air. The maximum extraction efficiency was obtained under the following conditions. The stir bar (with CDD thickness of 5.2 μm) was added into a 10 mL sample solution (at pH 7) for a 20-min extraction at 600 rpm. Then, the stir bar was gently removed from the sample solution, disassembled, and immersed into a 0.2 mL insert tube consisting of 3 μL hexane to dissolve; 1 μL was used for GC-ECD analysis. The linear ranges were 0.005-5 μg L -1 with coefficients of determination ranging from 0.9950 - 0.9994. Detection limits (based on S/N = 3) of the four EDCs were 0.4-4.5 ngL -1 with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.4-6.3%, and quantitation limits (based on S/N = 5) were 1-15 ngL -1 . The relative recoveries of the spiked samples were in the range of 83.2-98.7% with RSDs of 2.1-8.4% in farm field waters. The proposed sublimation sorbent obtained excellent enrichment factors (101-834) and provided a simple, rapid, sensitive, and eco-friendly sample preparation method. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Enthalpy of sublimation/vaporization of trans-cyclohexyl-1,4-diamine and cis-cyclohexyl-1,2-diamine

    OpenAIRE

    Tomé, Luciana I. N.; Rosado, Mário T. S.; Nunes, Sandra C. C.; Maria, Teresa M. R.; Canotilho, João; Eusébio, M. Ermelinda S.

    2007-01-01

    The molar enthalpy of sublimation, , of trans-cyclohexyl-1,4-diamine and the molar enthalpy of vaporization, , of cis-cyclohexyl-1,2-diamine, at the temperature 298.15 K, were determined by calorimetry. was obtained for the trans-isomer and for the cis form. The molar enthalpy of fusion of the first compound, at T = 342.1 K, was determined by differential scanning calorimetry. The molar enthalpy of vaporization of the 1,4-isomer was estimated by combining the value of the enthalpy of sublimat...

  6. Enthalpy of sublimation/vaporization of trans-cyclohexyl-1,4-diamine and cis-cyclohexyl-1,2-diamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tome, Luciana I.N.; Rosado, Mario T.S.; Nunes, Sandra C.C.; Maria, Teresa M.R.; Canotilho, Joao; Eusebio, M. Ermelinda S.

    2007-01-01

    The molar enthalpy of sublimation, Δ cr g H m 0 , of trans-cyclohexyl-1,4-diamine and the molar enthalpy of vaporization, Δ l g H m 0 , of cis-cyclohexyl-1,2-diamine, at the temperature 298.15 K, were determined by calorimetry. Δ cr g H m 0 (T=298.15K)=(105.0±0.8)kJ.mol -1 was obtained for the trans-isomer and Δ l g H m 0 (T=298.15K)=(62.2±1.0)kJ.mol -1 for the cis form. The molar enthalpy of fusion of the first compound, at T = 342.1 K, was determined by differential scanning calorimetry. The molar enthalpy of vaporization of the 1,4-isomer was estimated by combining the value of the enthalpy of sublimation with that of the enthalpy of fusion. The values obtained for molar standard enthalpy of vaporization and those available for the enthalpy of the diamines in the gas state were used to calculate the difference between the enthalpies of both compounds in the liquid state

  7. Do grotesco ao sublime: a violência como elemento condicionante de redenção em Tarântula, de Thierry Jonquet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Mucha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The following work aims to demonstrate how violence is conditioning of redemption in Tarântula (1984, by Thierry Jonquet, a novel that gained notoriety after it’s film adaptation with the title "A pele que habito", released in 2011. What is noticeable is that Vincent characters, then with another name, Ève (a woman and Richard Lafargue join the end of the narrative. Although she has been imprisoned and subjected to a drastic transformation of his body and he, on a whim of revenge, made use of his plastic medical knowledge to promote sex change in Vincent without his permission. Even with all the violence that surrounds them, they surrender to each other. From this main event and others that permeate this novel, it is possible to state that this work moves from grotesque, with the issue of violence, to sublime, with the theme of redemption.

  8. Effect of the grain sizes on the photovoltaic parameters of CdTe solar cells prepared by close space sublimation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potlog, T.

    2007-01-01

    Thin Film CdS/CdTe solar cells were fabricated by Close Space Sublimation at the substrate temperature ranging from 300 degrees ± 5 degrees to 340 degrees ± degrees. The best photovoltaic parameters were achieved at substrate temperature 320 degrees and source temperature 610 degrees. The open circuit voltage and current density changes significantly with the substrate temperature and depends on the dimension of the grain sizes. Grain size is an efficiency limiting parameter for CdTe layers with large grains. The open circuit voltage and current density are the best for the cells having dimension of grains between 1.0 μm and ∼ 5.0 μm. CdS/CdTe solar cells with an efficiency of ∼ 10% were obtained. (author)

  9. Phase Transition Enthalpy Measurements of Organic and Organometallic Compounds and Ionic Liquids. Sublimation, Vaporization, and Fusion Enthalpies from 1880 to 2015. Part 2. C11-C192

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acree, William; Chickos, James S.

    2017-03-01

    The second part of this compendium concludes with a collection of phase change enthalpies of organic molecules inclusive of C11-C192 reported over the period 1880-2015. Also included are phase change enthalpies including fusion, vaporization, and sublimation enthalpies for organometallic, ionic liquids, and a few inorganic compounds. Paper I of this compendium, published separately, includes organic compounds from C1 to C10 and describes a group additivity method for evaluating solid, liquid, and gas phase heat capacities as well as temperature adjustments of phase changes. Paper II of this compendium also includes an updated version of a group additivity method for evaluating total phase change entropies which together with the fusion temperature can be useful in estimating total phase change enthalpies. Other uses include application in identifying potential substances that either form liquid or plastic crystals or exhibit additional phase changes such as undetected solid-solid transitions or behave anisotropically in the liquid state.

  10. Phase Transition Enthalpy Measurements of Organic and Organometallic Compounds. Sublimation, Vaporization and Fusion Enthalpies From 1880 to 2015. Part 1. C1 - C10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acree, William; Chickos, James S.

    2016-09-01

    A compendium of phase change enthalpies published in 2010 is updated to include the period 1880-2015. Phase change enthalpies including fusion, vaporization, and sublimation enthalpies are included for organic, organometallic, and a few inorganic compounds. Part 1 of this compendium includes organic compounds from C1 to C10. Part 2 of this compendium, to be published separately, will include organic and organometallic compounds from C11 to C192. Sufficient data are presently available to permit thermodynamic cycles to be constructed as an independent means of evaluating the reliability of the data. Temperature adjustments of phase change enthalpies from the temperature of measurement to the standard reference temperature, T = 298.15 K, and a protocol for doing so are briefly discussed.

  11. Structural characterization of AgGaTe{sub 2} layers grown on a- and c-sapphire substrates by a closed space sublimation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uruno, Aya; Usui, Ayaka [Department of Electrical Engineering and Bioscience, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Kobayashi, Masakazu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Bioscience, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Kagami Memorial Research Institute for Materials Science and Technology, Waseda University, 2-8-26 Nishiwaseda, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-0051 (Japan)

    2014-07-15

    AgGaTe{sub 2} layers were grown on a- and c-plane sapphire substrates by a closed space sublimation method with varying the source temperature. Grown films were evaluated by θ -2θ and pole figure measurements of X-ray diffraction. AgGaTe{sub 2} layers were grown to have strong preference for the (103) orientation. However, it was cleared the Ag{sub 5}Te{sub 3} was formed along with the AgGaTe{sub 2} when the layer was grown on c-plane sapphire. The orientation of the film was analyzed by using the pole figure, and resulted in AgGaTe{sub 2} without Ag{sub 5}Te{sub 3} layers could be grown on a-plane sapphire. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. A simple experimental arrangement for measuring the vapour pressures and sublimation enthalpies by the Knudsen effusion method: Application to DNA and RNA bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, A.L.F. de; Medina, A.; Zappa, F.; Pereira, J.M.; Bessa, E.; Martins, M.H.P.; Coelho, L.F.S.; Wolff, W.; Castro Faria, N.V. de

    2006-01-01

    We measured the vapour pressure of several DNA and RNA bases-uracil, adenine, guanine, thymine and cytosine-in the 300-450 K range. In each case the sample mass loss rate was measured as function of temperature with a simple setup consisting of a commercial film deposition system and a homemade oven. Afterwards vapour pressure values were extracted from these data using the Knudsen effusion method. Sublimation enthalpy values, obtained from vapour pressure data by applying the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, are in very good agreement with literature values. The results suggest that crystal-based film thickness monitors may be useful in on-line cross-section measurements, monitoring the gas target thickness. They also show the viability of using this oven for producing a biomolecular gas target

  13. Enhanced performance of CdS/CdTe thin-film devices through temperature profiling techniques applied to close-spaced sublimation deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaonan Li; Sheldon, P.; Moutinho, H.; Matson, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The authors describe a methodology developed and applied to the close-spaced sublimation technique for thin-film CdTe deposition. The developed temperature profiles consisted of three discrete temperature segments, which the authors called the nucleation, plugging, and annealing temperatures. They have demonstrated that these temperature profiles can be used to grow large-grain material, plug pinholes, and improve CdS/CdTe photovoltaic device performance by about 15%. The improved material and device properties have been obtained while maintaining deposition temperatures compatible with commercially available substrates. This temperature profiling technique can be easily applied to a manufacturing environment by adjusting the temperature as a function of substrate position instead of time.

  14. Studies of CdS/CdTe interface: Comparison of CdS films deposited by close space sublimation and chemical bath deposition techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jun-feng, E-mail: pkuhjf@bit.edu.cn [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), Université de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6502, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Institute of Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, Petersenstr. 23, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Fu, Gan-hua; Krishnakumar, V.; Schimper, Hermann-Josef [Institute of Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, Petersenstr. 23, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Liao, Cheng [Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Jaegermann, Wolfram [Institute of Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, Petersenstr. 23, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Besland, M.P. [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), Université de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6502, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)

    2015-05-01

    The CdS layers were deposited by two different methods, close space sublimation (CSS) and chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. The CdS/CdTe interface properties were investigated by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The TEM images showed a large CSS-CdS grain size in the range of 70-80 nm. The interface between CSS-CdS and CdTe were clear and sharp, indicating an abrupt hetero-junction. On the other hand, CBD-CdS layer had much smaller grain size in the 5-10 nm range. The interface between CBD-CdS and CdTe was not as clear as CSS-CdS. With the stepwise coverage of CdTe layer, the XPS core levels of Cd 3d and S 2p in CSS-CdS had a sudden shift to lower binding energies, while those core levels shifted gradually in CBD-CdS. In addition, XPS depth profile analyses indicated a strong diffusion in the interface between CBD-CdS and CdTe. The solar cells prepared using CSS-CdS yielded better device performance than the CBD-CdS layer. The relationships between the solar cell performances and properties of CdS/CdTe interfaces were discussed. - Highlights: • Studies of CdS deposited by close space sublimation and chemical bath deposition • An observation of CdS/CdTe interface by transmission electron microscope • A careful investigation of CdS/CdTe interface by X ray photoelectron spectra • An easier diffusion at the chemical bath deposition CdS and CdTe interface.

  15. Influence of Secondary Interactions on the Structure, Sublimation Thermodynamics, and Solubility of Salicylate:4-Hydroxybenzamide Cocrystals. Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manin, Alex N; Voronin, Alexander P; Shishkina, Anastasia V; Vener, Mikhail V; Churakov, Andrei V; Perlovich, German L

    2015-08-20

    Cocrystal screening of 4-hydroxybenzamide with a number of salicylates (salicylic acid, SA; 4-aminosalicylic acid, PASA; acetylsalicylic acid, ASA; and salicylsalicylic acid, SSA) was conducted to confirm the formation of two cocrystals, [SA+4-OHBZA] (1:1) and [PASA+4-OHBZA] (1:1). Their structures were determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and the hydrogen-bond network topology was studied. Thermodynamic characteristics of salicylic acid cocrystal sublimation were obtained experimentally. It was proved that PASA cocrystallization with 4-OHBZA makes the drug more stable and prevents the irreversible process of decarboxylation of PASA resulting in formation of toxic 3-aminophenol. The pattern of non-covalent interactions in the cocrystals is described quantitatively using solid-state density functional theory followed by Bader analysis of the periodic electron density. It has been found that the total energy of secondary interactions between synthon atoms and the side hydroxyl group of the acid molecule in [SA+4-OHBZA] (1:1) and [PASA+4-OHBZA] (1:1) cocrystals is comparable to the energy of the primary acid-amide heterosynthon. The theoretical value of the sublimation enthalpy of [SA+4-OHBZA], 231 kJ/mol, agrees fairly well with the experimental one, 272 kJ/mol. The dissolution experiments with [SA+4-OHBZA] have proved that the relatively large cocrystal stability in relation to the stability of its components has a negative effect on the dissolution rate and equilibrium solubility. The [PASA+4-OHBZA] (1:1) cocrystal showed an enhancement of apparent solubility compared to that of the corresponding pure active pharmaceutical ingredient, while their intrinsic dissolution rates are comparable.

  16. The growth and electronic structure of azobenzene-based functional molecules on layered crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwicki, J; Ludwig, E; Buck, J; Kalläne, M; Kipp, L; Rossnagel, K; Köhler, F; Herges, R

    2012-01-01

    In situ ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy is used to study the growth of ultrathin films of azobenzene-based functional molecules (azobenzene, Disperse Orange 3 and a triazatriangulenium platform with an attached functional azo-group) on the layered metal TiTe 2 and on the layered semiconductor HfS 2 at liquid nitrogen temperatures. Effects of intermolecular interactions, of the substrate electronic structure, and of the thermal energy of the sublimated molecules on the growth process and on the adsorbate electronic structure are identified and discussed. A weak adsorbate-substrate interaction is particularly observed for the layered semiconducting substrate, holding the promise of efficient molecular photoswitching.

  17. Comparative study of CdTe sources used for deposition of CdTe thin films by close spaced sublimation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Anacleto Pinheiro

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Unlike other thin film deposition techniques, close spaced sublimation (CSS requires a short source-substrate distance. The kind of source used in this technique strongly affects the control of the deposition parameters, especially the deposition rate. When depositing CdTe thin films by CSS, the most common CdTe sources are: single-crystal or polycrystalline wafers, powders, pellets or pieces, a thick CdTe film deposited onto glass or molybdenum substrate (CdTe source-plate and a sintered CdTe powder. In this work, CdTe thin films were deposited by CSS technique from different CdTe sources: particles, powder, compact powder, a paste made of CdTe and propylene glycol and source-plates (CdTe/Mo and CdTe/glass. The largest deposition rate was achieved when a paste made of CdTe and propylene glycol was used as the source. CdTe source-plates led to lower rates, probably due to the poor heat transmission, caused by the introduction of the plate substrate. The results also showed that compacting the powder the deposition rate increases due to the better thermal contact between powder particles.

  18. Towards an understanding of the molecular mechanism of solvation of drug molecules: a thermodynamic approach by crystal lattice energy, sublimation, and solubility exemplified by paracetamol, acetanilide, and phenacetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlovich, German L; Volkova, Tatyana V; Bauer-Brandl, Annette

    2006-10-01

    Temperature dependencies of saturated vapor pressure for the monoclinic modification of paracetamol (acetaminophen), acetanilide, and phenacetin (acetophenetidin) were measured and thermodynamic functions of sublimation calculated (paracetamol: DeltaGsub298=60.0 kJ/mol; DeltaHsub298=117.9+/-0.7 kJ/mol; DeltaSsub298=190+/-2 J/mol.K; acetanilide: DeltaGsub298=40.5 kJ/mol; DeltaHsub298=99.8+/-0.8 kJ/mol; DeltaSsub298=197+/-2 J/mol.K; phenacetin: DeltaGsub298=52.3 kJ/mol; DeltaHsub298=121.8+/-0.7 kJ/mol; DeltaSsub298=226+/-2 J/mol.K). Analysis of packing energies based on geometry optimization of molecules in the crystal lattices using diffraction data and the program Dmol3 was carried out. Parameters analyzed were: (a) energetic contribution of van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonding to the total packing energy; (b) contributions of fragments of the molecules to the packing energy. The fraction of hydrogen bond energy in the packing energy increases as: phenacetin (17.5%)acetanilide (20.4%)acetanilide and phenacetin, entropy driven. Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  19. Deposition of polycrystalline Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x} Te films on ZnTe/graphite and graphite substrates by close-spaced sublimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Tamotsu; Akiba, Sho; Takahashi, Kohei; Nagatsuka, Satsuki; Kanda, Yohei [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kisarazu National College of Technology, 2-11-1 Kiyomidai-higashi, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0041 (Japan); Tokuda, Satoshi; Kishihara, Hiroyuki; Sato, Toshiyuki [Technology Research Laboratory, Shimadzu Corporation, 3-9-4 Hikaridai, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, Kyoto 619-0237 (Japan)

    2014-07-15

    The effects of a ZnTe layer on the deposition of a Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te (CZT) layer in the initial stage of the close-spaced sublimation (CSS) deposition were investigated. The deposition rate was almost constant in the initial stage of the CdTe deposition on the ZnTe/graphite substrates. However, the deposition rate within 1 minute was lower than that after 1 minute in the CdTe deposition on graphite substrates. This result suggests that nucleation of CdTe directly deposited on graphite substrate is difficult when compared to that with a ZnTe layer. Furthermore, the effects of CdCl{sub 2} and ZnTe additions to the CdTe sources in the CSS deposition were also investigated. Both the grain size and the intensity of donor-acceptor pair (DAP) emission in photoluminescence (PL) spectra were decreased by the effect of CdCl{sub 2} addition. Zn content in CZT films was controlled by the ZnTe ratio in the CdTe/ZnTe powder sources. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Estimativa por DSC das entalpias de sublimação da etilenouréia e da propilenouréia: algumas correlações empíricas envolvendo amidas e tioamidas Estimative by DSC data of the sublimation enthalpies for ethyleneurea and propyleneurea: some empirical correlations with amides and tioamides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Fernandes de Farias

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available By using DSC data, the enthaplies of sublimation for ethyleneurea and propyleneurea, are calculated as 84 and 89 kJ mol-1 respectively. Using the vaporization enthalpy values for dimethylethyleneurea and dimethylprophyleneurea, as obtained from literature, the empirical relation: Dcrg Hmo (1/ Dcrg Hmo (2 = Dlg Hmo (1/ Dlg Hmo(2 = constant, that relate sublimation or vaporization enthalpies of two different substances and of its methylated derivatives, is obtained. Correlations like that are found to another ureas and thioureas.

  1. A sublimação jurídica da função social da propriedade The legal sublimation of the social function of property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Lazzarotto Simioni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O sentido sociológico da função social da propriedade oscila sobre um paradoxo que as teorias jurídicas e políticas do pós-guerra escondem através da idéia do Estado de Direito e do Estado Benfeitor. A função social da propriedade ilustra esse estágio de desenvolvimento das relações comunicativas entre a Política e o Direito, onde a primeira não tem alternativa senão transferir seus conflitos para o segundo, transformando os conflitos políticos em conflitos jurídicos. Como será visto neste artigo, o resultado dessa sublimação jurídica dos conflitos políticos é a generalização simbólica das expectativas políticas na forma de expectativas normativas, que nessas condições podem ser tranqüilizadas artificialmente pela programação condicional do Direito.The social function of property oscillates on a paradox that the juridical and political theories of the postwar period hide through the idea of the Rule of Law and the Welfare State. The social function of property illustrates that development of the communicative relations between Politics and Law, in which the first transfers its conflicts to the latter, turning political conflicts into legal ones. As it will be seen in this article, the result of that legal sublimation of the political conflicts is the symbolic generalization of the political expectations in the form of normative expectations, so that in those conditions they can be artificially tranquilized by the conditional programming of the Law.

  2. Delayed growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Slow rate of growth; Retarded growth and development; Growth delay Images Toddler development References Cooke DW, Divall SA, Radovick S. Normal and aberrant growth in children. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, ...

  3. Evolution: Prosaically About the Sublime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Shashkov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the origin of mankind, every living person has tried to the best of his abilities to comprehend his presence in the world around. The question, around which, in one way or another, the topic of evolution centers. All this time, apparently not really successful attempts to create a unified world view have not stopped. The complexity of the problem lies in the fact that, while solving, it is necessary to understand a complex of interconnected intricate problems. Among them there are answers to the following questions: which principles define the evolutionary processes; how can appear and on what principles can function such an apparatus as the brain; how can this apparatus self-identify in its own environment, how it interacts with it; how appear and on what principles form its social relations with the ones of its kind? Afterward, there inevitably appears a necessity to thoroughly consider at least two more topics – appearance of metrology and terminology as the tools of self-identification and mutual understanding, their possibilities and limits of application. Solving of these tasks gives a rather definite base for rational correction of all the fundamental created by the mankind in the sphere of theoretical underpinning of all things, gives an opportunity to select reliable schemes to forecast the future of the mankind. In the format of an article it is complicated to consider the whole complex of tasks, one can only briefly mark some of the main provisions and conclusions, formulate as far as possible the basic provision, on the basis of which an attempt to build a rather equivalent reality of the world order is conducted. Below follows a detailed description of the effects of two quite interesting regularities that underlie evolutionary processes. The first regularity is the paradox that any single, accidental, and indefinitely small interaction in a system becomes a precedent and inevitably enhances the likelihood of further interactions resulting in a variety of new emerging components in the system. The second regularity is that the speed of interactions in any limited and isolated zone of the system precipitously increases and multiply outstrips what is happening in the system itself.

  4. 4. Infinity and the Sublime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Verelst

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In their recent work, L. Graham and J.-M. Kantor discuss a remarkable connection between diverging conceptions of the mathematical infinite in Russia and France at the beginning of the twentieth century and the religious convictions of their respective authors. They expand much more on the Russian side of the cultural equation they propose; I do believe, however, that the French (or rather ‘West European’ side is more complex than it seems, and that digging deeper into it is worthwhile. In this paper I shall therefore broaden the path laid out in Graham and Kantor’s work, by connecting two different strands of research concerning the origin of what I loosely call ‘formal’ ideas: firstly, the rich but complex relation between logic and rhetoric throughout European cultural history, and secondly, the impact of religious convictions on the formation of certain mathematical and scientific ideas during Renaissance and Early Modernity, especially but not exclusively in France.

  5. Growth Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too little of it may be very short. Treatment with growth hormone can stimulate growth. People can also have too much growth hormone. Usually the cause is a pituitary gland tumor, which is not cancer. Too much growth hormone can cause gigantism in children, where their bones and their body ...

  6. Controlled Growth of Rubrene Nanowires by Eutectic Melt Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jeyon; Hyon, Jinho; Park, Kyung-Sun; Cho, Boram; Baek, Jangmi; Kim, Jueun; Lee, Sang Uck; Sung, Myung Mo; Kang, Youngjong

    2016-03-01

    Organic semiconductors including rubrene, Alq3, copper phthalocyanine and pentacene are crystallized by the eutectic melt crystallization. Those organic semiconductors form good eutectic systems with the various volatile crystallizable additives such as benzoic acid, salicylic acid, naphthalene and 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene. Due to the formation of the eutectic system, organic semiconductors having originally high melting point (Tm > 300 °C) are melted and crystallized at low temperature (Te = 40.8-133 °C). The volatile crystallizable additives are easily removed by sublimation. For a model system using rubrene, single crystalline rubrene nanowires are prepared by the eutectic melt crystallization and the eutectic-melt-assisted nanoimpinting (EMAN) technique. It is demonstrated that crystal structure and the growth direction of rubrene can be controlled by using different volatile crystallizable additives. The field effect mobility of rubrene nanowires prepared using several different crystallizable additives are measured and compared.

  7. growth stimulant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of timing and duration of supplementation of LIVFIT VET ® (growth stimulant) as substitute for fish meal on the growth performance, haematology and clinical enzymes concentration of growing pigs.

  8. Atomic and plasma-material interaction data for fusion. V. 7, part B. Particle induced erosion of Be, C and W in fusion plasmas. Part B: Physical sputtering and radiation-enhanced sublimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckstein, W.; Stephens, J.A.; Clark, R.E.H.; Davis, J.W.; Haasz, A.A.; Vietzke, E.; Hirooka, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The present volume of Atomic and Plasma-Material Interaction Data for Fusion is devoted to a critical review of the physical sputtering and radiation enhanced sublimation (RES) behaviour of fusion plasma-facing materials, in particular carbon, beryllium and tungsten. The present volume is intended to provide fusion reactor designers a detailed survey and parameterization of existing, critically assessed data for the chemical erosion of plasma-facing materials by particle impact. The survey and data compilation is presented for a variety of materials containing the elements C, Be and W (including dopants in carbon materials) and impacting plasma species. The dependencies of physical sputtering and RES yields on the material temperature, incident projectile energy, and incident flux are considered. The main data compilation is presented as separate data sheets indicating the material, impacting plasma species, experimental conditions, and parameterizations in terms of analytic functions

  9. Evolution effects of the copper surface morphology on the nucleation density and growth of graphene domains at different growth pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedayat, Seyed Mahdi [Transport Phenomena & Nanotechnology Lab., School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimi-Sabet, Javad, E-mail: j_karimi@alum.sharif.edu [NFCRS, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shariaty-Niassar, Mojtaba, E-mail: mshariat@ut.ac.ir [Transport Phenomena & Nanotechnology Lab., School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • Manipulation of the Cu surface morphology in a wide range by electropolishing treatment. • Comparison of the nucleation density of graphene at low pressure and atmospheric pressure CVD processes. • Controlling the evolution of the Cu surface morphology inside a novel confined space. • Growth of large-size graphene domains. - Abstract: In this work, we study the influence of the surface morphology of the catalytic copper substrate on the nucleation density and the growth rate of graphene domains at low and atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD and APCVD) processes. In order to obtain a wide range of initial surface morphology, precisely controlled electropolishing methods were developed to manipulate the roughntreess value of the as-received Cu substrate (RMS = 30 nm) to ultra-rough (RMS = 130 nm) and ultra-smooth (RMS = 2 nm) surfaces. The nucleation and growth of graphene domains show obviously different trends at LPCVD and APCVD conditions. In contrast to APCVD condition, the nucleation density of graphene domains is almost equal in substrates with different initial roughness values at LPCVD condition. We show that this is due to the evolution of the surface morphology of the Cu substrate during the graphene growth steps. By stopping the surface sublimation of copper substrate in a confined space saturated with Cu atoms, the evolution of the Cu surface was impeded. This results in the reduction of the nucleation density of graphene domains up to 24 times in the pre-smoothed Cu substrates at LPCVD condition.

  10. Evolution effects of the copper surface morphology on the nucleation density and growth of graphene domains at different growth pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedayat, Seyed Mahdi; Karimi-Sabet, Javad; Shariaty-Niassar, Mojtaba

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Manipulation of the Cu surface morphology in a wide range by electropolishing treatment. • Comparison of the nucleation density of graphene at low pressure and atmospheric pressure CVD processes. • Controlling the evolution of the Cu surface morphology inside a novel confined space. • Growth of large-size graphene domains. - Abstract: In this work, we study the influence of the surface morphology of the catalytic copper substrate on the nucleation density and the growth rate of graphene domains at low and atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD and APCVD) processes. In order to obtain a wide range of initial surface morphology, precisely controlled electropolishing methods were developed to manipulate the roughntreess value of the as-received Cu substrate (RMS = 30 nm) to ultra-rough (RMS = 130 nm) and ultra-smooth (RMS = 2 nm) surfaces. The nucleation and growth of graphene domains show obviously different trends at LPCVD and APCVD conditions. In contrast to APCVD condition, the nucleation density of graphene domains is almost equal in substrates with different initial roughness values at LPCVD condition. We show that this is due to the evolution of the surface morphology of the Cu substrate during the graphene growth steps. By stopping the surface sublimation of copper substrate in a confined space saturated with Cu atoms, the evolution of the Cu surface was impeded. This results in the reduction of the nucleation density of graphene domains up to 24 times in the pre-smoothed Cu substrates at LPCVD condition.

  11. Growth and intercalation of graphene on silicon carbide studied by low-energy electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speck, Florian; Ostler, Markus; Wanke, Martina; Seyller, Thomas [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Physik, Erlangen (Germany); Technische Universitaet Chemnitz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Besendoerfer, Sven [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Physik, Erlangen (Germany); Krone, Julia [Technische Universitaet Chemnitz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    Based on its electronic, structural, chemical, and mechanical properties, many potential applications have been proposed for graphene. In order to realize these visions, graphene has to be synthesized, grown, or exfoliated with properties that are determined by the targeted application. Growth of so-called epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide by sublimation of silicon in an argon atmosphere is one particular method that could potentially lead to electronic applications. In this contribution we summarize our recent work on different aspects of epitaxial graphene growth and interface manipulation by intercalation, which was performed by a combination of low-energy electron microscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, atomic force microscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Growth and characterization of high-purity SiC single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, G.; Balakrishna, V.; Brandt, C. D.

    2000-04-01

    High-purity SiC single crystals with diameter up to 50 mm have been grown by the physical vapor transport method. Finite element analysis was used for thermal modeling of the crystal growth cavity in order to reduce stress in the grown crystal. Crystals are grown in high-purity growth ambient using purified graphite furniture and high-purity SiC sublimation sources. Undoped crystals up to 50 mm in diameter with micropipe density less than 100 cm -2 have been grown using this method. These undoped crystals exhibit resistivities in the 10 3 Ω cm range and are p-type due to the presence of residual acceptor impurities, mainly boron. Semi-insulating SiC material is obtained by doping the crystal with vanadium. Vanadium has a deep donor level located near the middle of the band gap, which compensates the residual acceptor resulting in semi-insulating behavior.

  13. Growth references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    A growth reference describes the variation of an anthropometric measurement within a group of individuals. A reference is a tool for grouping and analyzing data and provides a common basis for comparing populations.1 A well known type of reference is the age-conditional growth diagram. The

  14. Growth Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... hypothyroidism is feeling tired or sluggish. A blood test measuring thyroid ... not affect intelligence or brain function. The cause of growth hormone ...

  15. Growth Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the changes your body goes through during puberty. Puberty is the stage of your life when sexual development happens, like breast development and menstrual periods in girls and growth of the penis and testicles in boys. One of the body ...

  16. Population growth and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, D L

    1984-01-01

    This discussion of the issues relating to the problem posed by population explosion in the developing countries and economic growth in the contemporary world covers the following: predictions of economic and social trends; the Malthusian theory of population; the classical or stationary theory of population; the medical triage model; ecological disaster; the Global 2000 study; the limits to growth; critiques of the Limits to Growth model; nonrenewable resources; food and agriculture; population explosion and stabilization; space and ocean colonization; and the limits perspective. The Limits to Growth model, a general equilibrium anti-growth model, is the gloomiest economic model ever constructed. None of the doomsday models, the Malthusian theory, the classical stationary state, the neo-Malthusian medical triage model, the Global 2000 study, are so far reaching in their consequences. The course of events that followed the publication of the "Limits to Growth" in 1972 in the form of 2 oil shocks, food shock, pollution shock, and price shock seemed to bear out formally the gloomy predictions of the thesis with a remarkable speed. The 12 years of economic experience and the knowledge of resource trends postulate that even if the economic pressures visualized by the model are at work they are neither far reaching nor so drastic. Appropriate action can solve them. There are several limitations to the Limits to Growth model. The central theme of the model, which is overshoot and collapse, is unlikely to be the course of events. The model is too aggregative to be realistic. It exaggerates the ecological disaster arising out of the exponential growth of population and industry. The gross underestimation of renewable resources is a basic flaw of the model. The most critical weakness of the model is its gross underestimation of the historical trend of technological progress and the technological possiblities within industry and agriculture. The model does correctly emphasize

  17. Heat transfer coefficients obtainment by means of naphthalene sublimation in air; Obtencion de coeficientes de transferencia de calor por medio de la tecnica de sublimacion de naftalina en aire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Galindo, Jose Arturo; Garcia Gutierrez, Alonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1986-12-31

    This work describes the experimental technique for the sublimation of naphthalene in air which measures heat transfer coefficients through the use of the analogy between the transference phenomena of heat and mass. The technique used to substitute the experimental measurements of heat transfer, in which it is difficult to control the border thermal conditions, when they are dimmed by the omnipresent problem of heat conduction through the walls of the transference surfaces. Two examples are included of the application technique and its potential is outlined. [Espanol] En este trabajo se describe la tecnica experimental de la sublimacion de naftalina en aire mediante la que se miden coeficientes de transferencia de masa. Los datos asi obtenidos pueden convertirse en coeficientes de transferencia de calor a traves del uso de la analogia entre los fenomenos de transferencia de calor y masa. La tecnica se utiliza para substituir las mediciones experimentales de transferencia de calor, en las que es dificil controlar las condiciones termicas de frontera, cuando las empana el problema omnipresente de la conduccion de calor a traves de las paredes de las superficies de transferencia. Se incluyen dos ejemplos de la aplicacion de la tecnica y se destaca su potencial.

  18. Heat transfer coefficients obtainment by means of naphthalene sublimation in air; Obtencion de coeficientes de transferencia de calor por medio de la tecnica de sublimacion de naftalina en aire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Galindo, Jose Arturo; Garcia Gutierrez, Alonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1985-12-31

    This work describes the experimental technique for the sublimation of naphthalene in air which measures heat transfer coefficients through the use of the analogy between the transference phenomena of heat and mass. The technique used to substitute the experimental measurements of heat transfer, in which it is difficult to control the border thermal conditions, when they are dimmed by the omnipresent problem of heat conduction through the walls of the transference surfaces. Two examples are included of the application technique and its potential is outlined. [Espanol] En este trabajo se describe la tecnica experimental de la sublimacion de naftalina en aire mediante la que se miden coeficientes de transferencia de masa. Los datos asi obtenidos pueden convertirse en coeficientes de transferencia de calor a traves del uso de la analogia entre los fenomenos de transferencia de calor y masa. La tecnica se utiliza para substituir las mediciones experimentales de transferencia de calor, en las que es dificil controlar las condiciones termicas de frontera, cuando las empana el problema omnipresente de la conduccion de calor a traves de las paredes de las superficies de transferencia. Se incluyen dos ejemplos de la aplicacion de la tecnica y se destaca su potencial.

  19. Qualification of a sublimation tool applied to the case of metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} from In(tmhd){sub 3} as a solid precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szkutnik, P. D., E-mail: pierre.szkutnik@cea.fr; Jiménez, C. [Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, LMGP, 3 Parvis Louis Néel, Minatec CS 50257, 38016 Grenoble Cedex 1 (France); Angélidès, L.; Todorova, V. [Air Liquide Electronics Systems, 8 rue des Méridiens–Sud Galaxie BP 228, 38433 Échirolles Cedex (France)

    2016-02-15

    A solid delivery system consisting of a source canister, a gas management, and temperature controlled enclosure designed and manufactured by Air Liquide Electronics Systems was tested in the context of gas-phase delivery of the In(tmhd){sub 3} solid precursor. The precursor stream was delivered to a thermal metalorganic chemical vapor deposition reactor to quantify deposition yield under various conditions of carrier gas flow and sublimation temperature. The data collected allowed the determination of characteristic parameters such as the maximum precursor flow rate (18.2 mg min{sup −1} in specified conditions) and the critical mass (defined as the minimum amount of precursor able to attain the maximum flow rate) found to be about 2.4 g, as well as an understanding of the influence of powder distribution inside the canister. Furthermore, this qualification enabled the determination of optimal delivery conditions which allowed for stable and reproducible precursor flow rates over long deposition times (equivalent to more than 47 h of experiment). The resulting In{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers was compared with those elaborated via pulsed liquid injection obtained in the same chemical vapor deposition chamber and under the same deposition conditions.

  20. Excessive growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswamy, Vasudha; Rettig, Kenneth R; Bhowmick, Samar K

    2008-09-01

    Tall stature and excessive growth syndrome are a relatively rare concern in pediatric practice. Nevertheless, it is important to identify abnormal accelerated growth patterns in children, which may be the clue in the diagnosis of an underlying disorder. We present a case of pituitary gigantism in a 2 1/2-year-old child and discuss the signs, symptoms, laboratory findings, and the treatment. Brief discussions on the differential diagnosis of excessive growth/tall stature have been outlined. Pituitary gigantism is very rare in the pediatrics age group; however, it is extremely rare in a child that is less than 3 years of age. The nature of pituitary adenoma and treatment options in children with this condition have also been discussed.

  1. Growth and characterization of β-Ga2O3 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, V. I.; Maslov, V.; Stepanov, S. I.; Pechnikov, A. I.; Krymov, V.; Nikitina, I. P.; Guzilova, L. I.; Bougrov, V. E.; Romanov, A. E.

    2017-01-01

    Here we report on the growth and characterization of β-Ga2O3 bulk crystals and polycrystalline layer on different substrates. Bulk β-Ga2O3 crystals were produced by free crystallisation of gallium oxide melt in sapphire crucible. Transparent single crystals measuring up to 8 mm across were obtained. Good structural quality was confirmed by x-ray diffraction rocking curve FWHM values of 46″. Young's modulus, shear modulus and hardness of the β-Ga2O3 crystals were measured by nanoindentation and Vickers microindentation techniques. Polycrystalline β-Ga2O3 films were deposited on silicon and sapphire substrates by sublimation method. It was found that structure and morphology of the films were greatly influenced by the material and orientation of the substrates. The best results were achieved on a-plane sapphire substrates where predominantly (111) oriented films were obtained.

  2. Artificial Bone and Teeth through Controlled Ice Growth in Colloidal Suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomsia, Antoni P.; Saiz, Eduardo; Deville, Sylvain

    2007-01-01

    The formation of regular patterns is a common feature of many solidification processes involving cast materials. We describe here how regular patterns can be obtained in porous alumina and hydroxyapatite (HAP) by controlling the freezing of ceramic slurries followed by subsequent ice sublimation and sintering, leading to multilayered porous ceramic structures with homogeneous and well-defined architecture. These porous materials can be infiltrated with a second phase of choice to yield biomimetic nacre-like composites with improved mechanical properties, which could be used for artificial bone and teeth applications. Proper control of the solidification patterns provides powerful means of control over the final functional properties. We discuss the relationships between the experimental results, ice growth fundamentals, the physics of ice and the interaction between inert particles and the solidification front during directional freezing

  3. Growth of α-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanostructured thin films as a function of deposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Megha, E-mail: meghasingh.life@gmail.com; Sharma, Rabindar K.; Reddy, G. B. [Thin film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi -110016 (India)

    2016-05-23

    In this communication, we synthesizedvanadium pentoxide (α-V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) nanostructured thin films (NSTs) using four different methods for obtaining vanadate species namely thermal evaporation (source of vanadate species are V{sub 2}O{sub 5} powder and vanadium metal foil) and plasma assisted sublimation process (source of vanadate species are V{sub 2}O{sub 5} powder and vanadium metal foil). The effect of plasmaon morphological and structural propertieshave been systematicallystudied. XRD revealed thermal evaporation process yielded amorphous films whereassublimation process yielded highly crystalline α-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} films. HRTEM of nanobelts show, the growth is preferred in (001) crystallographic direction with interplanar distance of 0.43 nm. XPS revealed O/V ratio of ~2.4, which nearly agrees with standard V{sub 2}O{sub 5} stoichiometry. SEM revealed deposition process affect morphology of films; thermal evaporation results in smoother film while plasma assisted sublimation process reveals nanoflakes and nanobelts (NBs). All the results are inconcordance with each other.

  4. A sublimation technique for high-precision measurements of δ13CO2 and mixing ratios of CO2 and N2O from air trapped in ice cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fischer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide high precision stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13CO2 or δ13C of CO2 from small bubbly, partially and fully clathrated ice core samples we developed a new method based on sublimation coupled to gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS. In a first step the trapped air is quantitatively released from ~30 g of ice and CO2 together with N2O are separated from the bulk air components and stored in a miniature glass tube. In an off-line step, the extracted sample is introduced into a helium carrier flow using a minimised tube cracker device. Prior to measurement, N2O and organic sample contaminants are gas chromatographically separated from CO2. Pulses of a CO2/N2O mixture are admitted to the tube cracker and follow the path of the sample through the system. This allows an identical treatment and comparison of sample and standard peaks. The ability of the method to reproduce δ13C from bubble and clathrate ice is verified on different ice cores. We achieve reproducibilities for bubble ice between 0.05 ‰ and 0.07 ‰ and for clathrate ice between 0.05 ‰ and 0.09 ‰ (dependent on the ice core used. A comparison of our data with measurements on bubble ice from the same ice core but using a mechanical extraction device shows no significant systematic offset. In addition to δ13C, the CO2 and N2O mixing ratios can be volumetrically derived with a precision of 2 ppmv and 8 ppbv, respectively.

  5. The Sublime of Beauty——Aesthetic Thinking in the Age of Spiritual Poverty%优美化的崇高——精神贫乏时代的审美思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾颉

    2015-01-01

    The join of aesthetics and ethics in theory is a kind of thinking,a kind of body recognition and a cultural consciousness,which is the collision of the two languages in the face of human existence dilemma. The sublime of beauty is the aesthetic interpretation of the meaning of existence. This strategy,no matter in the social level or from the individual level,is introspection on spiritual weary and the redemption to gradually withered human values,re-thinking and effective reply to the relation between reality and non reality,utilitarianism and non utilitarianism,the instrumental rationality and value rationality.%美学与伦理学在理论上的联姻是从上个世纪90 年代以来非理性文化魔力般地牵动着诸多学者的神经的情况下形成的一种思考、一种体认和一种文化自觉,是两种话语在面对人类生存困境中历史性的碰撞.优美化的崇高正是在此背景下对存在意义的审美解读,这种策略无论在社会层面上还是个体层面,皆是精神贫乏时代审美对精神困顿的反思与人类价值日渐枯萎的救赎,以及对现实与非现实、手段与目的、功利与非功利、工具理性与价值理性关系的重新思考与有效回答.

  6. Selective growth of Ge nanowires by low-temperature thermal evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Eli; Ozturk, Birol; Sutter, Peter

    2008-10-29

    High-quality single-crystalline Ge nanowires with electrical properties comparable to those of bulk Ge have been synthesized by vapor-liquid-solid growth using Au growth seeds on SiO(2)/Si(100) substrates and evaporation from solid Ge powder in a low-temperature process at crucible temperatures down to 700 °C. High nanowire growth rates at these low source temperatures have been identified as being due to sublimation of GeO from substantial amounts of GeO(2) on the powder. The Ge nanowire synthesis from GeO is highly selective at our substrate temperatures (420-500 °C), i.e., occurs only on Au vapor-liquid-solid growth seeds. For growth of nanowires of 10-20 µm length on Au particles, an upper bound of 0.5 nm Ge deposition was determined in areas of bare SiO(2)/Si substrate without Au nanoparticles.

  7. The Sublimated Ideology of The Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Loewen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The idea that ideologies present to us a rationality for making decisions, for getting things done, allows us to avoid the agony of choosing one world or another as a finite being, allows us to forget that it is we ourselves who must do and thus who are also to be done. Due to the work of having to live a human life with others who do not agree with us and will never be our servants, we are all ready to give up responsibilities to the political saviour; already this one presents to ourselves the One and only. By examining our private and picayune dogmatisms, we might gain some insight into why we are ever so often willing to become public fascists. We might well object to being objected to. Along with this, we are also objects in a world of objects. This is routine when compared to the dialectical intersubjectivity of voicing an objection in a throng of objections, of questioning the objectionable in a questionable politics. It is the very mundanity of acquiescence that dulls us to the danger pedestal-dwelling ideologies still represent.

  8. NO reduction using sublimation of cyanuric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, R.A.

    1996-05-21

    A method of reducing the NO content of a gas stream comprises contacting the gas stream with an amount of HNCO at a temperature effective for heat-induced decomposition of cyanuric acid, said amount and temperature being effective for the resultant lowering of the NO content of the gas stream, said cyanuric acid being particulate and having a particle size of less than 90 {micro}m. 1 fig.

  9. Measurement of the energetics of metal film growth on a semiconductor: Ag/ Si(100)-2x1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starr, D.E.; Ranney, J.T.; Larsen, Jane Hvolbæk

    2001-01-01

    The first direct calorimetric measurements of the energetics of metal film growth on a semiconductor surface are presented. The heat of adsorption of Ag on Si(100)-(2 x 1) at 300 K decreases from similar to 347 to 246 kJ/mol with coverage in the first monolayer (ML) due to overlap of substrate...... strain from nearby Ag islands. It then rises quickly toward the bulk sublimation enthalpy (285 kJ/mol) as 3D particles grow. A wetting layer grows to 1.0 ML, but is metastable above similar to0.55 ML and dewets when kinetics permit. This may be common when adsorbate islands induce a large strain...

  10. Effective role of deposition duration on the growth of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanostructured thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Rabindar Kumar, E-mail: rkrksharma6@gmail.com; Saini, Sujit Kumar; Singh, Megha; Reddy, G. B. [Thin film laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi – 110016 (India)

    2016-05-23

    In this report, vanadium pentoxide nanostructured thin films (NSTs) with nanoplates (NPs) have synthesized on Ni coated glass substrate employing plasma assisted sublimation process (PASP), as a function of deposition/growth durations. The effect of deposition durations on the morphological, structural, vibrational, and compositional properties have been investigated one by one. The structural and vibrational studies endorsed that the grown NPs have only orthorhombic phase, no other sub oxide phases are recorded in the limit of resolution. The morphological results of all samples using SEM, revealed that the features, coverage density, and alignments of NPs are greatly controlled by deposition duration and the best sample is obtained for 25 min (S2). Further, the more insight information is accomplished by HRTEM/SAED on the best featured sample, which confirmed the single crystalline nature of NPs. The XPS result again confirmed the compositional purity and the nearly stoichiometric nature of NPs.

  11. Experimental and molecular dynamics simulation study of the sublimation and vaporization energetics of iron metalocenes. crystal structures of Fe(eta5-C5H4CH3)2 and Fe[(eta5-(C5H5)(eta5-C5H4CHO)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lousada, Claudio M; Pinto, Susana S; Lopes, José N Canongia; da Piedade, M Fatima Minas; Diogo, Hermínio P; da Piedade, Manuel E Minas

    2008-04-03

    The standard molar enthalpies of sublimation of ferrocene, 1,1'-dimethylferrocene, decamethylferrocene, ferrocenecarboxaldehyde and alpha-methylferrocenemethanol, and the enthalpy of vaporization of N,N-dimethyl(aminomethyl)ferrocene, at 298.15 K, were determined by Calvet-drop microcalorimetry and/or the Knudsen effusion method. The obtained values were used to assess and refine our previously developed force field for metallocenes. The modified force field was able to reproduce the deltasubHdegreesm and deltavapHdegreesm values of the test-set with an accuracy better than 5 kJ.mol-1, except for decamethylferrocene, in which case the deviation between the calculated and experimental deltasubHdegreesm values was 16.1 kJ.mol-1. The origin of the larger error found in the prediction of the sublimation energetics of decamethylferrocene, and which was also observed in the estimation of structural properties (e.g., density and unit cell dimensions), is discussed. Finally, the crystal structures of Fe(eta5-C5H4CH3)2 and Fe[(eta5-(C5H5)(eta5-C5H4CHO)] at 293 and 150 K, respectively, are reported.

  12. Simulating Population Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byington, Scott

    1997-01-01

    Presents a strategy to help students grasp the important implications of population growth. Involves an interactive demonstration that allows students to experience exponential and logistic population growth followed by a discussion of the implications of population-growth principles. (JRH)

  13. AMSAA Reliability Growth Guide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Broemm, William

    2000-01-01

    ... has developed reliability growth methodology for all phases of the process, from planning to tracking to projection. The report presents this methodology and associated reliability growth concepts.

  14. Calculation of Five Thermodynamic Molecular Descriptors by Means of a General Computer Algorithm Based on the Group-Additivity Method: Standard Enthalpies of Vaporization, Sublimation and Solvation, and Entropy of Fusion of Ordinary Organic Molecules and Total Phase-Change Entropy of Liquid Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naef, Rudolf; Acree, William E

    2017-06-25

    The calculation of the standard enthalpies of vaporization, sublimation and solvation of organic molecules is presented using a common computer algorithm on the basis of a group-additivity method. The same algorithm is also shown to enable the calculation of their entropy of fusion as well as the total phase-change entropy of liquid crystals. The present method is based on the complete breakdown of the molecules into their constituting atoms and their immediate neighbourhood; the respective calculations of the contribution of the atomic groups by means of the Gauss-Seidel fitting method is based on experimental data collected from literature. The feasibility of the calculations for each of the mentioned descriptors was verified by means of a 10-fold cross-validation procedure proving the good to high quality of the predicted values for the three mentioned enthalpies and for the entropy of fusion, whereas the predictive quality for the total phase-change entropy of liquid crystals was poor. The goodness of fit ( Q ²) and the standard deviation (σ) of the cross-validation calculations for the five descriptors was as follows: 0.9641 and 4.56 kJ/mol ( N = 3386 test molecules) for the enthalpy of vaporization, 0.8657 and 11.39 kJ/mol ( N = 1791) for the enthalpy of sublimation, 0.9546 and 4.34 kJ/mol ( N = 373) for the enthalpy of solvation, 0.8727 and 17.93 J/mol/K ( N = 2637) for the entropy of fusion and 0.5804 and 32.79 J/mol/K ( N = 2643) for the total phase-change entropy of liquid crystals. The large discrepancy between the results of the two closely related entropies is discussed in detail. Molecules for which both the standard enthalpies of vaporization and sublimation were calculable, enabled the estimation of their standard enthalpy of fusion by simple subtraction of the former from the latter enthalpy. For 990 of them the experimental enthalpy-of-fusion values are also known, allowing their comparison with predictions, yielding a correlation coefficient R

  15. Study of a micro-sublimation apparatus with removal of the vapours by pumping; application to the analysis of fluorinated products (1963); Etude d'un appareillage de microsublimation avec entrainement des vapeurs par pompage et application a l'analyse des produits fluores (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delvalle, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    Micro-sublimation analysis presents definite advantages both from the qualitative and quantitative points of view. An automatic micro-sublimation analysis apparatus has been developed for the analysis of fluorinated products (ClF{sub 3}, HF, UF{sub 6}, etc.) but this is only one particular application of a method which has a far wider field of possible applications. We give first the most favorable conditions for the operation of such an apparatus. These conditions are the use of a detector which is linear and independent of the nature of the gas, the flow of the sublimed vapours in the conditions of molecular flow, and finally a reproducible and linear re-heating of the separating trap. The apparatus thus built has the advantage of yielding any analysis without prior calibration. It also makes possible the easy identification of an unknown product by the determination of its vapour pressure curve and its molecular weight. The analysis of fluorinated products with this apparatus has shown that the experimental results agree well with what is expected. (author) [French] L'analyse par microsublimation presente un interet certain tant au point de vue qualitatif que quantitatif. Nous avons mis au point un appareillage automatique d'analyse par microsublimation pour l'analyse des produits fluores (CIF{sub 3}, HF, UF{sub 6}, etc.) mais il ne s'agit que de l'application a un cas particulier d'une methode ayant un champ d'applications bien plus vaste. Nous exposons tout d'abord les conditions les plus favorables au bon fonctionnement d'un tel appareil. Ces conditions sont l'emploi d'un detecteur lineaire et independant de la nature du gaz, l'ecoulement des vapeurs sublimees en regime moleculaire et enfin un rechauffage reproductible et lineaire du piege separateur. L'appareil ainsi realise presente l'avantage d'effectuer une analyse quelconque sans etalonnage prealable. Il permet en outre d'identifier aisement un corps inconnu par la determination de sa courbe de tension

  16. Calculation of Five Thermodynamic Molecular Descriptors by Means of a General Computer Algorithm Based on the Group-Additivity Method: Standard Enthalpies of Vaporization, Sublimation and Solvation, and Entropy of Fusion of Ordinary Organic Molecules and Total Phase-Change Entropy of Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Naef

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of the standard enthalpies of vaporization, sublimation and solvation of organic molecules is presented using a common computer algorithm on the basis of a group-additivity method. The same algorithm is also shown to enable the calculation of their entropy of fusion as well as the total phase-change entropy of liquid crystals. The present method is based on the complete breakdown of the molecules into their constituting atoms and their immediate neighbourhood; the respective calculations of the contribution of the atomic groups by means of the Gauss-Seidel fitting method is based on experimental data collected from literature. The feasibility of the calculations for each of the mentioned descriptors was verified by means of a 10-fold cross-validation procedure proving the good to high quality of the predicted values for the three mentioned enthalpies and for the entropy of fusion, whereas the predictive quality for the total phase-change entropy of liquid crystals was poor. The goodness of fit (Q2 and the standard deviation (σ of the cross-validation calculations for the five descriptors was as follows: 0.9641 and 4.56 kJ/mol (N = 3386 test molecules for the enthalpy of vaporization, 0.8657 and 11.39 kJ/mol (N = 1791 for the enthalpy of sublimation, 0.9546 and 4.34 kJ/mol (N = 373 for the enthalpy of solvation, 0.8727 and 17.93 J/mol/K (N = 2637 for the entropy of fusion and 0.5804 and 32.79 J/mol/K (N = 2643 for the total phase-change entropy of liquid crystals. The large discrepancy between the results of the two closely related entropies is discussed in detail. Molecules for which both the standard enthalpies of vaporization and sublimation were calculable, enabled the estimation of their standard enthalpy of fusion by simple subtraction of the former from the latter enthalpy. For 990 of them the experimental enthalpy-of-fusion values are also known, allowing their comparison with predictions, yielding a correlation

  17. Les coulisses du sublime Behind the scenes of the sublimeMovie stunts, machinery, special effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Grimaud

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Toute cascade de cinéma peut être perçue comme une configuration expérimentale posant au spectateur un problème d’attribution. Le cinéma livre en effet depuis ses origines une course frénétique pour rendre visuellement plausibles des actions physiquement impossibles en camouflant leurs conditions de réalisation. Qui est à l’origine de quoi ? Y a-t-il procédé et lequel ? L’acteur était-il soutenu par des machines ou par des câbles ? A-t-il effectué la cascade lui-même ? etc. Or l’acte impossible que le plateau prétend réaliser n’est jamais simplement attribuable à l’acteur, aux techniciens ou à la caméra. Il n’est jamais non plus complètement réductible à du trucage. À la fois de l’ordre de la performance physique (mais pas uniquement, un brin machinique, en grande partie collective (ou distribuée, l’effet de virtuosité au cinéma reste par ailleurs toujours inachevé sans la perception d’un spectateur pour donner à la cascade sa continuité finale. En examinant comment les cascades se font, camouflent et confondent le spectateur sur leurs sources et leur processus, cet article explore les enjeux de cette virtuosité hybride et compliquée qui arrache de façon optique l’acte à ses conditions matérielles d’exécution.Cinema is engaged from its origins in a frantic race to make physically impossible actions visually plausible by camouflaging their conditions of application. Who is at the origin of what? Is there a method and which one? Was the actor supported by machines or by cables? Did he perform the stunt himself? etc. But the impossible act which the set contends to achieve is never simply due to the actor, the technicians or the camera. It is also never completely reducible to special effects. Both physical performance (but not only, a strand machinic and largely collective (or distributed, the effect of virtuosity in movies is also still incomplete without the perception of an audience who gives a final continuity to the stunt. By examining how stunts are done, camouflaged and how they confuse the viewer on their sources and processes, this article explores the challenges of this hybrid and complicated virtuosity that takes the optically act away from its material conditions of performance.

  18. Green growth in fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Ravensbeck, Lars; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    harming the environment. Fishery is an environment-dependent sector and it has been argued that there is no potential for green growth in the sector owing to global overexploitation, leaving no scope for production growth. The purpose of this paper is to explain what green growth is and to develop......Climate change and economic growth have gained a substantial amount of attention over the last decade. Hence, in order to unite the two fields of interest, the concept of green growth has evolved. The concept of green growth focuses on how to achieve growth in environment-dependent sectors, without...... a conceptual framework. Furthermore, the aim is to show that a large green growth potential actually exists in fisheries and to show how this potential can be achieved. The potential green growth appears as value-added instead of production growth. The potential can be achieved by reducing overcapacity...

  19. In situ X-ray synchrotron study of organic semiconductor ultra-thin films growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulin, J.-F.; Dinelli, F.; Massi, M.; Albonetti, C.; Kshirsagar, R.; Biscarini, F.

    2006-01-01

    In this work we present an X-ray diffraction study of the early stages of growth of an organic semiconductor (sexithiophene, T 6 ) thin film prepared by high vacuum sublimation. Specular reflectometry and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction were used to monitor the formation of T 6 films on silicon oxide. Our results show that T 6 grows as a crystalline layer from the beginning of the evaporation. The reflectometry analysis suggests that, in the range of rates and temperatures studied, the growth is never layer by layer but rather 3D in nature. In-plane GIXD has allowed us to observe for the first time a thin film phase of T 6 formed of molecules standing normal to the substrate and arranged in a compressed unit cell with respect to the bulk, i.e. the unit cell parameters b and c are relatively smaller. We have followed the dynamics of formation of this new phase and identified the threshold of appearance of the bulk phase, which occurs above ∼5-6 monolayers. These results are relevant to the problem of organic thin film transistors, for which we have previously demonstrated experimentally that only the first two monolayers of T 6 films are involved in the electrical transport. The layers above the second one do not effectively contribute to charge mobility, either because they are more 'disordered' or because of a screening of the gate field

  20. Sintered tantalum carbide coatings on graphite substrates: Highly reliable protective coatings for bulk and epitaxial growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Daisuke; Suzumura, Akitoshi; Shigetoh, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    Highly reliable low-cost protective coatings have been sought after for use in crucibles and susceptors for bulk and epitaxial film growth processes involving wide bandgap materials. Here, we propose a production technique for ultra-thick (50–200 μmt) tantalum carbide (TaC) protective coatings on graphite substrates, which consists of TaC slurry application and subsequent sintering processes, i.e., a wet ceramic process. Structural analysis of the sintered TaC layers indicated that they have a dense granular structure containing coarse grain with sizes of 10–50 μm. Furthermore, no cracks or pinholes penetrated through the layers, i.e., the TaC layers are highly reliable protective coatings. The analysis also indicated that no plastic deformation occurred during the production process, and the non-textured crystalline orientation of the TaC layers is the origin of their high reliability and durability. The TaC-coated graphite crucibles were tested in an aluminum nitride (AlN) sublimation growth process, which involves extremely corrosive conditions, and demonstrated their practical reliability and durability in the AlN growth process as a TaC-coated graphite. The application of the TaC-coated graphite materials to crucibles and susceptors for use in bulk AlN single crystal growth, bulk silicon carbide (SiC) single crystal growth, chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial SiC films, and metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy of group-III nitrides will lead to further improvements in crystal quality and reduced processing costs

  1. Sintered tantalum carbide coatings on graphite substrates: Highly reliable protective coatings for bulk and epitaxial growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Daisuke; Suzumura, Akitoshi; Shigetoh, Keisuke [Toyota Central R and D Labs., Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan)

    2015-02-23

    Highly reliable low-cost protective coatings have been sought after for use in crucibles and susceptors for bulk and epitaxial film growth processes involving wide bandgap materials. Here, we propose a production technique for ultra-thick (50–200 μmt) tantalum carbide (TaC) protective coatings on graphite substrates, which consists of TaC slurry application and subsequent sintering processes, i.e., a wet ceramic process. Structural analysis of the sintered TaC layers indicated that they have a dense granular structure containing coarse grain with sizes of 10–50 μm. Furthermore, no cracks or pinholes penetrated through the layers, i.e., the TaC layers are highly reliable protective coatings. The analysis also indicated that no plastic deformation occurred during the production process, and the non-textured crystalline orientation of the TaC layers is the origin of their high reliability and durability. The TaC-coated graphite crucibles were tested in an aluminum nitride (AlN) sublimation growth process, which involves extremely corrosive conditions, and demonstrated their practical reliability and durability in the AlN growth process as a TaC-coated graphite. The application of the TaC-coated graphite materials to crucibles and susceptors for use in bulk AlN single crystal growth, bulk silicon carbide (SiC) single crystal growth, chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial SiC films, and metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy of group-III nitrides will lead to further improvements in crystal quality and reduced processing costs.

  2. Do SiO 2 and carbon-doped SiO 2 nanoparticles melt? Insights from QM/MD simulations and ramifications regarding carbon nanotube growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Alister J.; Chandrakumar, K. R. S.; Irle, Stephan; Morokuma, Keiji

    2011-05-01

    Quantum chemical molecular dynamics (QM/MD) simulations of pristine and carbon-doped SiO 2 nanoparticles have been performed between 1000 and 3000 K. At temperatures above 1600 K, pristine nanoparticle SiO 2 decomposes rapidly, primarily forming SiO. Similarly, carbon-doped nanoparticle SiO 2 decomposes at temperatures above 2000 K, primarily forming SiO and CO. Analysis of the physical states of these pristine and carbon-doped SiO 2 nanoparticles indicate that they remain in the solid phase throughout decomposition. This process is therefore one of sublimation, as the liquid phase is never entered. Ramifications of these observations with respect to presently debated mechanisms of carbon nanotube growth on SiO 2 nanoparticles will be discussed.

  3. The Modification of Orographic Snow Growth Processes by Cloud Nucleating Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, W. R.; Saleeby, S.

    2011-12-01

    synoptic flow simply provides the background dynamics and moisture that impinge upon the steep terrain. The addition of cloud nucleating aerosols to this scenario tends to reduce the amount of riming and leads to greater snow vapor growth. Increased vapor growth leads to larger snow crystals but does not necessarily increase their density or fall speed. There is frequently a zone on the periphery of the orographic cloud where water saturation is low and ice saturation remains high. Here the Bergeron process allows for snow to continue growing at the expense of the cloud water. Furthermore, since less cloud water is removed by riming, and droplets are smaller in polluted conditions, there is an increase in cloud water evaporation along the lee slope. This enhanced droplet evaporation in polluted conditions allows for more saturated air to persist to the lee of the ridge. Higher saturation reduces the amount of snow crystal sublimation prior to surface deposition. In very moist winter events, the lee slope evaporation relative to the primary mountain barrier can saturate the air relative to a downstream ridge and aid in further orographic cloud development. The combination of reduced riming, the Bergeron process, and reduced lee-side sublimation leads to the snowfall spillover effect under polluted conditions.

  4. Influence of substrate temperature, growth rate and TCO substrate on the properties of CSS deposited CdS thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffner, J., E-mail: jschaffner@surface.tu-darmstadt.de; Feldmeier, E.; Swirschuk, A.; Schimper, H.-J.; Klein, A.; Jaegermann, W.

    2011-08-31

    The growth of CdS thin films by close space sublimation (CSS) has been systematically studied using an ultra-high vacuum system known as DAISY-SOL in order to understand the basic growth mechanisms and their impact on the film properties. Substrate temperature and deposition rate were varied, and the surface properties of the CdS layer were determined by photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) without breaking the vacuum. To analyze the influence of the deposition conditions on the layer morphology and crystallographic structure, the films were further characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The SEM and AFM studies show a correlation between the deposition rate and the film morphology. For high deposition rates, edged grain shapes and smoother surfaces were observed than for low deposition rates. CdS films were deposited onto two different commercially available fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates. XRD studies show that a high <200> texture of the FTO substrate prefers the CdS growth in <0001> orientation of the hexagonal crystal modification.

  5. Globalization, Growth and Poverty

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    One-pagers are a publication of IDRC's “Globalization, Growth and Poverty” Program Initiative, and are based on ... countries, mainly the fast-growing economies of East Asia. ... had no significant overall impact on investment and growth. Other.

  6. Measuring multifactor productivity growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wölfl, A.; Hájková, Dana

    -, 2007/5 (2007), s. 1-45 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : multifactor productivity growth * GDP growth * measuring Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/61/17/39522985.pdf

  7. Growth hormone test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is called acromegaly . In children it is called gigantism . Too little growth hormone can cause a slow ... growth due to excess GH during childhood, called gigantism. (A special test is done to confirm this ...

  8. CDC Child Growth Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CDC child growth charts consist of a series of percentile curves that illustrate the distribution of selected body measurements in U.S. children. Pediatric growth...

  9. Growth hormone stimulation test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003377.htm Growth hormone stimulation test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone (GH) stimulation test measures the ability of ...

  10. Normal growth and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002456.htm Normal growth and development To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A child's growth and development can be divided into four periods: ...

  11. Systemic Crises and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Romain Ranciere; Aaron Tornell; Frank Westermann

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we document the fact that countries that have experienced occasional financial crises have, on average, grown faster than countries with stable financial conditions. We measure the incidence of crisis with the skewness of credit growth, and find that it has a robust negative effect on GDP growth. This link coexists with the negative link between variance and growth typically found in the literature. To explain the link between crises and growth we present a model where contract...

  12. Urban tree growth modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Gregory McPherson; Paula J. Peper

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes three long-term tree growth studies conducted to evaluate tree performance because repeated measurements of the same trees produce critical data for growth model calibration and validation. Several empirical and process-based approaches to modeling tree growth are reviewed. Modeling is more advanced in the fields of forestry and...

  13. Unemployment and endogenous growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schaik, A.B.T.M.; de Groot, H.L.F.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we develop a two-sector endogenous growth model with a dual labour market, based on efficiency wages. Growth is driven by intentional R&D performed in the high-tech and high-wage sector. It is examined how a change in rivalry among firms affects simultaneously growth and unemployment.

  14. Toddler Growth and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the AAP Schedule of Well-Child Care Visits . ​​ Toddler Growth & Development Physical Skills Walks alone Pulls toys behind when ... 18 to 23 Month Old Language Delays in Toddlers: Information for Parents ... Physical Appearance and Growth: Your 1 Year Old Physical Appearance and Growth: ...

  15. Growth Charts (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Growth Charts KidsHealth / For Parents / Growth Charts What's in ... Problem? Print en español Tablas de crecimiento About Growth Charts Look at any class picture, and you' ...

  16. Growth hormone, growth factors, and acromegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludecke, D.K.; Tolis, G.T.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains five sections, each consisting of several papers. The section headings are: Biochemistry and Physiology of GH and Growth Factors, Pathology of Acromegaly, Clinical Endocrinology of Acromegaly, Nonsurgical Therapy of Acromegaly, and Surgical Therapy of Acromegaly.

  17. Lung growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Suchita; Kotecha, Sailesh

    2007-12-01

    Human lung growth starts as a primitive lung bud in early embryonic life and undergoes several morphological stages which continue into postnatal life. Each stage of lung growth is a result of complex and tightly regulated events governed by physical, environmental, hormonal and genetic factors. Fetal lung liquid and fetal breathing movements are by far the most important determinants of lung growth. Although timing of the stages of lung growth in animals do not mimic that of human, numerous animal studies, mainly on sheep and rat, have given us a better understanding of the regulators of lung growth. Insight into the genetic basis of lung growth has helped us understand and improve management of complex life threatening congenital abnormalities such as congenital diaphragmatic hernia and pulmonary hypoplasia. Although advances in perinatal medicine have improved survival of preterm infants, premature birth is perhaps still the most important factor for adverse lung growth.

  18. “If they don’t see happiness in the picture at least they’ll see the black”: Chris Marker’s Sans Soleil and the Lyotardian Sublime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah French

    2010-01-01

    -pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

    Abstract (E: This paper examines Chris Marker’s film Sans Soleil in relation to Jean-François Lyotard’s theory of the sublime. Through an analysis of the film’s representation of memory, time and temporality it will argue that Marker’s film effectively “invokes the unpresentable in presentation itself” (Lyotard, 1992: 15.

     

    Abstract (F: Cet article examine le film Sans Soleil de Chris Marker en relation avec la théorie du sublime de Jean-François Lyotard. À travers une analyse de la représentation de la mémoire, du temps et de la temporalité du film, il soutient que le film de Marker invoque d’une manière effective “l’irreprésentable dans la représentation même” (Lyotard, 1992: 15.

  19. Adult growth hormone deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD is being recognized increasingly and has been thought to be associated with premature mortality. Pituitary tumors are the commonest cause for AGHD. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD has been associated with neuropsychiatric-cognitive, cardiovascular, neuromuscular, metabolic, and skeletal abnormalities. Most of these can be reversed with growth hormone therapy. The insulin tolerance test still remains the gold standard dynamic test to diagnose AGHD. Growth hormone is administered subcutaneously once a day, titrated to clinical symptoms, signs and IGF-1 (insulin like growth factor-1. It is generally well tolerated at the low-doses used in adults. Pegylated human growth hormone therapy is on the horizon, with a convenient once a week dosing.

  20. Aid and growth regressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Tarp, Finn

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between foreign aid and growth in real GDP per capita as it emerges from simple augmentations of popular cross country growth specifications. It is shown that aid in all likelihood increases the growth rate, and this result is not conditional on ‘good’ policy....... investment. We conclude by stressing the need for more theoretical work before this kind of cross-country regressions are used for policy purposes.......This paper examines the relationship between foreign aid and growth in real GDP per capita as it emerges from simple augmentations of popular cross country growth specifications. It is shown that aid in all likelihood increases the growth rate, and this result is not conditional on ‘good’ policy...

  1. City Population Growth and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freire-Gibb, L. Carlos

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at the relationship between city population growth (intimately related to population proximity), and economic development. The hypothesis is that wherever dynamic and inclusive networks exist, there are more opportunities for economic development in this place. When these types...... of networks choose a tool (project, policy) to implement in the city, success will be more likely. Furthermore, virtuous circles will arise. The author gives an overview of two historical cases in urban growth, in Europe (1200-1800) and the U.S.A. (1800 to today)....

  2. Earthquakes and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Fisker, Peter Simonsen

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the economic consequences of earthquakes. In particular, it is investigated how exposure to earthquakes affects economic growth both across and within countries. The key result of the empirical analysis is that while there are no observable effects at the country level, earthquake exposure significantly decreases 5-year economic growth at the local level. Areas at lower stages of economic development suffer harder in terms of economic growth than richer areas. In addition,...

  3. Luxury-based Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Shiro Kuwahara

    2006-01-01

    Assuming that there exists a preference for luxury goods and a knowledge spillover from luxury goods production to goods production, this paper constructs an endogenous economic growth model. The model predicts two steady states: one is a steady positive growth state with regard to luxury goods production, and the other is a zero growth state in the absence of luxury goods production. Thus, this study examines the polarization of economies based on luxury goods consumption

  4. Robust Growth Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Doppelhofer, Gernot; Weeks, Melvyn

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the robustness of determinants of economic growth in the presence of model uncertainty, parameter heterogeneity and outliers. The robust model averaging approach introduced in the paper uses a flexible and parsi- monious mixture modeling that allows for fat-tailed errors compared to the normal benchmark case. Applying robust model averaging to growth determinants, the paper finds that eight out of eighteen variables found to be significantly related to economic growth ...

  5. Thailand's growth rebalancing

    OpenAIRE

    Jitsuchon, Somchai; Sussangkarn, Chalongphob

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews Thailand's structural changes, the 1997 crisis experience, and recovery and lessons from the crisis. The paper then discusses the impacts of the subprime crisis on the Thai economy and the policy responses to date. The paper ends by discussing strategies to rebalance growth by reducing the dependence on exports as the main growth engine. The recovery from the 1997 crisis left Thailand more dependent than ever on exports as the main engine of growth, with the ratio of export...

  6. Smart Growth and Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the relationship between smart growth and transportation, focusing smart and sustainable street design, transit-oriented development, parking management, sustainable transportation planning, and related resources.

  7. FDI- Economic Growth Nexus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bujac, Andreea Ioana; Corado Cretu, Emanuel

    2017-01-01

    Conducting a systematic literature review on the topic of FDI and Economic Growth and investigating this relationship, along with the determinants of an economy that attract FDI and the externalities resulting from Foreign activities, it is found that FDI does have a positive effect on a host...... country’s economic growth but only with the preexistence of certain determinants which facilitate the absorption capacity of the host country on reaping the spillover effects (externalities) of FDI. Lastly, a framework was built to illustrate the interaction between FDI, Determinants and condition...... of the host economy, barriers to growth, economic growth and externalities....

  8. Aid, growth, and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro- and meso-levels, recent literature doubts the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses the aid-growth literature and, taking inspiration from the program...... evaluation literature, we re-examine key hypotheses. In our findings, aid has a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run, with confidence intervals conforming to levels suggested by growth theory. Aid remains a key tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor...

  9. Optimising growth in phenylketonuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dokoupil, Katharina; Gokmen-Ozel, Hulya; Lammardo, Anna Maria

    2012-01-01

    populations. We reviewed the literature searching for evidence regarding PKU and growth as well as possible links between dietary management of PKU and growth. The search retrieved only limited evidence on the effect of PKU and its dietary management on growth. Physical development in PKU remains an under....... Protein requirements in dietary management of PKU are met mostly from Phe-free protein substitutes with the intake of natural protein restricted to patient tolerance. Several reports have suggested that growth in early childhood in PKU is sub-optimal, relative to non-PKU control groups or reference...

  10. Triplet ultrasound growth parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Neeta L; Ruthazer, Robin; House, Michael; Chelmow, David

    2006-03-01

    To create ultrasound growth curves for normal growth of fetal triplets using statistical methodology that properly accounts for similarities of growth of fetuses within a mother as well as repeated measurements over time for each fetus. In this longitudinal study, all triplet pregnancies managed at a single tertiary center from 1992-2004 were reviewed. Fetuses with major anomalies, prior selective reduction, or fetal demise were excluded. Data from early and late gestation in which there were fewer than 30 fetal measurements available for analysis were excluded. We used multilevel models to account for variation in growth within a single fetus over time, variations in growth between multiple fetuses within a single mother, and variations in fetal growth between mothers. Medians (50th), 10th, and 90th percentiles were estimated by the creation of multiple quadratic growth models from bootstrap samples adapting a previously published method to compute prediction intervals. Estimated fetal weight was derived from Hadlock's formula. One hundred fifty triplet pregnancies were identified. Twenty-seven pregnancies were excluded for the following reasons: missing records (23), fetal demise (3), and fetal anomaly (1). The study group consisted of 123 pregnancies. The gestational age range was restricted to 14-34 weeks. Figures and tables were developed showing medians, 10th and 90th percentiles for estimated fetal weight, femur length, biparietal diameter, abdominal circumference, and head circumference. Growth curves for triplet pregnancies were derived. These may be useful for identification of abnormal growth in triplet fetuses. III.

  11. Incentives and Earnings Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The career prospects of newly recruited employees differ substantially within an organization. The stars experience considerable growth in earnings; others can hardly maintain their entry salaries. This article sheds light on the mechanisms generating the observed heterogeneity in earnings growth...... by investigating the effects that explicit short-run incentives and implicit incentives have on earnings growth. The model’s predictions are tested using personnel records from a large bank and are found to be consistent with the observed earnings growth during the first half of the employees’ careers....

  12. Effect of nickel seed layer on growth of α-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanostructured thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Rabindar Kumar; Kant, Chandra; Kumar, Prabhat; Singh, Megha, E-mail: meghasingh-08@yahoo.com; Reddy, G. B. [Thin film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi-110016 (India)

    2015-08-28

    In this communication, we reported the role of Ni seed layer on the growth of vanadium pentoxide (α-V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) nanostructured thin films (NSTs) using plasma assisted sublimation process (PASP). Two different substrates, simple glass substrate and the Ni coated glass substrate (Ni thickness ∼ 100 nm) are employing in the present work. The influence of seed layer on structural, morphological, and vibrational properties have been studied systematically. The structural analysis divulged that both films deposited on simple glass as well as on Ni coated glass shown purely orthorhombic phase, no other phases are detected. The morphological studies of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} film deposited on both substrates are carried out by SEM, revealed that features of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} NSTs is completely modified in presence of Ni seed layer and the film possessing the excellent growth of nanorods (NRs) on Ni coated glass rather than simple glass. The HRTEM analysis of NRs is performed at very high magnification, shows very fine fringe pattern, which confirmed the single crystalline nature of nanorods. The vibrational study of NRs is performed using micro-Raman spectroscopy, which strongly support the XRD observations.

  13. Sustainable growth in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreini, P.

    1993-01-01

    The measures till now adopted did not stop environmental deterioration in Europe and the growth of economic activities in the future will make the situation more and more heavy. The European Communities (EEC) Cabinet launched a long term program for a sustainable growth in Europe, which could conciliate economic needs with environmental protection. This paper presents the first part of the program

  14. Nutrition and growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, G.B.

    1977-07-01

    Longitudinal growth data on children who developed obesity during childhood reveal a distinct tendency for height gain to accelerate coincident with or after the onset of excessive weight gain. The magnitude of the relative height increment is related to the degree of overweight. Overnutrition accelerates growth, just as undernutrition retards it.

  15. Growth Modulation in Achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Philip K; Kilinc, Eray; Birch, John G

    2017-09-01

    Achondroplasia is the most common skeletal dysplasia with a rate of nearly 1/10,000. The development of lower extremity deformity is well documented, and various modes of correction have been reported. There are no reports on the use of growth modulation to correct angular deformity in achondroplasia. Medical Records from 1985 to 2015 were reviewed for the diagnosis of achondroplasia and growth modulation procedures. Patients who had been treated for angular deformity of the legs by growth modulation were identified. A detailed analysis of their medical record and preoperative and final lower extremity radiographs was completed. Four patients underwent growth modulation procedures, all to correct existing varus deformity of the legs. Three of the 4 patients underwent bilateral distal femoral and proximal tibial growth modulation. The remaining patient underwent tibial correction only. Two of the 4 patients had a combined proximal fibular epiphysiodesis. All limbs had some improvement of alignment; however, 1 patient went on to bilateral osteotomies. Only 1 limb corrected to a neutral axis with growth modulation alone at last follow-up, initial implantation was done before 5 years of age. Growth modulation is an effective means for deformity correction in the setting of achondroplasia. However implantation may need to be done earlier than would be typical for patients without achondroplasia. Osteotomy may still be required after growth modulation for incomplete correction.

  16. Empowering growth in Pakistan?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid); H. Majid (Hadia)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractPakistan's Vision 2025 connects a policy commitment to greater gender equality with inclusive growth. It prioritises a "good quality of life and high living standard for all citizens across regions, gender" and to "achieve an annual average growth rate of 7 to 8 per cent that is

  17. Strategic growth options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulatilaka, N.; Perotti, E.C.

    1998-01-01

    We provide a strategic rationale for growth options under uncertainty and imperfect corn-petition. In a market with strategic competition, investment confers a greater capability to take advantage of future growth opportunities. This strategic advantage leads to the capture of a greater share of the

  18. Modeling Exponential Population Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Bonnie

    2009-01-01

    The concept of population growth patterns is a key component of understanding evolution by natural selection and population dynamics in ecosystems. The National Science Education Standards (NSES) include standards related to population growth in sections on biological evolution, interdependence of organisms, and science in personal and social…

  19. Cluster growth kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubovik, V.M.; Gal'perin, A.G.; Rikhvitskij, V.S.; Lushnikov, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Processes of some traffic blocking coming into existence are considered as probabilistic ones. We study analytic solutions for models for the dynamics of both cluster growth and cluster growth with fragmentation in the systems of finite number of objects. Assuming rates constancy of both coalescence and fragmentation, the models under consideration are linear on the probability functions

  20. SLOWER BUT HEALTHIER GROWTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN XINZHEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's economic growth has slowed,economic statistics released on July 15 show,confirming market expectations.But officials said the country's economy is still on track. The recovery has gained traction in China,which registered a double-digit growth of 11.1 percent in the first half of this year.

  1. Trade, Growth, and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Dollar, David; Kraay, Aart

    2001-01-01

    The evidence from individual cases and from cross-country analysis supports the view that globalization leads to faster growth and poverty reduction in poor countries. To determine the effect of globalization on growth, poverty, and inequality, the authors first identify a group of developing countries that are participating more in globalization. China, India, and several other large coun...

  2. Measures of Student Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in the 2017-2018 school year, appraisal systems in Texas, whether the state-recommended system or a locally developed system, will need to include a measure of student growth at the individual teacher level. Student growth measures how much a student progresses academically during his or her time with a particular teacher. It takes into…

  3. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    , are being drawn on the basis of fragile evidence. This paper first assesses the aid-growth literature with a focus on recent contributions. The aid-growth literature is then framed, for the first time, in terms of the Rubin Causal Model, applied at the macroeconomic level. Our results show that aid has......The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro and meso-levels, recent literature has turned decidedly pessimistic with respect to the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth. Policy implications, such as the complete cessation of aid to Africa...... a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run with point estimates at levels suggested by growth theory. We conclude that aid remains an important tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor nations....

  4. Rejuveniles and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnett, Richard C.; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    Rejuveniles are "people who cultivate tastes and mind-sets tradi- tionally associated with those younger than themselves." (Noxon, 2006) In this paper, we study a standard AK growth model of overlapping generations populated by rejuve- niles. For our purposes, rejuveniles are old agents who derive...... utility from "keeping up" their consumption with that of the current young. We find that such cross-generational keeping up is capable of generating interesting equilibrium growth dynamics, including growth cycles. No such growth dynamics is possible either in the baseline model, one where...... no such generational consumption externality exists, or for almost any other form of keeping up. Steady-state growth in a world with rejuveniles may be higher than that obtained in the baseline model....

  5. Aid Effectiveness on Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) is econo¬metric studies of the macroeconomic effects of development aid. It contains about 100 papers of which 68 are reduced form estimates of theeffect of aid on growth in the recipient country. The raw data show that growth is unconnected to aid......, but the AEL has put so much structure on the data that all results possible have emerged. The present meta study considers both the best-set of the 68 papers and the all-set of 543 regressions published. Both sets have a positive average aid-growth elasticity, but it is small and insignificant: The AEL has...... betweenstudies is real. In particular, the aid-growth association is stronger for Asian countries, and the aid-growth association is shown to have been weaker in the 1970s....

  6. In silico carbon molecular beam epitaxial growth of graphene on the h-BN substrate: carbon source effect on van der Waals epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghoon; Varshney, Vikas; Park, Jeongho; Farmer, Barry L.; Roy, Ajit K.

    2016-05-01

    Against the presumption that hexagonal boron-nitride (h-BN) should provide an ideal substrate for van der Waals (vdW) epitaxy to grow high quality graphene films, carbon molecular beam epitaxy (CMBE) techniques using solid carbon sublimation have reported relatively poor quality of the graphene. In this article, the CMBE growth of graphene on the h-BN substrate is numerically studied in order to identify the effect of the carbon source on the quality of the graphene film. The carbon molecular beam generated by the sublimation of solid carbon source materials such as graphite and glassy carbon is mostly composed of atomic carbon, carbon dimers and carbon trimers. Therefore, the graphene film growth becomes a complex process involving various deposition characteristics of a multitude of carbon entities. Based on the study of surface adsorption and film growth characteristics of these three major carbon entities comprising graphite vapour, we report that carbon trimers convey strong traits of vdW epitaxy prone to high quality graphene growth, while atomic carbon deposition is a surface-reaction limited process accompanied by strong chemisorption. The vdW epitaxial behaviour of carbon trimers is found to be substantial enough to nucleate and develop into graphene like planar films within a nanosecond of high flux growth simulation, while reactive atomic carbons tend to impair the structural integrity of the crystalline h-BN substrate upon deposition to form an amorphous interface between the substrate and the growing carbon film. The content of reactive atomic carbons in the molecular beam is suspected to be the primary cause of low quality graphene reported in the literature. A possible optimization of the molecular beam composition towards the synthesis of better quality graphene films is suggested.Against the presumption that hexagonal boron-nitride (h-BN) should provide an ideal substrate for van der Waals (vdW) epitaxy to grow high quality graphene films, carbon

  7. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh

    2013-01-01

    Recent litterature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This article assesses what meta-analysis has to contribute to the litterature on the effectiveness...... of foreign aid in terms of growth impact. We re-examine key hypotheses, and find that the effect of aid on growth is positive and statistically significant. This significant effect is genuine, and not an artefact of publication selection. We also show why our results differ from those published elsewhere....

  8. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn

    Some recent literature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses what meta-analysis has to say about the effectiveness of foreign aid in terms...... of the growth impact. We re-examine key hypotheses, and find that the effect of aid on growth is positive and statistically significant. This significant effect is genuine, and not an artefact of publication selection. We also show why our results differ from those published elsewhere....

  9. Environment and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horii, Ryo; Ikefuji, Masako

    . In a less developed country, this link, which we call “limits to growth,” emerges as the “poverty-environment trap,” which explains the persistent international inequality both in terms of income and environment. This link also threatens the sustainability of the world’s economic growth, particularly when...... the emission of greenhouse gases raises the risk of natural disasters. Stronger environmental policies are required to overcome this link. While there is a trade-off between the environment and growth in the short run, we show that an appropriate policy can improve both in the long run....

  10. Normal and abnormal growth plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Madewell, J.E.; Swischuk, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Skeletal growth is a dynamic process. A knowledge of the structure and function of the normal growth plate is essential in order to understand the pathophysiology of abnormal skeletal growth in various diseases. In this well-illustrated article, the authors provide a radiographic classification of abnormal growth plates and discuss mechanisms that lead to growth plate abnormalities

  11. Growth assessment in diagnosis of Fetal Growth Restriction. Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albu, A R; Horhoianu, I A; Dumitrascu, M C; Horhoianu, V

    2014-06-15

    The assessment of fetal growth represents a fundamental step towards the identification of the true growth restricted fetus that is associated to important perinatal morbidity and mortality. The possible ways of detecting abnormal fetal growth are taken into consideration in this review and their strong and weak points are discussed. An important debate still remains about how to discriminate between the physiologically small fetus that does not require special surveillance and the truly growth restricted fetus who is predisposed to perinatal complications, even if its parameters are above the cut-off limits established. In this article, we present the clinical tools of fetal growth assessment: Symphyseal-Fundal Height (SFH) measurement, the fetal ultrasound parameters widely taken into consideration when discussing fetal growth: Abdominal Circumference (AC) and Estimated Fetal Weight (EFW); several types of growth charts and their characteristics: populational growth charts, standard growth charts, individualized growth charts, customized growth charts and growth trajectories.

  12. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    known to improve plant growth in many ways when compared to ... roles in agricultural productivity. ... Sustainable agriculture: Sustainable agriculture involves the successful management of agricultural re- ... For the first time Kloepper et al.

  13. Planar elliptic growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mineev, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The planar elliptic extension of the Laplacian growth is, after a proper parametrization, given in a form of a solution to the equation for areapreserving diffeomorphisms. The infinite set of conservation laws associated with such elliptic growth is interpreted in terms of potential theory, and the relations between two major forms of the elliptic growth are analyzed. The constants of integration for closed form solutions are identified as the singularities of the Schwarz function, which are located both inside and outside the moving contour. Well-posedness of the recovery of the elliptic operator governing the process from the continuum of interfaces parametrized by time is addressed and two examples of exact solutions of elliptic growth are presented.

  14. Floods and Mold Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mold growth may be a problem after flooding. Excess moisture in the home is cause for concern about indoor air quality primarily because it provides breeding conditions for pests, molds and other microorganisms.

  15. Environmentally Sustainable Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Brad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth and sustainable development are important issues for social prosperity. Sustainable development strives for moderate and responsible use within the economic activity of the limited resources of our planet, whereas economic growth does not limit the resource exploitation and energy, being mainly focused on productivity increase. From this perspective, both conceptual and operational contradictions occur between the two pillars of prosperity. This paper looks to these contradictions and proposes some streams of intervention such as economic growth and environmental sustainability to operate in harmony. A structured framework for innovative problem solving is considered in this respect. Results of this research show that it is possible to induce smart measures in the economic system for directing businesses towards new paradigms where economic growth is possible without negative effects on environmental sustainability.

  16. Growth and Your Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drink alcohol, or use illegal drugs during pregnancy. Nutrition during pregnancy . Good nutrition is essential for a baby's growth in the uterus and beyond. A poor diet during pregnancy can affect how much a newborn weighs and ...

  17. Globalization, Growth and Poverty

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    One-pagers are a publication of IDRC's “Globalization, Growth and Poverty” Program Initiative, and are based on findings from the ... Does exporting matter for the poor in South Africa? ... strategies to promote employment and higher wages in.

  18. Globalization, Growth and Poverty

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    One-pagers are a publication of IDRC's “Globalization, Growth and Poverty” Program Initiative, and are ... great disparities, with earnings among urban workers with higher education being four or five times larger than those of illiterate rural.

  19. Growth of dopamine crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Vidya, E-mail: vidya.patil@ruparel.edu; Patki, Mugdha, E-mail: mugdha.patki@ruparel.edu [D. G. Ruparel College, Senapati Bapat Marg, Mahim, Mumbai – 400 016 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Many nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals have been identified as potential candidates in optical and electro-optical devices. Use of NLO organic crystals is expected in photonic applications. Hence organic nonlinear optical materials have been intensely investigated due to their potentially high nonlinearities, and rapid response in electro-optic effect compared to inorganic NLO materials. There are many methods to grow organic crystals such as vapor growth method, melt growth method and solution growth method. Out of these methods, solution growth method is useful in providing constraint free crystal. Single crystals of Dopamine have been grown by evaporating the solvents from aqueous solution. Crystals obtained were of the size of orders of mm. The crystal structure of dopamine was determined using XRD technique. Images of crystals were obtained using FEG SEM Quanta Series under high vacuum and low KV.

  20. Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... org editorial staff Categories: Family Health, Infants and Toddlers, Pregnancy and Childbirth, WomenTags: Amniocentesis, Delivery - Cesarean, female, Growth and Development, Obstetrical, Obstetrical ultrasound, Pregnant Women, prenatal care September ...

  1. Growth in liquid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, Karen; Brent, Roger

    2002-08-01

    The procedure for inoculating overnight (starter) cultures of E. coli from a single colony is described along with considerations for growing larger cultures. Also included are two methods for monitoring cell growth using a spectrophotometer or a hemacytometer.

  2. Armenia's Economic Growth Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Hayakawa, Tatsuji

    2015-01-01

    Armenia enjoyed 15 years of uninterrupted high economic growth prior to the global financial crisis in 2009. Investment, particularly in the mining and metallurgy sectors, played a key role as a driver of economic growth. Remittances,mostly from Russia, had an effect in sustaining consumption and boosting construction. Armenia has shown some weaknesses in the external sector, due to demands for natural gas, mineral products, machinery, and equipment. Armenia's exports and FDI suffer from the ...

  3. Macroeconomics and Growth Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Jayati Ghosh

    2007-01-01

    This United Nations Background Note on Macroeconomics and Growth provides practical guidance on how to operationalize alternative equitable and employment-generating macroeconomic and growth policies in National Development Strategies. This Policy Note has been developed in cooperation with UN agencies, and has been officially reviewed by distinguished academics/ development specialists such as Jose Antonio Ocampo, Jomo K.S. and Nobel Laureate Joseph Stiglitz.

  4. SMEs, Growth, and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Thorsten; Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli

    2004-01-01

    This Note explores the relationship between the size of the small and medium-size enterprise (SME) sector and economic growth and poverty reduction. A new study finds no support for the widely held belief that SMEs promote higher growth and lower pover ty. But it does provide some support for the view that the quality of the business environment facing all firms, large and small, influen...

  5. FGF growth factor analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Paul O [Gaithersburg, MD; Pena, Louis A [Poquott, NY; Lin, Xinhua [Plainview, NY; Takahashi, Kazuyuki [Germantown, MD

    2012-07-24

    The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

  6. Entrepreneurship, Information, and Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunten, Devin; Weiler, Stephan; Weiler, Stephan; Zahran, Sammy

    2016-01-01

    We examine the contribution to economic growth of entrepreneurial “marketplace information” within a regional endogenous growth framework. Entrepreneurs are posited to provide an input to economic growth through the information revealed by their successes and failures. We empirically identify this information source with the regional variation in establishment births and deaths, which create geographic information asymmetries that influence subsequent entrepreneurial activity and economic growth. We find that local establishment birth and death rates are significantly and positively correlated with subsequent entrepreneurship for US counties. To account for the potential endogeneity caused by forward-looking entrepreneurs, we utilize instruments based on historic mining activity. We find that the information spillover component of local establishment birth and death rates have significant positive effects on subsequent entrepreneurship and employment growth for US counties and metropolitan areas. With the help of these intruments, we show that establishment births have a positive and significant effect on future employment growth within all counties, and that in line with the information hypothesis, local establishment death rates have a similar positive effect within metropolitan counties. PMID:27516625

  7. Bacterial growth kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonkitticharoen, V.; Ehrhardt, J.C.; Kirchner, P.T.

    1989-01-01

    Quantitative measurement of bacterial growth may be made using a radioassay technique. This method measures, by scintillation counting, the 14 CO 2 derived from the bacterial metabolism of a 14 C-labeled substrate. Mathematical growth models may serve as reliable tools for estimation of the generation rate constant (or slope of the growth curve) and provide a basis for evaluating assay performance. Two models, i.e., exponential and logistic, are proposed. Both models yielded an accurate fit to the data from radioactive measurement of bacterial growth. The exponential model yielded high precision values of the generation rate constant, with an average relative standard deviation of 1.2%. Under most conditions the assay demonstrated no changes in the slopes of growth curves when the number of bacteria per inoculation was changed. However, the radiometric assay by scintillation method had a growth-inhibiting effect on a few strains of bacteria. The source of this problem was thought to be hypersensitivity to trace amounts of toluene remaining on the detector

  8. Endogenous growth and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, C.A.A.M.; Vellinga, N.

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between environmental policy and growth, from the perspective of endogenous growth theory. In particular three standard endogenous growth models are supplemented with environmental issues, such as pollution and exhaustibility of natural resources. It is found

  9. Endogenous growth and environmental policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, C.A.A.M.; Vellinga, N.

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between environmental policy and growth, from the perspective of endogenous growth theory. In particular three standard endogenous growth models are supplemented with environmental issues, such as pollution and exhaustibility of natural resources. It is found

  10. Rapid population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    At the current rate of population growth, world population by 2000 is expected to reach 7 billion or more, with developing countries accounting for some 5.4 billion, and economically advanced nations accounting for 1.6 billion. 'Population explosion' is the result of falling mortality rates and continuing high birth rates. Many European countries, and Japan, have already completed what is termed as demographic transition, that is, birth rates have fallen to below 20 births per 1000 population, death rates to 10/1000 population, and annual growth rates are 1% or less; annual growth rates for less developed countries ranged from 2 to 3.5%. Less developed countries can be divided into 3 groups: 1) countries with both high birth and death rates; 2) countries with high birth rates and low death rates; and 3) countries with intermediate and declining birth rates and low death rates. Rapid population growth has serious economic consequences. It encourages inequities in income distribution; it limits rate of growth of gross national product by holding down level of savings and capital investments; it exerts pressure on agricultural production and land; and it creates unemployment problems. In addition, the quality of education for increasing number of chidren is adversely affected, as high proportions of children reduce the amount that can be spent for the education of each child out of the educational budget; the cost and adequacy of health and welfare services are affected in a similar way. Other serious consequences of rapid population growth are maternal death and illness, and physical and mental retardation of children of very poor families. It is very urgent that over a billion births be prevented in the next 30 years to reduce annual population growth rate from the current 2% to 1% per year.

  11. Population growth and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkley, K

    1997-04-01

    The relationship between population growth, resource consumption, and environmental degradation is complex. The rise in "greenhouse gases" that will cause climatic change is clearly due to human activity, and pollutants are often concentrated in densely populated areas. However, even an area with a negative population growth, such as Russia, can experience severe environmental degradation due to poor management. Consumption patterns have the most effect on ozone depletion, while population growth threatens biodiversity of and within species through the destruction of ecosystems. Migration joins population growth and social factors, such as land inequality, as major causes of deforestation, and global demand for water is expected to increase faster than the rate of population growth. Coastal development and over-fishing threaten to deplete the oceans, while soil quality is threatened by inappropriate land use. Estimates of the earth's carrying capacity range from less than 3 billion to more than 44 billion people, indicating how difficult it is to assess this figure. Development efforts throughout the world may lead to human gains that will ultimately be negated by environmental losses. These factors have led to growing support for environmentally sustainable development.

  12. The Growth Delusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Lloyd

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Concern for the environment and a move towards “sustainable development” has assisted progress in a wide range of renewable energy technologies in recent years. The science suggests that a transition from fossil fuels to sustainable sources of energy in a time frame commensurate with the demise of the fossil fuels and prevention of runaway climate change is needed. However, while the movement towards sustainable energy technologies is underway, the World does not want to give up the idea of continuing economic growth. In recent times the financial collapse of October 2008 has given rise to yet another set of pleas from corporations and politicians alike to restart the growth machine. The transition to renewable energy technologies will be difficult to achieve as nowhere within existing economic and political frameworks are the limits to when growth will be curtailed being set. It is possible that the irrational insistence on endless growth as a non negotiable axiom, by a large proportion of the world’s population, may in fact be akin to the similarly irrational belief, by a similarly large proportion of the world’s population, that a supernatural being controls our existence and destiny. The irrationality of religion has recently been examined by Richard Dawkins in “The God Delusion”. Dawkins’ book is used as a starting point to investigate similarities between a belief in God and a belief in continuous growth.

  13. From Limits to Growth to Limitless Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The publication of the Club of Rome’s landmark report ‘The Limits to Growth’ in 1972 shook the intellectual foundations of social theory and challenged the very premises on which modern economy and prosperity are based. Once set in motion, it led to a revolutionary re-evaluation of human aspirations and economic activities. Among its many consequences, it has stimulated creative minds to look freshly at the underlying processes governing the wealth and welfare of nations. The article then traces their creative impact on the mind of one of the most original economic theorists of our age – Orio Giarini.[*] As ‘The Limits to Growth’ alarmed the world by the unsustainability and dire consequences of unbridled economic growth, Giarini offers a correspondingly affirmative vision of economics with unlimited potential for wealth and welfare.

  14. Experimental intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Marthens, E; Harel, S; Zamenshof, S

    1975-01-01

    The effects of experimental intrauterine growth retardation on subsequent fetal development, especially with respect to brain development, were studied in a new animal model. The rabbit was chosen since it has a perinatal pattern of brain development similar to that of the human. Experimental ischemia was induced during the last trimester by ligation of spiral arterioles and the differential effects on fetal development at term (30th gestational day) are reported. Specific brain regions were examined for wet weight, total cell number (DNA) and total protein content. Highly significant decreases in all these parameters were found in both the cortex and cerebellum following experimental intrauterine growth retardation; these two organs were differentially affected. The prospects and advantages of using this animal model for the study of the postnatal "catch-up growth" are discussed.

  15. Urban growth management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Gertrud; Alexander Sick Nielsen, Thomas; Grünfelder, Julien

    2011-01-01

    , and finally urban attractivity policies. Effective regional bodies are needed to deal with urban expansion and peri-urbanisation at a relevant scale; European rural and agricultural policies makes up the main ‘policy complex’ targeting the non-urban area including its land uses; while lastly leverage of urban...... urban growth and curb urban sprawl in a wider sense. Methodology The main methodology of the paper is a desk-research based review of policy options supplemented with field study and interviews in selected cased study regions. This paper consists of two parts. The first part is based on literature...... there are contradictions in the evidence presented in the literature, we believe that it may be safely said that urban growth management policies have an influence on urban growth under certain preconditions including: sufficient time for implementation and continuity of efforts; choice of appropriate policy measures...

  16. New microbial growth factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, S. H.; Casida, L. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A screening procedure was used to isolate from soil a Penicillium sp., two bacterial isolates, and a Streptomyces sp. that produced a previously unknown microbial growth factor. This factor was an absolute growth requirement for three soil bacteria. The Penicillium sp. and one of the bacteria requiring the factor, an Arthrobacter sp., were selected for more extensive study concerning the production and characteristics of the growth factor. It did not seem to be related to the siderochromes. It was not present in soil extract, rumen fluid, or any other medium component tested. It appears to be a glycoprotein of high molecular weight and has high specific activity. When added to the diets for a meadow-vole mammalian test system, it caused an increased consumption of diet without a concurrent increase in rate of weight gain.

  17. Moral Personality Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kalin

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning in terms of personality growth is a life-long process, just as personality growth itself is a life-long process. Kalin presents a number of psychological theories and their impact on moral development - which is an integral part of personality growth. The paper further treats the formation and changing of beliefs, and the role of education in the two processes. Great emphasis is put on cognitive theories; Kalin explains those formulated by L. Kohlberg and J. Rest. In discussing the process of shaping and changing one's views, special emphasis is put on the environment, or rather the social group an individual belongs to, and on the influence of personality traits and experience. The paper juxtaposes the influence - strengths and weaknesses - of the psychology of persuasion and education on forming and changing one's views, taken into consideration that views consist of cognitive, emotive and conative dimensions.

  18. The double Laplacian growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loutsenko, I.; Yermolayeva, O.

    2008-06-01

    The dynamics of the idealized Laplacian growth (or the Hele-Shaw problem) can be approximated by the Poiselle flow which in appropriate units takes the form of the Darcy law. In this paper we account for the liquid inertia in the Hele-Shaw problem at zero surface tension limit. The Laplace dynamics for the pressure is extended here with one more for the velocity potential for which we call this growth process the Double Laplacian. The application of the conformal mappings technique leads to doubled dynamics for both the conformal map and the complex potential, which is presented in the paper for the radial and the planar growth. We apply the stability analysis and discuss the integrability for the stated problem. (author)

  19. Stochastic ontogenetic growth model

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, B. J.; West, D.

    2012-02-01

    An ontogenetic growth model (OGM) for a thermodynamically closed system is generalized to satisfy both the first and second law of thermodynamics. The hypothesized stochastic ontogenetic growth model (SOGM) is shown to entail the interspecies allometry relation by explicitly averaging the basal metabolic rate and the total body mass over the steady-state probability density for the total body mass (TBM). This is the first derivation of the interspecies metabolic allometric relation from a dynamical model and the asymptotic steady-state distribution of the TBM is fit to data and shown to be inverse power law.

  20. Time for Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boerner, Lars; Severgnini, Battista

    This paper studies the impact of the early adoption of one of the most important high-technology machines in history, the public mechanical clock, on long-run growth in Europe. We avoid endogeneity by considering the relationship between the adoption of clocks with two sets of instruments: distance...... from the first adopters and the appearance of repeated solar eclipses. The latter instrument is motivated by the predecessor technologies of mechanical clocks, astronomic instruments that measured the course of heavenly bodies. We find significant growth rates between 1500 and 1700 in the range of 30...

  1. Inequality, Tolerance, and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    This paper argues for the importance of individuals' tolerance of inequality for economic growth. By using the political ideology of governments as a measure of revealed tolerance of inequality, the paper shows that controlling for ideology improves the accuracy with which the effects of inequality...... are measured. Results show that inequality reduces growth but more so in societies where people perceive it as being relatively unfair. Further results indicate that legal quality and social trust are likely transmission channels for the effects of inequality....

  2. Inequality, Tolerance, and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2004-01-01

    This paper argues for the importance of individuals' tolerance of inequality for economic growth. By using the political ideology of governments as a measure of revealed tolerance of inequality, the paper shows that controlling for ideology improves the accuracy with which the effects of inequality...... are measured. Results show that inequality reduces growth but more so in societies where people perceive it as being relatively unfair. Further results indicate that legal quality and social trust are likely transmission channels for the effects of inequality....

  3. Gaussian radial growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsdóttir, Kristjana Ýr; Jensen, Eva B. Vedel

    The growth of planar and spatial objects is often modelled using one-dimensional size parameters, e.g. volume, area or average radius. We take a more detailed approach and model how the boundary of a growing object expands in time. We mainly consider star-shaped planar objects. The model can...... be regarded as a dynamic deformable template model. The limiting shape of the object may be circular but this is only one possibility among a range of limiting shapes. An application to tumour growth is presented. Two extensions of the model, involving time series and Lévy bases, respectively, are briefly...

  4. Intrauterine growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardita Donoso Bernales

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that the true prevalence of intrauterine growth restriction is 3-10% of all pregnancies, making this fetal condition one of the most frequent obstetric problems, together with premature labor and premature rupture of membranes. The article stresses the importance of early diagnosis because of the associated risks.

  5. Crystal growth and doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paorici, C.

    1980-01-01

    Section 1 contains a self-consistent review of the basic growth features. After a short introduction concerning the driving force acting in a crystallization process, three main topics are broadly discussed: (i) interface kinetics; (ii) transport kinetics, and (iii) growth stability conditions. On point (i), after definition of the nature of interface, using Temkin's model, the growth mechanisms predicted by Burton, Cabrera and Frank (BCF) and bidimensional nucleation theories are fully developed. On points (ii) and (iii), the differential equations of the constitutional (concentration) and thermal fields are presented and discussed in terms of relevant approximations, suitable boundary conditions and limit values expected in order to have growth stability. Section 2 reports various experimental procedures for growing bulk crystals from the melt, from solutions and from the vapour phase. The basic concepts of Section 1 are amply employed for a critical discussion of possibilities, advantages and drawbacks of the methods described. Along the same lines, in Section 3 the principal epitaxial deposition procedures are highlighted. Section 4 contains a brief account of doping and of stoichiometry-defect control procedures. There is a long, carefully chosen list of bibliographical references. (author)

  6. [Growth of the neurocranium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodacová, Z; Skalská, H

    1998-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the results of evaluation of growth changes of the neurocranium in a set of 98 human skulls of immature individuals aged 6-18/20/ years from the XIII.-XVIII. century. Craniometric values were matched with the corresponding values measured on the skulls of the same age groups from the IX. century and IX.-XII. centuries.

  7. Carboxydotrophic growth of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelhoed, J.; Henstra, A.M.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study shows that Geobacter sulfurreducensgrows on carbon monoxide (CO) as electron donor with fumarateas electron acceptor. Geobacter sulfurreducens wastolerant to high CO levels, with up to 150 kPa in the headspacetested. During growth, hydrogen was detected in very slightamounts (~5 Pa). In

  8. Economic Growth Models Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralia Angelescu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The transitional recession in countries of Eastern Europe has been much longer than expected. The legacy and recent policy mistakes have both contributed to the slow progress. As structural reforms and gradual institution building have taken hold, the post-socialist economics have started to recover, with some leading countries building momentum toward faster growth. There is a possibility that in wider context of globalization several of these emerging market economies will be able to catch up with the more advanced industrial economies in a matter of one or two generations. Over the past few years, most candidate countries have made progress in the transition to a competitive market economy, macroeconomic stabilization and structural reform. However their income levels have remained far below those in the Member States. Measured by per capita income in purchasing power standards, there has been a very limited amount of catching up over the past fourteen years. Prior, the distinctions between Solow-Swan model and endogenous growth model. The interdependence between transition and integration are stated in this study. Finally, some measures of macroeconomic policy for sustainable growth are proposed in correlation with real macroeconomic situation of the Romanian economy. Our study would be considered the real convergence for the Romanian economy and the recommendations for the adequate policies to achieve a fast real convergence and sustainable growth.

  9. Economic Growth Models Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralia Angelescu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The transitional recession in countries of Eastern Europe has been much longer than expected. The legacy and recent policy mistakes have both contributed to the slow progress. As structural reforms and gradual institution building have taken hold, the post-socialist economics have started to recover, with some leading countries building momentum toward faster growth. There is a possibility that in wider context of globalization several of these emerging market economies will be able to catch up with the more advanced industrial economies in a matter of one or two generations. Over the past few years, most candidate countries have made progress in the transition to a competitive market economy, macroeconomic stabilization and structural reform. However their income levels have remained far below those in the Member States. Measured by per capita income in purchasing power standards, there has been a very limited amount of catching up over the past fourteen years. Prior, the distinctions between Solow-Swan model and endogenous growth model. The interdependence between transition and integration are stated in this study. Finally, some measures of macroeconomic policy for sustainable growth are proposed in correlation with real macroeconomic situation of the Romanian economy. Our study would be considered the real convergence for the Romanian economy and the recommendations for the adequate policies to achieve a fast real convergence and sustainable growth.

  10. Aid, Growth, and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    ) ability to pay, and (iv) level of interaction with public officials. Moreover, when informal firms become formal the probability of paying bribes increases. Becoming formal is also associated with a revenue growth premium that is not driven by self-selection of well-performing firms. On average...

  11. Fibroblast growth factor 23

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    Systemic phosphate homeostasis is maintained through several hormonal mechanisms which involve fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23), α-klotho, vitamin D and parathyroid hormone. FGF-23 is known to be the major regulator of phosphate balance (Mirams et al., 2004). FGF-23 is a phosphaturic hormone, which is.

  12. Perspectives on population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Assume that everyone has the same information on population growth. There are many different opinions on what that information means and what should be done about it. Some people worry about current rates of growth, especially in the context of growing per capita consumption, and believe that all reasonable steps should be taken to reduce rates and stabilize population size. Others believe that growing populations can be accommodated by reducing consumption in rich countries, that technological progress will supply the new resources needed, that the development needed to support a larger population can be sustained, that large population size fosters prosperity, or that birth rates are falling and current growth is just temporary. These are all valid positions worthy of at least debate. Interest groups commonly acknowledgement population growth as a significant issue, but offer no response to it. Sometimes the issue goes unrecognized because it conflicts with a more highly valued personal agenda item. Finally, some responses come from confusion and anger rather than reasoning or self-interest. The proponents of these latter arguments bring nothing constructive to the debate.

  13. Consumption growth accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; de Groot, Olaf J.; Los, Bart

    The methodology in this paper combines an input-output structural decomposition approach with the supply-side perspective of mainstream growth accounting. In explaining the intertemporal change in consumption per worker, three sets of effects are distinguished. First, contributions due to several

  14. Global Green Growth Institute

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anders Riel

    2017-01-01

    Har man fulgt historien om Venstres gruppeformand Lars Løkkes rejser på 1. klasse i forbindelse med formandsposten for Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) er der sikkert nogle der undrer sig over, hvad GGGI er for en størrelse. Medierne præsenterer GGGI som en international klimaorganisation, der...

  15. Nanoselective area growth of GaN by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy on 4H-SiC using epitaxial graphene as a mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puybaret, Renaud; Jordan, Matthew B.; Voss, Paul L.; Ougazzaden, Abdallah; Patriarche, Gilles; Sundaram, Suresh; El Gmili, Youssef; Salvestrini, Jean-Paul; Heer, Walt A. de; Berger, Claire

    2016-01-01

    We report the growth of high-quality triangular GaN nanomesas, 30-nm thick, on the C-face of 4H-SiC using nanoselective area growth (NSAG) with patterned epitaxial graphene grown on SiC as an embedded mask. NSAG alleviates the problems of defects in heteroepitaxy, and the high mobility graphene film could readily provide the back low-dissipative electrode in GaN-based optoelectronic devices. A 5–8 graphene-layer film is first grown on the C-face of 4H-SiC by confinement-controlled sublimation of silicon carbide. Graphene is then patterned and arrays of 75-nm-wide openings are etched in graphene revealing the SiC substrate. A 30-nm-thick GaN is subsequently grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. GaN nanomesas grow epitaxially with perfect selectivity on SiC, in the openings patterned through graphene. The up-or-down orientation of the mesas on SiC, their triangular faceting, and cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscopy show that they are biphasic. The core is a zinc blende monocrystal surrounded with single-crystal wurtzite. The GaN crystalline nanomesas have no threading dislocations or V-pits. This NSAG process potentially leads to integration of high-quality III-nitrides on the wafer scalable epitaxial graphene/silicon carbide platform.

  16. Nanoselective area growth of GaN by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy on 4H-SiC using epitaxial graphene as a mask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puybaret, Renaud; Jordan, Matthew B.; Voss, Paul L.; Ougazzaden, Abdallah, E-mail: aougazza@georgiatech-metz.fr [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); CNRS UMI 2958, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2 Rue Marconi, 57070 Metz (France); Patriarche, Gilles [CNRS, Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Sundaram, Suresh; El Gmili, Youssef [CNRS UMI 2958, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2 Rue Marconi, 57070 Metz (France); Salvestrini, Jean-Paul [Université de Lorraine, CentraleSupélec, LMOPS, EA4423, 57070 Metz (France); Heer, Walt A. de [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Berger, Claire [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); CNRS, Institut Néel, BP166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2016-03-07

    We report the growth of high-quality triangular GaN nanomesas, 30-nm thick, on the C-face of 4H-SiC using nanoselective area growth (NSAG) with patterned epitaxial graphene grown on SiC as an embedded mask. NSAG alleviates the problems of defects in heteroepitaxy, and the high mobility graphene film could readily provide the back low-dissipative electrode in GaN-based optoelectronic devices. A 5–8 graphene-layer film is first grown on the C-face of 4H-SiC by confinement-controlled sublimation of silicon carbide. Graphene is then patterned and arrays of 75-nm-wide openings are etched in graphene revealing the SiC substrate. A 30-nm-thick GaN is subsequently grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. GaN nanomesas grow epitaxially with perfect selectivity on SiC, in the openings patterned through graphene. The up-or-down orientation of the mesas on SiC, their triangular faceting, and cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscopy show that they are biphasic. The core is a zinc blende monocrystal surrounded with single-crystal wurtzite. The GaN crystalline nanomesas have no threading dislocations or V-pits. This NSAG process potentially leads to integration of high-quality III-nitrides on the wafer scalable epitaxial graphene/silicon carbide platform.

  17. Geometrical approach to tumor growth

    OpenAIRE

    Escudero, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Tumor growth has a number of features in common with a physical process known as molecular beam epitaxy. Both growth processes are characterized by the constraint of growth development to the body border, and surface diffusion of cells/particles at the growing edge. However, tumor growth implies an approximate spherical symmetry that makes necessary a geometrical treatment of the growth equations. The basic model was introduced in a former article [C. Escudero, Phys. Rev. E 73, 020902(R) (200...

  18. Epidermal growth factor and growth in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) causes a dose-dependent thickening of the epidermis in suckling mice. The cellular mechanisms underlying this thickening were analyzed by measuring the effect of EGF on the cell-cycle. Neonatal mice were given daily injections of either 2ug EGF/g body weight/day or an equivalent volume of saline, and on the seventh day received a single injection of 3 H-thymidine. At various times the mice were perfused with fixative; 1um sections of skin were stained with a modification of Harris' hematoxylin and were autoradiographed. The sections were analyzed using three methods based on the dependence on time after injection of 3 H-thymidine of: frequency of labelled mitoses, labelling index, and reciprocal grains/nucleus. It was found that EGF caused a two-fold increase in the cell production rate. The effect of exogenous EGF on the morphology of gastric mucosa and incisors of suckling mice was also studied. The gastric mucosa appeared thicker in EGF-treated animals, but the effect was not statistically significant. In contrast to its effect on epidermis and gastric mucosa, EGF caused a significant, dose-dependent decrease in the size of the incisors. Because the mouse submandibular salivary gland is the major source of EGF the effect of sialoadenectomy on female reproductive functions was examined. Ablation of the submandibular gland had no effect on: length of estrus cycle, ability of the female to produce litters, length of the gestation period, litter size, and weight of the litter at birth. There was also no effect on survival of the offspring or on age at which the eyelids separated

  19. Unsustainable growth, unsustainable capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter

    2006-01-01

    problems, but serve to further highlight the difficulties of changing capitalism towards sustainability. In a profit-oriented economy, capital accumulation is a prime driving force, and non-growth for the economy at large tends to result in serious economic and social crises. On the other hand, a de...... according to which the powers and mechanisms of the natural world are considered totally controllable by humans as if they were mere epiphenomena of the human world. On the other hand, the assumptions of certain ecological economists about the possibility of steady-state capitalism disregard the relation...... between capital and surplus value, which constitutes a strong mechanism driving the capitalist economy toward limitless growth....

  20. Growth and Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Leyaro, Vincent; Mahrt, Kristi

    2017-01-01

    This chapter considers the evolution of welfare of the Tanzanian population using a multi-dimensional approach. It also employs a detailed economy-wide model of the Tanzanian economy to explore growth and monetary poverty reduction scenarios from 2007 to 2015. This approach permits assessment...... of the coherence of observed trends in macroeconomic variables and projects consumption poverty outcomes to 2015. In the multi-dimensional approach, we find that real gains have been achieved. On monetary poverty, our model broadly reproduces key macroeconomic features of the past eight years. We find...... that published consumption poverty reductions for 2007 to 2011/12 from the most recent assessment fall within a reasonable to optimistic range. And, the simulations generate broader based growth across the income distribution compared with the recent assessment. Looking forward, the simulations from 2012 to 2105...

  1. Some attributes of snow occurrence and snowmelt/sublimation rates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-04-02

    Apr 2, 2017 ... regions may be strongly influenced by seasonal fluctuations in ... accurate snow mapping and modelling of snowmelt/runoff are ... regional climate and hydrology, earth surface processes, and rural livelihoods .... from clouds.

  2. Estimation of vapour pressure and partial pressure of subliming ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    conditions of (total) pressure by using thermogravimetry under those conditions. Further, from the partial pressure P, it is possible to determine the number of moles of material in the vapour phase using the ideal gas equation, PV = nRT, where P is the partial pressure, V the volume, n number of moles (of the vapour), R the ...

  3. Old-growth Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Vosick

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Most federal legislation and policies (e.g., the Wilderness Act, Endangered Species Act, National Forest Management Act fail to speak directly to the need for old-growth protection, recruitment, and restoration on federal lands. Various policy and attitudinal barriers must be changed to move beyond the current situation. For example, in order to achieve the goal of healthy old growth in frequent-fire forests, the public must be educated regarding the evolutionary nature of these ecosystems and persuaded that collaborative action rather than preservation and litigation is the best course for the future of these forests. Land managers and policy makers must be encouraged to look beyond the single-species management paradigm toward managing natural processes, such as fire, so that ecosystems fall within the natural range of variability. They must also see that, given their recent evidence of catastrophic fires, management must take place outside the wildland-urban interface in order to protect old-growth forest attributes and human infrastructure. This means that, in some wilderness areas, management may be required. Land managers, researchers, and policy makers will also have to agree on a definition of old growth in frequent-fire landscapes; simply adopting a definition from the mesic Pacific Northwest will not work. Moreover, the culture within the federal agencies needs revamping to allow for more innovation, especially in terms of tree thinning and wildland fire use. Funding for comprehensive restoration treatments needs to be increased, and monitoring of the Healthy Forest Initiative and Healthy Forest Restoration Act must be undertaken.

  4. Analyzing growth trajectories

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    McKeague, I. W.; López-Pintado, S.; Hallin, M.; Šiman, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 6 (2011), s. 322-329 ISSN 2040-1744 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06047 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : data depth contours * growth curves * nonparametric Bayes Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.556, year: 2011 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/SI/siman-0376411.pdf

  5. Globalization, Growth and Poverty

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    One-pagers are a publication of IDRC's “Globalization, Growth and Poverty” Program Initiative, ... was among the largest in the world, at 90 percent of the entire value of ... the workforce—including young adults, women, and the elderly who are ... UN ECLAC, 2010. 0. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 0. 10. 20. 30. 40. 50. 60. 70. 80. 90+. C o n.

  6. Valuation relationships under growth

    OpenAIRE

    Benavides Franco, Julián

    2003-01-01

    One of the most important topics on valuation is the appropriate relationships between cash flows and rate of returns. I review those relationships under the premise, by Myers (1974), of the cost of debt as the right discount for the tax shield. Different hypotheses have been advanced for the tax shield risk, each one producing different valuation results, especially when growth is present. The consequences of some common mistakes on valuation are explored. One difference between the results ...

  7. DETERMINANTS OF ECONOMIC GROWTH

    OpenAIRE

    Bartosz Totleben

    2013-01-01

    The article is examines the impact of macroeconomic indicators, in particular: human capital, government spending, innovation, political and social stability, on economic growth. In total 12 different indicators describing the economical, political and social conditions are taken into account. The study considers 102 countries between years 1960 and 2012 and two methods of estimation are performed: generalized method of moments (GMM) and fixed effects (FE). The results show the positive impac...

  8. Geography, Depreciation, and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon M. Hsiang; Amir S. Jina

    2015-01-01

    It has been proposed that geography influences economic growth for many reasons. Previous analyses of comparative development seem to have sidestepped the question of location-dependent depreciation. However the construction of new measures of tropical cyclone exposure enables us to consider the potential impact of this single source of capital depreciation. Using an estimate of asset destruction due to tropical cyclones, we identify the "sandcastle depreciation" rate, and find support for lo...

  9. Can Growth Be Green?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Ian

    2015-01-01

    This short article, based on a presentation at the London School of Economics, criticizes the common opinion that "green growth" offers a relatively painless - some even say pain-free - transition path for capitalist economies. After a brief summary of the daunting arithmetic entailed in combining fast decarbonization with continuing growth, the article advances 3 propositions. First, market-based carbon mitigation programs, such as carbon trading, cannot be sufficient and must be coupled with other policy pillars that foster transformative investment and widespread regulation. Second, a political economy of climate policy needs to draw on the lessons of comparative social policy research, which emphasizes the role of international pressures, interests, institutions, and ideas. Taking these into account gives a more realistic perspective on climate policy making in today's neoliberal world. Third, more radical policies on both consumption and production are called for, to ensure that carbon mitigation is not pursued at the expense of equity and social welfare. These include policies to restrain high-carbon luxury consumption and a transition toward shorter paid working time. The conclusion is that a realistic program of green growth will be immensely difficult and entail radical political change. © SAGE Publications 2015.

  10. Facilitating post traumatic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Helen

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whilst negative responses to traumatic injury have been well documented in the literature, there is a small but growing body of work that identifies posttraumatic growth as a salient feature of this experience. We contribute to this discourse by reporting on the experiences of 13 individuals who were traumatically injured, had undergone extensive rehabilitation and were discharged from formal care. All participants were injured through involvement in a motor vehicle accident, with the exception of one, who was injured through falling off the roof of a house. Methods In this qualitative study, we used an audio-taped in-depth interview with each participant as the means of data collection. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically to determine the participants' unique perspectives on the experience of recovery from traumatic injury. In reporting the findings, all participants' were given a pseudonym to assure their anonymity. Results Most participants indicated that their involvement in a traumatic occurrence was a springboard for growth that enabled them to develop new perspectives on life and living. Conclusion There are a number of contributions that health providers may make to the recovery of individuals who have been traumatically injured to assist them to develop new views of vulnerability and strength, make changes in relationships, and facilitate philosophical, physical and spiritual growth.

  11. Crystal Growth Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Hans J.; Fukuda, Tsuguo

    2004-06-01

    This volume deals with the technologies of crystal fabrication, of crystal machining, and of epilayer production and is the first book on industrial and scientific aspects of crystal and layer production. The major industrial crystals are treated: Si, GaAs, GaP, InP, CdTe, sapphire, oxide and halide scintillator crystals, crystals for optical, piezoelectric and microwave applications and more. Contains 29 contributions from leading crystal technologists covering the following topics: General aspects of crystal growth technology Silicon Compound semiconductors Oxides and halides Crystal machining Epitaxy and layer deposition Scientific and technological problems of production and machining of industrial crystals are discussed by top experts, most of them from the major growth industries and crystal growth centers. In addition, it will be useful for the users of crystals, for teachers and graduate students in materials sciences, in electronic and other functional materials, chemical and metallurgical engineering, micro-and optoelectronics including nanotechnology, mechanical engineering and precision-machining, microtechnology, and in solid-state sciences.

  12. [Hormones and hair growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, R M

    2010-06-01

    With respect to the relationship between hormones and hair growth, the role of androgens for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and hirsutism is best acknowledged. Accordingly, therapeutic strategies that intervene in androgen metabolism have been successfully developed for treatment of these conditions. Clinical observations of hair conditions involving hormones beyond the androgen horizon have determined their role in regulation of hair growth: estrogens, prolactin, thyroid hormone, cortisone, growth hormone (GH), and melatonin. Primary GH resistance is characterized by thin hair, while acromegaly may cause hypertrichosis. Hyperprolactinemia may cause hair loss and hirsutism. Partial synchronization of the hair cycle in anagen during late pregnancy points to an estrogen effect, while aromatase inhibitors cause hair loss. Hair loss in a causal relationship to thyroid disorders is well documented. In contrast to AGA, senescent alopecia affects the hair in a diffuse manner. The question arises, whether the hypothesis that a causal relationship exists between the age-related reduction of circulating hormones and organ function also applies to hair and the aging of hair.

  13. Multiple growth regimes: Insights from unified growth theory

    OpenAIRE

    Galor, Oded

    2007-01-01

    Unified Growth Theory uncovers the forces that contributed to the existence of multiple growth regimes and the emergence of convergence clubs. It suggests that differential timing of take-offs from stagnation to growth segmented economies into three fundamental regimes: slow growing economies in a Malthusian regime, fast growing countries in a sustained growth regime, and economies in the transition between these regimes. In contrast to existing research that links regime switching thresholds...

  14. Gambling on growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, A

    1990-01-01

    When the assumption is made that economic growth must be increased by 10% to accommodate population increases and to reduce poverty, the question is raised as to whether or not sustainable development is possible. The human population increased 3 times since 1900, and global economic activity has increased 7 times faster than population. Use of fossil fuels has increased by 30 times, and industrial production has increased by 50 times. The by-products of population growth and economic activity are loss of tropical rainforests; species extinction; desertification in Africa, India, and the US; toxic and radioactive pollution; and greenhouse warming and ozone depletion. The atmosphere's stability and human habitation is threatened. Sustainable development, as defined by the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) in "Our Common Future," is meeting present needs but not at the expense of future needs. Economic growth must proceed at different rates in different countries to close the gap between the rich and poor. Economic expansion has been criticized by the president of Negative Population Growth and the Environmental Defense Fund's coordinator of reform for the World Bank's environmental policies and Third World countries. US government response during the Reagan administration has been indifference, while support has come from the World Resources Institute, the Worldwatch Institute, the US National Wildlife Federation, and the Population Reference Bureau. Recent support has come from signers of the "G-7 Summit" and from IBM and the Dow Chemical Company. A few shared tenets are 1) that economic development is not sustainable, 2) environmental reforms are necessary to make development sustainable, 3) a trade-off is needed to increase Third World energy use, and 4) population must be stabilized. Many proposals have been offered including reducing population to 2 billion, or 40% of the current level. Reducing poverty globally is an environmentally sound

  15. Growth arrest despite growth hormone replacement, post-craniopharyngioma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVile, C J; Hayward, R D; Neville, B G; Grant, D B; Stanhope, R

    1995-01-01

    Children with growth failure, whether secondary to an endocrinopathy such as growth hormone deficiency or secondary to neurological handicap with poor nutrient intake, grow at a subnormal rate but it is most unusual for a child to have complete growth arrest. PMID:7745571

  16. Growth throughout childhood of children born growth restricted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukers, Fenny; Rotteveel, Joost; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M.; Ganzevoort, Wessel; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G.

    2017-01-01

    Many studies that examine growth in growth-restricted children at birth do not discriminate between fetal growth restriction (FGR) and small for gestational age (SGA). These terms however are not synonymous. In SGA, stunting and increased weight gain have been reported. We do not know if this holds

  17. Entrepreneurial Diversity and Economic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Verheul (Ingrid); A.J. van Stel (André)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractMost studies investigating the relationship between entrepreneurship and economic growth treat entrepreneurs as a homogeneous group. This study investigates the impact of entrepreneurial diversity on national economic growth. Using data for 36 countries participating in the Global

  18. Market Acceptance of Smart Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report finds that smart growth developments enjoy market acceptance because of stability in prices over time. Housing resales in smart growth developments often have greater appreciation than their conventional suburban counterparts.

  19. Your Baby's Growth: 12 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Baby's Growth: 12 Months KidsHealth / For Parents / Your Baby's ... doubled his or her birth weight. Is My Baby Growing Normally? Babies' growth begins to slow as ...

  20. Tax Havens, Growth, and Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Hsun; Lai, Ching-Chong; Cheng, Chu-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops an endogenous growth model featuring tax havens, and uses it to examine how the existence of tax havens affects the economic growth rate and social welfare in high-tax countries. We show that the presence of tax havens generates two conflicting channels in determining the growth effect. First, the public investment effect states that tax havens may erode tax revenues and in turn decrease the government’s infrastructure expenditure, thereby reducing growth. Second, the t...

  1. Corporate Stability and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    He, Kathy S.; Morck, Randall; Yeung, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    Greater instability in a country's list of top corporations is associated with faster economic growth. This faster growth is primarily due to faster growth in total factor productivity in industrialized countries, and faster capital accumulation in developing countries. These findings are consistent with the view that economic growth is more closely tied to the rise of new large firms than to the prosperity of established large firms. Although a stable list of leading corporations is highly c...

  2. The poverty elasticity of growth

    OpenAIRE

    Heltberg, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    How much does economic growth contribute to poverty reduction? I discuss analytical and empirical approches to assess the poverty elasticity of growth, and emphasize that the relationship between growth and poverty change is non-constant. For a given poverty measure, it depends on initial inequality and on the location of the poverty line relative to mean income. In most cases, growth is more important for poverty reduction than changes in inequality, but this does not tender inequality unimp...

  3. Economic growth and business cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canton, E.J.F.

    1997-01-01

    This thesis contains five essays on economic growth and business cycles. The main focus is on the interaction between economic growth and the cycle: is cyclical variability good or bad for the long-run rate of economic growth? The introduction aims to provide some empirical evidence for an

  4. PUBLIC GOODS, CORRUPTION AND GROWTH???

    OpenAIRE

    Ratbek Dzhumashev

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse implications of corruption on growth. We extend existing growth models by incorporating ubiquitous corruption as a by-product of the public sector. Corruption affects both taxation and public good provision, and therefore causes income redistribution and inefficiencies in the public sector. These effects of corruption lead to lower growth through distortions of investment incentives and resources allocation.

  5. Advanced dendritic web growth development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    A program to develop the technology of the silicon dendritic web ribbon growth process is examined. The effort is being concentrated on the area rate and quality requirements necessary to meet the JPL/DOE goals for terrestrial PV applications. Closed loop web growth system development and stress reduction for high area rate growth is considered.

  6. Regulators of growth plate maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emons, Joyce Adriana Mathilde

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen is known to play an important role in longitudinal bone growth and growth plate maturation, but the mechanism by which estrogens exert their effect is not fully understood. In this thesis this role is further explored. Chapter 1 contains a general introduction to longitudinal bone growth

  7. Great growth debate: an argument for rational growth policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, E; Koven, A

    1978-05-01

    The argument for rational growth policies in Canada advocates an expanding economy as the only one able to compensate both winners and losers. A constant growth rate--whether it is positive, negative, or zero--cannot work. A desirable growth rate must be flexible in the long term, which means that policies for zero growth must select only parts of the economy. On one hand, the creation of aritifical needs by advertising, urban expansion, and demographic growth in over-populated countries should be halted. On the other hand, we must expand necessary human welfare services. Zero growth does not mean that we must go back to poverty, asceticism, and constraint. An optimum growth policy will aim for moderation in all things. (Abstract, edited)

  8. Growth hormone in intra-uterine growth retarded newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Sajita; Sridhar, M G; Bhat, Vishnu; Chaturvedula, Latha

    2007-11-01

    To study growth hormone levels in IUGR and healthy controls and its association with birth weight and ponderal index. We studied 50 Intra uterine growth retarded (IUGR) and 50 healthy newborns born at term by vaginal delivery in JIPMER, Pondicherry, India. Cord blood was collected at the time of delivery for measurement of growth hormone. When compared with healthy newborns, IUGR newborns had higher growth hormone levels (mean +/- SD, 23.5 +/- 15.6 vs 16.2 +/- 7.61 ngm/ml, P = 0.019). A negative correlation was identified between growth hormone levels and birth weight (r2 = - 0.22, P = 0.03) and ponderal index (r2 = - 0.36, P = 0.008). Correlation of growth hormone levels was much more confident with ponderal index than with birth weight. At birth IUGR infants display increased growth hormone levels which correlate with ponderal index much more confidently than with birth weight.

  9. Biofuels, poverty, and growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Benfica, Rui; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    and accrual of land rents to smallholders, compared with the more capital-intensive plantation approach. Moreover, the benefits of outgrower schemes are enhanced if they result in technology spillovers to other crops. These results should not be taken as a green light for unrestrained biofuels development...... Mozambique's annual economic growth by 0.6 percentage points and reduces the incidence of poverty by about 6 percentage points over a 12-year phase-in period. Benefits depend on production technology. An outgrower approach to producing biofuels is more pro-poor, due to the greater use of unskilled labor...

  10. Aid and sectoral growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Thiele, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    This article examines empirically the proposition that aid to poor countries is detrimental for external competitiveness, giving rise to Dutch disease type effects. At the aggregate level, aid is found to have a positive effect on growth. A sectoral decomposition shows that the effect is (i......) significant and positive in the tradable and the nontradable sectors, and (ii) equally strong in both sectors. The article thus provides no empirical support for the hypothesis that aid reduces external competitiveness in developing countries. A possible reason for this finding is the existence of large idle...

  11. Modeling urban fire growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterman, T.E.; Takata, A.N.

    1983-01-01

    The IITRI Urban Fire Spread Model as well as others of similar vintage were constrained by computer size and running costs such that many approximations/generalizations were introduced to reduce program complexity and data storage requirements. Simplifications were introduced both in input data and in fire growth and spread calculations. Modern computational capabilities offer the means to introduce greater detail and to examine its practical significance on urban fire predictions. Selected portions of the model are described as presently configured, and potential modifications are discussed. A single tract model is hypothesized which permits the importance of various model details to be assessed, and, other model applications are identified

  12. Growth, Development and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Virginia Dragulanescu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Describing the relationship of interdependence through the materials balance, will be argued how the economy is a subset of the environment and the environment the natural limit to any economic initiative, or the limits imposed by the laws of thermodynamics. The theoretical debate moves, then, from the concept of growth to that of development, understood this in its three dimensions: economic, social, environmental. Bring the different environmental positions in four versions of sustainability, with the gained awareness that it’s “a spectrum of overlapping sustainability positions from very weak to very strong”.

  13. Urban Growth and Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Gilles Duranton; Matthew A. Turner

    2012-01-01

    We estimate the effects of major roads and public transit on the growth of major cities in the US between 1980 and 2000. We find that a 10% increase in a city’s stock of roads causes about a 2% increase in its population and employment and a small decrease in its share of poor households over this 20 year period. We also find that a 10% increase in a city’s stock of large buses causes about a 0.8% population increase and a small increase in the share of poor households over this period. To es...

  14. Developing principles of growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Fleck, Emma

    of the principles of growth among women-owned firms. Using an in-depth case study methodology, data was collected from women-owned firms in Denmark and Ireland, as these countries are similar in contextual terms, e.g. population and business composition, dominated by micro, small and medium-sized enterprises....... Extending on principles put forward in effectuation theory, we propose that women grow their firms according to five principles which enable women’s enterprises to survive in the face of crises such as the current financial world crisis....

  15. Ion beam assisted film growth

    CERN Document Server

    Itoh, T

    2012-01-01

    This volume provides up to date information on the experimental, theoretical and technological aspects of film growth assisted by ion beams.Ion beam assisted film growth is one of the most effective techniques in aiding the growth of high-quality thin solid films in a controlled way. Moreover, ion beams play a dominant role in the reduction of the growth temperature of thin films of high melting point materials. In this way, ion beams make a considerable and complex contribution to film growth. The volume will be essential reading for scientists, engineers and students working in thi

  16. Leverage, Investment, and Firm Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Larry Lang; Eli Ofek; Rene M. Stulz

    1995-01-01

    We show that there is a negative relation between leverage and future growth at the firm level and, for diversified firms, at the segment level. Further, this negative relation between leverage and growth holds for firms with low Tobin's q, but not for high-q firms or firms in high-q industries. Therefore, leverage does not reduce growth for firms known to have good investment opportunities, but is negatively related to growth for firms whose growth opportunities are either not recognized by ...

  17. Probabilistic Mass Growth Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumer, Eric; Elliott, Darren

    2013-01-01

    Mass has been widely used as a variable input parameter for Cost Estimating Relationships (CER) for space systems. As these space systems progress from early concept studies and drawing boards to the launch pad, their masses tend to grow substantially, hence adversely affecting a primary input to most modeling CERs. Modeling and predicting mass uncertainty, based on historical and analogous data, is therefore critical and is an integral part of modeling cost risk. This paper presents the results of a NASA on-going effort to publish mass growth datasheet for adjusting single-point Technical Baseline Estimates (TBE) of masses of space instruments as well as spacecraft, for both earth orbiting and deep space missions at various stages of a project's lifecycle. This paper will also discusses the long term strategy of NASA Headquarters in publishing similar results, using a variety of cost driving metrics, on an annual basis. This paper provides quantitative results that show decreasing mass growth uncertainties as mass estimate maturity increases. This paper's analysis is based on historical data obtained from the NASA Cost Analysis Data Requirements (CADRe) database.

  18. FACET Emittance Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederico, J; Hogan, M.J.; Nosochkov, Y.; Litos, M.D.; Raubenheimer, T.; /SLAC

    2011-04-05

    FACET, the Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests, is a new facility being constructed in sector 20 of the SLAC linac primarily to study beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration. The FACET beamline consists of a chicane and final focus system to compress the 23 GeV, 3.2 nC electron bunches to {approx}20 {micro}m long and {approx}10 {micro}m wide. Simulations of the FACET beamline indicate the short-duration and large, 1.5% rms energy spread beams may suffer a factor of four emittance growth from a combination of chromaticity, incoherent synchrotron radiation (ISR), and coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). Emittance growth is directly correlated to head erosion in plasma wakefield acceleration and is a limiting factor in single stage performance. Studies of the geometric, CSR, and ISR components are presented. Numerical calculation of the rms emittance can be overwhelmed by long tails in the simulated phase space distributions; more useful definitions of emittance are given. A complete simulation of the beamline is presented as well, which agrees with design specifications.

  19. China urges rapid growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, S.

    1993-01-01

    This time last year China's paramount leader, Deng Xiaoping, launched the country on another bout of fast-paced economic growth and restructuring. After three years of riding out political and economic clampdown, foreign chemical companies were jerked awake by major changes in China's chemical industry. As the state becomes less involved with managing the economy, unleashing 12% gross national product growth, closer involvement with domestic factories has become attractive and essential. MCI officials say government funds will now be channeled toward clearing energy and transport bottlenecks, and chemical enterprises will be given more chance to turn a profit. They will be allowed to issue shares, seek foreign investment partners themselves, and bypass trading companies like China National Import-Export Corp. (Sinochem), the former state monopoly. Foreign analysts question whether China's finances and oil resources can support expansion. Even if they can, Cai estimates that ethylene imports will remain around the present level of 1 million tons. To further guarantee chemical supplies, China has invested in urea and polypropylene plants in the US and polystyrene plant in Hong Kong

  20. FACET Emittance Growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederico, Joel

    2011-01-01

    FACET, the Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests, is a new facility being constructed in sector 20 of the SLAC linac primarily to study beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration. The FACET beamline consists of a chicane and final focus system to compress the 23 GeV, 3.2 nC electron bunches to ∼20 (micro)m long and ∼10 (micro)m wide. Simulations of the FACET beamline indicate the short-duration and large, 1.5% rms energy spread beams may suffer a factor of four emittance growth from a combination of chromaticity, incoherent synchrotron radiation (ISR), and coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). Emittance growth is directly correlated to head erosion in plasma wakefield acceleration and is a limiting factor in single stage performance. Studies of the geometric, CSR, and ISR components are presented. Numerical calculation of the rms emittance can be overwhelmed by long tails in the simulated phase space distributions; more useful definitions of emittance are given. A complete simulation of the beamline is presented as well, which agrees with design specifications.

  1. Molecular mechanisms of crystal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, C. M.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper I present an example of the research that the Mineral Surface Group of the Munster University is conducting in the field of Crystal Growth. Atomic Force Microscopy (Am) in situ observations of different barite (BaSO4) faces growing from aqueous solutions, in combination with computer simulations of the surface attachment of growth units allows us to test crystal growth models. Our results demonstrate the strong structural control that a crystal can exert on its own growth, revealing also the limitation of the classical crystal growth theories (two dimensional nucleation and spiral growth models) in providing a complete explanation for the growth behaviour at a molecular scale. (Author) 6 refs

  2. Springer Handbook of Crystal Growth

    CERN Document Server

    Dhanaraj, Govindhan; Prasad, Vishwanath; Dudley, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Over the years, many successful attempts have been made to describe the art and science of crystal growth. Most modern advances in semiconductor and optical devices would not have been possible without the development of many elemental, binary, ternary, and other compound crystals of varying properties and large sizes. The objective of the Springer Handbook of Crystal Growth is to present state-of-the-art knowledge of both bulk and thin-film crystal growth. The goal is to make readers understand the basics of the commonly employed growth processes, materials produced, and defects generated. Almost 100 leading scientists, researchers, and engineers from 22 different countries from academia and industry have been selected to write chapters on the topics of their expertise. They have written 52 chapters on the fundamentals of bulk crystal growth from the melt, solution, and vapor, epitaxial growth, modeling of growth processes and defects, techniques of defect characterization as well as some contemporary specia...

  3. Geometrical approach to tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Carlos

    2006-08-01

    Tumor growth has a number of features in common with a physical process known as molecular beam epitaxy. Both growth processes are characterized by the constraint of growth development to the body border, and surface diffusion of cells and particles at the growing edge. However, tumor growth implies an approximate spherical symmetry that makes necessary a geometrical treatment of the growth equations. The basic model was introduced in a former paper [C. Escudero, Phys. Rev. E 73, 020902(R) (2006)], and in the present work we extend our analysis and try to shed light on the possible geometrical principles that drive tumor growth. We present two-dimensional models that reproduce the experimental observations, and analyze the unexplored three-dimensional case, for which interesting conclusions on tumor growth are derived.

  4. Rapid growth within India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.

    2000-01-01

    The Indian government has published (in Hydrocarbon Vision 2025) its ideas for a long term strategy for its oil industry which is currently growing at an unprecedented rate. Increasing domestic production and investment in oil exploration and production overseas figure strongly in the plan. At present, India has a refining surplus but with an annual growth of 8-10%, this will disappear in the next 2-3 years. The report recommends that India should maintain 90% self-sufficiency in refining. The report sees development of the domestic oil industry as globally competitive and helping safeguard India's assets. The capability of India's refineries, current upgrading, the newer refineries and plans for new projects are all mentioned

  5. 2010 responsible growth report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The report addresses several development and growth perspectives for AREVA: its integrated business model, the synergy and complementarities between nuclear and renewable energies, the sustainable development dimension of its industrial development, its sales revenue result, the reduction of its environmental footprint, its development on all continents, its balanced governance, the simplification of its capital structure, and the actions performed by its Foundation. Then, it discusses ten challenges for the company: ensuring safety and performance throughout the reactor life cycle, making the EPR reactor a standard of safety, maintaining relations based on trust with our stake holders, staying in the lead, accelerating the development of renewable energies, being a trusted partner to growing economies, being a model in mine management, promoting sustainable, effective and safe recycling of used fuel, improving performance continuously, offering development prospects to all employees. It briefly presents ten successes achieved in 2010 and indicates ten sustainable development commitments. Document in French and in English

  6. Employment without Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    work over more income and consumption. Lower work input to production can take many differnet forms, such as job sharing, lowering production efficiency, reduction in labor force, etc. In this light it seems ridiculous to argue for certain economic development course on the ground that it will create...... more work. There are no indication that growth at Western economies increases satisfaction or happiness. A new look at the full economy divides it into professional economy and amateur economy, and it is suggested that a reversal of the trend hitherto to draw still more of the whole economy...... into the professional sphere, GDP, could contribute at the same time to a better satisfaction and a more sustainable development....

  7. Growth outside the core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zook, Chris; Allen, James

    2003-12-01

    Growth in an adjacent market is tougher than it looks; three-quarters of the time, the effort fails. But companies can change those odds dramatically. Results from a five-year study of corporate growth conducted by Bain & Company reveal that adjacency expansion succeeds only when built around strong core businesses that have the potential to become market leaders. And the best place to look for adjacency opportunities is inside a company's strongest customers. The study also found that the most successful companies were able to consistently, profitably outgrow their rivals by developing a formula for pushing out the boundaries of their core businesses in predictable, repeatable ways. Companies use their repeatability formulas to expand into any number of adjacencies. Some companies make repeated geographic moves, as Vodafone has done in expanding from one geographic market to another over the past 13 years, building revenues from $1 billion in 1990 to $48 billion in 2003. Others apply a superior business model to new segments. Dell, for example, has repeatedly adapted its direct-to-customer model to new customer segments and new product categories. In other cases, companies develop hybrid approaches. Nike executed a series of different types of adjacency moves: it expanded into adjacent customer segments, introduced new products, developed new distribution channels, and then moved into adjacent geographic markets. The successful repeaters in the study had two common characteristics. First, they were extraordinarily disciplined, applying rigorous screens before they made an adjacency move. This discipline paid off in the form of learning curve benefits, increased speed, and lower complexity. And second, in almost all cases, they developed their repeatable formulas by studying their customers and their customers' economics very, very carefully.

  8. International growth of neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsford, Jennie

    2017-11-01

    Twenty-five years ago, the field of neuropsychology was well established in North America, Europe, and Australia, with less presence elsewhere. This article discusses the development of neuropsychology over the last 25 years in other regions. The growth of neuropsychology in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, Central and South America, and New Zealand is reviewed. Sources drawn on include a 2016 edition of The Clinical Neuropsychologist describing the practice of neuropsychology in 18 countries; papers on the profession of neuropsychology in Latin America (Arango-Lasprilla, Stevens, Paredes, Ardila, & Rivera, 2016), the history of neuropsychology in Asia (Lee, Wang, & Collinson, 2016), and neuropsychology in Central America (Judd, 2017); INSNET; and personal communications. There has been tremendous variability in the development of neuropsychology across these regions over the last 25 years. Obstacles to the growth of neuropsychology have included economic constraints on health care provision, limited availability of appropriate assessment and treatment methods, linguistic diversity and illiteracy, stigma toward and/or lack of awareness of neuropsychological disorders, lack of graduate training and clinical supervision, absence of accreditation of neuropsychologists as a clinical profession, poor pay, and diminished visibility of the field within the regional culture. Despite these obstacles, neuropsychological research and practice is establishing itself in these regions and has grown significantly over the last quarter century. Major challenges remain in establishing awareness of the significance of and developing culturally appropriate methods of assessing and rehabilitating cognitive aspects of brain disorders, training programs, recognition as a profession, and dedicated funding for neuropsychology positions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Thermodynamics of firms' growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Eduardo; Hernando, Alberto; Hernando, Ricardo; Plastino, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of firms' growth and firms' sizes is a topic under intense scrutiny. In this paper, we show that a thermodynamic model based on the maximum entropy principle, with dynamical prior information, can be constructed that adequately describes the dynamics and distribution of firms' growth. Our theoretical framework is tested against a comprehensive database of Spanish firms, which covers, to a very large extent, Spain's economic activity, with a total of 1 155 142 firms evolving along a full decade. We show that the empirical exponent of Pareto's law, a rule often observed in the rank distribution of large-size firms, is explained by the capacity of economic system for creating/destroying firms, and that can be used to measure the health of a capitalist-based economy. Indeed, our model predicts that when the exponent is larger than 1, creation of firms is favoured; when it is smaller than 1, destruction of firms is favoured instead; and when it equals 1 (matching Zipf's law), the system is in a full macroeconomic equilibrium, entailing ‘free’ creation and/or destruction of firms. For medium and smaller firm sizes, the dynamical regime changes, the whole distribution can no longer be fitted to a single simple analytical form and numerical prediction is required. Our model constitutes the basis for a full predictive framework regarding the economic evolution of an ensemble of firms. Such a structure can be potentially used to develop simulations and test hypothetical scenarios, such as economic crisis or the response to specific policy measures. PMID:26510828

  10. [Economic growth with zero population growth and with declining population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, R

    1982-05-01

    The effects of both zero population growth and a declining population on economic growth are considered. Although the neoclassical theory of economic growth leads to optimistic results in such cases, the author suggests that this theory cannot be used as a basis for political action. The need for further research into the economic effects of a stationary or declining population is stressed. (summary in ENG)

  11. Growth assessment in diagnosis of Fetal Growth Restriction. Review

    OpenAIRE

    Albu, AR; Horhoianu, IA; Dumitrascu, MC; Horhoianu, V

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The assessment of fetal growth represents a fundamental step towards the identification of the true growth restricted fetus that is associated to important perinatal morbidity and mortality. The possible ways of detecting abnormal fetal growth are taken into consideration in this review and their strong and weak points are discussed. An important debate still remains about how to discriminate between the physiologically small fetus that does not require special surveillance and the t...

  12. Growth Mechanism of Microbial Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Minhui; Martini, K. Michael; Kim, Neil H.; Sherer, Nicholas; Lee, Jia Gloria; Kuhlman, Thomas; Goldenfeld, Nigel

    Experiments on nutrient-limited E. coli colonies, growing on agar gel from single cells reveal a power-law distribution of sizes, both during the growth process and in the final stage when growth has ceased. We developed a Python simulation to study the growth mechanism of the bacterial population and thus understand the broad details of the experimental findings. The simulation takes into account nutrient uptake, metabolic function, growth and cell division. Bacteria are modeled in two dimensions as hard circle-capped cylinders with steric interactions and elastic stress dependent growth characteristics. Nutrient is able to diffuse within and between the colonies. The mechanism of microbial colony growth involves reproduction of cells within the colonies and the merging of different colonies. We report results on the dynamic scaling laws and final state size distribution, that capture in semi-quantitative detail the trends observed in experiment. Supported by NSF Grant 0822613.

  13. SECTORAL SHARES AND ECONOMIC GROWTH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Naveed, Amjad; Naz, Amber

    2013-01-01

    believe that structural change is an unimportant side effect of the economic development. On the contrary, economists associated with the World Bank and some others posit that growth is brought about by the changes in sectoral composition. The objective of this study is to empirically test...... the relationship between sectoral shares and economic growth by using the panel data for 20 developed countries. The results of the granger causality suggest that both services and agriculture sectors do granger cause economic growth, whereas industrial sector does not granger cause growth. Reverse causality does...... not hold for any of the three sectors. The results of Barro and Non-Barro regressions along with the set of control variables have suggested that services sector is negatively affecting growth, whereas both industrial and agriculture shares are positively affect economic growth....

  14. Hopper Growth of Salt Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desarnaud, Julie; Derluyn, Hannelore; Carmeliet, Jan; Bonn, Daniel; Shahidzadeh, Noushine

    2018-06-07

    The growth of hopper crystals is observed for many substances, but the mechanism of their formation remains ill understood. Here we investigate their growth by performing evaporation experiments on small volumes of salt solutions. We show that sodium chloride crystals that grow very fast from a highly supersaturated solution form a peculiar form of hopper crystal consisting of a series of connected miniature versions of the original cubic crystal. The transition between cubic and such hopper growth happens at a well-defined supersaturation where the growth rate of the cubic crystal reaches a maximum (∼6.5 ± 1.8 μm/s). Above this threshold, the growth rate varies as the third power of supersaturation, showing that a new mechanism, controlled by the maximum speed of surface integration of new molecules, induces the hopper growth of cubic crystals in cascade.

  15. Growth patterns and annual growth cycle of Acacia karroo Hayne in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... karroo; alice; botany; compensatory growth; condition; development; eastern cape; emergence; environmental conditions; field study; growth cycle; growth initiation; growth patterns; growth strategy; leaf growth; plant growth; savanna; shoot growth; soil depth; soil moisture; south africa; university of fort hare; water stress ...

  16. Growth factor involvement in tension-induced skeletal muscle growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    1993-01-01

    Long-term manned space travel will require a better understanding of skeletal muscle atrophy which results from microgravity. Astronaut strength and dexterity must be maintained for normal mission operations and for emergency situations. Although exercise in space slows the rate of muscle loss, it does not prevent it. A biochemical understanding of how gravity/tension/exercise help to maintain muscle size by altering protein synthesis and/or degradation rate should ultimately allow pharmacological intervention to prevent muscle atrophy in microgravity. The overall objective is to examine some of the basic biochemical processes involved in tension-induced muscle growth. With an experimental in vitro system, the role of exogenous and endogenous muscle growth factors in mechanically stimulated muscle growth are examined. Differentiated avian skeletal myofibers can be 'exercised' in tissue culture using a newly developed dynamic mechanical cell stimulator device which simulates different muscle activity patterns. Patterns of mechanical activity which significantly affect muscle growth and metabolic characteristics were found. Both exogenous and endogenous growth factors are essential for tension-induced muscle growth. Exogenous growth factors found in serum, such as insulin, insulin-like growth factors, and steroids, are important regulators of muscle protein turnover rates and mechanically-induced muscle growth. Endogenous growth factors are synthesized and released into the culture medium when muscle cells are mechanically stimulated. At least one family of mechanically induced endogenous factors, the prostaglandins, help to regulate the rates of protein turnover in muscle cells. Endogenously synthesized IGF-1 is another. The interaction of muscle mechanical activity and these growth factors in the regulation of muscle protein turnover rates with our in vitro model system is studied.

  17. Population growth and infant mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Fabella, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between population growth and economic outcomes is an issue of great policy significance. In the era of the Millennium Development Goals, poverty and its correlates have become the compelling issues. Economic growth may not automatically translate into reductions in poverty and its correlates (may not trickle down) if income distribution is at the same time worsening. We therefore investigate the direct effect of population growth on infant mortality for various income catego...

  18. Financing Asia’s Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada, Gemma; Noland, Marcus; Park, Donghyun; Ramayandi, Arief

    2015-01-01

    Recent key challenges highlight the need to revisit Asia's financial development. These include the region's growth slowdown since the global crisis, compounded by a less benign external environment; internal structural challenges, such as population aging; and the maturing of much of the region into middle-income status. The evolving shift in the region's growth paradigm from one based primarily on investment to one based on both investment and productivity growth also underscores the urgenc...

  19. Linking Ethics and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2012-01-01

    Hunt (2012) builds on his work concerning ethics and resource-advantage theory to link personal ethical standards, societal norms, and economic growth but offers few details concerning the precise mechanisms that link ethics and growth. This comment suggests a number of such mechanisms – for exam...... – for example, the influence of prevailing ethical norms on the aggregate elasticity of substitution and, therefore, total factor productivity and growth....

  20. Stochastic models for tumoral growth

    OpenAIRE

    Escudero, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Strong experimental evidence has indicated that tumor growth belongs to the molecular beam epitaxy universality class. This type of growth is characterized by the constraint of cell proliferation to the tumor border, and surface diffusion of cells at the growing edge. Tumor growth is thus conceived as a competition for space between the tumor and the host, and cell diffusion at the tumor border is an optimal strategy adopted for minimizing the pressure and helping tumor development. Two stoch...

  1. Growth curves for Laron syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Laron, Z; Lilos, P; Klinger, B

    1993-01-01

    Growth curves for children with Laron syndrome were constructed on the basis of repeated measurements made throughout infancy, childhood, and puberty in 24 (10 boys, 14 girls) of the 41 patients with this syndrome investigated in our clinic. Growth retardation was already noted at birth, the birth length ranging from 42 to 46 cm in the 12/20 available measurements. The postnatal growth curves deviated sharply from the normal from infancy on. Both sexes showed no clear pubertal spurt. Girls co...

  2. Electricity regulation and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, M. Teresa (Maria Teresa), 1951-; Garcia-Quevedo, Jose; Trujillo-Baute, Elisa

    2018-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to analyse the effect of electricity regulation on economic growth. Although the relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth has been extensively analysed in the empirical literature, this framework has not been used to estimate the effect of electricity regulation on economic growth. Understanding this effect is essential for the assessment of regulatory policy. Specifically, we assess the effects of two major areas of regulation, rene...

  3. Political Instability and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Alesina; Sule Ozler; Nouriel Roubini; Phillip Swagel

    1992-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between political instability and per capita GDP growth in a sample of 113 countries for the period 1950-1982. We define ?political instability? as the propensity of a government collapse, and we estimate a model in which political instability and economic growth are jointly determined. The main result of this paper is that in countries and time periods with a high propensity of government collapse, growth is significantly lower than otherwise. This ef...

  4. Insulin-Like Growth Factor-Independent Effects of Growth Hormone on Growth Plate Chondrogenesis and Longitudinal Bone Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shufang; Yang, Wei; De Luca, Francesco

    2015-07-01

    GH stimulates growth plate chondrogenesis and longitudinal bone growth directly at the growth plate. However, it is not clear yet whether these effects are entirely mediated by the local expression and action of IGF-1 and IGF-2. To determine whether GH has any IGF-independent growth-promoting effects, we generated (TamCart)Igf1r(flox/flox) mice. The systemic injection of tamoxifen in these mice postnatally resulted in the excision of the IGF-1 receptor (Igf1r) gene exclusively in the growth plate. (TamCart)Igf1r(flox/flox) tamoxifen-treated mice [knockout (KO) mice] and their Igf1r(flox/flox) control littermates (C mice) were injected for 4 weeks with GH. At the end of the 4-week period, the tibial growth and growth plate height of GH-treated KO mice were greater than those of untreated C or untreated KO mice. The systemic injection of GH increased the phosphorylation of Janus kinase 2 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5B in the tibial growth plate of the C and KO mice. In addition, GH increased the mRNA expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and the mRNA expression and protein phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB p65 in both C and KO mice. In cultured chondrocytes transfected with Igf1r small interfering RNA, the addition of GH in the culture medium significantly induced thymidine incorporation and collagen X mRNA expression. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that GH can promote growth plate chondrogenesis and longitudinal bone growth directly at the growth plate, even when the local effects of IGF-1 and IGF-2 are prevented. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the intracellular molecular mechanisms mediating the IGF-independent, growth-promoting GH effects.

  5. Gene regulation by growth factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, R.; Gorham, J.; Siegfried, Z.; Leonard, D.; Gizang-Ginsberg, E.; Thompson, M.A.; Lawe, D.; Kouzarides, T.; Vosatka, R.; MacGregor, D.; Jamal, S.; Greenberg, M.E.; Ziff, E.B.

    1988-01-01

    To coordinate the proliferation and differentiation of diverse cell types, cells of higher eukaryotes communicate through the release of growth factors. These peptides interact with specific transmembrane receptors of other cells and thereby generate intracellular messengers. The many changes in cellular physiology and activity that can be induced by growth factors imply that growth factor-induced signals can reach the nucleus and control gene activity. Moreover, current evidence also suggests that unregulated signaling along such pathways can induce aberrant proliferation and the formation of tumors. This paper reviews investigations of growth factor regulation of gene expression conducted by the authors' laboratory

  6. Growth, Employment and Structural Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggarwal, Aradhna

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the decomposition of GSDP growth per capita in Punjab via-a-vis 15 other states in India during 1993–94 and 2011–12 in terms of employment and productivity growth. Specifically, it focuses on the role of employment growth and structural change in employment on economic growth...... but structural shifts have paid off well in terms of diversification of the economy and their contribution to labour productivity especially for manufacturing. Overall employment effect had been negative but this was essentially due to contraction in the labour force; the employment rate effect turned out...

  7. Quality, Export and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Pedersen, Kurt

    1998-01-01

    in an international context. The paper, therefore, addresses the complicated interactions between economic growth, export performance and quality. The contribution of the paper, compared to other growth accounting research, is the inclusion of quality data, quality being a significant mirror of technological...... development. The countries covered by the research represent a wide variation in terms of economic development, from poor LDC's to the most developed industrial nations. The empirical results reveal a probable strong relationship between quality/price and export growth as well as economic growth. This new...

  8. Variations in growth pattern and predictablity of liveweight growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prediction equations results for rate of liveweight growth showed that of the four models used, the quadratic function was the best predictor of liveweight growth, as indicated by the highest and significant R2 value of 90.7 %. This was closely followed by the linear function which had a significant R2 value of 88.1 %.

  9. Can extrauterine growth approximate intrauterine growth? Should it?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    Most studies evaluating the growth of preterm infants use the so-called intrauterine growth curve and reference fetus as standards. These curves might not be the optimal standards, however, for several reasons. The curves were constructed from small numbers of infants with uncertainty about

  10. Growth and analysis of micro and nano CdTe arrays for solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Brandon Adrian

    CdTe is an excellent material for infrared detectors and photovoltaic applications. The efficiency of CdTe/CdS solar cells has increased very rapidly in the last 3 years to ˜20% but is still below the maximum theoretical value of 30%. Although the short-circuit current density is close to its maximum of 30 mA/cm2, the open circuit voltage has potential to be increased further to over 1 Volt. The main limitation that prevents further increase in the open-circuit voltage and therefore efficiency is the high defect density in the CdTe absorber layer. Reducing the defect density will increase the open-circuit voltage above 1 V through an increase in the carrier lifetime and concentration to tau >10 ns and p > 10 16 cm-3, respectively. However, the large lattice mismatch (10%) between CdTe and CdS and the polycrystalline nature of the CdTe film are the fundamental reasons for the high defect density and pose a difficult challenge to solve. In this work, a method to physically and electrically isolate the different kinds of defects at the nanoscale and understand their effect on the electrical performance of CdTe is presented. A SiO2 template with arrays of window openings was deposited between the CdTe and CdS to achieve selective-area growth of the CdTe via close-space sublimation. The diameter of the window openings was varied from the micro to the nanoscale to study the effect of size on nucleation, grain growth, and defect density. The resulting structures enabled the possibility to electrically isolate and individually probe micrometer and nanoscale sized CdTe/CdS cells. Electron back-scattered diffraction was used to observe grain orientation and defects in the miniature cells. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy was used to study the morphology, grain boundaries, grain orientation, defect structure, and strain in the layers. Finally, conducting atomic force microscopy was used to study the current-voltage characteristics of the solar cells. An

  11. Growth of the Pamir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloaguen, R.; Ratschbacher, L.

    2009-04-01

    We aim to establish the Late Cenozoic deformation field of the Pamir by localizing and characterizing active and neotectonic deformation structures, and setting up the drainage-basin, river-capture, river- reversal, and regional erosion history. The project thus aims to record the short-term, upper crustal response to active intra-continental subduction, orocline formation, and erosion. Our hypothesis is that the neotectonics is governed by subduction beneath the frontal part of the orocline, E-W extension in the intra-plateau Karakul-lake rift, and transtension (east) and transpression (west) along the lateral margins of the orocline, a result of oroclinal formation, rotation of the Indian indenter, and focused precipitation caused by the Westerlies. The model for the evolution of the drainage system involves: growth of the Pamir by N-ward propagating deformation, establishing E-trending belts of shortening and rivers/drainages; diversion and blocking of these rivers by the development of the lateral boundaries of the orocline that resulted in river capture and reversal. Even the present-day Panj (Amu Darya) is affected by ongoing uplift: tilted river terraces, wind gaps, and abnormal intersection of streams of different order indicate that large parts of the river have changed flow direction. The determination of a number of geomorphic indices with remote sensing techniques help us to identify areas experiencing tectonic deformation.

  12. Posttraumatic growth in psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Mazor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Recent research has shown high rates of exposure to trauma among people with serious mental illness (SMI. In addition studies suggest that psychosis and mental illness-related experiences can be extremely traumatic. While some individuals develop full blown PTSD related to these experiences, it has been noted that some may also experience posttraumatic growth (PTG. However, few studies have examined PTG as a possible outcome in people who have experienced psychosis. Method: To further understand the relationships between psychosis and PTG, 121 participants were recruited from community mental health rehabilitation centers and administered trauma and psychiatric questionnaires. Results: High levels of traumatic exposure were found in the sample. Regarding our main focus of study we observed that people who endured psychosis can experience PTG, and that PTG is mediated by meaning making and coping self-efficacy appraisal. Psychotic symptoms were found to be a major obstacle to meaning making, coping self-efficacy, and PTG, whereas negative symptoms were found to be significantly related to PTG when mediated by meaning making and coping self-efficacy. Conclusion: The current research provides preliminary evidence for potential role of meaning making and coping self-efficacy as mediators of PTG in the clinical, highly traumatized population of people with SMI who have experienced psychosis. This may have both research as well as clinical practice relevance for the field of psychiatric rehabilitation.

  13. ECOLOGICAL GROWTH BOUNDARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna BLUSZCZ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The trends of the society for the continuous growth, combined with the demographic changes, today have led to the important ecological problems on a global scale, which include, among others: the increased use of non-renewable natu-ral resources, an increase of the greenhouse gas emissions, contamination of soil, water, air and the progressive degra-dation of ecosystems. In the face of such serious threats the global initiatives of all countries are important to limit the results of the excessive consumption. The aim of the article is to present the methods of measurement of the consump-tion level of natural resources by the societies and the examination of relationships between the level of development of the societies and the use of resources. The popular measure – the ecological footprint – was used as a measurement method for the consumption of the today’s generations in relation to the regenerative possibilities of the natural envi-ronment. On the other hand, as the assessment method for the level of development of societies – the Human Develop-ment Index (HDI, including three basic areas: the life expectancy, GDP level per capita and education was used. The results of the research indicate that the current trend of the unlimited consumption of the highly developed countries takes place at the expense of the future generations.

  14. The initial growth stage in PVT growth of aluminum nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimann, P.; Epelbaum, B.M.; Bickermann, M.; Winnacker, A. [Department of Materials Science 6, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Martensstr. 7, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Nagata, S. [Functional Materials Development Center, Research Laboratories, JFE Mineral Company, Ltd., 1, Niihama-cho, Chuou-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 260-0826 (Japan)

    2006-06-15

    The main issue in homoepitaxial growth of aluminum nitride (AlN) on native seed substrates is the formation of an aluminum oxynitride (AlON) layer at temperatures between 1850-1950 C leading to polycrystalline growth. On the contrary, heteroepitaxial growth of AlN on silicon carbide (SiC) is relatively easy to achieve due to natural formation of a thin molten layer of (Al{sub 2}OC{sub x}) on the seed surface and consequent growth of AlN via the molten buffer layer. Optimization of the seeding process can be achieved by use of ultra-pure starting material. Another critical issue of AlN growth on SiC is cracking of the grown layer upon cooling as a result of different thermal expansion coefficients. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Corruption and economic growth with non constant labor force growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brianzoni, Serena; Campisi, Giovanni; Russo, Alberto

    2018-05-01

    Based on Brianzoni et al. [1] in the present work we propose an economic model regarding the relationship between corruption in public procurement and economic growth. We extend the benchmark model by introducing endogenous labor force growth, described by the logistic equation. The results of previous studies, as Del Monte and Papagni [2] and Mauro [3], show that countries are stuck in one of the two equilibria (high corruption and low economic growth or low corruption and high economic growth). Brianzoni et al. [1] prove the existence of a further steady state characterized by intermediate levels of capital per capita and corruption. Our aim is to investigate the effects of the endogenous growth around such equilibrium. Moreover, due to the high number of parameters of the model, specific attention is given to the numerical simulations which highlight new policy measures that can be adopted by the government to fight corruption.

  16. Extracellular matrix organization modulates fibroblast growth and growth factor responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, S; Pawelek, P; Grinnell, F

    1989-06-01

    To learn more about the relationship between extracellular matrix organization, cell shape, and cell growth control, we studied DNA synthesis by fibroblasts in collagen gels that were either attached to culture dishes or floating in culture medium during gel contraction. After 4 days of contraction, the collagen density (initially 1.5 mg/ml) reached 22 mg/ml in attached gels and 55 mg/ml in floating gels. After contraction, attached collagen gels were well organized; collagen fibrils were aligned in the plane of cell spreading; and fibroblasts had an elongated, bipolar morphology. Floating collagen gels, however, were unorganized; collagen fibrils were arranged randomly; and fibroblasts had a stellate morphology. DNA synthesis by fibroblasts in contracted collagen gels was suppressed if the gels were floating in medium but not if the gels were attached, and inhibition was independent of the extent of gel contraction. Therefore, growth of fibroblasts in contracted collagen gels could be regulated by differences in extracellular matrix organization and cell shape independently of extracellular matrix density. We also compared the responses of fibroblasts in contracted collagen gels and monolayer culture to peptide growth factors including fibroblast growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta, and interleukin 1. Cells in floating collagen gels were generally unresponsive to any of the growth factors. Cells in attached collagen gels and monolayer culture were affected similarly by fibroblast growth factor but not by the others. Our results indicate that extracellular matrix organization influenced not only cell growth, but also fibroblast responsiveness to peptide growth factors.

  17. Growth at adolescence. Clinical correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, W A

    1985-03-01

    Several highly significant changes occur within a relatively short period of time during adolescence. Great alteration in physique, developmental progress in thinking, and psychologic gains toward attaining ego identity take place but not always synchronously. Attention is paid to physical changes because they are visible and are of intense concern to adolescents, but physicians and other professionals should remember cognitive and psychosocial growth are affected by physical growth, and vice versa. Often there is a temporary disequilibrium in the relationship of these three areas of growth, and this can affect one or another part of the developmental pattern. It is therefore necessary to remind ourselves of the diversity of adolescent growth, and of adolescents, when caring for a young patient and be cognizant of growth in areas other than physical. More and more children with congenital or acquired handicaps are living to become adolescents and perhaps adults. Handicaps can be limited to one of the three major areas of growth or involve them all in varying degrees. For example, sickle cell disease, Crohn's disease, or ulcerative colitis may postpone physical growth for a significant period; this lack of pubertal change can affect psychosocial development but usually does not impair cognitive growth. Mental retardation may have no apparent effect on physical growth but can handicap the adolescent's psychosocial development. Growth still occurs in a sequential pattern but often it seems that handicapped youngsters reach a developmental milestone by a series of "detours." Physicians must recognize these lags or differences and try to facilitate progress, promote self-esteem, and provide understanding. Much can be done with anticipatory guidance. Adolescence often provides the opportunity to overcome past damage or, in some instances, to start anew on a more optimal program for physical and psychosocial growth. Young adolescent boys and girls usually look to the

  18. Nutritional catch-up growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gat-Yablonski, Galia; Pando, Rakefet; Phillip, Moshe

    2013-01-01

    Malnutrition, marked by variant nutrient deficiencies, is considered a leading cause of stunted growth worldwide. In developing countries, malnutrition is caused mainly by food shortage and infectious diseases. Malnutrition may also be found in the developed world, where it is due mostly to prematurity, chronic diseases, and anorexia nervosa. In most cases, when food consumption is corrected, spontaneous catch-up (CU) growth occurs. However, CU growth is not always complete, leading to growth deficits. Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanisms that govern this process. Using a rat model of food restriction followed by refeeding, we established a nutrition-induced CU growth model. Levels of leptin and insulin-like growth factor-1 were found to significantly decrease when food was restricted and to increase already 1 day after refeeding. Gene expression analysis of the growth plate revealed that food restriction specifically affects transcription factors such as the hypoxia inducible factor-1 and its downstream targets on the one hand, and global gene expression, indicating epigenetic regulation, on the other. Food restriction also reduced the level of several microRNAs, including the chondrocyte-specific miR-140, which led to an increase in its target, SIRT1, a class III histone deacetylase. These findings may explain the global changes in gene expression observed under nutritional manipulation. We suggest that multiple levels of regulation, including transcription factors, epigenetic mechanisms, and microRNAs respond to nutritional cues and offer a possible explanation for some of the effects of food restriction on epiphyseal growth plate growth. The means whereby these components sense changes in nutritional status are still unknown. Deciphering the role of epigenetic regulation in growth may pave the way for the development of new treatments for children with growth disorders. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Entrepreneurship Education and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jonna; Lindquist, Carl Rickard

    . This paper addresses the presumptions behind the project. The presumptions in relation to entrepreneurship demonstrate that the effort should target both growth entrepreneurs and SMEs in a wide sense; there is a need for growth entrepreneurs with ambitions to generate breakthrough innovation as well...

  20. Ecological economics and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    Boulding's 1966 paper on the economics of spaceship Earth established the framework for ecological economics and an understanding of economic growth. In ecological economics, economies are conceptualized as open subsystems of the closed biosphere and are subject to biophysical laws and constraints. Economic growth measured as an increase in real gross domestic product (GDP) has generally been associated with increases in the use of energy and materials and the generation of wastes. Scale, composition, and technology are the proximate determinants of environmental impacts. They are often reduced to two: scale (GDP) and intensity (impact per unit GDP). New work described in this paper defines "green" growth as intensity that declines faster than scale increases. Similarly, "brown" growth occurs when intensity declines more slowly than increases in scale, and "black" growth happens when both scale and intensity increase. These concepts are then related to the environmental Kuznets curve, which can be understood as a transition from brown to green growth. Ecological economics provides a macroperspective on economic growth. It offers broad policy principles, and it challenges the primacy of economic growth as a policy objective, but many important questions remain.

  1. Technical Education and Economic Growth

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Technical Education and Economic Growth. Technical Education and Economic Growth. Review of the Present Status. Expanding no.s and impairment of quality; Faculty shortage; Grim situation at Masters and PhD levels; Regional imbalance; Absence of International flavour ...

  2. Chemical Control of Plant Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural Research Center (USDA), Beltsville, MD.

    Seven experiments are presented in this Science Study Aid to help students investigate the control of plant growth with chemicals. Plant growth regulators, weed control, and chemical pruning are the topics studied in the experiments which are based on investigations that have been and are being conducted at the U. S. Agricultural Research Center,…

  3. Growth curves for Laron syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laron, Z; Lilos, P; Klinger, B

    1993-01-01

    Growth curves for children with Laron syndrome were constructed on the basis of repeated measurements made throughout infancy, childhood, and puberty in 24 (10 boys, 14 girls) of the 41 patients with this syndrome investigated in our clinic. Growth retardation was already noted at birth, the birth length ranging from 42 to 46 cm in the 12/20 available measurements. The postnatal growth curves deviated sharply from the normal from infancy on. Both sexes showed no clear pubertal spurt. Girls completed their growth between the age of 16-19 years to a final mean (SD) height of 119 (8.5) cm whereas the boys continued growing beyond the age of 20 years, achieving a final height of 124 (8.5) cm. At all ages the upper to lower body segment ratio was more than 2 SD above the normal mean. These growth curves constitute a model not only for primary, hereditary insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) deficiency (Laron syndrome) but also for untreated secondary IGF-I deficiencies such as growth hormone gene deletion and idiopathic congenital isolated growth hormone deficiency. They should also be useful in the follow up of children with Laron syndrome treated with biosynthetic recombinant IGF-I. PMID:8333769

  4. ICT, Innovation and Productivity Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosse, Henrik; Jacobsen, Joannes; Sørensen, Anders

    This CEBR report presents new evidence which suggests that investments in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) further productivity growth in Danish firms by stimulating innovation activities.......This CEBR report presents new evidence which suggests that investments in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) further productivity growth in Danish firms by stimulating innovation activities....

  5. The Growth-Inequality Association:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This note suggests that the association between income inequality and economic growth rates might arguably depend on the political ideology of incumbent governments. Estimates indicate that under leftwing governments, inequality is negatively associated with growth while the association is positive...... under rightwing governments. This may provide a qualification to recent studies of inequality....

  6. Forces Influencing Rural Community Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Kenneth D.

    The paper briefly focuses on two questions: Can the recent growth trend be expected to continue into the future? and What does this imply as far as public policy and programs are concerned? Statistics on growth in the seventies suggest three possibilities: a change in the functions of metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas; the decline of the city…

  7. Mould growth on building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fog Nielsen, K.

    Mould growth in buildings is associated with adverse health effects among the occupants of the building. However actual growth only occurs in damp and water-damaged materials, and is an increasing problem in Denmark, due to less robust constructions, inadequate maintenance, and too little...

  8. Growth Hormone and Endocrinopathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K W; Choe, K O; Park, C Y; Lee, H; Son, H Y; Huh, K B; Ryu, K J [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-03-15

    This is an analysis of 39 patients studied at the Yonsei Medical Center from January, 1976 to March 1979. Of these 35 patient were suspected of having hypothalamic insufficiency and subjected to the L-Dopa stimulation test to observe growth hormone secretary function while four acromegaly patient received the glucose loading test and L-Dopa stimulation test. The results are as follows: 1) The basal level of GH in the various disease was as follows: a) The basal level was lower than the control level but was not statistically significant b) In diabetes the mean value tended to higher than the control level but was not significant statistically c) In all four acromegaly patients the GH level was significantly higher than the control level 2) Of 13 patients with diabetes, nine had diabetic retinopathy, and of those nine, six showed increased L-Dopa response. However, of the four non retinopathic DM patients, only one showed increased response to L-Dopa. 3) Two patients out of ten with Sheehan's syndrome responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 4) One Patient of eight with pituitary chromophobe adenoma responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 5) Four acromegaly patients revealed 3 acidophilic adenoma and one chromophobe adenoma histologically. Of patients receiving the L-Dopa stimulation test. Two showed a paradoxical response. Two patients who received the glucose loading test showed suppressed response. 6) Of two craniopharyngioma patients, one showed increased GH response after L-Dopa stimulation. Increased response of GH after L-Dopa stimulation was seen in one two craniopharyngioma patients and also in one of two patients with short structure.

  9. Growth Hormone and Endocrinopathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. W.; Choe, K. O.; Park, C. Y.; Lee, H.; Son, H. Y.; Huh, K. B.; Ryu, K. J. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-03-15

    This is an analysis of 39 patients studied at the Yonsei Medical Center from January, 1976 to March 1979. Of these 35 patient were suspected of having hypothalamic insufficiency and subjected to the L-Dopa stimulation test to observe growth hormone secretary function while four acromegaly patient received the glucose loading test and L-Dopa stimulation test. The results are as follows: 1) The basal level of GH in the various disease was as follows: a) The basal level was lower than the control level but was not statistically significant b) In diabetes the mean value tended to higher than the control level but was not significant statistically c) In all four acromegaly patients the GH level was significantly higher than the control level 2) Of 13 patients with diabetes, nine had diabetic retinopathy, and of those nine, six showed increased L-Dopa response. However, of the four non retinopathic DM patients, only one showed increased response to L-Dopa. 3) Two patients out of ten with Sheehan's syndrome responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 4) One Patient of eight with pituitary chromophobe adenoma responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 5) Four acromegaly patients revealed 3 acidophilic adenoma and one chromophobe adenoma histologically. Of patients receiving the L-Dopa stimulation test. Two showed a paradoxical response. Two patients who received the glucose loading test showed suppressed response. 6) Of two craniopharyngioma patients, one showed increased GH response after L-Dopa stimulation. Increased response of GH after L-Dopa stimulation was seen in one two craniopharyngioma patients and also in one of two patients with short structure.

  10. Growth Hormone and Endocrinopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. W.; Choe, K. O.; Park, C. Y.; Lee, H.; Son, H. Y.; Huh, K. B.; Ryu, K. J.

    1979-01-01

    This is an analysis of 39 patients studied at the Yonsei Medical Center from January, 1976 to March 1979. Of these 35 patient were suspected of having hypothalamic insufficiency and subjected to the L-Dopa stimulation test to observe growth hormone secretary function while four acromegaly patient received the glucose loading test and L-Dopa stimulation test. The results are as follows: 1) The basal level of GH in the various disease was as follows: a) The basal level was lower than the control level but was not statistically significant b) In diabetes the mean value tended to higher than the control level but was not significant statistically c) In all four acromegaly patients the GH level was significantly higher than the control level 2) Of 13 patients with diabetes, nine had diabetic retinopathy, and of those nine, six showed increased L-Dopa response. However, of the four non retinopathic DM patients, only one showed increased response to L-Dopa. 3) Two patients out of ten with Sheehan's syndrome responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 4) One Patient of eight with pituitary chromophobe adenoma responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 5) Four acromegaly patients revealed 3 acidophilic adenoma and one chromophobe adenoma histologically. Of patients receiving the L-Dopa stimulation test. Two showed a paradoxical response. Two patients who received the glucose loading test showed suppressed response. 6) Of two craniopharyngioma patients, one showed increased GH response after L-Dopa stimulation. Increased response of GH after L-Dopa stimulation was seen in one two craniopharyngioma patients and also in one of two patients with short structure.

  11. Stochastic models for tumoral growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Carlos

    2006-02-01

    Strong experimental evidence has indicated that tumor growth belongs to the molecular beam epitaxy universality class. This type of growth is characterized by the constraint of cell proliferation to the tumor border and the surface diffusion of cells at the growing edge. Tumor growth is thus conceived as a competition for space between the tumor and the host, and cell diffusion at the tumor border is an optimal strategy adopted for minimizing the pressure and helping tumor development. Two stochastic partial differential equations are reported in this paper in order to correctly model the physical properties of tumoral growth in (1+1) and (2+1) dimensions. The advantage of these models is that they reproduce the correct geometry of the tumor and are defined in terms of polar variables. An analysis of these models allows us to quantitatively estimate the response of the tumor to an unfavorable perturbation during growth.

  12. Dietary arginine and linear growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vught, Anneke J A H; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Arts, Ilja C W

    2013-01-01

    Child Intervention Study during 2001-2 (baseline), and at 3-year and 7-year follow-up, were used. Arginine intake was estimated via a 7 d precoded food diary at baseline and 3-year follow-up. Data were analysed in a multilevel structure in which children were embedded within schools. Random intercept......The amino acid arginine is a well-known growth hormone (GH) stimulator and GH is an important modulator of linear growth. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary arginine on growth velocity in children between 7 and 13 years of age. Data from the Copenhagen School...... and slopes were defined to estimate the association between arginine intake and growth velocity, including the following covariates: sex; age; baseline height; energy intake; puberty stage at 7-year follow-up and intervention/control group. The association between arginine intake and growth velocity...

  13. A nonpeptidyl growth hormone secretagogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R G; Cheng, K; Schoen, W R; Pong, S S; Hickey, G; Jacks, T; Butler, B; Chan, W W; Chaung, L Y; Judith, F

    1993-06-11

    A nonpeptidyl secretagogue for growth hormone of the structure 3-amino-3-methyl-N-(2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-2-oxo-1-([2'-(1H-tetrazol-5 -yl) (1,1'-biphenyl)-4-yl]methyl)-1H-1-benzazepin-3(R)-yl)-butanamid e (L-692,429) has been identified. L-692,429 synergizes with the natural growth hormone secretagogue growth hormone-releasing hormone and acts through an alternative signal transduction pathway. The mechanism of action of L-692,429 and studies with peptidyl and nonpeptidyl antagonists suggest that this molecule is a mimic of the growth hormone-releasing hexapeptide His-D-Trp-Ala-Trp-D-Phe-Lys-NH2 (GHRP-6). L-692,429 is an example of a nonpeptidyl specific secretagogue for growth hormone.

  14. Population growth, poverty and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibirige, J S

    1997-07-01

    One of the most popular explanations for the many problems that face Africa is population growth. Africa's population has doubled since 1960. Africa has the highest fertility rate in the world and the rate of population growth is higher than in any other region. At the same time, Africa faces a social and economic situation that is viewed by many as alarming. Among the problems that devastate Africa is that of persistent poor health. Africa has lower life expectancy, higher mortality rates and is affected by more disease and illness conditions than any other region. Focusing on sub-Saharan Africa, this paper examines the relationship between population growth, poverty and poor health. While most analyses have focused on population growth as an original cause of poverty and underdevelopment, this paper argues that while both population growth and poor health play a significant role in exacerbating the problem of poverty, they are themselves primary consequences of poverty rather than its cause.

  15. Efficient growth of HTS films with volatile elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegal, M.P.; Overmyer, D.L.; Dominguez, F.

    1998-12-22

    A system is disclosed for applying a volatile element-HTS layer, such as Tl-HTS, to a substrate in a multiple zone furnace, said method includes heating at higher temperature, in one zone of the furnace, a substrate and adjacent first source of Tl-HTS material, to sublimate Tl-oxide from the source to the substrate; and heating at lower temperature, in a separate zone of the furnace, a second source of Tl-oxide to replenish the first source of Tl-oxide from the second source. 3 figs.

  16. Growth morphologies of crystal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rong-Fu; Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Rosenberger, Franz

    1991-03-01

    We have expanded our earlier Monte Carlo model [Phys. Rev. A 38, 2447 (1988); J. Crystal Growth 100, 313 (1990)] to three dimensions and included reevaporation after accommodation and growth on dislocation-induced steps. We found again that, for a given set of growth parameters, the critical size, beyond which a crystal cannot retain its macroscopically faceted shape, scales linearly with the mean free path in the vapor. However, the three-dimensional (3D) the systems show increased shape stability compared to corresponding 2D cases. Extrapolation of the model results to mean-free-path conditions used in morphological stability experiments leads to order-of-magnitude agreement of the predicted critical size with experimental findings. The stability region for macroscopically smooth (faceted) surfaces in the parameter space of temperature and supersaturation depends on both the surface and bulk diffusion. While surface diffusion is seen to smooth the growth morphology on the scale of the surface diffusion length, bulk diffusion is always destabilizing. The atomic surface roughness increases with increase in growth temperature and supersaturation. That is, the tendency of surface kinetics anisotropies to stabilize the growth shape is reduced through thermal and kinetic roughening. It is also found that the solid-on-solid assumption, which can be advantageously used at low temperatures and supersaturations, is insufficient to describe the growth dynamics of atomically rough interfaces where bulk diffusion governs the process. For surfaces with an emerging screw dislocation, we find that the spiral growth mechanism dominates at low temperatures and supersaturations. The polygonization of a growth spiral decreases with increasing temperature or supersaturation. When the mean free path in the nutrient is comparable to the lattice constant, the combined effect of bulk and surface diffusion reduces the terrace width of a growth spiral in its center region. At elevated

  17. Growth of maize coleoptiles in the presence of natural and synthetic growth regulators. Growth correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Raczek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of natural (IAA, FC, ABA and synthetic (2,4-D growth substances on the increase of the fresh weight of maize coleoptile segments and change of the pH of the incubation medium, accepted here as criteria of maize coleoptile growth, was studied. The growth of maize coleoptiles depended on the concentration of the growth substances, as well as, on the composition of the incubation medium. The highest stimulation of coleoptile growth was seen with FC at a concentration of 10-4M, whereas ABA at 10-3 M gave the highest inhibition of maize coleoptile fresh weight increase and caused alkalization of the medium. The presence of K+ ions in the incubation medium enhanced the stimulatory effect of IAA and FC on the increase of the coleoptile fresh weight, whereas the presence of these ions and phosphate buffer abolished the growth-promoting effect of IAA and FC. The best correlation of the "fresh weight" and "pH" effects was found in the case of the growth of maize coleoptiles in the presence of FC (rxy = 0.67. The inhibition of maize coleoptile growth in the presence of high concentrations of IAA can be explained by the destructive effect of natural auxin at these concentrations on the integrity of mitochondrial membranes, and therefore on the normal functioning of mitochondria.

  18. The relative value of growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass, Nathaniel J

    2005-04-01

    Most executives would say that adding a point of growth and gaining a point of operating-profit margin contribute about equally to shareholder value. Margin improvements hit the bottom line immediately, while growth compounds value over time. But the reality is that the two are rarely equivalent. Growth often is far more valuable than managers think. For some companies, convincing the market that they can grow by just one additional percentage point can be worth six, seven, or even ten points of margin improvement. This article presents a new strategic metric, called the relative value of growth (RVG), which gives managers a clear picture of how growth projects and margin improvement initiatives affect shareholder value. Using basic balance sheet and income sheet data, managers can determine their companies' RVGs, as well as those of their competitors. Calculating RVGs gives managers insights into which corporate strategies are working to deliver value and whether their companies are pulling the most powerful value-creation levers. The author examines a number of well-known companies and explains what their RVG numbers say about their strategies. He reviews the unspoken assumption that growth and profits are incompatible over the long term and shows that a fair number of companies are effective at delivering both. Finally, he explains how managers can use the RVG framework to help them define strategies that balance growth and profitability at both the corporate and business unit levels.

  19. Sociological explanations of economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, R M

    1988-01-01

    Even if questions of how resources are distributed within and between societies are the main concern, it is necessary to continue to grapple with the issue of the causes of economic growth since economic growth and level of development continue to be among the most important causes of inequality, poverty, unemployment, and the quality of life. This paper's dependent variable is the economic growth rate of 55 less developed countries (LDCs) over 2 time periods. 1970-78 and 1965-84. The causal model consists of control variables--level of development and domestic investment in 1965--and a variety of independent variables drawn from major sociological theories of economic growth published during the last 3 decades. Multiple regression analysis shows that, net of the effects of the 2 control variables, the variables which have the strongest effect on economic growth are: 1) direct foreign investment, which has a negative effect, 2) the proportion of the population in military service, and 3) the primary school enrollment ratio, both of which have positive effects on economic growth. On the other hand, variables drawn from some theories receive no empirical support. The mass media of communications, ethnolinguistic heterogeneity, democracy and human rights, income inequality, and state-centric theory's key variable, state strength, all fail to show any significant impact on economic growth rates when the control variables and the significant independent variables are held constant. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  20. Growth factors and new periodontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paknejad M

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth factors are biological mediators that have a key roll in proliferation, chemotaxy and"ndifferentiation by acting on specific receptors on the surface of cells and regulating events in wound"nhealing.They can be considered hormones that are not released in to the blood stream but have one a"nlocal action. Some of these factors can regulate premature change in GO to Gl phase in cell devesion"ncycle and even may stimulate synthesis of DNA in suitable cells, Growth substances, primarily secreted"nby fibroblasts, endothelia! cells, macrophages and platelet, include platelet derived growth factor"n(PDGF, insulin like growth factor (IGF transforming growth factor (TGFa and (3 and bone"nmorphogenetic proteins BMPs that approximately are the most important of them. (BMPs could be"nused to control events during periodontal, craniofacial and implant wound healing through favoring bone"nformation"nAccording toLynch, combination of PGDF and IGF1 would be effective in promoting growth of all the"ncomponents of the periodontium."nThe aim of this study was to characterize growth factor and review the literature to determine the"nmechanism of their function, classification and application in implant and periodontal treatment.

  1. Pro Poor Growth in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Fambon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between economic growth, poverty and income distribution in Cameroon, using both the data derived from three Cameroonian household surveys and the Poverty Equivalent Growth Rate (PEGR methodology developed by Kakwani et al. (2004, The study found that economic growth in Cameroon was pro poor over the period 1996–2007, which suggests that instead of increasing the economic growth rate alone, the poverty equivalent growth rate should also be maximized to achieve the poverty reduction objective, meaning that on the one hand, the growth rate should be boosted, and on the other, the distribution of income should also be concurrently improved. A decomposition of changes in poverty using the Kakwani (1997 approach reveal that the growth component dominates the redistribution component in the reduction of poverty. This suggests that the fall in absolute poverty over the survey period may be attributed to an increase in average household income, and not to the redistributive policies of the government.

  2. Towards Sustainable Growth Business Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamp-Roelands, N.; Balkenende, J.P.; Van Ommen, P.

    2012-03-15

    The Dutch Sustainable Growth Coalition (DSGC) has the following objectives: The DSGC aims to pro-actively drive sustainable growth business models along three lines: (1) Shape. DSGC member companies aim to connect economic profitability with environmental and social progress on the basis of integrated sustainable growth business models; (2) Share. DSGC member companies aim for joint advocacy of sustainable growth business models both internationally and nationally; and (3) Stimulate. DSGC member companies aim to stimulate and influence the policy debate on enabling sustainable growth - with a view to finding solutions to the environmental and social challenges we are facing. This is their first report. The vision, actions and mission of DSGC are documented in the Manifesto in Chapter 2 of this publication. Chapter 3 contains an overview of key features of an integrated sustainable growth business model and the roadmap towards such a model. In Chapter 4, project examples of DSGC members are presented, providing insight into the hands-on reality of implementing the good practices. Chapter 5 offers an overview of how the Netherlands provides an enabling environment for sustainable growth business models. Chapter 6 offers the key conclusions.

  3. Growth Data - Characterization of Sexual Growth Dimorphism in Sablefish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sexual growth dimorphism (SGD) is a common phenomenon in nature. Numerous marine fishes exhibit SGD, with females often growing faster and attaining larger sizes...

  4. Juvenile eye growth, when completed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans C; Christensen, Anders S; Fledelius, Christian

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test Sorsby's classical statement of axial eye growth as completed at the age of 13 years, with a view also to differentiating between basic eye growth and juvenile elongation associated with eventual refractive change towards myopia. METHODS: (i) A total of 160 healthy eyes close...... about age 13 as general limit found support from the cross-sectional data, which suggested stable emmetropic eye size from about 11-12 years, with an average apparently outgrown male emmetropic value of 23.5 mm versus females' 22.9 mm. The longitudinal data, however, showed emmetropic growth also beyond...

  5. The biophysics of neuronal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franze, Kristian; Guck, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    For a long time, neuroscience has focused on biochemical, molecular biological and electrophysiological aspects of neuronal physiology and pathology. However, there is a growing body of evidence indicating the importance of physical stimuli for neuronal growth and development. In this review we briefly summarize the historical background of neurobiophysics and give an overview over the current understanding of neuronal growth from a physics perspective. We show how biophysics has so far contributed to a better understanding of neuronal growth and discuss current inconsistencies. Finally, we speculate how biophysics may contribute to the successful treatment of lesions to the central nervous system, which have been considered incurable until very recently.

  6. A Model of Controlled Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Alberto; Lewicka, Marta

    2018-03-01

    We consider a free boundary problem for a system of PDEs, modeling the growth of a biological tissue. A morphogen, controlling volume growth, is produced by specific cells and then diffused and absorbed throughout the domain. The geometric shape of the growing tissue is determined by the instantaneous minimization of an elastic deformation energy, subject to a constraint on the volumetric growth. For an initial domain with C}^{2,α boundary, our main result establishes the local existence and uniqueness of a classical solution, up to a rigid motion.

  7. Epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chaoliang; Chen, Junze; Wu, Xue-Jun; Zhang, Hua

    2018-02-01

    Hybrid nanostructures are a class of materials that are typically composed of two or more different components, in which each component has at least one dimension on the nanoscale. The rational design and controlled synthesis of hybrid nanostructures are of great importance in enabling the fine tuning of their properties and functions. Epitaxial growth is a promising approach to the controlled synthesis of hybrid nanostructures with desired structures, crystal phases, exposed facets and/or interfaces. This Review provides a critical summary of the state of the art in the field of epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures. We discuss the historical development, architectures and compositions, epitaxy methods, characterization techniques and advantages of epitaxial hybrid nanostructures. Finally, we provide insight into future research directions in this area, which include the epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures from a wider range of materials, the study of the underlying mechanism and determining the role of epitaxial growth in influencing the properties and application performance of hybrid nanostructures.

  8. VT Designated Growth Center Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Growth centers aim to align public infrastructure and private building investments with a local framework of policies and regulations to ensure that 20 years of...

  9. Corruption, Growth, and Public Finances

    OpenAIRE

    Vito Tanzi; Hamid R Davoodi

    2000-01-01

    The paper discusses some channels through which corruption affects growth such as the impact of corruption on enterprises, on the allocation of talent, and on investment. It also discusses the impact of corruption on some aspects of public finance.

  10. The Market for Smart Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on several studies of market demand, the authors determined that consumer demand for smart growth would translate into more than 600,000 houses out of the approximately 2 million new housing units built in 2007.

  11. Your Baby's Growth: 5 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Baby's Growth: 5 Months KidsHealth / For Parents / Your Baby's ... a cause for concern. How Much Will My Baby Grow? By 5 months, your baby's birth weight ...

  12. Investor Protections and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Haidar, Jamal Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    Using objective measures of investor protections in 170 countries, I establish that the level of investor protection matters for cross-country differences in GDP growth: countries with stronger protections tend to grow faster than those with poor investor protections.

  13. Traffic fatalities and economic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    As countries develop death rates usually fall, especially for diseases that affect the young and result in substantial life-years lost. Deaths due to traffic accidents are a notable exception: the growth in motor vehicles that accompanies economic gr...

  14. National Survey of Family Growth

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) gathers information on family life, marriage and divorce, pregnancy, infertility, use of contraception, and men's and...

  15. Limits to the growth debate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, L.

    The first two major studies sponsored by the club of Rome were the report of the Meadows team at MIT, The Limits to Growth, published in 1972, and the Mesarovic and Pestel report, Mankind at the Turning Point, published in 1974. When the Club of Rome met in Philadelphia in April of 1976, its pronouncements reflected a frame of mind quite different from that of 1972. Recently, Herman Kahn and his colleagues at the Hudson Institute have published The Next 200 Years, a book evidently inspired as much by antagonism to the limits-to-growth school of thought as by affirmative faith in its own vision of technological optimism. The author discusses the content of the studies and summarizes his own position in four areas. (1) While no trend of growth of anything can continue indefinitely in the real world, there are not global physical limits to economic growth within a time frame susceptible to plausible foresight or relevant to policy making. (2) In some world regions, notably South Asia and tropical Africa, population growth rates do indeed threaten to create a kind of Malthusian trap, and the rapid reduction of fertility is critically important to their development prospects and urgent in time. (3) For other parts of the world, both rates and directions of growth will be more influenced by changes in preferences for consumption and in attitudes toward production than by physical constraints, although higher energy costs and environmental pressures will also be important influences in generating such changes in growth patterns. (4) Probable changes in directions of growth will generate new and important issues in international economic and political relations, with both dangers and opportunities for the evolving world order. (MCW)

  16. Military Expenditure, Threats, and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Aizenman, Joshua; Glick, Reuven

    2003-01-01

    This paper clarifies one of the puzzling results of the economic growth literature: the impact of military expenditure is frequently found to be non-significant or negative, yet most countries spend a large fraction of their GDP on defense and the military. We start by empirical evaluation of the non- linear interactions between military expenditure, external threats, corruption, and other relevant controls. While growth falls with higher levels of military spending, given the values of the o...

  17. Retail payments and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Iftekhar; De Renzis, Tania; Schmiedel , Heiko

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the fundamental relationship between retail payments and overall economic growth. Using data from across 27 European markets over the period 1995–2009, the results confirm that migration to efficient electronic retail payments stimulates overall economic growth, consumption and trade. Among different payment instruments, this relationship is strongest for card payments, followed by credit transfers and direct debits. Cheque payments are found to have a relatively low macro...

  18. Growth, unemployment and wage inertia

    OpenAIRE

    Raurich, Xavier; Sorolla, Valeri

    2014-01-01

    We introduce wage setting via efficiency wages in the neoclassical one-sector growth model to study the growth effects of wage inertia. We compare the dynamic equilibrium of an economy with wage inertia with the equilibrium of an economy without wage inertia. We show that wage inertia affects the long run employment rate and that the transitional dynamics of the main economic variables will be different because wages are a state variable when wage inertia is introduced. In particular, we show...

  19. International Outsourcing and Productivity Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Falk; Yvonne Wolfmayr

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of international outsourcing to low? and high income countries on total factor productivity growth based on manufacturing industry data for 14 OECD countries from 1995 ? 2000. We find that the broad measure of international outsourcing of material inputs to low income countries is significantly negatively related to productivity growth. Furthermore, while the narrow measure of international outsourcing of materials is not significant, purchased services from...

  20. Human Development and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Ranis, Gustav

    2004-01-01

    Recent literature has contrasted Human Development, described as the ultimate goal of the development process, with economic growth, described as an imperfect proxy for more general welfare, or as a means toward enhanced human development. This debate has broadened the definitions and goals of development but still needs to define the important interrelations between human development (HD) and economic growth (EG). To the extent that greater freedom and capabilities improve economic performan...

  1. Bulk Crystal Growth, and High-Resolution X-ray Diffraction Results of LiZnAs Semiconductor Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Benjamin W.; Reichenberger, Michael A.; Sunder, Madhana; Ugorowski, Philip B.; Nelson, Kyle A.; Henson, Luke C.; McGregor, Douglas S.

    2017-08-01

    LiZnAs is being explored as a candidate for solid-state neutron detectors. The compact form, solid-state device would have greater efficiency than present day gas-filled 3He and 10BF3 detectors. Devices fabricated from LiZnAs having either natural Li (nominally 7.5% 6Li) or enriched 6Li (usually 95% 6Li) as constituent atoms may provide a material for compact high efficiency neutron detectors. The 6Li( n, t)4He reaction yields a total Q-value of 4.78 MeV, an energy larger than that of the 10B reaction, which can easily be identified above background radiations. LiZnAs material was synthesized by preparing equimolar portions of Li, Zn, and As sealed under vacuum (10-6 Torr) in quartz ampoules lined with boron nitride and subsequently reacted in a compounding furnace (Montag et al. in J Cryst Growth 412:103, 2015). The raw synthesized LiZnAs was purified by a static vacuum sublimation in quartz (Montag et al. in J Cryst Growth 438:99, 2016). Bulk crystalline LiZnAs ingots were grown from the purified material with a high-temperature Bridgman-style growth process described here. One of the largest LiZnAs ingots harvested was 9.6 mm in diameter and 4.2 mm in length. Samples were harvested from the ingot and were characterized for crystallinity using a Bruker AXS Inc. D8 AXS Inc. D2 CRYSO, energy dispersive x-ray diffractometer, and a Bruker AXS Inc. D8 DISCOVER, high-resolution x-ray diffractometer equipped with molybdenum radiation, Gobel mirror, four bounce germanium monochromator and a scintillation detector. The primary beam divergence was determined to be 0.004°, using a single crystal Si standard. The x-ray based characterization revealed that the samples nucleated in the (110) direction and a high-resolution open detector rocking curve recorded on the (220) LiZnAs yielded a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 0.235°. Sectional pole figures using off-axis reflections of the (211) LiZnAs confirmed in-plane ordering, and also indicated the presence of multiple

  2. [Saarland Growth Study: sampling design].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danker-Hopfe, H; Zabransky, S

    2000-01-01

    The use of reference data to evaluate the physical development of children and adolescents is part of the daily routine in the paediatric ambulance. The construction of such reference data is based on the collection of extensive reference data. There are different kinds of reference data: cross sectional references, which are based on data collected from a big representative cross-sectional sample of the population, longitudinal references, which are based on follow-up surveys of usually smaller samples of individuals from birth to maturity, and mixed longitudinal references, which are a combination of longitudinal and cross-sectional reference data. The advantages and disadvantages of the different methods of data collection and the resulting reference data are discussed. The Saarland Growth Study was conducted for several reasons: growth processes are subject to secular changes, there are no specific reference data for children and adolescents from this part of the country and the growth charts in use in the paediatric praxis are possibly not appropriate any more. Therefore, the Saarland Growth Study served two purposes a) to create actual regional reference data and b) to create a database for future studies on secular trends in growth processes of children and adolescents from Saarland. The present contribution focusses on general remarks on the sampling design of (cross-sectional) growth surveys and its inferences for the design of the present study.

  3. Phenomenology of stochastic exponential growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirjol, Dan; Jafarpour, Farshid; Iyer-Biswas, Srividya

    2017-06-01

    Stochastic exponential growth is observed in a variety of contexts, including molecular autocatalysis, nuclear fission, population growth, inflation of the universe, viral social media posts, and financial markets. Yet literature on modeling the phenomenology of these stochastic dynamics has predominantly focused on one model, geometric Brownian motion (GBM), which can be described as the solution of a Langevin equation with linear drift and linear multiplicative noise. Using recent experimental results on stochastic exponential growth of individual bacterial cell sizes, we motivate the need for a more general class of phenomenological models of stochastic exponential growth, which are consistent with the observation that the mean-rescaled distributions are approximately stationary at long times. We show that this behavior is not consistent with GBM, instead it is consistent with power-law multiplicative noise with positive fractional powers. Therefore, we consider this general class of phenomenological models for stochastic exponential growth, provide analytical solutions, and identify the important dimensionless combination of model parameters, which determines the shape of the mean-rescaled distribution. We also provide a prescription for robustly inferring model parameters from experimentally observed stochastic growth trajectories.

  4. Placental Adaptations in Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song; Regnault, Timothy R.H.; Barker, Paige L.; Botting, Kimberley J.; McMillen, Isabella C.; McMillan, Christine M.; Roberts, Claire T.; Morrison, Janna L.

    2015-01-01

    The placenta is the primary interface between the fetus and mother and plays an important role in maintaining fetal development and growth by facilitating the transfer of substrates and participating in modulating the maternal immune response to prevent immunological rejection of the conceptus. The major substrates required for fetal growth include oxygen, glucose, amino acids and fatty acids, and their transport processes depend on morphological characteristics of the placenta, such as placental size, morphology, blood flow and vascularity. Other factors including insulin-like growth factors, apoptosis, autophagy and glucocorticoid exposure also affect placental growth and substrate transport capacity. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is often a consequence of insufficiency, and is associated with a high incidence of perinatal morbidity and mortality, as well as increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in later life. Several different experimental methods have been used to induce placental insufficiency and IUGR in animal models and a range of factors that regulate placental growth and substrate transport capacity have been demonstrated. While no model system completely recapitulates human IUGR, these animal models allow us to carefully dissect cellular and molecular mechanisms to improve our understanding and facilitate development of therapeutic interventions. PMID:25580812

  5. Anticavitation and Differential Growth in Elastic Shells

    KAUST Repository

    Moulton, Derek E.; Goriely, Alain

    2010-01-01

    infinite growth or resorption is imposed at the inner surface of the shell. However, void collapse can occur in a limiting sense when radial and circumferential growth are properly balanced. Growth functions which diverge or vanish at a point arise

  6. Economic growth and gender equality | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    And conversely, does gender equality impact economic growth? ... change and growth in the economy on women's employment opportunities and the type ... sectors and their overall effect on development outcomes, such as economic growth ...

  7. Student Augmentation for Crystal Growth Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prasad, V

    1999-01-01

    ... intelligent modeling, design and control of crystal growth processes. One doctoral student worked on integrating the radiation heat transfer model into MASTRAPP, the crystal growth model developed by the Consortium for Crystal Growth Research...

  8. Best practices for rural smart growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Smart growth is a development strategy that encompasses economic, environmental and social objectives to manage : the growth of a community. The basic principles of smart growth are to: : Mix land uses. : Take advantage of compact building de...

  9. Growth and Economic Opportunities for Women: Strengthening ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Asian outlook: New growth dependent on new productivity. There is no doubt that Canada is tying its future growth prospects to Asia. View moreAsian outlook: New growth dependent on new productivity ...

  10. Understanding "Inclusive Growth": Advancing the global agenda ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-03-27

    Mar 27, 2013 ... Increasingly, the concept of "inclusive growth," where the benefits of economic growth are ... Growth is less likely to be sustainable with high and/or growing inequalities, and ... A global vision for small business in Egypt.

  11. Nutritionally-Induced Catch-Up Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galia Gat-Yablonski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition is considered a leading cause of growth attenuation in children. When food is replenished, spontaneous catch-up (CU growth usually occurs, bringing the child back to its original growth trajectory. However, in some cases, the CU growth is not complete, leading to a permanent growth deficit. This review summarizes our current knowledge regarding the mechanism regulating nutrition and growth, including systemic factors, such as insulin, growth hormone, insulin- like growth factor-1, vitamin D, fibroblast growth factor-21, etc., and local mechanisms, including autophagy, as well as regulators of transcription, protein synthesis, miRNAs and epigenetics. Studying the molecular mechanisms regulating CU growth may lead to the establishment of better nutritional and therapeutic regimens for more effective CU growth in children with malnutrition and growth abnormalities. It will be fascinating to follow this research in the coming years and to translate the knowledge gained to clinical benefit.

  12. Determinants of economic growth in BRIC countries

    OpenAIRE

    Rajjev K. Goel

    2011-01-01

    We study economic growth in four emerging economies - Brazil, Russia, India, and China (BRIC). Questions addressed are: (a) How do medium term growth determinants differ from short term determinants? (b) What are differences between growth effects of aggregate versus disaggregated exports? And (c) Does lower institutional quality hinder growth? Results show that while BRIC nations have higher growth, there are significant within-group differences. China and Russia mostly showed higher growth,...

  13. Stem secondary growth of tundra shrubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campioli, Matteo; Leblans, Niki; Michelsen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Our knowledge of stem secondary growth of arctic shrubs (a key component of tundra net primary production, NPP) is very limited. Here, we investigated the impact of the physical elements of the environment on shrub secondary growth by comparing annual growth rates of model species from similar...... growth (stem apical growth, stem length, and apical growth of stem plus leaves), in some cases even with opposite responses. Thus caution should be taken when estimating the impact of the environment on shrub growth from apical growth only. Integration of our data set with the (very limited) previously...

  14. Growth and Predictors of Growth Restraint in Moderately Preterm Children Aged 0 to 4 Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca-Tjeertes, I.F.; Kerstjens, J.M.; Reijneveld, S.A.; de Winter, A.F.; Bos, A.F.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe growth in moderately preterm-born children, determine the prevalence of growth restraint at the age of 4, and identify predictors of growth restraint. We hypothesized that growth in moderately preterm-born children differs from growth in term-born children and that growth

  15. Green growth in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balde, K.; Boelens, A.; Brinksma, E.; Edens, B.; Hiethaar, S.; Klein, P.; Schenau, S.

    2011-04-01

    In 2009 the Ministerial Council Meeting of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) committed itself to a green growth strategy. Such a strategy fosters economic growth and development while ensuring that natural resources can continue to provide the ecosystem services on which our well-being relies. It also endorses investment, competition and innovation which will underpin sustained growth and give rise to new economic opportunities. Green growth provides both a policy strategy for implementing this economic transformation and a monitoring framework with a proposed set of indicators. This report presents an overview of the state of green growth in the Netherlands. It should be regarded as a benchmark for a more thorough and comprehensive assessment of green growth in the future. It is based on the set of indicators proposed by the OECD in their intermediate report of February 2011. Data relevant to the Dutch situation are presented for twenty of these indicators, illustrating the observed trends. The indicators are grouped in four themes. For the first theme, environmental efficiency of production, on the whole the indicators show increased efficiency. However, indicators such as greenhouse gas intensity, energy efficiency and material intensity show only relative decoupling, which on its own is not enough to ensure green growth. In addition, the increase in environmental efficiency is partly explained by substitution of imports for domestic production, which is not conducive to green growth on a global scale: the efficiency gains in domestic production, for example, are offset by increases in foreign greenhouse gas emissions. Water use and agricultural nutrient surpluses are the only indicators where absolute decoupling has occurred. The second theme contains indicators regarding the natural assets base. This group of indicators provides a mixed picture. Natural gas reserves are decreasing and the overall level of threat to animal

  16. Phytochrome, plant growth and flowering

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, R. W.; Bagnall, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    Attempts to use artificially lit cabinets to grow plants identical to those growing in sunlight have provided compelling evidence of the importance of light quality for plant growth. Changing the balance of red (R) to far-red (FR) radiation, but with a fixed photosynthetic input can shift the phytochrome photoequilibrium in a plant and generate large differences in plant growth. With FR enrichment the plants elongate, and may produce more leaf area and dry matter. Similar morphogenic responses are also obtained when light quality is altered only briefly (15-30 min) at the end-of-the-day. Conversely, for plants grown in natural conditions the response of plant form to selective spectral filtering has again shown that red and far-red wavebands are important as found by Kasperbauer and coworkers. Also, where photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) of sunlight have been held constant, the removal of far-red alone alters plant growth. With FR depletion plants grown in sunlight are small, more branched and darker green. Here we examine the implications for plant growth and flowering when the far-red composition of incident radiation in plant growth chambers is manipulated.

  17. Universality in stochastic exponential growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer-Biswas, Srividya; Crooks, Gavin E; Scherer, Norbert F; Dinner, Aaron R

    2014-07-11

    Recent imaging data for single bacterial cells reveal that their mean sizes grow exponentially in time and that their size distributions collapse to a single curve when rescaled by their means. An analogous result holds for the division-time distributions. A model is needed to delineate the minimal requirements for these scaling behaviors. We formulate a microscopic theory of stochastic exponential growth as a Master Equation that accounts for these observations, in contrast to existing quantitative models of stochastic exponential growth (e.g., the Black-Scholes equation or geometric Brownian motion). Our model, the stochastic Hinshelwood cycle (SHC), is an autocatalytic reaction cycle in which each molecular species catalyzes the production of the next. By finding exact analytical solutions to the SHC and the corresponding first passage time problem, we uncover universal signatures of fluctuations in exponential growth and division. The model makes minimal assumptions, and we describe how more complex reaction networks can reduce to such a cycle. We thus expect similar scalings to be discovered in stochastic processes resulting in exponential growth that appear in diverse contexts such as cosmology, finance, technology, and population growth.

  18. Phytochrome, plant growth and flowering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R.W.; Bagnall, D.J. [CSIRO, Canberra (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Attempts to use artificially lit cabinets to grow plants identical to those growing in sunlight have provided compelling evidence of the importance of light quality for plant growth. Changing the balance of red (R) to far-red (FR) radiation, but with a fixed photosynthetic input can shift the phytochrome photoequilibrium in a plant and generate large differences in plant growth. With FR enrichment the plants elongate, and may produce more leaf area and dry matter. Similar morphogenic responses are also obtained when light quality is altered only briefly (15-30 min) at the end-of-the-day. Conversely, for plants grown in natural conditions the response of plant form to selective spectral filtering has again shown that red and far-red wavebands are important as found by Kasperbauer and coworkers. Also, where photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) of sunlight have been held constant, the removal of far-red alone alters plant growth. As shown for chrysanthemum, with FR depletion plants grown in sunlight are small, more branched and darker green. We examine the implications for plant growth and flowering when the far-red composition of incident radiation in plant growth chambers is manipulated.

  19. American growth and Napoleonic Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergil Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Four years after the French Revolution, in 1793 a series of wars among France and other major powers of Europe began and they lasted until 1815. There is disagreement among economic historians about the effects of these wars on the trend of US economic growth. This paper aims to answer the following question. Did America as a neutral nation take advantage of economic possibilities caused by Europe at war through trade? To put it differently, this paper questions whether there was an export-led growth due to the war. To answer this question, we re-examined the export-led growth hypothesis for the period 1790-1860 using the ARDL methodology. Based on this methodology, a cointegrated relationship is found among the variables of real GDP, labor, exports and exchange rates. The results suggest that the economic growth of the US was not export-driven. In addition, parallel to the results of unit root tests with structural breaks, the coefficient of the dummy variable was statistically significant in the long run, implying that the war did have a significant effect on the economic growth trend of the US.

  20. SME Cooperation on Innovation & Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove; Neville, Mette

    2016-01-01

    The research in this paper reveals how cooperation of SMEs can enable innovation and growth. The research is conducted in a four-year period with 24 SMEs participating from different industry branches. The research is now in the late part of the 3rd. year starting in 2013 and finished January 2017....... Preliminary findings are revealed here and discussed with the SMEs. Shorter-term cooperation and especially longer-term collaboration is important for SMEs to enable innovation and growth. The content of collaboration is based on the cross-disciplinary trinity of organisational- and managerial development......, business model development and financial development. The trinity requires time to get the specific insight on application for each SME. An enhanced contribution is made to the field of SMEs, to academia and to public bodies to understand the needed initiatives to support SMEs for innovation and growth...

  1. Filamentous Growth in Eremothecium Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskarsson, Therese

    , this thesis deals with some of the aspects of hyphal growth, which is an important virulence factor for pathogenic fungi infecting both humans and plants. Hyphal establishment through continuous polar growth is a complex process, requiring the careful coordination of a large subset of proteins involved......-regulatory activity of AgGts1, the protein could have additional actin organizing properties. In the second and third part, this thesis addresses the use of A. gossypii and its relative E. cymbalariae as model organisms for filamentous growth. A series of assays analyzed the capability of Eremothecium genus fungi...... of molecular tools for E. cymbalariae to enable a faster and more efficient approach for genetic comparisons between Eremothecium genus fungi....

  2. Energy consumption and economic growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookes, L G

    1972-10-01

    A mathematical model relating Gross National Product (GNP) per capita to useful energy consumed per capita is demonstrated to predict the shift in this relationship actually experienced in the U.K. and the U.S. over a period of years. World GNP growths in the recent past are used to forecast GNP growth to the year 2030 and also (via the model) the necessary fuel consumption for such growth; likewise, potential production of fossil fuels (exclusive of tar sands and oil shale) is shown to 2030, based on two different assumptions about total world reserves. Fossil fuel ceases to meet world requirements for energy at some time between 1985 and 1995. The most likely candidate for filling the gap is nuclear power.

  3. Employment growth and regional development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Rikard; Hansen, Høgni Kalsø; Winther, Lars

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the potential drivers behind uneven regional development in the context of employment growth in Denmark and Sweden. In particular, we are interested in the roles of urbanization, industrial change and the rise of the new economy as manifested in the growth of the two economies...... in 2002–2007. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to analyse the impact of a number of key industrial sectors on regional employment growth in the two countries. The empirical analysis is based on longitudinal matched employer–employee data retrieved from official registers in each economy from 2002...... economies, we find that, although in general these economies react relatively similarly to changes, embarking on a narrower analysis of the individual sectors reveals marked national differences. This indicates that context matters in the analysis of regional economic dynamics in terms of structure, system...

  4. Nerve growth factor promotes human hemopoietic colony growth and differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, H.; Coughlin, M.D.; Bienenstock, J.; Denburg, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotropic polypeptide necessary for the survival and growth of some central neurons, as well as sensory afferent and sympathetic neurons. Much is now known of the structural and functional characteristics of NGF, whose gene has recently been clones. Since it is synthesized in largest amounts by the male mouse submandibular gland, its role exclusively in nerve growth is questionable. These experiments indicate that NGF causes a significant stimulation of granulocyte colonies grown from human peripheral blood in standard hemopoietic methylcellulose assays. Further, NGF appears to act in a relatively selective fashion to induce the differentiation of eosinophils and basophils/mast cells. Depletion experiments show that the NGF effect may be T-cell dependent and that NGF augments the colony-stimulating effect of supernatants from the leukemic T-cell (Mo) line. The hemopoietic activity of NGF is blocked by 125 I-polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to NGF. The authors conclude that NGF may indirectly act as a local growth factor in tissues other than those of the nervous system by causing T cells to synthesize or secrete molecules with colony-stimulating activity. In view of the synthesis of NGF in tissue injury, the involvement of basophils/mast cells and eosinophils in allergic and other inflammatory processes, and the association of mast cells with fibrosis and tissue repair, they postulate that NGF plays an important biological role in a variety of repair processes

  5. Surfactant-Mediated Growth Revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyerheim, H. L.; Sander, D.; Popescu, R.; Pan, W.; Kirschner, J.; Popa, I.

    2007-01-01

    The x-ray structure analysis of the oxygen-surfactant-mediated growth of Ni on Cu(001) identifies up to 0.15 monolayers of oxygen in subsurface octahedral sites. This questions the validity of the general view that surfactant oxygen floats on top of the growing Ni film. Rather, the surfactant action is ascribed to an oxygen-enriched zone extending over the two topmost layers. Surface stress measurements support this finding. Our results have important implications for the microscopic understanding of surfactant-mediated growth and the change of the magnetic anisotropy of the Ni films

  6. Monitoring crack growth using thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djedjiga, Ait Aouita; Abdeldjalil, Ouahabi

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to present a novel strategy for real-time monitoring crack growth of materials. The process is based on the use of thermal data extracted along the horizontal axis of symmetry of single edge notch tension (SENT) specimens, during fatigue tests. These data are exploited using an implemented program to detect in situ the growth of fatigue crack, with the critical size and propagation speed of the crack. This technique has the advantage to be applicable to a wide range of materials regardless of their electrical conductivity and their surface texture. (authors)

  7. Innovation, resources and economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curzio, A.Q.; Fortis, M.; Zoboli, R.

    1994-01-01

    The book is concerned with the following items: 1. Technological Creativity and Institutions, 2. Innovation at Work in an Historical-Economic Perspective: Energy and Industrial Materials, 3. Scientific Revolutions and Strategies of Economic Supremacy: Advanced Materials and Biotechnologies, 4. Economic Growth and Agro-Food Policies in Key Problem Regions: Former USSR and LDCs, 5. Economic Growth and Natural Resources at Risk: Climate Change, Forests and Water and in Conclusion: Innovation and Resources in a Global Policy Perspective. Only one chapter have regard to energy problems: Energie efficient technologies: past and future perspectives. (UA)

  8. The gendered politics of growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Bøllingtoft, Anne

    Based on a review of existing research on growth and gender, this paper challenges the traditional financial and economic assumptions about new venture growth. It proposes that there are numerous ways in which a new venture may 'grow' other than growing the business organically and that women...... simply choose other strategic avenues for growing their business that do not produce performance data measurable in traditional ways. Nevertheless, they contribute considerably to turning the wheels of the economy, wherefore it is necessary to produce an understanding of their choices which goes beyond...

  9. The Simplest Unified Growth Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strulik, Holger; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    This paper provides a unified growth theory, i.e. a model that explains the very long-run economic and demographic development path of industrialized economies, stretching from the pre-industrial era to present-day and beyond. Making strict use of Malthus' (1798) so-called preventive check...... hypothesis - that fertility rates vary inversely with the price of food - the current study offers a new and straightforward explanation for the demographic transition and the break with the Malthusian era. The current framework lends support to existing unified growth theories and is well in tune...

  10. Growth Factors and Tension-Induced Skeletal Muscle Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    1994-01-01

    The project investigated biochemical mechanisms to enhance skeletal muscle growth, and developed a computer based mechanical cell stimulator system. The biochemicals investigated in this study were insulin/(Insulin like Growth Factor) IGF-1 and Steroids. In order to analyze which growth factors are essential for stretch-induced muscle growth in vitro, we developed a defined, serum-free medium in which the differentiated, cultured avian muscle fibers could be maintained for extended periods of time. The defined medium (muscle maintenance medium, MM medium) maintains the nitrogen balance of the myofibers for 3 to 7 days, based on myofiber diameter measurements and myosin heavy chain content. Insulin and IGF-1, but not IGF-2, induced pronounced myofiber hypertrophy when added to this medium. In 5 to 7 days, muscle fiber diameters increase by 71 % to 98% compared to untreated controls. Mechanical stimulation of the avian muscle fibers in MM medium increased the sensitivity of the cells to insulin and IGF-1, based on a leftward shift of the insulin dose/response curve for protein synthesis rates. (54). We developed a ligand binding assay for IGF-1 binding proteins and found that the avian skeletal muscle cultures produced three major species of 31, 36 and 43 kD molecular weight (54) Stretch of the myofibers was found to have no significant effect on the efflux of IGF-1 binding proteins, but addition of exogenous collagen stimulated IGF-1 binding protein production 1.5 to 5 fold. Steroid hormones have a profound effect on muscle protein turnover rates in vivo, with the stress-related glucocorticoids inducing rapid skeletal muscle atrophy while androgenic steroids induce skeletal muscle growth. Exercise in humans and animals reduces the catabolic effects of glucocorticoids and may enhance the anabolic effects of androgenic steroids on skeletal muscle. In our continuing work on the involvement of exogenrus growth factors in stretch-induced avian skeletal muscle growth, we

  11. When economic growth is less than exponential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Christian; Koch, Karl-Josef; Steger, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that growth theory needs a more general notion of "regularity" than that of exponential growth. We suggest that paths along which the rate of decline of the growth rate is proportional to the growth rate itself deserve attention. This opens up for considering a richer set...

  12. When Economic Growth is Less than Exponential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Christian; Koch, Karl-Josef; Steger, Thomas M.

    This paper argues that growth theory needs a more general notion of "regularity" than that of exponential growth. We suggest that paths along which the rate of decline of the growth rate is proportional to the growth rate itself deserve attention. This opens up for considering a richer set...

  13. The Growth Opportunity Channel of Debt Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giambona, E.; Golec, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the importance of growth opportunities for debt structure decisions. High growth firms use more unsecured debt to preserve financial flexibility (in the form of untapped secured debt capacity) in connection with future growth opportunities: the growth opportunity channel of debt

  14. Nonlinear Growth Curves in Developmental Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Kevin J.; Ram, Nilam; Hamagami, Fumiaki

    2011-01-01

    Developmentalists are often interested in understanding change processes, and growth models are the most common analytic tool for examining such processes. Nonlinear growth curves are especially valuable to developmentalists because the defining characteristics of the growth process such as initial levels, rates of change during growth spurts, and…

  15. The relative volume growth of minimal submanifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen; Palmer, V.

    2002-01-01

    The volume growth of certain well-defined subsets of minimal submanifolds in riemannian spaces are compared with the volume growth of balls and spheres ill space forms of constant curvature.......The volume growth of certain well-defined subsets of minimal submanifolds in riemannian spaces are compared with the volume growth of balls and spheres ill space forms of constant curvature....

  16. Energy, economic growth, and human welfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schurr, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled: economic growth and human welfare; world-wide economic growth; economic growth and energy consumption; assessing the future; caution advised; energy supply and economic growth; supply as constraint; sound policies needed. (U.K.)

  17. Obesity, growth hormone and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby

    2009-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is the most important hormonal regulator of postnatal longitudinal growth in man. In adults GH is no longer needed for longitudinal growth. Adults with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) are characterised by perturbations in body composition, lipid metabolism, cardiovascular risk...

  18. Understanding "Inclusive Growth": Advancing the global agenda ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    27 mars 2013 ... Increasingly, the concept of "inclusive growth," where the benefits of economic growth are enjoyed across societies, is being recognized and advanced by many countries. Growth is less likely to be sustainable with high and/or growing inequalities, and inequality can hamper growth.

  19. Evaluating growth performance of young stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. L. Roe; R. E. Benson

    1966-01-01

    A simple procedure for evaluating the diameter growth of young stands in relation to potential growth is described. A comparison technique is developed which contrasts relative diameter of crop trees to the relative diameter growth of the last decade to show the condition and trend of growth in the stand. The method is objective, easy to use, and has several...

  20. Homeorhetic hormones, metabolites and accelerated growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood samples were drawn from surgically implanted catheters in the caudal aorta and vena cava during normal growth, maintenance (zero) growth and accelerated growth.These samples were assayed for glucose, free fatty acids, glycerol, alanine, lysine, growth hormone, insulin and thyroxine. It was found that during the ...