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Sample records for sublethally injured tumor

  1. Detection of low numbers of healthy and sub-lethally injured Salmonella enterica in chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasson, Vicky; Baert, Leen; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2011-02-28

    The capacity to detect low levels of healthy and sub-lethally injured Salmonella enterica cells in chocolate by two alternative rapid detection methods iQ-Check(TM)Salmonella II real-time PCR (Bio-Rad) and VIDAS® Easy SLM (BioMérieux) was assessed and compared with ISO 6579:2005. Chocolate, a low moisture food known to support the survival of Salmonella, was challenged as food matrix. Buffered peptone water (BPW) did not support the recovery of low levels of sub-lethally injured S. enterica independent of the detection method, while BPW supplemented with milk powder enabled detection by the three examined methods. However, inhibition of real-time PCR was observed since for one out of three repetitions of chocolate inoculated with a low number of sub-lethally injured S. enterica cells, no PCR signal was obtained. Therefore, attention should be paid to the enrichment step to avoid false negative results due to the presence of especially sub-lethally injured Salmonella cells in chocolate. An appropriate sample preparation (such as enrichment media and conditions for incubation) remains the key factor for reliable detection including sub-lethally injured cells and should be evaluated, if necessary optimized, for each detection assay. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison and Improvement of Detection Media for Sub-lethal Injured Clostridium perfringens

    OpenAIRE

    清水, 茂雅; 堀口, 明日香; 山崎, 浩司; 川合, 祐史

    2009-01-01

    Recovery of heat-injured vegetative cells and spores of Clostridium perfringens was evaluated on selective media, CW Egg-yolk agar with kanamycin (ECW+A), Tryptose sulfite cycloserine agar(TSC+A)and modified Handford agar (mHFA). As a result of heat treatment at 54℃ for 15 min, viable counts of C. perfringens vegetative cells on a selective medium (ECW+A)was significantly less than those on non-selective media. This means C. perfringens vegetative cells should be in an injured state. Comparin...

  3. Viability of sublethally injured coliform bacteria on fresh-cut cabbage stored in high CO2atmospheres following rinsing with electrolyzed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Hidemi; Inoue, Ayano

    2018-02-02

    The extent of sublethally injured coliform bacteria on shredded cabbage, either rinsed or not rinsed with electrolyzed water, was evaluated during storage in air and high CO 2 controlled atmospheres (5%, 10%, and 15%) at 5°C and 10°C using the thin agar layer (TAL) method. Sublethally injured coliform bacteria on nonrinsed shredded cabbage were either absent or they were injured at a 64-65% level when present. Rinsing of shredded cabbage with electrolyzed water containing 25ppm available chlorine reduced the coliform counts by 0.4 to 1.1 log and caused sublethal injury ranging from 42 to 77%. Pantoea ananatis was one of the species injured by chlorine stress. When shredded cabbage, nonrinsed or rinsed with electrolyzed water, was stored in air and high CO 2 atmospheres at 5°C for 7days and 10°C for 5days, coliform counts on TAL plates increased from 3.3-4.5 to 6.5-9.0 log CFU/g during storage, with the increase being greater at 10°C than at 5°C. High CO 2 of 10% and 15% reduced the bacterial growth on shredded cabbage during storage at 5°C. Although injured coliform bacteria were not found on nonrinsed shredded cabbage on the initial day, injured coliforms at a range of 49-84% were detected on samples stored in air and high CO 2 atmospheres at 5°C and 10°C. Injured cells were detected more frequently during storage at both temperatures irrespective of the CO 2 atmosphere when shredded cabbage was rinsed with electrolyzed water. These results indicated that injured coliform bacteria on shredded cabbage, either rinsed or not rinsed with electrolyzed water, exhibited different degrees of injury during storage regardless of the CO 2 atmosphere and temperature tested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Enumeration of sublethally injured Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 43895 and Escherichia coli strain B-41560 using selective agar overlays versus commercial methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amanda R; Ellison, Alysha L; Robinson, Amanda L; Drake, Maryanne; McDowell, Susan A; Mitchell, James K; Gerard, Patrick D; Heckler, Rachel A; McKillip, John L

    2013-04-01

    Quality control procedures during food processing may involve direct inoculation of food samples onto appropriate selective media for subsequent enumeration. However, sublethally injured bacteria often fail to grow, enabling them to evade detection and intervention measures and ultimately threaten the health of consumers. This study compares traditional selective and nonselective agar-based overlays versus two commercial systems (Petrifilm and Easygel) for recovery of injured E. coli B-41560 and O157:H7 strains. Bacteria were propagated in tryptic soy broth (TSB), ground beef slurry, and infant milk formula to a density of 10(6) to 10(8) CFU/ml and then were stressed for 6 min either in lactic acid (pH 4.5) or heat shocked for 3 min at 60°C. Samples were pour plated in basal layers of either tryptic soy agar (TSA), sorbitol MacConkey agar (SMAC), or violet red bile agar (VRB) and were resuscitated for 4 h prior to addition of agar overlays. Other stressed bacteria were plated directly onto Petrifilm and Easygel. Results indicate that selective and nonselective agar overlays recovered significantly higher numbers (greater than 1 log) of acid- and heat-injured E. coli O157:H7 from TSB, ground beef, and infant milk formula compared with direct plating onto selective media, Petrifilm, or Easygel, while no significant differences among these media combinations were observed for stressed E. coli B-41560. Nonstressed bacteria from TSB and ground beef were also recovered at densities significantly higher in nonselective TSA-TSA and in VRB-VRB and SMAC-SMAC compared with Petrifilm and Easygel. These data underscore the need to implement food safety measures that address sublethally injured pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7 in order to avoid underestimation of true densities for target pathogens.

  5. Sub-lethal radiation enhances anti-tumor immunotherapy in a transgenic mouse model of pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanahan Douglas

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is not uncommon to observe circulating tumor antigen-specific T lymphocytes in cancer patients despite a lack of significant infiltration and destruction of their tumors. Thus, an important goal for tumor immunotherapy is to identify ways to modulate in vivo anti-tumor immunity to achieve clinical efficacy. We investigate this proposition in a spontaneous mouse tumor model, Rip1-Tag2. Methods Experimental therapies were carried out in two distinctive trial designs, intended to either intervene in the explosive growth of small tumors, or regress bulky end-stage tumors. Rip1-Tag2 mice received a single transfer of splenocytes from Tag-specific, CD4+ T cell receptor transgenic mice, a single sub-lethal radiation, or a combination therapy in which the lymphocyte transfer was preceded by the sub-lethal radiation. Tumor burden, the extent of lymphocyte infiltration into solid tumors and host survival were used to assess the efficacy of these therapeutic approaches. Results In either intervention or regression, the transfer of Tag-specific T cells alone did not result in significant lymphocyte infiltration into solid tumors, not did it affect tumor growth or host survival. In contrast, the combination therapy resulted in significant reduction in tumor burden, increase in lymphocyte infiltration into solid tumors, and extension of survival. Conclusions The results indicate that certain types of solid tumors may be intrinsically resistant to infiltration and destruction by tumor-specific T lymphocytes. Our data suggest that such resistance can be disrupted by sub-lethal radiation. The combinatorial approach presented here merits consideration in the design of clinical trials aimed to achieve T cell-mediated anti-tumor immunity.

  6. iTRAQ-Based Proteomic Analysis of Sublethally Injured Escherichia coli O157:H7 Cells Induced by High Pressure Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiufang Bi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available High pressure carbon dioxide (HPCD could cause sublethally injured cells (SICs, which may cause food poisoning and spoilage during food storage and limit its application. Therefore, the formation of SICs of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was investigated by isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ proteomic methods in this study for better controlling the SICs induced by HPCD. A total of 2,446 proteins was identified by iTRAQ, of which 93 and 29 were significantly differentially expressed in the SICs compared with live control cells (CKL and dead control cells (CKD, respectively. Among the 93 differentially expressed proteins (DEP in the SICs compared with CKL, 65 proteins showed down-regulation and 28 showed up-regulation. According to the comprehensive proteome coverage analysis, the SICs survived under HPCD by reducing carbohydrate decomposing, lipid transport and metabolism, amino acid transport and metabolism, transcription and translation, DNA replication and repair. Besides, the SICs showed stress response, DNA damage response and an increased carbohydrate transport, peptidoglycan synthesis and disulfide bond formation to HPCD. Among the 29 DEP in the SICs compared with CKD, 12 proteins showed down-regulation and 17 showed up-regulation. According to the comprehensive proteome coverage analysis, the SICs survived under HPCD by accumulation of cell protective agents like carbohydrates and amino acids, and decreasing transcription and translation activities. Results showed that the formation of the SICs with low metabolic activity and high survival ability was a survival strategy for E. coli O157:H7 against HPCD.

  7. Decreased resistance of sublethally injured Escherichia coli O157:H7 to salt, mild heat, nisin and acids induced by high pressure carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiufang; Wang, Yongtao; Hu, Xiaosong; Liao, Xiaojun

    2018-02-01

    Resistance of sublethally injured cells (SICs) of Escherichia coli O157:H7 induced by high pressure carbon dioxide (HPCD) to salt, low temperature, mild heat, nisin, acids and low pHs was investigated in this study. The SICs of E. coli were obtained following HPCD at 5 MPa and 25 °C for 40-60 min or 5 MPa and 45 °C for 20 min. The untreated cells could survive normally while the HPCD-treated cells showed 2.87 log 10  cycles' reduction on tryptic soy agar (TSA) with 3% NaCl. The counts of the untreated cells were not significantly changed during 5 h incubation at 4 °C or 40 min incubation at 45 °C, and the HPCD-treated cells were also not affected by 5 h incubation at 4 °C but showed 1.75 log 10  cycles' reduction at 45 °C for 40 min. The antimicrobial nisin caused an extra 0.25-1.0 log 10  cycles' reduction of the HPCD-treated cells while the untreated cells was not inactivated by nisin. Except for oxalic acid (OA), citric acid (CA), malic acid (MA), tartaric acid (TA), lactic acid (LA), acetic acid (AA) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) did not inactivate the untreated cells, but all these seven acids caused a 0.74-1.53 log 10  cycles' reduction of HPCD-treated cells. These results indicated that HPCD-induced SICs had a decreased resistance to salt, mild heat, nisin and acids. Moreover, the recovery test was used to investigate the sensitivity of the SICs to different pHs. Results showed that the SICs could not recover below or equal to pH 4.0. These promising results would open up the possibility of exploring the combination of other technologies (eg. mild heat, nisin and acids) with HPCD as hurdle approaches to inactivate target pathogens in foods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Combination Treatment with Sublethal Ionizing Radiation and the Proteasome Inhibitor, Bortezomib, Enhances Death-Receptor Mediated Apoptosis and Anti-Tumor Immune Attack

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    Ercan Cacan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sub-lethal doses of radiation can modulate gene expression, making tumor cells more susceptible to T-cell-mediated immune attack. Proteasome inhibitors demonstrate broad anti-tumor activity in clinical and pre-clinical cancer models. Here, we use a combination treatment of proteasome inhibition and irradiation to further induce immunomodulation of tumor cells that could enhance tumor-specific immune responses. We investigate the effects of the 26S proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, alone or in combination with radiotherapy, on the expression of immunogenic genes in normal colon and colorectal cancer cell lines. We examined cells for changes in the expression of several death receptors (DR4, DR5 and Fas commonly used by T cells for killing of target cells. Our results indicate that the combination treatment resulted in increased cell surface expression of death receptors by increasing their transcript levels. The combination treatment further increases the sensitivity of carcinoma cells to apoptosis through FAS and TRAIL receptors but does not change the sensitivity of normal non-malignant epithelial cells. Furthermore, the combination treatment significantly enhances tumor cell killing by tumor specific CD8+ T cells. This study suggests that combining radiotherapy and proteasome inhibition may simultaneously enhance tumor immunogenicity and the induction of antitumor immunity by enhancing tumor-specific T-cell activity.

  9. Coating the wall of an injured intracranial carotid artery during tumor removal with n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate: technical case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo, Flavio; Schumacher, Martin; van Velthoven, Vera

    2006-10-01

    Carotid artery injury close to the clinoid process is difficult to repair, and is even more so when the vessel is firmly attached to a calcified tumor. We treated a patient with an intraoperative carotid lesion by coating the vessel wall with n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA). A 7-year-old boy was referred to our clinic with a 3-month history of somnolence, apathy, and headache. Neurological examination revealed bitemporal hemianopsia. The cranial magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomographic scans showed a sellar and suprasellar calcified mass with heterogeneous contrast enhancement, a cyst component in the upper part of the tumor displaced upward and back from the mesencephalic and diencephalic structures. The patient underwent a pterional craniotomy. Using a microsurgical technique, the suprasellar part of the craniopharyngioma was removed. In an attempt to dissect the calcified mass from the carotid artery on the right side, the vessel was unintentionally injured, followed by severe bleeding. Temporary occlusion and suturing of the vessel was impossible because of the overlying hard mass. To avoid a permanent occlusion, we decided to coat the injured artery wall with 100% NBCA. For this, 0.5 ml of NBCA was distributed on the surface of the injured segment and surrounding subarachnoid space by injection through a needle. An excellent hemostasis could be obtained immediately after coating. The patient woke up with no new neurological deficits. A digital cerebral angiogram obtained a few days after the procedure did not show vasospasm, stenosis, or pseudoaneurysm in the supraclinoidal segment of the carotid artery. A magnetic resonance angiogram obtained 3 years later showed a normal shape of the internal carotid artery and a stable residual tumor without inflammatory signs. The child is now attending school and is under hormonal therapy. For hemostatic purposes, the technique of coating an injured arterial wall with NBCA may be useful in cases in which a

  10. Importance of considering injured microorganisms in sterilization validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Hideharu

    2006-09-01

    Disinfection or sterilization treatment by heating, irradiation, or chemicals can cause injury to microorganisms at sublethal levels. Microbial injury is the inability to grow under conditions suitable for the uninjured microorganisms. This inability of injured microorganisms to grow is explained in terms of more complex or different nutritional requirements or in terms of increased sensitivity to environmental conditions such as incubation conditions (time or temperature) or to chemical agents such as halogen compounds. Injured microorganisms can be distinguished from those that are dead or mutated by their ability to regain normal physiological activity when placed in appropriate conditions for cultivation. The return to normal physiological function has been termed repair. The extent and severity of sublethal injury, the mechanisms of injury, and the mechanisms and degree of recovery vary with the sterilization procedures, the species, the strains, the condition of the microorganism, and the methods of repair. Injury to spore formers has been detected at different stages of the spore cycle. The sites of injury include damage to enzymes, membrane disruption, and/or damage to DNA or RNA. Information on the sublethal injury and recovery of microorganisms is very important in evaluating sterilization/disinfection procedures. This paper supplies academic as well as practical information dealing with the repair, and detection of injured microorganisms for performing reproducible sterilization validation.

  11. Relationship between Sublethal Injury and Inactivation of Yeast Cells by the Combination of Sorbic Acid and Pulsed Electric Fields▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somolinos, M.; García, D.; Condón, S.; Mañas, P.; Pagán, R.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of sublethal injury after the pulsed-electric-field (PEF) treatment of two yeasts, Dekkera bruxellensis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as well as the relation of sublethal injury to the inactivating effect of the combination of PEF and sorbic acid. PEF caused sublethal injury in both yeasts: more than 90% of surviving D. bruxellensis cells and 99% of surviving S. cerevisiae cells were sublethally injured after 50 pulses at 12 kV/cm in buffer at pHs of both 7.0 and 4.0. The proportion of sublethally injured cells reached a maximum after 50 pulses at 12.0 kV/cm (S. cerevisiae) or 16.5 kV/cm (D. bruxellensis), and it kept constant or progressively decreased at greater electric field strengths and with longer PEF treatments. Sublethally PEF-injured cells showed sensitivity to the presence of sorbic acid at a concentration of 2,000 ppm. A synergistic inactivating effect of the combination of PEF and sorbic acid was observed. Survivors of the PEF treatment were progressively inactivated in the presence of 2,000 ppm of sorbic acid at pH 3.8, with the combined treatments achieving more than log10 5 cycles of dead cells under the conditions investigated. This study has demonstrated the occurrence of sublethal injury after exposure to PEF, so yeast inactivation by PEF is not an all-or-nothing event. The combination of PEF and sorbic acid has proven to be an effective method to achieve a higher level of yeast inactivation. This work contributes to the knowledge of the mechanism of microbial inactivation by PEF, and it may be useful for improving food preservation by PEF technology. PMID:17468278

  12. Relationship between sublethal injury and inactivation of yeast cells by the combination of sorbic acid and pulsed electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somolinos, M; García, D; Condón, S; Mañas, P; Pagán, R

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of sublethal injury after the pulsed-electric-field (PEF) treatment of two yeasts, Dekkera bruxellensis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as well as the relation of sublethal injury to the inactivating effect of the combination of PEF and sorbic acid. PEF caused sublethal injury in both yeasts: more than 90% of surviving D. bruxellensis cells and 99% of surviving S. cerevisiae cells were sublethally injured after 50 pulses at 12 kV/cm in buffer at pHs of both 7.0 and 4.0. The proportion of sublethally injured cells reached a maximum after 50 pulses at 12.0 kV/cm (S. cerevisiae) or 16.5 kV/cm (D. bruxellensis), and it kept constant or progressively decreased at greater electric field strengths and with longer PEF treatments. Sublethally PEF-injured cells showed sensitivity to the presence of sorbic acid at a concentration of 2,000 ppm. A synergistic inactivating effect of the combination of PEF and sorbic acid was observed. Survivors of the PEF treatment were progressively inactivated in the presence of 2,000 ppm of sorbic acid at pH 3.8, with the combined treatments achieving more than log10 5 cycles of dead cells under the conditions investigated. This study has demonstrated the occurrence of sublethal injury after exposure to PEF, so yeast inactivation by PEF is not an all-or-nothing event. The combination of PEF and sorbic acid has proven to be an effective method to achieve a higher level of yeast inactivation. This work contributes to the knowledge of the mechanism of microbial inactivation by PEF, and it may be useful for improving food preservation by PEF technology.

  13. Tumorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prause, J.U.; Heegaard, S.

    2005-01-01

    oftalmologi, øjenlågstumorer, conjunctivale tumorer, malignt melanom, retinoblastom, orbitale tumorer......oftalmologi, øjenlågstumorer, conjunctivale tumorer, malignt melanom, retinoblastom, orbitale tumorer...

  14. DETECTION OF THERMAL SUBLETHAL INJURY IN ESCHERICHIA COLI VIA THE SELECTIVE MEDIUM PLATING TECHNIQUE: MECHANISMS AND IMPROVEMENTS

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    Laura Espina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In food preservation, the selective medium plating technique (SMPT is commonly used in order to detect and quantify the amount of sublethally injured cells in their bacterial cytoplasmic membranes after inimical treatments. From an applicative point of view, this information is of use in the synergistic combination of different preservation technologies, so that cells that are sublethally injured after one or more processes can end up being entirely inactivated by other hurdle(s. However, little work has been done to explain the reasons for the inability of sublethally injured cells to outgrow in selective agar media (containing the osmolyte NaCl as a selective agent, whereas they are able to grow in non-selective agar media. This research could contribute to explain this technique’s limits. In the present paper, the performance of SMPT on Escherichia coli cells after heat treatments is explored by applying different selective agents in the recovery media, using several mutants lacking factors involved in osmoregulation, and also by examining the integrity of the cytoplasmic membrane. In view of the results, the possibility of a specific toxic effect of Na+ as the main mechanism under SMPT is discarded, and the same level of sublethal injury is detected using KCl instead of NaCl. The synthesis of the osmoprotectant trehalose determined the maximum osmotolerance of intact cells to the selective agents, but was not crucial in the quantification of sublethal injury. Moreover, the extent of sublethal injury detected via SMPT was directly correlated with the physical loss of integrity of the cell membrane as measured with the propidium iodide-exclusion technique when that dye was added before thermal treatments. The present work confirms the adequacy of SMPT as a tool for detecting the occurrence and quantity of sublethally injured cells and thus, for efficiently designing combined preservation treatments. Additionally, we propose the combination

  15. [Integration of Injured Hands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Reiner

    2017-02-01

    Any injury of a hand more or less disintegrates the injured hand. The rehabilitation of an alienated hand is prolonged. How can the alienation of the own but injured hand and the involuntary and unconscious inhibition of its perception and use be diagnosed, explained, avoided and designated? Medical observations and interviews with patients and therapists on the occasion of rehabilitation of hand injuries resulted in the development of a new concept of biopsychosocial integrating rehabilitation and a creative hand therapy with the objective of integrating injured and alienated hands. The inhibition of the gesture of thinking has been the most revealing sign for the diagnosis of a disintegration of an injured hand. Explanation: The involuntary inhibition to recognize and use an injured hand causes and implicates the alienation of the rested hand. Information by hand surgeons and hand therapists. Creative hand therapy guides the attention to complex and pleasing activities. In complex disintegrations after hand injuries the hand as well as the person need help. Designation: Hypotheses: Posttraumatic Proportionate Regional Disintegration while the tissues heal. Posttraumatic Complex Regional Disintegration, if the disintegration overruns the healing of tissues or if the person suffers. The Complex Regional Pain Syndrome is distinguished as a rare exception of a biopsychosocial disintegration. Posttraumatic regional disintegration seems to be proportionate while the tissues are healing. If the mentioned sensations of the patients and the visible signs of disintegration persist, the disorder spreads onto the biopsychosocial unit of the person. This disorder of hand and person may be designated as a complex disorder. The impact of a proportionate posttraumatic disintegration as well as the formation and exacerbation of a complex posttraumatic disintegration may be prevented by the facilitation of the integration of an injured hand. Scientific prove is needed for: the

  16. Thermal inactivation and sublethal injury kinetics of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in broth versus agar surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Devlieghere, Frank; Geeraerd, Annemie; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2017-02-21

    The objective of the present study was to compare the thermal inactivation and sublethal injury kinetics of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in broth (suspended cells) and on solid surface (agar-seeded cells). A 3-strain cocktail of S. enterica or L. monocytogenes inoculated in broth or on agar was subjected to heating in a water bath at various set temperatures (55.0, 57.5 and 60.0°C for S. enterica and 60.0, 62.5 and 65°C for L. monocytogenes). The occurrence of sublethally injured cells was determined by comparing enumerations on nonselective (TSAYE) and selective (XLD or ALOA) media. Results showed that the inactivation curves obtained from selective media were log-linear, and significant shoulders (pagar surface exhibited higher heat resistance than those in broth. For S. enterica, cell injury increased with the exposure time, no difference was observed when treated at temperatures from 55.0 to 60.0°C, while for L. monocytogenes, cell injury increased significantly with heating time and treatment temperature (from 60.0 to 65°C). Moreover, the degree of sublethal injury affected by thermal treatment in broth or on agar surface depended upon the target microorganism. Higher proportions of injured S. enterica cells were observed for treatment in broth than on agar surface, while the opposite was found for L. monocytogenes. The provided information may be used to assess the efficacy of thermal treatment processes on surfaces for inactivation of S. enterica and L. monocytogenes, and it provides insight into the sublethally injured survival state of S. enterica and L. monocytogenes treated in liquid or on solid food. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of a multiplex selective enrichment broth SEL for simultaneous detection of injured Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Biao; Wang, Yuexia

    2013-01-01

    Although many rapid and high throughput molecular methods have been developed in the recent years for the multiplex detection of foodborne pathogens, the simultaneous recovery and enrichment of sublethally injured cells is still a problem that needs to be considered. Combined with previous established multiplex real-time PCR assay, the capability of simultaneous recovery and enrichment of sublethally injured Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes cells was evaluated in a multiplex selective enrichment broth SEL. The injured cells were obtained by heat shock. After evaluation of different procedures, 1 h of recovery period prior to 20 h of enrichment was proved to be necessary for the detection of less than 10 CFU/5 mL broth of injured L. monocytogenes. When the detection method was applied to artificially contaminated ground beef, all the three injured pathogens could be simultaneously detected without discrimination by real-time PCR combined with SEL broth, the detection limit was SEL broth herein appears to be a promising tool for high-throughput screening of a large number of processed food samples, which require either single or multiple pathogen detection. More important, the sublethally injured foodborne pathogen cells were also detectable.

  18. Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... peanut plants (aflatoxins) Excessive sunlight exposure Genetic problems Obesity Radiation exposure Viruses Types of tumors known to be caused by or linked with viruses are: Cervical cancer (human papillomavirus) Most anal cancers (human papillomavirus) Some ...

  19. Injured coliforms in drinking water.

    OpenAIRE

    McFeters, G A; Kippin, J S; LeChevallier, M W

    1986-01-01

    Coliforms were enumerated by using m-Endo agar LES and m-T7 agar in 102 routine samples of drinking water from three New England community water systems to investigate the occurrence and significance of injured coliforms. Samples included water collected immediately after conventional treatment, during the backwash cycle, at various points in the distribution system, and 1 week after the break and subsequent repair of a distribution main. Injured coliforms in these samples averaged greater th...

  20. Enumeration and Identification of Coliform Bacteria Injured by Chlorine or Fungicide Mixed with Agricultural Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Hidemi; Nakata, Yuji; Inoue, Ayano

    2016-10-01

    Chemical sanitizers may induce no injury (bacteria survive), sublethal injury (bacteria are injured), or lethal injury (bacteria die). The proportion of coliform bacteria that were injured sublethally by chlorine and fungicide mixed with agricultural water (pond water), which was used to dilute the pesticide solution, was evaluated using the thin agar layer (TAL) method. In pure cultures of Enterobacter cloacae , Escherichia coli , and E. coli O157:H7 (representing a human pathogen), the percentage of chlorine-injured cells was 69 to 77% for dilute electrolyzed water containing an available chlorine level of 2 ppm. When agricultural water was mixed with electrolyzed water, the percentage of injured coliforms in agricultural water was 75%. The isolation and identification of bacteria on TAL and selective media suggested that the chlorine stress caused injury to Enterobacter kobei . Of the four fungicide products tested, diluted to their recommended concentrations, Topsin-M, Sumilex, and Oxirane caused injury to coliform bacteria in pure cultures and in agricultural water following their mixture with each pesticide, whereas Streptomycin did not induce any injury to the bacteria. The percentage of injury was 45 to 97% for Topsin-M, 80 to 87% for Sumilex, and 50 to 97% for Oxirane. A comparison of the coliforms isolated from the pesticide solutions and then grown on either TAL or selective media indicated the possibility of fungicide-injured Rahnella aquatilis , Yersinia mollaretii , and E. coli . These results suggest the importance of selecting a suitable sanitizer and the necessity of adjusting the sanitizer concentration to a level that will kill the coliforms rather than cause sanitizer-induced cell injury that can result in the recovery of the coliforms.

  1. Sublethal effects of manganese on the carbohydrate metabolism of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carbohydrate metabolism variables of Oreochromis mossambicuswere investigated after acute and chronic sublethal manganese exposure. The sublethal concentrations were determined from the LC50 value of manganese. After the exposures, the fish were carefully netted and blood was drawn from the caudal aorta.

  2. Protective effect of milk constituents and sublethal injuries limiting process effectiveness during PEF inactivation of Lb. rhamnosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, H; Schulz, A; Karapetkov, N; Knorr, D

    2009-08-31

    The inactivation of Lb. rhamnosus by pulsed electric field treatment (PEF) was studied in different fractions of raw milk and Ringer solution in order to evaluate the protective effect of nutrient rich media in comparison to aqueous buffer solutions. Apart from monitoring of culturability, analysis of the physiological fitness of Lb. rhamnosus was conducted aiming to identify sublethally damaged cells. Therefore, flow cytometry and a selective medium plating technique were used and compared to each other. The goal of the study was to apply three different parameters describing the physiological fitness of the model organism Lb. rhamnosus after PEF treatment such as culturability, membrane permeability and metabolic activity depending on treatment media and parameters. A concentration dependent protective effect of the milk protein fraction could be shown and allocated to micellar casein as the major milk protein. Increasing the concentration of whey proteins up to 2% showed a similar impact on limiting the PEF inactivation of Lb. rhamnosus. The evaluation of physiological fitness of cells was based on a determination of structural and functional characteristics by rapid cellular staining using carboxyfluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide. This approach showed good accordance to the conventional selective medium plating technique for the enumeration of sublethally-injured bacteria but flow cytometry provided additional information for the characterisation of this fraction. The extent of occurrence of dead, sublethal and vital fractions of cells was found dependent on the PEF treatment parameters such as electrical field strength and energy input as well as the different milk fractions used as treatment media.

  3. Inactivation and sublethal injury of Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua by high hydrostatic pressure in model suspensions and beetroot juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokołowska, Barbara; Skąpska, Sylwia; Niezgoda, Jolanta; Rutkowska, Małgorzata; Dekowska, Agnieszka; Rzoska, Sylwester J.

    2014-01-01

    Cells exposed to different physical and chemical treatments, including high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), suffer from injuries that could be reversible in food materials when stored. Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua cells suspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (model suspensions), and acidified beetroot juice were subjected to a pressure of 400 MPa at a temperature of 20°C for up to 10 min. The difference between the viable and non-injured cells was used to estimate the number of injured survivors. The reduction in E. coli cell number was 3.4-4.1 log after 10 min pressurization in model suspensions and 6.2 log in beetroot juice. Sublethally injured cells in PBS accounted for up to 2.7 log after 10 min HHP treatment and 0.8 log in beetroot juice. The reduction in L. innocua cell number after 10 min pressure treatment reached from 3.8 to 4.8 log, depending on the initial concentration in model suspensions. Among the surviving L. innocua cells, even up to 100% were injured. L. innocua cells were completely inactivated after 1 min HHP treatment in beetroot juice.

  4. Relationship between Sublethal Injury and Microbial Inactivation by the Combination of High Hydrostatic Pressure and Citral or tert-Butyl Hydroquinone ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somolinos, Maria; García, Diego; Pagán, Rafael; Mackey, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    The aim was to investigate (i) the occurrence of sublethal injury in Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae after high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment as a function of the treatment medium pH and composition and (ii) the relationship between the occurrence of sublethal injury and the inactivating effect of a combination of HHP and two antimicrobial compounds, tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) and citral. The three microorganisms showed a high proportion of sublethally injured cells (up to 99.99% of the surviving population) after HHP. In E. coli and L. monocytogenes, the extent of inactivation and sublethal injury depended on the pH and the composition of the treatment medium, whereas in S. cerevisiae, inactivation and sublethal injury were independent of medium pH or composition under the conditions tested. TBHQ alone was not lethal to E. coli or L. monocytogenes but acted synergistically with HHP and 24-h refrigeration, resulting in a viability decrease of >5 log10 cycles of both organisms. The antimicrobial effect of citral depended on the microorganism and the treatment medium pH. Acting alone for 24 h under refrigeration, 1,000 ppm of citral caused a reduction of 5 log10 cycles of E. coli at pH 7.0 and almost 3 log10 cycles of L. monocytogenes at pH 4.0. The combination of citral and HHP also showed a synergistic effect. Our results have confirmed that the detection of sublethal injury after HHP may contribute to the identification of those treatment conditions under which HHP may act synergistically with other preserving processes. PMID:18952869

  5. Sublethal consequences of urban life for wild vertebrates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallagher, Austin J; Peiman, Kathryn S; de Bruijn, Robert; Cooke, Steven J; Birnie-Gauvin, Kim

    2016-01-01

    ... — while others have not. Here we present a review of the sublethal consequences of life in the city for wild vertebrates, and demonstrate that urban animals face an almost completely different set of physiological...

  6. [Repair mechanism of frozen sublethally damaged Staphylococcus aureus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhongmin; Lv, Haipeng; Ai, Zhilu; Wang, Na; Xie, Xinhua; Fan, Huiping; Pan, Zhili; Suo, Biao

    2015-11-04

    To study the repair mechanisms of frozen sublethally damaged Staphylococcus aurous cells. We resuscitated frozen sublethally damaged S. aureus at 37 degrees C for different time within 3 h. Meanwhile, we compared the morphological changes of the frozen sublethally damaged cells after 1 h of resuscitation using transmission electron microscopy assay (TEM). The expressions of the transcriptional attenuator MsrR (msrR), iron (Fe3+) ABC transporter ATP-binding protein (fhuC), and cytochrome b (cytB) genes were quantitatively analyzed by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (Real-time PCR) method. The content of cells outside leakage, active oxygen (ROS), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were also determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. More than 99% of the frozen sublethally damaged S. aureus repaired after 3 h. The resuscitated cells expressed an equal resistance to high concentration of NaCl. Real-time PCR results showed that the msrR and fhuC genes expressions were down-regulated, whereas the cytB gene expression was up-regulated significantly. The frozen sublethally damaged S. aureus cellar surface ultrastructure significant changed during resuscitation. The cell surface became compact and sturdy from smooth and transparent. The cell leakage rate of ultraviolet absorption material gradually decreased. Meanwhile, the intracellular ROS level declined along with the decrease of SOD activity. Frozen sublethally damaged cells may regain the capability of resistance to high salt stress by repairing cell membrane integrity, reducing the content of ROS through gene regulation, inhibiting the toxicity of active oxygen to the cells. Meanwhile, the regulation of metabolism related genes (cytB) provides the energy for the requirement of cells, therefore, the frozen sublethally damaged cells were repaired finally.

  7. Molecular Genetic Analysis of Human Endometrial Mesenchymal Stem Cells That Survived Sublethal Heat Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Vinogradov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperature is a critical environmental and personal factor. Although heat shock is a well-studied biological phenomenon, hyperthermia response of stem cells is poorly understood. Previously, we demonstrated that sublethal heat shock induced premature senescence in human endometrial mesenchymal stem cells (eMSC. This study aimed to investigate the fate of eMSC-survived sublethal heat shock (SHS with special emphasis on their genetic stability and possible malignant transformation using methods of classic and molecular karyotyping, next-generation sequencing, and transcriptome functional analysis. G-banding revealed random chromosome breakages and aneuploidy in the SHS-treated eMSC. Molecular karyotyping found no genomic imbalance in these cells. Gene module and protein interaction network analysis of mRNA sequencing data showed that compared to untreated cells, SHS-survived progeny revealed some difference in gene expression. However, no hallmarks of cancer were found. Our data identified downregulation of oncogenic signaling, upregulation of tumor-suppressing and prosenescence signaling, induction of mismatch, and excision DNA repair. The common feature of heated eMSC is the silence of MYC, AKT1/PKB oncogenes, and hTERT telomerase. Overall, our data indicate that despite genetic instability, SHS-survived eMSC do not undergo transformation. After long-term cultivation, these cells like their unheated counterparts enter replicative senescence and die.

  8. Sublethal effects of manganese on the haematology and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information concerning the sublethal effects of pollutants, such as metals, forms an integral part of ecosystem health assessment programmes and of procedures followed to develop water quality guidelines for environmetal protection. The data from this study were incorporated into a water quality index (RAUWaterz) ...

  9. Sublethal haematological effects of zinc on the freshwater fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... industrial and domestic wastes water discharges and animals where it ... that zinc could cause sub-acute effects that change fish behaviours. ... These include the sublethal effects of concentrations of water extracts of akee apple on C. gariepinus (Onusiriuka and Ufodike, 1998). Toxicity of cas- sava leaf ...

  10. Effects of sublethal doses of chlorfluazuron on the ovarian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, it is concluded that sublethal doses of chlorfluazuron reduced the amounts of ovarian constituents during ovarian development and oogenesis in S. litura. These reductions increased with an increase in dose from LD10 to LD30. The effects of chlorfluazuron on the amounts of ovarian constituents are presumed to ...

  11. Histopathological effects of lethal and sub-lethal concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The histopathological effects of lethal and sub-lethal concentrations of glyphosate on African catfish Clarias gariepinus were investigated. C. gariepinus juveniles were assessed in a static renewal bioassay for 96 hours (acute toxicity) and 28 days (chronic toxicity) using varying concentrations (0.0 mg/l 20.0 mg/l, 30.0 mg/l, ...

  12. Review: Sublethal effects of temperature on freshwater organisms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review: Sublethal effects of temperature on freshwater organisms, with special reference to aquatic insects. HF Dallas, V Ross-Gillespie. Abstract. Water temperature is a key variable affecting aquatic organisms. Understanding their response to elevated water temperatures is important for estimating upper thermal limits, ...

  13. Impact of sublethal concentration of triazophos on regulation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exposure to sublethal doses of triazophos extract caused significant (p < 0.05) time and dose dependent reduction in the levels of total protein, acetylcholinesterase (AchE) and significant enhancement in the levels of total free amino acids, glutamine, adenosine monophosphate (AMP) deaminases, adenosine deaminases, ...

  14. Sublethal effects of industrial chemicals on fish fingerlings ( Tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tilapia guineensis commonly found in the Niger Delta ecological zone of Nigeria was exposed to sublethal concentrations (1.56, 3.13 mg/l) of neatex (industrial detergent) and norust CR 486 (corrosion inhibitor) using the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) # 203 protocol. At test termination ...

  15. Sublethal effects of carbaryl on embryonic and gonadal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sex reversal was delayed in the experimental groups, with a sex ratio of 13 females to 0 males, but the control group recorded 6 females to 8 males. These results suggest that sublethal doses of carbaryl in the environment, similar to those used in the current study, may have an adverse effect on the reproductive success of ...

  16. Effects Of Exposure To Sublethal Concentrations Of Azadirachta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physiological impairment on the fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus when exposed to sublethal concentrations of Azadirachta Indica was investigated. The fish were exposed to concentrations of 1.25, 2.50, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0 ML -1 for the period of 12 weeks. The crude protein content decreased with increased concentration ...

  17. Can PRP effectively treat injured tendons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, James H-C

    2014-01-01

    PRP is widely used to treat tendon and other tissue injuries in orthopaedics and sports medicine; however, the efficacy of PRP treatment on injured tendons is highly controversial. In this commentary, I reason that there are many PRP- and patient-related factors that influence the outcomes of PRP treatment on injured tendons. Therefore, more basic science studies are needed to understand the mechanism of PRP on injured tendons. Finally, I suggest that better understanding of the PRP action mechanism will lead to better use of PRP for the effective treatment of tendon injuries in clinics.

  18. Pesticides and Arthropods: Sublethal Effects and Demographic Toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Marčić

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Insecticides and acaricides designed to control primary harmful insects and mites may also variously affect some other arthopods present in an (agroecosystem (e.g. secondary pests, predators, parasitoids, saprophytes, bioindicators, pollinators. Apart from insecticides and acaricides, arthropods may also be affected by the activity of other pesticides (fungicides, herbicides, etc.. Regardless of whether they are deemed desirable or not, the effects that pesticides have on arthopods need to be quantified as closely as possible through appropriate experimental procedures. Data acquired in tests designed to determined LD50/LC50 values are inadequate for evaluation of pesticide effectiveness in the field as pesticidesalso cause various sublethal effects, generally disregarded in such investigations. The sublethal effects of pesticides refer to any altered behaviour and/or physiology of individuals that have survived exposure to pesticides at doses/concentrations that can be lethal(within range causing mortality in an experimental population that exceeds mortality in an untreated population or sublethal (below that range. Pesticides affect locomotion and mobility, stimulate dispersion of arthropods from treated areas, complicate or prevent their navigation, orientation and ability to locate hosts, and cause changes in their feeding, mating and egg-laying patterns. Sublethal pesticide effects on arthropod physiology reflect on the life span, rate of development, fecundity and/or fertility, sex ratio and immunity of surviving individuals. Different parameters are being used in arthropod bioassays to determine sublethal effects (ED50/EC50, LOEC, NOEC, total effect index. Compared to acute toxicity tests, these parameters improve the quality of evaluation and create a more accurate view of the effects of a pesticide. However, such approach covers mainly fecundity/fertility alone, while all other sublethal effects remain unaccounted for. Besides, it

  19. Sublethal Heavy Metal Stress Stimulates Innate Immunity in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilanjan Chakraborty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of sublethal heavy metal stress as plant biotic elicitor for triggering innate immunity in tomato plant was investigated. Copper in in vivo condition induced accumulation of defense enzymes like peroxidase (PO, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, and β-1,3 glucanase along with higher accumulation of total phenol, antioxidative enzymes (catalase and ascorbate peroxidase, and total chlorophyll content. Furthermore, the treatment also induced nitric oxide (NO production which was confirmed by realtime visualization of NO burst using a fluorescent probe 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2DA and spectrophotometric analysis. The result suggested that the sublethal dose of heavy metal can induce an array of plant defense responses that lead to the improvement of innate immunity in plants.

  20. Lethal and sublethal toxicity of the industrial chemical epichlorohydrin on Rhinella arenarum (Anura, Bufonidae) embryos and larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutler Wolkowicz, Ianina R; Aronzon, Carolina M; Pérez Coll, Cristina S

    2013-12-15

    Lethal and sublethal toxicity of the major chemical used in epoxide compounds, epichlorohydrin (ECH) was evaluated on the early life cycle of the common South American toad, Rhinella arenarum (Anura, Bufonidae). The stages evaluated were (according to Del Conte and Sirlin): early blastula (S.3-S.4), gastrula (S.10-S.12), rotation (S.15), tail bud (S.17), muscular response (S.18), gill circulation (S.20), open mouth (S.21), opercular folds (S.23) and complete operculum (S.25). The LC50 and EC50 values for lethal and sublethal effects were calculated. The early blastula was the most sensitive stage to ECH both for continuously and pulse-exposures (LC50-24h=50.9 mg L(-1)), while S.20 was the most resistant (LC50-24h=104.9 mg L(-1)). Among sublethal effects, early blastula was also the most sensitive stage (LOEC-48 h=20 mg L(-1)) and it has a Teratogenic Index of 2.5, which indicates the teratogenic potential of the substance. The main abnormalities were persistent yolk plugs, cell dissociation, tumors, hydropsy, oral malformations, axial/tail flexures, delayed development and reduced body size. ECH also caused neurotoxicity including scarce response to stimuli, reduction in the food intake, general weakness, spasms and shortening, erratic or circular swimming. Industrial contamination is considered an important factor on the decline of amphibian populations. Considering the available information about ECH's toxicity and its potential hazard to the environment, this work shows the first results of its developmental toxicity on a native amphibian species, Rhinella arenarum. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Impacts of Sublethal Mercury Exposure on Birds: A Detailed Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Margaret C; Cristol, Daniel A

    Mercury is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant known to accumulate in, and negatively affect, fish-eating and oceanic bird species, and recently demonstrated to impact some terrestrial songbirds to a comparable extent. It can bioaccumulate to concentrations of >1 μg/g in tissues of prey organisms such as fish and insects. At high enough concentrations, exposure to mercury is lethal to birds. However, environmental exposures are usually far below the lethal concentrations established by dosing studies.The objective of this review is to better understand the effects of sublethal exposure to mercury in birds. We restricted our survey of the literature to studies with at least some exposures >5 μg/g. The majority of sublethal effects were subtle and some studies of similar endpoints reached different conclusions. Strong support exists in the literature for the conclusion that mercury exposure reduces reproductive output, compromises immune function, and causes avoidance of high-energy behaviors. For some endpoints, notably certain measures of reproductive success, endocrine and neurological function, and body condition, there is weak or contradictory evidence of adverse effects and further study is required. There was no evidence that environmentally relevant mercury exposure affects longevity, but several of the sublethal effects identified likely do result in fitness reductions that could adversely impact populations. Overall, 72% of field studies and 91% of laboratory studies found evidence of deleterious effects of mercury on some endpoint, and thus we can conclude that mercury is harmful to birds, and the many effects on reproduction indicate that bird population declines may already be resulting from environmental mercury pollution.

  2. Sublethal effect of neem extract on mediterranean fruit fly adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Alves Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The sublethal effect of extracts of Azadirachta indica on Ceratitis capitata was evaluated. Two pairs of flies were treated in plastic tubes with cotton placed in plastic cages. An artificial diet (hydrolyzed protein + sugar was provided ad libitum. The extracts affected significantly the longevity of C. capitata. The pre-oviposition period were not significantly affected by the extracts. The A. indica branches extracted with dichloromethane (888 ppm affected significantly the fecundity and fertility, reducing the number of eggs laid to approximately 80 % and the egg hatching by 30 % at the 8th day. Therefore, the neem branches extracted with dichloromethane affected the reproduction of C. capitata.

  3. Sublethal effect of imidacloprid on Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) feeding, digging, and foraging behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is increasing evidence that exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides at sublethal levels impairs colonies of honeybee and other pollinators. Recently, it was found that sublethal contamination with neonicotinoids also affect growth and behavior of ants. In this study, we exposed red imported fi...

  4. Survival rate of honeybee (Apis mellifera) workers after exposure to sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blacquiere, T.

    2010-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a commonly used systemic insecticide which can induce several sublethal effects. Previous research has not shown any increased mortality in bees that were fed with sublethal doses. However, there is very little research conducted with the focus on survival rate of honeybees in the

  5. Toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic modeling of quantal and graded sublethal endpoints: a brief discussion of concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashauer, R.; Agatz, A.; Albert, C.; Ducrot, V.; Galic, N.G.; Hendriks, J.; Jager, T.; Kretschmann, A.; O'Connor, I.; Rubach, M.N.; Nyman, M.; Schmitt, W.; Stadnicka, J.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the advantages and problems of using toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TKTD) models for the analysis, understanding, and simulation of sublethal effects. Only a few toxicodynamic approaches for sublethal effects are available. These differ in their effect mechanism and emphasis on linkages

  6. Sublethal effects of cadmium, manganese, lead, zinc and iron on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study also evaluated the sublethal effects of cadmium, manganese, lead, zinc and iron in plasma samples utilising plasma electrolyte parameters as a biomarker using an albino mice model, M. musculus. Mice were subjected to sublethal concentrations of the selected heavy metals (1/10th of 96 hrLC50). Blood plasma ...

  7. Functional modifications of macrophage activity after sublethal irradiation. [Toxoplasma gondii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swartz, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    The modifications of macrophage activity following sublethal irradiation, both in vivo and in vitro, were studied using spreading and C3b-receptor-mediated ingestion assays. Nonelicited peritoneal washout cells were examined for changes in activity and selected population characteristics. The cells from irradiated mice were from a resident peritoneal population and not immigrating cells. The macrophage population showed enhanced activity early with a refractory period (24-48) when the macrophages were unresponsive to stimulation by irradiated lymphocytes. The enhanced activity was inversely dose dependent on macrophage. The lymphocytes showed a regulatory function(s) on the time post irradiation at which they were examined. Early lymphocytes exhibited the ability to enhance the activity of normal macrophages while lymphocytes removed 24 hours post irradiation could suppress the activity of already activated macrophages. The effect(s) of the various lymphocyte populations were reproduced with cell-free supernatants which was indicative of the production of lymphokines. Separation on nylon wool columns indicated that the activity resided primarily in the T-cell population of lymphocytes. In vitro irradiation indicated that stimulation of the lymphocytes is macrophage dependent. Additional work indicated that sublethally irradiated macrophages did not inhibit replication of the coccidian protozoon Toxoplasma gondii although they did show increased phagocytosis. Examination of the serum from whole body irradiated mice showed the presence of a postirradiation substance which enhanced the phagocytosis of normal macrophages. It was not present in the serum of normal mice and was not endotoxin.

  8. Sub-lethal effects of the neurotoxic pyrethroid insecticide Fastac 50EC on the general motor and locomotor activities of the non-targeted beneficial carabid beetle Platynus assimilis (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooming, Ene; Merivee, Enno; Must, Anne; Sibul, Ivar; Williams, Ingrid

    2014-06-01

    Sub-lethal effects of pesticides on behavioural endpoints are poorly studied in carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae) though changes in behaviour caused by chemical stress may affect populations of these non-targeted beneficial insects. General motor activity and locomotion are inherent in many behavioural patterns, and changes in these activities that result from xenobiotic influence mirror an integrated response of the insect to pesticides. Influence of pyrethroid insecticides over a wide range of sub-lethal doses on the motor activities of carabids still remains unclear. Video tracking of Platynus assimilis showed that brief exposure to alpha-cypermethrin at sub-lethal concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 100 mg L(-1) caused initial short-term (24 h) locomotor hypo-activity. In addition, significant short- and long-term concentration and time-dependent changes occurred in general motor activity patterns and rates. Conspicuous changes in motor activity of Platynus assimilis beetles treated at alpha-cypermethrin concentrations up to 75,000-fold lower than maximum field recommended concentration (MFRC) suggest that many, basic fitness-related behaviours might be severely injured as well. These changes may negatively affect carabid populations in agro-ecosystems. Long-term hypo-activity could directly contribute to decreased trap captures of carabids frequently observed after insecticide application in the field. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Injured pedestrians in Cape Town - the role of alcohol | Peden ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To establish a profile of injured adult pedestrians and attempt to define the role which alcohol plays in this regard. Design. Prospective survey of injured pedestrians who presented consecutively over 9 weeks to Groote Schuur Hospital. Data on fatally injured pedestrians were retrospectively collected from the ...

  10. Cadaverous Particles and Infection in Injured Man,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    A D-A 277 941 E J Surg 159: 515-520, 1993 CADAVEROUS PARTICLES AND INFECTION IN INJURED MAN*D T IC Clinical Review based on the Semmelweis Lecture WM...systemic hematogencus dissemination of bacteria versary year of the publication of his findings in Die which had invaded tissue from an infected wound...surgical infections to evaluate therapeutic interventions (35). The effec- and the importance of " cadaverous particles" in the tiveness of topical

  11. Single-cell analysis of S. cerevisiae growth recovery after a sublethal heat-stress applied during an alcoholic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibayrenc, Pierre; Preziosi-Belloy, Laurence; Ghommidh, Charles

    2011-06-01

    Interest in bioethanol production has experienced a resurgence in the last few years. Poor temperature control in industrial fermentation tanks exposes the yeast cells used for this production to intermittent heat stress which impairs fermentation efficiency. Therefore, there is a need for yeast strains with improved tolerance, able to recover from such temperature variations. Accordingly, this paper reports the development of methods for the characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth recovery after a sublethal heat stress. Single-cell measurements were carried out in order to detect cell-to-cell variability. Alcoholic batch fermentations were performed on a defined medium in a 2 l instrumented bioreactor. A rapid temperature shift from 33 to 43 °C was applied when ethanol concentration reached 50 g l⁻¹. Samples were collected at different times after the temperature shift. Single cell growth capability, lag-time and initial growth rate were determined by monitoring the growth of a statistically significant number of cells after agar medium plating. The rapid temperature shift resulted in an immediate arrest of growth and triggered a progressive loss of cultivability from 100 to 0.0001% within 8 h. Heat-injured cells were able to recover their growth capability on agar medium after a lag phase. Lag-time was longer and more widely distributed as the time of heat exposure increased. Thus, lag-time distribution gives an insight into strain sensitivity to heat-stress, and could be helpful for the selection of yeast strains of technological interest.

  12. Sublethal injury and virulence changes in Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua treated with antimicrobials carvacrol and citral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A; Genovés, S; Martorell, P; Zanini, S F; Rodrigo, D; Martinez, A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two antimicrobial substances, carvacrol and citral, on Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua cells, as well as possible virulence changes in injured cells, using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model test. The results indicated that the percentage of sublethal damage was higher in L. monocytogenes than in L. innocua. The results of the study carried out by using C. elegans indicated that C. elegans fed in a lawn of L. monocytogenes previously treated with carvacrol showed a loss in life span (p ≤ 0.05) as compared with L. monocytogenes treated with citral, Escherichia coli OP50 as a negative control, and treated and untreated L. innocua. Egg laying was also affected: worms fed in a lawn of treated and untreated L. monocytogenes laid fewer eggs than those fed in a lawn of treated and untreated L. innocua or fed with OP50 as a negative control. Worms fed in a lawn of treated and untreated L. innocua also laid fewer eggs than those fed with OP50 as a negative control. A phenotype named bag of worms and an undescribed new one, "vulva inflammation", were also observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sublethal effects of waterborne herbicides in tropical freshwater fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Stéfani Cibele; Dreyer da Silva, Manuela; Piancini, Laercio Dante Stein; Oliveira Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto; Cestari, Marta Margarete; Silva de Assis, Helena Cristina

    2011-12-01

    The study evaluated the sublethal effects of the herbicides glyphosate (Roundup) and diuron (Hexaron) and the mixture of them, used extremely in agriculture, through biomarkers in fish. The glutathione S-transferase activity increased (74%) and catalase activity decreased (37%) at the higher exposure concentration of Hexaron in comparison to the control group, suggesting an activation of this metabolism route. Membrane damage was observed at the higher exposure of Roundup and in the mixture group compared to the control group, which can be related to the nuclear alterations observed in these exposed groups. The cholinesterase activity was also inhibited (37%) in mixture group compared to the control group and no gill morphology damage was found. The results suggested a potential synergic effect in some analysed parameters.

  14. Effects of CO2 on the resuscitation of Listeria monocytogenes injured by various bactericidal treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Houteghem, Nancy; Devlieghere, Frank; Rajkovic, Andreja; Gómez, Sandra Maria Osés; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Debevere, Johan

    2008-03-31

    To assure the microbiological safety and quality of a food product, a combination of preservation hurdles is often used. Therefore, the effects of carbon dioxide at concentrations of 0, 20, 40 and 60% in modified atmospheres on the resuscitation of Listeria monocytogenes cells injured by mild bactericidal treatments during storage at 7 degrees C were examined. The bactericidal treatments were intense light pulses (ILP), chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)), lactic acid (LA) and heat. The results indicated additional bactericidal effects of CO(2) on cultures treated with LA, ClO(2) and ILP, with additional reductions in viable L. monocytogenes of 0.5-1.0 log cfu/ml. Lag phase duration was significantly different between the different treatments, with non-treated cells having the shortest lag phase, followed by that of heat, intense light pulses, lactic acid and finally ClO(2) treated cells. Maximum growth rate was also estimated and results showed a negative correlation with increasing CO(2) concentrations. A relationship was found between the amount of sub-lethally damaged cells after a mild inactivation treatment and the lag phase duration in the CO(2) environment. Current findings demonstrate the possibility that combining mild decontamination treatments and packaging in a CO(2) enriched environment could reduce the risk of L. monocytogenes infections in food due to an extension of the lag phase.

  15. Effects of Sublethal Doses of Imidacloprid on Young Adult Honeybee Behaviour: e0140814

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gonalons, Carolina Mengoni; Farina, Walter Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    .... As young adult workers perform in-hive duties that are crucial for colony maintenance and survival, we aimed to assess the effect of sublethal IMI doses on honeybee behaviour during this period...

  16. Effects of Sublethal Doses of Imidacloprid on Young Adult Honeybee Behaviour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mengoni Goñalons, Carolina; Farina, Walter Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    .... As young adult workers perform in-hive duties that are crucial for colony maintenance and survival, we aimed to assess the effect of sublethal IMI doses on honeybee behaviour during this period...

  17. Metallothionein deficiency in the injured peripheral nerves of complex regional pain syndrome as revealed by proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Gosuke; Wada, Takuro; Iba, Kosuke; Aiki, Hikono; Sasaki, Kouichi; Imai, Shin-ichi; Sohma, Hitoshi; Matsumoto, Kayo; Yamaguchi, Mami; Fujimiya, Mineko; Yamashita, Toshihiko; Kokai, Yasuo

    2012-03-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is characterized by persistent and severe pain after trauma or surgery; however, its molecular mechanisms in the peripheral nervous system are poorly understood. Using proteomics, we investigated whether injured peripheral nerves of CRPS patients have altered protein profiles compared with control nerves. We obtained nerve samples from 3 patients with CRPS-2 who underwent resection of part of an injured peripheral nerve. Sural nerves from fresh cadavers with no history of trauma or neuropathic pain served as controls. Proteomic analysis showed that the number and functional distribution of proteins expressed in CRPS and control nerves was similar. Interestingly, metallothionein was absent in the injured nerves of CRPS-2, although it was readily detected in control nerves. Western blotting further confirmed the absence of metallothionein in CRPS-2 nerves, and immunohistochemistry corroborated the deficiency of metallothionein expression in injured nerves from 5 of 5 CRPS patients and 2 of 2 patients with painful neuromas. In contrast, all control nerves, including 5 sural nerves from fresh cadavers and 41 nerves obtained from surgically resected tumors, expressed MT. Furthermore, expression of S100 as a marker for Schwann cells, and neurofilament M as a marker of axons was comparable in both CRPS-2 and controls. Metallothioneins are zinc-binding proteins that are probably involved in protection against injury and subsequent regeneration after CNS damage. Their absence from the injured peripheral nerves of patients with CRPS-2 suggests a potential pathogenic role in generating pain in the damaged peripheral nerves. Copyright © 2011 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sublethal RNA Oxidation as a Mechanism for Neurodegenerative Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Smith

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Although cellular RNA is subjected to the same oxidative insults as DNA and other cellular macromolecules, oxidative damage to RNA has not been a major focus in investigations of the biological consequences of free radical damage. In fact, because it is largely single-stranded and its bases lack the protection of hydrogen bonding and binding by specific proteins, RNA may be more susceptible to oxidative insults than is DNA. Oxidative damage to protein-coding RNA or non-coding RNA will, in turn, potentially cause errors in proteins and/or dysregulation of gene expression. While less lethal than mutations in the genome, such sublethal insults to cells might be associated with underlying mechanisms of several chronic diseases, including neurodegenerative disease. Recently, oxidative RNA damage has been described in several neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and prion diseases. Of particular interest, oxidative RNA damage can be demonstrated in vulnerable neurons early in disease, suggesting that RNA oxidation may actively contribute to the onset of the disease. An increasing body of evidence suggests that, mechanistically speaking, the detrimental effects of oxidative RNA damage to protein synthesis are attenuated, at least in part, by the existence of protective mechanisms that prevent the incorporation of the damaged ribonucleotides into the translational machinery. Further investigations aimed at understanding the processing mechanisms related to oxidative RNA damage and its consequences may provide significant insights into the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative and other degenerative diseases and lead to better therapeutic strategies.

  19. Pituitary Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Tumors Astrocytoma Atypical Teratoid Rhaboid Tumor (ATRT) Chondrosarcoma Choroid Plexus Craniopharyngioma Cysts Ependymoma Germ Cell Tumor ... of Tumors Astrocytoma Atypical Teratoid Rhaboid Tumor (ATRT) Chondrosarcoma Choroid Plexus Craniopharyngioma Cysts Ependymoma Germ Cell Tumor ...

  20. Sublethal toxicity and biotransformation of pyrene in Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaeta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeenpaeae, K. [Faculty of Biosciences, University of Joensuu, FIN-80101 Joensuu (Finland)], E-mail: kimmo.maenpaa@joensuu.fi; Leppaenen, M.T.; Kukkonen, J.V.K. [Faculty of Biosciences, University of Joensuu, FIN-80101 Joensuu (Finland)

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the toxicity and biotransformation of polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pyrene in the oligochaete aquatic worm, Lumbriculus variegatus. PAHs are ubiquitous environmental pollutants that pose a hazard to aquatic organisms, and metabolizing capability is poorly known in the case of many invertebrate species. To study the toxicity and biotransformation of pyrene, the worm was exposed for 15 days to various concentrations of water-borne pyrene. The dorsal blood vessel pulse rate was used as a sublethal endpoint. Pyrene biotransformation by L. variegatus was studied and the critical body residues (CBR) were estimated for pyrene toxicity. The toxicokinetics of pyrene uptake was evaluated. A combination of radiolabeled ({sup 14}C) and nonlabeled pyrene was used in the exposures, and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) and high-pressure liquid chromatography were employed in both water and tissue residue analyses. The results showed that L. variegatus was moderately able to metabolize pyrene to 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP), thus demonstrating that the phase-I-like oxidizing enzyme system metabolizes pyrene in L. variegatus. The amount of the 1-HP was 1-2% of the amount of pyrene in the worm tissues. The exposure to pyrene reduced the blood vessel pulse rate significantly (p < 0.05), showing that pyrene had a narcotic effect. The estimated CBRs remained constant during the exposure time, varying from 0.120 to 0.174 mmol pyrene/kg worm wet weight. The bioconcentration factors (BCF) decreased as exposure concentration increased. It was suggested that the increased toxicity of pyrene accounted for the decrease in BCFs by lowering the activity of the organism.

  1. Psychoactive substances in seriously injured drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Steentoft, Anni; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2013-01-01

    found to be above the Danish legal limit in 4.9% of injured drivers. Young men (median age 31 years) were over-represented among injured drivers who violated Danish law for alcohol and drugs. Diazepam (4.4%), tramadol (3.2%), and clonazepam (3.0%) were the medicinal drugs most frequently detected...

  2. Injured pedestrians in Cape Town - the role of alcohol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    alcohol. Margaret M. Peden, John D. Knotlenbelt,. Johan van der Spuy, Ravi Oodit, Hendrik J. Scholtz,. J. Morris Stokol. Objective. To establish a profile of injured adult pedestrians and attempt to define the role which alcohol plays in this regard. Design. Prospective survey of injured pedestrians who presented consecutively ...

  3. DUI histories in intoxicated injured bicyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximus, Steven; Figueroa, Cesar; Pham, Jacqueline; Kuncir, Eric; Barrios, Cristobal

    2016-10-01

    It has been well documented that the use of alcohol correlates with injury risk, especially in DUI (driving under the influence) and DWI (driving while intoxicated). Consumption of alcohol in patients presenting with bicycle-related injuries is associated with greater injury severity, longer hospitalization, and higher health care costs. We hypothesized that intoxicated patients operating a bicycle with traumatic injuries have previous DUI or DWI convictions and had lost their privilege to drive a motor vehicle, resorted to bicycling, and had continued alcohol consumption despite negative previous consequences. We retrospectively collected data on injured bicyclists older than 18 years with positive blood alcohol content levels treated from the period January 2009 to June 2014 at a large Level 1 urban trauma center. We then matched each patient by name and date of birth and were able to obtain public criminal records through the Superior Court of California for the local of county. A total of 149 injured bicyclists with positive blood alcohol levels were identified. Their average blood alcohol content was 236.0 mg/dL, and their average age was 41 years. Sixty-six (44.2%) of these patients had prior DUI/DWI convictions with suspension of driving privileges. Ninety-five patients in this group (63.8%) had no health insurance, and 51 patients (34.2%) tested positive for other drugs. Intoxicated bicyclists trended toward longer hospital length compared with nonintoxicated bicyclists (4.60 vs. 3.44 days; p = 0.07). Three (0.02%) of 149 patients were charged with bicycling while intoxicated. Intoxicated bicyclists involved in trauma are more likely to have a previous DUI/DWI, have other drug use, tend to have longer hospital stays, and are less likely to have insurance. Bicycle safety education and behavior modification targeting DUI/DWI offenders are warranted. In order to promote injury prevention, resources to increase awareness of this underestimated public health

  4. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects passed down ...

  5. Qigong in Injured Military Service Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reb, Anne Marie; Saum, Nancy Seaby; Murphy, Deborah Ann; Breckenridge-Sproat, Sara Todd; Su, Xiaogang; Bormann, Jill Ellen

    2017-03-01

    Wounded, ill, and injured (WII) Military Service members experience significant stress and are at risk for developing chronic conditions including posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. Qigong, a meditative movement practice, may positively affect their ability to engage in successful rehabilitation. We assessed the feasibility of Qigong practice in WII Service members returning from combat; effects on stress, sleep, and somatic symptoms; satisfaction; and participants' experience with the practice. Single-group, pre- and posttest, mixed methods approach. Twenty-six WII were enrolled. The program was designed to include 20 classes over 10 weeks. Participants completed self-report questionnaires, practice logs, and an exit interview. Average attendance was 8.14 classes ( SD = 4.9); mean engagement was 5.7 ( SD = 3.5) weeks. Participants endorsed a high level of satisfaction with the practice. Qualitative themes included coping with stress; feeling more resilient and empowered; improvement in symptoms including sleep and physical function; and factors affecting practice. Participant-reported facilitators included accessibility and portability of the practice; barriers included scheduling conflicts and personal challenges. Participants recommended offering shorter programs with flexible scheduling options, increasing program awareness, and including significant others in future classes. Qigong was safe, portable, and easily adapted for WII Service members.

  6. Sublethal effects of some synthetic and botanical insecticides on Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeily Saeideh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to direct mortality caused by insecticides, some biological traits of insects may also be affected by sublethal insecticide doses. In this study, we used the age-stage, two-sex life table method to evaluate the sublethal effects of the four synthetic insecticides: abamectin, imidacloprid, diazinon, and pymetrozin as well as the botanical insecticide taken from Calotropis procera (Asclepiadaceae extract, on eggs of the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hem.: Aleyrodidae. The lowest and highest survival rates and oviposition periods were observed in whiteflies treated by diazinon and imidacloprid, respectively. We found significant differences in the net reproductive rate (R0, the intrinsic rate of increase (r, the finite rate of increase (?, and the gross reproductive rate (GRR among different insecticides. Altogether, our results showed that pymetrozin and C. procera induced the most sublethal effects, thus they may be suitable candidates for use in integrated pest management programs of B. tabaci.

  7. Sublethal Dosage of Imidacloprid Reduces the Microglomerular Density of Honey Bee Mushroom Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yi-Chan; Yang, En-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    The dramatic loss of honey bees is a major concern worldwide. Previous studies have indicated that neonicotinoid insecticides cause behavioural abnormalities and have proven that exposure to sublethal doses of imidacloprid during the larval stage decreases the olfactory learning ability of adults. The present study shows the effect of sublethal doses of imidacloprid on the neural development of the honey bee brain by immunolabelling synaptic units in the calyces of mushroom bodies. We found that the density of the synaptic units in the region of the calyces, which are responsible for olfactory and visual functions, decreased after being exposed to a sublethal dose of imidacloprid. This not only links a decrease in olfactory learning ability to abnormal neural connectivity but also provides evidence that imidacloprid damages the development of the nervous system in regions responsible for both olfaction and vision during the larval stage of the honey bee. PMID:26757950

  8. Sub-lethal antibiotic treatment leads to multidrug resistance via radical-induced mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohanski, Michael A.; DePristo, Mark A.; Collins, James J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Antibiotic resistance arises through mechanisms such as selection of naturally occurring resistant mutants and horizontal gene transfer. Recently, oxidative stress has been implicated as one of the mechanisms whereby bactericidal antibiotics kill bacteria. Here we show that sub-lethal levels of bactericidal antibiotics induce mutagenesis, resulting in heterogeneous increases in the minimum inhibitory concentration for a range of antibiotics, irrespective of the drug target. This increase in mutagenesis correlates with an increase in ROS, and is prevented by the ROS scavenger thiourea and by anaerobic conditions, indicating that sub-lethal concentrations of antibiotics induce mutagenesis by stimulating the production of ROS. We demonstrate that these effects can lead to mutant strains that are sensitive to the applied antibiotic but resistant to other antibiotics. This work establishes a radical-based molecular mechanism whereby sub-lethal levels of antibiotics can lead to multidrug resistance, which has important implications for the widespread use and misuse of antibiotics. PMID:20159551

  9. Sublethal concentrations of ichthyotoxic alga Prymnesium parvum affect rainbow trout susceptibility to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nikolaj Gedsted; Lorenzen, Ellen; Boutrup, Torsten Snogdal

    2016-01-01

    concentrations of the ichthyotoxic alga Prymnesium parvum affect the susceptibility of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). During exposure to sublethal algal concentrations, the fish increased production of mucus on their gills. When fish were exposed to the algae......Ichthyotoxic algal blooms are normally considered a threat to maricultured fish only when blooms reach lethal cell concentrations. The degree to which sublethal algal concentrations challenge the health of the fish during blooms is practically unknown. In this study, we analysed whether sublethal...... for 12 h prior to the addition of virus, a marginal decrease in the susceptibility to VHSV was observed compared to fish exposed to VHSV without algae. If virus and algae were added simultaneously, inclusion of the algae increased mortality by 50% compared to fish exposed to virus only, depending...

  10. Sublethal dietary effects of Microcystis on Sacramento splittail, Pogonichthys macrolepidotus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, Shawn; Deng, Dong-Fang; Lehman, Peggy; Teh, Swee

    2012-04-01

    The presence of the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis in the upper San Francisco Estuary (SFE) since 1999 is a potential but to date an unquantified threat to the health and survival of aquatic organisms, such as fish and zooplankton. The microcystins (MCs) predominantly in the LR-form (MC-LR) contained in Microcystis is hepatotoxic and a potential threat to the fishery. This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary exposure of the endemic Sacramento splittail, Pogonichthys macrolepidotus in SFE to Microcystis and its toxin, MC-LR. Juvenile splittail (12.59 ± 0.7 g fish(-1)) were exposed to five diets for 28 d with MC-LR obtained from: (1) Microcystis harvested from the SFE and (2) a synthetic purified form of MC-LR. Three of the test diets contained 3.55 (D5), 9.14 (D10) and 17.13 (D20)mg MC-LR kg(-1) from Microcystis. The other two diets contained either purified MC-LR at 3.89 mg MC-LR kg(-1) (D5R) or no MC-LR (D0). The RNA/DNA ratio of fish muscle was significantly lower for all treatments fed test diets containing MC-LR compared to the control diet D0, suggesting Microcystis adversely affected nutritional status. Protein phosphatase 2A expression in the fish from the D5, D10 and D20 treatments were inversely affected by increasing concentrations of MC-LR. Cytoplasmic inclusion bodies and single cell necrosis were more prevalent and greater in severity in the fish exposed to the diets D10 and D20 compared to fish from the D0 treatment and indicate severe liver toxicity in splittail exposed to MC-LR. The sublethal effects on splittail characterized by this study suggest cyanobacterial blooms have the potential to affect splittail nutritional status and health in SFE. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Vertical transmission of sublethal granulovirus infection in the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, J P; Griffiths, C M; Cory, J S; Smith, P; Sait, S M

    2002-03-01

    Knowledge of the mechanisms of pathogen persistence in relation to fluctuations in host density is crucial to our understanding of disease dynamics. In the case of insect baculoviruses, which are typically transmitted horizontally via a lifestage that can persist outside the host, a key issue that remains to be elucidated is whether the virus can also be transmitted vertically as a sublethal infection. We show that RNA transcripts for the Plodia interpunctella GV granulin gene are present in a high proportion of P. interpunctella insects that survive virus challenge. Granulin is a late-expressed gene that is only transcribed after viral genome replication, its presence thus strongly indicates that viral genome replication has occurred. Almost all insects surviving the virus challenge tested positive for viral RNA in the larval and pupal stage. However, this proportion declined in the emerging adults. Granulin mRNA was also detected in both the ovaries and testes, which may represent a putative mechanism by which reduced fecundity in sublethally affected hosts might be manifested. RNA transcripts were also detected in 60-80% of second-generation larvae that were derived from mating surviving adults, but there was no difference between the sexes, with both males and females capable of transmitting a sublethal infection to their offspring. The data indicate that low-level persistent infection, with at least limited gene expression, can occur in P. interpunctella following survival of a granulovirus challenge. We believe that this is the first demonstration of a persistent, sublethal infection by a baculovirus to be initiated by a sublethal virus dose. We hypothesize that the 'latent' baculovirus infections frequently referred to in the literature may also be low level persistent, sublethal infections resulting from survival from initial baculovirus exposure.

  12. Sublethal Effects of Thiamethoxam on the Demographic Parameters of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pan; Zhou, Li-Lin; Yang, Fan; Li, Mang; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Yong; Lei, Chao-Liang; Si, Sheng-Yun

    2017-08-01

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an important sap-sucking pest of many crops, including Chinese cabbage, Brassinca oleracea L. The neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam has been used as an effective insecticide to control M. persicae in cabbage fields. In this study, we assessed the effects of sublethal concentrations of thiamethoxam on demographic parameters of M. persicae. In leaf-dip bioassays, thiamethoxam showed a relatively high toxicity against M. persicae with an LC50 of 6.80 mg liter-1. The duration of the preadult stage was not significantly affected in the sublethal bioassay. Additionally, the longevity and adult preoviposition period were not significantly affected by sublethal thiamethoxam. However, sublethal thiamethoxam significantly increased fecundity (LC10) and prolonged the total preoviposition period (LC40). Consequently, the finite rate of increase (λ) and the intrinsic rate of increase (rm) of aphids exposed to the LC40 were significantly lower than those of control aphids, whereas the net reproductive rate (R0) was higher, and the generation time (T) and the population doubling time (DT) were longer in the treated group. Based on these results, hormesis was induced by sublethal thiamethoxam in M. persicae, with the population growth of M. persicae negatively affected at higher sublethal concentrations of thiamethoxam. Therefore, our study indicated that the possible effects of thiamethoxam on aphids require further study to develop optimized integrated pest management strategies. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Trauma in children injured by physical violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina S Solovyova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In recent years, legislation has changed to include the rights of children injured because of physical violence. Trauma departments of St. Petersburg outpatient clinics admit children with injuries of varying severity after physical violence. The actions of medical institutions are always aimed at protecting the child. Aims. The aim of the present study was to analyze the cases of children in connection with injuries sustained as a result of physical violence in 2014–2015, and to compare the results with those of previous studies (2007–2008. Material and methods. In 2014–2015, the trauma department of City Children's Outpatient clinic No 62 treated 268 children, who had suffered from physical violence at home, on the street, or in educational institutions, which accounted for 1.6 per 1000 children living in the district, and 1.2% of all children admitted during 2 years. Results. Compared to 2007–2008, the number of children who suffered from physical violence decreased by almost two times in 2014–2015; in addition, the severity of injuries slightly decreased but the frequency of hospital admission of victims remained high (38% in 2007–2008. With regard to the circumstances in which the injury occurred, violence from strangers was lower, but violence among peers was higher. Conclusions. Positive results have been achieved by a complex of measures, including the implementation of the Federal Law “On Basic Guarantees of the Rights of the Child” to improve the care and safety of children, and an investigation of each case of violence is conducted by local authorities for internal affairs.

  14. The gestational power of mast cells in the injured tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, Maria-Angeles; Arias, Natalia; Martínez, Vicente; Vergara, Patri; Arias, Jaime

    2018-02-01

    The inflammatory response expressed after wound healing would be the recapitulation of systemic extra-embryonic functions, which would focus on the interstitium of the injured tissue. In the injured tissue, mast cells, provided for a great functional heterogeneity, could play the leading role in the re-expression of extra-embryonic functions, i.e., coelomic-amniotic and trophoblastic-vitelline. Moreover, mast cells would favor the production of a gastrulation-like process, which in certain tissues and organs would induce the regeneration of the injured tissue. Therefore, the engraftment of mesenchymal stem cells and mast cells, both with an extra-embryonic regenerative phenotype, would achieve a blastema, from the repaired and regenerated injured tissue, rather than by fibrosis, which is commonly made through wound-healing.

  15. Toxicity bioassay and effects of sub-lethal exposure of malathion on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clarias gariepinus were exposed to different concentrations of malathion to determine the 96 h LC50 value and its sub-lethal effects on haematological parameters and biochemical composition were also investigated. The 96 h LC50 value concluded was 8.22 mg/L. Specimens of C. gariepinus were exposed to sub-lethal ...

  16. Sublethal effects of imidacloprid on interactions in a tritrophic system of non-target species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhl, Philipp; Bucher, Roman; Schäfer, Ralf B; Entling, Martin H

    2015-08-01

    Imidacloprid is one of the most used insecticides worldwide, but is highly toxic to non-target arthropods. Effects of sublethal imidacloprid intoxication can potentially propagate in food webs, yet little is known about the impact on non-target populations and communities. We investigated short-term sublethal toxicity of imidacloprid in a tritrophic model system of wild strawberry Fragaria vesca, wood cricket Nemobius sylvestris and nursery web spider Pisaura mirabilis. Strawberries were treated two times with 0mg (control), 1mg (low rate) and 10mg (high rate) of Confidor® WG 70 and crickets were allowed to feed on them. In four lab experiments, we quantified the impact of imidacloprid on leaf damage, growth, behaviour and survival of crickets. The high imidacloprid rate reduced feeding, mass gain, thorax growth and mobility in crickets compared to the control, while mortality was similarly low in all treatments. The low rate reduced mass gain only. Cricket survival of spider predation was higher in the low rate treatment than in the control. Overall, herbivory and predation were reduced at sublethal imidacloprid rates in a non-target organism, three-level food chain, which demonstrates possible propagation of sublethal effects through trophic interactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of chronic sublethal effects of imidacloprid on honey bee colony health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we present results of a three-year study to determine the fate of imidacloprid residues in hive matrices and to assess chronic sublethal effects on whole honey bee colonies fed supplemental pollen diet containing imidacloprid at 5, 20 and 100 µg/kg over multiple brood cycles. Various endpoints ...

  18. Effect of sublethal preculturing on the survival of probiotics and metabolite formation in set-yoghurt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Settachaimongkon, S.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Winata, V.; Wang, X.; Nout, M.J.R.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.; Zwietering, M.H.; Smid, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of preculturing of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB12 under sublethal stress conditions on their survival and metabolite formation in set-yoghurt. Prior to co-cultivation with yoghurt starters in milk,

  19. Sub-lethal effects of neonicitinoids on the alfalfa leafcutter bee, Megachile rotundata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonicotinoids are commonly used pesticides in U.S. agriculture. For many beneficial insect species, lethal effects of neonicotinoids are well-documented; however, much less is known about sublethal exposure. The alfalfa leaf cutter bee Megachile rotundata is a managed pollinator that constructs com...

  20. Monitoring colony-level effects of sublethal pesticide exposure on honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of sublethal pesticide exposure to honey bee colonies may be significant but difficult to detect in the field using standard visual assessment methods. Here we describe methods to measure the quantities of adult bees, brood and food resources by weighing hives and hive parts, by photogra...

  1. Physiological stress and ethanol accumulation in tree stems and woody tissues at sublethal temperatures from fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick G. Kelsey; Douglas J. Westlind

    2017-01-01

    The lethal temperature limit is 60 degrees Celsius (°C) for plant tissues, including trees, with lower temperatures causing heat stress. As fire injury increases on tree stems, there is an accompanying rise in tissue ethanol concentrations, physiologically linked to impaired mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation energy production. We theorize that sublethal tissue...

  2. Sublethal Triclosan Exposure Decreases Susceptibility to Gentamicin and Other Aminoglycosides in Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ellen Gerd; Gram, Lone; Kastbjerg, Vicky Gaedt

    2011-01-01

    The human food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is capable of persisting in food processing plants despite cleaning and sanitation and is likely exposed to sublethal biocide concentrations. This could potentially affect susceptibility of the bacterium to biocides and other antimicrobial agents...

  3. Lethal and sublethal effects of an insect growth regulator, pyriproxyfen, on obliquebanded leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sial, Ashfaq A; Brunner, Jay F

    2010-04-01

    The obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is one of the most destructive pests of tree fruit in Washington. The development of insecticide resistance in C. rosaceana has led us to explore new management tactics. The use of very low doses of insecticides that have strong sublethal effects represents an environmentally friendly option to improve existing integrated pest management (IPM) strategies. We tested the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen to determine its lethal and sublethal effects on growth and development of C. rosaceana. A leaf-disk bioassay was used to test seven concentrations of pyriproxyfen ranging from 0 to 30 ppm on fifth-instar C. rosaceana. Male and female larvae were assessed separately for mortality as well as other parameters of growth and development. The LC, values for males and females were 2.4 and 4.8 ppm, respectively. The response to pyriproxyfen was concentration-dependent: only 5-6% of the larvae treated with the highest concentration emerged as morphologically normal adults compared with 86% emergence in the controls. The pupation and adult emergence was significantly delayed at concentrations higher than 1 ppm. The weights of C. rosaceana pupae and adults were significantly increased, whereas fecundity and fertility were significantly reduced at a sublethal concentration of 0.3 ppm. We conclude that both lethal and sublethal effects might exhibit significant impacts on the population dynamics of C. rosaceana in tree fruit orchards treated with low concentrations of pyriproxyfen.

  4. Effects of sub-lethal concentrations of a vegetable oil mill effluent on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of sub-lethal concentrations of a vegetable oil mill effluent on growth of Clarius gariepinus. JA Adakole, E Alabi. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Fisheries Vol. 4 (2) 2007: pp. 182-189. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  5. Effects of IL-10 on systemic inflammatory responses during sublethal primate endotoxemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poll, T.; Jansen, P. M.; Montegut, W. J.; Braxton, C. C.; Calvano, S. E.; Stackpole, S. A.; Smith, S. R.; Swanson, S. W.; Hack, C. E.; Lowry, S. F.; Moldawer, L. L.

    1997-01-01

    IL-10 protects mice from LPS-induced lethality. To determine the effects of IL-10 on LPS-induced inflammatory responses, six Papio anubis baboons were i.v. injected with a sublethal dose of LPS (Salmonella typhimurium; 500 microg/kg) directly preceded by either human rIL-10 (n = 3, 500 microg/kg) or

  6. Sublethal Photothermal Stimulation with a Micropulse Laser Induces Heat Shock Protein Expression in ARPE-19 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Inagaki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose/Aim of the Study. Subthreshold micropulse diode laser photocoagulation is an effective treatment for macular edema. The molecular mechanisms underlying treatment success are poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated the effects of sublethal laser energy doses on a single layer of densely cultured ARPE-19 cells as a model of the human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. Materials and Methods. A single layer of densely cultured human ARPE-19 cells was perpendicularly irradiated with a micropulse diode laser. Nonirradiated cells served as controls. Sublethal laser energy was applied to form a photocoagulation-like area in the cultured cell layers. Hsp70 expression was evaluated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry. Results. Photocoagulation-like areas were successfully created in cultured ARPE-19 cell layers using sublethal laser energy with our laser irradiation system. Hsp70 mRNA expression in cell layers was induced within 30 min of laser irradiation, peaking at 3 h after irradiation. This increase was dependent on the number of laser pulses. Hsp70 upregulation was not observed in untreated cell layers. Immunostaining indicated that Hsp70 expression occurred concentrically around laser irradiation sites and persisted for 24 h following irradiation. Conclusion. Sublethal photothermal stimulation with a micropulse laser may facilitate Hsp70 expression in the RPE without inducing cellular damage.

  7. Effects of sublethal concentrations of formalin on weight gain in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus, was exposed to various sublethal concentrations (25.0, 12.50, 6.25, 3.125, 1.56 and 0.0 mgl-1) of formalin to investigate their effects on the weight gain of the fish. Decrease in weight gain, directly proportional to the toxicant concentration, was observed in fish exposed to ...

  8. RFID tracking of sublethal effects of two neonicotinoid insecticides on the foraging behavior of Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof W Schneider

    Full Text Available The development of insecticides requires valid risk assessment procedures to avoid causing harm to beneficial insects and especially to pollinators such as the honeybee Apis mellifera. In addition to testing according to current guidelines designed to detect bee mortality, tests are needed to determine possible sublethal effects interfering with the animal's vitality and behavioral performance. Several methods have been used to detect sublethal effects of different insecticides under laboratory conditions using olfactory conditioning. Furthermore, studies have been conducted on the influence insecticides have on foraging activity and homing ability which require time-consuming visual observation. We tested an experimental design using the radiofrequency identification (RFID method to monitor the influence of sublethal doses of insecticides on individual honeybee foragers on an automated basis. With electronic readers positioned at the hive entrance and at an artificial food source, we obtained quantifiable data on honeybee foraging behavior. This enabled us to efficiently retrieve detailed information on flight parameters. We compared several groups of bees, fed simultaneously with different dosages of a tested substance. With this experimental approach we monitored the acute effects of sublethal doses of the neonicotinoids imidacloprid (0.15-6 ng/bee and clothianidin (0.05-2 ng/bee under field-like circumstances. At field-relevant doses for nectar and pollen no adverse effects were observed for either substance. Both substances led to a significant reduction of foraging activity and to longer foraging flights at doses of ≥0.5 ng/bee (clothianidin and ≥1.5 ng/bee (imidacloprid during the first three hours after treatment. This study demonstrates that the RFID-method is an effective way to record short-term alterations in foraging activity after insecticides have been administered once, orally, to individual bees. We contribute further

  9. Unbiased high-throughput characterization of mussel transcriptomic responses to sublethal concentrations of the biotoxin okadaic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Ulloa, Victoria; Fernandez-Tajes, Juan; Aguiar-Pulido, Vanessa; Prego-Faraldo, M. Veronica; Florez-Barros, Fernanda; Sexto-Iglesias, Alexia; Mendez, Josefina

    2015-01-01

    Background. Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) responsible for Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) represent a major threat for human consumers of shellfish. The biotoxin Okadaic Acid (OA), a well-known phosphatase inhibitor and tumor promoter, is the primary cause of acute DSP intoxications. Although several studies have described the molecular effects of high OA concentrations on sentinel organisms (e.g., bivalve molluscs), the effect of prolonged exposures to low (sublethal) OA concentrations is still unknown. In order to fill this gap, this work combines Next-Generation sequencing and custom-made microarray technologies to develop an unbiased characterization of the transcriptomic response of mussels during early stages of a DSP bloom. Methods. Mussel specimens were exposed to a HAB episode simulating an early stage DSP bloom (200 cells/L of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima for 24 h). The unbiased characterization of the transcriptomic responses triggered by OA was carried out using two complementary methods of cDNA library preparation: normalized and Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH). Libraries were sequenced and read datasets were mapped to Gene Ontology and KEGG databases. A custom-made oligonucleotide microarray was developed based on these data, completing the expression analysis of digestive gland and gill tissues. Results. Our findings show that exposure to sublethal concentrations of OA is enough to induce gene expression modifications in the mussel Mytilus. Transcriptomic analyses revealed an increase in proteasomal activity, molecular transport, cell cycle regulation, energy production and immune activity in mussels. Oppositely, a number of transcripts hypothesized to be responsive to OA (notably the Serine/Threonine phosphatases PP1 and PP2A) failed to show substantial modifications. Both digestive gland and gill tissues responded similarly to OA, although expression modifications were more dramatic in the former, supporting the choice of

  10. Unbiased high-throughput characterization of mussel transcriptomic responses to sublethal concentrations of the biotoxin okadaic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Suarez-Ulloa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs responsible for Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP represent a major threat for human consumers of shellfish. The biotoxin Okadaic Acid (OA, a well-known phosphatase inhibitor and tumor promoter, is the primary cause of acute DSP intoxications. Although several studies have described the molecular effects of high OA concentrations on sentinel organisms (e.g., bivalve molluscs, the effect of prolonged exposures to low (sublethal OA concentrations is still unknown. In order to fill this gap, this work combines Next-Generation sequencing and custom-made microarray technologies to develop an unbiased characterization of the transcriptomic response of mussels during early stages of a DSP bloom.Methods. Mussel specimens were exposed to a HAB episode simulating an early stage DSP bloom (200 cells/L of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima for 24 h. The unbiased characterization of the transcriptomic responses triggered by OA was carried out using two complementary methods of cDNA library preparation: normalized and Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH. Libraries were sequenced and read datasets were mapped to Gene Ontology and KEGG databases. A custom-made oligonucleotide microarray was developed based on these data, completing the expression analysis of digestive gland and gill tissues.Results. Our findings show that exposure to sublethal concentrations of OA is enough to induce gene expression modifications in the mussel Mytilus. Transcriptomic analyses revealed an increase in proteasomal activity, molecular transport, cell cycle regulation, energy production and immune activity in mussels. Oppositely, a number of transcripts hypothesized to be responsive to OA (notably the Serine/Threonine phosphatases PP1 and PP2A failed to show substantial modifications. Both digestive gland and gill tissues responded similarly to OA, although expression modifications were more dramatic in the former, supporting the

  11. Electrical stimulation promotes regeneration of injured oculomotor nerves in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Du

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional recovery after oculomotor nerve injury is very poor. Electrical stimulation has been shown to promote regeneration of injured nerves. We hypothesized that electrical stimulation would improve the functional recovery of injured oculomotor nerves. Oculomotor nerve injury models were created by crushing the right oculomotor nerves of adult dogs. Stimulating electrodes were positioned in both proximal and distal locations of the lesion, and non-continuous rectangular, biphasic current pulses (0.7 V, 5 Hz were administered 1 hour daily for 2 consecutive weeks. Analysis of the results showed that electrophysiological and morphological recovery of the injured oculomotor nerve was enhanced, indicating that electrical stimulation improved neural regeneration. Thus, this therapy has the potential to promote the recovery of oculomotor nerve dysfunction.

  12. Perceptions of Supervision Among Injured and Non-Injured Teens Working in the Retail or Service Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierold, Kristina M

    2016-04-01

    According to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), a teen is injured every 9 minutes at work. Workplace supervision may affect whether teens are injured on the job. Because research on workplace supervision among teens is limited, the objectives of this study were to characterize the perceptions of supervision among injured and non-injured teen workers and assess the characteristics and perceptions of supervisors that may be associated with work-related injuries. In 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among high school students. Teens who worked in retail or service industries (n= 270) were included in the sample. Non-injured teens were more likely to have reported that their supervisors cared about their safety, were helpful, listened well, and ensured that teen workers understood workplace safety. Most teens (70%) did not feel comfortable talking about safety issues with their supervisors. The importance of supervision and how supervisors are perceived in the workplace may be significant in creating a safety culture that leaves a lasting impression. © 2015 The Author(s).

  13. Locomotion Inhibition of Cimex lectularius L. Following Topical, Sublethal Dose Application of the Chitin Synthesis Inhibitor Lufenuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Campbell

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To date, few studies have evaluated chitin synthesis inhibitors against bed bugs, although they would provide an alternative mode of action to circumvent insecticide resistance. Acute and sublethal effects of lufenuron were evaluated against two strains of the common bed bug. Combined acute and sublethal effects were used to calculate effective doses. The dose that was effective against 50% of Harlan strain bed bugs was 0.0081% (w/v, and was much higher against Bradenton strain bed bugs (1.11% w/v. Sublethal doses were chosen to determine the effect that leg abnormalities had on pulling force. Both Harlan and Bradenton strain bed bugs had significantly lower locomotion ability (p < 0.0001 following topical application of lufenuron. The observed sublethal effects that limit locomotion could prevent bed bugs from moving within a domicile and taking a blood meal, subsequently reducing a bed bug population over time.

  14. Comparison of postural stability between injured and uninjured ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Feng; Lee, I-Jung; Liao, Jung-Hsien; Wu, Hong-Wen; Su, Fong-Chin

    2011-06-01

    Ballet movements require a limited base of support; thus, ballet dancers require a high level of postural control. However, postural stability in ballet dancers is still unclear and needs to be understood. To evaluate ballet dancers' postural stability in performing single-leg standing, the en pointe task, and the first and fifth positions and to determine differences in task performance among healthy nondancers, healthy dancers, and dancers with ankle sprains. Controlled laboratory study. Injured dancers, uninjured dancers, and nondancers were recruited for this study (N = 33 age-matched participants; n= 11 per group). The tasks tested were single-leg standing with eyes open and closed, first position, fifth position, and en pointe. Center of pressure parameters were calculated from the ground-reaction force collected with 1 force plate. Analysis of variance was used to assess the differences of center of pressure parameters among 3 groups in single-leg standing; independent t test was used to examine the differences of center of pressure parameters between injured and uninjured dancers. During single-leg standing, injured dancers had significantly greater maximum displacement in the medial-lateral direction and total trajectory of center of pressure, compared with the uninjured dancers and nondancers. During the first and fifth positions, the injured dancers demonstrated significantly greater standard deviation of center of pressure position in the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior directions, compared with the uninjured dancers. During en pointe, the injured dancers had significantly greater maximum displacement in the medial-lateral direction and the anterior-posterior direction, compared with the uninjured dancers. The injured and uninjured dancers demonstrated differences in postural stability in the medial-lateral direction during single-leg standing and the ballet postures. Although the injured dancers received ballet training, their postural stability

  15. Effects of sublethal exposure to metofluthrin on the fitness of Aedes aegypti in a domestic setting in Cairns, Queensland

    OpenAIRE

    Buhagiar, Tamara S.; Gregor J Devine; Scott A. Ritchie

    2017-01-01

    Background Metofluthrin is highly effective at reducing biting activity in Aedes aegypti. Its efficacy lies in the rapid onset of confusion, knockdown, and subsequent kill of a mosquito. In the field, there are a variety of scenarios that might result in sublethal exposure to metofluthrin, including mosquitoes that are active at the margins of the chemical?s lethal range, brief exposure as mosquitoes fly in and out of treated spaces or decreasing efficacy of the emanators with time. Sublethal...

  16. Sublethal doses of imidacloprid disrupt sexual communication and host finding in a parasitoid wasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappert, Lars; Pokorny, Tamara; Hofferberth, John; Ruther, Joachim

    2017-02-01

    Neonicotinoids are widely used insecticides, but their use is subject of debate because of their detrimental effects on pollinators. Little is known about the effect of neonicotinoids on other beneficial insects such as parasitoid wasps, which serve as natural enemies and are crucial for ecosystem functioning. Here we show that sublethal doses of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid impair sexual communication and host finding in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. Depending on the dose, treated females were less responsive to the male sex pheromone or unable to use it as a cue at all. Courtship behaviour of treated couples was also impeded resulting in a reduction of mating rates by up to 80%. Moreover, treated females were no longer able to locate hosts by using olfactory cues. Olfaction is crucial for the reproductive success of parasitoid wasps. Hence, sublethal doses of neonicotinoids might compromise the function of parasitoid wasps as natural enemies with potentially dire consequences for ecosystem services.

  17. Both genome and cytosol dynamics change in E. coli challenged with sublethal rifampicin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodarski, Michal; Raciti, Bianca; Kotar, Jurij; Cosentino Lagomarsino, Marco; Fraser, Gillian M.; Cicuta, Pietro

    2017-02-01

    While the action of many antimicrobial drugs is well understood at the molecular level, a systems-level physiological response to antibiotics remains largely unexplored. This work considers fluctuation dynamics of both the chromosome and cytosol in Escherichia coli, and their response to sublethal treatments of a clinically important antibiotic, rifampicin. We precisely quantify the changes in dynamics of chromosomal loci and cytosolic aggregates (a rheovirus nonstructural protein known as μNS-GFP), measuring short time-scale displacements across several hours of drug exposure. To achieve this we develop an empirical method correcting for photo-bleaching and loci size effects. This procedure allows us to characterize the dynamic response to rifampicin in different growth conditions, including a customised microfluidic device. We find that sub-lethal doses of rifampicin cause a small but consistent increase in motility of both the chromosomal loci and cytosolic aggregates. Chromosomal and cytosolic responses are consistent with each other and between different growth conditions.

  18. Sublethal effects of spinetoram on the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Zhang, Youjun; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli

    2016-09-01

    The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is a serious pest of many agricultural crops and ornamental plants. The sublethal effects of a new chemical, spinetoram, on T. urticae were investigated by treating adult females and eggs with LC10 and LC20 in the laboratory. The data were assessed based on age-stage, two-sex life table analysis. The results showed that T. urticae developmental time from egg to adult was reduced and that fecundity was increased by treatment with LC10 and LC20 of spinetoram. The LC10 and LC20 of spinetoram also increased the intrinsic and finite rate of increase and the net reproductive rate and reduced the mean generation time, egg duration, and larval duration whether eggs or adult females were treated. These laboratory results suggest that sublethal or lethal doses of spinetoram may cause outbreaks of T. urticae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Sublethal effect of nanosilver on the structure of gill of Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sharifian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Widespread use of nanosilver can be led the contamination of aquatic environment and impact on living organisms such as fishes. We investigated histopathological changes in the gills tissue of Caspian roach fingerlings after two weeks exposure to sublethal concentrations of nanosilver. Following one and two weeks exposure, necrosis, shortening of secondary lamellae, edema, destruction of epithelial lamella, shortening of secondary lamellae, epithelial lifting and curling of secondary lamellae were observed in gill tissues. This observation showed that exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of nanosilver is caused damages in the gill tissues of Caspian roach. The results demonstrated direct correlation of gill tissue damage and toxin exposure i.e. increasing nanosilver concentration is caused more tissue damage. Hence, histopathological changes of gill can considered as a proper indicator for nanosilver contamination of aquatic environments.

  20. Spinal tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - spinal cord ... tissue) Myeloma (blood cancer that starts in the plasma cells of the bone marrow) A small number of spinal tumors occur in the nerves of the spinal cord itself. Tumors that start in spinal tissue are ...

  1. Wilms Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms tumor is a rare type of kidney cancer. It causes a tumor on one or both kidneys. It usually affects ... are at risk should be screened for Wilms tumor every three months until they turn eight. Symptoms ...

  2. Sublethal triclosan exposure decreases susceptibility to gentamicin and other aminoglycosides in Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Ellen G; Gram, Lone; Kastbjerg, Vicky G

    2011-09-01

    The human food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is capable of persisting in food processing plants despite cleaning and sanitation and is likely exposed to sublethal biocide concentrations. This could potentially affect susceptibility of the bacterium to biocides and other antimicrobial agents. The purpose of the present study was to determine if sublethal biocide concentrations affected antibiotic susceptibility in L. monocytogenes. Exposure of L. monocytogenes strains EGD and N53-1 to sublethal concentrations of Incimaxx DES (containing peroxy acids and hydrogen peroxide) and Triquart Super (containing quaternary ammonium compound) in four consecutive cultures did not alter the frequency of antibiotic-tolerant isolates, as determined by plating on 2× the MIC for a range of antibiotics. Exposure of eight strains of L. monocytogenes to 1 and 4 μg/ml triclosan did not alter triclosan sensitivity. However, all eight strains became resistant to gentamicin (up to 16-fold increase in MIC) after exposure to sublethal triclosan concentrations. Gentamicin-resistant isolates of strains N53-1 and 4446 were also resistant to other aminoglycosides, such as kanamycin, streptomycin, and tobramycin. Gentamicin resistance remained at a high level also after five subcultures without triclosan or gentamicin. Aminoglycoside resistance can be caused by mutations in the target site, the 16S rRNA gene. However, such mutations were not detected in the N53-1-resistant isolates. A combination of gentamicin and ampicillin is commonly used in listeriosis treatment. The triclosan-induced resistance is, hence, of great concern. Further investigations are needed to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of triclosan.

  3. Sublethal Triclosan Exposure Decreases Susceptibility to Gentamicin and Other Aminoglycosides in Listeria monocytogenes▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Ellen G.; Gram, Lone; Kastbjerg, Vicky G.

    2011-01-01

    The human food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is capable of persisting in food processing plants despite cleaning and sanitation and is likely exposed to sublethal biocide concentrations. This could potentially affect susceptibility of the bacterium to biocides and other antimicrobial agents. The purpose of the present study was to determine if sublethal biocide concentrations affected antibiotic susceptibility in L. monocytogenes. Exposure of L. monocytogenes strains EGD and N53-1 to sublethal concentrations of Incimaxx DES (containing peroxy acids and hydrogen peroxide) and Triquart Super (containing quaternary ammonium compound) in four consecutive cultures did not alter the frequency of antibiotic-tolerant isolates, as determined by plating on 2× the MIC for a range of antibiotics. Exposure of eight strains of L. monocytogenes to 1 and 4 μg/ml triclosan did not alter triclosan sensitivity. However, all eight strains became resistant to gentamicin (up to 16-fold increase in MIC) after exposure to sublethal triclosan concentrations. Gentamicin-resistant isolates of strains N53-1 and 4446 were also resistant to other aminoglycosides, such as kanamycin, streptomycin, and tobramycin. Gentamicin resistance remained at a high level also after five subcultures without triclosan or gentamicin. Aminoglycoside resistance can be caused by mutations in the target site, the 16S rRNA gene. However, such mutations were not detected in the N53-1-resistant isolates. A combination of gentamicin and ampicillin is commonly used in listeriosis treatment. The triclosan-induced resistance is, hence, of great concern. Further investigations are needed to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of triclosan. PMID:21746948

  4. Assessment of sublethal effects of methoxyfenozide on oriental fruit Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchert, Daniel M; Walgenbach, James F; Kennedy, George G

    2005-06-01

    Sublethal effects of the insect growth regulator methoxyfenozide were examined in oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), in laboratory and field studies. In laboratory studies, oriental fruit moth larvae reared on diet amended with 0.1 ppm methoxyfenozide developed at the same rate as larvae reared on untreated diet, and paired moths reared as larvae from the same treated or untreated diets exhibited similar fecundity and fertility. Population growth differences over multiple generations were used to examine sublethal effects of methoxyfenozide on population dynamics in the field. Multiple single-tree cages were placed over apple (Malus spp.) trees treated with two applications of methoxyfenozide (70 g [AI] /ha) and nontreated trees. Cages were infested at a single time point with virgin male and female oriental fruit moth adults, and population growth was evaluated by egg counts, shoot infestation, fruit damage, and larval counts over a 12-wk period. Significantly fewer eggs, larvae, and damaged fruit were found on methoxyfenozide-treated compared with nontreated trees in 2001. Observed population differences may have been a result of direct mortality to eggs and larvae of the first generation rather than sublethal effects. In 2002, no differences were observed between treatments, but a heavy rain event shortly after the early infestation impacted the experiment. A late moth release treatment was tested in 2002 to examine the effects of residual methoxyfenozide 55 d after initial application. Significantly fewer eggs were found in the methoxyfenozide treatment compared with the control, but no differences existed among treatments in shoot infestation, percentage of damaged fruit, or larval populations. It was concluded direct mortality of eggs and larvae exposed to methoxyfenozide rather than sublethal effects were most important in reduction of subsequent generations.

  5. Lethal and sub-lethal effects of copper to the african catfish ( clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lethal and sub-lethal effects of copper on Clarias gariepinus were studied using a 96-hour static bioassay. Copper (as copper chloride, CuCl2 . H2O) was used to prepare the stock solution from which five standard concentrations 0.0, 1.8, 3.2, 5.6, and 10.0 mg/L were prepared (coded A – E). 15 juvenile C. gariepinus fish ...

  6. Sublethal dose of phoxim and Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus interact to elevate silkworm mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, ZhiYa; Li, FanChi; Hu, JingSheng; Ding, Chao; Wang, Chaoqian; Tian, JiangHai; Xue, Bin; Xu, KaiZun; Shen, WeiDe; Li, Bing

    2017-03-01

    Silkworm (Bombyx mori) is an economically important insect. It is relatively less resistant to certain chemicals and environment exposures such as pesticides and pathogens. After pesticide exposures, the silkworms are more susceptible to microbial infections. The mechanism underlying the susceptibility might be related to immune response and oxidative stress. A sublethal dose of phoxim combined with Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) elevated the silkworm mortality at 96 h. We found a higher content of H2 O2 and increased levels of genes related to oxidative stress and immune response after treatment with a sublethal dose of phoxim for 24 h or 48 h. However, such response decreased with longer pesticide treatment. Mortality increased by 44% when B. mori was exposed to combined treatment with BmNPV and phoxim rather than BmNPV alone. The level of examined immune-related and oxidative-stress-related genes significantly decreased in the combined treatment group compared with the BmNPV group. Our results indicated that, with long-term exposure to pesticides such as OPs, even at sublethal dose, the oxidative stress response and immune responses in silkworm were inhibited, which may lead to further immune impairment and accumulation of oxidative stress, resulting in susceptibility to the virus and harm to the silkworm. Our study provided insights for understanding the susceptibility to pathogen after pesticide exposures, which may promote the development of better pesticide controls to avoid significant economic losses. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Acute toxicity and sublethal effects of fipronil on detoxification enzymes in juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haihua; Gao, Cuie; Guo, Yaping; Zhang, Yuping; Zhang, Jianzhen; Ma, Enbo

    2014-10-01

    The acute toxicity of fipronil and its sublethal effects on detoxification enzymes (carboxylesterases (CarEs), glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), and 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (ECOD)) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) were investigated. The results indicated that the 24-h LC50 of fipronil for zebrafish was 220.4 μg/L (95% CI: 173.7-272.4 μg/L). Sublethal concentrations of fipronil did not cause significant changes in CarEs activities. In the liver and muscle tissues, GST activities at the tested concentrations did not significantly differ from those in the control. In the brain and gill tissues, GST activities at a concentration of 4 μg/L were significantly lower than those at a concentration of 2 μg/L. The results suggest that CarEs and GSTs were not suitable biomarkers for fipronil effects in D. rerio. A significant induction in the ECOD activities in the brain, gill, liver, and muscle tissues was observed compared with the control. Moreover, the dose-dependent responses of the ECOD activity were observed after treatment with sublethal concentrations of fipronil in the range of 2-20 μg/L. The results suggested that ECOD could be a suitable biomarker of fipronil effects in D. rerio. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Fumigant Toxicity and Sublethal Effects of Artemisia khorassanica and Artemisia sieberi on Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, B; Abedi, Z; Abdolmaleki, A; Jafary-Jahed, M; Borzoui, E; Mozaffar Mansouri, Seyed

    2017-09-01

    Fumigant toxicity and sublethal effects of essential oils from Artemisia khorassanica Podl. and Artemisia sieberi Bess were investigated against adults of Sitotroga cerealella Olivier. To assess the sublethal effects, adult moths were exposed to the LC30 of each essential oil, and life table parameters of the surviving S. cerealella were studied. Higher fumigant toxicity of A. khorassanica (LC50: 7.38 µl/liter air) than A. sieberi (LC50: 9.26 µl/liter air) was observed against S. cerealella. Also, the insecticidal effects of A. khorassanica (LT50: 9.01 h) were faster than A. sieberi (LT50: 14.37 h). A significant extension was observed in the developmental time (egg to adult) of S. cerealella treated with the essential oils. In addition, fecundity of S. cerealella reduced by 25.29 and 35.78% following exposure to sublethal concentrations of A. sieberi and A. khorassanica, respectively. Both tested essential oils caused a significant reduction in the gross and net reproductive rates, intrinsic rate of increase (rm), and finite rate of increase of S. cerealella. The rm values following exposure to A. sieberi, A. khorassanica, and control were 0.098, 0.094, and 0.107 d-1, respectively. The results of this study suggest that tested essential oils have a good potential to apply in integrated pest management of S. cerealella. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  9. Fumigant Toxicity and Sublethal Effects of Artemisia khorassanica and Artemisia sieberi on Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Z; Abdolmaleki, A; Jafary-Jahed, M; Borzoui, E; Mozaffar Mansouri, Seyed

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Fumigant toxicity and sublethal effects of essential oils from Artemisia khorassanica Podl. and Artemisia sieberi Bess were investigated against adults of Sitotroga cerealella Olivier. To assess the sublethal effects, adult moths were exposed to the LC30 of each essential oil, and life table parameters of the surviving S. cerealella were studied. Higher fumigant toxicity of A. khorassanica (LC50: 7.38 µl/liter air) than A. sieberi (LC50: 9.26 µl/liter air) was observed against S. cerealella. Also, the insecticidal effects of A. khorassanica (LT50: 9.01 h) were faster than A. sieberi (LT50: 14.37 h). A significant extension was observed in the developmental time (egg to adult) of S. cerealella treated with the essential oils. In addition, fecundity of S. cerealella reduced by 25.29 and 35.78% following exposure to sublethal concentrations of A. sieberi and A. khorassanica, respectively. Both tested essential oils caused a significant reduction in the gross and net reproductive rates, intrinsic rate of increase (rm), and finite rate of increase of S. cerealella. The rm values following exposure to A. sieberi, A. khorassanica, and control were 0.098, 0.094, and 0.107 d−1, respectively. The results of this study suggest that tested essential oils have a good potential to apply in integrated pest management of S. cerealella. PMID:29117375

  10. Effect of non-homogenous thermal stress during sub-lethal photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadura, N.; Kokkinos, D.; Dehipawala, S.; Cheung, E.; Sullivan, R.; Subramaniam, R.; Schneider, P.; Tremberger, G., Jr.; Holden, T.; Lieberman, D.; Cheung, T.

    2012-03-01

    Pathogens could be inactivated via a light source coupled with a photosensitizing agent in photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT). This project studied the effect of non-homogenous substrate on cell colony. The non-homogeneity could be controlled by iron oxide nano-particles doping in porous glassy substrates such that each cell would experience tens of hot spots when illuminated with additional light source. The substrate non-homogeneity was characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure at Brookhaven Synchrotron Light Source. Microscopy images of cell motion were used to study the motility. Laboratory cell colonies on non-homogenous substrates exhibit reduced motility similar to those observed with sub-lethal PCAT treatment. Such motility reduction on non-homogenous substrate is interpreted as the presence of thermal stress. The studied pathogens included E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Non-pathogenic microbes Bacillus subtilis was also studied for comparison. The results show that sub-lethal PACT could be effective with additional non-homogenous thermal stress. The use of non-uniform illumination on a homogeneous substrate to create thermal stress in sub-micron length scale is discussed via light correlation in propagation through random medium. Extension to sub-lethal PACT application complemented with thermal stress would be an appropriate application.

  11. Sublethal effects of some botanical and chemical insecticides on the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hem: Aleyrodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Jafarbeigi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In addition to direct mortalities caused by acute concentrations of insecticides, some biological traits of target pests may be also affected by sublethal doses. The cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hem: Aleyrodidae is an important pest of a wide variety of agricultural crops across the world. The control of B. tabaci largely relies on wide application of chemical insecticides. In this study, we analyzed the life table parameters to evaluate the sublethal effect of three plant-derived insecticides (Fumaria parviflora (Fumariaceae, Teucrium polium (Lamiaceae, and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae and two chemical insecticides (pymetrozin and neemarin on B. tabaci. The whiteflies were allowed to oviposit on plants infected with each of the five insecticides using leaf-dip method. The data were analyzed using the age-stage two-sex life table. We found significant differences in the gross reproductive rate (GRR, the net reproductive rat (R0, the intrinsic rate of increase (r and the finite rate of increase (λ of treated whiteflies compared to control. Our results showed that some biological traits of B. tabaci are affected by sub-lethal doses of the plant-derived extracts and that these effects are comparable to those of chemical insecticides. Given the detrimental effects of chemical insecticides on human, environment and non-target organisms, plant-derived insecticides may provide valuable environmentally friendly tools for pest management programs.

  12. Genetic regulation of allolysis in response to sub-lethal antibiotic stress in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANISHA DASH

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Dash M, Dash HR, Das S. 2014. Genetic regulation of allolysis in response to sub-lethal antibiotic stress in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 111-117. Allolysis is the phenomenon of cell lysis induced by other cells of the same species. Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, a major human pathogen exhibits competence induced allolysis that increases the genetic recombination and enhances the virulence. During allolysis, a group of non-competent bacterial cells are lysed by another group of competent cells in the same culture. This process is regulated by com operon as well as bacteriocin. In this study, allolysis was induced in Streptococcus pneumoniae MTCC655 by sub-lethal dose of antibiotic (chloramphenicol and the mechanism of allolysis has been deduced by amplification of lytA, lytC and cbpD genes in the bacterium. The strain was found to be resistant to a number of antibiotics including amoxicillin, cefpodoxime, erythromycin and vancomycin. The early onset of allolysis induction from 7-9 h under normal conditions to 2-3 h by sub-lethal dose of chloramphenicol was observed.

  13. Sexuality in Spinal-Cord-Injured High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Anne Louise

    1982-01-01

    Presents facts, literature, and organization sources on the sexual functioning of spinal-cord-injured persons. Suggests using this information in counseling situations. Urges counselors to help their clients reach sexual maturity by speaking frankly about sexuality and expressing affection, and by accepting their sexual behavior as normal. (JAC)

  14. Psychoactive substances in seriously injured drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Steentoft, Anni; Bernhoft, IM

    2013-01-01

    , which is 0.53 g/l in Denmark. The percentage of seriously injured drivers testing positive for medicinal drugs at levels above the Danish legal limit was 6.8%. Benzodiazepines and Z-drugs (6.4%) comprised the majority of this group. One or more illegal drugs (primarily amphetamines and cannabis) were...

  15. Prehospital transport of spinal cord-injured patients in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Well-organised and efficient prehospital transport is associated with an improved outcome in trauma patients. In Nigeria there is a paucity of information on prehospital transport of spinal cord-injured patients and its relation to mortality. Objective. To determine whether prehospital transportation is a predictor of ...

  16. Prehospital transport of spinal cord-injured patients in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that the means of transport are generally not optimal for those with spinal cord injury. The aim of the present study was therefore to highlight the importance of prehospital transport of spinal cord-injured patients and the contribution of these injuries to mortality in Nigeria. Patients, materials and methods. The records of spinal ...

  17. Outcome in elderly injured patients : injury severity versus host factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, CK; Timmer, HW; Eisma, WH; ten Duis, HJ

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the differences between the outcome of elderly patients with severe injuries and that of their contemporaries with a less severe injury, we reviewed 42 severely injured elderly patients and compared them with 76 patients with a femoral neck fracture. We analysed the influence of injury

  18. Addressing the Needs of Children and Families of Combat Injured

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    subsequent treatments. His death was not related to participation in the current study. Participant death , specifically the combat-injured service member...connected her with bereavement services. One participant (service member receiving treatment at WRNMMC) voluntarily withdrew from the study at

  19. Prevent Tipping Furniture from Injuring or Killing Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this! Home » Health Tips » Child Emergencies Prevent Tipping Furniture from Injuring or Killing Young Children The nation’s ... a child — killed by a piece of a furniture, appliance or a television falling on them. “It ...

  20. Effect of sildenafil on erectile dysfunction in spinal Cord injured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Erectile dysfunction is a preoccupying issue, just like motor and bladder disability, in spinal cord injured (SCI) patients. This is particularly so because of the increasing prevalence of paraplegic and tetraplegic subjects and the fact that these patients are younger, and sexually active. Objective: To determine the ...

  1. Repair and Enumeration of Injured Coliforms by a Plating Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, M. L.; Ray, B.; Read, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    Surface plating of coliforms on Trypticase soy agar, followed by 1 to 2 h of incubation at 25 C and subsequent overlay with violet red bile agar, was found to be a useful method for the repair and enumeration of coliforms injured by freezing. PMID:1092266

  2. Efficacy of a metalloproteinase inhibitor in spinal cord injured dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Jonathan M; Cohen, Noah D; Heller, Michael; Fajt, Virginia R; Levine, Gwendolyn J; Kerwin, Sharon C; Trivedi, Alpa A; Fandel, Thomas M; Werb, Zena; Modestino, Augusta; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J

    2014-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 is elevated within the acutely injured murine spinal cord and blockade of this early proteolytic activity with GM6001, a broad-spectrum matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, results in improved recovery after spinal cord injury. As matrix metalloproteinase-9 is likewise acutely elevated in dogs with naturally occurring spinal cord injuries, we evaluated efficacy of GM6001 solubilized in dimethyl sulfoxide in this second species. Safety and pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in naïve dogs. After confirming safety, subsequent pharmacokinetic analyses demonstrated that a 100 mg/kg subcutaneous dose of GM6001 resulted in plasma concentrations that peaked shortly after administration and were sustained for at least 4 days at levels that produced robust in vitro inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-9. A randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled study was then conducted to assess efficacy of GM6001 given within 48 hours of spinal cord injury. Dogs were enrolled in 3 groups: GM6001 dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (n = 35), dimethyl sulfoxide (n = 37), or saline (n = 41). Matrix metalloproteinase activity was increased in the serum of injured dogs and GM6001 reduced this serum protease activity compared to the other two groups. To assess recovery, dogs were a priori stratified into a severely injured group and a mild-to-moderate injured group, using a Modified Frankel Scale. The Texas Spinal Cord Injury Score was then used to assess long-term motor/sensory function. In dogs with severe spinal cord injuries, those treated with saline had a mean motor score of 2 (95% CI 0-4.0) that was significantly (Pdogs receiving dimethyl sulfoxide (mean, 5; 95% CI 2.0-8.0) or GM6001 (mean, 5; 95% CI 2.0-8.0). As there was no independent effect of GM6001, we attribute improved neurological outcomes to dimethyl sulfoxide, a pleotropic agent that may target diverse secondary pathogenic events that emerge in the acutely injured cord.

  3. Characteristics of injured children attending the emergency department : patients potentially in need of rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturms, L.M.; van der Sluis, C.K.; Groothoff, J.W.; Ten Duis, H.J.; Eisma, W.H.

    Objective: To provide an epidemiological overview of the characteristics of injured children and to compare hospitalized and nonhospitalized injured children to identify predictors of hospitalization and, with that, possible predictors of disablement. Design: Retrospective analysis of data obtained

  4. Risk factors for subsequent impaired driving by injured passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purssell, Roy A; Chan, Herbert; Brown, Douglas; Fang, Ming; Brubacher, Jeffrey R

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rate of, and risk factors for, subsequent impaired driving activity (IDA) in a cohort of injured passengers who were treated for injuries in a Canadian trauma center. We studied adult passengers who were occupants in vehicles involved in motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) and either included in the British Columbia (BC) trauma registry (January 1, 1992-December 31, 2004) or treated in the emergency department (ED) of Vancouver General Hospital (VGH; January 1, 1999-December 31, 2003). Passengers were linked to their driver's license and hence to their driving record using personal health number and demographic information. Injured passengers were stratified into 3 groups based on their blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at time of ED presentation: group 1: BAC = 0, group 2: 0 17.3 mM (0.08%). Two outcome variables were studied: involvement in a subsequent IDA and time to their first subsequent IDA. IDA was defined as a criminal code conviction for impaired driving, a 24-h or 90-day license suspension for impaired driving, and/or involvement in an MVC where police cited alcohol as a factor. Time to first IDA following the index event among passenger BAC groups was compared with Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Cox proportional hazards models were employed to examine the effect of various potential risk factors on time to engage in first IDA. Injured passengers with any BAC at the time of ED visit were more likely to engage in IDA and had their first IDA sooner after the index event than those with zero BAC. Among this cohort of injured passengers, 12.1 percent with BAC = 0, 29.9 percent with 0 17.3 mM (0.08%) engaged in IDA. Compared to passengers with BAC = 0, group 3 passengers and group 2 passengers were 2.06 times and 1.79 times more likely to engage in future IDA. Twenty-five percent of injured passengers engaged their first IDA by 57 and 38 months in groups 2 and 3, respectively. Previous IDA and being male were also

  5. Sialic acid accelerates the electrophoretic velocity of injured dorsal root ganglion neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Chen-xu Li; Guo-ying Ma; Min-fang Guo; Ying Liu

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury has been shown to result in ectopic spontaneous discharges on soma and injured sites of sensory neurons, thereby inducing neuropathic pain. With the increase of membrane proteins on soma and injured site neurons, the negatively charged sialic acids bind to the external domains of membrane proteins, resulting in an increase of this charge. We therefore speculate that the electrophoretic velocity of injured neurons may be faster than non-injured neurons. The present stud...

  6. Characterization of high hydrostatic pressure-injured Bacillus subtilis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaoka, Takashi; Kimura, Keitarou; Morimatsu, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Kazutaka

    2017-06-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) affects various cellular processes. Using a sporulation-deficient Bacillus subtilis strain, we characterized the properties of vegetative cells subjected to HHP. When stationary-phase cells were exposed to 250 MPa of HHP for 10 min at 25 °C, approximately 50% of cells were viable, although they exhibited a prolonged growth lag. The HHP-injured cells autolyzed in the presence of NaCl or KCl (at concentrations ≥100 mM). Superoxide dismutase slightly protected the viability of HHP-treated cells, whereas vegetative catalases had no effect. Thus, unlike HHP-injured Escherichia coli, oxidative stress only slightly affected vegetative B. subtilis subjected to HHP.

  7. Acute and Perioperative Care of the Burn-Injured Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Edward A.; Shank, Erik; Woodson, Lee; Martyn, J.A. Jeevendra

    2016-01-01

    Care of burn-injured patients requires knowledge of the pathophysiologic changes affecting virtually all organs from the onset of injury until wounds are healed. Massive airway and/or lung edema can occur rapidly and unpredictably after burn and/or inhalation injury. Hemodynamics in the early phase of severe burn injury are characterized by a reduction in cardiac output, increased systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance. Approximately 2–5 days after major burn injury, a hyperdynamic and hypermetabolic state develops. Electrical burns result in morbidity much higher than expected based on burn size alone. Formulae for fluid resuscitation should serve only as guideline; fluids should be titrated to physiologic end points. Burn injury is associated basal and procedural pain requiring higher than normal opioid and sedative doses. Operating room concerns for the burn-injured patient include airway abnormalities, impaired lung function, vascular access, deceptively large and rapid blood loss, hypothermia and altered pharmacology. PMID:25485468

  8. Imagery use by injured athletes: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driediger, Molly; Hall, Craig; Callow, Nichola

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to expand our knowledge and increase our understanding of imagery use by athletes in sport-injury rehabilitation using a qualitative approach. The participants were 10 injured athletes who were receiving physiotherapy at the time they were interviewed. During the interviews, the athletes provided extensive information about their use of imagery during injury rehabilitation and it was clear that they believed imagery served cognitive, motivational and healing purposes in effectively rehabilitating an injury. Cognitive imagery was used to learn and properly perform the rehabilitation exercises. They employed motivational imagery for goal setting (e.g. imagined being fully recovered) and to enhance mental toughness, help maintain concentration and foster a positive attitude. Imagery was used to manage pain. The methods they employed for controlling pain included using imagery to practise dealing with expected pain, using imagery as a distraction, imagining the pain dispersing, and using imagery to block the pain. With respect to what they imaged (i.e. the content of their imagery), they employed both visual and kinaesthetic imagery and their images tended to be positive and accurate. It was concluded that the implementation of imagery alongside physical rehabilitation should enhance the rehabilitation experience and, therefore, facilitate the recovery rates of injured athletes. Moreover, it was recommended that those responsible for the treatment of injured athletes (e.g. medical doctors, physiotherapists) should understand the benefits of imagery in athletic injury rehabilitation, since it is these practitioners who are in the best position to encourage injured athletes to use imagery.

  9. Psychiatric morbidity among physically injured Syrian refugees in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nuaimi, Saleem; Aldandashi, Samer; Easa, Abdul Kadir Saed; Saqqur, Maher

    2018-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, the mental health status of physically injured Syrian refugees has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among physically injured Syrian refugees in Turkey receiving treatment at the main rehabilitation centre near the Syrian border. This is a cross sectional study. Information was collected from consenting injured Syrian refugees at Dar-el-Shefa'a Hospital in Reyhanlı (Turkey) during a one week period in December 2012 and another one week period in August 2013. A clinical psychiatric interview was conducted to determine a diagnosis according to the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV-TR. A total of 40 refugees consented and completed a clinical psychiatric interview. All refugees in this study did not have a significant past psychiatric history. The most prevalent current diagnosis was major depressive disorder (22.5%), adjustment disorder (20%), and post-traumatic stress disorder (15%). Five (12.5%) patients had no evidence of a psychiatric disorder. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among injured Syrian refugees in our study was extremely high. This may help guide the treatment and management of this select population. This study had a low number of participants. The method of assessment was not standardized with a validated tool. This study may help guide the treatment and management of this select population, both in neighbouring countries and as resettled refugees in Western host countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Early diagnostics of infectiouscomplications in injured persons with heavy traumas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Svistunov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study specific features of the etiological structure of infectiouscomplications occurring early in treatment of heavily injured patients is established and the need is demonstrated for bacteriological examination of clinicalmaterials according to a developed algorithm on the second or third day after admission to hospital, which contributes totimely isolation of etiological agents of infectiouscomplications, rational etiotropic antibacterial treatment and reduced mortality.

  11. Injured pedestrians in Cape Town - the role of alcohol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    average, 35.6 years old. They were most frequently injured at night and over weekends. The BAC was positive in. 62.1 % of pedestrians, and the mean BAC was 0.19 g/dl. Most pedestrians had at least one lower limb injury and nearly half had a head injury; however, BAC-positive pedestrians were 2.6 times more likely to ...

  12. Contact irritant responses of Aedes aegypti Using sublethal concentration and focal application of pyrethroid chemicals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hortance Manda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated contact irritant and spatial repellent behaviors in Aedes aegypti following exposure to sublethal concentrations of chemicals. These sublethal actions are currently being evaluated in the development of a push-pull strategy for Ae. aegypti control. This study reports on mosquito escape responses after exposure to candidate chemicals for a contact irritant focused push-pull strategy using varying concentrations and focal application. METHODS: Contact irritancy (escape behavior, knockdown and 24 hour mortality rates were quantified in populations of female Ae. aegypti under laboratory conditions and validated in the field (Thailand and Peru using experimental huts. Evaluations were conducted using varying concentrations and treatment surface area coverage (SAC of three pyrethroid insecticides: alphacypermethrin, lambacyhalothrin and deltamethrin. RESULTS: Under laboratory conditions, exposure of Ae. aegypti to alphacypermethrin using the standard field application rate (FAR resulted in escape responses at 25% and 50% SAC that were comparable with escape responses at 100% SAC. Significant escape responses were also observed at <100% SAC using ½FAR of all test compounds. In most trials, KD and 24 hour mortality rates were higher in mosquitoes that did not escape than in those that escaped. In Thailand, field validation studies indicated an early time of exit (by four hours and 40% increase in escape using ½FAR of alphacypermethrin at 75% SAC compared to a matched chemical-free control. In Peru, however, the maximum increase in Ae. aegypti escape from alphacypermethrin-treated huts was 11%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results presented here suggest a potential role for sublethal and focal application of contact irritant chemicals in an Ae. aegypti push-pull strategy to reduce human-vector contact inside treated homes. However, the impact of an increase in escape response on dengue virus transmission is

  13. Identification of sublethal toxicants in a BC coastal pulp and paper mill effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eickhoff, C.V.; Pickard, J.; Kinnee, K. [BC Research Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Dwernychuk, W. [Hatfield Consultants Ltd., West Vancouver, BC (Canada); Birkholz, D. [EnviroTest Lab., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Kilback, D. [Pacifica Papers, Powell River, BC (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    BC Research Inc. conducted a toxicity identification evaluation to identify the different compounds comprised in the mill Outfall number 1 effluent. The Environmental Effects Monitoring program had determined that these compounds were responsible for sublethal effects to organisms. Echinoderm species like the sand dollar, Dendraster excentricus Eshscholtz, the purple sea urchin, Stronglyocentrotus purpuratus Stimpson, and the marine algae, Champia parvula had suffered toxicity caused by the mill effluent. The last several Environmental Effects Monitoring testing periods had shown the sublethal toxicity of the Outfall number 1 effluent to echinoderms was very consistent. Based on the high cost and shipping associated with the Champia bioassays, toxicity tests conducted during the peak spawning season of the sea urchin and the non significant difference between the sensitivity of the sand dollar and the purple sea urchin, the purple sea urchin was selected to evaluate the toxicity of the manipulated samples for the tests. The tests conducted were: a baseline toxicity test performed immediately upon receipt of the effluent sample, the pH adjustment filtration test to determine if the toxic compound can be removed using filtration, the pH adjustment aeration test to determine if volatile compounds in the sample are toxic, the pH adjustment solid phase extraction test to determine the level of toxicity from organic compounds and metal chelates that can be removed by solid phase extraction. The results indicated that it seems high molecular weight molecules were responsible for the sublethal toxicity observed. Two different sources could be responsible: lignin derived macromolecules, and polymer compounds used as flocculants and sizing agents. Further testing of the pulp mill effluent to identify the source of the toxic high molecular weight compounds was recommended. 22 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  14. Manure source and age affect survival of zoonotic pathogens during aerobic composting at sublethal temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Marilyn C; Smith, Chris; Jiang, Xiuping; Flitcroft, Ian D; Doyle, Michael P

    2015-02-01

    Heat is the primary mechanism by which aerobic composting inactivates zoonotic bacterial pathogens residing within animal manures, but at sublethal temperatures, the time necessary to hold the compost materials to ensure pathogen inactivation is uncertain. To determine the influence of the type of nitrogen amendment on inactivation of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in compost mixtures stored at sublethal temperatures, specific variables investigated in these studies included the animal source of the manure, the initial carbon/nitrogen (C:N) ratio of the compost mixture, and the age of the manure. Salmonella and L. monocytogenes were both inactivated more rapidly in chicken and swine compost mixtures stored at 20°C when formulated to an initial C:N ratio of 20:1 compared with 40:1, whereas a C:N ratio did not have an effect on inactivation of these pathogens in cow compost mixtures. Pathogen inactivation was related to the elevated pH of the samples that likely arises from ammonia produced by the indigenous microflora in the compost mixtures. Indigenous microbial activity was reduced when compost mixtures were stored at 30°C and drier conditions (compost mixtures prepared with aged chicken litter compared with fresh chicken litter, whereas E. coli O157:H7 survived to similar extents in compost mixtures prepared with either fresh or aged cow manure. The different responses observed when different sources of manure were used in compost mixtures reveal that guidelines with times required for pathogen inactivation in compost mixtures stored at sublethal temperatures should be dependent on the source of nitrogen, i.e., type of animal manure, present.

  15. Toxicity and Sublethal Effects of Cantharidin on Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasoob, Hassan; Ali Khan, Hafiz Azhar; Zhang, Yalin

    2017-09-27

    The house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), is a major pest of medical and veterinary importance all over the world. Management efforts for house flies are usually compromised owing to their resistance to many groups of conventional insecticides. Cantharidin, a natural toxin produced by meloid beetles, is a biopesticide with a reported toxicity to some insect pests including house flies. However, the effects of cantharidin on biological and fitness parameters of house flies have not yet been investigated. In the present study, we investigated the toxicity and sublethal effects of cantharidin on biological parameters of house flies for two consecutive generations. The results revealed that the values of LC50, LC25, LC10, and LC2 against house flies were to be 2.45, 1.23, 0.66, and 0.30 mg/liter, respectively. Sublethal effects of these concentrations on the development and reproduction parameters of house flies revealed that cantharidin reduced population growth by affecting pupation rate, adult emergence, and by lengthening developmental time. The female ratio, fecundity, egg hatching, and survival of adult flies were significantly reduced at LC2, LC10, LC25, and LC50 of cantharidin when compared with the control group. Furthermore, the increase in concentration of cantharidin had a significant effect on reducing the mean values of mean relative growth rate, net reproductive rate (Ro), intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm), and biotic potential (bp). In conclusion, the results of this study revealed the toxicity of cantharidin against house flies and the adverse effects of sublethal concentrations on biological parameters which may have positive implications for effective management of house flies. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Sublethal effects on wood frogs chronically exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of two neonicotinoid insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Stacey A; Richardson, Sarah D; Dalton, Rebecca L; Maisonneuve, France; Trudeau, Vance L; Pauli, Bruce D; Lee-Jenkins, Stacey S Y

    2017-04-01

    Neonicotinoids are prophylactically used globally on a variety of crops, and there is concern for the potential impacts of neonicotinoids on aquatic ecosystems. The intensive use of pesticides on crops has been identified as a contributor to population declines of amphibians, but currently little is known regarding the sublethal effects of chronic neonicotinoid exposure on amphibians. The objective of the present study was to characterize the sublethal effect(s) of exposure to 3 environmentally relevant concentrations (1 μg/L, 10 μg/L, and 100 μg/L) of 2 neonicotinoids on larval wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) using outdoor mesocosms. We exposed tadpoles to solutions of 2 commercial formulations containing imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, and assessed survival, growth, and development. Exposure to imidacloprid at 10 μg/L and 100 μg/L increased survival and delayed completion of metamorphosis compared with controls. Exposure to thiamethoxam did not influence amphibian responses. There was no significant effect of any treatment on body mass or size of the metamorphs. The results suggest that current usage of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam does not pose a threat to wood frogs. However, further assessment of both direct and indirect effects on subtle sublethal endpoints, and the influence of multiple interacting stressors at various life stages, is needed to fully understand the effects of neonicotinoids on amphibians. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1101-1109. © 2017 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. © 2017 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  17. Busulfan administration produces sublethal effects on somatic tissues and inhibits gametogenesis in Senegalese sole juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacchiarini, T; Olague, E; Sarasquete, C; Cabrita, E

    2014-05-01

    Busulfan, a cytotoxic alkylating agent used for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia has effects in mammalian germ cells. In fish species, the use of this compound is of special interest in intra and interspecies germ cell transplants. To determine the effects of busulfan in fish a previous range finding experiment was designed. Survival and growth rate of 150-days after hatching (150DAH) Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) juveniles was determined. In a second experiment, the effects of a sublethal busulfan dose in fish germ cell depletion and in somatic tissues were analysed. Sublethal effects of several busulfan treatments (B10-10 days after injection, B20-20 days after injection, B20÷-20 days after injection with double injection) were determined in somatic and gonadal tissues. Alterations were registered through histopathological techniques, TUNEL (cell apoptosis) and quantified at molecular level (Q-PCR analyses) using the vasa mRNAs (Ssvasa1-2 and Ssvasa3-4 mRNAs) as molecular markers for germinal cells in Senegalese sole juveniles. Several sublethal effects were observed with 40 mg kg⁻¹ busulfan, a non-lethal dose, such as: pyknosis in liver, increase of melanomacrophage centres and blood stagnation in spleen and interruption of gonadal development. Females were more affected by busulfan treatments than males in terms of germ cell disruption, since a significant decrease in the expression of both Ssvasa1-2 and Ssvasa3-4 markers was found in the gonad of treated females rather than males. At 10 days post-treatment (B10), females already presented a decrease in germ cell proliferation, as confirmed by Q-PCR. Ssvasa expression proved to be a reliable tool for the direct evaluation of the effects of busulfan on Senegalese sole gonadal development, proving that busulfan can be a suitable treatment for causing transient sterility in recipient gonads for germ cell transplantation.

  18. Mitochondria Localize to Injured Axons to Support Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sung Min; Baig, Huma S; Hammarlund, Marc

    2016-12-21

    Axon regeneration is essential to restore the nervous system after axon injury. However, the neuronal cell biology that underlies axon regeneration is incompletely understood. Here we use in vivo, single-neuron analysis to investigate the relationship between nerve injury, mitochondrial localization, and axon regeneration. Mitochondria translocate into injured axons so that average mitochondria density increases after injury. Moreover, single-neuron analysis reveals that axons that fail to increase mitochondria have poor regeneration. Experimental alterations to axonal mitochondrial distribution or mitochondrial respiratory chain function result in corresponding changes to regeneration outcomes. Axonal mitochondria are specifically required for growth-cone migration, identifying a key energy challenge for injured neurons. Finally, mitochondrial localization to the axon after injury is regulated in part by dual-leucine zipper kinase 1 (DLK-1), a conserved regulator of axon regeneration. These data identify regulation of axonal mitochondria as a new cell-biological mechanism that helps determine the regenerative response of injured neurons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Understanding contextual influences of community reintegration among injured servicemembers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Brent L; McGuire, Francis A; Linder, Sandra M; Britt, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    As part of a larger mixed-methods research project investigating the influence of contextual factors on community reintegration (CR), this qualitative study sought to understand the subjective experiences of injured servicemembers and their perception of how contextual factors influenced their CR. More specifically, this article addresses how the influences of contextual factors differ between injured servicemembers with different levels of CR. Using a phenomenological framework, semistructured interviews were conducted with nine injured, community-dwelling servicemembers with low, moderate, and high levels of CR (three per category). Participants provided in-depth descriptions of the contextual barriers and facilitators of CR. Thematic analysis indicated the importance of social support and personal factors (e.g., self-efficacy, personal motivation) as the primary means for being reintegrated into their homes and communities. Other themes indicated factors that had an indirect but important influence on CR, including adapted sports, recreation, and other social programs; rehabilitation programs and therapists; school, work, and volunteering; and organizations and policies in developing social supports and personal factors. Comparisons between servicemembers indicated participants with low CR described many more contextual barriers and far fewer contextual facilitators to reintegration than those with high CR. Those with moderate CR were unique in that they described many facilitators and barriers to reintegration.

  20. Decreased mortality after prehospital interventions in severely injured trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meizoso, Jonathan P; Valle, Evan J; Allen, Casey J; Ray, Juliet J; Jouria, Jassin M; Teisch, Laura F; Shatz, David V; Namias, Nicholas; Schulman, Carl I; Proctor, Kenneth G

    2015-08-01

    We test the hypothesis that prehospital interventions (PHIs) performed by skilled emergency medical service providers during ground or air transport adversely affect outcome in severely injured trauma patients. Consecutive trauma activations (March 2012 to June 2013) transported from the scene by air or ground emergency medical service providers were reviewed. PHI was defined as intubation, needle decompression, tourniquet, cricothyroidotomy, or advanced cardiac life support. In 3,733 consecutive trauma activations (71% blunt, 25% penetrating, 4% burns), age was 39 years, 74% were male, Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 5, and Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) was 15, with 32% traumatic brain injury (TBI) and 7% overall mortality. Those who received PHI (n = 130, 3.5% of the trauma activations) were more severely injured: ISS (26 vs. 5), GCS (3 vs. 15), TBI (57% vs. 31%), Revised Trauma Score (RTS, 5.45 vs. 7.84), Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS, 1.32 vs. 4.89), and mortality (56% vs. 5%) were different (all p blunt injury, high ISS, and long prehospital times (all p blunt trauma, and air transport were similar, but mortality was significantly lower (43% vs. 23%, p= 0.021). In our urban trauma system, PHIs are associated with a lower incidence of mortality in severely injured trauma patients and do not delay transport to definitive care. Prognostic/epidemiologic study, level III; therapeutic study, level IV.

  1. Response to and recovery from acute sublethal gamma radiation in the Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D.; Setlow, R.B.

    1979-05-01

    Acute irradiation of the Amazon molly with a sublethal dose of 1,000 rad caused some damage to the intestinal tract and to the haematopoietic system. Histologically, the intestine appeared to have regenerated by the end of a week; damage to the haematopoietic tissue appeared more slowly, but repair was almost complete some two months later. Nevertheless, recovery to the intestine cannot have been entirely completed in seven days, since the fish did not feed well for the following two weeks. After this, there were no obvious deleterious effects upon the survival and viability of the fish, although irradiated fish weighed less at the termination of the experiment.

  2. Hypothalamic tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypothalamic glioma; Hypothalamus - tumor ... The exact cause of hypothalamic tumors is not known. It is likely that they result from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. In children, ...

  3. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  4. Odontogenic Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    TAHSİNOĞLU, Melih

    2013-01-01

    DefinitionThe neoplasms that consist of the cells considered specialized for odontogenesis, and their product (dentin, enamel, cementum) are called odontogenic tumors.ClassificationTo initiate odontogenesis, epithelium is a must. Same rule holds for the odontogenic tumors: without odontogenic epithelium, odontogenic tumors cannot be, without the induction of odontogenic epithelium odontogenic mesenchyme cannot develop.

  5. Urogenital tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

  6. Sublethal and hormesis effects of imidacloprid on the soybean aphid Aphis glycines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yanyan; Xiao, Da; Li, Jinyu; Chen, Zhou; Biondi, Antonio; Desneux, Nicolas; Gao, Xiwu; Song, Dunlun

    2015-04-01

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, is a major pest in soybean crop. Current management of this pest relies mainly on insecticides applications, and the neonicotinoid imidacloprid has been proposed as an effective insecticide to control A. glycines in soybean field. Imidacloprid at lethal concentrations not only exerts acute toxicity to A. glycines, but also cause various biological changes when aphids are chronically exposed to lower concentrations. In this study, we assessed the effects of a low-lethal (0.20 mg L(-1)) and two sublethal (0.05 and 0.10 mg L(-1)) imidacloprid concentrations on various A. glycines life history traits. Aphid exposure to 0.20 mg L(-1) imidacloprid caused slower juvenile development, shorter reproductive period, and reduced adult longevity, fecundity and total lifespan. Stimulatory effects, i.e. hormesis, on reproduction and immature development duration were observed in aphids exposed to the lower sublethal imidacloprid concentrations. Consequently, the net reproduction rate (R 0) was significantly higher than in the control aphids. These findings stress the importance of the actual imidacloprid concentration in its toxicological properties on A. glycines. Therefore, our results would be useful for assessing the overall effects of imidacloprid on A. glycines and for optimizing integrated pest management programs targeting this pest.

  7. Gene expression changes in honey bees induced by sublethal imidacloprid exposure during the larval stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Cheng; Chang, Yu-Wen; Lu, Kuang-Hui; Yang, En-Cheng

    2017-09-01

    Honey bee larvae exposed to sublethal doses of imidacloprid show behavioural abnormalities as adult insects. Previous studies have demonstrated that this phenomenon originates from abnormal neural development in response to imidacloprid exposure. Here, we further investigated the global gene expression changes in the heads of newly emerged adults and observed that 578 genes showed more than 2-fold changes in gene expression after imidacloprid exposure. This information might aid in understanding the effects of pesticides on the health of pollinators. For example, the genes encoding major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs), a group of multifunctional proteins with significant roles in the sustainable development of bee colonies, were strongly downregulated. These downregulation patterns were further confirmed through analyses using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction on the heads of 6-day-old nurse bees. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate that sublethal doses of imidacloprid affect mrjp expression and likely weaken bee colonies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhancement of committed hematopoietic stem cell colony formation by nandrolone decanoate after sublethal whole body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallicchio, V.S.; Chen, M.G.; Watts, T.D.

    1984-11-01

    The ability of an anabolic steroid, nandrolone decanoate, to increase committed topoietic stem cell (CFU-gm, CFU-e, and BFU-e) colony formation after sublethal irradiation was evaluated. Immediately after receiving whole body irradiation and on the next two days, each mouse was injected intraperitoneally with nandrolone decanoate (1.25 mg) in propylene glycol. Irradiated control mice received only propylene glycol. Compared to controls, drug-treated mice showed marked peripheral blood leukocytosis and more stable packed red cell volume. Drug-treated mice also demonstrated increased erythropoiesis, as CFU-e/BFU-e concentrations from both marrow (9% to 581%) and spleen (15% to 797%) were elevated. Granulopoiesis was increased similarly, as CFU-gm concentrations from marrow (38% to 685%) and spleen (9% to 373%) were elevated. These results demonstrate that nandrolone decanoate enhances hematopoietic stem cell recovery after sublethal whole body irradiation. This suggests that following hematopoietic suppression, nandrolone decanoate may stimulate the recovery of hematopoiesis at the stem cell level and in peripheral blood.

  9. Macroalgal extracts induce bacterial assemblage shifts and sublethal tissue stress in Caribbean corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Kathleen M; Ritson-Williams, Raphael; Ross, Cliff; Liles, Mark R; Paul, Valerie J

    2012-01-01

    Benthic macroalgae can be abundant on present-day coral reefs, especially where rates of herbivory are low and/or dissolved nutrients are high. This study investigated the impact of macroalgal extracts on both coral-associated bacterial assemblages and sublethal stress response of corals. Crude extracts and live algal thalli from common Caribbean macroalgae were applied onto the surface of Montastraea faveolata and Porites astreoides corals on reefs in both Florida and Belize. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was used to examine changes in the surface mucus layer (SML) bacteria in both coral species. Some of the extracts and live algae induced detectable shifts in coral-associated bacterial assemblages. However, one aqueous extract caused the bacterial assemblages to shift to an entirely new state (Lobophora variegata), whereas other organic extracts had little to no impact (e.g. Dictyota sp.). Macroalgal extracts more frequently induced sublethal stress responses in M. faveolata than in P. astreoides corals, suggesting that cellular integrity can be negatively impacted in selected corals when comparing co-occurring species. As modern reefs experience phase-shifts to a higher abundance of macroalgae with potent chemical defenses, these macroalgae are likely impacting the composition of microbial assemblages associated with corals and affecting overall reef health in unpredicted and unprecedented ways.

  10. Histopathological effect of sub-lethal concentration of aluminum phosphide (phostoxin on Clarias gariepinus juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayode B. Olurin

    Full Text Available Abtsract: The study evaluated the effect of sub-lethal concentration of phostoxin on Clarias gariepinus juveniles. C. gariepinus juveniles belonging to the same cohort (40.1±1.2g; 18.1±1.1cm from a commercial fish farm were randomly placed ten in each of 15 plastic tanks containing 15 liters of water. They were exposed for 96 hrs to three sub-lethal concentrations (treatments of phostoxin (0.125, 0.250, 0.5mg L-1 and a phostoxin free control. At the end of 96 hrs exposure, they were dissected and the tissues need for histopathology removed and fixed in Bouin's fluid. The gill filament exhibited fusion at the secondary lamella that was progressive with concentration. At the highest concentration of exposure, the secondary lamellae showed marked pyknotic and necrotic changes characterized by epithelia detachment. The hepatic tissue showed mild inflammatory changes at lower concentrations while at the highest concentration of exposure there was marked inflammation with observed hydropic degeneration. In the kidney, an inflammatory change was only observed in the interstices at the highest dose of exposure with the convoluted tubules showing partial shrinkage. Phostoxin showed to have significantly caused alterations in cyto-architecture of the gills and to a considerable extent liver and kidney of C. gariepinus.

  11. Effects of Sublethal Concentrations of Insecticides on the Functional Response of Two Mirid Generalist Predators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeliki F Martinou

    Full Text Available The use of agrochemicals particularly pesticides, can hamper the effectiveness of natural enemies, causing disruption in the ecosystem service of biological control. In the current study, the effects of the insecticides thiacloprid and chlorantraniliprole on the functional response curves were assessed for two mirid predator nymphs, Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur and Nesidiocoris tenuis Reuter. In the absence of insecticides, both predators exhibited a type II functional response when feeding on eggs of the moth Ephestia kuehniella. N. tenuis seems to be a more efficient predator than M. pygmaeus, as model estimated handling time was significantly lower for the former than for the latter. Residual exposure of M. pygmaeus to sublethal concentrations of either insecticide was associated with a change in the asymptote but not the type of the functional response curve. Thiacloprid seems to be the least compatible with M. pygmaeus, as it led to both a significant reduction of the attack rate and an increase in handling time. In contrast, chlorantraniliprole exposure significantly increased the handling time, but not the attack rate of the predator. Residual exposure of N. tenuis to sublethal concentrations of either insecticide did not have a significant effect on the type nor the parameters of the functional response model. The results show that pesticide residues that do not have lethal effects on beneficial arthropods can reduce prey consumption depending on predator species and on likely risks associated with toxicity.

  12. Gene expression in Listeria monocytogenes exposed to sublethal concentration of benzalkonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburro, Manuela; Ripabelli, Giancarlo; Vitullo, Monia; Dallman, Timothy James; Pontello, Mirella; Amar, Corinne Francoise Laurence; Sammarco, Michela Lucia

    2015-06-01

    In this study, tolerance at sublethal concentration of benzalkonium chloride and transcription levels of mdrL, ladR, lde, sigB and bcrABC genes in Listeria monocytogenes strains were evaluated. Viable cells reduction occurred in 45% of strains and clinical isolates showed lower sensitivity than isolates from foods. An increased transcription of an efflux system encoding gene was found in 60% of strains, and simultaneous mdrL overexpression and ladR underexpression occurred in 30% of isolates. A significant association between reduced benzalkonium chloride activity and both mdrL and sigB overexpression was observed; sigB expression also correlated with both mdrL and ladR genes. The bcrABC gene was only found in six strains, all isolated from foods and sensitive to benzalkonium chloride, and in four strains an underexpression was observed. Disinfection at sublethal concentration was less effective in clinical isolates, and mdrL and sigB expression was significantly affected by disinfection. Further insights are needed to understand the adaptation to benzalkonium chloride and to evaluate whether changes in gene expression could affect the L. monocytogenes virulence traits and persistence in the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Using photopigment biomarkers to quantify sub-lethal effects of petroleum pollution on natural phytoplankton assemblages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swistak, J.; Pinckney, J.; Piehler, M.; Paerl, H. [Univ. of North Carolina, Morehead City, NC (United States). Inst. of Marine Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Although much work has been undertaken to determine the toxicity of petroleum pollutants to phytoplankton, most studies have used pure cultures to monitor growth of selected phytoplankton species. Fewer have considered the net effect on entire microalgal communities. Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to characterize diagnostic microalgal pigments, the authors were able to simultaneously assess sub-lethal pollutant effects on entire communities as well as on individual phytoplankton functional groups. Incubations of natural water samples with diesel fuel, an important contributor to coastal petroleum pollution, revealed significant changes in photopigments and relative abundance of taxonomic groups at sub-lethal concentrations. Differential rates of change of indicator pigment concentrations suggest a range of sensitivity among phytoplankton groups. In preliminary experiments, cyanobacteria exhibited the greatest overall tolerance to the diesel fuel concentrations tested, while cryptomonads displayed the most sensitivity. The authors are currently evaluating the responses of seasonal phytoplankton populations from 3 sites exposed to varied levels of petroleum pollution. HPLC will be used to characterize phytoplankton populations and to determine if the most abundant groups are also the most tolerant of diesel fuel. Preliminary experiments indicate that diesel fuel pollution may modify the structure and function of phytoplankton communities and subsequently alter the trophodynamics of impacted systems.

  14. Chronic exposure of corals to fine sediments: lethal and sub-lethal impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Florita; Hoogenboom, Mia O; Smith, Luke D; Cooper, Timothy F; Abrego, David; Negri, Andrew P

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the sedimentation and turbidity thresholds for corals is critical in assessing the potential impacts of dredging projects in tropical marine systems. In this study, we exposed two species of coral sampled from offshore locations to six levels of total suspended solids (TSS) for 16 weeks in the laboratory, including a 4 week recovery period. Dose-response relationships were developed to quantify the lethal and sub-lethal thresholds of sedimentation and turbidity for the corals. The sediment treatments affected the horizontal foliaceous species (Montipora aequituberculata) more than the upright branching species (Acropora millepora). The lowest sediment treatments that caused full colony mortality were 30 mg l(-1) TSS (25 mg cm(-2) day(-1)) for M. aequituberculata and 100 mg l(-1) TSS (83 mg cm(-2) day(-1)) for A. millepora after 12 weeks. Coral mortality generally took longer than 4 weeks and was closely related to sediment accumulation on the surface of the corals. While measurements of damage to photosystem II in the symbionts and reductions in lipid content and growth indicated sub-lethal responses in surviving corals, the most reliable predictor of coral mortality in this experiment was long-term sediment accumulation on coral tissue.

  15. Chronic exposure of corals to fine sediments: lethal and sub-lethal impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florita Flores

    Full Text Available Understanding the sedimentation and turbidity thresholds for corals is critical in assessing the potential impacts of dredging projects in tropical marine systems. In this study, we exposed two species of coral sampled from offshore locations to six levels of total suspended solids (TSS for 16 weeks in the laboratory, including a 4 week recovery period. Dose-response relationships were developed to quantify the lethal and sub-lethal thresholds of sedimentation and turbidity for the corals. The sediment treatments affected the horizontal foliaceous species (Montipora aequituberculata more than the upright branching species (Acropora millepora. The lowest sediment treatments that caused full colony mortality were 30 mg l(-1 TSS (25 mg cm(-2 day(-1 for M. aequituberculata and 100 mg l(-1 TSS (83 mg cm(-2 day(-1 for A. millepora after 12 weeks. Coral mortality generally took longer than 4 weeks and was closely related to sediment accumulation on the surface of the corals. While measurements of damage to photosystem II in the symbionts and reductions in lipid content and growth indicated sub-lethal responses in surviving corals, the most reliable predictor of coral mortality in this experiment was long-term sediment accumulation on coral tissue.

  16. Lethal and sublethal effects of cyantraniliprole on Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruimin; Jang, Eric B; He, Shiyu; Chen, Jiahua

    2015-02-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), is one of the most globally important insect pests. Studies were conducted with the novel anthranilic diamide insecticide cyantraniliprole to determine its lethal and sublethal effects on B. dorsalis. An ingestion toxicity bioassay showed that cyantraniliprole was active against B. dorsalis, and the 72 h feeding LC50 was 3.22 µg g(-1) in adult diet for a susceptible strain. Sublethal doses of cyantraniliprole (1.30 µg g(-1) adult diet) induced a hormesis effect on B. dorsalis. The mating competitiveness of B. dorsalis treated with cyantraniliprole at 3.27 µg g(-1) adult diet was significantly lower when compared with the controls. The lower dose (1.30 µg g(-1) adult diet) of cyantraniliprole improved the total mating times of both mating pairs in treated groups and also the mating competitiveness of the treated males when compared with the higher dose and controls. Cyantraniliprole-treated females of the mated pairs with the lower dose laid more eggs. On the fifth day, female receptivity in the treated group was significantly reduced when compared with the controls. These results indicate that cyantraniliprole is effective against B. dorsalis. The inhibition and stimulation effect of cyantraniliprole on the adult's mating performance at different concentrations was proved. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Sublethal Dose of Diazinon Induces Pulmonary Toxicity in Rat: Histopathological Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Najafi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diazinon (DZ is a widely used contact organophosphorous pesticide with broad spectrum insecticide activity. The extensive use of DZ has caused great concern due to the hazardous side effects on human beings as well as wild and domestic animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sublethal dose of DZ on rat lung. Material and methods: Seven groups of male Wistar rats were used comprising control and test groups. The control group received corn oil (0.3 ml/day for 60 days by oral gavages. The test groups received DZ at a dose of 60 mg/kg body weight orally for 2, 10, 24, 30, 54 and 60 days, respectively. Results: The histopathological analysis of the lungs in DZ-treated groups revealed congestion on day 2, pulmonary edema and emphysema on day 10, congestion and atelectasia on day 24, infiltration of mononuclear cells on day 30 and pulmonary hemorrhage along with bronchial glands hyperplasia on days 54 and 60. DZ administration also caused a significant decrease in serum cholinesterase activity in a time-dependent manner. Conclusion: These findings indicate that sublethal dose of DZ can induce severe lesions in the lung of rat. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2014; 2(1.000: 26-31

  18. Development and application of a sublethal toxicity test to PAH using marine harpacticoid copepods. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleeger, J.W.; Lotufo, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    This research project was designed to improve the understanding of the acute and sublethal effects of PAHs to benthic invertebrates. Sublethal bioassay protocols for benthic harpacticoid copepods were developed, and two species of harpacticoids were exposed to a range of concentrations of sediment-amended PAHs; the single compounds fluoranthene and phenanthrene as well as a complex mixture (diesel fuel). The harpacticoid copepods Schizopera knabeni and Nitocra lacustris were tested using several bioassay approaches. Reproductive assays, feeding assays and avoidance tests were conducted in addition to lethal tests for S. knabeni. Species-specific differences in sensitivity were detected. Early life history stages were much more sensitive than adults in one species but not in the other. Concentrations of PAH as low as 26 micrograms PAH decreased copepod offspring production, egg hatching success, and embryonic and early-stage development, demonstrating the high sensitivity of life history-related endpoints. In addition, grazing on microalgae was significantly impaired at concentrations as low as 20 micrograms/g PAH after short exposures (<30 h). Finally it was demonstrated that harpacticoids can actively avoid contamination.

  19. Effects of Sublethal Doses of Imidacloprid on Young Adult Honeybee Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengoni Goñalons, Carolina; Farina, Walter Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Imidacloprid (IMI), a neonicotinoid used for its high selective toxicity to insects, is one of the most commonly used pesticides. However, its effect on beneficial insects such as the honeybee Apis mellifera L is still controversial. As young adult workers perform in-hive duties that are crucial for colony maintenance and survival, we aimed to assess the effect of sublethal IMI doses on honeybee behaviour during this period. Also, because this insecticide acts as a cholinergic-nicotinic agonist and these pathways take part in insect learning and memory processes; we used IMI to assess their role and the changes they suffer along early adulthood. We focused on appetitive behaviours based on the proboscis extension response. Laboratory reared adults of 2 to 10 days of age were exposed to sublethal IMI doses (0.25 or 0.50ng) administered orally or topically prior to behavioural assessment. Modification of gustatory responsiveness and impairment of learning and memory were found as a result of IMI exposure. These outcomes differed depending on age of evaluation, type of exposure and IMI dose, being the youngest bees more sensitive and the highest oral dose more toxic. Altogether, these results imply that IMI administered at levels found in agroecosystems can reduce sensitivity to reward and impair associative learning in young honeybees. Therefore, once a nectar inflow with IMI traces is distributed within the hive, it could impair in-door duties with negative consequences on colony performance. PMID:26488410

  20. Sub-lethal toxicity of chlorpyrifos on Common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758: Biochemical response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Banaee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate pesticide, is widely used to control pests in agriculture farms and orchards of fruit trees. In this study, the fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos which were determined based on numerical value of 96 h LC50. Blood was sampled after 10, 20 and 30 days and biochemical parameters including glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, triglyceride and cholesterol levels, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase (CK, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and acetylcholinsetrase (AChE activities were measured. Behavioral changes in the fish were also recorded during the experiment. Unbalanced swimming, swimming in the surface water and hyperglycemia, increased blood triglyceride, and increased levels of AST, LDH and CK activities as well as decreased levels of AChE activity were important changes that were observed in the specimens exposed to chlorpyrifos during experimental periods. The most important alterations in the blood biochemical parameters were measured in the specimens exposed to 40 µg/L chlorpyrifos on the 20th and 30th day of the trial. In conclusion, results of the present study indicated that exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos as low as 40 µg/L may cause biochemical and behavioral changes in Cyprinus carpio.

  1. The role of sublethal effects in evaluating earthworm responses to soil contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilborn, D.; Bollman, M.; Linder, G. [ManTech Environmental Technology, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Frequently, standard test methods rely upon relatively straightforward, easily interpreted endpoints to evaluate biological effects, like growth inhibition, gross morbidity or death. In soil contamination evaluations, for example, earthworm toxicity tests are routinely completed in order to consider adverse biological effects associated with exposures to soil samples in the laboratory or field. Here, the toxicity endpoint measured in the standard test using Eisenia foetida is death; however, if chronic effects are more appropriate to the questions being asked within a risk assessment context, then alternative test endpoints must be developed and standardized. Prior evaluations have relied upon sublethal endpoints, most frequently behavioral and morphological observations, for evaluating chronic effects associated with contaminant exposures. The authors applied these behavioral and morphological endpoints in analyzing potential chronic effects in earthworms exposed to heavy metal-contaminated soils in both the laboratory and field. In using a relatively standard set of these sublethal endpoints the authors found that these endpoints could be used to evaluate chronic effects associated with soil exposures, but that selection of the specific end-points had to be adequately standardized and that observer bias had to be adequately characterized in order for these measures of chronic effects to be unequivocally applied within an ecological risk assessment.

  2. Avoidance behaviour and anxiety in rats irradiated with a sublethal dose of gamma-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomášová, Lenka; Smajda, B; Bona, M

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess, whether a sublethal dose of gamma-rays will influence the avoidance behaviour and anxiety in rats and whether the response to radiation depends on time of day of its application. Adult male Wistar rats were tested in elevated plus-maze, in hot plate test and in the light/dark box in 4 regular intervals during a day. After two weeks the animals were irradiated with a whole-body dose 6 Gy of gamma-rays. One day after irradiation the animals were repeatedly tested in the same way, as before irradiation. In the plus-maze test an increased level of anxiety was established. The irradiation significantly decreased the locomotor activity of rats, but the extent of exploratory and comfortable behaviour were not altered. After irradiation, an elevated aversion to the thermal stimulus was observed in the hot plate test. The effects of radiation were more pronounced in the light period of the day, than in the dark one. No significant differences in aversion to light were detected after irradiation. The obtained results indicate, that sublethal doses of ionizing radiation can markedly influence the reactivity of animals to adverse stimuli, their motoric activity and emotional status, as well.

  3. Lethal and sublethal effects of four essential oils on the egg parasitoids Trissolcus basalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdin González, Jorge Omar; Laumann, Raúl Alberto; da Silveira, Samantha; Moraes, Maria Carolina Blassioli; Borges, Miguel; Ferrero, Adriana Alicia

    2013-07-01

    The essential oils from leaves of Schinus molle var. areira, Aloysia citriodora, Origanum vulgare and Thymus vulgaris have showed potential as phytoinsecticides against the green stink bug, Nezara viridula. In this work were evaluated their toxicological and behavioral effects on the parasitoid Trissolcus basalis, a biological control agent of this pest insect. Essential oils were obtained via hydrodestillation from fresh leaves. Insecticide activity in T. basalis females was evaluated in direct contact and fumigation bioassays. Behavioral effects were evaluated in olfactometer bioassays. To evaluate the residual toxicity, females of the parasitoids were exposed to oil residues; in these insects, the sublethal effects were evaluated (potential parasitism and survivorship of immature stages). The essential oils from O. vulgare and T. vulgaris proved to be highly selective when used as fumigant and did not change parasitoid behavior. After one week, the residues of these oils were harmless and did not show sublethal effects against T. basalis. According with these results, essential oils have potential applications for the integrated management of N. viridula. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor promotes tumor growth in the context of lung injury and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenberg, Douglas; Luckhardt, Tracy R; Carskadon, Shannon; Zhao, Liujian; Amin, Mohammad A; Koch, Alisa E

    2010-10-15

    Tissue injury and repair involve highly conserved processes governed by mechanisms that can be co-opted in tumors. We hypothesized that soluble factors released during the repair response to lung injury would promote orthotopic tumor growth. To determine whether lung injury promoted growth of orthotopic lung tumors and to study the molecular mechanisms. We initiated lung injury in C57Bl6 mice using different stimuli, then injected Lewis lung carcinoma cells during the repair phase. We assessed tumor growth 14 days later. We measured tumor angiogenesis, cytokine expression, proliferation, and apoptosis. Regardless of the mechanism, injured lungs contained more numerous and larger tumors than sham-injured lungs. Tumors from injured lungs were no more vascular, but had higher levels of proliferation and reduced rates of apoptosis. The cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was highly expressed in both models of tissue injury. We observed no increase in tumor growth after lung injury in MIF knockout mice. We induced lung-specific overexpression of MIF in a double-transgenic mouse, and observed that MIF overexpression by itself was sufficient to accelerate the growth of orthotopic Lewis lung carcinoma tumors. Lung injury leads to increased expression of the cytokine MIF, which results in protection from apoptosis and increased proliferation in orthotopic tumors injected after the acute phase of injury.

  5. Alexithymia, impulsiveness, and psychopathology in nonsuicidal self-injured adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, Michela; Dal Santo, Francesco; Rago, Alessio; Spoto, Andrea; Battistella, Pier Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a multifaceted phenomenon and a major health issue among adolescents. A better understanding of self-injury comorbidities is crucial to improve our ability to assess, treat, and prevent NSSI. Purpose This study aimed at analyzing some of the psychobehavioral correlates of NSSI: psychological problems, alexithymia, impulsiveness, and sociorelational aspects. Patients and methods This was a case–control study. The clinical sample (n=33) included adolescents attending our unit for NSSI and other issues; the controls (n=79) were high-school students. Data were collected using six questionnaires: Youth Self-Report, Barratt’s Impulsiveness Scale, Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Children’s Depression Inventory, Symptom Checklist-90-R, and Child Behavior Checklist. Results Cases scored significantly higher in all questionnaires. Habitual self-injurers scored higher on impulsiveness and alexithymia. The gesture’s repetition seems relevant to the global clinical picture: habitual self-injurers appear more likely to seek help from the sociosanitary services. We found a difference between the self-injurers’ and their parents’ awareness of the disorder. Conclusion Habitual self-injurers show signs of having difficulty with assessing the consequences of their actions (nonplanning impulsiveness) and the inability to manage their feelings. Given the significantly higher scores found for cases than for controls on all the psychopathological scales, NSSI can be seen as a cross-category psychiatric disorder, supporting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders decision to include it as a pathological entity in its own right. PMID:27672324

  6. In-hospital mortality pattern of severely injured children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Hien Quoc; Steinmetz, Jacob; Rasmussen, Lars S

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although trauma remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children, less attention has been directed to this group of patients. Whilst there is considerable literature on trauma in adults, only few studies describe paediatric trauma. The aim of this study was to describe...... the mortality pattern of severely injured children admitted to a Danish level I trauma centre. METHODS: We included trauma patients aged 15 years or less, who subsequent a trauma team activation were admitted during the 9-year period 1999-2007. Data were collected prospectively for subjects who had a length...

  7. Sialic acid accelerates the electrophoretic velocity of injured dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen-Xu; Ma, Guo-Ying; Guo, Min-Fang; Liu, Ying

    2015-06-01

    Peripheral nerve injury has been shown to result in ectopic spontaneous discharges on soma and injured sites of sensory neurons, thereby inducing neuropathic pain. With the increase of membrane proteins on soma and injured site neurons, the negatively charged sialic acids bind to the external domains of membrane proteins, resulting in an increase of this charge. We therefore speculate that the electrophoretic velocity of injured neurons may be faster than non-injured neurons. The present study established rat models of neuropathic pain via chronic constriction injury. Results of the cell electrophoresis test revealed that the electrophoretic velocity of injured neuronal cells was faster than that of non-injured (control) cells. We then treated cells with divalent cations of Ca(2+) and organic compounds with positive charges, polylysine to counteract the negatively charged sialic acids, or neuraminidase to specifically remove sialic acids from the membrane surface of injured neurons. All three treatments significantly reduced the electrophoretic velocity of injured neuronal cells. These findings suggest that enhanced sialic acids on injured neurons may accelerate the electrophoretic velocity of injured neurons.

  8. Sialic acid accelerates the electrophoretic velocity of injured dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-xu Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve injury has been shown to result in ectopic spontaneous discharges on soma and injured sites of sensory neurons, thereby inducing neuropathic pain. With the increase of membrane proteins on soma and injured site neurons, the negatively charged sialic acids bind to the external domains of membrane proteins, resulting in an increase of this charge. We therefore speculate that the electrophoretic velocity of injured neurons may be faster than non-injured neurons. The present study established rat models of neuropathic pain via chronic constriction injury. Results of the cell electrophoresis test revealed that the electrophoretic velocity of injured neuronal cells was faster than that of non-injured (control cells. We then treated cells with divalent cations of Ca 2+ and organic compounds with positive charges, polylysine to counteract the negatively charged sialic acids, or neuraminidase to specifically remove sialic acids from the membrane surface of injured neurons. All three treatments significantly reduced the electrophoretic velocity of injured neuronal cells. These findings suggest that enhanced sialic acids on injured neurons may accelerate the electrophoretic velocity of injured neurons.

  9. Odontogenic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysomali, Evanthia; Leventis, Minas; Titsinides, Savas; Kyriakopoulos, Vasileios; Sklavounou, Alexandra

    2013-09-01

    This study aims to analyze the frequency and distribution of odontogenic tumors in a Greek population and compare the findings with those reported in the recent literature. Records of the Department of Oral Medicine and Pathology, Dental School, University of Athens, with histologic diagnosis of odontogenic tumors (based on the World Health Organization 2005 classification) were reviewed retrospectively from January 1970 to December 2011. A total of 652 cases of odontogenic tumors were reported. Of these, 651 (99.8%) were benign and only 1 (0.2%) was malignant. Keratocystic odontogenic tumor was the most frequent lesion (52.7%), followed by odontoma (18.9%) and ameloblastoma (16.1%). The mean age of patients was 38.0 years with a wide range (2.5-92 years). Odontogenic tumors are rare lesions and appear to show a definite geographic variation. In Athens, Greece, they are presented mainly by the keratocystic odontogenic tumor, odontoma, and ameloblastoma.

  10. Toxicity, sublethal effects, and potential modes of action of select fungicides on freshwater fish and invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elskus, Adria A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite decades of agricultural and urban use of fungicides and widespread detection of these pesticides in surface waters, relatively few data are available on the effects of fungicides on fish and invertebrates in the aquatic environment. Nine fungicides are reviewed in this report: azoxystrobin, boscalid, chlorothalonil, fludioxonil, myclobutanil, fenarimol, pyraclostrobin, pyrimethanil, and zoxamide. These fungicides were identified as emerging chemicals of concern because of their high or increasing global use rates, detection frequency in surface waters, or likely persistence in the environment. A review of the literature revealed significant sublethal effects of fungicides on fish, aquatic invertebrates, and ecosystems, including zooplankton and fish reproduction, fish immune function, zooplankton community composition, metabolic enzymes, and ecosystem processes, such as leaf decomposition in streams, among other biological effects. Some of these effects can occur at fungicide concentrations well below single-species acute lethality values (48- or 96-hour concentration that effects a response in 50 percent of the organisms, that is, effective concentration killing 50 percent of the organisms in 48 or 96 hours) and chronic sublethal values (for example, 21-day no observed adverse effects concentration), indicating that single-species toxicity values may dramatically underestimate the toxic potency of some fungicides. Fungicide modes of toxic action in fungi can sometimes reflect the biochemical and (or) physiological effects of fungicides observed in vertebrates and invertebrates; however, far more studies are needed to explore the potential to predict effects in nontarget organisms based on specific fungicide modes of toxic action. Fungicides can also have additive and (or) synergistic effects when used with other fungicides and insecticides, highlighting the need to study pesticide mixtures that occur in surface waters. For fungicides that partition to

  11. A fish of many scales: extrapolating sublethal pesticide exposures to the productivity of wild salmon populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, David H; Spromberg, Julann A; Collier, Tracy K; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2009-12-01

    For more than a decade, numerous pesticides have been detected in river systems of the western United States that support anadromous species of Pacific salmon and steelhead. Over the same interval, several declining wild salmon populations have been listed as either threatened or endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Because pesticides occur in surface waters that provide critical habitat for ESA-listed stocks, they are an ongoing concern for salmon conservation and recovery throughout California and the Pacific Northwest. Because pesticide exposures are typically sublethal, a key question is whether toxicological effects at (or below) the scale of the individual animal ultimately reduce the productivity and recovery potential of wild populations. In this study we evaluate how the sublethal impacts of pesticides on physiology and behavior can reduce the somatic growth of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and, by extension, subsequent size-dependent survival when animals migrate to the ocean and overwinter in their first year. Our analyses focused on the organophosphate and carbamate classes of insecticides. These neurotoxic chemicals have been widely detected in aquatic environments. They inhibit acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme in the salmon nervous system that regulates neurotransmitter-mediated signaling at synapses. Based on empirical data, we developed a model that explicitly links sublethal reductions in acetylcholinesterase activity to reductions in feeding behavior, food ration, growth, and size at migration. Individual size was then used to estimate size-dependent survival during migration and transition to the sea. Individual survival estimates were then integrated into a life-history population projection matrix and used to calculate population productivity and growth rate. Our results indicate that short-term (i.e., four-day) exposures that are representative of seasonal pesticide use may be sufficient to reduce the

  12. A comparison of the sublethal and lethal toxicity of four pesticides in Hyalella azteca and Chironomus dilutus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenbein, Simone; Connon, Richard E; Lawler, Sharon P; Geist, Juergen

    2015-08-01

    Laboratory toxicity testing is the primary tool used for surface water environmental risk assessment; however, there are critical information gaps regarding the sublethal effects of pesticides. In 10-day exposures, we assessed the lethal and sublethal (motility and growth) toxicities of four commonly used pesticides, bifenthrin, permethrin, cyfluthrin, and chlorpyrifos, on two freshwater invertebrates, Chironomus dilutus and Hyalella azteca. Pyrethroids were more toxic than the organophosphate chlorpyrifos in both species. Bifenthrin was most toxic to H. azteca survival and growth. Cyfluthrin was most toxic to C. dilutus. However, cyfluthrin had the greatest effect on motility on both H. azteca and C. dilutus. The evaluated concentrations of chlorpyrifos did not affect C. dilutus motility or growth, but significantly impacted H. azteca growth. Motility served as the most sensitive endpoint in assessing sublethal effects at low concentrations for both species, while growth was a good indicator of toxicity for all four pesticides for H. azteca. The integration of sublethal endpoints in ambient water monitoring and pesticide regulation efforts could improve identification of low-level pesticide concentrations that may eventually cause negative effects on food webs and community structure in aquatic environments.

  13. Evaluating sub-lethal effects of orchard-applied pyrethroids using video-tracking software to quantify honey bee behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Erin M; Augustin, Julie; Ellis, Marion D; Siegfried, Blair D

    2015-09-01

    Managed honey bee, Apis mellifera L., colonies are contracted to pollinate fruit and nut orchards improving crop quality and yield. Colonies placed in orchards are potentially exposed to pyrethroid insecticides used for broad-spectrum pest control. Pyrethroids have been reported to pose minimal risk to bees due to their low application rates in the field and putative repellent properties. This repellency is believed to alter foraging behavior with the benefit of preventing bees from encountering a lethal dose in the field. However, sub-lethal exposure to pyrethroids may adversely impact bee behavior potentially resulting in social dysfunction or disruption of foraging. This study quantified behaviors associated with sub-lethal exposure to orchard-applied pyrethroids including, lambda-cyhalothrin, esfenvalerate, and permethrin, using video tracking software, Ethovision XT (Noldus Information Technologies). Bee locomotion, social interaction, and time spent near a food source were measured over a 24-h period. Bees treated with a pyrethroid traveled 30-71% less than control bees. Social interaction time decreased by 43% for bees treated with a high sub-lethal dose of esfenvalerate. Bees exposed to a high sub-lethal dose of permethrin spent 67% less time in social interaction and spent more than 5 times as long in the food zone compared to control bees. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Lethal and sub-lethal responses of native freshwater mussels exposed to granular Bayluscide®, a sea lamprey larvicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Teresa; Boogaard, Michael A.; Gray, Brian R.; Hubert, Terrance D.; Schloesser, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    The invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) poses a substantial threat to fish communities in the Great Lakes. Efforts to control sea lamprey populations typically involve treating tributary streams with lampricides on a recurring cycle. The presence of a substantial population of larval sea lampreys in the aquatic corridor between Lakes Huron and Erie prompted managers to propose a treatment using the granular formulation of Bayluscide® that targets larval sea lampreys that reside in sediments. However, these treatments could cause adverse effects on native freshwater mussels—imperiled animals that also reside in sediments. We estimated the risk of mortality and sub-lethal effects among eight species of adult and sub-adult mussels exposed to Bayluscide® for durations up to 8 h to mimic field applications. Mortality was appreciable in some species, especially in sub-adults (range, 23–51%). The lethal and sub-lethal effects were positively associated with the duration of exposure in most species and life stage combinations. Estimates of the median time of exposure that resulted in lethal and sub-lethal effects suggest that sub-adults were often affected by Bayluscide® earlier than adults. Siphoning activity and burrowing position of mussels during exposure may have moderated the uptake of Bayluscide® and may have influenced lethal and sub-lethal responses. Given that the various species and life stages were differentially affected, it will be difficult to predict the effects of Bayluscide® treatments on mussels.

  15. Transmission electron microscopy study of Listeria monocytogenes serotype 1/2a cells exposed to sublethal heat stress and carvacrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the morphological changes that occurred in Listeria monocytogenes serotype 1/2a cells as visualized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after exposure to sublethal heat stress at 48°C for 60 min and in combination with lethal concentration of carv...

  16. Toxicity and sub-lethal effect of endemic plants from family Anacardiaceae on oviposition behavior of Aedes albopictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Fatma Zuharah

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: These results clearly indicate that the acetone extract of G. renghas could be served as potential larvicide, whereas M. fasciculiflora has better sub-lethal effect for oviposition deterrence and against Ae. albopictus as an oviciding agent.

  17. Uptake and elimination of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) at sublethal and lethal aqueous concentrations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eck, van J.M.C.; Koelmans, A.A.; Deneer, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    The kinetics of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) have been studied in an accumulation and elimination experiment. At a sublethal exposure, uptake and elimination rate constants of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene were determined, employing a first-order one-compartment model. The

  18. (1)H NMR-based metabolomics of Daphnia magna responses after sub-lethal exposure to triclosan, carbamazepine and ibuprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, Vera; Simpson, André J; Simpson, Myrna J

    2016-09-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products are a class of emerging contaminants that are present in wastewater effluents, surface water, and groundwater around the world. There is a need to determine rapid and reliable bioindicators of exposure and the toxic mode of action of these contaminants to aquatic organisms. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics in combination with multivariate statistical analysis was used to determine the metabolic profile of Daphnia magna after exposure to a range of sub-lethal concentrations of triclosan (6.25-100μg/L), carbamazepine (1.75-14mg/L) and ibuprofen (1.75-14mg/L) for 48h. Sub-lethal triclosan exposure suggested a general oxidative stress condition and the branched-chain amino acids, glutamine, glutamate, and methionine emerged as potential bioindicators. The aromatic amino acids, serine, glycine and alanine are potential bioindicators for sub-lethal carbamazepine exposure that may have altered energy metabolism. The potential bioindicators for sub-lethal ibuprofen exposure are serine, methionine, lysine, arginine and leucine, which showed a concentration-dependent response. The differences in the metabolic changes were related to the dissimilar modes of toxicity of triclosan, carbamazepine and ibuprofen. (1)H NMR-based metabolomics gave an improved understanding of how these emerging contaminants impact the keystone species D. magna. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Lethal and sub-lethal effects of five pesticides used in rice farming on the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico, Andreu; Sabater, Consuelo; Castillo, María Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    The toxicity of five pesticides typically used in rice farming (trichlorfon, dimethoate, carbendazim, tebuconazole and prochloraz) was evaluated on different lethal and sub-lethal endpoints of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The evaluated endpoints included: avoidance behaviour after an exposure

  20. Sublethal effects of Imidacloprid on honey bee colony growth and activity at three sites in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field experiments in southern Arizona, central Arkansas and southern Mississippi were conducted to evaluate the effects of sublethal concentrations (0, 5, 20 and 100 ppb) of imidacloprid in sugar syrup on honey bee colony growth and activity. Response variables included discrete data from hive inspe...

  1. Real-time monitoring of cell viability and cell density on the basis of a three dimensional optical reflectance method (3D-ORM): investigation of the effect of sub-lethal and lethal injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brognaux, Alison; Bugge, Jörg; Schwartz, Friedel H; Thonart, Philippe; Telek, Samuel; Delvigne, Frank

    2013-07-01

    Cell density and cell viability have been followed on-line by using a three-dimensional optical reflectance method (3D-ORM) probe. This method has allowed to highlight the differences between a well-mixed and a scale-down bioreactor configured in order to reproduce mixing deficiencies during a fed-batch culture of Escherichia coli. These differences have been observed both for the obscuration factor (OBF) and the coincidence probability delivered by the probe. These parameters are correlated to flow cytometry measurement based on the PI-uptake test and cell density based on optical density measurement. This first set of results has pointed out the fact that the 3D-ORM probe is sensitive to sub-lethal injuries encountered by microbial cells in process-related conditions. The effect of lethal injuries has been further investigated on the basis of additional experiments involving heat stress and a sharp increase of the OBF has been observed indicating that cells are effectively injured by the increase of temperature. However, further improvement of the probe are needed in order to give access to single-cell measurements.

  2. Mitochondrial redox signaling enables repair of injured skeletal muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Adam; Van der Meulen, Jack H; Defour, Aurelia; Hogarth, Marshall; Sreetama, Sen Chandra; Reed, Aaron; Scheffer, Luana; Chandel, Navdeep S; Jaiswal, Jyoti K

    2017-09-05

    Strain and physical trauma to mechanically active cells, such as skeletal muscle myofibers, injures their plasma membranes, and mitochondrial function is required for their repair. We found that mitochondrial function was also needed for plasma membrane repair in myoblasts as well as nonmuscle cells, which depended on mitochondrial uptake of calcium through the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU). Calcium uptake transiently increased the mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which locally activated the guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) RhoA, triggering F-actin accumulation at the site of injury and facilitating membrane repair. Blocking mitochondrial calcium uptake or ROS production prevented injury-triggered RhoA activation, actin polymerization, and plasma membrane repair. This repair mechanism was shared between myoblasts, nonmuscle cells, and mature skeletal myofibers. Quenching mitochondrial ROS in myofibers during eccentric exercise ex vivo caused increased damage to myofibers, resulting in a greater loss of muscle force. These results suggest a physiological role for mitochondria in plasma membrane repair in injured cells, a role that highlights a beneficial effect of ROS. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  3. ATP released by injured neurons activates Schwann cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuele eNegro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Injured nerve terminals of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs can regenerate. This remarkable and complex response is governed by molecular signals that are exchanged among the cellular components of this synapse: motor axon nerve terminal (MAT, perisynaptic Schwann cells (PSCs, and muscle fibre. The nature of signals that govern MAT regeneration is ill-known. In the present study the spider toxin α-Latrotoxin has been used as tool to investigate the mechanisms underlying peripheral neuroregeneration. Indeed this neurotoxin induces an acute, specific, localized and fully reversible damage of the presynaptic nerve terminal, and its action mimics the cascade of events that leads to nerve terminal degeneration in injured patients and in many neurodegenerative conditions. Here we provide evidence of an early release by degenerating neurons of ATP as alarm messenger, that contributes to the activation of a series of intracellular pathways within SCs that are crucial for nerve regeneration: Ca2+, cAMP, ERK1/2, and CREB. These results contribute to define the cross-talk taking place among degenerating nerve terminals and PSCs, involved in the functional recovery of the NMJ.

  4. Reinitialization of evolutionary clocks during sublethal environmental stress in some invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guex, Jean

    2006-02-01

    This paper describes the influence of high environmental stress on evolutionary trends in some selected Mesozoic ammonite lineages and some protists. During extinction periods, many ammonoids are affected by drastic simplifications of their shell geometry, ornamentation and suture line. We observe that relatively tightly coiled ammonites can give rise to highly evolute forms or uncoiled heteromorphs with simple ornamentation and almost ceratitic suture line—a phenomenon called "proteromorphosis". Such simplifications often correspond to a reappearance of ancestral geometries (primitive ornamentation, evolute coiling or uncoiling) which suggest that the evolutionary clock of these organisms can be reinitialized by extreme, sublethal, environmental stress such as giant volcanism (including its consequences on diverse pollutions and on climatic changes) and major regressive events.

  5. The growth and development of Schistosoma mansoni in mice exposed to sublethal doses of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aitken, R.; Wilson, R.A. (Univ. of York, Heslington (England))

    1989-12-01

    The maturation of Schistosoma mansoni was studied in mice exposed to various sublethal doses of radiation. Although the treatment of mice with 500 rads of radiation prior to infection did not alter parasite maturation, doses in excess of 500 rads led to a reduction in worm burden. This could not be attributed to a delay in the arrival of parasites in the hepatic portal system. Worms developing in mice treated with 800 rads commenced egg-laying about 1 wk later than worms in intact mice, and the rate of egg deposition appeared to be lower in irradiated hosts. The data demonstrate that exposure of C57BL/6 mice to doses of radiation in excess of 500 rads impairs their ability to carry infections of S. mansoni. The findings do not support the hypothesis that primary worm burdens in the mouse are controlled by a host immune response.

  6. Feeding Inhibition: the Ups and Downs of Sublethal Effects on Grazers and Detritivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, A.; Culp, J.; Liber, K.; Baird, D.

    2005-05-01

    Sublethal impacts are likely the primary mechanism of exposure for the aquatic community in the case of soluble agricultural pesticides. This study examines the effects of pulsed exposures of the common insecticide, imidacloprid, on the feeding and growth of the mayfly Epeorus longimanus, and the oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus. Examining the effects of pulsed exposures of imidacloprid is particularly relevant due to the soluble (0.51g/L) nature of this compound. Recovery experiments were conducted by exposing mayflies and oligochaetes to an environmentally realistic range (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, 10 ppb) of concentrations for a short period. Effects on feeding were measured by quantifying the foodstuffs consumed by mayflies and egested by oligochaetes. In tandem with the feeding experiments, a series of artificial stream experiments were undertaken that demonstrate the changes in growth and abundance of adult mayflies in response to this common insecticide stressor.

  7. Effects of Glyphosate-Based Herbicide Sub-Lethal Concentrations on Fish Feeding Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaquinto, Percilia Cardoso; de Sá, Marina Borges; Sugihara, Vanessa Seiko; Gonçalves, Bruno Bastos; Delício, Helton Carlos; Barki, Assaf

    2017-04-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides are widely used in agricultural systems. Although the target organism are particularly plant organisms, there are numerous studies showing adverse effects in aquatic animals, such as inhibition of acetyl cholinesterase, effects on kidney, liver, and gill and stressors effects. This study analyzed the effects of commercial formulation of glyphosate on feeding behavior in Pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus). Fish were exposed to three glyphosate concentrations (0.2, 0.6, and 1.8 ppm) for 15 days. At concentrations of 0.2 and 0.6 ppm, food intake decreased on day 13 and then returned to normal on day 15. At the highest glyphosate-based herbicide concentration, 1.8 ppm, food consumption decreased dramatically and did not recover on day 15. This study showed that glyphosate-based herbicide at sub-lethal concentrations can affect feed intake in pacu and consequently inhibits its growth.

  8. Influence of biorhythms on sensitivity of Nerita to pollutants at Sublethal levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battershill, C.N.; Bergquist, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    Intrinsic rhythmic activity of Nerita (Melanerita) atramentosa melanotragus was assessed under constant laboratory conditions. Activity proved to be a sensitive indicator of toxicity, and was affected by low levels of a relatively new oil dispersing agent, Shell SD LTX. How the state of activity influenced animal sensitivity to Shell SD LTX and to an oil, Maui Condensate, was investigated using short-term recovery experiments. Nerita were most sensitive during their active phase, and results during this period differed significantly from tests carried out during the inactive phase of the animal. Dispersant/oil mixture proved to be highly toxic. These findings have ecological implications and permit comment relating to the design of sublethal toxicity tests. These subjects are discussed. 37 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  9. Response of larval fish, Leiostomus xanthurus, to environmental stress following sublethal cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middaugh, D.P.; Davis, W.R.; Yoakum, R.L.

    1975-08-01

    The toxicity of cadmium to larval fish, Leiostomus xanthurus, was studied. An incipient LC/sub 50/ concentration of approximately 0.2 to 0.3 mg/l cadmium was first estimated. Subsequent short-term sublethal tests were conducted to determine the relationship of cadmium exposure and accumulated whole body residues of the metal on the response of larvae to thermal stress and low dissolved oxygen. Results of this study indicated a significant decrease (..cap alpha.. = 0.05, t-Test) in the critical thermal maximum (CTM) for larvae exposed to 0.5 and 0.8 mg/l cadmium for 96 hours at 20/sup 0/C. Significant decreases (..cap alpha.. = 0.05, chi/sup 2/) in survival of larvae subjected to a dissolved oxygen (DO) level of 1.6 mg/l after exposure to 0.5 and 0.8 mg/l cadmium were also observed.

  10. Effects of sublethal entrainment stresses on the vulnerability of juvenile bluegill sunfish to predation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cada, G.F.; Solomon, J.A.; Loar, J.M.

    1981-07-01

    This report provides a review of literature concerning the effects of sublethal stresses on predator-prey interactions in aquatic systems. In addition, the results of a preliminary laboratory study of the susceptibility of entrainment-stressed juvenile bluegill to striped bass predation are presented. Juvenile bluegill were exposed to thermal and physical entrainment stresses in the ORNL Power Plant Simulator and subsequently to predation by juvenile striped bass in a susceptibility to predation experimental design. None of the entrainment stresses tested (thermal shock, physical effects of pump and condenser passage, and combination of thermal and physical shock) was found to significantly increase predation rates as compared to controls, and no significant interactions between thermal and physical stresses were detected. The validity of laboratory predator-prey studies and the application of indirect mortality information for setting protective standards and predicting environmental impacts are discussed.

  11. Sublethal gamma irradiation affects reproductive impairment and elevates antioxidant enzyme and DNA repair activities in the monogonont rotifer Brachionus koreanus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jeonghoon; Won, Eun-Ji [Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Il-Chan; Yim, Joung Han [Division of Life Sciences, Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su-Jae [Department of Life Science, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Seong, E-mail: jslee2@skku.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • No mortality within 96 h even at a high intensity (1200 Gy). • A reduced fecundity of Brachionus koreanus at over 150 Gy with a decrease in lifespan. • Dose-dependent ROS increase with GST enzyme activity at sub-lethal doses. • Significant impact on life table parameters, particularly fecundity. • Significant up-regulation of DNA repair-associated genes at sublethal doses. - Abstract: To examine the effects of gamma radiation on marine organisms, we irradiated several doses of gamma ray to the microzooplankton Brachionus koreanus, and measured in vivo and in vitro endpoints including the survival rate, lifespan, fecundity, population growth, gamma ray-induced oxidative stress, and modulated patterns of enzyme activities and gene expressions after DNA damage. After gamma radiation, no individuals showed any mortality within 96 h even at a high intensity (1200 Gy). However, a reduced fecundity (e.g. cumulated number of offspring) of B. koreanus at over 150 Gy was observed along with a slight decrease in lifespan. At 150 Gy and 200 Gy, the reduced fecundity of the rotifers led to a significant decrease in population growth, although in the second generation the population growth pattern was not affected even at 200 Gy when compared to the control group. At sub-lethal doses, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels dose-dependently increased with GST enzyme activity. In addition, up-regulations of the antioxidant and chaperoning genes in response to gamma radiation were able to recover cellular damages, and life table parameters were significantly influenced, particularly with regard to fecundity. DNA repair-associated genes showed significantly up-regulated expression patterns in response to sublethal doses (150 and 200 Gy), as shown in the expression of the gamma-irradiated B. koreanus p53 gene, suggesting that these sublethal doses were not significantly fatal to B. koreanus but induced DNA damages leading to a decrease of the population size.

  12. Field-level sublethal effects of approved bee hive chemicals on Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jennifer A; Hood, W Michael; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Delaplane, Keith S

    2013-01-01

    In a study replicated across two states and two years, we tested the sublethal effects on honey bees of the miticides Apistan (tau fluvalinate) and Check Mite+ (coumaphos) and the wood preservative copper naphthenate applied at label rates in field conditions. A continuous covariate, a colony Varroa mite index, helped us disambiguate the effects of the chemicals on bees while adjusting for a presumed benefit of controlling mites. Mite levels in colonies treated with Apistan or Check Mite+ were not different from levels in non-treated controls. Experimental chemicals significantly decreased 3-day brood survivorship and increased construction of queen supercedure cells compared to non-treated controls. Bees exposed to Check Mite+ as immatures had higher legacy mortality as adults relative to non-treated controls, whereas bees exposed to Apistan had improved legacy mortality relative to non-treated controls. Relative to non-treated controls, Check Mite+ increased adult emergence weight. Although there was a treatment effect on a test of associative learning, it was not possible to statistically separate the treatment means, but bees treated with Apistan performed comparatively well. And finally, there were no detected effects of bee hive chemical on colony bee population, amount of brood, amount of honey, foraging rate, time required for marked released bees to return to their nest, percentage of released bees that return to the nest, and colony Nosema spore loads. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine sublethal effects of bee hive chemicals applied at label rates under field conditions while disambiguating the results from mite control benefits realized from the chemicals. Given the poor performance of the miticides at reducing mites and their inconsistent effects on the host, these results defend the use of bee health management practices that minimize use of exotic hive chemicals.

  13. Stability of sublethal acid stress adaptation and induced cross protection against lauric arginate in Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qian; Soni, Kamlesh A; Nannapaneni, Ramakrishna

    2015-06-16

    The stability of acid stress adaptation in Listeria monocytogenes and its induced cross protection effect against GRAS (generally recognized as safe) antimicrobial compounds has never been investigated before. In the present study, the acid stress adaptation in L. monocytogenes was initially induced in pH 5.0 tryptic soy broth supplemented with 0.6% yeast extract (TSB-YE) at 37 °C. Subsequently, the stability of acid stress adaptation, which was defined as the capacity to maintain its acquired acid adaptation after induction in the absence of sublethal acid stress, was determined at 37 °C, 22 °C or 4 °C in broth and in different food substrates. Then, the acid stress adaptation induced cross protection against lauric arginate (LAE) and its stability was investigated in TSB-YE, milk and carrot juice. Our findings show that the acid stress adaptation was stable at 4 °C up to 24h but was reversed at 37 °C or 22 °C within 2h. In the cross protection assay with LAE, the acid stress adapted cells had approximately 2 log CFU/ml greater survival than non-adapted cells in broth at 22 °C or in milk and carrot juice at 4 °C. The acid adaptation induced cross protection against LAE in L. monocytogenes was reversible within 1h at 4 °C in the absence of sublethal acid stress. Our findings suggest that the stability of acid adaptation in L. monocytogenes under cold conditions should be taken into account when the risk analysis is performed during food processing. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Mortality, Temporary Sterilization, and Maternal Effects of Sublethal Heat in Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukke, Bjørn Arne; Aak, Anders; Edgar, Kristin Skarsfjord

    2015-01-01

    Adult bed bugs were exposed to the sublethal temperatures 34.0°C, 35.5°C, 37.0°C, 38.5°C, or 40.0°C for 3, 6, or 9 days. The two uppermost temperatures induced 100% mortality within 9 and 2 days, respectively, whereas 34.0°C had no observable effect. The intermediate temperatures interacted with time to induce a limited level of mortality but had distinct effects on fecundity, reflected by decreases in the number of eggs produced and hatching success. Adult fecundity remained low for up to 40 days after heat exposure, and the time until fertility was restored correlated with the temperature-sum experienced during heat exposure. Three or 6 days of parental exposure to 38.5°C significantly lowered their offspring’s feeding and moulting ability, which consequently led to a failure to continue beyond the third instar. Eggs that were deposited at 22.0°C before being exposed to 37.0°C for 3 or 6 days died, whereas eggs that were exposed to lower temperatures were not significantly affected. Eggs that were deposited during heat treatment exhibited high levels of mortality also at 34.0°C and 35.5°C. The observed negative effects of temperatures between 34.0°C and 40.0°C may be utilized in pest management, and sublethal temperature exposure ought to be further investigated as an additional tool to decimate or potentially eradicate bed bug populations. The effect of parental heat exposure on progeny demonstrates the importance of including maternal considerations when studying bed bug environmental stress reactions. PMID:25996999

  15. Use of sublethal endpoints in sediment toxicity tests with the amphipod Hyalella azteca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Chris G.; Brunson, Eric L.; Dwyer, F. James; Hardesty, Douglas K.; Kemble, Nile E.

    1998-01-01

    Short-term sediment toxicity tests that only measure effects on survival can be used to identify high levels of contamination but may not be able to identify marginally contaminated sediments. The objective of the present study was to develop a method for determining the potential sublethal effects of contaminants associated with sediment on the amphipod Hyalella azteca (e.g., reproduction). Exposures to sediment were started with 7- to 8-d-old amphipods. On day 28, amphipods were isolated from the sediment and placed in water-only chambers where reproduction was measured on day 35 and 42. Typically, amphipods were first in amplexus at about day 21 to 28 with release of the first brood between day 28 to 42. Endpoints measured included survival (day 28, 35, and 42), growth (as length and weight on day 28 and 42), and reproduction (number of young/female produced from day 28 to 42). This method was used to evaluate a formulated sediment and field-collected sediments with low to moderate concentrations of contaminants. Survival of amphipods in these sediments was typically >85% after the 28-d sediment exposures and the 14-d holding period in water to measure reproduction. Reproduction was more variable than growth; hence, more replicates might be needed to establish statistical differences among treatments. Previous studies have demonstrated that growth of H. azteca in sediment tests often provides unique information that can be used to discriminate toxic effects of exposure to contaminants. Either length or weight can be measured in sediment tests with H. azteca. However, additional statistical options are available if length is measured on individual amphipods, such as nested analysis of variance that can account for variance in length within replicates. Ongoing water-only studies testing select contaminants will provide additional data on the relative sensitivity and variability of sublethal endpoints in toxicity tests with H. azteca.

  16. Field-level sublethal effects of approved bee hive chemicals on Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Berry

    Full Text Available In a study replicated across two states and two years, we tested the sublethal effects on honey bees of the miticides Apistan (tau fluvalinate and Check Mite+ (coumaphos and the wood preservative copper naphthenate applied at label rates in field conditions. A continuous covariate, a colony Varroa mite index, helped us disambiguate the effects of the chemicals on bees while adjusting for a presumed benefit of controlling mites. Mite levels in colonies treated with Apistan or Check Mite+ were not different from levels in non-treated controls. Experimental chemicals significantly decreased 3-day brood survivorship and increased construction of queen supercedure cells compared to non-treated controls. Bees exposed to Check Mite+ as immatures had higher legacy mortality as adults relative to non-treated controls, whereas bees exposed to Apistan had improved legacy mortality relative to non-treated controls. Relative to non-treated controls, Check Mite+ increased adult emergence weight. Although there was a treatment effect on a test of associative learning, it was not possible to statistically separate the treatment means, but bees treated with Apistan performed comparatively well. And finally, there were no detected effects of bee hive chemical on colony bee population, amount of brood, amount of honey, foraging rate, time required for marked released bees to return to their nest, percentage of released bees that return to the nest, and colony Nosema spore loads. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine sublethal effects of bee hive chemicals applied at label rates under field conditions while disambiguating the results from mite control benefits realized from the chemicals. Given the poor performance of the miticides at reducing mites and their inconsistent effects on the host, these results defend the use of bee health management practices that minimize use of exotic hive chemicals.

  17. Using a sequential regimen to eliminate bacteria at sublethal antibiotic dosages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayari Fuentes-Hernandez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We need to find ways of enhancing the potency of existing antibiotics, and, with this in mind, we begin with an unusual question: how low can antibiotic dosages be and yet bacterial clearance still be observed? Seeking to optimise the simultaneous use of two antibiotics, we use the minimal dose at which clearance is observed in an in vitro experimental model of antibiotic treatment as a criterion to distinguish the best and worst treatments of a bacterium, Escherichia coli. Our aim is to compare a combination treatment consisting of two synergistic antibiotics to so-called sequential treatments in which the choice of antibiotic to administer can change with each round of treatment. Using mathematical predictions validated by the E. coli treatment model, we show that clearance of the bacterium can be achieved using sequential treatments at antibiotic dosages so low that the equivalent two-drug combination treatments are ineffective. Seeking to treat the bacterium in testing circumstances, we purposefully study an E. coli strain that has a multidrug pump encoded in its chromosome that effluxes both antibiotics. Genomic amplifications that increase the number of pumps expressed per cell can cause the failure of high-dose combination treatments, yet, as we show, sequentially treated populations can still collapse. However, dual resistance due to the pump means that the antibiotics must be carefully deployed and not all sublethal sequential treatments succeed. A screen of 136 96-h-long sequential treatments determined five of these that could clear the bacterium at sublethal dosages in all replicate populations, even though none had done so by 24 h. These successes can be attributed to a collateral sensitivity whereby cross-resistance due to the duplicated pump proves insufficient to stop a reduction in E. coli growth rate following drug exchanges, a reduction that proves large enough for appropriately chosen drug switches to clear the bacterium.

  18. Intra- and intergenerational persistence of an insect nucleopolyhedrovirus: adverse effects of sublethal disease on host development, reproduction, and susceptibility to superinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabodevilla, Oihana; Villar, Eduardo; Virto, Cristina; Murillo, Rosa; Williams, Trevor; Caballero, Primitivo

    2011-05-01

    Sublethal infections by Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) are common in field populations of the beet armyworm (S. exigua, Hübner) in the Almerian horticultural region of Spain. Inoculation of second, third, and fourth instars with occlusion bodies (OBs) of an isolate (VT-SeAl1) associated with vertically transmitted infections resulted in 15 to 100% of sublethal infection in adult survivors, as determined by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) detection of viral DNA polymerase transcripts, and quantitative PCR (qPCR) targeted at the DNA polymerase gene. The prevalence of adult sublethal infection was positively related to the inoculum OB concentration consumed during the larval stage. Sublethal infections persisted in OB-treated insects for at least five generations. Viral transcripts were more frequently detected in adult insects than in third instars. qPCR analysis indicated a consistently higher prevalence of sublethal infection than RT-PCR. Sublethal infection was associated with significant reductions in pupal weight, adult emergence, fecundity, and fertility (egg hatch) and significant increases in larval development time and duration of the preoviposition period. Insects taken from a persistently infected experimental population were significantly more susceptible to the OB inoculum than control insects that originated from the same virus-free colony as the persistently infected insects. We conclude that OB treatment results in rapid establishment of sublethal infections that persist between generations and which incur costs in the development and reproductive capacity of the host insect.

  19. Pindborg tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Santhosh Kumar Caliaperoumal; Gowri, S.; J.Dinakar

    2016-01-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT), also known as Pindborg tumor, is a rare odontogenic epithelial neoplasm. So far, nearly 200 cases have been reported in the literature. We are reporting a case of CEOT in a 42-year-old male patient with painless bony swelling in the mandible. The clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features are discussed with relevant references.

  20. Pindborg tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh Kumar Caliaperoumal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT, also known as Pindborg tumor, is a rare odontogenic epithelial neoplasm. So far, nearly 200 cases have been reported in the literature. We are reporting a case of CEOT in a 42-year-old male patient with painless bony swelling in the mandible. The clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features are discussed with relevant references.

  1. Pindborg tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliaperoumal, Santhosh Kumar; Gowri, S; Dinakar, J

    2016-01-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT), also known as Pindborg tumor, is a rare odontogenic epithelial neoplasm. So far, nearly 200 cases have been reported in the literature. We are reporting a case of CEOT in a 42-year-old male patient with painless bony swelling in the mandible. The clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features are discussed with relevant references.

  2. Wilms Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parts of the body; most commonly, the lungs, liver, bone, and/or brain. About 10% are stage IV. Stage V: Cancer is found in both kidneys at diagnosis (also called bilateral tumors). About 5% are stage V. Surgery is most often used to treat Wilms tumor. For stages I through IV, a ...

  3. Induction and stability of oxidative stress adaptation in Listeria monocytogenes EGD (Bug600) and F1057 in sublethal concentrations of H2O2 and NaOH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Abrew Abeysundara, Piumi; Nannapaneni, Ramakrishna; Soni, Kamlesh A; Sharma, Chander S; Mahmoud, Barakat

    2016-12-05

    Food processing and food handling environments may contain residual levels of sanitizers or cleaners which may trigger oxidative stress adaptation in Listeria monocytogenes. The aim of this study was to determine the induction and stability of oxidative stress adaptation in L. monocytogenes EGD (Bug600) (serotype 1/2a) and F1057 (serotype 4b) at different concentrations and times of sublethal oxidative stress induced by H2O2 or sublethal alkali stress induced by NaOH at 37°C. Both L. monocytogenes Bug600 and F1057 strains showed significantly higher survival in lethal oxidative stress (1000ppm H2O2) after pre-exposure to 50ppm H2O2 for 30min compared to control cells (no pre-exposure to H2O2). When the cells were pre-exposed to sublethal alkali stress by NaOH, the oxidative stress adaptation was induced within 5min in L. monocytogenes. The survival of both L. monocytogenes strains was increased by 2 to 4.5 logs in lethal oxidative stress when the cells were pre-exposed to sublethal alkali stress at pH9 from 5 to 120min by NaOH compared to control cells (no pre-exposure to sublethal alkali pH). Two other alkali reagents tested (KOH and NH4OH) also induced oxidative stress adaptation in L. monocytogenes. For both L. monocytogenes strains, the oxidative stress adaptation induced by sublethal H2O2 was reversible in 30min and that induced by sublethal alkali stress was reversible within 60min at 37°C in the absence of such sublethal stress. These findings show that sublethal oxidative or alkali stress conditions can induce oxidative stress adaptation that may increase the risk of survival of L. monocytogenes cells in lethal oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Leydig cell tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - Leydig cell; Testicular tumor - Leydig; Testicular neoplasm ... The cause of this tumor is unknown. There are no known risk factors for this tumor. Unlike germ cell tumors of the testicles, this tumor ...

  5. Compensatory strategies in the language of closed head injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, C; Cleary, J

    1988-01-01

    The study reported here examined the nature and effectiveness of compensatory strategies appearing in the conversational discourse of six closed head injured patients. Subject performance on a range of communication measures was compared with their judged abilities on a taxonomy of 32 compensatory strategies. Results indicated that all subjects employed a wide range of strategies but to differential effect. The overall effectiveness of these strategies correlated strongly with performance on the oral language subtest of the Western Aphasia Battery, the Communicative Abilities in Daily Living Test and a pragmatic protocol. The development of compensation following brain injury is viewed as a process of equilibration, determined in part by neurological and subject variables, and in part by ecologic variables. The implications for therapeutic management are discussed.

  6. The acutely ACL injured knee assessed by MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frobell, R B; Roos, H P; Roos, E M

    2008-01-01

    depression fractures, meniscal injuries and patient characteristics. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-one subjects (26% women, mean age 26 years) with an ACL rupture to a previously un-injured knee were studied using a 1.5T MR imager within 3 weeks from trauma. Meniscal injuries and fractures were classified...... by type, size and location. BML location and volume were quantified using a multi-spectral image data set analyzed by computer software, edited by an expert radiologist. RESULTS: Fractures were found in 73 (60%) knees. In 67 (92%) of these knees at least one cortical depression fracture was found. Uni......-compartmental meniscal tears were found in 44 (36%) subjects and bi-compartmental in 24 (20%). One hundred and nineteen (98%) knees had at least one BML, all but four (97%) located in the lateral compartment. Knees with a cortical depression fracture had larger BML volumes (P

  7. Resuscitation and coagulation in the severely injured trauma patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midwinter, Mark J.; Woolley, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Developments in the resuscitation of the severely injured trauma patient in the last decade have been through the increased understanding of the early pathophysiological consequences of injury together with some observations and experiences of recent casualties of conflict. In particular, the recognition of early derangements of haemostasis with hypocoagulopathy being associated with increased mortality and morbidity and the prime importance of tissue hypoperfusion as a central driver to this process in this population of patients has led to new resuscitation strategies. These strategies have focused on haemostatic resuscitation and the development of the ideas of damage control resuscitation and damage control surgery continuum. This in turn has led to a requirement to be able to more closely monitor the physiological status, of major trauma patients, including their coagulation status, and react in an anticipatory fashion. PMID:21149355

  8. Effects of hypertonic dextrose on injured rat skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunduracioglu, Burak; Ulkar, Bulent; Sabuncuoglu, Bizden T; Can, Belgin; Bayrakci, Kenan

    2006-04-01

    Histological examination of proliferative therapy effects on the healing process of muscular injury. We performed this study between March and August 2002 at Ankara University, School of Medicine, Laboratory of Animal Experiments, Ankara, Turkey. We used an experimental animal model by conducting a standardized cut injury of the gastrocnemius muscle in 30 adult male albino rats, which we divided into 2 groups; proliferative therapy group and control group. We evaluated the injured rat muscles by light microscopy on the fifth, eight, and twelfth day of injury. The muscular regeneration process began at day 5 in both the control and proliferative therapy groups. The proliferative therapy group revealed a prominent inflammatory reaction, fibroblast migration, and necrosis with accompanying regeneration and excessive connective tissue formation. We cannot consider proliferative therapy an appropriate treatment modality for muscular injuries, unless there is evidence of normal muscle physiology and biomechanics post traumatically.

  9. Evaluating Age in the Field Triage of Injured Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoko; Daya, Mohamud; Bulger, Eileen M.; Schreiber, Martin; Mackersie, Robert; Hsia, Renee Y.; Mann, N. Clay; Holmes, James F.; Staudenmayer, Kristan; Sturges, Zachary; Liao, Michael; Haukoos, Jason; Kuppermann, Nathan; Barton, Erik D.; Newgard, Craig D.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objective In this study, we evaluated (1) trauma under-triage by age group; (2) the association between age and serious injury after accounting for other field triage criteria and confounders; and (3) the potential impact of a mandatory age triage criterion for field triage. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of injured children and adults transported by 48 EMS agencies to 105 hospitals in 6 regions of the Western U.S. from 2006 through 2008. We used probabilistic linkage to match EMS records to hospital records, including: trauma registries, state discharge databases and emergency department databases. The primary outcome measure was serious injury, as measured by an Injury Severity Score (ISS) ≥ 16. We assessed under-triage (ISS ≥ 16 and triage-negative or transport to a non-trauma center) by age decile and used multivariable logistic regression models to estimate the association (linear and non-linear) between age and ISS ≥ 16, adjusted for important confounders. We also evaluated the potential impact of age on triage efficiency and trauma center volume. Results 260,027 injured patients were evaluated and transported by EMS over the 3-year study period. Under-triage increased for patients over 60 years of age, reaching approximately 60% for those older than 90 years. There was a strong non-linear association between age and ISS ≥ 16. For patients not meeting other triage criteria, the probability of serious injury was most notable after 60 years. A mandatory age triage criterion would have decreased under-triage at the expense of over-triage, with one ISS ≥ 16 patient identified for every 60–65 additional patients transported to major trauma centers. Conclusion Trauma under-triage increases in patients older than 60 years. While the probability of serious injury increases among triage-negative patients with increasing age, the use of a mandatory age triage criterion appears inefficient for improving field triage. PMID:22633339

  10. Accuracy of Prehospital Triage in Selecting Severely Injured Trauma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskens, Frank J; van Rein, Eveline A J; van der Sluijs, Rogier; Houwert, Roderick M; Lichtveld, Robert Anton; Verleisdonk, Egbert J; Segers, Michiel; van Olden, Ger; Dijkgraaf, Marcel; Leenen, Luke P H; van Heijl, Mark

    2017-11-01

    A major component of trauma care is adequate prehospital triage. To optimize the prehospital triage system, it is essential to gain insight in the quality of prehospital triage of the entire trauma system. To prospectively evaluate the quality of the field triage system to identify severely injured adult trauma patients. Prehospital and hospital data of all adult trauma patients during 2012 to 2014 transported with the highest priority by emergency medical services professionals to 10 hospitals in Central Netherlands were prospectively collected. Prehospital data collected by the emergency medical services professionals were matched to hospital data collected in the trauma registry. An Injury Severity Score of 16 or more was used to determine severe injury. The quality and diagnostic accuracy of the field triage protocol and compliance of emergency medical services professionals to the protocol. A total of 4950 trauma patients were evaluated of which 436 (8.8%) patients were severely injured. The undertriage rate based on actual destination facility was 21.6% (95% CI, 18.0-25.7) with an overtriage rate of 30.6% (95% CI, 29.3-32.0). Analysis of the protocol itself, regardless of destination facility, resulted in an undertriage of 63.8% (95% CI, 59.2-68.1) and overtriage of 7.4% (95% CI, 6.7-8.2). The compliance to the field triage trauma protocol was 73% for patients with a level 1 indication. More than 20% of the patients with severe injuries were not transported to a level I trauma center. These patients are at risk for preventable morbidity and mortality. This finding indicates the need for improvement of the prehospital triage protocol.

  11. Endovascular transplantation of stem cells to the injured rat CNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, Johan; Soederman, Mikael; Andersson, Tommy; Holmin, Staffan [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Neuroradiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Le Blanc, Katarina [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Stem Cell Research, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Immunology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-10-15

    Transplantation procedures using intraparenchymal injection of stem cells result in tissue injury in addition to associated surgical risks. Intravenous injection of mesenchymal stem cells gives engraftment to lesions, but the method has low efficiency and specificity. In traumatic brain injuries (TBI), there is a transient breakdown of the blood-brain barrier and an inflammatory response, which increase migration of cells from blood to parenchyma. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the effect of intra-arterial administration on cellular engraftment. Experimental TBI was produced in a rat model. Endovascular technique was used to administer human mesenchymal stem cells in the ipsilateral internal carotid artery. Evaluation of engraftment and side effects were performed by immunohistochemical analysis of the brain and several other organs. The results were compared to intravenous administration of stem cells. Intra-arterial transplantion of mesenchymal stem cells resulted in central nervous system (CNS) engraftment without thromboembolic ischemia. We observed a significantly higher number of transplanted cells in the injured hemisphere after intra-arterial compared to intravenous administration both 1 day (p<0.01) and 5 days (p<0.05) after the transplantation. Some cells were also detected in the spleen but not in the other organs analyzed. Selective intra-arterial administration of mesenchymal stem cells to the injured CNS is a minimally invasive method for transplantation. The method is significantly more efficient than the intravenous route and causes no side effects in the current model. The technique can potentially be used for repeated transplantation to the CNS after TBI and in other diseases. (orig.)

  12. Differentiation of different mixed Listeria strains and also acid-injured, heat-injured, and repaired cells of Listeria monocytogenes using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyarko, Esmond; Donnelly, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to differentiate mixed strains of Listeria monocytogenes and mixed strains of L. monocytogenes and Listeria innocua. FT-IR spectroscopy was also applied to investigate the hypothesis that heat-injured and acid-injured cells would return to their original physiological integrity following repair. Thin smears of cells on infrared slides were prepared from cultures for mixed strains of L. monocytogenes, mixed strains of L. monocytogenes and L. innocua, and each individual strain. Heat-injured and acid-injured cells were prepared by exposing harvested cells of L. monocytogenes strain R2-764 to a temperature of 56 ± 0.2°C for 10 min or lactic acid at pH 3 for 60 min, respectively. Cellular repair involved incubating aliquots of acid-injured and heat-injured cells separately in Trypticase soy broth supplemented with 0.6% yeast extract for 22 to 24 h; bacterial thin smears on infrared slides were prepared for each treatment. Spectral collection was done using 250 scans at a resolution of 4 cm(-1) in the mid-infrared wavelength region. Application of multivariate discriminant analysis to the wavelength region from 1,800 to 900 cm(-1) separated the individual L. monocytogenes strains. Mixed strains of L. monocytogenes and L. monocytogenes cocultured with L. innocua were successfully differentiated from the individual strains when the discriminant analysis was applied. Different mixed strains of L. monocytogenes were also successfully separated when the discriminant analysis was applied. A data set for injury and repair analysis resulted in the separation of acid-injured, heat-injured, and intact cells; repaired cells clustered closer to intact cells when the discriminant analysis (1,800 to 600 cm(-1)) was applied. FT-IR spectroscopy can be used for the rapid source tracking of L. monocytogenes strains because it can differentiate between different mixed strains and individual strains of the pathogen.

  13. Development of a New Technique to Assess Susceptibility to Predation Resulting from Sublethal Stresses (Indirect Mortality)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cada, G.F.

    2003-08-25

    Fish that pass through a hydroelectric turbine may not be killed directly, but may nonetheless experience sublethal stresses that will increase their susceptibility to predators (indirect mortality). There is a need to develop reliable tests for indirect mortality so that the full consequences of passage through turbines (and other routes around a hydroelectric dam) can be assessed. We evaluated a new technique for assessing indirect mortality, based on a behavioral response to a startling stimulus (akin to perceiving an approaching predator). We compare this technique to the standard predator preference test. The behavioral response is a rapid movement commonly referred to as a startle response, escape response, or C-shape, based on the characteristic body position assumed by the fish. When viewed from above, a startled fish bends into a C-shape, then springs back and swims away in a direction different from its original orientation. This predator avoidance (escape) behavior can be compromised by sublethal stresses that temporarily stun or disorient the fish. We subjected striped shiners and fathead minnows to varying intensities of either turbulence (10-, 20- or 30-min) or 2-min exposures to a fish anesthetic (100 or 200 mg/L of tricaine methanesulfonate), and evaluated their subsequent behavior. Individual fish were given a startle stimulus and filmed with a high-speed video camera. Each fish was startled and filmed twice before being stressed, and then at 1-, 5-, 15-, and 30-min post-exposure. The resulting image files were analyzed for a variety of behavioral measures including: presence of a response, time to first reaction, duration of reaction, time to formation of maximum C-shape, time to completion of C-shape, and completeness of C-shape. The most immediate measure of potential changes in fish behavior was whether stressed fish exhibited a startle response. For striped shiners, the number of fish not responding to the stimulus was significantly different

  14. Employment among Spinal Cord Injured Patients Living in Turkey: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Berrin; Erhan, Belgin; Bardak, Ayse Nur

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the rate of employment and to establish the factors affecting vocational status in spinal cord injured patients living in Turkey. One hundred and fifty-two traumatic spinal cord injured patients older than 18 years with injury duration of at least 1 year and living in the community were included in the study;…

  15. The experience of being a partner to a spinal cord injured person:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angel, Sanne; Buus, Niels

    2011-01-01

    supporting the injured partner and the demanding tasks of everyday life outside the institution. After discharge, partners struggled for the injured partner to regain a well-functioning everyday life and for reestablishing life as a couple. The partner struggled to manage the overwhelming amount of everyday...

  16. Prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances in injured drivers : comparison between Belgium and The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legrand, S.-A. Houwing, S. Hagenzieker, M. & Verstraete, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    The study objective was to compare the prevalence of alcohol and (il)licit drugs in seriously injured drivers in Belgium (BE) and the Netherlands (NL). Injured car and van drivers admitted to the emergency departments of five hospitals in Belgium and three in the Netherlands from January 2008 to May

  17. Alcohol and drugs in seriously injured drivers in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legrand, Sara‐Ann; Isalberti, Cristina; Linden, Trudy Van

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the presence of alcohol and drugs in drivers severely injured in traffic crashes in six European countries. Data were collected from 2492 seriously injured drivers of cars and vans in Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Italy, Lithuania, and the Netherlands...

  18. Alcohol and drugs in seriously injured drivers in 6 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legrand, Sara-Ann; Isalberti, Cristina; Linden, Trudy Van der

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the presence of alcohol and drugs in drivers severely injured in traffic crashes in 6 European countries. Methods: Data were collected from 2492 seriously injured drivers of cars and vans in Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Italy, Lithuania and The Netherlands, between 2007...

  19. 9 CFR 311.27 - Injured animals slaughtered at unusual hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... slaughter an injured animal at night or on Sunday or a holiday when the inspector cannot be obtained, the... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Injured animals slaughtered at unusual hours. 311.27 Section 311.27 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  20. Differences in kinetic asymmetry between injured and noninjured novice runners : A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredeweg, S. W.; Buist, I.; Kluitenberg, B.

    Purpose: The purpose of this prospective study was to describe natural levels of asymmetry in running, compare levels of asymmetry between injured and noninjured novice runners and compare kinetic variables between the injured and noninjured lower limb within the novice runners with an injury.

  1. Sublethal pesticide doses negatively affect survival and the cellular responses in American foulbrood-infected honeybee larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Javier Hernández; Krainer, Sophie; Engert, Antonia; Schuehly, Wolfgang; Riessberger-Gallé, Ulrike; Crailsheim, Karl

    2017-02-01

    Disclosing interactions between pesticides and bee infections is of most interest to understand challenges that pollinators are facing and to which extent bee health is compromised. Here, we address the individual and combined effect that three different pesticides (dimethoate, clothianidin and fluvalinate) and an American foulbrood (AFB) infection have on mortality and the cellular immune response of honeybee larvae. We demonstrate for the first time a synergistic interaction when larvae are exposed to sublethal doses of dimethoate or clothianidin in combination with Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of AFB. A significantly higher mortality than the expected sum of the effects of each individual stressor was observed in co-exposed larvae, which was in parallel with a drastic reduction of the total and differential hemocyte counts. Our results underline that characterizing the cellular response of larvae to individual and combined stressors allows unmasking previously undetected sublethal effects of pesticides in colony health.

  2. Evaluation of Pyrethrin Formulations on Dengue/Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever Vectors in the Laboratory and Sublethal Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sulaiman

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In Southeast Asia, Aedes aegypti (L. has been incriminated as principal vector of dengue viruses and Ae. albopictus as the secondary vector of dengue fever. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of three for-mula¬tions of pyrethrin derived from Tanacetum cinerariaefolium against the dengue/dengue haemorrhagic fever vectors Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus in the laboratory. The testings employed 2 methodologies: the WHO Larval Bioassay and WHO Adult Bioassay. The results showed that all the three pyrethrin formulations had larvicidal and adulticidal activi-ties. The impact of the sublethal doses of pyrethrin formulations on Aedes spp. larvae resulted in 4-6% of alive adult emergence compared to 90% of Ae. aegypti emerging adults and 96% Ae. albopictus alive adult emergence in the control. The impact of sublethal doses of the pyrethrin formulations caused very low fecundity on both Aedes spp. compared to the control (P< 0.05.

  3. Physicochemical Evidence on Sublethal Neonicotinoid Imidacloprid Interacting with an Odorant-Binding Protein from the Tea Geometrid Moth, Ectropis obliqua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongliang; Zhao, Lei; Fu, Xiaobin; Song, Xinmi; Wu, Fan; Tang, Mingzhu; Cui, Hongchun; Yu, Jizhong

    2017-04-26

    Nowadays the excessive usage of neonicotinoid insecticides always results in residues in Chinese tea fields. It is not clear whether the insecticide residue at the sublethal level influences the physiological processes of tea pests. Here, we provide evidence of interaction between the neonicotinoid imidacloprid and a general odorant-binding protein, EoblGOBP2, from the tea geometrid moth, Ectropis obliqua. The interacting process was demonstrated through multiple fluorescence spectra, UV absorption spectra, circular dichroism (CD) spectra, molecular docking, etc. The binding mode was determined to be static (from 300 to 310 K) and dynamic quenching (from 290 to 300 K). The binding distance was calculated to be 6.9 nm on the basis of FRET theory. According to the thermodynamic analysis, the process was mainly driven by enthalpy (ΔH neonicotinoid insecticide at sublethal level may still affect the olfactory cognition of the tea geometrid moth to volatile compounds from tea leaves.

  4. Effects of Sublethal Fungicides on Mutation Rates and Genomic Variation in Fungal Plant Pathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaradasa, B Sajeewa; Everhart, Sydney E

    2016-01-01

    Pathogen exposure to sublethal doses of fungicides may result in mutations that may represent an important and largely overlooked mechanism of introducing new genetic variation into strictly clonal populations, including acquisition of fungicide resistance. We tested this hypothesis using the clonal plant pathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Nine susceptible isolates were exposed independently to five commercial fungicides with different modes of action: boscalid (respiration inhibitor), iprodione (unclear mode of action), thiophanate methyl (inhibition of microtubulin synthesis) and azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin (quinone outside inhibitors). Mycelium of each isolate was inoculated onto a fungicide gradient and sub-cultured from the 50-100% inhibition zone for 12 generations and experiment repeated. Mutational changes were assessed for all isolates at six neutral microsatellite (SSR) loci and for a subset of isolates using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). SSR analysis showed 12 of 85 fungicide-exposed isolates had a total of 127 stepwise mutations with 42 insertions and 85 deletions. Most stepwise deletions were in iprodione- and azoxystrobin-exposed isolates (n = 40/85 each). Estimated mutation rates were 1.7 to 60-fold higher for mutated loci compared to that expected under neutral conditions. AFLP genotyping of 33 isolates (16 non-exposed control and 17 fungicide exposed) generated 602 polymorphic alleles. Cluster analysis with principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) identified fungicide-exposed isolates as a distinct group from non-exposed control isolates (PhiPT = 0.15, P = 0.001). Dendrograms based on neighbor-joining also supported allelic variation associated with fungicide-exposure. Fungicide sensitivity of isolates measured throughout both experiments did not show consistent trends. For example, eight isolates exposed to boscalid had higher EC50 values at the end of the experiment, and

  5. Effects of Sublethal Fungicides on Mutation Rates and Genomic Variation in Fungal Plant Pathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sajeewa Amaradasa

    Full Text Available Pathogen exposure to sublethal doses of fungicides may result in mutations that may represent an important and largely overlooked mechanism of introducing new genetic variation into strictly clonal populations, including acquisition of fungicide resistance. We tested this hypothesis using the clonal plant pathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Nine susceptible isolates were exposed independently to five commercial fungicides with different modes of action: boscalid (respiration inhibitor, iprodione (unclear mode of action, thiophanate methyl (inhibition of microtubulin synthesis and azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin (quinone outside inhibitors. Mycelium of each isolate was inoculated onto a fungicide gradient and sub-cultured from the 50-100% inhibition zone for 12 generations and experiment repeated. Mutational changes were assessed for all isolates at six neutral microsatellite (SSR loci and for a subset of isolates using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs. SSR analysis showed 12 of 85 fungicide-exposed isolates had a total of 127 stepwise mutations with 42 insertions and 85 deletions. Most stepwise deletions were in iprodione- and azoxystrobin-exposed isolates (n = 40/85 each. Estimated mutation rates were 1.7 to 60-fold higher for mutated loci compared to that expected under neutral conditions. AFLP genotyping of 33 isolates (16 non-exposed control and 17 fungicide exposed generated 602 polymorphic alleles. Cluster analysis with principal coordinate analysis (PCoA and discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC identified fungicide-exposed isolates as a distinct group from non-exposed control isolates (PhiPT = 0.15, P = 0.001. Dendrograms based on neighbor-joining also supported allelic variation associated with fungicide-exposure. Fungicide sensitivity of isolates measured throughout both experiments did not show consistent trends. For example, eight isolates exposed to boscalid had higher EC50 values at the end of the

  6. Effects of Sublethal Fungicides on Mutation Rates and Genomic Variation in Fungal Plant Pathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaradasa, B. Sajeewa

    2016-01-01

    Pathogen exposure to sublethal doses of fungicides may result in mutations that may represent an important and largely overlooked mechanism of introducing new genetic variation into strictly clonal populations, including acquisition of fungicide resistance. We tested this hypothesis using the clonal plant pathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Nine susceptible isolates were exposed independently to five commercial fungicides with different modes of action: boscalid (respiration inhibitor), iprodione (unclear mode of action), thiophanate methyl (inhibition of microtubulin synthesis) and azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin (quinone outside inhibitors). Mycelium of each isolate was inoculated onto a fungicide gradient and sub-cultured from the 50–100% inhibition zone for 12 generations and experiment repeated. Mutational changes were assessed for all isolates at six neutral microsatellite (SSR) loci and for a subset of isolates using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). SSR analysis showed 12 of 85 fungicide-exposed isolates had a total of 127 stepwise mutations with 42 insertions and 85 deletions. Most stepwise deletions were in iprodione- and azoxystrobin-exposed isolates (n = 40/85 each). Estimated mutation rates were 1.7 to 60-fold higher for mutated loci compared to that expected under neutral conditions. AFLP genotyping of 33 isolates (16 non-exposed control and 17 fungicide exposed) generated 602 polymorphic alleles. Cluster analysis with principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) identified fungicide-exposed isolates as a distinct group from non-exposed control isolates (PhiPT = 0.15, P = 0.001). Dendrograms based on neighbor-joining also supported allelic variation associated with fungicide-exposure. Fungicide sensitivity of isolates measured throughout both experiments did not show consistent trends. For example, eight isolates exposed to boscalid had higher EC50 values at the end of the experiment

  7. Exposure to sublethal blast overpressure reduces the food intake and exercise performance of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, R A; Elsayed, N; Petras, J M; Widholm, J

    1997-07-25

    Exposure to blast overpressure can typically inflict generalized damage on major organ systems, especially gas-containing organs such as the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract. The purpose of the present study was to use rat's food intake and exercise wheel running as behavioral correlates of the perhaps more subtle damage to these organ systems induced by sublethal blast overpressure. Toward this end, all rats were exposed to a 12-h light/dark cycle and food was available only in the dark period. Prior to exposure, rats in the (E)xercise group were required to execute five rotations of an activity wheel for a food pellet; wheel turns that occurred at times other than when a rat was feeding were recorded separately and labeled exercise running. In the (S)edentary and (A)nesthesia groups, wheel running was not possible and rats were required to execute five leverpresses for a single pellet. A compressed air-driven shock tube was used to expose rats to a supra-atmospheric wave of air pressure. The tube was separated into two sections by a polyester membrane, the thickness of which determined peak and duration of overpressure. All rats were anesthetized with 50 mg/kg of phenobarbital. After reaching a deep plane of anesthesia, they were individually tied in a stockinet across one end of the shock tube. In preliminary tests, the membrane thickness was 1000 (A)ngstroms and rats in Group L(ethality) were exposed to a 129 kPa (peak amplitude) wave of overpressure. Three of six rats survived exposure to this peak pressure; pathology was evident in the lungs and gastrointestinal tract of all non-survivors. Rats in Groups E and S were tested with a 500 A membrane, which resulted in an 83 kPa peak amplitude. All rats survived exposure to this lower peak pressure. On the day of exposure to blast, the relative reduction of intake during the first 3 h of the dark period was significantly greater for Group E than for Groups S and A; the intake of Groups E and S remained reduced

  8. Tumor Types: Understanding Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to reveal the vast diversity of genetic and epigenetic alterations that exist between brain tumors. This biological ... social workers, psychologists, and nurses. A supportive family environment is also helpful. Surgery GBM’s capacity to wildly ...

  9. Kinetic analysis of the swimming behavior of the goldfish, Carassius auratus, exposed to nickel: Hypoactivity induced by sublethal concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellgaard, E.G.; Ashley, S.E.; Langford, A.E. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    The discharge of nickel into aquatic environments from numerous industries poses a threat to fish populations because of its toxcity. Although little is known, however, about the precise mechanism of its toxicity in freshwater fish, it produces some of the symptoms associated with heavy-metal poisoning in general; it accumulates in fish tissues and results in alterations in gill structure, including hypertrophy of respiratory and mucous cells, separation of the epithelial layer from the pillar cell system, cauterization and sloughing, and necrosis of the epithelium. The destruction of the gill lamellae decreases the ventilation rate and if severe, as after acute exposure, may cause blood hypoxia and death. The effects of short-term exposure of fish to sublethal concentrations of nickel and not as well defined. The kinetic method of Ellgaard et al., which uses locomotor activity to assess the general health of fish, is ideally suited to examine whether sublethal concentrations of nickel adversely affect fish. In previous studies, the measured changes in locomotor activity observed when fish are exposed to pollutants correlate with more specific changes, e.g., physiological, biochemical, histological or neurosensory changes, which occur under the same conditions. Thus, the kinetic method also meets the criterial for pollution early warning systems as discussed by Cairns and van der Schale. This method has previously been used to demonstrate that short-term exposure to sublethal concentrations of the heavy metals cadmium, chromium, and zinc and copper are detrimental to the health of bluegills. The present study examines the effects of short-term exposures of sublethal concentrations of nickel on the locomotor activity of the goldfish, Carassius auratus. 11 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  10. Do biopesticides affect the demographic traits of a parasitoid wasp and its biocontrol services through sublethal effects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Biondi

    Full Text Available Pesticide risk assessments are usually based on short-term acute toxicity tests, while longer-term population dynamic related traits, critical to the success of biological control and Integrated Pest Management (IPM programs, are often overlooked. This is increasingly important with respect to new biopesticides that frequently cause no short-term acute effects, but that can induce multiple physiological and behavioral sublethal effects, leading to a decrease in population growth and ecosystem services. In this study we assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of six biopesticides [abamectin, azadirachtin, Bacillus thuringiensis, borax plus citrus oil (Prev-Am®, emamectin benzoate, and spinosad], used in tomato crops to control the invasive pest Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, on adults and pupae of the parasitoid Bracon nigricans (Hymenoptera: Braconidae. Data on female survival and production of female offspring were used to calculate population growth indexes as a measure of population recovery after pesticide exposure. Spinosad caused 100% and 80% mortality in exposed adults (even 10 d after the treatment and pupae, respectively. Although most of the biopesticides had low levels of acute toxicity, multiple sublethal effects were observed. The biocontrol activity of both females that survived 1-h and 10-d old residues, and females that emerged from topically treated pupae was significantly affected by the application of the neurotoxic insecticides emamectin benzoate and abamectin. Furthermore, very low B. nigricans demographic growth indices were estimated for these two insecticides, indicating potential local extinction of the wasp populations. Among the tested products, Bt proved to be the safest for B. nigricans adults and pupae. Our findings emphasize that acute toxicity assessment alone cannot fully predict the actual impact of pesticides on non-target parasitoids. Thus, sublethal effects related to the species specific life

  11. Do Biopesticides Affect the Demographic Traits of a Parasitoid Wasp and Its Biocontrol Services through Sublethal Effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Antonio; Zappalà, Lucia; Stark, John D.; Desneux, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Pesticide risk assessments are usually based on short-term acute toxicity tests, while longer-term population dynamic related traits, critical to the success of biological control and Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs, are often overlooked. This is increasingly important with respect to new biopesticides that frequently cause no short-term acute effects, but that can induce multiple physiological and behavioral sublethal effects, leading to a decrease in population growth and ecosystem services. In this study we assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of six biopesticides [abamectin, azadirachtin, Bacillus thuringiensis, borax plus citrus oil (Prev-Am®), emamectin benzoate, and spinosad], used in tomato crops to control the invasive pest Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), on adults and pupae of the parasitoid Bracon nigricans (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Data on female survival and production of female offspring were used to calculate population growth indexes as a measure of population recovery after pesticide exposure. Spinosad caused 100% and 80% mortality in exposed adults (even 10 d after the treatment) and pupae, respectively. Although most of the biopesticides had low levels of acute toxicity, multiple sublethal effects were observed. The biocontrol activity of both females that survived 1-h and 10-d old residues, and females that emerged from topically treated pupae was significantly affected by the application of the neurotoxic insecticides emamectin benzoate and abamectin. Furthermore, very low B. nigricans demographic growth indices were estimated for these two insecticides, indicating potential local extinction of the wasp populations. Among the tested products, Bt proved to be the safest for B. nigricans adults and pupae. Our findings emphasize that acute toxicity assessment alone cannot fully predict the actual impact of pesticides on non-target parasitoids. Thus, sublethal effects related to the species specific life-history variables

  12. Sublethal doses of the pesticide imidacloprid alter honey bee (Apis mellifera) response threshold and navigation, potentially affecting colony health

    OpenAIRE

    Eiri, Daren

    2011-01-01

    Much attention on honey bee declines has focused on the sublethal effects the pesticide, imidacloprid, has on honey bee behavior. How it affects individual foragers and their preference for nectar or their ability to navigate to communicated food sources is unknown. We use the proboscis extension reflex (PER) assay to test an individual's response threshold. Bees treated with the pesticide have higher response thresholds and respond less often to high concentrations of sucrose than control be...

  13. Sub-lethal doses of photodynamic therapy affect biofilm formation ability and metabolic activity of Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhajibagher, M; Chiniforush, N; Shahabi, S; Ghorbanzadeh, R; Bahador, A

    2016-09-01

    During photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the treatment of a primary endodontic infection, it is extremely likely that microorganisms would be exposed to sub-lethal doses of PDT (sPDT). Although sPDT cannot kill microorganisms, it can considerably influence microbial virulence. This study was conducted to characterize the effect of sPDT using toluidine blue O (TBO), methylene blue (MB), and indocyanine green (ICG) on biofilm formation ability and metabolic activity of Enterococcus faecalis. The antimetabolic and antibiofilm potential of ICG-, TBO-, and MB-sPDT against E. faecalis was analyzed at sub-lethal doses (1/2-1/64 minimum inhibitory concentration) using the XTT reduction assay, crystal violet assay, and scanning electron microscopy. Higher doses of sPDT adversely affected biofilm formation ability and metabolic activity. ICG-, TBO-, and MB-PDT at a maximum sub-lethal dose markedly reduced the formation of biofilm up to 42.8%, 22.6%, and 19.5%, respectively. ICG-, TBO-, and MB-sPDT showed a marked reduction in bacterial metabolic activity by 98%, 94%, and 82%, respectively. ICG-PDT showed a stronger inhibitory effect on biofilm formation in E. faecalis than MB- and TBO-PDT at sub-lethal levels. Interestingly, a gradual increase in metabolic activity and biofilm formation upon exposure to a lower dose of test sPDT were observed. sPDT showed dual effect on biofilm formation ability and metabolic activity of E. faecalis. High doses revealed antimetabolic and antibiofilm potential activity, whereas lower doses had conflicting results. Hence, when PDT is prescribed in clinical settings, the dose of PDT used in vivo should be taken into consideration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sublethal Exposure to Diatomaceous Earth Increases Net Fecundity of Flour Beetles (Tribolium confusum) by Inhibiting Egg Cannibalism

    OpenAIRE

    Shostak, Allen W.

    2014-01-01

    Population regulation results from an interplay of numerous intrinsic and external factors, and for many insects cannibalism is such a factor. This study confirms a previously-reported observation that sublethal exposure to the fossilized remains of diatoms (i.e. diatomaceous earth) increases net fecundity (eggs produced minus eggs destroyed/day) of flour beetles, Tribolium confusum. The aim was to experimentally test two non-mutually-exclusive ecological mechanisms potentially responsible fo...

  15. Sub-Lethal Dose of Shiga toxin 2 from Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Affects Balance and Cerebellar Cythoarquitecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana eD’Alessio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli may damage the central nervous system before or concomitantly to manifested hemolytic uremic syndrome symptoms. The cerebellum is frequently damaged during this syndrome, however the deleterious effects of Shiga toxin 2 has never been integrally reported by ultrastructural, physiological and behavioral means. The aim of this study was to determine the cerebellar compromise after intravenous administration of a sub-lethal dose of Shiga toxin 2 by measuring the cerebellar blood brain barrier permeability, behavioral task of cerebellar functionality (inclined plane test, and ultrastructural analysis (transmission electron microscope. Intravenous administration of vehicle (control group, sub-lethal dose of 0.5 ηg and 1 ηg of Stx2 per mouse were tested for behavioral and ultrastructural studies. A set of three independent experiments were performed for each study (n=6. Blood–Brain Barrier resulted damaged and consequently its permeability was significantly increased. Lower scores obtained in the inclined plane task denoted poor cerebellar functionality in comparison to their controls. The most significant lower score was obtained after 5 days of 1ηg of toxin administration. Transmission electron microscope micrographs from the Stx2-treated groups showed neurons with a progressive neurodegenerative condition in a dose dependent manner. As sub-lethal intravenous Shiga toxin 2 altered the blood brain barrier permeability in the cerebellum the toxin penetrated the cerebellar parenchyma and produced cell damaged with significant functional implications in the test balance.

  16. Acute Toxicity and Sublethal Effects of Terpenoids and Essential Oils on the Predator Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilhos, R V; Grützmacher, A D; Coats, J R

    2017-07-31

    The search for new safer insecticides has increased in recent agriculture. Botanical compounds such as terpenoids and plant essential oils with insecticidal activity could represent important tools in pest management, and their risk assessment against non-target organisms is necessary since they may serve as a precursor for the synthesis of new insecticide active ingredients. For this study, the acute toxicity and sublethal effects of seven terpenoids and three essential oils with recognized insecticidal activity were evaluated on the predator Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) in laboratory bioassays. Results indicate that these compounds feature relative selectivity to the predator C. externa; however, sublethal effects on reproduction were recorded for some compounds. The phenolic monoterpenoids carvacrol and thymol were more acutely toxic than other terpenoids screened, with LD 50 <20,000 μg/g; however, they were less toxic than natural pyrethrins (toxicity standard) in these bioassays. Sublethal effects on fecundity and fertility were observed for R-(+)-limonene, while oregano oil only affected fecundity. The compounds evaluated here have potential to be used as insecticides and can serve as backbone for future synthesis of selective active ingredients; however, a complete risk assessment to C. externa and other non-target organisms is necessary for their incorporation in future crop protection paradigms.

  17. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Some Chemical and Biological Insecticides on Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) Eggs and Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozad-Bonab, Z; Hejazi, M J; Iranipour, Sh; Arzanlou, M

    2017-06-01

    Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) is one of the serious pests of tomatoes. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of some chemical and biological insecticides on T. absoluta. The insecticides tested were diazinon, dichlorvos, chlorantraniliprole, deltamethrin, acetamiprid, imidacloprid, spinosad, abamectin, indoxacarb, Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner, Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin, and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin. Sublethal effects for the most effective insecticides tested, namely, abamectin, spinosad, chlorantraniliprole, and indoxacarb were assessed, and life table parameters were calculated. Chlorantraniliprole had the highest lethal effect on T. absoluta followed by spinosad, abamectin, and indoxacarb. On the other hand, imidacloprid was not considerably effective on T. absoluta eggs. Metarhizium anisopliae was 11 and 518 times more effective on the eggs and newly hatched larvae than B. bassiana and B. thuringiensis, respectively. Chlorantraniliprole, spinosad, abamectin, and indoxacarb affected life table parameters of T. absoluta significantly (α = 0.05). Spinosad had the highest sublethal effect on T. absoluta followed by abamectin, chlorantraniliprole, and indoxacarb. The results revealed that chlorantraniliprole, spinosad, abamectin, and indoxacarb had considerable lethal and sublethal effects on T. absoluta, and if they perform similarly in commercial greenhouses and fields, they would be suitable candidates to be considered in IPM programs for this pest. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The Wiggle Index: An Open Source Bioassay to Assess Sub-Lethal Insecticide Response in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denecke, Shane; Nowell, Cameron J; Fournier-Level, Alexandre; Perry, Trent; Batterham, Phil

    2015-01-01

    Toxicological assays measuring mortality are routinely used to describe insecticide response, but sub-lethal exposures to insecticides can select for resistance and yield additional biological information describing the ways in which an insecticide impacts the insect. Here we present the Wiggle Index (WI), a high-throughput method to quantify insecticide response by measuring the reduction in motility during sub-lethal exposures in larvae of the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster. A susceptible wild type strain was exposed to the insecticides chlorantraniliprole, imidacloprid, spinosad, and ivermectin. Each insecticide reduced larval motility, but response times and profiles differed among insecticides. Two sets of target site mutants previously identified in mortality studies on the basis of imidacloprid or spinosad resistance phenotypes were tested. In each case the resistant mutant responded significantly less than the control. The WI was also able to detect a spinosad response in the absence of the primary spinosad target site. This response was not detected in mortality assays suggesting that spinosad, like many other insecticides, may have secondary targets affecting behaviour. The ability of the WI to detect changes in insecticide metabolism was confirmed by overexpressing the imidacloprid metabolizing Cyp6g1 gene in digestive tissues or the central nervous system. The data presented here validate the WI as an inexpensive, generic, sub-lethal assay that can complement information gained from mortality assays, extending our understanding of the genetic basis of insecticide response in D. melanogaster.

  19. Does selective logging stress tropical forest invertebrates? Using fat stores to examine sublethal responses in dung beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Filipe; Barlow, Jos; Araújo, Bárbara; Louzada, Julio

    2016-12-01

    The increased global demand for tropical timber has driven vast expanses of tropical forests to be selectively logged worldwide. While logging impacts on wildlife are predicted to change species distribution and abundance, the underlying physiological responses are poorly understood. Although there is a growing consensus that selective logging impacts on natural populations start with individual stress-induced sublethal responses, this literature is dominated by investigations conducted with vertebrates from temperate zones. Moreover, the sublethal effects of human-induced forest disturbance on tropical invertebrates have never been examined. To help address this knowledge gap, we examined the body fat content and relative abundance of three dung beetle species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) with minimum abundance of 40 individuals within each examined treatment level. These were sampled across 34 plots in a before-after control-impact design (BACI) in a timber concession area of the Brazilian Amazon. For the first time, we present evidence of logging-induced physiological stress responses in tropical invertebrates. Selective logging increased the individual levels of fat storage and reduced the relative abundance of two dung beetle species. Given this qualitative similarity, we support the measurement of body fat content as reliable biomarker to assess stress-induced sublethal effects on dung beetles. Understanding how environmental modification impacts the wildlife has never been more important. Our novel approach provides new insights into the mechanisms through which forest disturbances impose population-level impacts on tropical invertebrates.

  20. {sup 1}H NMR metabolomics of earthworm exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of phenanthrene in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Sarah A.E.; McKelvie, Jennifer R.; Simpson, Andre J. [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail Toronto, Ontario, M1C 1A4 (Canada); Simpson, Myrna J., E-mail: myrna.simpson@utoronto.c [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail Toronto, Ontario, M1C 1A4 (Canada)

    2010-06-15

    {sup 1}H NMR metabolomics was used to monitor earthworm responses to sub-lethal (50-1500 mg/kg) phenanthrene exposure in soil. Total phenanthrene was analyzed via soxhlet extraction, bioavailable phenanthrene was estimated by hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) and 1-butanol extractions and sorption to soil was assessed by batch equilibration. Bioavailable phenanthrene (HPCD-extracted) comprised approx65-97% of total phenanthrene added to the soil. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed differences in responses between exposed earthworms and controls after 48 h exposure. The metabolites that varied with exposure included amino acids (isoleucine, alanine and glutamine) and maltose. PLS models indicated that earthworm response is positively correlated to both total phenanthrene concentration and bioavailable (HPCD-extracted) phenanthrene in a freshly spiked, unaged soil. These results show that metabolomics is a powerful, direct technique that may be used to monitor contaminant bioavailability and toxicity of sub-lethal concentrations of contaminants in the environment. These initial findings warrant further metabolomic studies with aged contaminated soils. - {sup 1}H NMR metabolomics is used to directly monitor metabolic responses of Eisenia fetida after 48 h of exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of phenanthrene in soil.

  1. Sub-Lethal Dose of Shiga Toxin 2 from Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Affects Balance and Cerebellar Cytoarchitecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Alipio; Cangelosi, Adriana; Geoghegan, Patricia A.; Tironi-Farinati, Carla; Brener, Gabriela J.; Goldstein, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli may damage the central nervous system before or concomitantly to manifested hemolytic–uremic syndrome symptoms. The cerebellum is frequently damaged during this syndrome, however, the deleterious effects of Shiga toxin 2 has never been integrally reported by ultrastructural, physiological and behavioral means. The aim of this study was to determine the cerebellar compromise after intravenous administration of a sub-lethal dose of Shiga toxin 2 by measuring the cerebellar blood–brain barrier permeability, behavioral task of cerebellar functionality (inclined plane test), and ultrastructural analysis (transmission electron microscope). Intravenous administration of vehicle (control group), sub-lethal dose of 0.5 and 1 ηg of Stx2 per mouse were tested for behavioral and ultrastructural studies. A set of three independent experiments were performed for each study (n = 6). Blood–brain barrier resulted damaged and consequently its permeability was significantly increased. Lower scores obtained in the inclined plane task denoted poor cerebellar functionality in comparison to their controls. The most significant lower score was obtained after 5 days of 1 ηg of toxin administration. Transmission electron microscope micrographs from the Stx2-treated groups showed neurons with a progressive neurodegenerative condition in a dose dependent manner. As sub-lethal intravenous Shiga toxin 2 altered the blood brain barrier permeability in the cerebellum the toxin penetrated the cerebellar parenchyma and produced cell damaged with significant functional implications in the test balance. PMID:26904009

  2. The Effect of Acclimation to Sublethal Temperature on Subsequent Susceptibility of Sitophilus zeamais Mostchulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to High Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Jianhua; Zhang, Huina

    2016-01-01

    Heat treatment is a popular alternative to synthetic pesticides in disinfesting food-processing facilities and empty grain storages. Sitophilus zeamais Mostchulsky is one of the most cosmopolitan and destructive insects found in empty grain storage facilities and processing facilities. The effect of acclimation in S. zeamais adults to sublethal high temperature on their subsequent susceptibility to high temperatures was investigated. S. zeamais adults were acclimated to 36°C for 0 (as a control), 1, 3, and 5 h, and then were exposed at 43, 47, 51, and 55°C for different time intervals respectively. Acclimation to sublethal high temperature significantly reduced subsequent susceptibility of S. zeamais adults to lethal high temperatures of 43, 47, 51, and 55°C, although the mortality of S. zeamais adults significantly increased with increasing exposure time at lethal high temperatures. The mortality of S. zeamais adults with 1, 3, and 5 h of acclimation to 36°C was significantly lower than that of S. zeamais adults without acclimation when exposed to the same lethal high temperatures. The present results suggest that the whole facility should be heated to target lethal high temperature as soon as possible, avoiding decreasing the control effectiveness of heat treatment due to the acclimation in stored product insects to sublethal temperature.

  3. Sublethal effects of atrazine on embryo-larval development of Rhinella arenarum (Anura: Bufonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svartz, Gabriela V; Herkovits, Jorge; Pérez-Coll, Cristina S

    2012-05-01

    Atrazine (ATR), one of the most widely used herbicides in the world, affects not only target organisms but also the biota in general. Here, the teratogenic and neurotoxic effects of ATR on Rhinella arenarum (South American toad) embryos, and larvae were evaluated by means of standardized bioassays during acute and chronic exposures. The herbicide had a significant incidence of malformations, with a Teratogenic Index (TI) of 3.28. The main effects were delayed development, reduced body size, microcephaly, axial flexures, wavy tail and edema. In addition, delayed development, reduced development of forelimbs, and edema were recorded at metamorphosis stages. Scanning electron microscopy allowed observing different degrees of cellular dissociation and persistent cilliar cells in specific regions like the adhesive structure and tail fin. Results obtained by ATR 24 h pulse exposures at six developmental stages pointed out blastula as the most susceptible developmental stage both for immediate and delayed adverse effects. A noteworthy recovery capacity from acute toxic effects was recorded from the neural plate stage onwards. Regarding neurotoxic effects, abnormal, and erratic swimming and spasmodic contractions were recorded. Both the teratogenic and neurotoxic effects reported in this study demonstrate the importance of evaluating sublethal effects in non-target organisms as they could imply reduced fitness of individuals and eventually a population decline. The Hazard Quotients (HQ) for ATR ranged from 0.14 to 10.80, and the fact that some of these values are above USEPA's level of concern indicate that ATR is likely a risk to R. arenarum.

  4. Haematological, blood biochemical and histopathological effects of sublethal cadmium and lead concentrations in common carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K.Khalesi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present research aimed at examining the effects of common carp (Cyprinus carpio exposure to sublethal concentrations of two non-essential heavy metals: cadmium (Cd: 8.4 mg/L and lead (Pb: 6.2 mg/L for 15 days to evaluate occurring biochemical and haematological effects. The examined parameters included haematocrit (Hct, haemoglobin (Hb, lymphocytes (Lym, neutrophils (Neu, total protein (TP, albumin (Alb, immunoglobulin M (IgM, glucose, red and white blood cells counts (RBC & WBC, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH, and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC. Exposure to both metals significantly (P<0.05 reduced the amounts of WBC and MCHC. MCV values decreased (P<0.05 after the Pb treatment but MCV estimates with Cd exposure showed no differences. MCH levels increased in both treatments (P<0.05 whereas Hct, Hb, RBC, Lym, and Neu following both metal exposures were almost similar to those in the control. IgM values were elevated in fish contaminated with both Pb and Cd (P<0.05. The exposed fish showed fusion of gill lamellae, vessel dilatation, hyperaemia, and hyperplasia of gill epithelial cells whereas muscle histology remained unchanged. The observed responses can be secondary to low heavy metals concentrations reflecting the trigger of stress reactions in affected fish

  5. The sub-lethal effects of repeated freezing in the woolly bear caterpillar Pyrrharctia isabella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Katie E; Sinclair, Brent J

    2011-04-01

    Repeated freeze-thaw cycles are common and are increasing in frequency with climate change in many temperate locations, yet understanding of their impact on freeze-tolerant insects is extremely limited. We investigated the effects of repeated freezing and thawing on the freeze-tolerant final instar caterpillars of the moth Pyrrharctia isabella (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) by subjecting individuals to either a single sustained 35 h freeze or five 7 h freezes. Sub-lethal effects were quantified with changes in three broad groups of measures: (1) cold hardiness, (2) metabolic rate and energy reserves and (3) survival after challenge with fungal spores. Repeated freeze-thaw cycles increased mortality to almost 30% and increased tissue damage in Malpighian tubules and hemocytes. Repeated freezing increased caterpillar glycerol concentration by 0.82 mol l(-1). There were no changes in metabolic rate or energy reserves with repeated freezing. For the first time, we report increased survival after immune challenge in caterpillars after freezing and suggest that this may be linked to wounding during freezing. We suggest that little repair of freezing damage is possible in P. isabella caterpillars and repeated freeze-thaw cycles may present significant challenges to survival in this species.

  6. Sublethal Effects of Spirodiclofen on Tetranychus urticae Koch_Pre-Ovipositional Females After Different Exposure Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Marčić

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sublethal effect of spirodiclofen on Tetranychus urticae females that survived different exposure times in the pre-ovipositional period was evaluated calculating two parameters - instantaneous rate of increase and net fertility - after six days of reproduction. The females were exposed to four concentrations/doses of the acaricide: 96 mg /L (0.24 μg/cm2, 48 mg/L(0.12 μg/cm2, 24 mg/L (0.06 μg/cm2 and 12 mg./L (0.03 μg/cm2 for 2, 6 and 24h in a leaf disc bioassay. After 24h exposure to 12 mg/L, instantaneous rate of increase was significantlyreduced (0.545; 0.634 in control, while significant reduction in net fertility (20.61; 28.57 in the control was recorded even after 2h exposure to the same concentration. The effect of all tested concentrations of spirodiclofen on both parameters increased with exposure time. The lowest values of instantaneous rate of increase (0.268 and net fertility (2.58 were recorded after 24h exposure to 96 mg/L. After 24h exposure, the concentration increase from 12 to 24 mg/L significantly reduced both parameters, while a further increase from 24 to 96 mg/L significantly reduced instantaneous rate of increase, but not net-fertility. The results regarding T. urticae population management are discussed.

  7. Haematological changes in Bufo maculatus treated with sublethal concentrations of Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Ikechukwu Ezemonye

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult Bufo maculatus was exposed to sublethal cadmium concentrations of 0.25, 0.50, 1.00 and 2.00 mg/L. The toxicant from which the cadmium concentrations were prepared was cadmium chloride (CdCl2.H2O. There were three replicate tanks per treatment and three individuals per tank including control groups. The hematologic alterations based on the examination of blood indices during the 28 days of exposure showed that total erythrocyte count (TEC, hematocrit (Hct and hemoglobin (Hb concentration decreased (P<0.05 relative to controls. The decline was concentration- dependent as concentration of cadmium increased. The decline in hemoglobin and hematocrit in the experimental organism could be due to a decrease in the synthesis or release of erythrocytes into the circulation or an increase in the rate of erythrocyte destruction inflicted by cadmium toxicity. There was significant (P<0.05 elevation in total leuko- leukocyte count (TLC with increase in the concen- cyte concentration of cadmium. The increase in total leukocyte count observed in this study could be attributed to a stimulation of the immune system in response to tissue damage caused by cadmium toxicity. The study has shown that the exposure of the Bufo maculatus toad to cadmium can inflict alterations in the hematologic indices, which could induce unfavorable physiological changes in the amphibian, which may lead to death. There is, therefore, the need to protect amphibians in order to sustain the biodiversity in the Nigerian Niger Delta ecological zone.

  8. Sublethal Effects of Neonicotinoid Insecticide on Calling Behavior and Pheromone Production of Tortricid Moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Roldán, Miguel A; Gemeno, César

    2017-09-01

    In moths, sexual behavior combines female sex pheromone production and calling behavior. The normal functioning of these periodic events requires an intact nervous system. Neurotoxic insecticide residues in the agroecosystem could impact the normal functioning of pheromone communication through alteration of the nervous system. In this study we assess whether sublethal concentrations of the neonicotinoid insecticide thiacloprid, that competitively modulates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the dendrite, affect pheromone production and calling behavior in adults of three economically important tortricid moth pests; Cydia pomonella (L.), Grapholita molesta (Busck), and Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller). Thiacloprid significantly reduced the amount of calling in C. pomonella females at LC 0.001 (a lethal concentration that kills only 1 in 10 5 individuals), and altered its calling period at LC 1 , and in both cases the effect was dose-dependent. In the other two species the effect was similar but started at higher LCs, and the effect was relatively small in L. botrana. Pheromone production was altered only in C. pomonella, with a reduction of the major compound, codlemone, and one minor component, starting at LC 10 . Since sex pheromones and neonicotinoids are used together in the management of these three species, our results could have implications regarding the interaction between these two pest control methods.

  9. Sublethal Effects of the Neonicotinoid Insecticide Thiamethoxam on the Transcriptome of the Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Teng-Fei; Wang, Yu-Fei; Liu, Fang; Qi, Lei; Yu, Lin-Sheng

    2017-12-05

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are now the most widely used insecticides in the world. Previous studies have indicated that sublethal doses of neonicotinoids impair learning, memory capacity, foraging, and immunocompetence in honey bees (Apis mellifera, Linnaeus) (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Despite these, few studies have been carried out on the molecular effects of neonicotinoids. In this study, we focus on the second-generation neonicotinoid thiamethoxam, which is currently widely used in agriculture to protect crops. Using high-throughput RNA-Seq, we investigated the transcriptome profile of honey bees after subchronic exposure to 10 ppb thiamethoxam over 10 d. In total, 609 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, of which 225 were upregulated and 384 were downregulated. Several genes, including vitellogenin, CSP3, defensin-1, Mrjp1, and Cyp6as5 were selected and further validated using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays. The functions of some DEGs were identified, and Gene Ontology-enrichment analysis showed that the enriched DEGs were mainly linked to metabolism, biosynthesis, and translation. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis showed that thiamethoxam affected biological processes including ribosomes, the oxidative phosphorylation pathway, tyrosine metabolism pathway, pentose and glucuronate interconversions, and drug metabolism. Overall, our results provide a basis for understanding the molecular mechanisms of the complex interactions between neonicotinoid insecticides and honey bees. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Sublethal Effects in Pest Management: A Surrogate Species Perspective on Fruit Fly Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Banks

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tephritid fruit flies are economically important orchard pests globally. While much effort has focused on controlling individual species with a combination of pesticides and biological control, less attention has been paid to managing assemblages of species. Although several tephritid species may co-occur in orchards/cultivated areas, especially in mixed-cropping schemes, their responses to pesticides may be highly variable. Furthermore, predictive efforts about toxicant effects are generally based on acute toxicity, with little or no regard to long-term population effects. Using a simple matrix model parameterized with life history data, we quantified the responses of several tephritid species to the sublethal effects of a toxicant acting on fecundity. Using a critical threshold to determine levels of fecundity reduction below which species are driven to local extinction, we determined that threshold levels vary widely for the three tephritid species. In particular, Bactrocera dorsalis was the most robust of the three species, followed by Ceratitis capitata, and then B. cucurbitae, suggesting individual species responses should be taken into account when planning for area-wide pest control. The rank-order of susceptibility contrasts with results from several field/lab studies testing the same species, suggesting that considering a combination of life history traits and individual species susceptibility is necessary for understanding population responses of species assemblages to toxicant exposure.

  11. Assessment of Mercury Bioaccumulation in Zebra Cichlid (Cichlasoma Nigrofasciatum Exposed to Sublethal Concentrations of Permethrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Banaee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aquatic ecosystems are frequently subjected to contamination by toxic heavy metals and pesticides, yet very little is known about the influence of pesticides on bioaccumulation of heavy metals in aquatic organisms. Mercury is a toxic metal with no known biological benefit to organisms. Bioavailability of mercury in aquatic environments depends on biological and non-biological parameters including other pollutants. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to determine the effects of permethrin on bioaccumulation of mercury in zebra cichlid. Methods: Acute toxicity (LC50 of permethrin and mercury chloride was evaluated by estimating mortality in Probit Model in SPSS (version 19.0 IBM. In sub-lethal toxicity, zebra cichlid (Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum was exposed to various concentrations of permethrin (0.0, 0.40, 0.80, 1.20 and 1.60 µg.L-1 combined with 20 µg.L-1 mercury chloride for 15 days. At the end of the experiment, mercury concentrations were measured using ICP-OES-Perkin elmer (optima 7300-DV. Results: 96 h LC50 values of permethrin and mercury for C. nigrofasciatum were calculated to be 17.55 µg.L-1 and 140.38 µg.L-1, respectively. Our results clearly showed that the bioaccumulation of mercury in the specimens increased with increasing concentrations of permethrin to 1.20 and 1.60 µg.L-1. Conclusion: Increasing the concentration of permethrin had synergistic effects on the bioaccumulation of mercury in fish.

  12. Evaluating sublethal indicators of stress in Asiatic clams (Corbicula fluminea) caged in an urban stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, M.C.; Belin, J.I. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences

    1998-12-31

    Freshwater bivalves have been used extensively to monitor chemical accumulation in field exposures, although little information is available on the use of biomarker measurements in field exposures with bivalves. DNA strand breakage, growth rate, condition index and percentage tissue water were measured in freshwater Asiatic clams (Corbicula fluminea) exposed in-situ in a stream that receives urban and industrial stormwater runoff and in a non-impacted reference stream. After 4 weeks exposure, DNA strand lengths in foot tissue from Trail Creek-exposed clams were significantly shorter than DNA from reference clams. These results suggest a reduction in DNA integrity in Trail Creek-exposed clams, possibly indicating exposure to genotoxic chemicals. No significant differences were observed in the growth rates of clams. However, a significant inverse relationship was detected between condition index and % tissue water for all clams. Furthermore, site-specific differences in percentage tissue water and condition indices were observed after 2 and 10 weeks exposure. For this study DNA strand breakage, condition indices, and tissue hydration appear to be more sensitive indicators of sublethal toxicity than growth.

  13. Integrated microfluidic technology for sub-lethal and behavioral marine ecotoxicity biotests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yushi; Reyes Aldasoro, Constantino Carlos; Persoone, Guido; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2015-06-01

    Changes in behavioral traits exhibited by small aquatic invertebrates are increasingly postulated as ethically acceptable and more sensitive endpoints for detection of water-born ecotoxicity than conventional mortality assays. Despite importance of such behavioral biotests, their implementation is profoundly limited by the lack of appropriate biocompatible automation, integrated optoelectronic sensors, and the associated electronics and analysis algorithms. This work outlines development of a proof-of-concept miniaturized Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) platform for rapid water toxicity tests based on changes in swimming patterns exhibited by Artemia franciscana (Artoxkit M™) nauplii. In contrast to conventionally performed end-point analysis based on counting numbers of dead/immobile specimens we performed a time-resolved video data analysis to dynamically assess impact of a reference toxicant on swimming pattern of A. franciscana. Our system design combined: (i) innovative microfluidic device keeping free swimming Artemia sp. nauplii under continuous microperfusion as a mean of toxin delivery; (ii) mechatronic interface for user-friendly fluidic actuation of the chip; and (iii) miniaturized video acquisition for movement analysis of test specimens. The system was capable of performing fully programmable time-lapse and video-microscopy of multiple samples for rapid ecotoxicity analysis. It enabled development of a user-friendly and inexpensive test protocol to dynamically detect sub-lethal behavioral end-points such as changes in speed of movement or distance traveled by each animal.

  14. The concerted action of lactoferrin and bacteriophages in the clearance of bacteria in sublethally infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimecki, Michał; Artym, Jolanta; Kocieba, Maja; Weber-Dabrowska, Beata; Lusiak-Szelachowska, Marzena; Górski, Andrzej

    2008-02-07

    Both lactoferrin (LF) and bacteriophages are potent antibacterial agents. LF is contained in the secretory fluids of mammals and bacteriophages are specific bacterial viruses. The aim of this investigation was to determine whether combined treatment of infected mice may allow lowering the therapeutic dose of specific bacteriophages for Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. CBA mice were infected intravenously (i.v.) with sublethal doses of E. coli or S. aureus and the specific T4 or A5 bacteriophages, respectively, were administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) or per os one hour following infection. The numbers of colony-forming units (CFUs) were determined in the livers after 24 hours. Comparative administration of bacteriophages i.p. or per os showed that both routes of administration were equally efficacious in the protective action of bacteriophages. The bacteriophages were still very potent in reducing CFU numbers in the liver at a dose of 10(5)/mouse. Application of bovine lactoferrin (LF), 10 mg i.v., 24 h before infection, was also very effective in reducing CFU numbers. Using suboptimal (10(3)-10(4)) doses of bacteriophages and administration of LF, a more potent protective effect in reducing the CFU numbers in the infected mice was demonstrated. The combined effect of LF and bacteriophages in reducing CFU numbers was significantly higher than the effects of either agent alone. The study demonstrated that the combined application of LF and bacteriophages can significantly lower (1000 times) the effective dose of bacteriophages in reducing CFU numbers in infected mice.

  15. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) by chlorpyrifos at sublethal concentrations: Methodological aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Wel, H.; Welling, W.

    1989-04-01

    Acetylcholinesterase activity is a potential biochemical indicator of toxic stress in fish and a sensitive parameter for testing water for the presence of organophosphates. A number of methodological aspects regarding the determination of the in vivo effect of chlorpyrifos on acetylcholinesterase in guppies have been investigated. It was found that with acetylthiocholine as a substrate, the contribution of pseudocholinesterase to the total cholinesterase activity can be neglected. Protection of acetylcholinesterase of guppies exposed to chlorpyrifos from additional, artifactual in vitro enzyme inhibition during homogenization is necessary. Very low concentrations of acetone in the exposure medium, resulting from dilution of the stock solution of chlorpyrifos in acetone, can result in large decreases in the oxygen content of this medium. This may affect the uptake rate of the toxic compound and, thereby, cholinesterase inhibition. Very low, sublethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos result in high inhibition levels of acetylcholinesterase (80-90%) in guppies within 2 weeks of continuous exposure. Recovery of the enzyme activity occurs after the exposed animals are kept in clean medium for 4 days, but the rate of recovery is considerably lower than the rate of inhibition.

  16. Sub-lethal effects of herbicides penoxsulam, imazamox, fluridone and glyphosate on Delta Smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jiali; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Ramírez-Duarte, Wilson F; Bolotaolo, Melissa B; Lam, Chelsea H; Pandey, Pramod K; Hung, Tien-Chieh; Stillway, Marie E; Zweig, Leanna; Caudill, Jeffrey; Lin, Li; Teh, Swee J

    2018-02-01

    Concerns regarding non-target toxicity of new herbicides used to control invasive aquatic weeds in the San Francisco Estuary led us to compare sub-lethal toxicity of four herbicides (penoxsulam, imazamox, fluridone, and glyphosate) on an endangered fish species Delta Smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus). We measured 17β-estradiol (E2) and glutathione (GSH) concentrations in liver, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in brain of female and male fish after 6 h of exposure to each of the four herbicides. Our results indicate that fluridone and glyphosate disrupted the E2 concentration and decreased glutathione concentration in liver, whereas penoxsulam, imazamox, and fluridone inhibited brain AChE activity. E2 concentrations were significantly increased in female and male fish exposed to 0.21 μM of fluridone and in male fish exposed to 0.46, 4.2, and 5300 μM of glyphosate. GSH concentrations decreased in males exposed to fluridone at 2.8 μM and higher, and glyphosate at 4.2 μM. AChE activity was significantly inhibited in both sexes exposed to penoxsulam, imazamox, and fluridone, and more pronounced inhibition was observed in females. The present study demonstrates the potential detrimental effects of these commonly used herbicides on Delta Smelt. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sublethal toxicity of quinalphos on oxidative stress and antioxidant responses in a freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemalatha, Devan; Amala, Antony; Rangasamy, Basuvannan; Nataraj, Bojan; Ramesh, Mathan

    2016-11-01

    Extensive use of quinalphos, an organophosphorus pesticide, is likely to reach the aquatic environment and thereby posing a health concern for aquatic organisms. Oxidative stress and antioxidant responses may be good indicators of pesticide contamination in aquatic organisms. The data on quinalphos induced oxidative stress and antioxidant responses in carps are scanty. This study is aimed to assess the two sublethal concentrations of quinalphos (1.09 and 2.18 μL L -1 ) on oxidative stress and antioxidant responses of Cyprinus carpio for a period of 20 days. In liver, the malondialdehyde level was found to be significantly increased in both the concentrations. The results of the antioxidant parameters obtained show a significant increase in superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione-S-transferase activity in liver of fish. These results demonstrate that environmentally relevant levels of the insecticide quinalphos can cause oxidative damage and increase the antioxidant scavenging capacity in C. carpio. This may reflect the potential role of these parameters as useful biomarkers for the assessment of pesticide contamination. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1399-1406, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Analysis of lethal and sublethal impacts of environmental disasters on sperm whales using stochastic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackleh, Azmy S; Chiquet, Ross A; Ma, Baoling; Tang, Tingting; Caswell, Hal; Veprauskas, Amy; Sidorovskaia, Natalia

    2017-08-01

    Mathematical models are essential for combining data from multiple sources to quantify population endpoints. This is especially true for species, such as marine mammals, for which data on vital rates are difficult to obtain. Since the effects of an environmental disaster are not fixed, we develop time-varying (nonautonomous) matrix population models that account for the eventual recovery of the environment to the pre-disaster state. We use these models to investigate how lethal and sublethal impacts (in the form of reductions in the survival and fecundity, respectively) affect the population's recovery process. We explore two scenarios of the environmental recovery process and include the effect of demographic stochasticity. Our results provide insights into the relationship between the magnitude of the disaster, the duration of the disaster, and the probability that the population recovers to pre-disaster levels or a biologically relevant threshold level. To illustrate this modeling methodology, we provide an application to a sperm whale population. This application was motivated by the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion in the Gulf of Mexico that has impacted a wide variety of species populations including oysters, fish, corals, and whales.

  19. Sub-lethal cadmium exposure increases phytochelatin concentrations in the aquatic snail Lymnaea stagnalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SF, Gonçalves [Department of Biology & CESAM, Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); SK, Davies [Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Bennett, M. [Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Raab, A.; Feldmann, J. [TESLA, Department of Chemistry, University of Aberdeen, Meston Walk, Aberdeen AB24 3UE, Scotland (United Kingdom); Kille, P. [Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3US (United Kingdom); Loureiro, S. [Department of Biology & CESAM, Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); DJ, Spurgeon [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Benson Lane, Wallingford OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); JG, Bundy, E-mail: j.bundy@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    Phytochelatins are metal-binding metabolites found in almost all plant species and some animal groups, including nematodes and annelids, where they can play an important role in detoxifying metals such as cadmium. Species from several other taxa contain a phytochelatin synthase (PCS) gene orthologue, including molluscs, indicating they may have the potential to synthesize phytochelatins. However, the presence of a gene alone does not demonstrate that it plays a functional role in metal detoxification. In the present study, we show that the aquatic snail Lymnaea stagnalis produced both penta- and heptapeptide phytochelatins (i.e. phytochelatin-2 and phytochelatin-3), and their levels increased in response to sub-lethal levels of cadmium. - Highlights: • Little is known about the role of phytochelatins in metal detoxification in animals. • We detected phytochelatins (PC{sub 2} and PC{sub 3}) in a mollusc species, Lymnaea stagnalis. • Phytochelatins increased in Lymnaea stagnalis when exposed to cadmium. • Future research on phytochelatin responses in molluscs would be valuable.

  20. Lethal and sub-lethal effects of UVB on juvenile Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Pulmonata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruelas, Debbie S; Karentz, Deneb; Sullivan, John T

    2006-11-01

    Although Schistosoma mansoni occurs mainly in the tropics, where intense levels of solar radiation are present, the impact of ultraviolet (UV) light on schistosome transmission is not known. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential effects of UVB (290-320nm) on juvenile Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail intermediate host of S. mansoni. Albino and wild-type snails were exposed to doses of UVB from UV-fluorescent lamps, and the following were measured: survival, photoreactivation (light-mediated DNA repair), effects on feeding behavior, and morphological tissue abnormalities. Irradiation with UVB is lethal to B. glabrata in a dose-dependent manner. Exposure to white light subsequent to UVB irradiation enhances survival, probably by photoreactivation. The shell offers some, but not complete, protection. Experiments in which UVB transmittance through the shell was blocked with black nail polish suggest that injury to both exposed (headfoot) and shell-enclosed (mantle and visceral mass) tissues contributes to mortality in lethally irradiated snails. Wild-type (pigmented) snails are less susceptible to lethal effects of UVB than albino snails, and they may be more capable of photoreactivation. UVB exposure inhibits snail feeding behavior, and causes tentacle forks and growths on the headfoot. Thus, UVB may influence the life cycle of S. mansoni by both lethal and sub-lethal damage to the snail intermediate host. However, the ability of snails to photoreactivate may mitigate these effects.

  1. Pediatric specific shock index accurately identifies severely injured children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, Shannon N; Ross, James T; Partrick, David A; Tong, Suhong; Bensard, Denis D

    2015-02-01

    Shock index (SI) (heart rate/systolic blood pressure)>0.9 predicts mortality in adult trauma patients. We hypothesized that age adjusted SI could more accurately predict outcomes in children. Retrospective review of children age 4-16 years admitted to two trauma centers between 1/07 and 6/13 following blunt trauma with an injury severity score (ISS)>15 was performed. We evaluated the ability of SI>0.9 at emergency department presentation and elevated shock index, pediatric age adjusted (SIPA) to predict outcomes. SIPA was defined by maximum normal HR and minimum normal SBP by age. Cutoffs included SI>1.22 (age 4-6), >1.0 (7-12), and >0.9 (13-16). Among 543 children, 50% of children had an SI>0.9 but this fell to 28% using age adjusted SI (SIPA). SIPA demonstrated improved discrimination of severe injury relative to SI: ISS>30: 37% vs 26%; blood transfusion within the first 24 hours: 27% vs 20%; Grade III liver/spleen laceration requiring blood transfusion: 41% vs 26%; and in-hospital mortality: 11% vs 7%. A pediatric specific shock index (SIPA) more accurately identifies children who are most severely injured, have intraabdominal injury requiring transfusion, and are at highest risk of death when compared to shock index unadjusted for age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The role of resilience in rebuilding lives of injured veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward, K-L; Ousey, K

    2016-10-02

    The aim of this commentary is to discuss potential clinical implications of introducing resilience-building interventions into care for veterans who are living with a war wound. Some war veterans are expected to live with a wound upon discharge from an active military role and also to fit into civilian life. These lifestyle adjustments can tax the person's coping abilities and in that context may hinder successful adaptation. The experience of living with a wound or wounds, either acute or chronic, is connected to losses, including loss of mobility, loss of financial capacity (unable to work at times) and losses attached to changed social roles. Psychological stress is also a common experience for veterans returning to civilian life. Psychological stress is associated with impaired wound healing. Modern health practice is centred on symptom reduction and working with pathology, however, working with people's adaptive behaviours such as resilience has not been considered. Using the resilience model as a conceptual framework health-care professionals can engage with veterans towards resilience within the context of their personal experience of ill health. Using this contemporary framework for considering these aspects of care has the potential to facilitate resistance to stressors associated with being injured, possibly preventing quality-of-life impairments. There are no declarations of interest.

  3. Exenatide promotes regeneration of injured rat sciatic nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Kuyucu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage to peripheral nerves results in partial or complete dysfunction. After peripheral nerve injuries, a full functional recovery usually cannot be achieved despite the standard surgical repairs. Neurotrophic factors and growth factors stimulate axonal growth and support the viability of nerve cells. The objective of this study is to investigate the neurotrophic effect of exenatide (glucagon like peptide-1 analog in a rat sciatic nerve neurotmesis model. We injected 10 μg/d exenatide for 12 weeks in the experimental group (n = 12 and 0.1 mL/d saline for 12 weeks in the control group (n = 12. We evaluated nerve regeneration by conducting electrophysiological and motor functional tests. Histological changes were evaluated at weeks 1, 3, 6, and 9. Nerve regeneration was monitored using stereomicroscopy. The electrophysiological and motor functions in rats treated with exenatide were improved at 12 weeks after surgery. Histological examination revealed a significant increase in the number of axons in injured sciatic nerve following exenatide treatment confirmed by stereomicroscopy. In an experimentally induced neurotmesis model in rats, exenatide had a positive effect on nerve regeneration evidenced by electromyography, functional motor tests, histological and stereomicroscopic findings.

  4. Rewiring the injured CNS: lessons from the optic nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, Larry; Yin, Yuqin

    2008-01-01

    The optic nerve offers a number of advantages for investigating mechanisms that govern axon regeneration in the CNS. Although mature retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) normally show no ability to regenerate injured axons through the optic nerve, this situation can be partially reversed by inducing an inflammatory response in the eye. The secretion of a previously unknown growth factor, oncomodulin, along with co-factors, causes RGCs to undergo dramatic changes in gene expression and regenerate lengthy axons into the highly myelinated optic nerve. By themselves, strategies that counteract inhibitory signals associated with myelin and the glial scar are insufficient to promote extensive regeneration in this system. However, combinatorial treatments that activate neurons' intrinsic growth state and overcome inhibitory signals result in dramatic axon regeneration in vivo. Because of the ease of introducing trophic factors, soluble receptors, drugs, or viruses expressing any gene or small interfering RNA of interest into RGCs, this system is ideal for identifying intracellular signaling pathways, transcriptional cascades, and ligand-receptor interactions that enable axon regeneration to occur in the CNS and to develop means to augment this process. PMID:17610877

  5. Relationship between stress ankle radiographs and injured ligaments on MRI

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    Lee, Kyoung Min; Chung, Chin Youb; Chung, Myung Ki; Won, Sung Hun; Lee, Seung Yeol; Park, Moon Seok [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kyungki (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Soon-Sun [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Biomedical Research Institute, Kyungki (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    This study was performed to investigate the relationship between the injured lateral ankle ligaments on MRI and stress ankle radiographs. Two hundred and twenty-nine consecutive patients (mean age 35.5 years, SD 14.6 years; 136 males and 93 females) that underwent ankle stress radiographs and MRI for lateral ankle instability were included. Tibiotalar tilt angle and anterior translation of talus were measured on stress ankle radiographs. Degree of lateral ligaments (anterior talofibular, calcaneofibular, and posterior talofibular) and deltoid ligament injuries were evaluated and scored as intact (0), partial injury (1), and complete injury (2) on MR images. Effusion of ankle joint was also recorded. The effects of gender, age, injuries of ligaments, and ankle joint effusion on stress radiographs were statistically analyzed. Gender (p = 0.010), age (p = 0.020), and anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) injury (p < 0.001) were the factors significantly affecting tibiotalar tilt angle. Posterior talofibular ligament (PTFL) injury (p = 0.014) was found to be the only significant factor affecting the anterior translation on the anterior drawer radiographs. ATFL injury and PTFL injury on MRI significantly affected tibiotalar tilt angle and anterior drawer on stress radiographs. Other factors, such as age and gender, need to be considered in evaluating radiographic lateral ankle instability. (orig.)

  6. Lactate and the injured brain: friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzat, Pierre; Oddo, Mauro

    2014-04-01

    Energy metabolism is increasingly recognized as a key factor in the pathogenesis of acute brain injury (ABI). We review the role of cerebral lactate metabolism and summarize evidence showing that lactate may act as supplemental fuel after ABI. The role of cerebral lactate has shifted from a waste product to a potentially preferential fuel and signaling molecule. According to the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle model, glycolytic lactate might act as glucose-sparing substrate. Lactate also is emerging as a key signal to regulate cerebral blood flow (CBF) and a neuroprotective agent after experimental ABI. Clinical investigation using cerebral microdialysis shows the existence of two main lactate patterns, ischemic - from anaerobic metabolism - and nonischemic, from activated glycolysis, whereby lactate can be used as supplemental energy fuel. Preliminary clinical data suggests hypertonic lactate solutions improve cerebral energy metabolism and are an effective treatment for elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) after ABI. Lactate can be a supplemental fuel for the injured brain and is important to regulate glucose metabolism and CBF. Exogenous lactate supplementation may be neuroprotective after experimental ABI. Recent clinical data from ABI patients suggest hypertonic lactate solutions may be a valid therapeutic option for secondary energy dysfunction and elevated ICP.

  7. Relationship between stress ankle radiographs and injured ligaments on MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung Min; Chung, Chin Youb; Kwon, Soon-Sun; Chung, Myung Ki; Won, Sung Hun; Lee, Seung Yeol; Park, Moon Seok

    2013-11-01

    This study was performed to investigate the relationship between the injured lateral ankle ligaments on MRI and stress ankle radiographs. Two hundred and twenty-nine consecutive patients (mean age 35.5 years, SD 14.6 years; 136 males and 93 females) that underwent ankle stress radiographs and MRI for lateral ankle instability were included. Tibiotalar tilt angle and anterior translation of talus were measured on stress ankle radiographs. Degree of lateral ligaments (anterior talofibular, calcaneofibular, and posterior talofibular) and deltoid ligament injuries were evaluated and scored as intact (0), partial injury (1), and complete injury (2) on MR images. Effusion of ankle joint was also recorded. The effects of gender, age, injuries of ligaments, and ankle joint effusion on stress radiographs were statistically analyzed. Gender (p = 0.010), age (p = 0.020), and anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) injury (p ligament (PTFL) injury (p = 0.014) was found to be the only significant factor affecting the anterior translation on the anterior drawer radiographs. ATFL injury and PTFL injury on MRI significantly affected tibiotalar tilt angle and anterior drawer on stress radiographs. Other factors, such as age and gender, need to be considered in evaluating radiographic lateral ankle instability.

  8. Social reintegration of traumatic brain-injured: the French experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truelle, J-L; Wild, K Von; Onillon, M; Montreuil, M

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) may lead to specific handicap, often hidden, mainly due to cognitive and behavioural sequelae. Social re-entry is a long-term, fluctuant and precarious process. The French experience will be illustrated by 6 initiatives answering to 6 challenges to do with TBI specificities:1. bridging the gap, between initial rehabilitation and community re-entry, via transitional units dealing with assessment, retraining, social/vocational orientation and follow-up. Today, there are 30 such units based on multidisciplinary teams.2. assessing recovery by TBI-specific and validated evaluation tools: EBIS holistic document, BNI Screening of higher cerebral functions, Glasgow outcome extended, and QOLIBRI, a TBI-specific quality of life tool.3. promoting specific re-entry programmes founded on limited medication, ecological neuro-psychological rehabilitation, exchange groups and workshops, violence prevention, continuity of care, environmental structuration, and "resocialisation".4. taking into account the "head injured family"5. facilitating recovery after sports-related concussion6. facing medico-legal consequences and compensation: In that perspective, we developed guidelines for TBI-specific expert appraisal, including mandatory neuro-psychological assessment, family interview and an annual forum gathering lawyers and health professionals.

  9. Retaliatory attitudes and violent behaviors among assault-injured youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Johnson, Sara B; Haynie, Denise L; Chung, Shang-en; Cheng, Tina L

    2012-03-01

    To examine the effect of retaliatory attitudes on subsequent violent behavior and fight-related injuries among youth who presented to the emergency department with assault injuries. Assault-injured youth were interviewed at baseline, 6 months, and 18 months to assess fighting behavior, retaliatory attitudes, weapon carrying, and injury history as part of a larger randomized control trial. Two emergency departments in urban areas were selected for the study. A total of 129 adolescents aged 10-15 years were included in the study. Fighting behavior, assault injury, weapon carrying, and aggressive behavior. Higher retaliatory attitudes at baseline were associated with more aggression and a higher frequency of fighting over time. Retaliatory attitudes may fuel cycles of violence among youth. Medical professionals in acute care settings have an opportunity to identify youths at risk of future assault injury by assessing retaliation, providing anticipatory guidance, and referring to intervention programs. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  10. Management of Sexual Disorders in Spinal Cord Injured Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander R Vaccaro

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injured (SCI patients have sexual disorders including erectile dysfunction (ED, impotence, priapism, ejaculatory dysfunction and infertility. Treatments for erectile dysfunction include four steps. Step 1 involves smoking cessation, weight loss, and increasing physical activity. Step 2 is phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5I such as Sildenafil (Viagra, intracavernous injections of Papaverine or prostaglandins, and vacuum constriction devices. Step 3 is a penile prosthesis, and Step 4 is sacral neuromodulation (SNM. Priapism can be resolved spontaneously if there is no ischemia found on blood gas measurement or by Phenylephrine. For anejaculatory dysfunction, massage, vibrator, electrical stimulation and direct surgical biopsy can be used to obtain sperm which can then be used for intra-uterine or in-vitro fertilization. Infertility treatment in male SCI patients involves a combination of the above treatments for erectile and anejaculatory dysfunctions. The basic approach to and management of sexual dysfunction in female SCI patients are similar as for men but do not require treatment for erectile or ejaculatory problems.

  11. Wound healing process of injured pulp tissues with emdogain gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaida, Hikaru; Hamachi, Takafumi; Anan, Hisashi; Maeda, Katsumasa

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the wound healing process of injured pulp tissues with Emdogain gel (EMD). Pulpotomy was performed for the first molars of the mandibles in rats. EMD or Vitapex (VIT)-containing calcium hydroxide was applied to the exposed pulp tissues. The treated teeth were extracted after 7, 14, and 28 days and prepared for histologic examination. In the VIT-treated group, the number of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta)-expressing macrophages initially increased, followed by that of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1)-expressing macrophages. The number of cells expressing bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) gradually increased with reparative dentin formation. Meanwhile, in the EMD-treated group, cells expressing IL-1 beta or TGF-beta1 were few. However, the number of BMP-expressing cells, partly macrophages, increased in the early phase, and large amounts of reparative dentin were observed. This study demonstrated that different healing processes existed for EMD and VIT. BMP-expressing macrophages might play important roles in reparative dentin formation.

  12. Plasma fibronectin promotes thrombus growth and stability in injured arterioles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Heyu; Yuen, Peter S. T.; Papalia, Jessie M.; Trevithick, Jane E.; Sakai, Takao; Fässler, Reinhard; Hynes, Richard O.; Wagner, Denisa D.

    2003-01-01

    Mice lacking both of the best-known platelet ligands, von Willebrand factor and fibrinogen, can still form occlusive thrombi in injured arterioles. The platelets of these animals accumulate excessive amounts of fibronectin (FN). These observations led us to examine the contribution of plasma FN (pFN) to thrombus formation. Inactivation of the FN gene in FN conditional knockout mice reduced pFN levels to <2% and platelet FN to ≈20% of the levels in similarly treated control mice. The mice were then observed in a model of arterial injury to evaluate their capacity to form thrombi. The deficiency of pFN did not affect the initial platelet adhesion, but a delay of several minutes in thrombus formation was observed in the arterioles of pFN-deficient mice as compared with control mice. The thrombi that formed in the absence of pFN were stably anchored to the vessel wall but continuously shed platelets or small platelet clumps, thus slowing their growth significantly; the platelet/platelet cohesion was apparently diminished. Consequently the occlusion of pFN-deficient vessels was delayed, with the majority of vessels remaining patent at the end of the 40-min observation period. We conclude that, in addition to von Willebrand factor and fibrinogen, FN plays a significant role in thrombus initiation, growth, and stability at arterial shear rates and that deficiency in each of the three platelet ligands has its own specific impact on platelet plug formation. PMID:12606706

  13. Knockout of CD8 delays reendothelialization and accelerates neointima formation in injured arteries of mouse via TNF-α inhibiting the endothelial cells migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Meng Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Delayed or impaired reendothelialization is a major cause of stent thrombosis in the interventional treatment of coronary heart disease. T cells are involved in neointima formation of injured arteries. However, the regulated mechanism of reendothelialization and the role of CD8 T cell in reendothelialization are unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: Immunofluorescence staining showed that CD8 positive cells were increased in wire injured femoral artery of mice. On day 21 after injury, elastin staining showed that knockout of CD8 (CD8(-/- significantly increased intimal thickness and a ratio of intima to media by 1.8 folds and 1.9 folds respectively in injured arteries. Evans blue staining showed that knockout of CD8 delayed the reendothelialization area on day 7 after injury (18.8±0.5% versus 42.1±5.6%, p<0.05. In vitro, a migration assay revealed that CD8(-/- T cells co-cultured with WT macrophages significantly inhibited the migration of the endothelial cells (ECs; compared to CD4(+ T cells, and CD8(+ T cells could promote the ECs migration. Furthermore, real-time PCR analysis showed that knockout of CD8 increased the level of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α in injured arteries and cytometric bead cytokine array showed that TNF-α was elevated in cultured CD8(-/- T cells. Finally, a wound-healing assay showed that recombinant TNF-α significantly inhibited the migration of ECs. CONCLUSION: Our study suggested that CD8(+ T cells could promote the reendothelialization and inhibit the neointima formation after the artery wire injury, and this effect is at least partly dependent on decreasing TNF-α production promoting ECs migration.

  14. Exposure of the thorax to a sublethal blast wave causes a hydrodynamic pulse that leads to perivenular inflammation in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, J Marc; Pampori, Adam; Keledjian, Kaspar; Tosun, Cigdem; Schwartzbauer, Gary; Ivanova, Svetlana; Gerzanich, Volodymyr

    2014-07-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by an explosive blast (blast-TBI) is postulated to result, in part, from transvascular transmission to the brain of a hydrodynamic pulse (a.k.a., volumetric blood surge, ballistic pressure wave, hydrostatic shock, or hydraulic shock) induced in major intrathoracic blood vessels. This mechanism of blast-TBI has not been demonstrated directly. We tested the hypothesis that a blast wave impacting the thorax would induce a hydrodynamic pulse that would cause pathological changes in the brain. We constructed a Thorax-Only Blast Injury Apparatus (TOBIA) and a Jugular-Only Blast Injury Apparatus (JOBIA). TOBIA delivered a collimated blast wave to the right lateral thorax of a rat, precluding direct impact on the cranium. JOBIA delivered a blast wave to the fluid-filled port of an extracorporeal intravenous infusion device whose catheter was inserted retrograde into the jugular vein, precluding lung injury. Long Evans rats were subjected to sublethal injury by TOBIA or JOBIA. Blast injury induced by TOBIA was characterized by apnea and diffuse bilateral hemorrhagic injury to the lungs associated with a transient reduction in pulse oximetry signals. Immunolabeling 24 h after injury by TOBIA showed up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha, ED-1, sulfonylurea receptor 1 (Sur1), and glial fibrillary acidic protein in veins or perivenular tissues and microvessels throughout the brain. The perivenular inflammatory effects induced by TOBIA were prevented by ligating the jugular vein and were reproduced using JOBIA. We conclude that blast injury to the thorax leads to perivenular inflammation, Sur1 up-regulation, and reactive astrocytosis resulting from the induction of a hydrodynamic pulse in the vasculature.

  15. Tumoral calcinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao M

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumoral calcinosis is an unusual clinical disorder in which large masses of calcium are deposited in the periarticular tissues of the body. The characteristic clinical, radiological and histopathological features of this disorder occurring in three middle aged female patients are reported.

  16. Pituitary Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health and Human Development (NICHD) National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) See all related organizations Publications Tumores de la glándula pituitaria Order NINDS Publications Definition The pituitary is a small, bean-sized gland ...

  17. Benign Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cannot spread or invade other parts of your body. Even so, they can be dangerous if they press on vital organs, such as your brain. Tumors are made up of extra cells. Normally, cells grow and divide to form new cells as your body needs them. When cells grow old, they die, ...

  18. [Neonatal tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Carla; Rocha, Gustavo; Grilo, Marta; Bianchi, Ricardo; Sotto Mayor, Tânia; Monteiro, Joaquim; Guimarães, Hercília

    2010-01-01

    Tumors affecting the fetus and newborn differ from those found in older children and adults, leading to new diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. To evaluate the main clinical aspects related to neonatal tumors. Retrospective analysis of clinical data from newborn patients admitted to the Service of Neonatology of São João Hospital between 1996 and 2006, with the diagnosis of tumor or neoplasia. Total = 32 cases, 16M/16F, birth weight: 3146 g (965-4590), gestational age 38 weeks (28-41), seven (22%) preterm, C-section rate 75% (n = 24), two with EXIT procedure. Teratoma (n = 8); lymphangioma (n = 7), neuroblastoma (n = 6), haemangioma (n = 5), other solid tumors (n = 6); acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 1). Prenatal diagnosis 50% (n = 16). Teratoma: immature (n = 3); mature (n = 5), sacrococcygeal location (n = 5); cervical (n = 3); total macroscopic resection (n = 8). Cystic lymphangioma: cervical location (n = 5); cervicothoracic location (n = 1); thoracoabdominal location (n = 1); total macroscopic resection (n = 7). NEUROBLASTOMA: abdominal location (n = 5); cervical location (n = 1); deletion 1p (n = 0); oncogene n-myc amplification (n = 0); stage I (n = 1); IIB (n = 1); III (n = 3); IV (n = 1). Chemotherapy (n = 5), according to the (n = 2), surgical resection (n = 4). Four patients remain without disease and two present with residual disease. OTHER SOLID TUMORS: Large haemangiomas (n = 5); scaly papiloma (n = 1); juvenile xanthogranuloma (n = 1); lipoblastoma (n = 1); nephroma (n = 1); nonclassified neoplasm, possible nervous sheath sarcoma (n = 1). All patients showed a good clinical evolution. Acute lymphoblast leukemia (n = 1), deceased. Pre-natal diagnosis allows the planning of a careful multidisciplinary approach. In these rare entities it is crucial to pursue international collaboration, ideally workgroup committees, aiming for better clinical knowledge and an improved prognosis.

  19. Muscle injury in rats induces upregulation of inflammatory cytokines in injured muscle and calcitonin gene-related peptide in dorsal root ganglia innervating the injured muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Yoshihiro; Miyagi, Masayuki; Inoue, Gen; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Kamoda, Hiroto; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Orita, Sumihisa; Suzuki, Miyako; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Inage, Kazuhide; Kubota, Go; Sainoh, Takeshi; Sato, Jun; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Ohtori, Seiji

    2016-10-01

    In this study we evaluated the relationships among the behavioral changes after muscle injury, histological changes, changes in inflammatory cytokines in the injured muscle, and changes in the sensory nervous system innervating the muscle in rats. We established a model of muscle injury in rats using a dropped weight. Behavior was assessed using the CatWalk system. Subsequently, bilateral gastrocnemius muscles and dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) were resected. Muscles were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and inflammatory cytokines in injured muscles were assayed. DRGs were immunostained for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Changes of behavior and upregulation of inflammatory cytokines in injured muscles subsided within 2 days of injury. Repaired tissue was observed 3 weeks after injury. However, upregulation of CGRP in DRG neurons continued for 2 weeks after injury. These findings may explain in part the pathological mechanism of persistent muscle pain. Muscle Nerve 54: 776-782, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Muscle & Nerve Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Sagittal plane biomechanics cannot injure the ACL during sidestep cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Scott G; Huang, Xuemei; Su, Anne; Van Den Bogert, Antonie J

    2004-10-01

    Knee joint sagittal plane forces are a proposed mechanism of anterior cruciate ligament injury during sport movements such as sidestep cutting. Ligament force magnitudes for these movements however, remain unknown. The need to examine injury-causing events suggests elucidation via model-based investigations is possible. Using this approach, the current study determined whether sagittal plane knee loading during sidestep cutting could in isolation injure the anterior cruciate ligament. Experiments were performed on subject-specific forward dynamic musculoskeletal models, generated from data obtained from 10 male and 10 female athletes. Models were optimized to simulate subject-specific cutting movements. Random perturbations (n=5000) were applied to initial contact conditions and quadriceps/hamstrings activation levels to simulate their effect on peak 3D knee loads. Injury via the sagittal plane mechanism was based on the criterion of an anterior drawer force greater than 2000 N. Realistic neuromuscular perturbations produced significant increases in external knee anterior force and valgus and internal rotation moments. Peak anterior drawer force never exceeded 2000 N in any model, and thus failed to cause anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Valgus loads reached values that were high enough to rupture the ligament, occurring more frequently in females than in males. Sagittal plane knee joint forces cannot rupture the anterior cruciate ligament during sidestep cutting. The interaction between muscle and joint mechanics and external ground reaction forces in this plane, places a ceiling on ligament loads. Valgus loading is a more likely injury mechanism, especially in females. Modifying sagittal plane biomechanics will thus unlikely contribute to the prevention of anterior cruciate ligament injuries.

  1. Can molecular motors drive distance measurements in injured neurons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naaman Kam

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Injury to nerve axons induces diverse responses in neuronal cell bodies, some of which are influenced by the distance from the site of injury. This suggests that neurons have the capacity to estimate the distance of the injury site from their cell body. Recent work has shown that the molecular motor dynein transports importin-mediated retrograde signaling complexes from axonal lesion sites to cell bodies, raising the question whether dynein-based mechanisms enable axonal distance estimations in injured neurons? We used computer simulations to examine mechanisms that may provide nerve cells with dynein-dependent distance assessment capabilities. A multiple-signals model was postulated based on the time delay between the arrival of two or more signals produced at the site of injury-a rapid signal carried by action potentials or similar mechanisms and slower signals carried by dynein. The time delay between the arrivals of these two types of signals should reflect the distance traversed, and simulations of this model show that it can indeed provide a basis for distance measurements in the context of nerve injuries. The analyses indicate that the suggested mechanism can allow nerve cells to discriminate between distances differing by 10% or more of their total axon length, and suggest that dynein-based retrograde signaling in neurons can be utilized for this purpose over different scales of nerves and organisms. Moreover, such a mechanism might also function in synapse to nucleus signaling in uninjured neurons. This could potentially allow a neuron to dynamically sense the relative lengths of its processes on an ongoing basis, enabling appropriate metabolic output from cell body to processes.

  2. Benchmarking outcomes in the critically injured burn patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Matthew B; Goverman, Jeremy; Hayden, Douglas L; Fagan, Shawn P; McDonald-Smith, Grace P; Alexander, Andrew K; Gamelli, Richard L; Gibran, Nicole S; Finnerty, Celeste C; Jeschke, Marc G; Arnoldo, Brett; Wispelwey, Bram; Mindrinos, Michael N; Xiao, Wenzhong; Honari, Shari E; Mason, Philip H; Schoenfeld, David A; Herndon, David N; Tompkins, Ronald G

    2014-05-01

    To determine and compare outcomes with accepted benchmarks in burn care at 6 academic burn centers. Since the 1960s, US morbidity and mortality rates have declined tremendously for burn patients, likely related to improvements in surgical and critical care treatment. We describe the baseline patient characteristics and well-defined outcomes for major burn injuries. We followed 300 adults and 241 children from 2003 to 2009 through hospitalization, using standard operating procedures developed at study onset. We created an extensive database on patient and injury characteristics, anatomic and physiological derangement, clinical treatment, and outcomes. These data were compared with existing benchmarks in burn care. Study patients were critically injured, as demonstrated by mean % total body surface area (TBSA) (41.2 ± 18.3 for adults and 57.8 ± 18.2 for children) and presence of inhalation injury in 38% of the adults and 54.8% of the children. Mortality in adults was 14.1% for those younger than 55 years and 38.5% for those aged 55 years and older. Mortality in patients younger than 17 years was 7.9%. Overall, the multiple organ failure rate was 27%. When controlling for age and % TBSA, presence of inhalation injury continues to be significant. This study provides the current benchmark for major burn patients. Mortality rates, notwithstanding significant % TBSA and presence of inhalation injury, have significantly declined compared with previous benchmarks. Modern day surgical and medically intensive management has markedly improved to the point where we can expect patients younger than 55 years with severe burn injuries and inhalation injury to survive these devastating conditions.

  3. Nursing challenges with a severely injured patient in critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossan, Lisa; Cole, Elaine

    2013-09-01

    Patients with severe, multiple, traumatic injuries are challenging to manage in critical care. Early identification of injuries and optimal resuscitation is essential for favourable outcomes. Trauma-related haemorrhage can lead to the lethal triad of hypothermia, coagulopathy and acidosis. Many trauma patients require urgent haemorrhage control and structural fixation through operative intervention. However, metabolic derangement and cardiovascular instability may delay surgery, resulting in an ongoing cycle of deterioration. Damage control surgery (DCS) may be used as a temporizing measure until the patient is stabilized in critical care. The aim of this case study is to discuss the complex issues faced in the critical care management of a severely injured patient. We conducted a patient case study, with analysis of care using published evidence. The key terms used to search for evidence were trauma, injury, damage control surgery, spinal fixation, critical/intensive care and nurse. We report the care of a trauma patient with complex, conflicting injuries requiring management of the lethal triad and DCS. The delay in subsequent definitive repair of spinal column fractures provided many challenges for critical care nurses including restricted patient mobilization, positioning and pressure ulcer prevention. A review of contemporary evidence relating to DCS reveals that whilst this technique is used increasingly in trauma, the research focuses on single system injuries. Evidence and guidelines are required to support DCS for critical care patients with multiple, conflicting injuries including spinal fractures. For patients with delayed surgical intervention, rotational bed therapy may assist critical care nurses in meeting needs. © 2013 The Authors. Nursing in Critical Care © 2013 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  4. Comparative proteomic analysis of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 exposed to a sublethal concentration of nisin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Kendi Nishino; Monteiro, Karina Mariante; da Silva Caumo, Karin; Lorenzatto, Karina Rodrigues; Ferreira, Henrique Bunselmeyer; Brandelli, Adriano

    2015-04-24

    Listeria monocytogenes infections have been frequently reported in many food poisoning outbreaks around the world. In this work, the protein repertoires of L. monocytogenes ATCC 7644 cells treated or not with a 10(-3)mg/mL nisin sublethal concentration, established by antimicrobial susceptibility tests, were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Overall, 179 proteins were identified, 9 of them more abundant in nisin-treated samples, and 4 more abundant in non-treated control samples. In nisin treated cells, proteins associated to oxidative stress response showed higher abundance. Also, the higher abundance of an enzyme related to the production of cell membrane lipids upon nisin exposure is suggestive of both a failure in conventional cell division mechanism and the activation of an alternative L-form mediated division mechanism. Finally, flagellar and motility proteins' overexpression upon nisin exposure is indicative of increased bacterial motility in response to the bacteriocin. Taken together, these results provide new insights on nisin effects on L. monocytogenes cells and on how this bacterium may overcome a bacteriocin-containing environment. The antimicrobial mechanism of nisin on target bacterial cells has been extensively studied since discovery of this bacteriocin. The nisin pore-forming mechanism is mediated by its binding to the pyrophosphate portion of membrane lipid II [1], but some evidences point out to alternative mechanisms. Results from assays with mutacin 1140 hybrids [2] showed that the portion of nisin that is not involved with lipid II binding could damage the bacterial cell, independently of pore formation [3,4]. Moreover, there are insufficient data to explain how nisin affects the bacterial survival. In this scenario, proteomics is an interesting approach, as a comparison between treated and untreated cells may provide insights of both antimicrobial mechanisms of action and bacterial response mechanisms [5]. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  5. Sub-lethal levels of electric current elicit the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaimoyo, Evans; Farag, Mohamed A; Sumner, Lloyd W; Wasmann, Catherine; Cuello, Joel L; VanEtten, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Many secondary metabolites that are normally undetectable or in low amounts in healthy plant tissue are synthesized in high amounts in response to microbial infection. Various abiotic and biotic agents have been shown to mimic microorganisms and act as elicitors of the synthesis of these plant compounds. In the present study, sub-lethal levels of electric current are shown to elicit the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in transgenic and non-transgenic plant tissue. The production of the phytoalexin (+)-pisatin by pea was used as the main model system. Non-transgenic pea hairy roots treated with 30-100 mA of electric current produced 13 times higher amounts of (+)-pisatin than did the non-elicited controls. Electrically elicited transgenic pea hairy root cultures blocked at various enzymatic steps in the (+)-pisatin biosynthetic pathway also accumulated intermediates preceding the blocked enzymatic step. Secondary metabolites not usually produced by pea accumulated in some of the transgenic root cultures after electric elicitation due to the diversion of the intermediates into new pathways. The amount of pisatin in the medium bathing the roots of electro-elicited roots of hydroponically cultivated pea plants was 10 times higher 24 h after elicitation than in the medium surrounding the roots of non-elicited control plants, showing not only that the electric current elicited (+)-pisatin biosynthesis but also that the (+)-pisatin was released from the roots. Seedlings, intact roots or cell suspension cultures of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), barrel medic, (Medicago truncatula), Arabidopsis thaliana, red clover (Trifolium pratense) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum) also produced increased levels of secondary metabolites in response to electro-elicitation. On the basis of our results, electric current would appear to be a general elicitor of plant secondary metabolites and to have potential for application in both basic and commercial research.

  6. Responses of bay anchovy (Anchoa mitchilli) larvae under lethal and sublethal scenarios of crude oil exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Tara A; Childress, William; Portier, Ralph; Chesney, Edward J

    2016-12-01

    Bay anchovy (Anchoa mitchilli) is an ecologically important zooplanktivorous fish inhabiting estuaries of the Gulf of Mexico and eastern North America from Maine to Florida. Because they have a protracted spawning season (spring through fall) and are abundant at all life stages in coastal estuaries, their eggs and larvae likely encountered oil that reached the coast during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. We compared responses to oil exposure at different life stages and at lethal and sublethal conditions using acute, 24h exposures. In a series of experiments, bay anchovy larvae were exposed to high energy water accommodated fractions (HEWAF) and chemically-enhanced WAF (CEWAF) at two stages of larval development (5 and 21 days post hatch, dph). HEWAF oil exposures induced significantly greater life stage dependent sensitivity at 5 dph than at 21 dph but chemically dispersed (CEWAF) exposure mortality was more variable and LC50s were not significantly different between 5 and 21dph larvae. Acute exposure to two low-level concentrations of CEWAF did not result in significant mortality over 24h, but resulted in a 25-77% reduction in larval survival and a 12-34% reduction in weight specific growth after six days of post-exposure growth following the initial 24h exposure. These results show that younger (5 dph) bay anchovy larvae are more vulnerable to acute oil exposure than older (21 dph) larvae, and that acute responses do not accurately reflect potential population level mortality and impacts to growth and development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sublethal concentrations of silver nanoparticles affect the mechanical stability of biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grün, Alexandra Y; Meier, Jutta; Metreveli, George; Schaumann, Gabriele E; Manz, Werner

    2016-12-01

    Bacterial biofilms are most likely confronted with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) as a pollutant stressor in aquatic systems. In this study, biofilms of Aquabacterium citratiphilum were exposed for 20 h to 30 and 70 nm citrate stabilized Ag NPs in low-dose concentrations ranging from 600 to 2400 μg l(-1), and the Ag NP-mediated effects on descriptive, structural, and functional biofilm characteristics, including viability, protein content, architecture, and mechanical stability, were investigated. Viability, based on the bacterial cell membrane integrity of A. citratiphilum, as determined by epifluorescence microscopy, remained unaffected after Ag NP exposure. Moreover, in contrast to information in the current literature, protein contents of cells and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and biofilm architecture, including dry mass, thickness, and density, were not significantly impacted by exposure to Ag NPs. However, the biofilms themselves served as effective sinks for Ag NPs, exhibiting enrichment factors from 5 to 8. Biofilms showed a greater capacity to accumulate 30 nm sized Ag NPs than 70 nm Ag NPs. Furthermore, Ag NPs significantly threatened the mechanical stability of biofilms, as determined by a newly developed assay. For 30 nm Ag NPs, the mechanical stability of biofilms decreased as the Ag NP concentrations applied to them increased. In contrast, 70 nm Ag NPs produced a similar decrease in mechanical stability for each applied concentration. Overall, this finding demonstrates that exposure to Ag NPs triggers remarkable changes in biofilm adhesion and/or cohesiveness. Because of biofilm-mediated ecological services, this response raises environmental concerns regarding Ag NP release into freshwater systems, even in sublethal concentrations.

  8. Intramuscular Cobinamide Sulfite in a Rabbit Model of Sub-Lethal Cyanide Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Matthew; Kim, Jae G.; Mahon, Sari B.; Lee, Jangwoen; Kreuter, Kelly A.; Blackledge, William; Mukai, David; Patterson, Steve; Mohammad, Othman; Sharma, Vijay S.; Boss, Gerry R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the ability of an intramuscular cobinamide sulfite injection to rapidly reverse the physiologic effects of cyanide toxicity. Background Exposure to cyanide in fires and industrial exposures and intentional cyanide poisoning by terrorists leading to mass casualties is an ongoing threat. Current treatments for cyanide poisoning must be administered intravenously, and no rapid treatment methods are available for mass casualty cyanide exposures. Cobinamide is a cobalamin (vitamin B12) analog with an extraordinarily high affinity for cyanide that is more water-soluble than cobalamin. We investigated the use of intramuscular cobinamide sulfite to reverse cyanide toxicity induced physiologic changes in a sublethal cyanide exposure animal model. Methods New Zealand white rabbits were given 10 mg sodium cyanide intravenously over 60 minutes. Quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy monitoring of tissue oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations were performed concurrently with blood cyanide level measurements and cobinamide levels. Immediately after completion of the cyanide infusion, the rabbits were injected intramuscularly with cobinamide sulfite (n=6) or inactive vehicle (controls, n=5). Results Intramuscular administration led to rapid mobilization of cobinamide and was extremely effective at reversing the physiologic effects of cyanide on oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin extraction. Recovery time to 63% of their baseline values in the central nervous system was in a mean of 1032 minutes in the control group and 9 minutes in the cobinamide group with a difference of 1023 minutes (95% confidence interval [CI] 116, 1874 minutes). In muscle tissue, recovery times were 76 and 24 minutes with a difference of 52 minutes (95% CI 7, 98min). Red blood cell cyanide levels returned towards normal significantly faster in cobinamide sulfite-treated animals than in control animals. Conclusions Intramuscular

  9. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Insecticides Used on Citrus, on the Ectoparasitoid Tamarixia radiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloti, Vitor Hugo; Alves, Gustavo Rodrigues; Araújo, Diogo Feliciano Dias; Picoli, Mateus Manara; Moral, Rafael de Andrade; Demétrio, Clarice Garcia Borges; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a disease associated with the bacteria "Candidatus Liberibacter spp." and has been devastating citrus orchards around the world. Its management involves control of the insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. However, the indiscriminate use of chemicals has caused pest outbreaks and eliminated the natural enemies of the vector, such as the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston), the main agent for biological control of D. citri. This study assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides recommended for integrated production of citrus on the parasitoid T. radiata. When adult parasitoids were exposed to residues of 25 insecticides, 20% of them, i.e., gamma-cyhalothrin, etofenprox, azadirachtin, tebufenozide and pyriproxyfen, were considered as harmless (Class 1), 12% as slightly harmful (Class 2), 12% as moderately harmful (Class 3) and 56% as harmful (Class 4), according to the classification proposed by the IOBC/WPRS. Afterward, 14 insecticides (5 harmless and 9 harmful) were sprayed on the parasitoid pupae. Of the 14 insecticides tested, only the organophosphates dimethoate and chlorpyrifos affected the parasitoid emergence. The effects of insecticides on the parasitism capacity of adults exposed to residues of azadirachtin, etofenprox, gamma-cyhalothrin, pyriproxyfen and tebufenozide (harmless) were also evaluated. Tebufenozide and gamma-cyhalothrin affected the parasitism of the F0 generation, but did not affect the emergence of the F1 and F2 generations. Therefore, for an effective IPM program, selective insecticides or harmful pesticides to adult parasitoids could be used in the field, provided that the adults do not occur naturally and the chemical applications do not coincide with parasitoid releases.

  10. Metalloporphyrin Co(III)TMPyP ameliorates acute, sublethal cyanide toxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Oscar S; Yuan, Quan; Amoscato, Andrew A; Pearce, Linda L; Peterson, Jim

    2012-12-17

    The formation of Co(III)TMPyP(CN)(2) at pH 7.4 has been shown to be completely cooperative (α(H) = 2) with an association constant of 2.1 (±0.2) × 10(11). The kinetics were investigated by stopped-flow spectrophotometry and revealed a complicated net reaction exhibiting 4 phases at pH 7.4 under conditions where cyanide was in excess. The data suggest molecular HCN (rather than CN(-)) to be the attacking nucleophile around neutrality. The two slower phases do not seem to be present when cyanide is not in excess, and the other two phases have rates comparable to that observed for cobalamin, a known effective cyanide scavenger. Addition of bovine serum albumin (BSA) did not affect the cooperativity of cyanide binding to Co(III)TMPyP, only lowered the equilibrium constant slightly to 1.2 (±0.2) × 10(11) and had an insignificant effect on the observed rate. A sublethal mouse model was used to assess the effectiveness of Co(III)TMPyP as a potential cyanide antidote. The administration of Co(III)TMPyP to sodium cyanide intoxicated mice resulted in the time required for the surviving mice to right themselves from a supine position being significantly decreased (9 ± 2 min) compared to that of the controls (33 ± 2 min). All observations were consistent with the demonstrated antidotal activity of Co(III)TMPyP operating through a cyanide-binding (i.e., scavenging) mechanism.

  11. Sublethal effects of insecticide seed treatments on two nearctic lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscardini, Valéria Fonseca; Gontijo, Pablo Costa; Michaud, J P; Carvalho, Geraldo Andrade

    2015-07-01

    Predatory insects often feed on plants or use plant products to supplement their diet, creating a potential route of exposure to systemic insecticides used as seed treatments. This study examined whether chlorantraniliprole or thiamethoxam might negatively impact Coleomegilla maculata and Hippodamia convergens when the beetles consumed the extrafloral nectar of sunflowers grown from treated seed. We reared both species on eggs of Ephestia kuehniella and then switched adult H. convergens to a diet of greenbugs, Schizaphis graminum, in order to induce oviposition in this species. Excised sunflower stems, either treated or control and refreshed every 48 h, were provided throughout larval development, or for the first week of adult life. Exposure of C. maculata larvae to chlorantraniliprole and thiamethoxam applied as seed treatments delayed adult emergence by prolonging the pupal period. When adults were exposed, thiamethoxam reduced the preoviposition period compared to chlorantraniliprole, whereas the latter treatment cause females to produce fewer clutches during the observation period. Larvae of C. maculata did not appear to obtain sufficient hydration from the sunflower stems and their subsequent fecundity and fertility were compromised in comparison to the adult exposure experiment where larvae received supplemental water during development. Exposure of H. convergens larvae to thiamethoxam skewed the sex ratio in favor of females; both materials reduced the egg viability of resulting adults and increased the period required for eclosion. Exposure of H. convergens adults to chlorantraniliprole reduced egg eclosion times compared to thiamethoxam and exposure to both insecticides reduced pupation times in progeny. The results indicate that both insecticides have negative, sublethal impacts on the biology of these predators when they feed on extrafloral nectar of sunflower plants grown from treated seed.

  12. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Insecticides Used on Citrus, on the Ectoparasitoid Tamarixia radiata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Hugo Beloti

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing (HLB is a disease associated with the bacteria "Candidatus Liberibacter spp." and has been devastating citrus orchards around the world. Its management involves control of the insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. However, the indiscriminate use of chemicals has caused pest outbreaks and eliminated the natural enemies of the vector, such as the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston, the main agent for biological control of D. citri. This study assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides recommended for integrated production of citrus on the parasitoid T. radiata. When adult parasitoids were exposed to residues of 25 insecticides, 20% of them, i.e., gamma-cyhalothrin, etofenprox, azadirachtin, tebufenozide and pyriproxyfen, were considered as harmless (Class 1, 12% as slightly harmful (Class 2, 12% as moderately harmful (Class 3 and 56% as harmful (Class 4, according to the classification proposed by the IOBC/WPRS. Afterward, 14 insecticides (5 harmless and 9 harmful were sprayed on the parasitoid pupae. Of the 14 insecticides tested, only the organophosphates dimethoate and chlorpyrifos affected the parasitoid emergence. The effects of insecticides on the parasitism capacity of adults exposed to residues of azadirachtin, etofenprox, gamma-cyhalothrin, pyriproxyfen and tebufenozide (harmless were also evaluated. Tebufenozide and gamma-cyhalothrin affected the parasitism of the F0 generation, but did not affect the emergence of the F1 and F2 generations. Therefore, for an effective IPM program, selective insecticides or harmful pesticides to adult parasitoids could be used in the field, provided that the adults do not occur naturally and the chemical applications do not coincide with parasitoid releases.

  13. BAC and crash responsibility of injured older drivers : an analysis of Trauma Center data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the distribution of blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) in injured drivers 65 and older and the relationship of older-driver BAC to driving record and crash responsibility. Researchers conducted a retrospective examination of 11 y...

  14. Sialic acid accelerates the electrophoretic velocity of injured dorsal root ganglion neurons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen-xu Li Guo-ying Ma Min-fang Guo Ying Liu

    2015-01-01

    .... With the increase of membrane proteins on soma and injured site neurons, the negatively charged sialic acids bind to the external domains of membrane proteins, resulting in an increase of this charge...

  15. Discrimination of intact and injured Listeria monocytogenes by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mengshi; Al-Holy, Murad; Al-Qadiri, Hamzah; Kang, Dong-Hyun; Cavinato, Anna G; Huang, Yiqun; Rasco, Barbara A

    2004-09-22

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, 4000-600 cm(-)(1)) was used to discriminate between intact and sonication-injured Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19114 and to distinguish this strain from other selected Listeria strains (L. innocua ATCC 51742, L. innocua ATCC 33090, and L. monocytogenes ATCC 7644). FT-IR vibrational overtone and combination bands from mid-IR active components of intact and injured bacterial cells produced distinctive "fingerprints" at wavenumbers between 1500 and 800 cm(-)(1). Spectral data were analyzed by principal component analysis. Clear segregations of different intact and injured strains of Listeria were observed, suggesting that FT-IR can detect biochemical differences between intact and injured bacterial cells. This technique may provide a tool for the rapid assessment of cell viability and thereby the control of foodborne pathogens.

  16. Perceived spasticity in chronic spinal cord injured patients: associations with psychological factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voerman, G.E.; Erren-Wolters, C.V.; Fleuren, J.F.; Hermens, H.J.; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To explore the association between perceived spasticity and psychological factors (pain sensations, coping strategies, and illness cognitions) in chronic spinal cord injured (SCI) patients. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using a set of questionnaires was designed for chronic complete

  17. Perceived spasticity in chronic spinal cord injured patients: Associations with psychological factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voerman, Gerlienke; Erren-Wolters, Cathelijne V.; Fleuren, Judith F.M.; Fleuren, J.F.M.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Geurts, Alexander C.H.

    Purpose: To explore the association between perceived spasticity and psychological factors (pain sensations, coping strategies, and illness cognitions) in chronic spinal cord injured (SCI) patients. - Methods: Cross-sectional study using a set of questionnaires was designed for chronic complete

  18. Differences in kinetic variables between injured and noninjured novice runners : A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredeweg, Steef W.; Kluitenberg, Bas; Bessem, Bram; Buist, Ida

    Objectives: This prospective study examined differences in kinetic variables between injured and noninjured novice female and male runners and their potential contribution to RRIs. Design: A prospective cohort study. Methods: At baseline vertical ground reaction forces were assessed with an

  19. Tumor thrombus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravina, Mudalsha; Hess, Søren; Chauhan, Mahesh Singh

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Thrombosis in cancer may manifest itself as venous thromboembolic disease or tumor thrombosis (TT). We present our experience with incidentally detected TT on FDG PET/CT in 21 oncologic patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all FDG PET/CT examinations during a 5-year......-one patients were included; the most common malignancies were renal cell carcinoma (n=6), hepatocellular carcinoma (n=3), and lung cancer (n=3). Indication for the scan was initial staging (n=15) and suspected recurrence (n=6). Several vessels were affected, the most common was the inferior vena cava (n=14......), but most other major branches of the venous vasculature was represented, and some patients had thrombi in several vessels. FDG uptake was linear in 7 patients, linear with a dilated vessel in 6 patients, and focal in 7 patients. The mean SUVmax of the primary tumors was 10.3 (range, 2.6-31.2; median, 6...

  20. [Diagnostic and treatment of carotid bodies tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonev, A; Zakhariev, T

    2007-01-01

    Carotid body tumor is rare neoplasm (about 0,5 per cent of all tumors).[28]. The tumor arise from paraganglionic cells of carotid body, which develops from both mesodermal elements of the third branchial arch and neural elements originating from the neural crest ectoderm.[25]. Mathews warned: "this rare tumor presents unusual difficulties to the surgeon, and should one encounter it without having suspected the diagnosis, the experience will not soon be forgotten".[19]. The aim of this retrospective study is to investigate the frequency, number of spreading and results from the treatment in patients with carotid bodies tumors. Eleven patients (2,58%) with carotid bodies tumors were diagnosed and operated under upon from January 1990 to June 2007 at the "Department of Vascular surgery and Angiology" of "St. Ekaterina" University hospital - Sofia, from commonly 427 surgical intervention in the area of carotid triangle for the same period. The clinical picture, operating time and blood loss during the surgery were examined. Careful subadventitial dissection was used like a method, which have to reduce the number of postoperative complications and blood loss. All 11 patients were operated upon with endotrachial anesthesia and in two of them there was intracranial nerves injure, reconstruction of carotid artery has established in two of the patients. In the early postoperative period there was disphagia in three of the patients, four were with partial damage of n. hypoglossus, two- with damage of the face branch of n. facialis and six with parasthesia at the operated side. CT angiography of carotid bifurcation has established as basic method in the diagnostic. Total extirpation of the tumor remains the basic method of treatment from high quality specialists in carotid surgery. Careful subadvetitial dissection and accuracy excision allow the whole separation of the tumor from the carotid bifurcation without traumatic lesion. [28].

  1. Vibration modes of injured spine at resonant frequencies under vertical vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li-Xin; Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Yi-Min; Teo, Ee-Chon

    2009-09-01

    A detailed three-dimensional finite element model of the spine segment T12-Pelvis was developed to investigate dynamic characteristics of whole lumbar spine with injured cases. This study investigates the motion mechanism of the human lumbar spine and the effect of component injuries on adjacent spinal components under whole body vibration. Several investigations have analyzed the influence of injured spines on adjacent spinal components under static loadings. However, it is not clear how the spine injury affects dynamic characteristics of whole lumbar spine and adjacent components of the injured segment under vibration. The T12-Pelvis model was used to obtain the modal vibration modes of the spine at resonant frequencies. Injury conditions of the spine were simulated and tested, including denucleation and/or facetectomy with removal of capsular ligaments. The results indicate the first-order vertical resonant frequency of the intact model is 7.21 Hz. After the denucleation at L4-L5, it decreases by more than 4% compared with the intact condition. All the injured conditions including disc injury and ligament injury decrease the resonant frequency of the spine. Due to the denucleation at L4-L5 the anteroposterior displacements of the vertebrae from L2 to L5 decrease and the vertical displacements of the vertebrae from L1 to L4 increase under vibration. The denucleation also decreases the rotational deformations of the vertebrae from L1 to L5. The material property sensitivity analysis shows intervertebral discs have a dominating effect on variation of vertical resonant frequency of the spine. The denucleation may decrease cushioning effects of adjacent motion segments at the injured level under vibration. The injured condition may increase the vertical displacement amplitudes of the spine above the injured level. All the injured conditions may decrease the resonant frequency of the spine system.

  2. Sphincter (ring muscle) gymnastics for spinal cord injured and spinal cord transected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yom-Tov, S

    2000-07-01

    Sphincter gymnastics seem to be able to recruit central pattern generators--networks of neurons that generate motor patterns--through peripheral rhythmic stimuli and to activate them without supraspinal signals. This physical therapy method is thus suitable for treating spinal cord injured and spinal cord transected patients, for it can reach below the injured segment and feed signals into the central nervous system, thus activating vital organs. This article presents some observations and discusses a possible mechanism.

  3. Mechanisms and Treatment of Deployment-Related Lung Injury: Repair of the Injured Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-2-0018 TITLE: Mechanisms and Treatment of Deployment-Related Lung Injury: Repair of the Injured Epithelium PRINCIPAL...AND SUBTITLE Mechanisms and Treatment of Deployment-Related Lung Injury: Repair of the Injured Epithelium 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...initial experiments confirm our preliminary data that pretreatment with PM from Iraq or Afghanistan (5- 10 µg/cm2) significantly delay wound closure in

  4. 〈Review〉Psychological Response to Sport Injury and Psychological Skills Interventions for Injured Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Naoi, Airi; Deaner, Heather. R.

    2006-01-01

    [Abstract] This article reviews previous research studies that have examined the psychological responses of injured athletes and the effectiveness of psychological skills interventions for injured athletes. In order to understand psychological response to injury, two models, a cognitive appraisal model of psychological adjustment to athletic injury and an integrated model of psychological response to the sport injury and rehabilitation process, are described. Additionally, the relationship am...

  5. The impact of playing in matches while injured on injury surveillance findings in professional football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, L E; Lilley, J M; Pope, G D; Ribbans, W J

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to analyze the frequency, nature, and consequences of footballers playing matches while injured, and to examine the impact on injury surveillance findings. High levels of inter-rater reliability and content validity were established for a tool designed to document players who were already injured at the start of a match. The tool was implemented in three English football teams (a Championship, League 1, and League 2 team) for one season, using a "time loss" definition of injury. One hundred forty-three matches were surveyed, revealing 102 match appearances by players who were already injured. Almost half of all games featured at least one injured player, with episodes of playing with injury occurring more frequently and lasting longer in League 2 players compared with higher level players. No association was observed between the number of injured players starting matches and match outcome [χ(2) (4, N = 143) = 3.27, P = 0.514]. Fifteen percent of all injury episodes captured were only through prospective documentation of playing while injured. The findings show that both traumatic and overuse injuries are managed by footballers through competitive matches, and have important implications for aiding understanding of the epidemiology of injury in professional football. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Protective effect of a laser-induced sub-lethal temperature rise on RPE cells from oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwami, Hisashi; Pruessner, Joachim; Shiraki, Kunihiko; Brinkmann, Ralf; Miura, Yoko

    2014-07-01

    Recently introduced new technologies that enable temperature-controlled laser irradiation on the RPE allowed us to investigate temperature-resolved RPE cell responses. In this study we aimed primarily to establish an experimental setup that can realize laser irradiation on RPE cell culture with the similar temperature distribution as in the clinical application, with a precise time/temperature history. With this setup, we conducted investigations to elucidate the temperature-dependent RPE cell biochemical responses and the effect of transient hyperthermia on the responses of RPE cells to the secondary-exposed oxidative stress. Porcine RPE cells cultivated in a culture dish (inner diameter = 30 mm) with culture medium were used, on which laser radiation (λ = 1940 nm, spot diameter = 30 mm) over 10 s was applied as a heat source. The irradiation provides a radially decreasing temperature profile which is close to a Gaussian shape with the highest temperature in the center. Power setting for irradiation was determined such that the peak temperature (Tmax) in the center of the laser spot at the cells reaches from 40 °C to 58 °C (40, 43, 46, 50, 58 °C). Cell viability was investigated with ethidium homodimer III staining at the time points of 3 and 24 h following laser irradiation. Twenty four hours after laser irradiation the cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for 5 h, followed by the measurement of intracellular glutathione, intracellular 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) protein adducts, and secreted vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The mean temperature threshold for RPE cell death after 3 h was found to be around 52 °C, and for 24 h around 50 °C with the current irradiation setting. A sub-lethal preconditioning on Tmax = 43 °C significantly induced the reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio, and decreased H2O2-induced increase of intracellular 4-HNE protein adducts. Although sub-lethal hyperthermia (Tmax

  7. Fipronil promotes motor and behavioral changes in honey bees (Apis mellifera) and affects the development of colonies exposed to sublethal doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaluski, Rodrigo; Kadri, Samir Moura; Alonso, Diego Peres; Martins Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo; de Oliveira Orsi, Ricardo

    2015-05-01

    Bees play a crucial role in pollination and generate honey and other hive products; therefore, their worldwide decline is cause for concern. New broad-spectrum systemic insecticides such as fipronil can harm bees and their use has been discussed as a potential threat to bees' survival. In the present study, the authors evaluate the in vitro toxicity of fipronil and note behavioral and motor activity changes in Africanized adult Apis mellifera that ingest or come into contact with lethal or sublethal doses of fipronil. The effects of sublethal doses on brood viability, population growth, behavior, and the expression of the defensin 1 gene in adult bees were studied in colonies fed with contaminated sugar syrup (8 µg fipronil L(-1) ). Fipronil is highly toxic to bees triggering agitation, seizures, tremors, and paralysis. Bees that are exposed to a lethal or sublethal doses showed reduced motor activity. The number of eggs that hatched, the area occupied by worker eggs, and the number of larvae and pupae that developed were reduced, adult bees showed lethargy, and colonies were abandoned when they were exposed to sublethal doses of fipronil. No change was seen in the bees' expression of defensin 1. The authors conclude that fipronil is highly toxic to honey bees and even sublethal doses may negatively affect the development and maintenance of colonies. © 2015 SETAC.

  8. Assessment of the lethal and sublethal effects of 20 environmental chemicals in zebrafish embryos and larvae by using OECD TG 212.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Yoshifumi; Yamagishi, Takahiro; Takahashi, Hiroko; Shintaku, Youko; Iguchi, Taisen; Tatarazako, Norihisa

    2017-10-01

    Fish embryo toxicity tests are used to assess the lethal and sublethal effects of environmental chemicals in aquatic organisms. Previously, we used a short-term toxicity test published by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (test no. 212: Fish, Short-term Toxicity Test on Embryo and Sac-Fry Stages [OECD TG 212]) to assess the lethal and sublethal effects of aniline and several chlorinated anilines in zebrafish embryos and larvae. To expand upon this previous study, we used OECD TG 212 in zebrafish embryos and larvae to assess the lethal and sublethal effects of 20 additional environmental chemicals that included active pharmaceutical ingredients, pesticides, metals, aromatic compounds or chlorinated anilines. Zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio) were exposed to the test chemicals until 8 days post-fertilization. A delayed lethal effect was induced by 16 of the 20 test chemicals, and a positive correlation was found between heart rate turbulence and mortality. We also found that exposure to the test chemicals at concentrations lower than the lethal concentration induced the sublethal effects of edema, body curvature and absence of swim-bladder inflation. In conclusion, the environmental chemicals assessed in the present study induced both lethal and sublethal effects in zebrafish embryos and larvae, as assessed by using OECD TG 212. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  10. Understanding Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth
 ... Tumors” from Frankly Speaking Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors Download the full book Questions to ask ...

  11. Brain tumor - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  12. Benign Liver Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Benign Liver Tumors Back A tumor is an abnormal growth ... health risk. Frequently Asked Questions How are benign liver tumors detected? In most cases, benign liver tumors ...

  13. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  14. Brain tumor (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are classified depending on the exact site of the tumor, the type of tissue involved, benign ... tendencies of the tumor, and other factors. Primary brain tumors can arise from the brain cells, the meninges ( ...

  15. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Essential Oils From Artemisia khorassanica and Vitex pseudo-negundo Against Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzoui, Ehsan; Naseri, Bahram; Abedi, Zahra; Karimi-Pormehr, Mohammad Sadegh

    2016-10-01

    Plodia interpunctella (Hübner, 1813) is a polyphagous and key pest of different stored products worldwide. The lethal and sublethal effects of essential oils of Artemisia khorassanica Podl. and Vitex pseudo-negundo (Hausskn) were studied on P. interpunctella The chemical constituents of the essential oils were also assessed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Assays showed that the fumigant toxicity of A. khorassanica (LC50: 9.60 µl/liter air) was higher than V. pseudo-negundo (LC50: 23.05 µl/liter air). Moreover, the speed of mortality caused by A. khorassanica oil (LT50: 2.07 h) was higher than V. pseudo-negundo (LT50: 3.11 h). To assess the sublethal effects of the essential oils, adult moths were exposed to the LC30 of each essential oil, and life table parameters and energy contents of the surviving P. interpunctella were studied. Exposure to sublethal concentration of A. khorassanica negatively affected the life table of P. interpunctella, and also the protein, lipid, and glycogen contents of the larvae that came from treated adults. Vitex pseudo-negundo also affected lipid, protein, and glycogen contents of P. interpunctella The intrinsic rate of increase (rm), finite rate of increase ([Formula: see text]), and doubling time (DT) were not significantly different between control and V. pseudo-negundo treatment. According with these results, both tested essential oils, especially one extracted from A. khorassanica, have potential applications for the integrated management of P. interpunctella. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Exposure to Sublethal Doses of Fipronil and Thiacloprid Highly Increases Mortality of Honeybees Previously Infected by Nosema ceranae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidau, Cyril; Diogon, Marie; Aufauvre, Julie; Fontbonne, Régis; Viguès, Bernard; Brunet, Jean-Luc; Texier, Catherine; Biron, David G.; Blot, Nicolas; El Alaoui, Hicham; Belzunces, Luc P.; Delbac, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    Background The honeybee, Apis mellifera, is undergoing a worldwide decline whose origin is still in debate. Studies performed for twenty years suggest that this decline may involve both infectious diseases and exposure to pesticides. Joint action of pathogens and chemicals are known to threaten several organisms but the combined effects of these stressors were poorly investigated in honeybees. Our study was designed to explore the effect of Nosema ceranae infection on honeybee sensitivity to sublethal doses of the insecticides fipronil and thiacloprid. Methodology/Finding Five days after their emergence, honeybees were divided in 6 experimental groups: (i) uninfected controls, (ii) infected with N. ceranae, (iii) uninfected and exposed to fipronil, (iv) uninfected and exposed to thiacloprid, (v) infected with N. ceranae and exposed 10 days post-infection (p.i.) to fipronil, and (vi) infected with N. ceranae and exposed 10 days p.i. to thiacloprid. Honeybee mortality and insecticide consumption were analyzed daily and the intestinal spore content was evaluated 20 days after infection. A significant increase in honeybee mortality was observed when N. ceranae-infected honeybees were exposed to sublethal doses of insecticides. Surprisingly, exposures to fipronil and thiacloprid had opposite effects on microsporidian spore production. Analysis of the honeybee detoxification system 10 days p.i. showed that N. ceranae infection induced an increase in glutathione-S-transferase activity in midgut and fat body but not in 7-ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase activity. Conclusions/Significance After exposure to sublethal doses of fipronil or thiacloprid a higher mortality was observed in N. ceranae-infected honeybees than in uninfected ones. The synergistic effect of N. ceranae and insecticide on honeybee mortality, however, did not appear strongly linked to a decrease of the insect detoxification system. These data support the hypothesis that the combination of the increasing

  17. Sublethal Exposure to Diatomaceous Earth Increases Net Fecundity of Flour Beetles (Tribolium confusum) by Inhibiting Egg Cannibalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shostak, Allen W.

    2014-01-01

    Population regulation results from an interplay of numerous intrinsic and external factors, and for many insects cannibalism is such a factor. This study confirms a previously-reported observation that sublethal exposure to the fossilized remains of diatoms (i.e. diatomaceous earth) increases net fecundity (eggs produced minus eggs destroyed/day) of flour beetles, Tribolium confusum. The aim was to experimentally test two non-mutually-exclusive ecological mechanisms potentially responsible for the increased net fecundity: higher egg production and lower egg cannibalism. Adult T. confusum were maintained at low or high density in medium containing sublethal (0–4%) diatomaceous earth. Net fecundity increased up to 2.1× control values during diatomaceous earth exposure, and returned to control levels following removal from diatomaceous earth. Cannibalism assays on adults showed that diatomaceous earth reduced the number of eggs produced to 0.7× control values at low density and to 0.8× controls at high density, and also reduced egg cannibalism rates of adults to as little as 0.4× control values, but at high density only. Diatomaceous earth also reduced cannibalism by larvae on eggs to 0.3× control values. So, while the presence of diatomaceous earth reduced egg production, net fecundity increased as a result of strong suppression of the normal egg cannibalism by adults and larvae that occurs at high beetle density. Undisturbed cultures containing sublethal diatomaceous earth concentrations reached higher population densities than diatomaceous earth-free controls. Cohort studies on survival from egg to adult indicated that this population increase was due largely to decreased egg cannibalism by adult females. This is the first report of inhibition of egg cannibalism by diatomaceous earth on larval or adult insects. The ability of diatomaceous earth to alter cannibalism behavior without causing mortality makes it an ideal investigative tool for cannibalism

  18. Sublethal exposure to diatomaceous earth increases net fecundity of flour beetles (Tribolium confusum by inhibiting egg cannibalism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen W Shostak

    Full Text Available Population regulation results from an interplay of numerous intrinsic and external factors, and for many insects cannibalism is such a factor. This study confirms a previously-reported observation that sublethal exposure to the fossilized remains of diatoms (i.e. diatomaceous earth increases net fecundity (eggs produced minus eggs destroyed/day of flour beetles, Tribolium confusum. The aim was to experimentally test two non-mutually-exclusive ecological mechanisms potentially responsible for the increased net fecundity: higher egg production and lower egg cannibalism. Adult T. confusum were maintained at low or high density in medium containing sublethal (0-4% diatomaceous earth. Net fecundity increased up to 2.1× control values during diatomaceous earth exposure, and returned to control levels following removal from diatomaceous earth. Cannibalism assays on adults showed that diatomaceous earth reduced the number of eggs produced to 0.7× control values at low density and to 0.8× controls at high density, and also reduced egg cannibalism rates of adults to as little as 0.4× control values, but at high density only. Diatomaceous earth also reduced cannibalism by larvae on eggs to 0.3× control values. So, while the presence of diatomaceous earth reduced egg production, net fecundity increased as a result of strong suppression of the normal egg cannibalism by adults and larvae that occurs at high beetle density. Undisturbed cultures containing sublethal diatomaceous earth concentrations reached higher population densities than diatomaceous earth-free controls. Cohort studies on survival from egg to adult indicated that this population increase was due largely to decreased egg cannibalism by adult females. This is the first report of inhibition of egg cannibalism by diatomaceous earth on larval or adult insects. The ability of diatomaceous earth to alter cannibalism behavior without causing mortality makes it an ideal investigative tool for

  19. Sublethal doses of neonicotinoid imidacloprid can interact with honey bee chemosensory protein 1 (CSP1) and inhibit its function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongliang; Tan, Jing; Song, Xinmi; Wu, Fan; Tang, Mingzhu; Hua, Qiyun; Zheng, Huoqing; Hu, Fuliang

    2017-04-29

    As a frequently used neonicotinoid insecticide, imidacloprid can impair the chemoreceptive behavior of honey bees even at sublethal doses, while the physiochemical mechanism has not been further revealed. Here, multiple fluorescence spectra, thermodynamic method, and molecular docking were used to study the interaction and the functional inhibition of imidacloprid to the recombinant CSP1 protein in Asian honey bee, Apis cerana. The results showed that the fluorescence intensity (λ em  = 332 nm) of CSP1 could be significantly quenched by imidacloprid in a dynamic mode. During the quenching process, ΔH > 0, ΔS > 0, indicating that the acting forces of imidacloprid with CSP1 are mainly hydrophobic interactions. Synchronous fluorescence showed that the fluorescence of CSP1 was mainly derived from tryptophan, and the hydrophobicity of tryptophan decreased with the increase of imidacloprid concentration. Molecular docking predicted the optimal pose and the amino acid composition of the binding process. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra showed that imidacloprid reduced the α-helix of CSP1 and caused the extension of the CSP1 peptide chain. In addition, the binding of CSP1 to floral scent β-ionone was inhibited by nearly 50% of the apparent association constant (K A ) in the presence of 0.28-2.53 ng/bee of imidacloprid, and the inhibition rate of nearly 95% at 3.75 ng/bee of imidacloprid at sublethal dose level. This study initially revealed the molecular physiochemical mechanism that sublethal doses of neonicotinoid still interact and inhibit the physiological function of the honey bees' chemoreceptive system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Lethal and Sub-lethal Effects of Four Insecticides on the Aphidophagous Coccinellid Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depalo, Laura; Lanzoni, Alberto; Masetti, Antonio; Pasqualini, Edison; Burgio, Giovanni

    2017-12-05

    Conventional insecticide assays, which measure the effects of insecticide exposure on short-term mortality, overlook important traits, including persistence of toxicity or sub-lethal effects. Therefore, such approaches are especially inadequate for prediction of the overall impact of insecticides on beneficial arthropods. In this study, the side effects of four modern insecticides (chlorantraniliprole, emamectin benzoate, spinosad, and spirotetramat) on Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were evaluated under laboratory conditions by exposition on treated potted plants. In addition to investigation of acute toxicity and persistence of harmful activity in both larvae and adults of A. bipunctata, demographic parameters were evaluated, to provide a comprehensive picture of the nontarget effects of these products. Field doses of the four insecticides caused detrimental effects to A. bipunctata; but in different ways. Overall, spinosad showed the best toxicological profile among the products tested. Emamectin benzoate could be considered a low-risk insecticide, but had high persistence. Chlorantraniliprole exhibited lethal effects on early instar larvae and adults, along with a long-lasting activity, instead spirotetramat showed a low impact on larval and adult mortality and can be considered a short-lived insecticide. However, demographic analysis demonstrated that chlorantraniliprole and spirotetramat caused sub-lethal effects. Our findings highlight that sole assessment of mortality can lead to underestimation of the full impact of pesticides on nontarget insects. Demographic analysis was demonstrated to be a sensitive method for detection of the sub-lethal effects of insecticides on A. bipunctata, and this approach should be considered for evaluation of insecticide selectivity. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Arsenic-induced sub-lethal stress reprograms human bronchial epithelial cells to CD61¯ cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qingshan; Chen, Bailing; Thakur, Chitra; Lu, Yongju; Chen, Fei

    2014-03-15

    In the present report, we demonstrate that sub-lethal stress induced by consecutive exposure to 0.25 µM arsenic (As3+) for six months can trigger reprogramming of the human bronchial epithelial cell (BEAS-2B) to form cancer stem cells (CSCs) without forced introduction of the stemness transcription factors. These CSCs formed from As3+-induced sub-lethal stress featured with an increased expression of the endogenous stemness genes, including Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, Myc, and others that are associated with the pluripotency and self-renewal of the CSCs. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that 90% of the CSC cells are CD61¯, whereas 100% of the parental cells are CD61+. These CD61¯ CSCs are highly tumorigenic and metastatic to the lung in xenotransplantation tests in NOD/SCID Il2rγ-/- mice. Additional tests also revealed that the CD61¯ CSCs showed a significant decrease in the expression of the genes important for DNA repair and oxidative phosphorylation. To determine the clinical relevance of the above findings, we stratified human lung cancers based on the level of CD61 protein and found that CD61low cancer correlates with poorer survival of the patients. Such a correlation was also observed in human breast cancer and ovarian cancer. Taken together, our findings suggest that in addition to the traditional approaches of enforced introduction of the exogenous stemness circuit transcription factors, sub-lethal stress induced by consecutive low dose As3+ is also able to convert non-stem cells to the CSCs.

  2. Effect of sub-lethal exposure to ultraviolet radiation on the escape performance of Atlantic cod larvae (Gadus morhua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Fukunishi

    Full Text Available The amount of ultraviolet (UV radiation reaching the earth's surface has increased due to depletion of the ozone layer. Several studies have reported that UV radiation reduces survival of fish larvae. However, indirect and sub-lethal impacts of UV radiation on fish behavior have been given little consideration. We observed the escape performance of larval cod (24 dph, SL: 7.6±0.2 mm; 29 dph, SL: 8.2±0.3 mm that had been exposed to sub-lethal levels of UV radiation vs. unexposed controls. Two predators were used (in separate experiments: two-spotted goby (Gobiusculus flavescens; a suction predator and lion's mane jellyfish (Cyanea capillata; a "passive" ambush predator. Ten cod larvae were observed in the presence of a predator for 20 minutes using a digital video camera. Trials were replicated 4 times for goby and 5 times for jellyfish. Escape rate (total number of escapes/total number of attacks ×100, escape distance and the number of larvae remaining at the end of the experiment were measured. In the experiment with gobies, in the UV-treated larvae, both escape rate and escape distance (36%, 38±7.5 mm respectively were significantly lower than those of control larvae (75%, 69±4.7 mm respectively. There was a significant difference in survival as well (UV: 35%,63%. No apparent escape response was observed, and survival rate was not significantly different, between treatments (UV: 66%,74% in the experiment with jellyfish. We conclude that the effect and impact of exposure to sub-lethal levels of UV radiation on the escape performance of cod larvae depends on the type of predator. Our results also suggest that prediction of UV impacts on fish larvae based only on direct effects are underestimations.

  3. Low salinity enhances NI-mediated oxidative stress and sub-lethal toxicity to the green shore crab (Carcinus maenas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewett, Tamzin A; Wood, Chris M

    2015-12-01

    Nickel (Ni) is a metal of environmental concern, known to cause toxicity to freshwater organisms by impairing ionoregulation and/or respiratory gas exchange, and by inducing oxidative stress. However, little is known regarding how nickel toxicity is influenced by salinity. In the current study we investigated the salinity-dependence and mechanisms of sub-lethal Ni toxicity in a euryhaline crab (Carcinus maenas). Crabs were acclimated to three experimental salinities--20, 60 and 100% seawater (SW)--and exposed to 3mg/L Ni for 24h or 96 h. Tissues were dissected for analysis of Ni accumulation, gills were taken for oxidative stress analysis (catalase activity and protein carbonyl content), haemolymph ions were analysed for ionoregulatory disturbance, and oxygen consumption was determined in exercised crabs after 96 h of Ni exposure. Total Ni accumulation was strongly dependant on salinity, with crabs from 20% SW displaying the highest tissue Ni burdens after both 24 and 96-h exposures. After 96 h of exposure, the highest accumulation of Ni occurred in the posterior (ionoregulatory) gills at the lowest salinity, 20% SW. Posterior gill 8 exhibited elevated protein carbonyl levels and decreased catalase activity after Ni exposure, but only in 20% SW. Similarly, decreased levels of haemolymph Mg and K and an increased level of Ca were recorded but only in crabs exposed to Ni for 96 h in 20% SW. Oxygen consumption after exercise was also inhibited in crabs exposed to Ni in 20% SW. These data show for the first time the simultaneous presence of all three modes of sub-lethal Ni toxicity in exposed animals, and indicate a strong salinity dependence of sub-lethal Ni toxicity to the euryhaline crab, C. maenas, a pattern that corresponded to tissue Ni accumulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sublethal exposure to diatomaceous earth increases net fecundity of flour beetles (Tribolium confusum) by inhibiting egg cannibalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shostak, Allen W

    2014-01-01

    Population regulation results from an interplay of numerous intrinsic and external factors, and for many insects cannibalism is such a factor. This study confirms a previously-reported observation that sublethal exposure to the fossilized remains of diatoms (i.e. diatomaceous earth) increases net fecundity (eggs produced minus eggs destroyed/day) of flour beetles, Tribolium confusum. The aim was to experimentally test two non-mutually-exclusive ecological mechanisms potentially responsible for the increased net fecundity: higher egg production and lower egg cannibalism. Adult T. confusum were maintained at low or high density in medium containing sublethal (0-4%) diatomaceous earth. Net fecundity increased up to 2.1× control values during diatomaceous earth exposure, and returned to control levels following removal from diatomaceous earth. Cannibalism assays on adults showed that diatomaceous earth reduced the number of eggs produced to 0.7× control values at low density and to 0.8× controls at high density, and also reduced egg cannibalism rates of adults to as little as 0.4× control values, but at high density only. Diatomaceous earth also reduced cannibalism by larvae on eggs to 0.3× control values. So, while the presence of diatomaceous earth reduced egg production, net fecundity increased as a result of strong suppression of the normal egg cannibalism by adults and larvae that occurs at high beetle density. Undisturbed cultures containing sublethal diatomaceous earth concentrations reached higher population densities than diatomaceous earth-free controls. Cohort studies on survival from egg to adult indicated that this population increase was due largely to decreased egg cannibalism by adult females. This is the first report of inhibition of egg cannibalism by diatomaceous earth on larval or adult insects. The ability of diatomaceous earth to alter cannibalism behavior without causing mortality makes it an ideal investigative tool for cannibalism studies.

  5. Pediatric brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poussaint, Tina Y. [Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Huisman, Thierry A.G.M. [Charlotte R. Bloomberg Children' s Center, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Pediatric Radiology and Pediatric Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Among all causes of death in children from solid tumors, pediatric brain tumors are the most common. This article includes an overview of a subset of infratentorial and supratentorial tumors with a focus on tumor imaging features and molecular advances and treatments of these tumors. Key to understanding the imaging features of brain tumors is a firm grasp of other disease processes that can mimic tumor on imaging. We also review imaging features of a common subset of tumor mimics. (orig.)

  6. Selection of a multidrug resistance plasmid by sublethal levels of antibiotics and heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullberg, Erik; Albrecht, Lisa M; Karlsson, Christoffer; Sandegren, Linus; Andersson, Dan I

    2014-10-07

    How sublethal levels of antibiotics and heavy metals select for clinically important multidrug resistance plasmids is largely unknown. Carriage of plasmids generally confers substantial fitness costs, implying that for the plasmid-carrying bacteria to be maintained in the population, the plasmid cost needs to be balanced by a selective pressure conferred by, for example, antibiotics or heavy metals. We studied the effects of low levels of antibiotics and heavy metals on the selective maintenance of a 220-kbp extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) plasmid identified in a hospital outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. The concentrations of antibiotics and heavy metals required to maintain plasmid-carrying bacteria, the minimal selective concentrations (MSCs), were in all cases below (almost up to 140-fold) the MIC of the plasmid-free susceptible bacteria. This finding indicates that the very low antibiotic and heavy metal levels found in polluted environments and in treated humans and animals might be sufficiently high to maintain multiresistance plasmids. When resistance genes were moved from the plasmid to the chromosome, the MSC decreased, showing that MSC for a specific resistance conditionally depends on genetic context. This finding suggests that a cost-free resistance could be maintained in a population by an infinitesimally low concentration of antibiotic. By studying the effect of combinations of several compounds, it was observed that for certain combinations of drugs each new compound added lowered the minimal selective concentration of the others. This combination effect could be a significant factor in the selection of multidrug resistance plasmids/bacterial clones in complex multidrug environments. Importance: Antibiotic resistance is in many pathogenic bacteria caused by genes that are carried on large conjugative plasmids. These plasmids typically contain multiple antibiotic resistance genes as well as genes that confer resistance to

  7. Assessment of chronic sublethal effects of imidacloprid on honey bee colony health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galen P Dively

    Full Text Available Here we present results of a three-year study to determine the fate of imidacloprid residues in hive matrices and to assess chronic sublethal effects on whole honey bee colonies fed supplemental pollen diet containing imidacloprid at 5, 20 and 100 μg/kg over multiple brood cycles. Various endpoints of colony performance and foraging behavior were measured during and after exposure, including winter survival. Imidacloprid residues became diluted or non-detectable within colonies due to the processing of beebread and honey and the rapid metabolism of the chemical. Imidacloprid exposure doses up to 100 μg/kg had no significant effects on foraging activity or other colony performance indicators during and shortly after exposure. Diseases and pest species did not affect colony health but infestations of Varroa mites were significantly higher in exposed colonies. Honey stores indicated that exposed colonies may have avoided the contaminated food. Imidacloprid dose effects was delayed later in the summer, when colonies exposed to 20 and 100 μg/kg experienced higher rates of queen failure and broodless periods, which led to weaker colonies going into the winter. Pooled over two years, winter survival of colonies averaged 85.7, 72.4, 61.2 and 59.2% in the control, 5, 20 and 100 μg/kg treatment groups, respectively. Analysis of colony survival data showed a significant dose effect, and all contrast tests comparing survival between control and treatment groups were significant, except for colonies exposed to 5 μg/kg. Given the weight of evidence, chronic exposure to imidacloprid at the higher range of field doses (20 to 100 μg/kg in pollen of certain treated crops could cause negative impacts on honey bee colony health and reduced overwintering success, but the most likely encountered high range of field doses relevant for seed-treated crops (5 μg/kg had negligible effects on colony health and are unlikely a sole cause of colony declines.

  8. The sensitive hare: sublethal effects of predator stress on reproduction in snowshoe hares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheriff, Michael J; Krebs, Charles J; Boonstra, Rudy

    2009-11-01

    1. Prey responses to high predation risk can be morphological or behavioural and ultimately come at the cost of survival, growth, body condition, or reproduction. These sub-lethal predator effects have been shown to be mediated by physiological stress. We tested the hypothesis that elevated glucocorticoid concentrations directly cause a decline in reproduction in individual free-ranging female snowshoe hares, Lepus americanus. We measured the cortisol concentration from each dam (using a faecal analysis enzyme immunoassay) and her reproductive output (litter size, offspring birth mass, offspring right hind foot (RHF) length) 30 h after birth. 2. In a natural monitoring study, we monitored hares during the first and second litter from the population peak (2006) to the second year of the decline (2008). We found that faecal cortisol metabolite (FCM) concentration in dams decreased 52% from the first to the second litter. From the first to the second litter, litter size increased 122%, offspring body mass increased 130%, and offspring RHF length increased 112%. Dam FCM concentrations were inversely related to litter size (r(2) = 0.19), to offspring birth mass (r(2) = 0.32), and to offspring RHF length (r(2) = 0.64). 3. In an experimental manipulation, we assigned wild-caught, pregnant hares to a control and a stressed group and held them in pens. Hares in the stressed group were exposed to a dog 1-2 min every other day before parturition to simulate high predation risk. At parturition, unsuccessful-stressed dams (those that failed to give birth to live young) and stressed dams had 837% and 214%, respectively, higher FCM concentrations than control dams. Of those females that gave birth, litter size was similar between control and stressed dams. However, offspring from stressed dams were 37% lighter and 16% smaller than offspring from control dams. Increasing FCM concentration in dams caused the decline of offspring body mass (r(2) = 0.57) and RHF (r(2) = 0.52). 4

  9. Responses of intact and injured sural nerve fibers to cooling and menthol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teliban, Alina; Bartsch, Fabian; Struck, Marek; Baron, Ralf; Jänig, Wilfrid

    2014-05-01

    Intact and injured cutaneous C-fibers in the rat sural nerve are cold sensitive, heat sensitive, and/or mechanosensitive. Cold-sensitive fibers are either low-threshold type 1 cold sensitive or high-threshold type 2 cold sensitive. The hypothesis was tested, in intact and injured afferent nerve fibers, that low-threshold cold-sensitive afferent nerve fibers are activated by the transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) agonist menthol, whereas high-threshold cold-sensitive C-fibers and cold-insensitive afferent nerve fibers are menthol insensitive. In anesthetized rats, activity was recorded from afferent nerve fibers in strands isolated from the sural nerve, which was either intact or crushed 6-12 days before the experiment distal to the recording site. In all, 77 functionally identified afferent C-fibers (30 intact fibers, 47 injured fibers) and 34 functionally characterized A-fibers (11 intact fibers, 23 injured fibers) were tested for their responses to menthol applied to their receptive fields either in the skin (10 or 20%) or in the nerve (4 or 8 mM). Menthol activated all intact (n = 12) and 90% of injured (n = 20/22) type 1 cold-sensitive C-fibers; it activated no intact type 2 cold-sensitive C-fibers (n = 7) and 1/11 injured type 2 cold-sensitive C-fibers. Neither intact nor injured heat- and/or mechanosensitive cold-insensitive C-fibers (n = 25) and almost no A-fibers (n = 2/34) were activated by menthol. These results strongly argue that cutaneous type 1 cold-sensitive afferent fibers are nonnociceptive cold fibers that use the TRPM8 transduction channel. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  10. COMPARISON OF PROPRIOCEPTION IN INJURED AND UNINJURED KNEE JOINTS AMONG MALE PROFESSIONAL FOOTBALLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. M S Nagarajan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Football is the world's most popular sport. There are over 240 million registered players worldwide and many more recreational footballers. The knee is a complex joint with many components making it vulnerable to a variety of injuries. The study has investigated the effect of knee proprioception error on injured and uninjured male professional footballers. Methods: This was a cross sectional comparative study with hundred and six (106 male professional footballers were selected for the study as per the selection criteria. Hundred and eighteen injured and ninety four uninjured knee samples were analysed for this study. Photographic analysis method was used to evaluate proprioception error at inner, middle and outer range of knee joint. Proprioception error of knee joint was measured at inner range, middle range and outer range for injured and uninjured groups. Data analysis found that there is significant difference in proprioception error between the groups. Result: Comparative study was performed using independent t’ test for proprioception error between knee injured and uninjured groups. P<0.05 were considered as significant difference in effect for this study. The means of knee injured and uninjured groups were 6.08 and 5.55 respectively with t’ value 2.21 and degree of freedom 634. The study found that proprioception error has significant difference in effect on knee injury, with P< 0.03*. Conclusion: The study concluded that proprioception error was varied between knee injured and uninjured groups. Proprioception error of knee joint was more among injured male professional footballers compared to the uninjured footballers.

  11. A longitudinal study of the mechanical properties of injured brain tissue in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yuan; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Tao; Tao, Luyang; Qiu, Suhao; Zhao, Xuefeng

    2017-07-01

    Mechanical properties of brain tissue are crucial to understand the mechanism of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Over the past several decades, most of the studies focused on healthy brain tissues, while few of them are about the injured tissues. Therefore, limited knowledge is known about the mechanical properties of the injured brain tissues. In this study, we used an in vivo mouse model with a weight drop device to study injured brain tissues. Around the injury site, mechanical properties of the injured, neighboring, and the corresponding contralateral regions of interest (ROIs) were measured over five temporal points by indentation. Longitudinal and regional comparisons of the mechanical properties revealed that the ROI of the injured tissue had a higher elastic modulus than the contralateral counterpart one-hour post-injury. However, the elastic modulus decreased one-day post-injury and recovered to be close to the contralateral ROI in 7 days. The elastic modulus curves of the injured and the contralateral counterpart ROIs crossed at time points of 12h and 1 day post-injury, where two significant increases of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) positive cells were observed. Biological staining results indicated that both the astrocytic responses and the morphological structure could affect the mechanical properties of the injured tissue. The observed longitudinal changes of the mechanical properties at the tissue level and the morphological and biological changes at the cellular level provide insights into understanding the mechanism of TBI. Results are also meaningful for applying emerging in vivo diagnostic tools such as magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) in TBI detection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Psychosocial work characteristics as risk factors for being injured in an occupational accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaen, G M H; van Amelsvoort, L P G M; Bültmann, U; Slangen, J J M; Kant, I J

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between psychosocial work characteristics and the risk for being injured in an occupational accident. We performed this study within the framework of the Maastricht Cohort Study of Fatigue at Work, a prospective cohort study on employees (n = 7051) from a wide range of companies and organizations. One hundred eight workers reported being injured in an occupational accident for which the subject consulted a physician or physiotherapist. Adjustments were made for work environment and demographic variables. High psychologic job demands were a risk factor for being injured in an occupational accident. Low decision latitude had a crude relative risk for being injured in an occupational accident of 2.02 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.23-3.39). This relationship almost completely disappeared after adjustment for the confounders mentioned here. Coworker and supervisor support were inversely related to the risk of being injured in an occupational accident but did not reach statistical significance. Other psychosocial work characteristics that had a significant effect on the risk for being injured in an occupational accident were conflicts with the supervisor (relative risk [RR] = 2.49; 95% CI = 1.42-4.37) or colleagues (RR = 2.62; 95% CI = 1.58-4.35), job satisfaction (RR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.08-1.91), and high emotional demands (RR = 2.45; 95% CI = 1.52-3.94). We conclude that after adjustment for demographic variables, fatigue, and factors that describe the type of work environment that high psychologic job demands, emotional demands, and conflicts with the supervisor and/or colleagues are risk factors for being injured in an occupational accident.

  13. A single exposure to a sublethal pediocin concentration initiates a resistance-associated temporal cell envelope and general stress response in Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Bahl, Martin Iain; Licht, Tine Rask

    2015-01-01

    was to determine if exposure to sublethal concentrations of pediocin-containing Lactobacillus plantarum WHE 92 supernatant could prime L. monocytogenes for resistance. By transcriptomic analysis, we found two, 55 and 539 genes differentially expressed after 10, 60 and 180 min of exposure to L. plantarum WHE 92...... resistant than wild types to L. plantarum WHE 92 supernatant. LisRK, SigB and SigL regulation and genes associated with resistance are involved in the temporal adaptive response to pediocin and all three regulatory systems affect pediocin resistance. Thus, a single exposure to a sublethal pediocin...

  14. Sublethal impact of short term exposure to the organophosphate pesticide azamethiphos in the marine mollusc Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canty, M N; Hagger, J A; Moore, R T B; Cooper, L; Galloway, T S

    2007-04-01

    Concern has been raised that the increased use of pesticides in intensive aquaculture practices may cause adverse sublethal effects to non-target aquatic species. Azamethiphos is an organophosphate (OP) pesticide used to combat sea lice infestations in farmed salmonids. Here, the sublethal impact on the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, of short term exposure to azamethiphos was determined. The testing regime included biomarkers of exposure (acetylcholinesterase activity), cytotoxicity (neutral red retention), immune function (phagocytic index) and physiological condition (feeding rate). The distribution and sensitivity of M. edulis acetylcholinesterase to inhibition by azamethiphos was first determined, yielding IC(50) values of 0.736 and 1.30 mg l(-1) for gill and haemolymph, respectively. Exposure of mussels to 0.1 mg l(-1) azamethiphos for periods of up to 24h caused a significant reduction in acetylcholinesterase activity in both the haemolymph (Pgill (P<0.002), alteration in cell viability (P<0.02) and decrease in phagocytic index (P<0.03). The feeding rate remained unaffected. The results support the hypothesis that, in addition to its neurotoxic effects, azamethiphos can modulate haemocyte function and immune defence in M. edulis at environmentally relevant concentrations after only a few hours.

  15. Sub-lethal effects of essential oil of Lippia sidoides on drywood termite Cryptotermes brevis (Blattodea: Termitoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Abraão Almeida; de Oliveira, Bruna Maria Santos; Melo, Carlisson Ramos; Lima, Ana Paula Santana; Santana, Emile Dayara Rabelo; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Picanço, Marcelo Coutinho; Araújo, Ana Paula Albano; Cristaldo, Paulo Fellipe; Bacci, Leandro

    2017-11-01

    The drywood termite Cryptotermes brevis (Walker, 1853) (Kalotermitidae) is one of the most important wood structural pest in the world. Substances from the secondary metabolism of plants (e.g., essential oils) have been considered an environmentally safer form of control for urban pests, such as termites. In the present study, we analyzed the lethal and sub-lethal effects of essential oil of Lippia sidoides and its major components on C. brevis pseudergates in two routes of exposure (contact and fumigation). The essential oil of L. sidoides and thymol were more toxic to C. brevis pseudergates when applied by contact (LD50 = 9.33 and 8.20µgmg(-1), respectively) and by fumigation (LC50 = 9.10 and 23.6µLL(-1), respectively). In general, treatments changed the individual and collective behaviors of C. brevis pseudergates, as well as the displacement and walking speed. The essential oil of L. sidoides and its major components showed a high potential to control C. brevis pseudergates, due to the bioactivity in the two routes of exposure and the sub-lethal effects on the behavior and walking, important activities for the cohesion of C. brevis colonies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. In Vitro Evaluation of Sub-Lethal Concentrations of Plant-Derived Antifungal Compounds on FUSARIA Growth and Mycotoxin Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Morcia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Phytopathogenic fungi can lead to significant cereal yield losses, also producing mycotoxins dangerous for human and animal health. The fungal control based on the use of synthetic fungicides can be complemented by "green" methods for crop protection, based on the use of natural products. In this frame, the antifungal activities of bergamot and lemon essential oils and of five natural compounds recurrent in essential oils (citronellal, citral, cinnamaldehyde, cuminaldehyde and limonene have been evaluated against three species of mycotoxigenic fungi (Fusarium sporotrichioides, F. graminearum and F. langsethiae responsible for Fusarium Head Blight in small-grain cereals. The natural products concentrations effective for reducing or inhibiting the in vitro fungal growth were determined for each fungal species and the following scale of potency was found: cinnamaldehyde > cuminaldehyde > citral > citronellal > bergamot oil > limonene > lemon oil. Moreover, the in vitro mycotoxin productions of the three Fusaria strains exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of the seven products was evaluated. The three fungal species showed variability in response to the treatments, both in terms of inhibition of mycelial growth and in terms of modulation of mycotoxin production that can be enhanced by sub-lethal concentrations of some natural products. This last finding must be taken into account in the frame of an open field application of some plant-derived fungicides.

  17. Acute and sub-lethal exposure to copper oxide nanoparticles causes oxidative stress and teratogenicity in zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Santhanamari; Anaimalai Thirumurthi, Naveenkumar; Raghunath, Azhwar; Vijayakumar, Savitha; Perumal, Ekambaram

    2016-04-01

    Nano-copper oxides are a versatile inorganic material. As a result of their versatility, the immense applications and usage end up in the environment causing a concern for the lifespan of various beings. The ambiguities surround globally on the toxic effects of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs). Hence, the present study endeavored to study the sub-lethal acute exposure effects on the developing zebrafish embryos. The 48 hpf LC50 value was about 64 ppm. Therefore, we have chosen the sub-lethal dose of 40 and 60 ppm for the study. Accumulation of CuO-NPs was evidenced from the SEM-EDS and AAS analyzes. The alterations in the AChE and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities disrupted the development process. An increment in the levels of oxidants with a concomitant decrease in the antioxidant enzymes confirmed the induction of oxidative stress. Oxidative stress triggered apoptosis in the exposed embryos. Developmental anomalies were observed with CuO-NPs exposure in addition to oxidative stress in the developing embryos. Decreased heart rate and hatching delay hindered the normal developmental processes. Our work has offered valuable data on the connection between oxidative stress and teratogenicity leading to lethality caused by CuO-NPs. A further molecular mechanism unraveling the uncharted connection between oxidative stress and teratogenicity will aid in the safe use of CuO-NPs. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. The repair of sub-lethal damage and the stimulated repair of potentially lethal damage in Saintpaulia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenhouts, H P; Sijsma, M J; Litwiniszyn, M; Chadwick, K H

    1981-10-01

    The repair of sublethal and potentially lethal damage in stationary resting epidermal cells of Saintpaulia has been investigated. Fractionation experiments reveal an efficient repair of sublethal damage with a half-life of 1.9 hours. No repair of potentially lethal damage was noted when cultivation of the leaves was delayed for 24 hours after irradiation. At delay times of 2, 3 and 4 days some repair of potentially lethal damage has been found. A small pre-dose given 24 hours before a challenging dose improved the cells' chance to regenerate and the improvement has been shown to be compatible with an improved repair of potentially lethal damage induced by X-rays and fast neutrons. It hs been shown that the stimulated repair process takes 12 to 24 hours to develop, is dependent on the size of the pre-dose, has single-hit dose kinetics, and an r.b.e. of 1 for neutrons. With delayed cultivation of 2 days the stimulated repair process leads to an alteration in the shape of the regeneration (survival)-dose relationship which increases the low dose r.b.e. for neutrons from 10 to 35.

  19. Metabolic responses of Eisenia fetida after sub-lethal exposure to organic contaminants with different toxic modes of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKelvie, Jennifer R.; Wolfe, David M.; Celejewski, Magda A. [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada); Alaee, Mehran [Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd., P.O. Box 5050, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Simpson, Andre J. [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada); Simpson, Myrna J., E-mail: myrna.simpson@utoronto.ca [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada)

    2011-12-15

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) - based metabolomics has the potential to identify toxic responses of contaminants within a mixture in contaminated soil. This study evaluated the metabolic response of Eisenia fetida after exposure to an array of organic compounds to determine whether contaminant-specific responses could be identified. The compounds investigated in contact tests included: two pesticides (carbaryl and chlorpyrifos), three pharmaceuticals (carbamazephine, estrone and caffeine), two persistent organohalogens (Aroclor 1254 and PBDE 209) and two industrial compounds (nonylphenol and dimethyl phthalate). Control and contaminant-exposed metabolic profiles were distinguished using principal component analysis and potential contaminant-specific biomarkers of exposure were found for several contaminants. These results suggest that NMR-based metabolomics offers considerable promise for differentiating between the different toxic modes of action (MOA) associated with sub-lethal toxicity to earthworms. - Highlights: > NMR-based earthworm metabolomic analysis of the toxic mode of action of various environmental contaminants. > Organic chemicals with different toxic modes of action resulted in varied metabolomic responses for E. fetida. > NMR-based metabolomics differentiates between the different modes of action associated with sub-lethal toxicity. - {sup 1}H NMR metabolomics was used to identify potential biomarkers of organic contaminant exposure in Eisenia fetida earthworms.

  20. Sublethal effect of pyriproxyfen released from a fumigant formulation on fecundity, fertility, and ovicidal action in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harburguer, Laura; Zerba, Eduardo; Licastro, Susana

    2014-03-01

    Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever are mosquito-borne viral diseases that coincide with the distribution of Aedes aegypti (L.), the primary vector in the tropical and semitropical world. With no available vaccine, controlling the dengue vector is essential to prevent epidemics. The effects of the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen on Ae. aegypti adults that survived a treatment with a sublethal dose were investigated in the laboratory, including effects on their reproductive potential. Pyriproxyfen was released from a fumigant formulation at a dose causing 20 or 40% emergence inhibition (%EI). Females were dissected before and after blood feeding and the basal follicle number was counted. There were no differences between the control and treated group on the basal follicle number for both doses used. Fertility and fecundity were reduced at a concentration of EI40 but no at EI20. There was no ovicidal effect of pyriproxyfen by immersion of eggs in treated water neither when the females laid their eggs on a pyriproxyfen-treated surface. This work shows that sublethal doses of pyriproxyfen can have effects on fertility and fecundity ofAe. aegypti females, which together with its larvicidal activity could contribute to an overall decrease in a given population.

  1. Microcurrent electrical neuromuscular stimulation facilitates regeneration of injured skeletal muscle in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiya, Hiroto; Ogura, Yuji; Ohno, Yoshitaka; Goto, Ayumi; Nakamura, Ayane; Ohashi, Kazuya; Uematsu, Daiki; Aoki, Haruhito; Musha, Haruki; Goto, Katsumasa

    2015-06-01

    Conservative therapies, mainly resting care for the damaged muscle, are generally used as a treatment for skeletal muscle injuries (such as muscle fragmentation). Several past studies reported that microcurrent electrical neuromuscular stimulation (MENS) facilitates a repair of injured soft tissues and shortens the recovery period. However, the effects of MENS on the regeneration in injured skeletal muscle are still unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of MENS on the regenerative process of injured skeletal muscle and to elucidate whether satellite cells in injured skeletal muscle are activated by MENS by using animal models. Male C57BL/6J mice, aged 7 weeks old, were used (n = 30). Mice were randomly divided into two groups: (1) cardiotoxin (CTX)-injected (CX, n = 15) and (2) CTX-injected with MENS treatment (MX, n=15) groups. CTX was injected into tibialis anterior muscle (TA) of mice in CX and MX groups to initiate the necrosis-regeneration cycle of the muscle. TA was dissected 1, 2, and 3 weeks after the injection. Muscle weight, muscle protein content, the mean cross-sectional areas of muscle fibers, the relative percentage of fibers having central nuclei, and the number of muscle satellite cells were evaluated. MENS facilitated the recovery of the muscle dry weight and protein content relative to body weight, and the mean cross-sectional areas of muscle fibers in CTX-induced injured TA muscle. The number of Pax7-positive muscle satellite cells was increased by MENS during the regenerating period. Decrease in the percentages of fibers with central nuclei after CTX-injection was facilitated by MENS. MENS may facilitate the regeneration of injured skeletal muscles by activating the regenerative potential of skeletal muscles. Key pointsMicrocurrent electrical neuromuscular stimulation (MENS) facilitated the recovery of the relative muscle dry weight, the relative muscle protein content, and the mean cross-sectional areas of muscle

  2. A demographic profile of 7273 traumatic and non-traumatic spinal cord injured patients in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Vahid; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Background: To evaluate demographic profile of traumatic and non-traumatic spinal cord injured (SCI) patients. Methods: Mobile rehabilitation teams gathered data in 20 out of 30 provinces in Iran. Of 8104 traumatic and non-traumatic SCI patients under coverage of the State Welfare Organization of Iran registered in the database, 7273 were included in the analysis. The aggregate data on SCIs, including age, gender, place of residence, education level, marital status, etiology of injury, age at the time of injury, time passed since injury, level of injury, type of cord injury, having caregiver, and occupation were recorded. Results: Of 7273 patients, 5175 (71.1%) were male. At the time of the study, 46% were in the age group 20-40 years old, 34% were more than 40, and 20% were less than 20 years old. The residential place of 26% was in villages. 23.9% were illiterate, 6.9% had high school diploma or higher. The distribution of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar levels of injury was 17.7, 24.4, and 57.9%, respectively. Overall, there were 49% married and 45.8% never married, while 1.4% patients were single because their partners had left them, 1.7% of partners had died, 1.9% had divorced, and 0.3% had remarried. At the time of the presentation of patients, 33% were 21-30 years-old, 17% were 31-40, and 16% were less than 20 years. About the type of cord injury, the paraplegia, paraparesia, quadriplegia, quadriparesia, and hemiparesia were present in 72.1, 12.5, 10.2, 4.0, and 1.1% of patients, respectively. Unemployment was reported in 55.6% of patients. However, 17% were unable to work, 7.1% had a job, and 3.4% were retired. Caregiver was not provided for 7.5% of them. The most prevalent causes of the injury were: trauma (57.4%), congenital (14.4%), tumors (4.4%), spinal degenerative disorder such as canal stenosis (2.2%), genetic (2.0%), infection (1.9%), scoliosis (1.1%), and miscellaneous (10.6%). Conclusions: These data will provide the information to guide

  3. Effect of vision on postural sway in anterior cruciate ligament injured knees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Kazuhiro; Abe, Nobuhiro; Katayama, Yoshimi; Senda, Masuo; Kuroda, Takayuki; Inoue, Hajime

    2005-05-01

    Recent clinical studies have investigated postural sway characteristics in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knees, but the relative contributions of vision and ACL remain unclear. In the current study, we measured and compared postural sway during one-leg standing with eyes open and closed to assess the difference between legs with and without ACL injury, and we discuss the contribution of the ligament relative to vision and to postural sway in patients. We examined 32 patients (17 males, 15 females) with ACL injury before surgery from March 2001 through January 2004. None presented obvious dysfunction in the lower limbs or central nervous system. Using a gravicorder, we measured locus length per time (LG) and environmental area (AR) as the factors of postural sway during two-leg and one-leg standing with eyes open or closed. In the ACL-injured knee, the amount of postural sway increased significantly during injured leg standing with eyes closed (LG, P postural sway and the anterior translation of the tibia measured by arthrometer KT2000 or between the muscle strength around the knee. We concluded that the amount of postural sway in the ACL-injured knee increased significantly on injured leg standing with eyes closed, and that vision appears to be dominant in compensating for the decreased contribution of the injured ACL.

  4. An audit of emergency medicine responses to children injured in violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Jonathan; Tuthill, David; Parry, Bethan; Dowd, Hugo

    2010-02-01

    To audit emergency department (ED) responses to violence in which children are injured in violence in a European capital city. A prospective survey of children (aged children reportedly injured in violence (92 boys) were treated in 2004, six aged 5-9 years; one under 5 years. Overall, 24 (19%) incidents had been reported to the police prior to ED arrival. Only four (3%) prompted documented referral or discussions with other agencies while in the ED. 78% prompted no action apart from treatment of injuries. 13 (10%) children had fractures or were admitted, but only two of these incidents had been drawn to police attention. Only five (4%) were injured at home; a large majority were injured in the street or at school with fists or feet (12 with a weapon) by other children or adults. In this audit, most violence in which children were injured took place in schools and in the street. For children of secondary school age, ED treatment rarely prompted referral or discussion with agencies responsible for child safety. Particularly since youth and child violence are major national issues, policy and practice in this area were developed and built on disclosure of all such cases to a single referral point in the local authority education department.

  5. Musculoskeletal disorders and associated healthcare costs among family members of injured workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaw, Abay; Pana-Cryan, Regina; Bushnell, Tim; Sauter, Steven

    2015-11-01

    Research has infrequently looked beyond the injured worker when gauging the burden of occupational injury. We explored the relationship between occupational injury and musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among family members of injured workers. We used 2005 and 2006 Truven Health Analytics databases, which contain information on workers' compensation and family healthcare claims. We used descriptive analyses, and negative binomial and two-part models. Family members of severely injured workers had a 15% increase in the total number of MSD outpatient claims and a 34% increase in the mean cost of MSD claims compared to family members of non-severely injured workers within 3 months after injury. Extrapolating cost results to the national level implies that severe occupational injury would be associated with between $29 and $33 million additional cost of family member outpatient MSD claims. Occupational injury can impose a formerly unrecognized health burden on family members of injured workers. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. A prospective study on time to recovery in 254 injured novice runners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Oestergaard Nielsen

    Full Text Available Describe the diagnoses and the time to recovery of running-related injuries in novice runners.Prospective cohort study on injured runners.This paper is a secondary data analysis of a 933-person cohort study (DANO-RUN aimed at characterizing risk factors for injury in novice runners. Among those sustaining running-related injuries, the types of injuries and time to recovery is described in the present paper. All injured runners were diagnosed after a thorough clinical examination and then followed prospectively during their recovery. If they recovered completely from injury, time to recovery of each injury was registered.A total of 254 runners were injured. The proportion of runners diagnosed with medial tibial stress syndrome was 15%, 10% for patellofemoral pain, 9% for medial meniscal injury, 7% for Achilles tendinopathy and 5% for plantar fasciitis. Among the 220 runners (87% recovering from their injury, the median time to recovery was 71 days (minimum  = 9 days, maximum  = 617 days.Medial tibial stress syndrome was the most common injury followed by patellofemoral pain, medial meniscal injury and Achilles tendinopathy. Half of the injured runners were unable to run 2×500 meters without pain after 10 weeks. Almost 5% of the injured runners received surgical treatment.

  7. A prospective study on time to recovery in 254 injured novice runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Rønnow, Lotte; Rasmussen, Sten; Lind, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Describe the diagnoses and the time to recovery of running-related injuries in novice runners. Prospective cohort study on injured runners. This paper is a secondary data analysis of a 933-person cohort study (DANO-RUN) aimed at characterizing risk factors for injury in novice runners. Among those sustaining running-related injuries, the types of injuries and time to recovery is described in the present paper. All injured runners were diagnosed after a thorough clinical examination and then followed prospectively during their recovery. If they recovered completely from injury, time to recovery of each injury was registered. A total of 254 runners were injured. The proportion of runners diagnosed with medial tibial stress syndrome was 15%, 10% for patellofemoral pain, 9% for medial meniscal injury, 7% for Achilles tendinopathy and 5% for plantar fasciitis. Among the 220 runners (87%) recovering from their injury, the median time to recovery was 71 days (minimum  = 9 days, maximum  = 617 days). Medial tibial stress syndrome was the most common injury followed by patellofemoral pain, medial meniscal injury and Achilles tendinopathy. Half of the injured runners were unable to run 2×500 meters without pain after 10 weeks. Almost 5% of the injured runners received surgical treatment.

  8. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder: applications to injured trauma survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Amy W

    2003-07-01

    This article discusses the applicability of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to the treatment of injured trauma survivors, with special consideration of treatment delivery within the trauma care system. The theoretical underpinnings and major treatment components of CBT for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are presented, followed by a review of the treatment outcome research to date. As few studies have evaluated CBT for injured trauma survivors, specifically, circumstances and comorbidities of this population, that might impact treatment delivery and outcome are discussed within a cognitive-behavioral framework. The article concludes with recommendations for research and treatment of PTSD among injured trauma survivors that draw from cognitive-behavioral theory and empirically supported principles of change. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cholecystokinin expression in tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F

    2016-01-01

    in different neuroendocrine tumors; cerebral gliomas and astrocytomas and specific pediatric tumors. Tumor hypersecretion of CCK was recently reported in a patient with a metastatic islet cell tumor and hypercholecystokininemia resulting in a novel tumor syndrome, the cholecystokininoma syndrome. This review...

  10. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Glyphosate (Roundup® Active to Embryos of Colombian Anurans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teófila María Triana Velásquez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate is an herbicide widely used in agriculture, which may affect non-target species. The aim of this study was to determine the lethal (Median lethal concentration - LC50 and sublethal effects (changes on body size and development of glyphosate (Roundup® Active to embryos of four anuran species, exposed during 96 hours under laboratory and microcosm tests. Under laboratory conditions, Engystomops pustulosus was the most tolerant species (LC50 = 3033,18 μg a.e./L and Rhinella marina was the most sensitive (LC50 = 1421,46 μg a.e./L, which also showed a delayed development and significantly reduced body size. The other species had an intermediate LC50 (Rhinella humboldti = 2899,54 μg a.e./L; Hypsiboas crepitans = 2151,88 μg a.e./L. In all cases, the laboratory LC50 was lower than the concentration used in field (5392,92 μg a.e./L, indicating a high toxic effect. In the microcosm tests, embryos of E. pustulosus were the most tolerant (LC50 = 19,41 kg a.e./ha, while R. humboldti were the most sensitive (LC50 = 10,61 kg a.e./ha. In this case, all four study species had a higher LC50 than the concentration sprayed in field (3,69 kg a.e./ ha, so a lower lethal effect, and there were no significant differences in body size and development. This result shows that the glyphosate, as the commercial presentation Roundup® Active, produce a moderate mortality on anuran embryos.EFECTOS LETALES Y SUBLETALES DEL GLIFOSATO (ROUNDUP® ACTIVO EN EMBRIONES DE ANUROS COLOMBIANOS.El glifosato es un herbicida usado en la agricultura que puede afectar especies no blanco. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar los efectos letales (concentración letal media - CL50 y subletales (cambios en el tamaño corporal y desarrollo del glifosato (Roundup® Activo sobre embriones de cuatro especies de anuros expuestos durante 96 horas en pruebas de laboratorio y microcosmos. En laboratorio, la especie más tolerante fue Engystomops pustulosus (CL50 = 3033,18 μg a

  11. [Protective effect of six Kaixin San formulas on nerve cells injured by different materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hai-Xia; Zhou, Xiao-Jiang; Hu, Yuan; Dong, Xian-Zhe; Cao, Yin; Liu, Ping

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the protective effect of six Kaixin San formulas on simulated cells model of depression, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. The in vitro simulated cells model of depression, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease was established by injuring SH-SY5Y cells with corticosterone (0.4 mmol x L(-1)) , injuring PC12 cells with neurotoxic amyloid peptide (Abeta25-35) (20 micromol x L(-1)) and injuring SH-SY5Y cells with 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+) (250 micromol x L(-1)). The cell survival rate was assayed with MTT method and the degree of cell injury was detected with LDH. 100, 500 mg x L(-1) Dingzhixiao Wan prepared as mentioned in Beiji Qianjin Yaofang could significantly increase the survival ratio of SH-SY5Y cells injured by corticosterone and reduce LDH concentration released. All of the Kaixin San formulas could significantly increase the survival ratio of PC12 cells injured by Abeta25-35 and reduce LDH concentration released. Particularly, Kaixin San (10, 100, 500 mg L(-1)) prepared as mentioned in Beiji Qianjin Yaofang shown the best effect. And 500 mg x L(-1) Fushen Wan prepared as mentioned in Gujin Luyan could significantly increase survival ratio of SH-SY5Y cell injured by MPP and reduce LDH concentration released. Dingzhixiao Wan prepared as mentioned in Beiji Qianjin Yaofang could protect corticosterone-induced SH-SY5Ycells injury, showing a potential antidepressant effect. All of the six Kaixin San formulas could protect Abeta25-35-induced PC12 cells injury, but Kaixin San prepared as mentioned in Beiji Qianjin Yaofang shown the best potential effect for Alzheimer's disease. Fushen Wan prepared as mentioned in Gujin Luyan could protect MPP(+)-induced SH-SY5Y cells injury to some extent.

  12. Accumulating microglia phagocytose injured neurons in hippocampal slice cultures: involvement of p38 MAP kinase.

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    Takahiro Katayama

    Full Text Available In this study, microglial migration and phagocytosis were examined in mouse organotypic hippocampal slice cultures, which were treated with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA to selectively injure neuronal cells. Microglial cells were visualized by the expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein. Daily observation revealed microglial accumulation in the pyramidal cell layer, which peaked 5 to 6 days after NMDA treatment. Time-lapse imaging showed that microglia migrated to the pyramidal cell layer from adjacent and/or remote areas. There was no difference in the number of proliferating microglia between control and NMDA-treated slices in both the pyramidal cell layer and stratum radiatum, suggesting that microglial accumulation in the injured areas is mainly due to microglial migration, not to proliferation. Time-lapse imaging also showed that the injured neurons, which were visualized by propidium iodide (PI, disappeared just after being surrounded by microglia. Daily observation revealed that the intensity of PI fluorescence gradually attenuated, and this attenuation was suppressed by pretreatment with clodronate, a microglia toxin. These findings suggest that accumulating microglia phagocytosed injured neurons, and that PI fluorescence could be a useful indicator for microglial phagocytosis. Using this advantage to examine microglial phagocytosis in living slice cultures, we investigated the involvements of mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases in microglial accumulation and phagocytosis. p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB203580, but not MAP kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitor PD98059 or c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor SP600125, suppressed the attenuation of PI fluorescence. On the other hand, microglial accumulation in the injured areas was not inhibited by any of these inhibitors. These data suggest that p38 MAP kinase plays an important role in microglial phagocytosis of injured neurons.

  13. Glycosylation-induced depolarization facilitates subthreshold membrane oscillation in injured primary sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen-Xu; Jing, Yan-Ling; Xie, Yi-Kuan

    2007-03-30

    Subthreshold membrane potential oscillations (SMPO) in the injured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons are involved in the generation of spontaneous activity, which can directly evoke neuropathic pain. Nerve injury usually triggers the synthesis of large quantities of membrane protein in nerve injured DRG neurons. Membrane proteins are glycosylated by addition of sugars, especially negatively charged sialic acid residues, which may depolarize the resting membrane potential (Vm), open voltage-gated channels in injured neurons, and cause spontaneous activity. In the present study, we aimed to determine if increased negative charge on the cell surface, carried by the sialic acid residues, could contribute to the generation of SMPO in injured DRG neurons. Intracellular recording was performed in DRG neurons following chronic constrictive injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. Results indicated that both A- and C-type injured DRG neurons exhibited a higher incidence of SMPO and more depolarized Vm than those of the control neurons. Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), or poly-lysine, a positively charged organic compound, when topically applied to the DRG, not only reduced SMPO but also caused a rapid hyperpolarizing shift in Vm. Topical application of neuraminidase to selectively remove sialic acid residues on the extracellular membrane normalized the depolarized Vm and inhibited both spontaneous and evoked SMPO. However, application of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+) or neuraminidase had no effect on excitability and Vm in normal neurons. The results demonstrated that the increase in negatively charged sialic acid residues on the extracellular membrane of neuronal somata is a critical factor in the generation of SMPO and hyperexcitability in injured sensory neurons.

  14. Microcurrent Electrical Neuromuscular Stimulation Facilitates Regeneration of Injured Skeletal Muscle in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroto Fujiya, Yuji Ogura, Yoshitaka Ohno, Ayumi Goto, Ayane Nakamura, Kazuya Ohashi, Daiki Uematsu, Haruhito Aoki, Haruki Musha, Katsumasa Goto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Conservative therapies, mainly resting care for the damaged muscle, are generally used as a treatment for skeletal muscle injuries (such as muscle fragmentation. Several past studies reported that microcurrent electrical neuromuscular stimulation (MENS facilitates a repair of injured soft tissues and shortens the recovery period. However, the effects of MENS on the regeneration in injured skeletal muscle are still unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of MENS on the regenerative process of injured skeletal muscle and to elucidate whether satellite cells in injured skeletal muscle are activated by MENS by using animal models. Male C57BL/6J mice, aged 7 weeks old, were used (n = 30. Mice were randomly divided into two groups: (1 cardiotoxin (CTX-injected (CX, n = 15 and (2 CTX-injected with MENS treatment (MX, n=15 groups. CTX was injected into tibialis anterior muscle (TA of mice in CX and MX groups to initiate the necrosis-regeneration cycle of the muscle. TA was dissected 1, 2, and 3 weeks after the injection. Muscle weight, muscle protein content, the mean cross-sectional areas of muscle fibers, the relative percentage of fibers having central nuclei, and the number of muscle satellite cells were evaluated. MENS facilitated the recovery of the muscle dry weight and protein content relative to body weight, and the mean cross-sectional areas of muscle fibers in CTX-induced injured TA muscle. The number of Pax7-positive muscle satellite cells was increased by MENS during the regenerating period. Decrease in the percentages of fibers with central nuclei after CTX-injection was facilitated by MENS. MENS may facilitate the regeneration of injured skeletal muscles by activating the regenerative potential of skeletal muscles.

  15. Factors associated with sickness certification of injured workers by General Practitioners in Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa Ruseckaite

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Work-related injuries resulting in long-term sickness certification can have serious consequences for injured workers, their families, society, compensation schemes, employers and healthcare service providers. The aim of this study was to establish what factors potentially are associated with the type of sickness certification that General Practitioners (GPs provide to injured workers following work-related injury in Victoria, Australia. Methods This was a retrospective population-based cohort study was conducted for compensation claims lodged by adults from 2003 to 2010. A logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the impact of various factors on the likelihood that an injured worker would receive an alternate/modified duties (ALT, n = 28,174 vs. Unfit for work (UFW, n = 91,726 certificate from their GP. Results A total of 119,900 claims were analysed. The majority of the injured workers were males, mostly age of 45-54 years. Nearly half of the workers (49.9 % with UFW and 36.9 % with ALT certificates had musculoskeletal injuries. The multivariate regression analysis revealed that for most occupations older men (55-64 years were less likely to receive an ALT certificate, (OR = 0.86, (95%CI, 0.81 – 0.91. Workers suffering musculoskeletal injuries or occupational diseases were nearly twice or three times at higher odds of receiving an ALT certificate when compared to fractures. Being seen by a GP experienced with workers’ compensation increased the odds of receiving ALT certificate (OR = 1.16, (95%CI, 1.11 – 1.20. Occupation and industry types were also important factors determining the type of certificate issued to the injured worker. Conclusions This study suggests that specific groups of injured workers (i.e. older age, workers with mental health issues, in rural areas are less likely to receive ALT certificates.

  16. Artificial ascites and pneumoperitoneum to facilitate thermal ablation of liver tumors: a pictorial essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagavatula, Sharath K; Chick, Jeffrey F B; Chauhan, Nikunj R; Shyn, Paul B

    2017-02-01

    Image-guided percutaneous thermal ablation is increasingly utilized in the treatment of hepatic malignancies. Peripherally located hepatic tumors can be difficult to access or located adjacent to critical structures that can be injured. As a result, ablation of peripheral tumors may be avoided or may be performed too cautiously, leading to inadequate ablation coverage. In these cases, separating the tumor from adjacent critical structures can increase the efficacy and safety of procedures. Artificial ascites and artificial pneumoperitoneum are techniques that utilize fluid and gas, respectively, to insulate critical structures from the thermal ablation zone. Induction of artificial ascites and artificial pneumoperitoneum can enable complete ablation of otherwise inaccessible hepatic tumors, improve tumor visualization, minimize unintended thermal injury to surrounding organs, and reduce post-procedural pain. This pictorial essay illustrates and discusses the proper technique and clinical considerations for successful artificial ascites and pneumoperitoneum creation to facilitate safe peripheral hepatic tumor ablation.

  17. Surgical Management and Treatment of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament/Medial Collateral Ligament Injured Knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Kevin M; Bailey, James R; Moorman, Claude T

    2017-01-01

    The medial collateral ligament (MCL) is the most commonly injured ligament of the knee. The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the most commonly injured ligament in conjunction with the MCL. Most MCL injuries can be treated nonoperatively, whereas the ACL often requires reconstruction. A good physical examination is essential for diagnosis, whereas radiographs and MRI of the knee confirm diagnosis and help guide treatment planning. Preoperative physical therapy should be completed before surgical management to allow for return of knee range of motion and an attempt at MCL healing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Arterial injures in open fractures of the leg; Uszkodzenia ukladu tetniczego w otwartych zlamaniach goleni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konarski, K. [Szpital im. J. Jonstona, Lublin (Poland)

    1993-12-31

    Patterns of arterial injures in open fractures of the leg are presented. It was noted, that union disorders and infection result from changes in both primarily pathological and only recently injured (compression or contusion) arteries. In 23 cases of 3 and 4 degree open fracture femoral arteriography has been performed. In 19 cases (84%) vascular injuries were detected. Most of the arteriographies carried out immediately after injury revealed compression and transposition of the leg arteries. Those cases are prone to develop subsequent arterial occlusion. (author). 19 refs, 6 figs.

  19. Chloride and sulphate toxicity to Hydropsyche exocellata (Trichoptera, Hydropsychidae): Exploring intraspecific variation and sub-lethal endpoints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sala, Miquel [Centre Tecnològic Forestal de Catalunya - CTFC, Solsona, Catalunya (Spain); Faria, Melissa [CESAM, Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Sarasúa, Ignacio [Technische Universität München, Munich, Bayern (Germany); Barata, Carlos [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Bonada, Núria [Grup de Recerca Freshwater Ecology and Management (FEM), Departament d' Ecologia, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Diagonal 643, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Grup de Recerca Freshwater Ecology and Management (FEM), Departament d' Ecologia, Facultat de Biologia, Institut de Recerca de la Biodiversitat (IRBio), Universitat de Barcelona - UB, Diagonal 643, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Brucet, Sandra [Aquatic Ecology Group, BETA Tecnio Centre, University of Vic - Central University of Catalonia, Vic, Catalonia (Spain); Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies, ICREA, Barcelona 08010 (Spain); Llenas, Laia; Ponsá, Sergio [Aquatic Ecology Group, BETA Tecnio Centre, University of Vic - Central University of Catalonia, Vic, Catalonia (Spain); Prat, Narcís [Grup de Recerca Freshwater Ecology and Management (FEM), Departament d' Ecologia, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Diagonal 643, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Soares, Amadeu M.V.M. [CESAM, Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); and others

    2016-10-01

    The rivers and streams of the world are becoming saltier due to human activities. In spite of the potential damage that salt pollution can cause on freshwater ecosystems, this is an issue that is currently poorly managed. Here we explored intraspecific differences in the sensitivity of freshwater fauna to two major ions (Cl{sup −} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}) using the net-spinning caddisfly Hydropsyche exocellata Dufour 1841 (Trichoptera, Hydropsychidae) as a model organism. We exposed H. exocellata to saline solutions (reaching a conductivity of 2.5 mS cm{sup −1}) with Cl{sup −}:SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ratios similar to those occurring in effluents coming from the meat, mining and paper industries, which release dissolved salts to rivers and streams in Spain. We used two different populations, coming from low and high conductivity streams. To assess toxicity, we measured sub-lethal endpoints: locomotion, symmetry of the food-capturing nets and oxidative stress biomarkers. According to biomarkers and net building, the population historically exposed to lower conductivities (B10) showed higher levels of stress than the population historically exposed to higher conductivities (L102). However, the differences between populations were not strong. For example, net symmetry was lower in the B10 than in the L102 only 48 h after treatment was applied, and biomarkers showed a variety of responses, with no discernable pattern. Also, treatment effects were rather weak, i.e. only some endpoints, and in most cases only in the B10 population, showed a significant response to treatment. The lack of consistent differences between populations and treatments could be related to the high salt tolerance of H. exocellata, since both populations were collected from streams with relatively high conductivities. The sub-lethal effects tested in this study can offer an interesting and promising tool to monitor freshwater salinization by combining physiological and behavioural bioindicators

  20. Sublethal amounts of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil and carvacrol cause injury and changes in membrane fatty acid of Salmonella Typhimurium cultivated in a meat broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Isabelle da Silva; de Melo, Adma Nadja Ferreira; Bezerra, Taliana Kênia Alves; Madruga, Marta Suely; Magnani, Marciane; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether sublethal concentrations of the essential oil of Origanum vulgare L. (OVEO) and its major compound carvacrol (CAR) cause injury to the cell membrane and outer membrane of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 14028 grown in a meat broth and to assess the effect of these substances on membrane fatty acid (FA) composition. Exposure of Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 to sublethal concentrations of OVEO or CAR caused damage to the cytoplasmic membrane and outer membrane. OVEO- and CAR-treated cells showed lower amounts of saturated FA than nontreated cells. Changes in membrane FA composition were mainly related to an increase of C16:1ω7c, C16:1ω7t, and C18:2ω6c, and to a decrease of C16:0, C17:0 cyclo, and C19:0 cyclo. These results indicate that exposure to sublethal concentrations of OVEO or CAR caused sublethal injury Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 and suggest that an adaptive response to these stresses is related to increased synthesis of unsaturated FA and cis-trans isomerization.

  1. Sublethal effects of chlorantraniliprole on development, reproduction and vitellogenin gene (CsVg) expression in the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Lu, Mingxing; Han, Guangjie; Du, Yuzhou; Wang, Jianjun

    2016-12-01

    The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), is one of the most damaging rice pests in the world. The sublethal effects of chlorantraniliprole on development,reproduction and mRNA expression levels of vitellogenin gene (CsVg) in C. suppressalis were investigated. Exposure of third-instar larvae to sublethal concentrations of chlorantraniliprole (LC10 and LC30 ) significantly extended larval duration, lowered the mean weight of male pupae and shortened male adult longevity. Pupal duration was significantly prolonged and the mean weight of female pupae was significantly lowered in the LC30 treatment group. While there were no significant sublethal effects on either the adult emergence rate or the egg hatch, the pupation rates in the LC10 treatment group (41.30%) and in the LC30 treatment group (23.98%) were significantly lower than the pupation rate of the control (71.86%), and LC10 and LC30 chlorantraniliprole significantly reduced fecundity, by 32.18 and 52.94% respectively. Furthermore, the expression levels of CsVg mRNA after exposure to LC10 and LC30 chlorantraniliprole significantly decreased, by 42.52 and 47.84% respectively, in 12-h-old female adults. Sublethal concentrations of chlorantraniliprole adversely affect the development and reproduction of C. suppressalis. The downregulation of CsVg by chlorantraniliprole might have negative impacts on the fecundity of C. suppressalis. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. [Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szporek, Bozena J; Cieślik, Tadeusz; Jedrzejewski, Piotr W; Lipiarz, Ludwik Z

    2005-01-01

    The calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm which was first described by Pindborg in 1955 representing only 1% of all odontogenic tumors. The tumor has an ectodermal odontogenic origin. This tumor are considered benign but can be locally aggressive in nature with recurrence rates of 10-15% reported. Surgical treatment varies from simply enucleation to partial resection of the affected bone. Since 1973 three cases only of the Pinborg tumor have been presented in the Polish literature. We described the case of a 44-year-old man with Pindborg tumor in the right maxilla. Standard x-ray examinations and CT scan were performed in order to obtain information about tumor's localization. Autors discuss the radiologic features of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor and treatment method and the relevant literature.

  3. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  4. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Needs a Kidney Transplant Vision Facts and Myths Brain Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain Tumors Print A ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  5. Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... navigate their brain tumor diagnosis. WATCH AND SHARE Brain tumors and their treatment can be deadly so ... Pediatric Central Nervous System Cancers Read more >> Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation 302 Ridgefield Court, Asheville, NC 28806 ...

  6. Hand and Wrist Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Hand Tumors and Wrist Tumors Email to a friend * ... are seen commonly. CAUSES Common Types of Wrist Hand Tumors Ganglion Cysts (Figure 1): This is the ...

  7. Brain Tumor Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Young Adult Guidelines For brain tumor information and support Call: 800-886-ABTA (2282) or Complete our contact form Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Newly Diagnosed Neurological Exam ...

  8. Brain Tumor Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Young Adult Guidelines For brain tumor information and support Call: 800-886-ABTA (2282) or Complete our contact form Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Headaches Seizures Memory Depression Mood ...

  9. Tumors and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumors during pregnancy are rare, but they can happen. Tumors can be either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. The most common cancers in pregnancy are breast cancer, cervical cancer, lymphoma, and melanoma. ...

  10. Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumor > Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 11/ ... the body. It is important to remember that statistics on the survival rates for people with a ...

  11. DCB - Tumor Metastasis Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor metastasis research examines the mechanisms that allow cancer cells to leave the primary tumor and spread to another part of the body. Learn about recent tumor metastasis research studies supported by the Division of Cancer Biology.

  12. Circulating Tumor Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vicki Plaks; Charlotte D. Koopman; Zena Werb

    2013-01-01

    .... During successful dissemination, tumor cells invade the surrounding tissue of the primary tumor, intravasate into blood and lymphatic vessels, translocate to distant tissues, extravasate, adapt...

  13. Sublethal Concentrations of Antibiotics Cause Shift to Anaerobic Metabolism in Listeria monocytogenes and Induce Phenotypes Linked to Antibiotic Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Gitte Maegaard; Fromberg, Arvid; Ng, Yin

    2016-01-01

    The human pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is exposed to antibiotics both during clinical treatment and in its saprophytic lifestyle. As one of the keys to successful treatment is continued antibiotic sensitivity, the purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to sublethal...... antibiotic concentrations would affect the bacterial physiology and induce antibiotic tolerance. Transcriptomic analyses demonstrated that each of the four antibiotics tested caused an antibiotic-specific gene expression pattern related to mode-of-action of the particular antibiotic. All four antibiotics...... caused the same changes in expression of several metabolic genes indicating a shift from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism and higher ethanol production. A mutant in the bifunctional acetaldehyde-CoA/alcohol dehydrogenase encoded by Imo1634 did not have altered antibiotic tolerance. However, a mutant...

  14. Exploring sub-lethal effects of exposure to a nucleopolyhedrovirus in the speckled wood (Pararge aegeria) butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Helen; Gibbs, Melanie; Breuker, Casper J; Van Dyck, Hans; Turner, Emma; Hails, Rosemary S

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the sub-lethal effects of larval exposure to baculovirus on host life history and wing morphological traits using a model system, the speckled wood butterfly Pararge aegeria (L.) and the virus Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus. Males and females showed similar responses to the viral infection. Infection significantly reduced larval growth rate, whilst an increase in development time allowed the critical mass for pupation to be attained. There was no direct effect of viral infection on the wing morphological traits examined. There was, however, an indirect effect of resisting infection; larvae that took longer to develop had reduced resource investment in adult flight muscle mass. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Supporting data for comparative proteomic analysis of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 exposed to a sublethal concentration of nisin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendi Nishino Miyamoto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we provide the LC–MS/MS data from a comparative analysis of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 treated and non-treated with a sublethal concentration of nisin (10−3 mg/mL. Protein samples were analyzed by multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT approach, in an off-line configuration. The raw MS/MS data allowed the detection of 49,591 spectra which resulted in 576 protein identifications. After Scaffold validation, 179 proteins were identified with high confidence. A label-free quantitative analysis based of normalized spectral abundance factor (NSAF was used and 13 proteins were found differentially expressed between nisin-treated and non-treated cells. Gene ontology analysis of differentially expressed proteins revealed that most of them are correlated to metabolic process, oxidative stress response mechanisms and molecular binding. A detailed analysis and discussion of these data may be found in Miyamoto et al. [1].

  16. Experimental assessment of the effects of sublethal salinities on growth performance and stress in cultured tra catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuc Trong Hong; Do, Huong Thi Thanh; Mather, Peter B; Hurwood, David A

    2014-12-01

    The effects of a range of different sublethal salinities were assessed on physiological processes and growth performance in the freshwater 'tra' catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) juveniles over an 8-week experiment. Fish were distributed randomly among 6 salinity treatments [2, 6, 10, 14 and 18 g/L of salinity and a control (0 g/L)] with a subsequent 13-day period of acclimation. Low salinity conditions from 2 to 10 g/L provided optimal conditions with high survival and good growth performance, while 0 g/L and salinities >14 g/L gave poorer survival rates (p Tra catfish do not appear to be efficient osmoregulators when salinity levels exceed 10 g/L, and at raised salinity levels, growth performance is compromised. In general, results of this study confirm that providing culture environments in the Mekong River Basin do not exceed 10 g/L salinity and that cultured tra catfish can continue to perform well.

  17. Sublethal exposure to crude oil during embryonic development alters cardiac morphology and reduces aerobic capacity in adult fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicken, Corinne E; Linbo, Tiffany L; Baldwin, David H; Willis, Maryjean L; Myers, Mark S; Holland, Larry; Larsen, Marie; Stekoll, Michael S; Rice, Stanley D; Collier, Tracy K; Scholz, Nathaniel L; Incardona, John P

    2011-04-26

    Exposure to high concentrations of crude oil produces a lethal syndrome of heart failure in fish embryos. Mortality is caused by cardiotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), ubiquitous components of petroleum. Here, we show that transient embryonic exposure to very low concentrations of oil causes toxicity that is sublethal, delayed, and not counteracted by the protective effects of cytochrome P450 induction. Nearly a year after embryonic oil exposure, adult zebrafish showed subtle changes in heart shape and a significant reduction in swimming performance, indicative of reduced cardiac output. These delayed physiological impacts on cardiovascular performance at later life stages provide a potential mechanism linking reduced individual survival to population-level ecosystem responses of fish species to chronic, low-level oil pollution.

  18. Acute exposure to a sublethal dose of imidacloprid and coumaphos enhances olfactory learning and memory in the honeybee Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Sally M; Baker, Daniel D; Wright, Geraldine A

    2013-06-01

    The decline of honeybees and other pollinating insects is a current cause for concern. A major factor implicated in their decline is exposure to agricultural chemicals, in particular the neonicotinoid insecticides such as imidacloprid. Honeybees are also subjected to additional chemical exposure when beekeepers treat hives with acaricides to combat the mite Varroa destructor. Here, we assess the effects of acute sublethal doses of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid, and the organophosphate acaricide coumaphos, on honey bee learning and memory. Imidacloprid had little effect on performance in a six-trial olfactory conditioning assay, while coumaphos caused a modest impairment. We report a surprising lack of additive adverse effects when both compounds were administered simultaneously, which instead produced a modest improvement in learning and memory.

  19. Sublethal responses of the common mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) exposed to sodium hypochlorite and Mexel432 used as antifoulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Galindo, Cristina; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Nebot, Enrique; Casanueva, José F; Rubio, Daniel; Mancera, Juan M; Solé, Montserrat

    2010-07-01

    The sublethal effects of two antifoulants currently used in power plant cooling systems were assessed in the common mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. The concentrations of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and an alkyl amine surfactant (Mexel432) assayed, were within the range of those currently discharged by power plants into receiving waters. Enzymatic activities and oxidative stress responses were measured in digestive gland and gill of mussels after 1, 3, 7 and 14 days of exposure, as well as histopathology in gill tissue. Both antifoulants caused a pathological response in gills and the activities of the enzymes glutathione S-transferase, catalase, acetylcholinesterase and the lipid peroxidation levels were also affected. Exposure to NaClO caused a greater toxicological response than Mexel432. In both treatments, gills appeared to be the most affected tissue, although Mexel432 also significantly affected digestive gland parameters. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Supporting data for comparative proteomic analysis of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 exposed to a sublethal concentration of nisin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Kendi Nishino; Mariante Monteiro, Karina; da Silva Caumo, Karin; Rodrigues Lorenzatto, Karina; Bunselmeyer Ferreira, Henrique; Brandelli, Adriano

    2015-01-01

    Here we provide the LC–MS/MS data from a comparative analysis of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 treated and non-treated with a sublethal concentration of nisin (10−3 mg/mL). Protein samples were analyzed by multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT) approach, in an off-line configuration. The raw MS/MS data allowed the detection of 49,591 spectra which resulted in 576 protein identifications. After Scaffold validation, 179 proteins were identified with high confidence. A label-free quantitative analysis based of normalized spectral abundance factor (NSAF) was used and 13 proteins were found differentially expressed between nisin-treated and non-treated cells. Gene ontology analysis of differentially expressed proteins revealed that most of them are correlated to metabolic process, oxidative stress response mechanisms and molecular binding. A detailed analysis and discussion of these data may be found in Miyamoto et al. [1]. PMID:26217729

  1. Sublethal Exposure to Clove and Cinnamon Essential Oils Induces Hormetic-Like Responses and Disturbs Behavioral and Respiratory Responses in Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddi, Khalid; Oliveira, Eugênio E; Faroni, Lêda R A; Guedes, Daniela C; Miranda, Natalie N S

    2015-12-01

    Essential oils have been suggested as suitable alternatives for controlling insect pests. However, the potential adaptive responses elicited in insects for mitigating the actions of these compounds have not received adequate attention. Furthermore, as is widely reported with traditional insecticides, sublethal exposure to essential oils might induce stimulatory responses or contribute to the development of resistance strategies that can compromise the management of insect pests. The current study evaluated the locomotory and respiratory responses as well as the number of larvae per grain produced by the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, after being sublethally exposed to the essential oils of clove, Syzygium aromaticum L., and cinnamon, Cinnamomum zeylanicum L. The essential oils showed similar insecticidal toxicity (exposure route: contact with dried residues; Clove LC95 = 3.96 [2.78-6.75] µl/cm(2); Cinnamon LC95 = 3.47 [2.75-4.73] µl/cm(2)). A stimulatory effect on the median survival time (TL50) was observed when insects were exposed to low concentrations of each oil. Moreover, a higher number of larvae per grain was produced under sublethal exposure to clove essential oil. S. zeamais avoided the treated areas (in free-choice experiments) and altered their mobility when sublethally exposed to both essential oils. The respiratory rates of S. zeamais (i.e., CO2 production) were significantly reduced under low concentrations of the essential oils. We recommend the consideration of the potential sublethal effects elicited by botanical pesticides during the development of integrated pest management programs aiming to control S. zeamais. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Sublethal mechanisms of Pb and Zn toxicity to the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) during early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellis, Margaret S; Lauer, Mariana M; Nadella, Sunita; Bianchini, Adalto; Wood, Chris M

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand sublethal mechanisms of lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) toxicity, developing sea urchins were exposed continuously from 3h post-fertilization (eggs) to 96 h (pluteus larvae) to 55 (±2.4) μgPb/L or 117 (±11)μgZn/L, representing ~ 70% of the EC50 for normal 72 h development. Growth, unidirectional Ca uptake rates, whole body ion concentrations (Na, K, Ca, Mg), Ca(2+) ATPase activity, and metal bioaccumulation were monitored every 12h over this period. Pb exhibited marked bioaccumulation whereas Zn was well-regulated, and both metals had little effect on growth, measured as larval dry weight, or on Na, K, or Mg concentrations. Unidirectional Ca uptake rates (measured by (45)Ca incorporation) were severely inhibited by both metals, resulting in lower levels of whole body Ca accumulation. The greatest disruption occurred at gastrulation. Ca(2+) ATPase activity was also significantly inhibited by Zn but not by Pb. Interestingly, embryos exposed to Pb showed some capacity for recovery, as Ca(2+)ATPase activities increased, Ca uptake rates returned to normal intermittently, and whole body Ca levels were restored to control values by 72-96 h of development. This did not occur with Zn exposure. Both Pb and Zn rendered their toxic effects through disruption of Ca homeostasis, though likely through different proximate mechanisms. We recommend studying the toxicity of these contaminants periodically throughout development as an effective way to detect sublethal effects, which may not be displayed at the traditional toxicity test endpoint of 72 h. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of acute sublethal effects of clothianidin on motor function of honeybee workers using video-tracking analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkassab, Abdulrahim T; Kirchner, Wolfgang H

    2018-01-01

    Sublethal impacts of pesticides on the locomotor activity might occur to different degrees and could escape visual observation. Therefore, our objective is the utilization of video-tracking to quantify how the acute oral exposure to different doses (0.1-2ng/bee) of the neonicotinoid "clothianidin" influences the locomotor activity of honeybees in a time course experiment. The total distance moved, resting time as well as the duration and frequency of bouts of laying upside down are measured. Our results show that bees exposed to acute sublethal doses of clothianidin exhibit a significant increase in the total distance moved after 30 and 60min of the treatment at the highest dose (2ng/bee). Nevertheless, a reduction of the total distance is observed at this dose 90min post-treatment compared to the distance of the same group after 30min, where the treated bees show an arched abdomen and start to lose their postural control. The treated bees with 1ng clothianidin show a significant increase in total distance moved over the experimental period. Moreover, a reduction in the resting time and increase of the duration and frequency of bouts of laying upside down at these doses are found. Furthermore, significant effects on the tested parameters are observed at the dose (0.5ng/bee) first at 60min post-treatment compared to untreated bees. The lowest dose (0.1ng/bee) has non-significant effects on the motor activity of honeybees compared to untreated bees over the experimental period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Lethal and sub-lethal effects of elevated CO2 concentrations on marine benthic invertebrates and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changkeun; Hong, Seongjin; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Lee, Jung-Ho; Ryu, Jongseong; Park, Young-Gyu; Kang, Seong-Gil; Khim, Jong Seong

    2016-08-01

    Concern about leakage of carbon dioxide (CO2) from deep-sea storage in geological reservoirs is increasing because of its possible adverse effects on marine organisms locally or at nearby coastal areas both in sediment and water column. In the present study, we examined how elevated CO2 affects various intertidal epibenthic (benthic copepod), intertidal endobenthic (Manila clam and Venus clam), sub-tidal benthic (brittle starfish), and free-living (marine medaka) organisms in areas expected to be impacted by leakage. Acute lethal and sub-lethal effects were detected in the adult stage of all test organisms exposed to varying concentrations of CO2, due to the associated decline in pH (8.3 to 5.2) during 96-h exposure. However, intertidal organisms (such as benthic copepods and clams) showed remarkable resistance to elevated CO2, with the Venus clam being the most tolerant (LpH50 = 5.45). Sub-tidal species (such as brittle starfish [LpH50 = 6.16] and marine medaka [LpH50 = 5.91]) were more sensitive to elevated CO2 compared to intertidal species, possibly because they have fewer defensive capabilities. Of note, the exposure duration might regulate the degree of acute sub-lethal effects, as evidenced by the Venus clam, which showed a time-dependent effect to elevated CO2. Finally, copper was chosen as a model toxic element to find out the synergistic or antagonistic effects between ocean acidification and metal pollution. Combination of CO2 and Cu exposure enhances the adverse effects to organisms, generally supporting a synergistic effect scenario. Overall, the significant variation in the degree to which CO2 adversely affected organisms (viz., working range and strength) was clearly observed, supporting the general concept of species-dependent effects of elevated CO2.

  5. Sublethal Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B Challenge Model in Pigs To Evaluate Protection following Immunization with a Soybean-Derived Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Laura C.; Seabolt, Brynn S.; Odle, Jack; Stahl, Chad H.; Piller, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to develop a sustainable platform for manufacturing protein-based vaccine candidates, we expressed a triple mutant of staphylococcal enterotoxin B carrying the L45R, Y89A, and Y94A modifications in transgenic soybean seeds (soy-mSEB). Soy-mSEB possessed no detectable superantigen activity in vitro. We found that this soybean-derived, nontoxic mutant of SEB could be stably expressed, stored in seeds for extended periods at room temperature without degradation, and easily purified from contaminating soy proteins. Vaccination of pigs with purified soy-mSEB, or the identical triple mutant expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli-mSEB), resulted in high antibody titers against the native toxin in immunized animals. In fact, titers were indistinguishable regardless of the immunogen used, demonstrating the equivalence of soy-mSEB and E. coli-mSEB vaccinations. Antisera from either immunized group were able to block native SEB superantigen activity in an in vitro neutralization assay. Similar results were obtained when immunized animals were challenged with a sublethal dose of native toxin. Significant reductions in toxin-induced serum cytokine levels were observed in soy-mSEB- and E. coli-mSEB-immunized pigs compared to control animals. The reductions in SEB-induced cytokine responses were similar regardless of the immunogen used for vaccination. Surprisingly, however, some clinical symptoms, such as prostration, lethargy, emesis, and/or diarrhea, were still observed in all immunized animals. These studies demonstrate the potential for soybean-derived proteins as a platform technology for sustainable vaccine manufacturing and the usefulness of a sublethal challenge model in pigs for evaluating the efficacy of potential SEB vaccine candidates. PMID:23114702

  6. Extended hypoxia in the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, increases survival but causes sub-lethal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, H; Rinehart, J P; Yocum, G D; Greenlee, K J; Helm, B R; Kemp, W P; Schulz, C H; Bowsher, J H

    2014-05-01

    Many insects are tolerant of hypoxic conditions, but survival may come at a cost to long-term health. The alfalfa leaf-cutting bee, Megachile rotundata, develops in brood cells inside natural cavities, and may be exposed to hypoxic conditions for extended periods of time. Whether M. rotundata is tolerant of hypoxia, and whether exposure results in sub-lethal effects, has never been investigated. Overwintering M. rotundata prepupae were exposed to 10%, 13%, 17%, 21% and 24% O2 for 11 months. Once adults emerged, five indicators of quality - emergence weight, body size, feeding activity, flight performance, and adult longevity, - were measured to determine whether adult bees that survived past exposure to hypoxia were competent pollinators. M. rotundata prepupae are tolerant of hypoxic condition and have higher survival rates in hypoxia, than in normoxia. Under hypoxia, adult emergence rates did not decrease over the 11 months of the experiment. In contrast, bees reared in normoxia had decreased emergence rates by 8 months, and were dead by 11 months. M. rotundata prepupae exposed to extended hypoxic conditions had similar emergence weight, head width, and cross-thorax distance compared to bees reared in standard 21% oxygen. Despite no significant morphological differences, hypoxia-exposed bees had lower feeding rates and shorter adult lifespans. Hypoxia may play a role in post-diapause physiology of M. rotundata, with prepupae showing better survival under hypoxic conditions. Extended exposure to hypoxia, while not fatal, causes sub-lethal effects in feeding rates and longevity in the adults, indicating that hypoxia tolerance comes at a cost. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Lethal and Sublethal Toxicity Comparison of BFRs to Three Marine Planktonic Copepods: Effects on Survival, Metabolism and Ingestion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Gong

    Full Text Available The estuarine planktonic copepods have a wide geographical distribution and commendable tolerance to various kinds of contaminants. The primary aim of the present study was to contrast the impacts of model POPs (TBBPA and HBCD on three common estuarine planktonic copepods (Oithona similis, Acartia pacifica and Pseudodiaptomus inopinus and establish a protocol for the assessment of acute toxicity of marine organic pollutants. We first quantified the 96h-LC50 (0.566, 0.04 and 0.257 mg/L of TBBPA to the three subjects above respectively and 0.314 mg/L of HBCD to P. inopinus; all reported concentrations are nominal values. In the sub-lethal toxicity tests, it was turned out that the effects of copepods exposed to TBBPA could product different influences on the energy ingestion and metabolism. Different type of pollutions, meanwhile, could also bring varying degree effect on the target copepods. In general, the indicators (the rate of oxygen consumption, ammonia excretion, food ingestion and filtration in higher concentration groups showed marked significant difference compared with controls as well a dose-effect relationship. The study also extended the research on the joint toxicity of TBBPA and HBCD based on the survival rate of P.inopinus. Whether 1:1 concentration or 1:1 toxic level, the research showed synergy effect relative to single exposure conditions. The result indicated that current single ecological testing used for environmental protection activities may underestimate the risk for copepods. It was also demonstrated that short-term sub-lethal experiment could be a standard to evaluate the sensitivity of copepods to POPs.

  8. Sublethal Effects of Cyantraniliprole and Imidacloprid on Feeding Behavior and Life Table Parameters of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xianyi; He, Yingqin; Wu, Jiaxing; Tang, Yuanman; Gu, Jitao; Ding, Wei; Zhang, Yongqiang

    2016-08-01

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an agricultural pest that seriously infests many crops worldwide. This study used electrical penetration graphs (EPGs) and life table parameters to estimate the sublethal effects of cyantraniliprole and imidacloprid on the feeding behavior and hormesis of M. persicae The sublethal concentrations (LC30) of cyantraniliprole and imidacloprid against adult M. persicae were 4.933 and 0.541 mg L(-1), respectively. The feeding data obtained from EPG analysis indicated that the count probes and number of short probes (<3 min) were significantly increased when aphids were exposed to LC30 of imidacloprid-treated plants. In addition, the phloem-feeding behavior of M persicae was significantly impaired on fed tobacco plants treated with cyantraniliprole and imidacloprid at LC30 Analysis of life table parameters indicated that the growth and reproduction of F1 generation aphids were significantly affected when initial adults were exposed to LC30 of cyantraniliprole and imidacloprid. The nymphal period, female longevity, total preoviposition period, and mean generation time were significantly prolonged when initial adults were exposed to LC30 of imidacloprid. By comparison, these parameters were prolonged but not significantly in the cyantraniliprole treatment. The fecundity and gross reproductive rate were significantly increased in the treated groups. Similarly, the net reproductive rate was greater in the treated group than the control group. Our results indicate that treatment with LC30 of imidacloprid and cyantraniliprole would lead to a hormetic response of M. persicae, with higher likelihood of occurrence when initial adults were exposed to LC30 of cyantraniliprole. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Sub-lethal effects of pesticide residues in brood comb on worker honey bee (Apis mellifera development and longevity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Y Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous surveys reveal high levels of pesticide residue contamination in honey bee comb. We conducted studies to examine possible direct and indirect effects of pesticide exposure from contaminated brood comb on developing worker bees and adult worker lifespan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Worker bees were reared in brood comb containing high levels of known pesticide residues (treatment or in relatively uncontaminated brood comb (control. Delayed development was observed in bees reared in treatment combs containing high levels of pesticides particularly in the early stages (day 4 and 8 of worker bee development. Adult longevity was reduced by 4 days in bees exposed to pesticide residues in contaminated brood comb during development. Pesticide residue migration from comb containing high pesticide residues caused contamination of control comb after multiple brood cycles and provided insight on how quickly residues move through wax. Higher brood mortality and delayed adult emergence occurred after multiple brood cycles in contaminated control combs. In contrast, survivability increased in bees reared in treatment comb after multiple brood cycles when pesticide residues had been reduced in treatment combs due to residue migration into uncontaminated control combs, supporting comb replacement efforts. Chemical analysis after the experiment confirmed the migration of pesticide residues from treatment combs into previously uncontaminated control comb. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study is the first to demonstrate sub-lethal effects on worker honey bees from pesticide residue exposure from contaminated brood comb. Sub-lethal effects, including delayed larval development and adult emergence or shortened adult longevity, can have indirect effects on the colony such as premature shifts in hive roles and foraging activity. In addition, longer development time for bees may provide a reproductive advantage for parasitic Varroa destructor

  10. Stress response of the black coral Leiopathes glaberrima when exposed to sub-lethal amounts of crude oil and dispersant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dannise V. Ruiz-Ramos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2010 Deep Water Horizon oil well failure released billions of gallons of crude oil into the deep Gulf of Mexico, and, combined with chemical dispersants, this oil caused significant coral mortality. However, the mechanisms by which oil and dispersed oil impact deep marine fauna are not well understood. Here, we investigate the effects of oil and dispersed oil on a black coral common in the deep Gulf of Mexico, 'Leiopathes glaberrima. 'This coral occurs in several color morphs that show ecological and genetic differences. We hypothesized that dispersed oil would be more detrimental to coral health than oil alone and that this difference would be detectable in the gene expression response of the colonies even at sub-lethal concentrations. In two experiments, four and six colonies of red and white color morphs were exposed to oil, dispersant, and dispersed oil for a minimum of 96 hours. Visual assessment indicated that indeed dispersant and dispersed oil treatments were more damaging than oil alone, for target concentrations of 25 mg L–1. Decline in health was observed for all treatments, independently of color morphotype, but the decline was faster in the white colonies exposed to dispersant. The responses to the treatments were also investigated by monitoring gene expression after 24 hours of sub-lethal chemical exposure. Coral gene expression differed by chemical stressor. Interestingly, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biomarker gene, cytochrome P450, was only up-regulated in dispersed oil but not oil alone, suggesting that the dispersant increased the availability of such hydrocarbons in the tissue. The gene expression response was apparent at 24 hours when visual impacts were not (yet detectable. The use of chemical dispersants in oil-spill remediation may cause health declines in deep-water corals and deserves further study.

  11. Sexuality and sexual dysfunction in spinal cord-injured men in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Ramazan Yavuz; Coşkun Çelik, Evrim; Karataş, Metin

    2015-01-01

    To provide a comprehensive evaluation of sexual function and dysfunction in spinal cord-injured men based on self-reports of patients. Forty-seven spinal cord-injured men who completed the spinal shock and rehabilitation period were included. Patients were asked to complete a questionnaire developed to assess social status, sexual activities, abilities, and sexuality education after injury. Neurologic levels of patients were classified according to American Spinal Cord Injury Association protocol. Erectile function was evaluated by International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire. Patients were aged between 20 and 62 years (mean: 35.2). Twenty-eight patients had T10 and above, 15 between T11 and L2, and 4 cauda conus injury. While 61.7% of the patients declared sexual activity, 93.6% declared some degree of erection. Mean IIEF-5 score was 5.3 and 87.3% of the patients had moderate to severe erectile dysfunction. Continuation of sexual activity after injury is very important and has a great impact on quality of life and interpersonal relationships for spinal cord-injured men. More attention must be given to sexuality after spinal cord injury. A very high rate of sexual dysfunction in spinal cord-injured patients was found and the importance of sexual education was emphasized in this study.

  12. Missed posterior dislocation of the hip in a head-injured patient with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Head injury increases the risk of missed diagnosis by making patient-derived history impossible. The risk of missing a posterior dislocation of the hip in a head-injured patient is aggravated when an ipsilateral femoral shaft fracture co-exists. Adequate radiological evaluation of bone and joints is therefore of ...

  13. Demographic Profile and Athletic Identity of Traumatic Spinal Cord Injured Wheelchair Basketball Athletes in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliadis, Angelo; Evaggelinou, Christina; Avourdiadou, Sevastia; Grekinis, Petros

    2010-01-01

    An epidemiological study conducted across the country of Greece was conducted in order to determine the profile and the athletic identity of spinal cord injured (SCI) wheelchair basketball athletes who participated to the 13th Greek Wheelchair Basketball Championship and Cup. The Disability Sport Participation questionnaire was used for data…

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal and chronically injured adult rat spinal cord in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guizar-Sahagun, G. (Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico) Dept. of Clinical Research in Neurology and Neurosurgery, Hospital de Especialidades, Centro Medico Nacional Siglo XXI, Inst. Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico City (Mexico)); Rivera, F. (Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico)); Babinski, E. (Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico)); Berlanga, E. (Dept. of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Hospital Angeles del Pedregal, Mexico City (Mexico)); Madrazo, M. (Dept. of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Hospital Angeles del Pedregal, Mexico City (Mexico)); Franco-Bourland, R. (Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico) Dept. of Biochemistry, Inst. Nacional de la Nutricion, Mexico City (Mexico)); Grijalva, I. (Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico) Dept. of Clinical Research in Neurology and Neurosurgery, Hospital de Especialidades, Centro Medico Nacional Siglo

    1994-08-01

    We assessed the capacity of MRI to show and characterise the spinal cord (SC) in vivo in normal and chronically injured adult rats. In the chronically injured animals the SC was studied by MRI and histological examination. MRI was performed at 1.5 T, using gradient-echo and spin-echo (SE) sequences, the latter with and without gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA). Several positions were tried for good alignment and to diminish interference by respiratory movements. Images of the SC were obtained in sagittal, coronal, and axial planes. Normal SC was observed as a continuous intensity in both sequences, although contrast resolution was better using SE; it was not possible to differentiate the grey and white matter. Low signal was seen in the damaged area in chronically injured rats, which corresponded to cysts, trabeculae, mononuclear infiltrate, and fibroglial wall on histological examination. Gd-DTPA failed to enhance the SC in normal or chronically injured rats. It did, however, cause enhancement of the lesion after acute SC injury. (orig.)

  15. Perspective of young drivers towards the care of the road traffic injured

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2014-12-09

    Dec 9, 2014 ... While 82.2% (326) of the respondents will attempt to offer victims of road traffic crash some resuscitative measures at the scene, only 30% (119) claimed to have received some form of training in first aid care of the injured. Only 0.5% (2) of the total respondents knew the universal telephone number of 112 or ...

  16. Psychometric properties of the Dutch Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (SMFA) questionnaire in severely injured patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.C.H.M. van Delft-Schreurs (C. C H M); M.A.C. van Son; M.A.C. de Jongh (Mariska); T. Gosens; M.H.J. Verhofstad (Michiel); J. de Vries (Jolanda)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn this cross-sectional study the psychometric properties are examined of the adapted Dutch translation of the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (SMFA) questionnaire in severely injured patients (ISS. >. 15). Patients and methods: Patients (N = 173) completed the SMFA, the World

  17. Psychometric properties of the Dutch Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (SMFA) questionnaire in severely injured patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Delft-Schreurs, C. C. H. M.; van Son, M.A.C.; de Jongh, M.A.C.; Gosens, T.; Verhofstad, M. H. J.; de Vries, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study the psychometric properties are examined of the adapted Dutch translation of the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (SMFA) questionnaire in severely injured patients (ISS > 15). Patients and methods Patients (N = 173) completed the SMFA, the World Health

  18. Body temperature responses in spinal cord injured individuals during exercise in the cold and heat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, C.R.L.; Binkhorst, R.A.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of arm exercise on the heat balance in spinal cord-injured (SCI) individuals with complete lesions at ambient temperatures of 10 and 35 degrees C. Four SCI with a high lesion (> or = T6) (SCI-H), seven with a low lesion (< T6) (SCI-L), and ten

  19. Saving the injured: Rescue behavior in the termite-hunting ant Megaponera analis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Erik Thomas; Schmitt, Thomas; Hovestadt, Thomas; Mitesser, Oliver; Stiegler, Jonas; Linsenmair, Karl Eduard

    2017-01-01

    Predators of highly defensive prey likely develop cost-reducing adaptations. The ant Megaponera analis is a specialized termite predator, solely raiding termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae (in this study, mostly colonies of Pseudocanthotermes sp.) at their foraging sites. The evolutionary arms race between termites and ants led to various defensive mechanisms in termites (for example, a caste specialized in fighting predators). Because M. analis incurs high injury/mortality risks when preying on termites, some risk-mitigating adaptations seem likely to have evolved. We show that a unique rescue behavior in M. analis, consisting of injured nestmates being carried back to the nest, reduces combat mortality. After a fight, injured ants are carried back by their nestmates; these ants have usually lost an extremity or have termites clinging to them and are able to recover within the nest. Injured ants that are forced experimentally to return without help, die in 32% of the cases. Behavioral experiments show that two compounds, dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide, present in the mandibular gland reservoirs, trigger the rescue behavior. A model accounting for this rescue behavior identifies the drivers favoring its evolution and estimates that rescuing enables maintenance of a 28.7% larger colony size. Our results are the first to explore experimentally the adaptive value of this form of rescue behavior focused on injured nestmates in social insects and help us to identify evolutionary drivers responsible for this type of behavior to evolve in animals. PMID:28439543

  20. Supervisor Autonomy and Considerate Leadership Style are Associated with Supervisors’ Likelihood to Accommodate Back Injured Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Connor; Kristman, Vicki L; Williams-Whitt, Kelly; Reguly, Paula; Shaw, William; Soklaridis, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To determine the association between supervisors’ leadership style and autonomy and supervisors’ likelihood of supporting job accommodations for back-injured workers. METHODS A cross-sectional study of supervisors from Canadian and US employers was conducted using a web-based, self-report questionnaire that included a case vignette of a back-injured worker. Autonomy and two dimensions of leadership style (considerate and initiating structure) were included as exposures. The outcome, supervisors’ likeliness to support job accommodation, was measured with the Job Accommodation Scale. We conducted univariate analyses of all variables and bivariate analyses of the JAS score with each exposure and potential confounding factor. We used multivariable generalized linear models to control for confounding factors. RESULTS A total of 796 supervisors participated. Considerate leadership style (β= .012; 95% CI: .009–.016) and autonomy (β= .066; 95% CI: .025–.11) were positively associated with supervisors’ likelihood to accommodate after adjusting for appropriate confounding factors. An initiating structure leadership style was not significantly associated with supervisors’ likelihood to accommodate (β = .0018; 95% CI: −.0026–.0061) after adjusting for appropriate confounders. CONCLUSIONS Autonomy and a considerate leadership style were positively associated with supervisors’ likelihood to accommodate a back-injured worker. Providing supervisors with more autonomy over decisions of accommodation and developing their considerate leadership style may aid in increasing work accommodation for back-injured workers and preventing prolonged work disability. PMID:25595332

  1. Multisensory training for postural sway control in non-injured elderly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings demonstrated that the trained ETG improved in their total Berg Balance Test (BBT) scores indicated that the training program successfully improved postural sway control for non-injured elderly females. Keywords: multisensory training, postural sway control, balance ability, visual input; vestibular input ...

  2. Work safety climate, musculoskeletal discomfort, working while injured, and depression among migrant farmworkers in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcury, Thomas A; O'Hara, Heather; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Isom, Scott; Chen, Haiying; Quandt, Sara A

    2012-05-01

    This analysis described Latino migrant farmworkers' work safety climate and its association with musculoskeletal discomfort, working while injured or ill, and depressive symptoms. Data were from a cross-sectional survey of 300 farmworkers conducted in North Carolina in 2009. Generalized estimating equations models were used to investigate the association of work safety climate with health and safety outcomes. Farmworkers perceived their work safety climate to be poor. About 40% had elevated musculoskeletal discomfort, 5.0% had worked at least 1 day while injured or ill, and 27.9% had elevated depressive symptoms. The odds of elevated musculoskeletal discomfort were 12% lower and the odds of working while injured or ill were 15% lower with each 1-unit increase in the work safety climate. Work safety climate was not associated with depressive symptoms. Work safety climate was important for agricultural workers. Poor work safety climate was associated with health outcomes (musculoskeletal discomfort) and safety (working while injured or ill). Interventions to improve work safety climate in agriculture are needed, with these interventions being directed to employers and workers.

  3. Fire-injured ponderosa pine provide a pulsed resource for bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan S. Davis; Sharon Hood; Barbara J. Bentz

    2012-01-01

    Bark beetles can cause substantial mortality of trees that would otherwise survive fire injuries. Resin response of fire-injured northern Rocky Mountain ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex P. Lawson & C. Lawson) and specific injuries that contribute to increased bark beetle attack susceptibility and brood production are unknown. We monitored ponderosa pine...

  4. After the Injury: Initial Evaluation of a Web-Based Intervention for Parents of Injured Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsac, M. L.; Kassam-Adams, N.; Hildenbrand, A. K.; Kohser, K. L.; Winston, F. K.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey parent knowledge of child injury reactions (including post-traumatic stress symptoms) and to evaluate parent satisfaction and learning outcomes following a video- or web-based intervention. Fifty parents of children ages 6-17 years who were injured within the past 2 months were recruited from emergency and…

  5. A cross-sectional study of psychological complaints and quality of life in severely injured patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Delft-Schreurs, C. C. H. M.; van Bergen, J. J. M.; van de Sande, P.; Verhofstad, M. H. J.; de Vries, J.; de Jongh, M. A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence of psychological complaints and the relationship of these complaints with the quality of life (QOL) and accident- and patient-related factors among severely injured patients after the rehabilitation phase. Methods Patients of 18 years or

  6. [What kind of health information search the spinal cord injured patients from Spain on the internet?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bea-Muñoz, Manuel; Medina-Sánchez, María; Flórez-García, Mariano

    2015-04-16

    Internet is an alternative for health education to the population. Spinal cord injured individuals usually consult the Internet about their health problems. To identify the health information sources, the more consulted items and the confidence in Internet information of a group of spinal cord injured individuals from Spain. A survey to spinal cord injured individuals from Spain was conducted, with a questionnaire in Google Drive. It was accessible with a link in ASPAYM-Asturias web page. The questionnaire included epidemiological data and information about Internet use and confidence in its contents. 121 individuals answered the survey, 64% male, with an average age of 45 years. The predominant aetiology was traumatic (70%) and 72% were paraplegics. 83% prefer to consult health care providers directly. More of 70% of the sample searches health problems on the Internet, mostly web pages in Spanish. The preferred item was 'orthopaedic materials and wheelchairs'. 27% of the sample trusts in the Internet information and 32% don't. This research provides information about Internet use of spinal cord injured individuals in Spain. Although we have to admit some bias in the study, more than 70% of the sample searches health problems on the Internet, mostly web pages in Spanish. About one in four individuals trust in information from Internet and most of the sample prefers recommendations directly from healthcare professionals.

  7. E-Message Boards for Those Who Self-Injure: Implications for E-Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Genevieve Marie; Zastawny, Sylvia; Kulpa, Anastasia

    2010-01-01

    Virtual communities for those who self-injure (SI) are increasingly popular and involve Internet communication technologies including e-message boards. The social and emotional support of an accepting virtual community may facilitate individual recovery from SI. Via self-report data, this study describes individuals who participate in virtual…

  8. Plasticity and regeneration in the injured spinal cord after cell transplantation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nori, Satoshi; Nakamura, Masaya; Okano, Hideyuki

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) typically damages the long axonal tracts of the spinal cord which results in permanent disability. However, regeneration of the injured spinal cord is approaching reality according to the advances in stem cell biology. Cell transplantation therapy holds potential to lead to recovery following SCI through some positive mechanisms. Grafted cells induce plasticity and regeneration in the injured spinal cord by promoting remyelination of damaged axons, reconstruction of neural circuits by synapse formation between host neurons and graft-derived neurons, and secreting neurotrophic factors to promote axonal elongation as well as reduce retrograde axonal degeneration. In this review, we will delineate (1) the microenvironment of the injured spinal cord that influence the plasticity and regeneration capacity after SCI, (2) a number of different kinds of cell transplantation therapies for SCI that has been extensively studied by researchers, and (3) potential mechanisms of grafted cell-induced regeneration and plasticity in the injured spinal cord. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Perspective of young drivers towards the care of the road traffic injured

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2014-12-09

    Dec 9, 2014 ... The existing structure of pre-hospital trauma care in developing countries is largely deficient. The goal of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitude of young drivers towards the care of the road traffic injured. This was a descriptive cross sectional study which we carried out among ...

  10. Use of healthcare services by injured people in Khartoum State, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Tayeb, Sally; Abdalla, Safa; Van den Bergh, Graziella; Heuch, Ivar

    2015-01-01

    Background Trauma care is an important factor in preventing death and reducing disability. Injured persons in low- and middle-income countries are expected to use the formal healthcare system in increasing numbers. The objective of this paper is to examine use of healthcare services after injury in Khartoum State, Sudan. Methods A community-based survey using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling technique in Khartoum State was performed. Information on healthcare utilisation was taken from injured people. A logistic regression analysis was used to explore factors affecting the probability of using formal healthcare services. Results During the 12 months preceding the survey a total of 441 cases of non-fatal injuries occurred, with 260 patients accessing formal healthcare. About a quarter of the injured persons were admitted to hospital. Injured people with primary education were less likely to use formal healthcare compared to those with no education. Formal health services were most used by males and in cases of road traffic injuries. The lowest socio-economic strata were least likely to use formal healthcare. Conclusions Public health measures and social security should be strengthened by identifying other real barriers that prevent low socio-economic groups from making use of formal healthcare facilities. Integration and collaboration with traditional orthopaedic practitioners are important aspects that need further attention. PMID:25205849

  11. Blocking collagen fibril formation in injured knees reduces flexion contracture in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steplewski, Andrzej; Fertala, Jolanta; Beredjiklian, Pedro K; Abboud, Joseph A; Wang, Mark L Y; Namdari, Surena; Barlow, Jonathan; Rivlin, Michael; Arnold, William V; Kostas, James; Hou, Cheryl; Fertala, Andrzej

    2017-05-01

    Post-traumatic joint contracture is a frequent orthopaedic complication that limits the movement of injured joints, thereby severely impairing affected patients. Non-surgical and surgical treatments for joint contracture often fail to improve the range of motion. In this study, we tested a hypothesis that limiting the formation of collagen-rich tissue in the capsules of injured joints would reduce the consequences of the fibrotic response and improve joint mobility. We targeted the formation of collagen fibrils, the main component of fibrotic deposits formed within the tissues of injured joints, by employing a relevant rabbit model to test the utility of a custom-engineered antibody. The antibody was delivered directly to the cavities of injured knees in order to block the formation of collagen fibrils produced in response to injury. In comparison to the non-treated control, mechanical tests of the antibody-treated knees demonstrated a significant reduction of flexion contracture. Detailed microscopic and biochemical studies verified that this reduction resulted from the antibody-mediated blocking of the assembly of collagen fibrils. These findings indicate that extracellular processes associated with excessive formation of fibrotic tissue represent a valid target for limiting post-traumatic joint stiffness. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1038-1046, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Pattern of Pressure Sores in Spinal Injured Patients with in the First ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Before 2006, all our spinal injured patients were nursed on conventional form mattress without pressure redistributing support surface. Pressure sore was a common complication and was a major contributing factor to prolonged hospitalization. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the pattern of pressure ...

  13. First clinical experience with intranasal cooling for hyperthermia in brain-injured patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springborg, Jacob Bertram; Springborg, Karoline Kanstrup; Romner, Bertil

    2013-01-01

    Hyperthermia is common in brain-injured patients and associated with a worse outcome. As brain rather than body temperature reduction, theoretically, is the most important in cerebral protection, there is logic in targeting cooling at the brain. Selective brain cooling can, in theory, be obtained...

  14. Effectiveness of a web-based intervention for injured claimants: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, N.A.; Akkermans, A.J.; Cuijpers, P.; Bruinvels, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    .01). The subgroup analysis of intervention users versus non-users did not reveal significant results. The evaluation of the intervention website was good. Conclusions Although the web-based intervention was not used enough to improve the health of injured claimants in compensation processes, it

  15. The relationship between physical and psychological complaints and quality of life in severely injured patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Delft-Schreurs, K. (Katinka); C.C.H.M. van Delft-Schreurs (C. C H M); M.A.C. van Son; M.A.C. de Jongh (Mariska); K.W.W. Lansink (Koen); J. de Vries (Jolanda); M.H.J. Verhofstad (Michiel)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: The purpose of this study was two-fold. The first goal was to investigate which variables were associated with the remaining physical limitations of severely injured patients after the initial rehabilitation phase. Second, we investigated whether physical limitations were

  16. Efficient delivery of small interfering RNA into injured spinal cords in rats by photomechanical waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Takahiro; Sato, Shunichi; Toyooka, Terushige; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Ashida, Hiroshi; Obara, Minoru

    2011-03-01

    In the central nervous system, lack of axonal regeneration leads to permanent functional disabilities. In spinal cord injury (SCI), the over-expressions of intermediate filament (IF) proteins, such as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin, are mainly involved in glial scar formation; these proteins work as both physical and biochemical barriers to axonal regeneration. Thus, silencing of these IF proteins would be an attractive strategy to treat SCI. In this study, we first attempted to deliver fluorescent probe-labeled siRNAs into injured spinal cords in rats by applying photomechanical waves (PMWs) to examine the capability of PMWs as a tool for siRNA delivery. Intense fluorescence from siRNAs was observed in much broader regions in the spinal cords with PMW application when compared with those with siRNA injection alone. Based on this result, we delivered siRNAs for GFAP and vimentin into injured spinal tissues in rats by applying PMWs. The treatment resulted in efficient silencing of the proteins at five days after SCI and a decrease of the cavity area in the injured tissue at three weeks after SCI when compared with those with siRNA injection alone. These results demonstrate the capability of PMWs for efficient delivery of siRNAs into injured spinal cords and treatment of SCIs.

  17. Optimising diagnosis and treatment of coagulopathy in severely injured trauma patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balvers, K.

    2016-01-01

    Trauma has a profound impact on public health around the world. Yearly approximately 5 million people die due to traumatic injury, which is 1 out of every 3 severely injured patients. Therefore, improving survival after trauma is a major challenge in which timely therapy is of great importance. In

  18. 50 CFR 27.51 - Disturbing, injuring, and damaging plants and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., poison, destroy or collect any plant or animal on any national wildlife refuge is prohibited except by... and animals. 27.51 Section 27.51 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... Violations: Against Plants and Animals § 27.51 Disturbing, injuring, and damaging plants and animals. (a...

  19. Return to work and quality of life in severely injured patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, R. B.; Van der Sluis, C. K.; Ten Duis, H. J.

    2006-01-01

    Background. Little is known about the long-term consequences of severe injuries in terms of return to productivity and quality of life. Methods. In this study we focused on the return to work status and quality of life in 53 severely injured patients (AIS/ISS >= 16, mean ISS 24, range 16 - 54), mean

  20. Mortality predictions of fire-injured large Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine in Oregon and Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa M. Ganio; Robert A. Progar

    2017-01-01

    Wild and prescribed fire-induced injury to forest trees can produce immediate or delayed tree mortality but fire-injured trees can also survive. Land managers use logistic regression models that incorporate tree-injury variables to discriminate between fatally injured trees and those that will survive. We used data from 4024 ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa...

  1. A new procedure of percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy under artificial hydrothorax for patients with liver tumors in the hepatic dome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, S; Hirota, M; Beppu, T; Shiomori, K; Marutsuka, T; Matsuo, A; Tanaka, E; Ogawa, M

    2001-01-01

    Percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy (PMCT) has been widely used as an effective minimal invasive therapy for small liver tumors. The occurrence of a sonographic masked space due to the presence of the lung, however, has become a major obstacle to visualizing the whole tumor in the hepatic dome. To facilitate the use of PMCT for liver tumors in the hepatic dome, we developed PMCT in combination with the artificial hydrothorax method (percutaneous transdiaphragmatic MCT: PTD-MCT). Our new approach for PMCT to the hepatic tumors located in Couinaud's segments VIII or VII just under the diaphragm resulted in a successful treatment. The separation of the lung from the diaphragm by the infusion of saline into the pleural cavity enabled us not only to visualize the whole tumor in the hepatic dome to accurately target the tumor, but also helped us to avoid injuring the lung. PTD-MCT is therefore strongly recommended for the treatment of liver tumors in the hepatic dome.

  2. Role of Interleukin-6 in the Radiation Response of Liver Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Miao-Fen, E-mail: miaofen@adm.cgmh.org.tw [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Ching-Chuan [College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China); Department of General Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wen-Cheng [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China); Lai, Chia-Hsuan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan (China)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate the role of interleukin (IL)-6 in biological sequelae and tumor regrowth after irradiation for hepatic malignancy, which are critical for the clinical radiation response of liver tumors. Methods and Materials: The Hepa 1-6 murine hepatocellular cancer cell line was used to examine the radiation response by clonogenic assays and tumor growth delay in vivo. After irradiation in a single dose of 6 Gy in vitro or 15 Gy in vivo, biological changes including cell death and tumor regrowth were examined by experimental manipulation of IL-6 signaling. The effects of blocking IL-6 were assessed by cells preincubated in the presence of IL-6-neutralizing antibody for 24 hours or stably transfected with IL-6-silencing vectors. The correlations among tumor responses, IL-6 levels, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) recruitment were examined using animal experiments. Results: Interleukin-6 expression was positively linked to irradiation and radiation resistance, as demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo experiments. Interleukin-6-silencing vectors induced more tumor inhibition and DNA damage after irradiation. When subjects were irradiated with a sublethal dose, the regrowth of irradiated tumors significantly correlated with IL-6 levels and MDSC recruitment in vivo. Furthermore, blocking of IL-6 could overcome irradiation-induced MDSC recruitment and tumor regrowth after treatment. Conclusion: These data demonstrate that IL-6 is important in determining the radiation response of liver tumor cells. Irradiation-induced IL-6 and the subsequent recruitment of MDSC could be responsible for tumor regrowth. Therefore, treatment with concurrent IL-6 inhibition could be a potential therapeutic strategy for increasing the radiation response of tumors.

  3. Axial speed of sound for the monitoring of injured equine tendons: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergari, Claudio; Pourcelot, Philippe; Ravary-Plumioën, Bérangère; Dupays, Anne-Gaëlle; Jacquet, Sandrine; Audigié, Fabrice; Denoix, Jean-Marie; Laugier, Pascal; Mitton, David; Crevier-Denoix, Nathalie

    2012-01-03

    Equine superficial digital flexor tendons (SDFT) are often injured, and they represent an excellent model for human sport tendinopathies. While lesions can be precisely diagnosed by clinical evaluation and ultrasonography, a prognosis is often difficult to establish; the knowledge of the injured tendon's mechanical properties would help in anticipating the outcome. The objectives of the present study were to compare the axial speed of sound (SOS) measured in vivo in normal and injured tendons and to investigate their relationship with the tendons' mechanical parameters, in order to assess the potential of quantitative axial ultrasound to monitor the healing of the injured tendons. SOS was measured in vivo in the right fore SDFTs of 12 horses during walk, before and 3.5 months after the surgical induction of a bilateral core lesion. The 12 horses were then euthanized, their SDFTs isolated and tested in tension to measure their elastic modulus and maximal load (and corresponding stress). SOS significantly decreased from 2179.4 ± 31.4 m/s in normal tendons to 2065.8 ± 67.1 m/s 3.5 months after the surgical induction, and the tendons' elastic modulus (0.90 ± 0.17 GPa) was found lower than what has been reported in normal tendons. While SOS was not correlated to tendon maximal load and corresponding stress, the SOS normalized on its value in normal tendons was correlated to the tendons' elastic modulus. These preliminary results confirm the potential of axial SOS in helping the functional assessment of injured tendon. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Optimizing detection of heat-injured Listeria monocytogenes in pasteurized milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, A Y; Ziegler, G R; Knabel, S J

    2001-07-01

    Optimal conditions for the detection of heat-injured cells of Listeria monocytogenes in modified Pennsylvania State University (mPSU) broth were determined using a response surface design generated by a computer program, EChip. Different combinations of incubation temperatures and lithium, magnesium, and D-serine concentrations were evaluated to determine the optimum conditions for the detection of heat-injured L. monocytogenes in filter-sterilized whole milk inoculated with selected problematic background microflora. A concentration of 212 mM lithium chloride completely inhibited the growth of Enterococcus faecium while permitting recovery and detection of L. monocytogenes. A concentration of 15.8 mM MgSO4 was found to be optimum for the recovery and detection of L. monocytogenes. A concentration of 140.2 mM D-serine was found to completely inhibit the germination of Bacillus subtilis var. globii spores but not recovery and detection of L. monocytogenes. Under optimum concentrations of LiCl, MgSO4, and D-serine and in the absence of background microflora, the effect of incubation temperature on percentage detection was described by a second-order polynomial model, and 28 degrees C was determined to be optimal. In the presence of background microflora, the effect of incubation temperature on percentage detection of heat-injured cells was described by a third-order polynomial model, and 30 degrees C was found to be optimal. Optimizing the levels of highly specific and selective agents, nutrients, and incubation temperature in one recovery enrichment system dramatically increased the Listeria/background microflora ratio. This resulting medium, optimized PSU (oPSU) broth, greatly improved the detection of heat-injured and nonheat-injured L. monocytogenes by both conventional and molecular methods (Oxoid's Listeria Rapid Test, Gen-Probe's Accuprobe Listeria monocytogenes Culture Identification Test, and Qualicon's BAX for screening Listeria monocytogenes).

  5. A novel first aid stretcher for immobilization and transportation of spine injured patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Sheng Liu

    Full Text Available Effective immobilization and transportation are vital to the life-saving acute medical care needed when treating critically injured people. However, the most common types of stretchers used today are wrought with problems that can lead to further medical complications, difficulty in employment and rescue, and ineffective transitions to hospital treatment. Here we report a novel first aid stretcher called the "emergency carpet", which solves these problems with a unique design for spine injured patients. Polyurethane composite material, obtained by a novel process of manually mixing isocyanate and additives, can be poured into a specially designed fabric bag and allowed to harden to form a rigid human-shaped stretcher. The effectiveness of the emergency carpet was examined in the pre-hospital management of victims with spinal fractures. Additionally, it was tested on flat ground and complex terrain as well as in the sea and air. We demonstrated that the emergency carpet can be assembled and solidified on the scene in 5 minutes, providing effective immobilization to the entire injured body. With the protection of the emergency carpet, none of the 20 patients, who were finally confirmed to have spinal column fracture or dislocation, had any neurological deterioration during transportation. Furthermore, the carpet can be handled and transported by multiple means under differing conditions, without compromising immobilization. Finally, the emergency carpet allows the critically injured patient to receive multiple examinations such as X-ray, CT, and MRI without being removed from the carpet. Our results demonstrate that the emergency carpet has ideal capabilities for immobilization, extrication, and transportation of the spine injured patients. Compared with other stretchers, it allows for better mobility, effective immobilization, remarkable conformity to the body, and various means for transportation. The emergency carpet is promising for its

  6. Effect of firocoxib or flunixin meglumine on recovery of ischemic-injured equine jejunum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Vanessa L; Meyer, Colleen T; Campbell, Nigel B; Blikslager, Anthony T

    2009-08-01

    To determine whether treatment of horses with firocoxib affects recovery of ischemic-injured jejunum, while providing effective analgesia. 18 horses. Horses (n = 6 horses/group) received saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (1 mL/50 kg, IV), flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg, IV, q 12 h), or firocoxib (0.09 mg/kg, IV, q 24 h) before 2 hours of jejunal ischemia. Horses were monitored via pain scores and received butorphanol for analgesia. After 18 hours, ischemic-injured and control mucosa were placed in Ussing chambers for measurement of transepithelial resistance and permeability to lipopolysaccharide. Histomorphometry was used to determine denuded villus surface area. Western blots for cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 were performed. Plasma thromboxane B(2) and prostaglandin E(2) metabolite (PGEM) concentrations were determined. Pain scores did not significantly increase after surgery in horses receiving flunixin meglumine or firocoxib. Transepithelial resistance of ischemic-injured jejunum from horses treated with flunixin meglumine was significantly lower than in saline- or firocoxib-treated horses. Lipopolysaccharide permeability across ischemic-injured mucosa was significantly increased in horses treated with flunixin meglumine. Treatment did not affect epithelial restitution. Cyclooxygenase-1 was constitutively expressed and COX-2 was upregulated after 2 hours of ischemia. Thromboxane B(2) concentration decreased with flunixin meglumine treatment but increased with firocoxib or saline treatment. Flunixin meglumine and firocoxib prevented an increase in PGEM concentration after surgery. Flunixin meglumine retarded mucosal recovery in ischemic-injured jejunum, whereas firocoxib did not. Flunixin meglumine and firocoxib were effective visceral analgesics. Firocoxib may be advantageous in horses recovering from ischemic intestinal injury.

  7. Legal consequences for alcohol-impaired drivers injured in motor vehicle collisions: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert S; Kureshi, Nelofar; Erdogan, Mete

    2015-07-01

    The treatment of alcohol-impaired drivers injured in a motor vehicle collision (MVC) is a complex public health issue. We conducted a systematic review to describe the legal consequences for alcohol-impaired drivers injured in a MVC and taken to a hospital or trauma center. Methods We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL databases from inception until August 2014. We included studies that reported legal consequences including charges or convictions of injured drivers taken to a hospital or trauma center after a MVC with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) exceeding the legal limit.Results Twenty-six studies met inclusion criteria; twenty studies were conducted in the USA, five in Canada, and one in Sweden. All were cohort studies (23 retrospective, 3 prospective) and included 11,409 patients overall. A total of 5,127 drivers had a BAC exceeding the legal limit, with legal consequences reported in 4937 cases. The median overall DUI/DWI conviction rate was 13% (range 0-85%). The median percentage of drivers with a previous conviction on their record for driving under the influence (DUI) or driving while intoxicated (DWI) was 15.5% (range 6-40%). The median percentage of drivers convicted again for DUI/DWI during the study period was 3.5% (range 2-10%). Heterogeneity between study designs, legal jurisdictions, institutional procedures and policies for obtaining a legally admissible BAC measurement precluded a meta-analysis. Conclusions The majority of intoxicated drivers injured in MVCs and seen in the emergency department are never charged or convicted. A substantial proportion of injured intoxicated drivers had more than one conviction for DUI/DWI on their police record. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Case of Successful Simultaneous Pancreas-Kidney Transplantation Using the Injured Pancreas Graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, S; Shimizu, K; Miyazawa, K; Nakanishi, W; Hara, Y; Tokodai, K; Nakanishi, C; Satomi, S; Goto, M; Unno, M; Kamei, T

    2017-12-01

    Graft injuries sometimes occur and may cause complications such as the leakage of pancreatic secretions, which is often lethal. We report our experience of a case of successful simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation using injured pancreas graft. The recipient was a 57-year-old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus, and the donor was a 30-year-old man with a brain injury. In the donation, the pancreas parenchyma, splenic artery, and gastroduodenal artery were injured iatrogenically. We therefore reconstructed these arteries using vessel grafts and then performed simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation. Five days after transplantation, we noted a high titer of amylase in the ascites; therefore, we performed an urgent laparotomy. The origin of the amylase was the injured pancreatic parenchyma, and continued washing and drainage were carried out. We reconstructed the duodenojejunostomy using the Roux-en-Y technique to separate the passage of food from the pancreas graft to prevent injury to other organs due to exposure to pancreatic secretions. Thereafter, we inserted a decompression tube into the anastomosis thorough the blind end of the jejunum. Finally, we inserted 3 drainage tubes for lavage. Following this procedure, the patient recovered gradually and no longer required hemodialysis and insulin therapy. She was discharged from our hospital 56 days after transplantation. The restoration of the injured graft was possible by management of pancreatic secretions and use of the donor's vessel grafts. Shortage of donors is a problem throughout the world; thus, it is important to use injured grafts for transplantation if possible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of socioeconomic factors in injured children at Mousavi and Valiasr hospitals of Zanjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Hasaniha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Injury is one of the causes of morbidity and mortality that deprives the injured individuals of a normal life but also imposes high emotional and financial costs for the patients and their family. This study was done in order to determine the socioeconomic factors in injured children at Mousavi and Valiasr hospitals of Zanjan.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study 650 injured children under 15 who referred to Mousavi and Valiasr hospitals of zanjan were randomly selected. Using a questionnaire, information on demographic and socioeconomic factors including sex, age, and type of injury, parents' age, occupation and salary were gathered. Data was analyzed using measure of central tendency, frequency tables and Chi-Square Test.Results: From 650 injured children, %61.5 were boys and %38.5 were girls. The mean (SD age of these children was 7.8 (4.3. Three hundred eighty five of the children (%59.2 were urban and 265 (%40.8 were rural. Most of injured children had a father who was worker or a mother who was housewife. The level of education of parents was low in most cases. Furthermore, the frequency of injuries in children had a significant association with family income and socioeconomic factors.Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that carrying out prevention programs for students and parents, especially families of low socioeconomic status has a major role in reducing injury risk factors from the children's living environment.  

  10. Malignant phyllodes breast tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa R. Shah-Patel, MD

    2017-01-01

    Malignant phyllodes tumor is a rare tumor of the breast occurring in females usually between the ages of 35 and 55 years. It is often difficult to distinguish benign from malignant phyllodes tumors from other benign entities such as fibroadenomas. This case presentation demonstrates a woman with malignant phyllodes tumor treated with mastectomy with abdominal skin flap reconstruction.

  11. Malignant phyllodes breast tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa R. Shah-Patel, MD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant phyllodes tumor is a rare tumor of the breast occurring in females usually between the ages of 35 and 55 years. It is often difficult to distinguish benign from malignant phyllodes tumors from other benign entities such as fibroadenomas. This case presentation demonstrates a woman with malignant phyllodes tumor treated with mastectomy with abdominal skin flap reconstruction.

  12. Pediatric Odontogenic Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Joshua M; McClure, Shawn A

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric odontogenic tumors are rare, and are often associated with impacted teeth. Although they can develop anywhere in the jaws, odontogenic tumors mainly occur in the posterior mandible. This article discusses the diagnosis and treatment of the most common pediatric odontogenic tumors, such as ameloblastoma, keratocystic odontogenic tumor, odontoma, and cementoblastoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Liver Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Liver Tumors KidsHealth / For Parents / Liver Tumors What's in this article? Types of Tumors ... Cancerous) Tumors Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Coping Print The liver is the body's largest solid organ. Lying next ...

  14. Signaling molecules and pathways involved in MSC tumor tropism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ivy A W; Lam, Paula Y P

    2013-11-01

    Human bone marrow is a reservoir containing cells with different self-renewal capabilities, such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and hematopoeitic stem cells (HSC). MSC in particular have been increasingly used in preclinical and clinical treatment of tissue regenerative disorder. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying MSC homing and mobilization is critical to the design of rational cell therapy approaches. In this review, we will discuss the key molecular mechanisms that govern the homing of MSC to bone marrow, the mobilization of MSC to tumors and injured sites via circulation, and strategies that enhance MSC migration.

  15. Supratentorial tumors; Supratentorielle Tumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, I.; Dillmann, K.; Roth, C.; Backens, M.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum Saarland, Homburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie

    2007-06-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging is a routine diagnostic measure for a suspected intracerebral mass. Computed tomography is usually also indicated. Further diagnostic procedures as well as the interpretation of the findings vary depending on the tumor location. This contribution discusses the symptoms and diagnostics for supratentorial tumors separated in relation to their intra- or extracranial location. Supratentorial tumors include astrocytoma, differentiated by their circumscribed and diffuse growth, ganglioglioma, ependyoma, neurocytoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), oligodendroglioma, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNET), meningoangiomatosis, pineal tumors, hamartoma, lymphoma, craniopharyngeoma and metastases. The supratentorial extracranial tumors include the choroid plexus, colloid cysts, meningeoma, infantile myofibromatosis and lipoma. The most common subforms, especially of astrocytoma, will also be presented. (orig.)

  16. Cardiac Tumors; Tumeurs cardiaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laissy, J.P.; Fernandez, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Bichat Claude Bernard, Service d' Imagerie, 76 - Rouen (France); Mousseaux, E. [Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou (HEGP), Service de Radiologie Cardio Vasculaire et Interventionnelle, 75 - Paris (France); Dacher, J.N. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Charles Nicolle, 75 - Rouen (France); Crochet, D. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Hopital Laennec, Centre Hemodynamique, Radiologie Thoracique et Vasculaire, 44 - Nantes (France)

    2004-04-01

    Metastases are the most frequent tumors of the heart even though they seldom are recognized. Most primary cardiac tumors are benign. The main role of imaging is to differentiate a cardiac tumor from thrombus and rare pseudo-tumors: tuberculoma, hydatid cyst. Echocardiography is the fist line imaging technique to detect cardiac tumors, but CT and MRl arc useful for further characterization and differential diagnosis. Myxoma of the left atrium is the most frequent benign cardiac tumor. It usually is pedunculated and sometimes calcified. Sarcoma is the most frequent primary malignant tumor and usually presents as a sessile infiltrative tumor. Lymphoma and metastases are usually recognized by the presence of known tumor elsewhere of by characteristic direct contiguous involvement. Diagnosing primary and secondary pericardial tumors often is difficult. Imaging is valuable for diagnosis, characterization, pre-surgical evaluation and follow-up. (author)

  17. Tumors in invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Tascedda, F; Ottaviani, E.

    2014-01-01

    Tumors are ectopic masses of tissue formed by due to an abnormal cell proliferation. In this review tumors of several invertebrate species are examined. The description of tumors in invertebrates may be a difficult task, because the pathologists are usually inexperienced with invertebrate tissues, and the experts in invertebrate biology are not familiar with the description of tumors. As a consequence, the terminology used in defining the tumor type is related to that used in mammalian pathol...

  18. Tumor angiogenic factor and human skin tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, J E; Hubler, W R

    1975-03-01

    A transparent acrylic hamster cheek-pouch chamber was used to investigate the elaboration of a tumor angiogenic factor (TAF) by human cutaneous neoplasms; direct tumor implantations, transfilter diffusion, and soluble tumor extracts were used in the study. A diffusible and filterable TAF was extracted from cutaneous tumors and produced distinctive patterns of sequential vasodilatation, tortuosity, and neovascular proliferation in the cheek-pouch membrane. Malignant human neoplasms (eg, melanoma, basal cell epithelioma, squamous cell carcinoma, lymphoma) produced striking neovascularization; vascular tumors (eg, Kaposi sarcoma, pyogenic granuloma, vascular histiocytoma) stimulated dramatic hyperemia and ectasia. Angiogenesis was conspicuously absent after implantation of control materials and nevoid or normal cutaneous components (with the exception of epidermis). Tumor angiogenic factor appears to induce direct stimulation of endothelial cell mitosis and may be essential for survival of nutritionally ravenous neoplastic tissues. The interference with TAF has therapeutic implications.

  19. Prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances in injured drivers: comparison between Belgium and The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Sara-Ann; Houwing, Sjoerd; Hagenzieker, Marjan; Verstraete, Alain G

    2012-07-10

    To compare the prevalence of alcohol and (il)licit drugs in seriously injured drivers in Belgium (BE) and the Netherlands (NL). Injured car and van drivers admitted to the emergency departments of five hospitals in Belgium and three in the Netherlands from January 2008 to May 2010 were included. Blood samples were taken and analysed for ethanol (with an enzymatic method) and 22 other psychoactive substances (UPLC-MS/MS or GC-MS). In total 535 injured drivers were included in the study (BE: 348; NL: 187). More drivers were found positive for alcohol and drugs in Belgium (52.6%) than in the Netherlands (33.9%). Alcohol (≥0.1 g/L) was the most prevalent substance in both countries (BE: 42.5%; NL: 29.6%). A similar prevalence was found for amphetamine (BE: 2.6%; NL: 2.2%) and cocaine (BE: 2.3%; NL: 2.1%). In the Netherlands almost no positive findings for cannabis were recorded (0.5%). No driver tested positive for benzodiazepines in the Netherlands compared to 7.3% in Belgium. More injured drivers tested positive for Z-drugs (BE: 1.8%; NL: 0.5%) and medicinal opioids (BE: 3.3%; NL: 0.5%) in Belgium. The prevalence of alcohol in seriously injured drivers was 12% higher found in Belgium than in the Netherlands. The prevalence of drugs was similar in both countries except for THC and medicinal drugs, particularly benzodiazepines, with a much higher prevalence in Belgium. In comparison to previous survey there were differences in the prevalence of THC, benzodiazepines and combinations of drugs. Possible explanations are the different matrix used, a bias in study population, or in case of illicit opiates and benzodiazepines a different consumption pattern in the two countries. Alcohol is still the most prevalent substance among the injured driver population and this increased the last 15 years. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Stressors, social support, and tests of the buffering hypothesis: effects on psychological responses of injured athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ian; Evans, Lynne; Rees, Tim; Hardy, Lew

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine the main and stress-buffering effect relationships between social support and psychological responses to injury. The article presents two studies, both of which matched social support types with injury stressors. Study 1 used measures of stressors, perception of social support availability, and psychological responses of injured athletes. Study 2 utilized measures of stressors, received social support, and psychological responses of injured athletes. During physiotherapy clinic visits, injured athletes (Study 1, N = 319; Study 2, N = 302) completed measures of stressors, social support, and psychological responses to injury. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and moderated hierarchical regression were used to analyse the data. In both studies, CFA suggested adequate model fit for measures of social support and psychological responses to injury. Moderated hierarchical regression analyses in Study 1 revealed significant (p stressors and psychological responses; that is, the relationships between social support, stressors, and psychological responses to sport injury may differ with regard to received or perceived available support. The findings have important implications for the design of social support interventions with injured athletes aimed at alleviating the detrimental effects of injury stressors. What is already known on this subject? The health, social, and sport-injury related research suggests that social support has the potential to moderate (i.e., buffer) those psychological responses to stress that are detrimental to health and well-being. Despite what is a growing body of empirical research that has explored the role of social support in a sport injury context, there has been a paucity of research that has examined how social support functions in relation to injury-related stressors and psychological responses, particularly with regard to the effect of perceived and received support. In addition, there has been

  1. Memories of being injured and patients' care trajectory after physical trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergbom Ingegerd

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to acquire a deeper understanding of patients' memories of being injured and the trajectory of care before, during and after their Intensive Care Unit (ICU stay. Methods Interviews were conducted with eighteen informants who after physical trauma had been cared for in the ICU. The interviews were analyzed by using a phenomenological hermeneutical method. Results The memories of injury during the trajectory of care are illustrated in a figure in which the injured informants have memories from five scenes; the scene of the accident, emergency unit, ICU, nursing ward and of coming home. Twelve subthemes were abstracted and four themes emerged; a surrealistic world, an injured body, care, and gratitude for life. After the accident, a "surrealistic world" appeared along with bad memories of being in a floating existence where plans had to be changed. This world was unfamiliar, sometimes including delusional and fragmentary memories from the ICU, and it was experienced as uncontrollable. They felt connected to an "injured body", experiencing bad memories from the ICU of being injured, from the nursing ward of simply enduring and of being in a No Man's Land when coming home; their lives had become limited. At the same time they were "connected to care" with good memories of receiving attention from others at the scene of the accident, being taken cared of at the emergency unit and cared for in the ICU. This care made them realise that people are responsible for each other, and they felt comforted but also vulnerable. Finally, they experienced "gratitude for life". This included good memories of being loved together with support from their families at the ICU, wanting to win life back at the nursing ward and acceptance when returning home. The support from their families made them realise that they fit in just as they are. Conclusion When bad memories of a surrealistic world and of being injured are

  2. Survival and growth of juvenile lost river suckers (Deltistes luxatus) challenged with a bacterial pathogen (Flavobacterium columnaris) during exposure to sublethal ammonia concentrations at pH 9.5

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From 30 September to 1 December 1999, we tested survival and growth of Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus) that were exposed for 62 days to sublethal ammonia...

  3. Vitrification of bovine blastocysts pretreated with sublethal hydrostatic pressure stress: evaluation of post-thaw in vitro development and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira Filho, E; Caixeta, E S; Pribenszky, C; Molnar, M; Horvath, A; Harnos, A; Franco, M M; Rumpf, R

    2011-01-01

    Sublethal stress treatment has been reported to enhance gametes' performance in subsequent procedures, such as cryopreservation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different equilibration times between the termination of a sublethal hydrostatic pressure (HP) stress treatment and the initiation of vitrification on the post-thaw survival, continued in vitro development, hatching rate and gene expression of selected candidate genes of in vitro-produced (IVP) expanded bovine blastocysts. Day 7 IVP blastocysts were subjected to 600 bar pressure for 60 min at 32°C. Immediately after pressure treatment (HP0h) or after 1 or 2h incubation (HP1h and HP2h groups, respectively), embryos were either vitrified and warmed using the open pulled straw method, followed by 72 h in vitro culture or were stored at -80°C until gene expression analysis. Re-expansion and hatching rates after vitrification-warming were significantly (Pbovine embryos.

  4. Quantifying sublethal effects of glyphosate and Roundup® to Daphnia magna using a fluorescence based enzyme activity assay and video tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslev, Peter; R. Hansen, Lone; Ørsted, Michael

    Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) is the active ingredient in a range of popular broad-spectrum, non-selective herbicide formulations. The toxicity of this herbicide to non-target aquatic organisms such as Daphnia magna is often evaluated using conventional toxicity assays that focus...... on endpoints such as immobility and mortality. In this study, we investigated sublethal effects of glyphosate and Roundup® to D. magna using video tracking for quantifying behavioral changes, and a novel fluorescence based assay for measuring in vivo hydrolytic enzyme activity (FLEA assay). Roundup® exposure...... resulted in concentration-dependent inhibition of alkaline phosphatase activity in D. magna. The inhibition of alkaline phosphatase by Roundup® was temperature-dependent with lowest inhibition at 14 °C and greater inhibition at 20 and 26 °C. Exposure of D. magna to sublethal concentrations of glyphosate...

  5. Expression of liver functions following sub-lethal and non-lethal doses of allyl alcohol and acetaminophen in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tygstrup, N; Jensen, S A; Krog, B

    1997-01-01

    synthesis, and for proteins related to liver regeneration. RESULTS: After allyl alcohol, mRNA of "positive" acute phase proteins was higher than after acetaminophen and increased with the dose, whereas after acetaminophen it decreased with the dose. The mRNA of the urea cycle enzymes and glutamine...... cycle enzymes, whereas that of the rate limiting enzymes carbamoylphosphate synthase and argininosuccinate synthetase was increased by the non-lethal but not by the sub-lethal dose of acetaminophen. The expression of the cell-cycle dependent proteins was more suppressed after the sub-lethal than after......BACKGROUND/AIMS: To relate severity of intoxication with allyl alcohol and acetaminophen to modulated hepatic gene expression of liver functions and regeneration. METHODS: Rats fasted for 12 h received acetaminophen 3.5 or 5.6 g per kg body weight, or allyl alcohol 100 or 125 microl by gastric tube...

  6. Behavioral responses of the estuarine calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis to sub-lethal concentrations of waterborne pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalec, François-Gaël [Université Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); USTL, LOG, Station Marine de Wimereux, F-62930 Wimereux (France); CNRS, UMR 8187, F-62930 Wimereux (France); National Taiwan Ocean University, Institute of Marine Biology, Keelung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Holzner, Markus [Institute of Environmental Engineering, ETH Zürich (Switzerland); Menu, Dominique [Université Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); USTL, LOG, Station Marine de Wimereux, F-62930 Wimereux (France); CNRS, UMR 8187, F-62930 Wimereux (France); Hwang, Jiang-Shiou [National Taiwan Ocean University, Institute of Marine Biology, Keelung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Souissi, Sami, E-mail: sami.souissi@univ-lille1.fr [Université Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); USTL, LOG, Station Marine de Wimereux, F-62930 Wimereux (France); CNRS, UMR 8187, F-62930 Wimereux (France)

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: •We studied the effects of sub-lethal exposure to pollutants on Eurytemora affinis swimming behavior. •Nonylphenol, cadmium and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons caused hyperactivity. •Effects were observable within 30 min of exposure and persisted during a depuration period. •The response resembles an escape reaction allowing copepods to evade stressful conditions. -- Abstract: Estuarine waters contain a variety of chemicals which affect to various extents the behavior of aquatic organisms. Little is known, however, on the behavioral response of copepods. The present study shows the results of laboratory experiments investigating the immediate effects of sub-lethal concentrations of three commonly found contaminants on the three-dimensional swimming behavior of the estuarine calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis. Nonylphenol at 2 μg L{sup −1}, cadmium at 45 ng L{sup −1} and a mixture of low to medium molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at 40 ng L{sup −1} all affected the swimming behavior of E. affinis adults, increasing both swimming speed and activity. In most cases, effects were observable within 30 min of exposure and persisted or faded during a period of depuration in uncontaminated water of similar duration. In ovigerous females exposed to Cd and PAHs, effects appeared to be more pronounced during the depuration period, suggesting that carrying ovisacs may impair recovery. We quantified differences in the distribution of swimming speed values by considering the relative frequencies of periods of break, slow and fast swimming and we observed a trend toward faster movements in the presence of pollutants. The degree of trajectory complexity, estimated through their fractal dimension, was unaffected by pollutants. Since both narcotic and non-narcotic pollutants induced hyperactivity, our results suggest that changes in behavior after a short-term exposure may be independent of the general mode of action of the chemicals. The

  7. Maternal transfer and sublethal immune system effects of brevetoxin exposure in nesting loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) from western Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrault, Justin R; Bauman, Katherine D; Greenan, Taylor M; Blum, Patricia C; Henry, Michael S; Walsh, Catherine J

    2016-11-01

    Blooms of Karenia brevis (also called red tides) occur almost annually in the Gulf of Mexico. The health effects of the neurotoxins (i.e., brevetoxins) produced by this toxic dinoflagellate on marine turtles are poorly understood. Florida's Gulf Coast represents an important foraging and nesting area for a number of marine turtle species. Most studies investigating brevetoxin exposure in marine turtles thus far focus on dead and/or stranded individuals and rarely examine the effects in apparently "healthy" free-ranging individuals. From May-July 2014, one year after the last red tide bloom, we collected blood from nesting loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) on Casey Key, Florida USA. These organisms show both strong nesting and foraging site fidelity. The plasma was analyzed for brevetoxin concentrations in addition to a number of health and immune-related parameters in an effort to establish sublethal effects of this toxin. Lastly, from July-September 2014, we collected unhatched eggs and liver and yolk sacs from dead-in-nest hatchlings from nests laid by the sampled females and tested these samples for brevetoxin concentrations to determine maternal transfer and effects on reproductive success. Using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), all plasma samples from nesting females tested positive for brevetoxin (reported as ng brevetoxin-3[PbTx-3] equivalents [eq]/mL) exposure (2.1-26.7ng PbTx-3eq/mL). Additionally, 100% of livers (1.4-13.3ng PbTx-3eq/mL) and yolk sacs (1.7-6.6ng PbTx-3eq/mL) from dead-in-nest hatchlings and 70% of eggs (<1.0-24.4ng PbTx-3eq/mL) tested positive for brevetoxin exposure with the ELISA. We found that plasma brevetoxin concentrations determined by an ELISA in nesting females positively correlated with gamma-globulins, indicating a potential for immunomodulation as a result of brevetoxin exposure. While the sample sizes were small, we also found that plasma brevetoxin concentrations determined by an ELISA in

  8. Biodegradable biomatrices and bridging the injured spinal cord: the corticospinal tract as a proof of principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Elbert A J

    2012-07-01

    Important advances in the development of smart biodegradable implants for axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury have recently been reported. These advances are evaluated in this review with special emphasis on the regeneration of the corticospinal tract. The corticospinal tract is often considered the ultimate challenge in demonstrating whether a repair strategy has been successful in the regeneration of the injured mammalian spinal cord. The extensive know-how of factors and cells involved in the development of the corticospinal tract, and the advances made in material science and tissue engineering technology, have provided the foundations for the optimization of the biomatrices needed for repair. Based on the findings summarized in this review, the future development of smart biodegradable bridges for CST regrowth and regeneration in the injured spinal cord is discussed.

  9. Multi-ligand nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery to the injured vascular wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kona, Soujanya

    Pathological conditions like coronary artery disease, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, and peripheral artery diseases as well as cardiovascular interventions used in the treatment of coronary artery diseases such as angioplasty and stenting damage/injure the blood vessel wall, leading to inflamed or activated endothelial cells that have been implicated in events leading to thrombosis, inflammation, and restenosis. Oral administration of anti-coagulant and anti-inflammatory drugs causes systemic toxicity, bleeding, patient incompliance, and inadequate amounts of drugs at the injured area. Though drug-eluting stents have shown therapeutic benefits, complications such as in-stent restenosis and late thrombosis still remain and are a cause for concern. Rapid growth in the field of nanotechnology and nanoscience in recent years has paved the way for new targeted and controlled drug delivery strategies. In this perspective, the development of biodegradable nanoparticles for targeted intracellular drug delivery to the inflamed endothelial cells may offer an improved avenue for treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The major objective of this research was to develop "novel multi-ligand nanoparticles," as drug carriers that can efficiently target and deliver therapeutic agents to the injured/inflamed vascular cells under dynamic flow conditions. Our approach mimics the natural binding ability of platelets to injured/activated endothelial cells through glycoprotein Ib (GPIb) bound to P-selectin expressed on inflamed endothelial cells and to the subendothelium through GPIb binding to von Willebrand factor (vWF) deposited onto the injured vascular wall. Our design also exploits the natural cell membrane translocation ability of the internalizing cell peptide - trans-activating transcriptor (TAT) to enhance the nanoparticle uptake by the targeted cells. Our hypothesis is that these multi-ligand nanoparticles would show an increased accumulation at the injury site since GPIb

  10. Reliability and validity of videotaped functional performance tests in ACL-injured subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Porat, Anette; Holmström, Eva; Roos, Ewa

    2008-01-01

    during five functional tests in subjects with an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. METHOD: Twelve ACL-injured men, mean age 40 years, were video filmed before and after 12 weeks of knee-specific training when performing five different functional tests: walking, knee bending, step activity......, crossover hop on one leg and one-leg hop. The videos were observed by four physiotherapists, and the knee movement pattern quality, a feature of the loading strategy of the lower extremity, was scored on an 11-point rating scale. To assess the criterion validity, the observational rating was correlated...... validity found indicate that the knee movement pattern quality in ACL-injured subjects can be determined by visual observation of more demanding functional tests such as crossover hop on one leg and one-leg hop for distance....

  11. Intervening factors in attention flow of professionals injured by biological material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Cássia Miranda Ribeiro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the barriers and facilitator factors to follow the attention flow of professionals injured by biological material in the worker perspective. Method: Qualitative descriptive study with data collected through individual interviews with 18 injured workers, assisted in reference public units in the city of Goiânia. The content analysis was carried out with assistance of the ATLAS.ti 6.2 software, under the work organization and subjective perspectives. Results: From the interviews regarding the barriers and facilitator factors emerged the categories: organizational structure, Support from close people, and Knowledge influence. Conclusion: The organized services have enabled more qualified consultations and the workers follow-up, which caused a satisfaction feeling in relation to the working environment.

  12. Intervening factors in attention flow of professionals injured by biological material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Cássia Miranda Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the barriers and facilitator factors to follow the attention flow of professionals injured by biological material in the worker perspective. Method: Qualitative descriptive study with data collected through individual interviews with 18 injured workers, assisted in reference public units in the city of Goiânia. The content analysis was carried out with assistance of the ATLAS.ti 6.2 software, under the work organization and subjective perspectives. Results: From the interviews regarding the barriers and facilitator factors emerged the categories: organizational structure, Support from close people, and Knowledge influence. Conclusion: The organized services have enabled more qualified consultations and the workers follow-up, which caused a satisfaction feeling in relation to the working environment.

  13. [Intervening factors in attention flow of professionals injured by biological material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Luana Cássia Miranda; Souza, Adenícia Custódia Silva E; Tipple, Anaclara Ferreira Veiga; Melo, Dulcelene Sousa; Peixoto, Myrian Karla Ayres Veronez; Munari, Denize Bouttelet

    2014-06-01

    To describe the barriers and facilitator factors to follow the attention flow of professionals injured by biological material in the worker perspective. Qualitative descriptive study with data collected through individual interviews with 18 injured workers, assisted in reference public units in the city of Goiânia. The content analysis was carried out with assistance of the ATLAS.ti 6.2 software, under the work organization and subjective perspectives. From the interviews regarding the barriers and facilitator factors emerged the categories: organizational structure, Support from close people, and Knowledge influence. The organized services have enabled more qualified consultations and the workers follow-up, which caused a satisfaction feeling in relation to the working environment.

  14. Role of Damage Control Orthopedics and Early Total Care in the Multiple Injured Trauma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Jordan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The care of multiply injured patients with orthopedic injuries has evolved from prolonged periods in traction to early total care (ETC. ETC is advantageous in ease of nursing care and aiding patient recovery. However, concerns have been raised that this ‘second hit’ of surgery places these severely injured patients at risk of excessive inflammatory responses that can lead to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS. Damage control was initially used in abdominal trauma but has been adapted for use in orthopedics. The mainstay of treatment involves external fixation of long bone and pelvic fractures which acts to defer definitive fixation until physiologic stability is restored. The indications for implementing each approach are not clear and this article provides a narrative review of the topic.

  15. Assessment and detection of pain in noncommunicative severely brain-injured patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Schnakers, Caroline; Chatelle, Camille; Majerus, Steve; Gosseries, Olivia; De Val, Marie; Laureys, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Detecting pain in severely brain-injured patients recovering from coma represents a real challenge. Patients with disorders of consciousness are unable to consistently or reliably communicate their feelings and potential perception of pain. However, recent studies suggest that patients in a minimally conscious state can experience pain to some extent. Pain monitoring in these patients is hence of medical and ethical importance. In this article, we will focus on the possible use of behavioral ...

  16. Feasibility of Mind-Body Intervention to Promote Wellness in Injured Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    009) classes than men: M=6.8 (SD 4.5) vs . 13.25 (SD 4.3) respectively. The research study team defined “exited early” as those who were unable to... acupuncture , yoga, and other relaxation techniques among injured service members. Qigong, a meditative movement practice from traditional Chinese... Medicine , may be promising since it focuses on wellness, promotes stress reduction, and is not associated with the stigma of traditional mental

  17. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 facilitates glial scar formation in the injured spinal cord

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Jung-Yu C.; Bourguignon, Lilly Y.W.; Adams, Christen M.; Peyrollier, Karine; Zhang, Haoqian; Fandel, Thomas; Cun, Christine L.; Werb, Zena; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J.

    2008-01-01

    In the injured spinal cord, a glial scar forms and becomes a major obstacle to axonal regeneration. Formation of the glial scar involves migration of astrocytes toward the lesion. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), including MMP-9 and MMP-2, govern cell migration through their ability to degrade constituents of the extracellular matrix. Although MMP-9 is expressed in reactive astrocytes, its involvement in astrocyte migration and formation of a glial scar is unknown. Here we found that spinal ...

  18. Tracking of CFSE-labeled endothelial progenitor cells in laser-injured mouse retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hui; Yang, Wei; Cui, Zhi-Hua; Lu, Cheng-Wei; Li, Xiao-Hong; Liang, Ling-Ling; Song, E

    2011-03-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) transplantation is a promising therapeutic strategy for ischemic retinopathy. The current study aimed to establish a simple, reliable and fluorescent labeling method for tracking EPCs with 5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) in laser-injured mouse retina. EPCs were isolated from human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells, cultivated, and labeled with various concentrations of CFSE. Based on fluorescence intensity and cell morphology, a 15 minutes incubation with 5 µmol/L CFSE at 37°C was selected as the optimal labeling condition. The survival capability and the apoptosis rate of CFSE-labeled EPCs were measured by Trypan blue staining and Annexin V/PI staining assay respectively. Fluorescence microscopy was used to observe the label stability during the extended culture period. Labeled EPCs were transplanted into the vitreous cavity of pigmented mice injured by retinal laser photocoagulation. Evans Blue angiography and flat mounted retinas were examined to track the labeled cells. EPCs labeled with 5 µmol/L CFSE presented an intense green fluorescence and maintained normal morphology, with no significant changes in the survival capability or apoptosis rate after being labeled for 2 days, 1 and 4 weeks. The fluorescence intensity gradually decreased in the cells at the end of 4 weeks. Evans Blue angiography of the retina displayed the retinal capillarity network clearly and fluorescence leakage was observed around photocoagulated spots in the laser-injured mouse model. One week after transplantation of labeled EPCs, the fluorescent cells were identified around the photocoagulated lesions. Four weeks after transplantation, fluorescent tube-like structures were observed in the retinal vascular networks. EPCs could be labeled by CFSE in vitro and monitored in vivo for at least 4 weeks, and participate in the repair of injured retinal vessels.

  19. Impaired driving charges in injured impaired drivers requiring treatment in an emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieldus, Warren; Cain, Ed

    2012-09-01

    To determine the percentage of injured impaired drivers brought to the only trauma centre in Nova Scotia who were charged with impaired driving. This retrospective observational study identified alcohol impaired drivers involved in a motor vehicle crash (MVC) brought to the emergency department (ED). Patients were selected based on blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) found to be above the legal limit. Medical records were examined to determine if the patient was the driver in an MVC. Patient records were then cross-referenced with a police database to determine the percentage of injured impaired drivers who were charged with impaired driving. Between April 1, 2006, and April 1, 2008, 1,102 patients brought to the QEII Health Sciences Centre (QEII HSC) ED were found to have BACs over the legal limit. Of these patients, only 57 (5.2%) were found to have been the driver in an MVC. The majority of patients were male (49; 86%), with an average age of 32 years. Most injuries (51; 89.5%) were the result of a single-vehicle crash. The mean Glasgow Coma Scale score was 12.6, and the mean Injury Severity Score was 14.4. Cross-referencing with police records showed that only 22.8% (13 of 57) of injured drivers were charged with impaired driving. Those drivers not charged with impaired driving had a significantly lower median BAC and median age. During the study, the majority of alcohol-impaired drivers injured in an MVC who were brought to the QEII HSC ED for assessment of their injuries were not charged with impaired driving.

  20. Fluorophilia: Fluorophore-containing compounds adhere non-specifically to injured neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Bridget E.; Frederickson, Christopher J.; DeWitt, Douglas S.; Prough, Donald S.

    2012-01-01

    Ionic (free) zinc (Zn2+) is implicated in apoptotic neuronal degeneration and death. In our attempt to examine the effects of Zn2+ in neurodegeneration following brain injury, we serendipitously discovered that injured neurons bind fluorescein moieties, either alone or as part of an indicator dye, in histologic sections. This phenomenon, that we have termed “fluorophilia”, is analogous to the ability of degenerating neuronal somata and axons to bind silver ions (argyrophilia — the basis of silver degeneration stains). To provide evidence that fluorophilia occurs in sections of brain tissue, we used a wide variety of indicators such as Fluoro-Jade (FJ), a slightly modified fluorescein sold as a marker for degenerating neurons; Newport Green, a fluorescein-containing Zn2+ probe; Rhod-5N, a rhodamine-containing Ca2+ probe; and plain fluorescein. All yielded remarkably similar staining of degenerating neurons in the traumatic brain-injured tissue with the absence of staining in our sham-injured brains. Staining of presumptive injured neurons by these agents was not modified when Zn2+ in the brain section was removed by prior chelation with EDTA or TPEN, whereas staining by a non-fluorescein containing Zn2+ probe, N-(6-methoxy-8-quinolyl)-p-toluenesulfonamide (TSQ), was suppressed by prior chelation. Thus, certain fluorophore-containing compounds nonspecifically stain degenerating neuronal tissue in histologic sections and may not reflect the presence of Zn2+. This may be of concern to researchers using indicator dyes to detect metals in brain tissue sections. Further experiments may be advised to clarify whether Zn2+-binding dyes bind more specifically in intact neurons in culture or organotypic slices. PMID:22137653

  1. Oral implantology for the traumatic brain injured patient: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Dennis

    2011-12-01

    Edentulous traumatic brain injured dental patients may be treated with dental implant-supported and retained acrylic-based complete dentures. Intraoral components should be minimized to present less of a surface area for plaque accumulation and to facilitate daily cleansing. A zero degree or lingualized occlusal scheme should be used. Prostheses may be truncated for patient comfort and gustatory function, so the potential for swallowing a prosthesis should be evaluated in each patient.

  2. Keeping your head in the game: sport-specific imagery and anxiety among injured athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsma, Eva; Mensch, James; Farroll, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The use of sport-specific imagery during rehabilitation is sparse. Athletes who used imagery (either facilitative or debilitative) during injury rehabilitation were compared with injured athletes who did not use imagery. Return-to-practice anxiety in the groups was investigated also. To (1) explore debilitative images used during rehabilitation, (2) examine athlete and injury characteristics in relation to variations in imagery content and return-to-practice anxiety, (3) compare the frequency of imagery use early in injury rehabilitation with that just before return to practice, and (4) examine the relationship between image use and return-to-practice anxiety. Observational design. Athletic training facilities. Thirty-six injured National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate athletes sustaining at least an 8-day practice suspension due to injury. Sport Imagery Questionnaire, Sport Anxiety Scale. Athletes used both facilitative and debilitative images during different phases of rehabilitation. Men used more sport skill, strategy, and excitement imagery content than did women, who reported higher scores for worry and concentration disruption than did men. Athletes used fewer images related to their sport skills and strategies early in rehabilitation than just before they returned to practice. Additionally, athletes who used more arousal and less strategic imagery experienced more somatic anxiety. Similar to research findings on healthy athletes, sport-specific image content in injured athletes is related to return-to-practice anxiety during rehabilitation, and some of the images were perceived as debilitative. Practitioners should advise injured athletes to use sport-specific imagery, especially that related to sport skills and strategies, but they should caution athletes against using arousal imagery, because it may elevate somatic anxiety before return to practice. Image content recommendations should encompass the cognitive and motivational

  3. Who Can Give a Pediatric Trauma History for Children Injured in Bicycle Crashes?

    OpenAIRE

    Flaura K. Winston; Posner, Jill; Alpern, Elizabeth; Vivarelli, Cara M.; Gallagher, Paul R.; Shaw, Kathy N; Cnaan, Avital

    2000-01-01

    Emergency Departments are important sites for injury surveillance but the quality of data collected has not been evaluated. This prospective cohort study assessed the ability of various respondents to provide circumstantial information following pediatric bicyclist trauma. A semi-structured survey tool was administered in the Emergency Department of a Level One Pediatric Trauma Center for 448 child bicyclists. The injured child provided more complete information when compared to witnesses and...

  4. [Differences in the outcome of seriously injured children depending on treatment level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohm, Peter C; Zwingmann, Jörn; Bayer, Jörg; Neumann, Mirjam V; Lefering, Rolf; Schmal, Hagen; Reising, Kilian

    2017-03-29

    Many publications, mainly from other countries, suggest that the treatment of seriously injured children might be better in specialised paediatric trauma centres than in general trauma centres. Data from Germany are not available yet, but those from abroad were used for the recommendations made by the German Association for Trauma Surgery (DGU) on the topic of paediatric trauma in the "White Paper on Trauma Care". The goal of this study was to analyse whether the outcome of severely injured children is dependent on treatment level and on the availability of a paediatric surgeon based on the given data. Data from the "TraumaRegister DGU" between 2002 and 2012 were used. Children aged 1-15 years treated during the period 2002-2012 were included. Severity had to reach a minimum Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 9 and the treatment had to involve a stay at an Intensive Care Unit. Patients with an ISS ≥9 who died were also included to take into consideration children with particularly severe injuries. Hospitals without a paediatric surgeon transferred the patients significantly more frequently (p < 0.001). Mean hospital stay was shorter in centres with a paediatric surgeon, with slightly longer median stays at an Intensive Care Unit. Hospitals without a paediatric surgeon performed slightly more frequent surgical interventions on injured children (barely significant at p = 0.045). The death rate and the calculated Revised Injury Severity Classification (RISC) II prognosis were the same with or without the presence of a paediatric surgeon. No difference was found in the Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS) between the group with and the group without involvement of a paediatric surgeon. Overall, the medical care of seriously injured and polytraumatised children in Germany is good at all levels of treatment whether a paediatric surgeon is involved or not.

  5. Sublethal red tide toxin exposure in free-ranging manatees (Trichechus manatus) affects the immune system through reduced lymphocyte proliferation responses, inflammation, and oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Catherine J., E-mail: cjwalsh@mote.org [Marine Immunology Program, Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson Parkway, Sarasota, FL 34236 (United States); Butawan, Matthew, E-mail: mattbutawan@outlook.com [Marine Immunology Program, Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson Parkway, Sarasota, FL 34236 (United States); Yordy, Jennifer, E-mail: jennifer.e.balmer@gmail.com [Marine Immunology Program, Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson Parkway, Sarasota, FL 34236 (United States); Ball, Ray, E-mail: Ray.Ball@lowryparkzoo.com [Lowry Park Zoo, 1101 W Sligh Ave, Tampa, FL 33604 (United States); Flewelling, Leanne, E-mail: Leanne.Flewelling@MyFWC.com [Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, 100 8th Ave SE, St. Petersburg, FL 33701 (United States); Wit, Martine de, E-mail: Martine.deWit@MyFWC.com [Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, 100 8th Ave SE, St. Petersburg, FL 33701 (United States); Bonde, Robert K., E-mail: rbonde@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, Sirenia Project, 7920 NE 71st Street, Gainesville, FL 32653 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Sublethal brevetoxin exposure affects manatee immune function. • Plasma brevetoxin levels correlate with oxidative stress in rescued manatees. • Brevetoxin exposure affects lymphocyte proliferation in rescued manatees. • Plasma brevetoxin concentrations ranged from 0 to 19 ng PbTx-3 eq/mL. - Abstract: The health of many Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is adversely affected by exposure to blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. K. brevis blooms are common in manatee habitats of Florida’s southwestern coast and produce a group of cyclic polyether toxins collectively referred to as red tide toxins, or brevetoxins. Although a large number of manatees exposed to significant levels of red tide toxins die, several manatees are rescued from sublethal exposure and are successfully treated and returned to the wild. Sublethal brevetoxin exposure may potentially impact the manatee immune system. Lymphocyte proliferative responses and a suite of immune function parameters in the plasma were used to evaluate effects of brevetoxin exposure on health of manatees rescued from natural exposure to red tide toxins in their habitat. Blood samples were collected from rescued manatees at Lowry Park Zoo in Tampa, FL and from healthy, unexposed manatees in Crystal River, FL. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) isolated from whole blood were stimulated with T-cell mitogens, ConA and PHA. A suite of plasma parameters, including plasma protein electrophoresis profiles, lysozyme activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and reactive oxygen/nitrogen (ROS/RNS) species, was also used to assess manatee health. Significant decreases (p < 0.05) in lymphocyte proliferation were observed in ConA and PHA stimulated lymphocytes from rescued animals compared to non-exposed animals. Significant correlations were observed between oxidative stress markers (SOD, ROS/RNS) and plasma brevetoxin concentrations. Sublethal exposure to brevetoxins in the

  6. Extraosseous calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheimer, F W; Zielinski, R J; Wesley, R K

    1977-10-01

    A 20-year-old man presented with a painless enlargement of the maxillary gingiva with no bone involvement. Microscopic examination with special stains confirmed the diagnosis of a clear cell variant of a calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor). This is the second reported case of such a variant in an extraosseous location.

  7. Bronchial carcinoid tumors: A rare malignant tumor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-03

    Feb 3, 2015 ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice • Sep-Oct 2015 • Vol 18 • Issue 5. Abstract. Bronchial carcinoid tumors (BCTs) are an uncommon group of lung tumors. They commonly affect the young adults and the middle aged, the same age group affected by other more common chronic lung conditions such as ...

  8. Expression and function of Toll-like receptor 9 in severely injured patients prone to sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiyee, E E; Flohe, S; Lendemans, S; Bauer, S; Mueller, N; Kreuzfelder, E; Grosse-Wilde, H

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to enumerate Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)+ cells and measure their function using synthetic oligonucleotides enriched in CG dinucleotide motifs (CpG)-induced proliferation within 48 h after trauma in severely injured patients prone to sepsis. Sixteen consecutive trauma patients with an injury severity score (ISS) > 21 and 16 blood donors (controls) were included in this study. Using two-colour flow cytometry, TLR9 expression was detectable intracellularly and also on the surface of B lymphocytes. The surface expression of TLR9 of B lymphocytes from whole blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulated with CpG was significantly increased in B cells of severely injured patients prone to sepsis compared to controls. No significant differences could be observed between CpG-induced proliferation of PBMC of severely injured patients prone to sepsis and controls. As a measure of immunosuppression, human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DR expression of monocytes of the trauma patients was significantly diminished compared with controls in PBMC and in whole blood. Immunosuppression in the early phase after trauma seems not to be associated with a disturbed sensing of bacterial DNA. PMID:16907913

  9. History, development and future of trauma care for multiple injured patients in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansink, K W W; Leenen, L P H

    2013-02-01

    The development of trauma systems all over the world resulted in improved outcome for a broad range of trauma victims. In this review, we demonstrate the developments of an inclusive regionalised trauma system in the Netherlands and the subsequent developments in our level one trauma centre and trauma region in comparison. With the seasoning of the trauma system, further improvements in outcome could be demonstrated, in the region an OR of 0.84 and in the trauma centre an OR of 0.61, in a later comparison over the years another OR 0.74 was noted. In addition, a further diversification of the trauma populations was seen in the various hospitals with different levels, based on a pre-hospital triage system. Torso and multiple injured patients were more seen in the trauma centre and increased to more than 350 patients with an ISS of >15, whereas monotrauma was almost exclusively seen in the level two and three hospitals. The further development of the trauma system is discussed, in which the minimum requirements of the individual trauma surgeon and institution are taken as a guideline. Based on these considerations, a further concentration of the most severely injured patients is proposed in a small country as the Netherlands culminating in one trauma centre for the most severely injured patients, combined with an integrated pre-hospital helicopter system, on top of the current good functioning inclusive trauma system. These developments could be a template for further developments of trauma systems in Europe.

  10. Analyses of demographical and injury characteristics of adult and pediatric patients injured in Syrian civil war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Erhan; Çorbacıoğlu, Şeref Kerem; Güler, Sertaç; Aslan, Şahin; Seviner, Meltem; Aksel, Gökhan; Bekgöz, Burak

    2017-01-01

    Aimed to analyze demographical data and injury characteristics of patients who were injured in the Syrian Civil War (SCW) and to define differences in injury characteristics between adult and pediatric patients. Patients who were injured in the SCW and transferred to our emergency department were retrospectively analyzed in this study during the 15-month period between July 2013 and October 2014. During the study period, 1591 patients who were the victims of the SCW and admitted to our emergency department due to war injury enrolled in the study. Of these patients, 285 were children (18%). The median of the injury severity score was 16 (interquartile range [IQR]: 9-25) in all patients. The most frequent mechanism of injury was blunt trauma (899 cases, 55%), and the most frequently-injured region of the body was the head (676 cases, 42.5%). Head injury rates among the children's group were higher than those of the adult group (P war. Although the injury severity score values and mortality rates of the child and adult groups were similar, it was determined that the number of head injuries was higher, but the number of abdomen and extremity injuries was lower in the children's group than in the adult group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pain coping in injured workers with chronic pain: what's unique about workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Leah A; Carroll, Linda J; Voaklander, Donald C; Gross, Douglas P; Beach, Jeremy R

    2012-01-01

    Pain caused by a work injury is a complex phenomenon comprising multiple factors, e.g. age, gender, prior health status, occupation, job demands, and severity of injury. Little research has focused on injured workers with chronic pain. This study investigates injured workers' pain coping. A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used to measure coping strategies of injured workers in a work rehabilitation program. Differences in coping strategies by demographics, injury-related variables, pain, disability, and depression were measured. n = 479. The coping strategy with the highest mean score was "coping self statements" (Mean = 19.4, SD = 7.6), followed by "praying/hoping" (Mean = 18.2, SD = 9.7), and "catastrophizing" (Mean = 17.5, SD = 8.0). Statistical differences for coping strategies were noted between gender, marital status, depression levels, self-perceived disability levels, and pain (p cope with pain. In conditions in which there may be a perceived lack of control (high pain intensity, high self-perceived disability, and high self rated depression), there were significantly higher amounts of both "catastrophizing" and "praying and hoping". Therefore, workers with high pain and high self-perceived disability are more likely catastrophize their pain, leading to poor recovery outcomes.

  12. Injured athletes' rehabilitation beliefs and subjective well-being: the contribution of hope and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Frank J H; Hsu, Yawen

    2013-01-01

    Injuries are a significant problem in the world of sports. Hope and social support are very important features in providing psychological help as people face life challenges such as sport injuries. To examine how hope and social support uniquely and jointly predict postinjury rehabilitation beliefs, rehabilitation behavior, and subjective well-being. Cross-sectional study. Four sports-injury rehabilitation centers of local universities in Taiwan. A total of 224 injured Taiwanese collegiate student-athletes. The Trait Hope Scale, the Sports Injury Rehabilitation Beliefs Survey, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Positive Affective and Negative Affective Scale, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support were completed by participants after they received their regular rehabilitation treatment. We conducted hierarchical regressions and found that social support and 2 types of hope in injured athletes predicted their rehabilitation beliefs and subjective well-being. However, only hope agency predicted their rehabilitation behavior. Also, hope and social support had an interactive effect on the prediction of subjective well-being; for participants with low hope pathways, the perception of more social support was associated with higher levels of subjective well-being, whereas social support had only a relatively low association with subjective well-being among participants with high hope pathways. Enhancing hope perceptions and strengthening injured athletes' social support during rehabilitation are beneficial to rehabilitation behavior and subjective well-being.

  13. New Macedonian legislation which improves the position of the injured party

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lažetić-Bužarovska Gordana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with newly adopted provisions in the Macedonian criminal legislation, that are affecting the position and status of injured party in the criminal procedure, with special attention to alternative measures as new criminal sanctions and new opportunities for realization of compensation request on time and in effective way. As author says, with extending the grounds for submitting compensation request the legislator have introduced provisions that contribute toward improving the position of the injured party during the criminal procedure and even after its termination. Beside already strengthened position of public prosecutor, there are new provisions regarding widening of possibilities for injured party when he is in the role of subsidiary prosecutor. Having in mind European countries’ experiences regarding witness protection, Republic of Macedonia has created legislative framework for combating most difficult types of organized crime. However, practical implementation of newly adopted Law on witness protection depends a lot on successful establishment and functioning of authorities responsible for caring out witness protection Programs, providing enough financial resources and intensive and direct interstate co-operation. Hence, it is obvious that the legislative provisions are just the first step among necessary activities for accomplish witness protection programs.

  14. Characteristics and outcomes of injured patients presenting by private vehicle in a state trauma system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas J; Carr, Brendan G; Salhi, Rama; Holena, Daniel N; Wolff, Catherine; Band, Roger A

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated lower mortality among patients transported to single urban trauma centers by private vehicle (PV) compared with Emergency Medical Services (EMS). We sought to describe the characteristics and outcomes of injured patients transported by PV in a state trauma system compared to patients transported by EMS. We performed a retrospective cohort study of state trauma registry data for patients admitted to all Pennsylvania trauma centers over 5 years (1/2003 to 12/2007). Our primary exposure of interest was prehospital mode of transport and our primary outcome of interest was in-hospital mortality. Unadjusted analyses were performed as were adjusted analyses controlling for injury severity. Data are presented as percents, odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals. Of the 91132 patients analyzed, 9.6% were transported to the emergency department by PV and 90.4% by EMS. Overall Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 13.3 ± 11.0 (ISS for EMS 13.7 ± 11.3, PV 9.2 ± 7.1, P 15, ISS >25) subgroups. Nearly 10% of injured patients arrive at trauma centers by private vehicle. Transport of injured patients by EMS was associated with higher mortality than PV transport. This may reflect the effects of prehospital time, prehospital interventions, or other confounders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Functional Electrical Stimulation Helps Replenish Progenitor Cells in the Injured Spinal Cord of Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Daniel; Gary, Devin S.; Rosenzweig, Ephron S.; Grill, Warren M.; McDonald, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) can restore control and offset atrophy to muscles after neurological injury. However, FES has not been considered as a method for enhancing CNS regeneration. This paper demonstrates that FES dramatically enhanced progenitor cell birth in the spinal cord of rats with a chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). A complete SCI at thoracic level 8/9 was performed on 12 rats. Three weeks later, a FES device to stimulate hindlimb movement was implanted into these rats. Twelve identically-injured rats received inactive FES implants. An additional control group of uninjured rats were also examined. Ten days after FES implantation, dividing cells were marked with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). The ‘cell birth’ subgroup (half the animals in each group) was sacrificed immediately after completion of BrdU administration, and the ‘cell survival’ subgroup was sacrificed 7 days later. In the injured ‘cell birth’ subgroup, FES induced an 82-86 % increase in cell birth in the lumbar spinal cord. In the injured ‘cell survival’ subgroup, the increased lumbar newborn cell counts persisted. FES doubled the proportion of the newly-born cells which expressed nestin and other markers suggestive of tripotential progenitors. In uninjured rats, FES had no effect on cell birth/survival. This report suggests that controlled electrical activation of the CNS may enhance spontaneous regeneration after neurological injuries. PMID:20059998

  16. Histological and functional benefit following transplantation of motor neuron progenitors to the injured rat spinal cord.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharyn L Rossi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Motor neuron loss is characteristic of cervical spinal cord injury (SCI and contributes to functional deficit.In order to investigate the amenability of the injured adult spinal cord to motor neuron differentiation, we transplanted spinal cord injured animals with a high purity population of human motor neuron progenitors (hMNP derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs. In vitro, hMNPs displayed characteristic motor neuron-specific markers, a typical electrophysiological profile, functionally innervated human or rodent muscle, and secreted physiologically active growth factors that caused neurite branching and neuronal survival. hMNP transplantation into cervical SCI sites in adult rats resulted in suppression of intracellular signaling pathways associated with SCI pathogenesis, which correlated with greater endogenous neuronal survival and neurite branching. These neurotrophic effects were accompanied by significantly enhanced performance on all parameters of the balance beam task, as compared to controls. Interestingly, hMNP transplantation resulted in survival, differentiation, and site-specific integration of hMNPs distal to the SCI site within ventral horns, but hMNPs near the SCI site reverted to a neuronal progenitor state, suggesting an environmental deficiency for neuronal maturation associated with SCI.These findings underscore the barriers imposed on neuronal differentiation of transplanted cells by the gliogenic nature of the injured spinal cord, and the physiological relevance of transplant-derived neurotrophic support to functional recovery.

  17. Medio-lateral knee fluency in anterior cruciate ligament-injured athletes during dynamic movement trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panos, Joseph A; Hoffman, Joshua T; Wordeman, Samuel C; Hewett, Timothy E

    2016-03-01

    Correction of neuromuscular impairments after anterior cruciate ligament injury is vital to successful return to sport. Frontal plane knee control during landing is a common measure of lower-extremity neuromuscular control and asymmetries in neuromuscular control of the knee can predispose injured athletes to additional injury and associated morbidities. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of anterior cruciate ligament injury on knee biomechanics during landing. Two-dimensional frontal plane video of single leg drop, cross over drop, and drop vertical jump dynamic movement trials was analyzed for twenty injured and reconstructed athletes. The position of the knee joint center was tracked in ImageJ software for 500 milliseconds after landing to calculate medio-lateral knee motion velocities and determine normal fluency, the number of times per second knee velocity changed direction. The inverse of this calculation, analytical fluency, was used to associate larger numerical values with fluent movement. Analytical fluency was decreased in involved limbs for single leg drop trials (P=0.0018). Importantly, analytical fluency for single leg drop differed compared to cross over drop trials for involved (Pfluency values exhibited a stepwise trend in relative magnitudes. Decreased analytical fluency in involved limbs is consistent with previous studies. Fluency asymmetries observed during single leg drop tasks may be indicative of abhorrent landing strategies in the involved limb. Analytical fluency differences in unilateral tasks for injured limbs may represent neuromuscular impairment as a result of injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The suffering is similar--is the treatment equal? An intervention with Arab Terror injured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagin, Roni; Unger-Arnov, Yael; Shinan-Altman, Shiri; Tessler, Aviva

    2011-01-01

    In the course of the last Intifada and during the Second Lebanon War, all citizens of Israel were exposed to waves of terrorism that claimed many people wounded and killed, unrelated to religious differences, age, gender, or nationality: Jews and Arabs suffered alike. The acts of terror exposed all inhabitants equally to injury, suffering, and the need to adjust. The professional literature attests that minority groups are at a higher risk of experiencing post-traumatic symptoms as a result of exposure to acts of terror. This article describes the treatment with terror injured, Jews and Arabs, in the frame of the project for terror victims at Rambam Medical Center, in cooperation with Operation Embrace. It also covers the project intervention with casualties of the shooting incident in the Arab town of Shefaram, with the cooperation of Shefaram Social Welfare department. The psycho-social work conducted with the injured, Jews and Arabs, emphasized their similarities, their common fate, and the fact that any of us could be injured in a terror act or a war. The suffering, the loss, and the hurt are common to us all. At the same time, the interventions referred to cultural differences and the diverse ways of coping with the aftermath of the events, based on values, faith, and outlook on life arising from cultural background.

  19. Preventive effect of phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis on alloxan-injured mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Yu; Lin, Lin; Pan, Qin; Yang, Xuegan; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2012-11-01

    The preventive effect of phycocyanin (obtained from Spirulina platensis) on alloxan-injured mice is investigated. Oral administration of phycocyanin was started two weeks before an alloxan injury and continued until four weeks later. Tests resulted in the following positive results of oral phycocyanin administration on alloxan-injured mice: decrease fasting blood glucose and glycosylated serum protein (GSP); maintain total antioxidative capability (T-AOC); avert malondialdehyde (MDA) formation in the liver, kidney, and pancreas; decrease total cholesterol (TC) level and triglycerides (TG) level in serum and liver; increase the levels of hepatic glycogen level; maintain glucokinase (GK) expression in the liver and decrease p53 expression in the pancreas at mRNA level. The histological observations also supported the above results. Acute toxicity study further shows that phycocyanin is relatively safe. These results led to the conclusion that phycocyanin has significant preventive effect on alloxan-injured mice. The inhibition of p53 pathway could be one of the mechanisms that led to the protection of pancreatic islets from alloxan injury. We also proposed that GK expression that functions to promote liver glycogen synthesis could be the reason for reduced blood glucose level. The encouraging results are the first step in studying the potential of phycocyanin as a clinical measure in preventing diabetes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Buyang Huanwu decoction up-regulates Notch1 gene expression in injured spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan-peng Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Expression of genes in the Notch signaling pathway is altered in the injured spinal cord, which indicates that Notch participates in repair after spinal cord injury. Buyang Huanwu decoction, a traditional Chinese herbal preparation, can promote the growth of nerve cells and nerve fibers; however, it is unclear whether Buyang Huanwu decoction affects the Notch signaling pathway in injured spinal cord. In this study, a rat model was established by injuring the T 10 spinal cord. At 2 days after injury, rats were intragastrically administered 2 mL of 0.8 g/mL Buyang Huanwu decoction daily until sacrifice. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that at 7, 14 and 28 days after injury, the expression of Notch1 was increased in the Buyang Huanwu decoction group compared with controls. These findings confirm that Buyang Huanwu decoction can promote the expression of Notch1 in rats with incomplete spinal cord injury, and may indicate a mechanism to promote the repair of spinal cord injury.

  1. Evaluation of midcarpal capitate contact mechanics in normal, injured and post-operative wrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modaresi, Saman; Kallem, Madhan S; Lee, Phil; McIff, Terence E; Toby, E Bruce; Fischer, Kenneth J

    2017-08-01

    Scapholunate ligament injury is a commonly occurring carpal ligament injury. Pathology associated with scapholunate ligament injury depends on several factors such as the time after injury, type of injury (instability) and the development of osteoarthritis. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare contact mechanics in the lunocapitate and scaphocapitate joints in the normal, injured (scapholunate dissociation) and repaired (postoperative) wrist. Four human subjects with scapholunate ligament dissociation participated in this study. MR images of normal (contralateral), injured and postoperative wrists were obtained during relaxed condition and during active light grasp. Relaxed MR images were used to construct model geometry (bones with cartilage) for the capitate, lunate and scaphoid. Kinematic transformations were obtained by using image registration between the unloaded and functionally loaded image sets. Joint surface contact mechanics were then calculated. All contact measures (contact force, pressure, mean pressure and area) tended to increase with injury in both articulations. A significantly higher contact area was found in the injured scaphocapitate joint compared to normal. A significant increase in peak pressure was observed in the postoperative state compared to normal. Injury to the scapholunate ligament increased contact measures, suggesting a risk for onset of osteoarthritis in both the scaphocapitate and lunocapitate joints. Surgical repair appeared to restore most measures of contact mechanics to near normal values, more so for the lunocapitate joint when compared to scaphocapitate joint. The elevated postoperative peak pressures indicate the difficulty to fully restore joint mechanics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Semen quality of spinal cord injured men is better when obtained by vibratory stimulation versus electroejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackett, N L; Padron, O F; Lynne, C M

    1997-01-01

    Most spinal cord injured men require assisted ejaculation procedures to obtain semen, and the majority can achieve this result by vibratory stimulation or electroejaculation. We determined if semen obtained by vibratory stimulation differed in quality from that obtained by electroejaculation. Between subjects and within subjects designs were used. Of 77 spinal cord injured men 23 underwent vibratory stimulation only, 44 electroejaculation only and 10 both procedures. Antegrade, retrograde and total ejaculates were analyzed in each subject for total sperm count, percent motile sperm and percent sperm with rapid linear motion. With vibratory stimulation compared to electroejaculation the percent motile sperm and percent sperm with rapid linear motion were significantly greater, whereas total sperm count was similar, in the antegrade specimens and total ejaculates. This finding was true for different groups of subjects as well as within a group of the same subjects. Semen obtained by vibratory stimulation is of better quality than that obtained by electroejaculation. In medical practices that include assisted ejaculation of spinal cord injured men, we recommend obtaining a specimen by vibratory stimulation. If that method fails electroejaculation should be performed.

  3. Effects of Modified Hatha Yoga in Industrial Rehabilitation on Physical Fitness and Stress of Injured Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachiwong, S; Panasiriwong, P; Saosomphop, J; Widjaja, W; Ajjimaporn, A

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of 8 weeks of modified hatha yoga training on physical fitness and stress level in injured workers. Eighteen male and female injured workers, age between 18 and 55 years, participated in this study. They were divided into two groups: an additive hatha yoga training to routine industrial rehabilitation program group (HYG: n = 9) and a control group with no yoga training (CG: n = 9). A modified hatha yoga protocol was designed for this population by two certified yoga instructors, approved by a physical therapist, and conducted for 1 h, three times weekly for 8 weeks. Physical fitness variables including flexibility of lower back and hamstrings, hand grip strength and lung capacity and scores of sensitivity to stress were evaluated at the time of recruitment and after 8 weeks of intervention. The values of all physical fitness variables and stress scores were no significant difference between the two groups at baseline. Significant post-yoga improvements for HYG group were noted in flexibility, hand grip strength, and vital capacity (p Stress scores did not change as a result of hatha yoga training. An 8-week modified hatha yoga training experience exerted therapeutic effects on physical fitness variables including flexibility of lower back and hamstrings, hand grip strength and vital capacity, but not on stress level in injured workers. These findings indicate that hatha yoga can be a beneficial adjunct to routine physical therapy treatment in industrial rehabilitation programs.

  4. Injured Athletes' Rehabilitation Beliefs and Subjective Well-Being: The Contribution of Hope and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Frank J. H; Hsu, Yawen

    2013-01-01

    Context Injuries are a significant problem in the world of sports. Hope and social support are very important features in providing psychological help as people face life challenges such as sport injuries. Objective To examine how hope and social support uniquely and jointly predict postinjury rehabilitation beliefs, rehabilitation behavior, and subjective well-being. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Four sports-injury rehabilitation centers of local universities in Taiwan. Participants A total of 224 injured Taiwanese collegiate student-athletes. Main Outcomes Measure(s) The Trait Hope Scale, the Sports Injury Rehabilitation Beliefs Survey, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Positive Affective and Negative Affective Scale, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support were completed by participants after they received their regular rehabilitation treatment. Results We conducted hierarchical regressions and found that social support and 2 types of hope in injured athletes predicted their rehabilitation beliefs and subjective well-being. However, only hope agency predicted their rehabilitation behavior. Also, hope and social support had an interactive effect on the prediction of subjective well-being; for participants with low hope pathways, the perception of more social support was associated with higher levels of subjective well-being, whereas social support had only a relatively low association with subjective well-being among participants with high hope pathways. Conclusions Enhancing hope perceptions and strengthening injured athletes' social support during rehabilitation are beneficial to rehabilitation behavior and subjective well-being. PMID:23672330

  5. Spinal tumors in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joaquim, Andrei Fernandes; Ghizoni, Enrico; Valadares, Marcelo Gomes Cordeiro; Appenzeller, Simone; Aguiar, Simone Dos Santos; Tedeschi, Helder

    2017-05-01

    Spinal tumors are rare in the pediatric population, presenting many specific peculiarities when compared to adults. We have performed a broad narrative review to describe the most common spinal tumors in children, discussing their main characteristics and management options. The authors have performed an extensive review of the peer-reviewed literature addressing the aforementioned objectives. Multimodality radiological studies (plain films, 3D computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging) are necessary for proper evaluation and differential diagnosis of spinal tumors in children. In selected cases nuclear medicine imaging is used to improve the chances of a more accurate diagnosis. As a general rule, a fine needle biopsy is recommended after radiological evaluation to confirm the tumor's histology. Primary bone tumors can be divided into benign bone tumors, mostly represented by vertebral hemangiomas, osteoid osteomas, osteoblastomas, aneurismal bone cysts, and eosinophilic granulomas, and malign or aggressive tumors, such as Ewing's or osteogenic sarcomas. Secondary bone tumors (spinal metastases) comprise different tumor histologies, and treatment is mainly based on tumor's radiosensitivity. The characteristics and treatment options of the main spinal tumors are discussed in details. Spinal tumors in children are rare lesions that demand a thorough understanding of their main characteristics for their proper management. Understanding the nuances of spinal tumors in children is of paramount importance for improving outcomes and chances of cure.

  6. Spinal tumors in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Fernandes Joaquim

    Full Text Available Summary Introduction: Spinal tumors are rare in the pediatric population, presenting many specific peculiarities when compared to adults. We have performed a broad narrative review to describe the most common spinal tumors in children, discussing their main characteristics and management options. Method: The authors have performed an extensive review of the peer-reviewed literature addressing the aforementioned objectives. Results: Multimodality radiological studies (plain films, 3D computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging are necessary for proper evaluation and differential diagnosis of spinal tumors in children. In selected cases nuclear medicine imaging is used to improve the chances of a more accurate diagnosis. As a general rule, a fine needle biopsy is recommended after radiological evaluation to confirm the tumor's histology. Primary bone tumors can be divided into benign bone tumors, mostly represented by vertebral hemangiomas, osteoid osteomas, osteoblastomas, aneurismal bone cysts, and eosinophilic granulomas, and malign or aggressive tumors, such as Ewing's or osteogenic sarcomas. Secondary bone tumors (spinal metastases comprise different tumor histologies, and treatment is mainly based on tumor's radiosensitivity. The characteristics and treatment options of the main spinal tumors are discussed in details. Conclusion: Spinal tumors in children are rare lesions that demand a thorough understanding of their main characteristics for their proper management. Understanding the nuances of spinal tumors in children is of paramount importance for improving outcomes and chances of cure.

  7. Development and application of long-term sublethal whole sediment tests with Arenicola marina and Corophium volutator using Ivermectin as the test compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Yvonne T. [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Burnham Laboratory, Remembrance Avenue, Burnham-on-Crouch, Essex, CM0 8HA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: yvonne.allen@cefas.co.uk; Thain, John E. [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Burnham Laboratory, Remembrance Avenue, Burnham-on-Crouch, Essex, CM0 8HA (United Kingdom); Haworth, Sarah [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Burnham Laboratory, Remembrance Avenue, Burnham-on-Crouch, Essex, CM0 8HA (United Kingdom); Barry, Jon [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Burnham Laboratory, Remembrance Avenue, Burnham-on-Crouch, Essex, CM0 8HA (United Kingdom)

    2007-03-15

    Short-term whole sediment tests using the amphipod Corophium volutator and the polychaete Arenicola marina are now routinely used in Europe to assess the acute toxicity of marine sediments. However, there is still a need to develop longer-term assays which measure effects on sublethal endpoints that are more relevant to predicting impacts at the population level. The effect of increasing exposure times and measuring additional endpoints such as growth, on the sensitivity of these assays was investigated. The test compound used was the chemotherapeutant Ivermectin (IVM), used in aquaculture to treat sea lice infestations. IVM was found to be acutely toxic to both test organisms. Extending the lugworm test to 100 days increased sensitivity of survival by a factor of three; a significant reduction in casting rate was observed at concentrations an order of magnitude lower. This assay shows potential for detecting the sublethal effects of low concentrations of sediment contaminants. Increasing the exposure time did not seem to affect the sensitivity of the amphipod, but further method development is required. - Long-term sublethal sediment tests are more sensitive than standard acute tests when assessing the toxic effects of Ivermectin.

  8. Effects of sub-lethal doses of photo-activated disinfection against Porphyromonas gingivalis for pharmaceutical treatment of periodontal-endodontic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhajibagher, Maryam; Chiniforush, Nasim; Raoofian, Reza; Ghorbanzadeh, Roghayeh; Shahabi, Sima; Bahador, Abbas

    2016-12-01

    Microorganisms treated by photo-activated disinfection (PAD) in combined periodontal-endodontic (perio-endo) lesions would be exposed to sub-lethal doses of PAD (sPAD). This study evaluated the effect of sPAD using toluidine blue O (TBO) in combination with diode laser irradiation on the growth and biofilm-formation ability of Porphyromonas gingivalis as an endo-periodontal pathogen. The antibacterial and antibiofilm potential of sPAD against P. gingivalis was analyzed at sub-lethal doses of TBO and irradiation time of diode laser on a colony-forming unit and crystal violet assays, respectively. TBO-mediated PAD, using 6.25-100μg/mL at a fluency of 171.87J/cm(2) and 12.5-100μg/mL at a fluency of 137.5J/cm(2), showed a significant dose-dependent reduction in P. gingivalis growth when compared to the control. TBO-mediated PAD showed a significantly inhibitory effect on biofilm formation in P. gingivalis than TBO-PAD at sub-lethal levels. High doses of sPAD revealed antibacterial and antibiofilm potential activity, whereas lower doses of sPAD had conflicting results. Therefore, when PAD is prescribed in combined perio-endo lesions treatment, the dose of PAD used in vivo should be taken into account. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigation into the potential of sub-lethal photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) to reduce susceptibility of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, C. M.; Donnelly, R. F.; Tunney, M. M.

    2009-06-01

    In PACT, a combination of a sensitising drug and visible light cause the selective destruction of microbial cells via singlet oxygen production. As singlet oxygen is a non-specific oxidizing agent and is only present during illumination, development of resistance to this treatment is thought to be unlikely. However, in response to oxidative stress, bacteria can up-regulate oxidative stress genes and associated antibiotic resistance genes. The up-regulation of these genes and potential transfer of genetic material may result in a resistant bacterial population. This study determined whether treatment of clinically isolated meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains with sub-lethal doses of methylene blue (MB) and meso-tetra (N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphine tetra tosylate (TMP)-PACT resulted in reduced susceptibility to antibiotics and previously lethal PACT. Exposure of strains to sub-lethal doses of photosensitizer in combination with light had no effect on susceptibility to previously lethal photosensitization. Furthermore, exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of both photosensitizers caused no significant changes in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for each strain tested. Any differences in susceptibility were not significant as they did not cross breakpoints between resistant and susceptible for any organism or antibiotic tested. Therefore, PACT remains an attractive alternative option for treatment of MRSA infections.

  10. Chronic sublethal effects of San Francisco Bay sediments on nereis (neanthes) arenaceodentata; effect of food ration on sediment toxicity. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, D.W.; Dillon, T.M.

    1993-09-01

    This report is designed to address concerns regarding the effect of food ration on toxicity during chronic sublethal sediment bioassays. To this end, a contaminated San Francisco Bay sediment and a clean control sediment were evaluated in a chronic sublethal test under a series of different food rations, with the marine polychaete worm Nereis (Neanthes) arenaceodentata. Animals were exposed from early juvenile stage through the onset of gametogenesis. Treatments were 2.OX, 1.OX, 0.5X, and 0.25X where X is the recommended food ration for laboratory cultures. Test end points were survival, growth, and reproduction. The contaminated sediment was a composite of several cores taken to project depth (38 ft (11.6 m) below mean low water mark) from an area in Oakland Inner Harbor known to be contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals. Comparisons were made with a clean control sediment. The control sediment is used in the laboratory cultures of N. arenaceodentata and was collected from Sequim, WA. Mean percent survival of Neanthes was high (>90 percent) in both the contaminated and control sediment across all food ration treatments. Individual wet weights were significantly reduced with decreasing food ration in both contaminated and control sediments. Significant differences in wet weight between sediment types were observed at the 1.OX, 0.5X, and 0.25X rations. Reproduction (fecundity and emergent juvenile (EJ) production) was also Chronic sublethal, Neanthes, Dredged material, San Francisco Bay, Food ration, Sediment.

  11. Salivary gland tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001040.htm Salivary gland tumors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Salivary gland tumors are abnormal cells growing in the gland ...

  12. Children's Brain Tumor Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 Family Donate Volunteer Justin's Hope Fund Children’s Brain Tumor Foundation, A non-profit organization, was founded ... and the long term outlook for children with brain and spinal cord tumors through research, support, education, ...

  13. Metaphyseal giant cell tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, L.F.; Hemais, P.M.P.G.; Aymore, I.L.; Carmo, M.C.R. do; Cunha, M.E.P.R. da; Resende, C.M.C.

    Three cases of metaphyseal giant cell tumor are presented. A review of the literature is done, demostrating the lesion is rare and that there are few articles about it. Age incidence and characteristics of the tumor are discussed.

  14. Metastatic brain tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JavaScript. A metastatic brain tumor is cancer that started in another part of the body ... of cancer rarely spread to the brain, such as colon cancer and prostate cancer. In other rare cases, a tumor can ...

  15. Sublethal and Transgenerational Effects of Abamectin on the Biological Performance of the Predatory Thrips Scolothrips longicornis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakyari, Hajar; Enkegaard, Annie

    2015-04-01

    Determination of sublethal and transgenerational effects of pesticides on natural enemies is necessary for successful implementation of biocontrol in integrated pest management programs. In this study, these effects of abamectin on the predatory thrips Scolothrips longicornis Priesner fed on Tetranychus urticae Koch were estimated under laboratory conditions in which adult predators were exposed to pesticide residues on bean leaves. The estimated values of LC50 for female and male predators were 0.091 and 0.067 µg a.i./ml, respectively. Low-lethal concentrations (LC10, LC20 and LC30) of abamectin severely affected fecundity and longevity of treated females of S. longicornis. In addition, transgenerational effects on reproductive and life table parameters of the subsequent generation were observed. The results from this research can be used to develop guidelines for the use of abamectin to minimize the impact on S. longicornis. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Sublethal effects of subzero temperatures on the light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana: fitness costs in response to partial freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Amy C; Venette, Robert C; Hutchison, William D

    2017-11-28

    Population responses to environmental extremes often dictate the bounds to species' distributions. However, population dynamics at, or near, those range limits may also be affected by sublethal effects. We exposed late instars and pupae of an invasive leafroller, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to cold temperatures and measured the effects of exposure on subsequent survivorship, development, and reproduction. Cold temperature was applied as acute exposure to -10 °C (a low, but not immediately lethal temperature for this species) or the onset of freezing (the peak of the supercooling point exotherm). Survival was defined as the ability to successfully eclose as an adult. We measured immature development times, pupal mass, and adult longevity as proxies of fitness in survivors. Additionally, surviving insects were mated with individuals that had not been exposed to cold to measure fertility. There was no difference between the proportion of larvae or pupae that survived acute exposure to -10 °C and those exposed to the control temperature. Approximately 17% of larvae and 8% of pupae survived brief periods with internal ice formation and continued development to become reproductively viable adults. Importantly, surviving the onset of freezing came with significant fitness costs but not to exposure to -10 °C; most insects that survived partial freezing had lower fertility and shorter adult lifespans than either the -10 °C or control group. These results are discussed within the context of forecasting invasive insect distributions. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. Critical care of sub-lethal irradiated transgenic mice using a complete soft food formula-DietGel76A™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumanca, Ovidiu I; Palmer, Jay

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research is to determine whether the administration of a complete soft food formula to sub-lethal irradiated animals from three different transgenic mouse strains over a period of 21 consecutive days will have a significant impact on the clinical signs, and the general survival rate of the animals. Our hypothesis is that using DietGel76A™, along with an antibiotic treatment, strict handling and manipulation procedures, the general mortality rate, as well as the onset of the clinical signs between the treated animals and the control animals, will be significantly lower. This hypothesis was confirmed for the C57BL/6 mice. However, the treatment with DietGel76A™ had only a very limited impact on the recovery of more irradiation sensitive strains (CD45.1 and mostly NRG). Further studies must be conducted on mice from these strains in order to assess whether mice belonging to more sensitive strains should be on DietGel76A™ for a longer period of time (at least 42days post irradiation). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Lethal and sub-lethal effects of the fungicide chlorothalonil on three life stages of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Peter B; Meyer, Shelli L; Chung, Katy W

    2003-09-01

    Chlorothalonil (2,4,5,6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile) is the second most widely used fungicide in the United States. Due to the widespread use of chlorothalonil, it is important to investigate the effects chlorothalonil may have on estuarine species such as the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio. This study examined the toxicity of chlorothalonil to three life-history stages (embryo, larvae, adult) of the grass shrimp. Also, molting frequency, growth response and metamorphosis from a larval life cycle pulsed exposure assay were examined as sub-lethal indicators of chlorothalonil exposure. Results showed embryos were the least sensitive with a 96-h Median Lethal Concentration (LC50) of 396.0 microg/L (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 331.3-472.4 microg/L). The adult 96-h LC50 was 152.9 microg/L (95% CI 120.3-194.5 microg/L). Larvae were the most sensitive to chlorothalonil exposure with a 96-h LC50 of 49.5 microg/L (95% CI 44.4-55.27 microg/L). In the life cycle pulsed exposure assay, all surviving larvae in the treatments required significantly more molts to reach postlarvae than the control. Other measured parameters showed differences between treatments and control but there was no statistical significance. This research demonstrated that chlorothalonil is highly toxic to grass shrimp and that larval grass shrimp would be the most appropriate life stage to use for chlorothalonil risk assessments since that stage is the most sensitive.

  19. The radiobiology of laser-driven particle beams: focus on sub-lethal responses of normal human cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manti, L.; Perozziello, F. M.; Borghesi, M.; Candiano, G.; Chaudhary, P.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Doria, D.; Gwynne, D.; Leanza, R.; Prise, K. M.; Romagnani, L.; Romano, F.; Scuderi, V.; Tramontana, A.

    2017-03-01

    Accelerated proton beams have become increasingly common for treating cancer. The need for cost and size reduction of particle accelerating machines has led to the pioneering investigation of optical ion acceleration techniques based on laser-plasma interactions as a possible alternative. Laser-matter interaction can produce extremely pulsed particle bursts of ultra-high dose rates (>= 109 Gy/s), largely exceeding those currently used in conventional proton therapy. Since biological effects of ionizing radiation are strongly affected by the spatio-temporal distribution of DNA-damaging events, the unprecedented physical features of such beams may modify cellular and tissue radiosensitivity to unexplored extents. Hence, clinical applications of laser-generated particles need thorough assessment of their radiobiological effectiveness. To date, the majority of studies have either used rodent cell lines or have focussed on cancer cell killing being local tumour control the main objective of radiotherapy. Conversely, very little data exist on sub-lethal cellular effects, of relevance to normal tissue integrity and secondary cancers, such as premature cellular senescence. Here, we discuss ultra-high dose rate radiobiology and present preliminary data obtained in normal human cells following irradiation by laser-accelerated protons at the LULI PICO2000 facility at Laser Lab Europe, France.

  20. Sublethal effects of copper on some biological traits of the amphipod Gammarus aequicauda reared under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, E; Parlapiano, I; Biandolino, F

    2013-10-01

    The common and widespread copper contamination in marine coastal environments make toxicity data necessary to assess the aquatic hazard and risk of this metal. In the present study, the sublethal effects of copper on survival, growth and reproduction of Gammarus aequicauda were investigated. Amphipods were exposed for 77d to 2 nominal copper concentrations (50, 100 μg L(-1)). Survival was the most sensitive measure of effect and was significantly reduced, especially during early life stage (juveniles). Growth of amphipods was also negatively affected by copper and the growth impairment in G. aequicauda increases with increasing metal concentration. The reproductive traits were impaired by each of the copper concentrations, even if there were not any significant differences between control and copper treatments. The size at maturity increased with increasing copper, so the smallest ovigerous females in the control and copper treatments were 0.83 mm and 1.35 mm head length, respectively. There was a positive correlation between the brood size and the body size of the female in all treatments, whilst the fecundity (n°juveniles/female) decreased in the order control, 50 and 100 μg Cu L(-1). Copper demonstrates chronic toxicity to G. aequicauda at realistic environmental concentrations. The results of this study entail that the understanding of chronic toxicity of a substance, especially on population level effects, is crucial to assess the long-term effect of the substance in the ecosystem. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.