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Sample records for sublethally injured cells

  1. iTRAQ-Based Proteomic Analysis of Sublethally Injured Escherichia coli O157:H7 Cells Induced by High Pressure Carbon Dioxide

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    Xiufang Bi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available High pressure carbon dioxide (HPCD could cause sublethally injured cells (SICs, which may cause food poisoning and spoilage during food storage and limit its application. Therefore, the formation of SICs of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was investigated by isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ proteomic methods in this study for better controlling the SICs induced by HPCD. A total of 2,446 proteins was identified by iTRAQ, of which 93 and 29 were significantly differentially expressed in the SICs compared with live control cells (CKL and dead control cells (CKD, respectively. Among the 93 differentially expressed proteins (DEP in the SICs compared with CKL, 65 proteins showed down-regulation and 28 showed up-regulation. According to the comprehensive proteome coverage analysis, the SICs survived under HPCD by reducing carbohydrate decomposing, lipid transport and metabolism, amino acid transport and metabolism, transcription and translation, DNA replication and repair. Besides, the SICs showed stress response, DNA damage response and an increased carbohydrate transport, peptidoglycan synthesis and disulfide bond formation to HPCD. Among the 29 DEP in the SICs compared with CKD, 12 proteins showed down-regulation and 17 showed up-regulation. According to the comprehensive proteome coverage analysis, the SICs survived under HPCD by accumulation of cell protective agents like carbohydrates and amino acids, and decreasing transcription and translation activities. Results showed that the formation of the SICs with low metabolic activity and high survival ability was a survival strategy for E. coli O157:H7 against HPCD.

  2. Relationship between Sublethal Injury and Inactivation of Yeast Cells by the Combination of Sorbic Acid and Pulsed Electric Fields▿

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    Somolinos, M.; García, D.; Condón, S.; Mañas, P.; Pagán, R.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of sublethal injury after the pulsed-electric-field (PEF) treatment of two yeasts, Dekkera bruxellensis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as well as the relation of sublethal injury to the inactivating effect of the combination of PEF and sorbic acid. PEF caused sublethal injury in both yeasts: more than 90% of surviving D. bruxellensis cells and 99% of surviving S. cerevisiae cells were sublethally injured after 50 pulses at 12 kV/cm ...

  3. Viability of sublethally injured coliform bacteria on fresh-cut cabbage stored in high CO2 atmospheres following rinsing with electrolyzed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Hidemi; Inoue, Ayano

    2018-02-02

    The extent of sublethally injured coliform bacteria on shredded cabbage, either rinsed or not rinsed with electrolyzed water, was evaluated during storage in air and high CO 2 controlled atmospheres (5%, 10%, and 15%) at 5°C and 10°C using the thin agar layer (TAL) method. Sublethally injured coliform bacteria on nonrinsed shredded cabbage were either absent or they were injured at a 64-65% level when present. Rinsing of shredded cabbage with electrolyzed water containing 25ppm available chlorine reduced the coliform counts by 0.4 to 1.1 log and caused sublethal injury ranging from 42 to 77%. Pantoea ananatis was one of the species injured by chlorine stress. When shredded cabbage, nonrinsed or rinsed with electrolyzed water, was stored in air and high CO 2 atmospheres at 5°C for 7days and 10°C for 5days, coliform counts on TAL plates increased from 3.3-4.5 to 6.5-9.0 log CFU/g during storage, with the increase being greater at 10°C than at 5°C. High CO 2 of 10% and 15% reduced the bacterial growth on shredded cabbage during storage at 5°C. Although injured coliform bacteria were not found on nonrinsed shredded cabbage on the initial day, injured coliforms at a range of 49-84% were detected on samples stored in air and high CO 2 atmospheres at 5°C and 10°C. Injured cells were detected more frequently during storage at both temperatures irrespective of the CO 2 atmosphere when shredded cabbage was rinsed with electrolyzed water. These results indicated that injured coliform bacteria on shredded cabbage, either rinsed or not rinsed with electrolyzed water, exhibited different degrees of injury during storage regardless of the CO 2 atmosphere and temperature tested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sublethal irradiation promotes invasiveness of neuroblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweigerer, Lothar; Rave-Fraenk, Margret; Schmidberger, Heinz; Hecht, Monica

    2005-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most frequent extracranial solid tumour of childhood. Despite multiple clinical efforts, clinical outcome has remained poor. Neuroblastoma is considered to be radiosensitive, but some clinical studies including the German trial NB90 failed to show a clinical benefit of radiation therapy. The mechanisms underlying this apparent discrepancy are still unclear. We have therefore investigated the effects of radiation on neuroblastoma cell behaviour in vitro. We show that sublethal doses of irradiation up-regulated the expression of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor c-Met in some neuroblastoma cell lines. The increase in HGF/c-Met expression was correlated with enhanced invasiveness and activation of proteases degrading the extracellular matrix. Thus, irradiation at sublethal doses may promote the metastatic dissemination of neuroblastoma cells through activating the HGF/c-Met pathway and triggering matrix degradation

  5. Colony formation by sublethally heat-injured Zygosaccharomyces rouxii as affected by solutes in the recovery medium and procedure for sterilizing medium.

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    Golden, D A; Beuchat, L R

    1990-01-01

    Recovery and colony formation by healthy and sublethally heat-injured cells of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii as influenced by the procedure for sterilizing recovery media (YM agar [YMA], wort agar, cornmeal agar, and oatmeal agar) were investigated. Media were supplemented with various concentrations of glucose, sucrose, glycerol, or sorbitol and sterilized by autoclaving (110 degrees C, 15 min) and by repeated treatment with steam (100 degrees C). An increase in sensitivity was observed when heat-injured cells were plated on glucose-supplemented YMA at an aw of 0.880 compared with aws of 0.933 and 0.998. Colonies which developed from unheated and heated cells on YMA at aws of 0.998 and 0.933 generally exceeded 0.5 mm in diameter within 3.5 to 4 days of incubation at 25 degrees C, whereas colonies formed on YMA at an aw of 0.880 typically did not exceed 0.5 mm in diameter until after 5.5 to 6.5 days of incubation. The number of colonies exceeding 0.5 mm in diameter which were formed by heat-injured cells on YMA at an aw of 0.880 was 2 to 3 logs less than the total number of colonies detected, i.e., on YMA at an aw of 0.933 and using no limits of exclusion based on colony diameter. A substantial portion of cells which survived heat treatment were sublethally injured as evidenced by increased sensitivity to a suboptimum aw (0.880). In no instance was recovery of Z. rouxii significantly affected by medium sterilization procedure when glucose or sorbitol was used as the aw-suppressing solute.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2403251

  6. Colony formation by sublethally heat-injured Zygosaccharomyces rouxii as affected by solutes in the recovery medium and procedure for sterilizing medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, D A; Beuchat, L R

    1990-08-01

    Recovery and colony formation by healthy and sublethally heat-injured cells of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii as influenced by the procedure for sterilizing recovery media (YM agar [YMA], wort agar, cornmeal agar, and oatmeal agar) were investigated. Media were supplemented with various concentrations of glucose, sucrose, glycerol, or sorbitol and sterilized by autoclaving (110 degrees C, 15 min) and by repeated treatment with steam (100 degrees C). An increase in sensitivity was observed when heat-injured cells were plated on glucose-supplemented YMA at an aw of 0.880 compared with aws of 0.933 and 0.998. Colonies which developed from unheated and heated cells on YMA at aws of 0.998 and 0.933 generally exceeded 0.5 mm in diameter within 3.5 to 4 days of incubation at 25 degrees C, whereas colonies formed on YMA at an aw of 0.880 typically did not exceed 0.5 mm in diameter until after 5.5 to 6.5 days of incubation. The number of colonies exceeding 0.5 mm in diameter which were formed by heat-injured cells on YMA at an aw of 0.880 was 2 to 3 logs less than the total number of colonies detected, i.e., on YMA at an aw of 0.933 and using no limits of exclusion based on colony diameter. A substantial portion of cells which survived heat treatment were sublethally injured as evidenced by increased sensitivity to a suboptimum aw (0.880). In no instance was recovery of Z. rouxii significantly affected by medium sterilization procedure when glucose or sorbitol was used as the aw-suppressing solute.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Relationship between sublethal injury and inactivation of yeast cells by the combination of sorbic acid and pulsed electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somolinos, M; García, D; Condón, S; Mañas, P; Pagán, R

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of sublethal injury after the pulsed-electric-field (PEF) treatment of two yeasts, Dekkera bruxellensis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as well as the relation of sublethal injury to the inactivating effect of the combination of PEF and sorbic acid. PEF caused sublethal injury in both yeasts: more than 90% of surviving D. bruxellensis cells and 99% of surviving S. cerevisiae cells were sublethally injured after 50 pulses at 12 kV/cm in buffer at pHs of both 7.0 and 4.0. The proportion of sublethally injured cells reached a maximum after 50 pulses at 12.0 kV/cm (S. cerevisiae) or 16.5 kV/cm (D. bruxellensis), and it kept constant or progressively decreased at greater electric field strengths and with longer PEF treatments. Sublethally PEF-injured cells showed sensitivity to the presence of sorbic acid at a concentration of 2,000 ppm. A synergistic inactivating effect of the combination of PEF and sorbic acid was observed. Survivors of the PEF treatment were progressively inactivated in the presence of 2,000 ppm of sorbic acid at pH 3.8, with the combined treatments achieving more than log10 5 cycles of dead cells under the conditions investigated. This study has demonstrated the occurrence of sublethal injury after exposure to PEF, so yeast inactivation by PEF is not an all-or-nothing event. The combination of PEF and sorbic acid has proven to be an effective method to achieve a higher level of yeast inactivation. This work contributes to the knowledge of the mechanism of microbial inactivation by PEF, and it may be useful for improving food preservation by PEF technology.

  8. Sublethal Concentrations of Carbapenems Alter Cell Morphology and Genomic Expression of Klebsiella pneumoniae Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laar, Tricia A.; Chen, Tsute; You, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae, a Gram-negative bacterium, is normally associated with pneumonia in patients with weakened immune systems. However, it is also a prevalent nosocomial infectious agent that can be found in infected surgical sites and combat wounds. Many of these clinical strains display multidrug resistance. We have worked with a clinical strain of K. pneumoniae that was initially isolated from a wound of an injured soldier. This strain demonstrated resistance to many commonly used antibiotics but sensitivity to carbapenems. This isolate was capable of forming biofilms in vitro, contributing to its increased antibiotic resistance and impaired clearance. We were interested in determining how sublethal concentrations of carbapenem treatment specifically affect K. pneumoniae biofilms both in morphology and in genomic expression. Scanning electron microscopy showed striking morphological differences between untreated and treated biofilms, including rounding, blebbing, and dimpling of treated cells. Comparative transcriptome analysis using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology identified a large number of open reading frames (ORFs) differentially regulated in response to carbapenem treatment at 2 and 24 h. ORFs upregulated with carbapenem treatment included genes involved in resistance, as well as those coding for antiporters and autoinducers. ORFs downregulated included those coding for metal transporters, membrane biosynthesis proteins, and motility proteins. Quantitative real-time PCR validated the general trend of some of these differentially regulated ORFs. Treatment of K. pneumoniae biofilms with sublethal concentrations of carbapenems induced a wide range of phenotypic and gene expression changes. This study reveals some of the mechanisms underlying how sublethal amounts of carbapenems could affect the overall fitness and pathogenic potential of K. pneumoniae biofilm cells. PMID:25583711

  9. Protein synthesis and sublethal damage repair in synchronized CHO cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yezzi, M.J.; Tobias, C.A.; Blakely, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have previously reported that the split dose survival response to x-rays of asynchronous CHO-TSH1 cells is reduced if the cells are held at 40 0 C,a temperature that inhibits protein synthesis, for 2 hours before the first dose and during a 2-hour interval between doses. In conjunction with the survival experiments on asynchronous cells, the authors also examined the DNA rejoining ability in split dose studies with and without inhibition of protein synthesis. The results of these experiments suggest that inhibition of protein synthesis affects a pool of proteins that are necessary for the correct expression of the DNA, although they do not appear to be involved in rejoining DNA breaks. They have extended this work to the study of cells synchronized in G1 phase (2 hour post-mitosis) and S phase (10 hour post-mitosis). Autoradiographic analyses, using 3H-TdR pulse labeling, demonstrated that a delay in the progression of each synchronized cell population occurs after inhibition of protein synthesis. Data are reported on the effects of inhibition of protein synthesis on the ability of G1 and S phase cells to repair sublethal damage

  10. Migration of bone marrow cells to the thymus in sublethally irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlet, Andree; Lenaerts, Patrick; Houben-Defresne, M.P.; Boniver, Jacques

    1982-01-01

    In sublethally irradiated mice, thymus repopulation is due first to the proliferation of surviving thymocytes followed by the multiplication of bone marrow derived prothymocytes. The migration of bone marrow cells to the thymus after a single sublethal whole-body X irradiation was studied by using fluorescein isothiocyanate as a cell marker. Irradiation increases the permissiveness of the thymus to the immigration of bone marrow cells. Furthermore, the post-Rx regenerating bone marrow cells exhibit migration capacities greater than the normal ones. The radiation induced changes in the bone marrow thymus interaction might play an important role in thymus regeneration after sublethal irradiation [fr

  11. The effect of thymus cells on bone marrow transplants into sublethally irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruszewski, J.A.; Szcylik, C.; Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W.

    1984-01-01

    Bone marrow cells formed similar numbers of 10-days spleen colonies in sublethally (6 Gy) irradiated C57B1/6 mice as in lethally (7.5 Gy) irradiated mice i.e. approximately 20 per 10 5 cells. Numbers of 10 day endogenous spleen colonies in sublethally irradiated mice (0.2 to 0.6 per spleen) did not differ significantly from the numbers in lethally irradiated mice. Yet, transplants of 10 7 coisogenic marrow cells into sublethally irradiated mice resulted in predominantly endogenous recovery of granulocyte system as evidenced by utilization of ''beige'' marker for transplanted cells. Nevertheless, transplanted cells engrafted into sublethally irradiated mice were present in their hemopoietic tissues throughout the observation period of 2 months never exceeding 5 to 10% of cells. Thymus cells stimulated endogenous and exogenous spleen colony formation as well as endogenous granulopoietic recovery. Additionally, they increased both the frequency and absolute numbers of graft-derived granulocytic cells in hemopoietic organs of transplanted mice. They failed, however, to essentially change the quantitative relationships between endogenous and exogenous hemopoietic recovery. These results may suggest that spleen colony studies are not suitable for prediction of events following bone marrow transplant into sublethally irradiated mice. Simultaneously, they have strengthened the necessity for appropriate conditioning of recipients of marrow transplants. (orig.) [de

  12. Characterization of high hydrostatic pressure-injured Bacillus subtilis cells.

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    Inaoka, Takashi; Kimura, Keitarou; Morimatsu, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Kazutaka

    2017-06-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) affects various cellular processes. Using a sporulation-deficient Bacillus subtilis strain, we characterized the properties of vegetative cells subjected to HHP. When stationary-phase cells were exposed to 250 MPa of HHP for 10 min at 25 °C, approximately 50% of cells were viable, although they exhibited a prolonged growth lag. The HHP-injured cells autolyzed in the presence of NaCl or KCl (at concentrations ≥100 mM). Superoxide dismutase slightly protected the viability of HHP-treated cells, whereas vegetative catalases had no effect. Thus, unlike HHP-injured Escherichia coli, oxidative stress only slightly affected vegetative B. subtilis subjected to HHP.

  13. Single-cell analysis of S. cerevisiae growth recovery after a sublethal heat-stress applied during an alcoholic fermentation.

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    Tibayrenc, Pierre; Preziosi-Belloy, Laurence; Ghommidh, Charles

    2011-06-01

    Interest in bioethanol production has experienced a resurgence in the last few years. Poor temperature control in industrial fermentation tanks exposes the yeast cells used for this production to intermittent heat stress which impairs fermentation efficiency. Therefore, there is a need for yeast strains with improved tolerance, able to recover from such temperature variations. Accordingly, this paper reports the development of methods for the characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth recovery after a sublethal heat stress. Single-cell measurements were carried out in order to detect cell-to-cell variability. Alcoholic batch fermentations were performed on a defined medium in a 2 l instrumented bioreactor. A rapid temperature shift from 33 to 43 °C was applied when ethanol concentration reached 50 g l⁻¹. Samples were collected at different times after the temperature shift. Single cell growth capability, lag-time and initial growth rate were determined by monitoring the growth of a statistically significant number of cells after agar medium plating. The rapid temperature shift resulted in an immediate arrest of growth and triggered a progressive loss of cultivability from 100 to 0.0001% within 8 h. Heat-injured cells were able to recover their growth capability on agar medium after a lag phase. Lag-time was longer and more widely distributed as the time of heat exposure increased. Thus, lag-time distribution gives an insight into strain sensitivity to heat-stress, and could be helpful for the selection of yeast strains of technological interest.

  14. Renal Impairment with Sublethal Tubular Cell Injury in a Chronic Liver Disease Mouse Model.

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    Tokiko Ishida

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of renal impairment in chronic liver diseases (CLDs has been primarily studied in the advanced stages of hepatic injury. Meanwhile, the pathology of renal impairment in the early phase of CLDs is poorly understood, and animal models to elucidate its mechanisms are needed. Thus, we investigated whether an existing mouse model of CLD induced by 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC shows renal impairment in the early phase. Renal injury markers, renal histology (including immunohistochemistry for tubular injury markers and transmission electron microscopy, autophagy, and oxidative stress were studied longitudinally in DDC- and standard diet-fed BALB/c mice. Slight but significant renal dysfunction was evident in DDC-fed mice from the early phase. Meanwhile, histological examinations of the kidneys with routine light microscopy did not show definitive morphological findings, and electron microscopic analyses were required to detect limited injuries such as loss of brush border microvilli and mitochondrial deformities. Limited injuries have been recently designated as sublethal tubular cell injury. As humans with renal impairment, either with or without CLD, often show almost normal tubules, sublethal injury has been of particular interest. In this study, the injuries were associated with mitochondrial aberrations and oxidative stress, a possible mechanism for sublethal injury. Intriguingly, two defense mechanisms were associated with this injury that prevent it from progressing to apparent cell death: autophagy and single-cell extrusion with regeneration. Furthermore, the renal impairment of this model progressed to chronic kidney disease with interstitial fibrosis after long-term DDC feeding. These findings indicated that DDC induces renal impairment with sublethal tubular cell injury from the early phase, leading to chronic kidney disease. Importantly, this CLD mouse model could be useful for studying the

  15. Endovascular transplantation of stem cells to the injured rat CNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, Johan; Soederman, Mikael; Andersson, Tommy; Holmin, Staffan; Le Blanc, Katarina

    2009-01-01

    Transplantation procedures using intraparenchymal injection of stem cells result in tissue injury in addition to associated surgical risks. Intravenous injection of mesenchymal stem cells gives engraftment to lesions, but the method has low efficiency and specificity. In traumatic brain injuries (TBI), there is a transient breakdown of the blood-brain barrier and an inflammatory response, which increase migration of cells from blood to parenchyma. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the effect of intra-arterial administration on cellular engraftment. Experimental TBI was produced in a rat model. Endovascular technique was used to administer human mesenchymal stem cells in the ipsilateral internal carotid artery. Evaluation of engraftment and side effects were performed by immunohistochemical analysis of the brain and several other organs. The results were compared to intravenous administration of stem cells. Intra-arterial transplantion of mesenchymal stem cells resulted in central nervous system (CNS) engraftment without thromboembolic ischemia. We observed a significantly higher number of transplanted cells in the injured hemisphere after intra-arterial compared to intravenous administration both 1 day (p<0.01) and 5 days (p<0.05) after the transplantation. Some cells were also detected in the spleen but not in the other organs analyzed. Selective intra-arterial administration of mesenchymal stem cells to the injured CNS is a minimally invasive method for transplantation. The method is significantly more efficient than the intravenous route and causes no side effects in the current model. The technique can potentially be used for repeated transplantation to the CNS after TBI and in other diseases. (orig.)

  16. Endovascular transplantation of stem cells to the injured rat CNS

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    Lundberg, Johan; Soederman, Mikael; Andersson, Tommy; Holmin, Staffan [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Neuroradiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Le Blanc, Katarina [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Stem Cell Research, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Immunology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-10-15

    Transplantation procedures using intraparenchymal injection of stem cells result in tissue injury in addition to associated surgical risks. Intravenous injection of mesenchymal stem cells gives engraftment to lesions, but the method has low efficiency and specificity. In traumatic brain injuries (TBI), there is a transient breakdown of the blood-brain barrier and an inflammatory response, which increase migration of cells from blood to parenchyma. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the effect of intra-arterial administration on cellular engraftment. Experimental TBI was produced in a rat model. Endovascular technique was used to administer human mesenchymal stem cells in the ipsilateral internal carotid artery. Evaluation of engraftment and side effects were performed by immunohistochemical analysis of the brain and several other organs. The results were compared to intravenous administration of stem cells. Intra-arterial transplantion of mesenchymal stem cells resulted in central nervous system (CNS) engraftment without thromboembolic ischemia. We observed a significantly higher number of transplanted cells in the injured hemisphere after intra-arterial compared to intravenous administration both 1 day (p<0.01) and 5 days (p<0.05) after the transplantation. Some cells were also detected in the spleen but not in the other organs analyzed. Selective intra-arterial administration of mesenchymal stem cells to the injured CNS is a minimally invasive method for transplantation. The method is significantly more efficient than the intravenous route and causes no side effects in the current model. The technique can potentially be used for repeated transplantation to the CNS after TBI and in other diseases. (orig.)

  17. Characteristics of meniscus progenitor cells migrated from injured meniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Dongrim; Zhou, Cheng; Brouillette, Marc J; Song, Ino; Yu, Yin; Choe, Hyeong Hun; Lehman, Abigail D; Jang, Kee W; Fredericks, Douglas C; Laughlin, Barbara J; Martin, James A

    2017-09-01

    Serious meniscus injuries seldom heal and increase the risk for knee osteoarthritis; thus, there is a need to develop new reparative therapies. In that regard, stimulating tissue regeneration by autologous stem/progenitor cells has emerged as a promising new strategy. We showed previously that migratory chondrogenic progenitor cells (CPCs) were recruited to injured cartilage, where they showed a capability in situ tissue repair. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the meniscus contains a similar population of regenerative cells. Explant studies revealed that migrating cells were mainly confined to the red zone in normal menisci: However, these cells were capable of repopulating defects made in the white zone. In vivo, migrating cell numbers increased dramatically in damaged meniscus. Relative to non-migrating meniscus cells, migrating cells were more clonogenic, overexpressed progenitor cell markers, and included a larger side population. Gene expression profiling showed that the migrating population was more similar to CPCs than other meniscus cells. Finally, migrating cells equaled CPCs in chondrogenic potential, indicating a capacity for repair of the cartilaginous white zone of the meniscus. These findings demonstrate that, much as in articular cartilage, injuries to the meniscus mobilize an intrinsic progenitor cell population with strong reparative potential. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1966-1972, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Thymic nurse cells and thymic repopulation after whole body sublethal irradiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houben-Defresne, M.P.; Varlet, A.; Boniver, J.

    1984-01-01

    Thymic Nurse Cells (TNCs) are lymphoepithelial complexes which are thought to play a role in the early stages of the intrathymic differentiation pathway. Their repopulation kinetics were analyzed in mice after sublethal whole-body irradiation. Changes of the number of TNCs per thymus were parallel with the evolution of the whole thymocyte population. Particularly, a first wave of TNCs restoration was followed by a secondary depletion and a final recovery. This suggests that TNCs restoration is related to the proliferating progeny of intrathymic radioresistant thymocytes. When normal bone marrow cells were grafted intravenously after irradiation, no secondary depletion was found. This pattern of restoration was obviously related to thymic repopulation by cells which were derived from the inoculated bone marrow. Homing studies with FITC labelled bone marrow cells showed that inoculated bone marrow cells did not penetrate TNCs early after irradiation. Later on, when immigrant cells started to proliferate, they were found preferentially within TNCs before spreading in the whole thymus. (Auth.)

  19. Enhancement of committed hematopoietic stem cell colony formation by nandrolone decanoate after sublethal whole body irradiation

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    Gallicchio, V.S.; Chen, M.G.; Watts, T.D.

    1984-11-01

    The ability of an anabolic steroid, nandrolone decanoate, to increase committed topoietic stem cell (CFU-gm, CFU-e, and BFU-e) colony formation after sublethal irradiation was evaluated. Immediately after receiving whole body irradiation and on the next two days, each mouse was injected intraperitoneally with nandrolone decanoate (1.25 mg) in propylene glycol. Irradiated control mice received only propylene glycol. Compared to controls, drug-treated mice showed marked peripheral blood leukocytosis and more stable packed red cell volume. Drug-treated mice also demonstrated increased erythropoiesis, as CFU-e/BFU-e concentrations from both marrow (9% to 581%) and spleen (15% to 797%) were elevated. Granulopoiesis was increased similarly, as CFU-gm concentrations from marrow (38% to 685%) and spleen (9% to 373%) were elevated. These results demonstrate that nandrolone decanoate enhances hematopoietic stem cell recovery after sublethal whole body irradiation. This suggests that following hematopoietic suppression, nandrolone decanoate may stimulate the recovery of hematopoiesis at the stem cell level and in peripheral blood.

  20. Enhancement of committed hematopoietic stem cell colony formation by nandrolone decanoate after sublethal whole body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallicchio, V.S.; Chen, M.G.; Watts, T.D.

    1984-01-01

    The ability of an anabolic steroid, nandrolone decanoate, to increase committed topoietic stem cell (CFU-gm, CFU-e, and BFU-e) colony formation after sublethal irradiation was evaluated. Immediately after receiving whole body irradiation and on the next two days, each mouse was injected intraperitoneally with nandrolone decanoate (1.25 mg) in propylene glycol. Irradiated control mice received only propylene glycol. Compared to controls, drug-treated mice showed marked peripheral blood leukocytosis and more stable packed red cell volume. Drug-treated mice also demonstrated increased erythropoiesis, as CFU-e/BFU-e concentrations from both marrow (9% to 581%) and spleen (15% to 797%) were elevated. Granulopoiesis was increased similarly, as CFU-gm concentrations from marrow (38% to 685%) and spleen (9% to 373%) were elevated. These results demonstrate that nandrolone decanoate enhances hematopoietic stem cell recovery after sublethal whole body irradiation. This suggests that following hematopoietic suppression, nandrolone decanoate may stimulate the recovery of hematopoiesis at the stem cell level and in peripheral blood

  1. Study of Engraftment of human cord blood cells to rescue the sublethal radiation damage mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xiangshan; Zou Zhenghui; Yu Fei; Zhang Zhilin; Lin Baojue

    1997-01-01

    To investigate alternative source of hematopoiesis stem cells to rescue the sublethal radiation damage (SRD) casualties. Human-umbilical cord blood hematopoietic cells were transplanted into SRD mice, the survival rate and the hematopoiesis reconstitution of bone marrow were assessed. The survival rate, in the mice transplanted and the untransplanted, were 90% and 10% respectively. Bone marrow and spleen of survival mice showed human leukocytic antigen CD45 + cells. Presence of multilineage engraftment, including myeloid and erythroid lineages, were found indicating that immature human cells home to the mouse bone marrow. conclusion: engraftment of umbilical cord blood cells is very useful to reconstitute hematopoiesis of SRD casualties. As cord blood has many advantages over bone marrow and peripheral blood, it is important in rescuing radiation accidental casualties

  2. A linear-quadratic model of cell survival considering both sublethal and potentially lethal radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutz, H.P.; Coucke, P.A.; Mirimanoff, R.O.

    1991-01-01

    The authors assessed the dose-dependence of repair of potentially lethal damage in Chinese hamster ovary cells x-irradiated in vitro. The recovery ratio (RR) by which survival (SF) of the irradiated cells was enhanced increased exponentially with a linear and a quadratic component namely ζ and ψ: RR=exp(ζD+ψD 2 ). Survival of irradiated cells can thus be expressed by a combined linear-quadratic model considering 4 variables, namely α and β for the capacity of the cells to accumulate sublethal damage, and ζ and ψ for their capacity to repair potentially lethal damage: SF=exp((ζ-α)D+ (ψ-β)D 2 ). author. 26 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  3. The suppressive effect of etoposide on recovery from sublethal radiation damage in Chinese hamster V 79 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Tsutomu; Shimada, Yuji; Kawamori, Jiro; Kamata, Rikisaburo

    1992-01-01

    The combined effect of radiation and etoposide on the survival of cultured Chinese hamster V 79 cells was investigated. Cells in exponential growth phase were treated with various combinations of radiation and etoposide. The surviving fraction was assessed by colony formation. Etoposide significantly reduced so-called shoulder width, as expressed in Dq (quasithreshold dose), of radiation survival curves. The reduction depended on the increase of etoposide concentrations, although steepening of slopes of exponentially regressing portions of the radiation survival curves was slight. Split dose experiments showed that cells did not recover from sublethal radiation damage in the presence of low concentration of etoposide, although they did recover from sublethal radiation damage under a drug free condition. The results show the suppressive effect of etoposide on recovery from sublethal radiation damage. The effect of a sequential combination of radiation and etoposide was also investigated. The effect was more marked when the interval between radiation and etoposide was shorter regardless of the sequence. (author)

  4. Repair of potentially lethal and sublethal radiation damage in x-irradiated ascites tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuboi, Atsushi; Okamoto, Mieko; Tsuchiya, Takehiko.

    1985-01-01

    The ability of cells to repair cellular radiation damage during the growth of TMT-3 ascites tumor and the effect of host reaction on the repair ability were examined by using an in vitro assay of cell clonogenicity after in situ irradiation of tumor cells. In single-dose experiments, the repair of potentially lethal radiation damage (PLD) was observed in stationary phase cells (12-day tumor) of the unirradiated host, but not in exponential phase cells (3-day tumor) of the unirradiated host animals. However, if previously irradiated host animals were used, even the exponentially growing tumor cells showed repair of PLD. In two-dose experiments, the ability to repair sublethal radiation damage (SLD) in exponential phase tumor cells was less than that of stationary phase cells in the unirradiated host. In the pre-irradiated host, the extent of the repair in exponential phase cells was somewhat enhanced. These results suggest that irradiation of host animals might suppress a factor that inhibits repair, resulting in enhancement of the repair capability of tumor cells. (author)

  5. Repair of sublethal damage in mammalian cells irradiated at ultrahigh dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerweck, L.E.; Epp, E.R.; Michaels, H.B.; Ling, C.C.; Peterson, E.C.

    1979-01-01

    The lethal response of asynchronous Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells exposed to single and split doses of radiation at conventional or ultrahigh dose rates has been examined to determine whether repair of sublethal damage occurs in cells irradiated at ultrahigh dose rates. The high-intensity irradiations were performed with electrons delivered in single 3-nsec pulses from a 600-kV field emission source under medium-removed, thin-layer conditions. Conventional dose-rate experiments were done under identical thin-layer conditions with 50-kVp x rays, or under full-medium conditions with 280-kVp x rays. Oxygenated cells were irradiated and maintained at 22 to 24 0 C between exposures. Survival did not increase as the time between two doses of pulsed electrons increased from 0 to 4 min, indicating no evidence of fast repair. However, increased survival was observed when 30 to 90 min was allowed to elapse between the split doses. The half-time for maximum repair was approx. = 30 min irrespective of the exposure conditions and radiation modality used. Observed repair ratios increased from approx. = 2 to 4 as the single-dose surviving fraction decreased from 10 -2 to 5 x 10 -4 . Over this survival range the repair ratios, measured at the same value of surviving fraction, were independent of dose rate. The observed repair ratios imply that the shoulder regions of the nonfractionated x-ray and pulsed-electron survival curves were not completely restored between the split doses. However, the fraction of the shoulder restored between split doses of radiation was dose-rate-independent. It is concluded that sublethal damage can be repaired in oxygenated CHO cells irradiated at dose rates of the order of 10 11 rad/sec

  6. Transmission electron microscopy study of Listeria monocytogenes serotype 1/2a cells exposed to sublethal heat stress and carvacrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the morphological changes that occurred in Listeria monocytogenes serotype 1/2a cells as visualized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after exposure to sublethal heat stress at 48°C for 60 min and in combination with lethal concentration of carv...

  7. Differentiation of different mixed Listeria strains and also acid-injured, heat-injured, and repaired cells of Listeria monocytogenes using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyarko, Esmond; Donnelly, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to differentiate mixed strains of Listeria monocytogenes and mixed strains of L. monocytogenes and Listeria innocua. FT-IR spectroscopy was also applied to investigate the hypothesis that heat-injured and acid-injured cells would return to their original physiological integrity following repair. Thin smears of cells on infrared slides were prepared from cultures for mixed strains of L. monocytogenes, mixed strains of L. monocytogenes and L. innocua, and each individual strain. Heat-injured and acid-injured cells were prepared by exposing harvested cells of L. monocytogenes strain R2-764 to a temperature of 56 ± 0.2°C for 10 min or lactic acid at pH 3 for 60 min, respectively. Cellular repair involved incubating aliquots of acid-injured and heat-injured cells separately in Trypticase soy broth supplemented with 0.6% yeast extract for 22 to 24 h; bacterial thin smears on infrared slides were prepared for each treatment. Spectral collection was done using 250 scans at a resolution of 4 cm(-1) in the mid-infrared wavelength region. Application of multivariate discriminant analysis to the wavelength region from 1,800 to 900 cm(-1) separated the individual L. monocytogenes strains. Mixed strains of L. monocytogenes and L. monocytogenes cocultured with L. innocua were successfully differentiated from the individual strains when the discriminant analysis was applied. Different mixed strains of L. monocytogenes were also successfully separated when the discriminant analysis was applied. A data set for injury and repair analysis resulted in the separation of acid-injured, heat-injured, and intact cells; repaired cells clustered closer to intact cells when the discriminant analysis (1,800 to 600 cm(-1)) was applied. FT-IR spectroscopy can be used for the rapid source tracking of L. monocytogenes strains because it can differentiate between different mixed strains and individual strains of the pathogen.

  8. Lethal and sublethal effects of marine sediment extracts on fish cells and chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolt, Marsha L.; Kocan, Richard M.

    1984-03-01

    The cost of conducting conventional chronic bioassays with every potentially toxic compound found in marine ecosystems is prohibitive; therefore short-term toxicity tests which can be used for rapid screening were developed. The tests employ cultured fish cells to measure lethal, sublethal or genotoxic effects of pure compounds and complex mixtures. The sensitivity of these tests has been proven under laboratory conditions; the following study used two of these tests, the anaphase aberration test and a cytotoxicity assay, under field conditions. Sediment was collected from 97 stations within Puget Sound, Washington. Serial washings of the sediment in methanol and dichloromethane yielded an organic extract which was dried, dissolved in DMSO and incubated as a series of dilutions with rainbow trout gonad (RTG-2) cells. The toxic effects of the extract were measured by examining the rate of cell proliferation and the percentage of damaged anaphase figures. Anaphase figures were considered to be abnormal if they exhibited non-disjunctions, chromosome fragments, or chromosome bridges. A second cell line (bluegill fry, BF-2) was also tested for cell proliferation and was included because, unlike the RTG-2 cell line, it contains little or no mixed function oxygenase activity. Of 97 stations tested, 35 showed no genotoxic activity, 42 showed high genotoxic activity (P≤.01) and the remainder were intermediate. Among the toxic sites were several deep water stations adjacent to municipal sewage outfalls and four urban waterways contaminated by industrial and municipal effluents. Extracts from areas that showed genotoxic effects also inhibited cell proliferation and were cytotoxic to RTG-2 cells. Few effects were noted in the MFO deficient BF-2 cells. Short term in vitro tests provide aquatic toxicologists with a versatile and cost effective tool for screening complex environments. Through these tests one can identify compounds or geographic regions that exhibit high

  9. Regenerating the injured kidney with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Dorronsoro, Akaitz; Robbins, Paul D

    2013-01-01

    Transplantation of adult stem cells is being used to facilitate repair or regeneration of damaged or diseased tissues. However, in many cases, the therapeutic effects of the injected stem cells are mediated by factors secreted by stem cells and not by differentiation of the transplanted stem cells. Recent reports have identified a class of microvesicles, termed exosomes, released by stem cells that are able to confer therapeutic effects on injured renal and cardiac tissue. In this issue of St...

  10. Sites of inhibition of mitochondrial electron transport in macrophage-injured neoplastic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, D L; Lehninger, A L

    1982-11-01

    Previous work has shown that injury of neoplastic cells by cytotoxic macrophages (CM) in cell culture is accompanied by inhibition of mitochondrial respiration. We have investigated the nature of this inhibition by studying mitochondrial respiration in CM-injured leukemia L1210 cells permeabilized with digitonin. CM-induced injury affects the mitochondrial respiratory chain proper. Complex I (NADH-coenzyme Q reductase) and complex II (succinate-coenzyme Q reductase) are markedly inhibited. In addition a minor inhibition of cytochrome oxidase was found. Electron transport from alpha-glycerophosphate through the respiratory chain to oxygen is unaffected and permeabilized CM-injured L1210 cells oxidizing this substrate exhibit acceptor control. However, glycerophosphate shuttle activity was found not to occur within CM-injured or uninjured L1210 cells in culture hence, alpha-glycerophosphate is apparently unavailable for mitochondrial oxidation in the intact cell. It is concluded that the failure of respiration of intact neoplastic cells injured by CM is caused by the nearly complete inhibition of complexes I and II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The time courses of CM-induced electron transport inhibition and arrest of L1210 cell division are examined and the possible relationship between these phenomena is discussed.

  11. Plasticity and regeneration in the injured spinal cord after cell transplantation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nori, Satoshi; Nakamura, Masaya; Okano, Hideyuki

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) typically damages the long axonal tracts of the spinal cord which results in permanent disability. However, regeneration of the injured spinal cord is approaching reality according to the advances in stem cell biology. Cell transplantation therapy holds potential to lead to recovery following SCI through some positive mechanisms. Grafted cells induce plasticity and regeneration in the injured spinal cord by promoting remyelination of damaged axons, reconstruction of neural circuits by synapse formation between host neurons and graft-derived neurons, and secreting neurotrophic factors to promote axonal elongation as well as reduce retrograde axonal degeneration. In this review, we will delineate (1) the microenvironment of the injured spinal cord that influence the plasticity and regeneration capacity after SCI, (2) a number of different kinds of cell transplantation therapies for SCI that has been extensively studied by researchers, and (3) potential mechanisms of grafted cell-induced regeneration and plasticity in the injured spinal cord. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Schwann cell autophagy, myelinophagy, initiates myelin clearance from injured nerves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Sanchez, Jose A.; Carty, Lucy; Iruarrizaga-Lejarreta, Marta; Palomo-Irigoyen, Marta; Varela-Rey, Marta; Griffith, Megan; Hantke, Janina; Macias-Camara, Nuria; Azkargorta, Mikel; Aurrekoetxea, Igor; de Juan, Virginia Gutiérrez; Jefferies, Harold B. J.; Aspichueta, Patricia; Elortza, Félix; Aransay, Ana M.; Martínez-Chantar, María L.; Baas, Frank; Mato, José M.; Mirsky, Rhona; Woodhoo, Ashwin; Jessen, Kristján R.

    2015-01-01

    Although Schwann cell myelin breakdown is the universal outcome of a remarkably wide range of conditions that cause disease or injury to peripheral nerves, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that make Schwann cell-mediated myelin digestion possible have not been established. We report that

  13. The effect of sub-lethal damage repair and exchange on the final slope of cell survival curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlone, M.C.; Wilkins, D.E.; Raaphorst, G.P.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The Lea-Catcheside dose rate protraction factor, G, is the most widely used model to describe the effects of dose rate on cell survival. In the linear quadratic formalism, this factor modifies the beta component of cell killing; G is greatest for acute irradiations while vanishing at low dose rates. We have found a simple compartmental model that can derive the Lea-Catcheside function. This compartmental model clearly shows that the G function can only be derived using a little known assumption: the diminution of sub-lethal damage due to exchange of repairable lesions is negligible compared to that due to repair. This assumption was explicitly stated by Lea, but it does not appear to have been restated or verified since very early work on cell survival. The implication of this assumption is that sub-lethal damage can be modeled without considering exchange, which is evidenced by the fact that the G function does not contain parameters relating to exchange. By using a new model that fully accounts for repair and exchange of sublethal lesions, a cell survival expression that has a modified G function, but that retains the linear quadratic formalism, can be obtained. At low doses, this new model predicts linear-quadratic behavior, but the behavior gradually changes to mono-exponential at high doses, which is consistent with experimental observations. Modeling cell survival of well-known survival curves using the modified linear quadratic model shows statistically significant improvement in the fits to the cell survival data as compared to best fits obtained with the linear quadratic model. It is shown that these improvements in fits are due to a superior representation of the high dose region of the survival curve

  14. Sub-lethal irradiation of human colorectal tumor cells imparts enhanced and sustained susceptibility to multiple death receptor signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Ifeadi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Death receptors (DR of the TNF family function as anti-tumor immune effector molecules. Tumor cells, however, often exhibit DR-signaling resistance. Previous studies indicate that radiation can modify gene expression within tumor cells and increase tumor cell sensitivity to immune attack. The aim of this study is to investigate the synergistic effect of sub-lethal doses of ionizing radiation in sensitizing colorectal carcinoma cells to death receptor-mediated apoptosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The ability of radiation to modulate the expression of multiple death receptors (Fas/CD95, TRAILR1/DR4, TRAILR2/DR5, TNF-R1 and LTβR was examined in colorectal tumor cells. The functional significance of sub-lethal doses of radiation in enhancing tumor cell susceptibility to DR-induced apoptosis was determined by in vitro functional sensitivity assays. The longevity of these changes and the underlying molecular mechanism of irradiation in sensitizing diverse colorectal carcinoma cells to death receptor-mediated apoptosis were also examined. We found that radiation increased surface expression of Fas, DR4 and DR5 but not LTβR or TNF-R1 in these cells. Increased expression of DRs was observed 2 days post-irradiation and remained elevated 7-days post irradiation. Sub-lethal tumor cell irradiation alone exhibited minimal cell death, but effectively sensitized three of three colorectal carcinoma cells to both TRAIL and Fas-induced apoptosis, but not LTβR-induced death. Furthermore, radiation-enhanced Fas and TRAIL-induced cell death lasted as long as 5-days post-irradiation. Specific analysis of intracellular sensitizers to apoptosis indicated that while radiation did reduce Bcl-X(L and c-FLIP protein expression, this reduction did not correlate with the radiation-enhanced sensitivity to Fas and/or TRAIL mediated apoptosis among the three cell types. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Irradiation of tumor cells can overcome Fas and TRAIL

  15. The effect of sublethal injury by heating, freezing, drying and gamma-radiation on the duration of the lag phase of Salmonella typhimurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, B.M.; Derrick, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    The duration of the lag phase of Salmonella typhimurium surviving heat, freezing, drying and gamma-radiation was used to indicate the time needed to repair sublethal injury. Following equivalent lethal treatments, heat and freeze-injured cells needed longer to repair than those injured by drying or gamma-radiation. Measurement of repair on membrane filters showed that in a heat-injured population having a lag time of 9 h, some individual cells needed up to 14 h to recover maximum tolerance to 3% NaCl. (author)

  16. Effects of sublethal gamma radiation on T and B cell activity in the antibody response of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, D.E.; Lubet, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The relative radiosensitivity of T and B cells was followed in sublethally irradiated mice reconstituted with bone marrow cells, thymus cells, or both, and simultaneously challenged with sheep erythrocytes. Numbers of antibody-forming cells in recipient spleens were determined on days 4 to 8. In this assay the response of mice given bone marrow cells was limited by the amount of residual T cell activity, while the response of mice given thymus cells was limited by the residual B cell activity. Although residual activity of both T and B cells was suppressed in mice given 300 to 700 rad at 80 rad/min, residual B cell activity was consistently lower in these animals. When antibody responses were initiated at intervals after irradiation, B cell activity was clearly limiting by 48 hr after 500 or 600 rad. The activity of both T and B cells was sensitive to differences in dose rate between 8 and 80 rad/min. The 4 to 7 fold dose-rate sensitivity of T cells paralleled that of differentially irradiated nonreconstituted mice. In contrast, dose-rate dependence of B cell activity varied from 10- to 20-fold between 8 and 80 rad/min. These results suggest that radiation suppression of antibody responses in mice is highly dependent upon B cell sensitivity, and that dose-rate dependence of the antibody response may be explained in large part by differential sensitivity of B cells

  17. The affect of bone marrow cell biomechanical characteristics to 6 Gy γ irradiation-injured mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu Xiaoyun; Chen Xiaoli; Pan Jing; Li Zhaoquan; Deng Jun; Huang Hui; Ye Yong

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the change of bone marrow cell biomechanical characteristics in radiation-injured mice and the influencing factors. Methods: Male Kunming mice were exposed to total body irradiation of 6 Gy γ-rays from a 60 Co source. Electrophoresis, DPH probe-micropore filter, and adhesion rate methods were used to detect cell surface charge, membrane microviscosity, cell deformability, and cell adhesion, respectively. Results: The deformability, adhesiveness and cell surface charges of bone marrow cells (including hematopoietic cells and stromal cells) were dramatically decreased, but membrane microviscosity was obviously increased after irradiation on 1 d, 3 d and 7 d. Conclusion: The biomechanical characteristics of bone marrow cells are obviously changed after radiation injury. It might be one of the reasons of hematopoietic failure after irradiation. (authors)

  18. Immunocytoadherence and sublethal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaumariage, M.L.; Hiesche, K.; Revesz, L.; Haot, J.

    1975-01-01

    In sublethally irradiated CBA mice, the relative and absolute numbers of spontaneous rosette forming cells against sheep erythrocytes are markedly decreased in bone marrow. The decrease of the absolute number of spontaneous RFC is also important in the spleen in spite of an increase of the RFC relative number above the normal values between the 8th and 12th day after irradiation. The graft of normal bone marrow cells immediately after irradiation or the shielding of a medullary area during irradiation promotes the recovery of the immunocytoadherence capacity of the bone marrow cells but not of the spleen cells [fr

  19. The effects of the stem cell on ciliary regeneration of injured rabbit sinonasal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavuzlu, Ali; Tatar, Emel Çadallı; Karagöz, Tuğba; Pınarlı, Ferda Alpaslan; Tatar, İlkan; Bayır, Ömer; Korkmaz, Mehmet Hakan

    2017-08-01

    Defects in mucosal healing after sinonasal surgery cause infection, scar formation causing obstruction, relapse of the disease within a shorter period and revision surgery. The present study aimed to create a functional ciliated epithelium using a stem cell and stem cell sheet of adipose tissue origin and to show such regeneration ultra-structurally on experimentally injured rabbit nasal epithelium. This was an experimental animal study and basic research. A total of 18 white New Zealand rabbits were divided into three groups. The medial wall of the maxillary sinus of the subjects was peeled off bilaterally. No additional procedure was applied to the subjects in Group 1. In Group 2, adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell was implanted on the wound edges of the subjects. In Group 3, a stem cell sheet of three layers was laid onto the defect area. All subjects were killed after 3 weeks. The presence of the stem cell stained with bromo-deoxyuridine was assessed with a light microscope, whereas cilia density, ciliated orientation and cilia structure were evaluated with a scanning electron microscope. Ciliary densities in Group 2 and Group 3 were statistically superior compared to the control group (p stem cell increased the healing of the injured maxillary sinus mucosa of the rabbits in terms of cilia presence, density and morphology regardless of the implementation technique. Level of evidence NA.

  20. Suspension Matrices for Improved Schwann-Cell Survival after Implantation into the Injured Rat Spinal Cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vivek; Joseph, Gravil; Patel, Amit; Patel, Samik; Bustin, Devin; Mawson, David; Tuesta, Luis M.; Puentes, Rocio; Ghosh, Mousumi

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Trauma to the spinal cord produces endogenously irreversible tissue and functional loss, requiring the application of therapeutic approaches to achieve meaningful restoration. Cellular strategies, in particular Schwann-cell implantation, have shown promise in overcoming many of the obstacles facing successful repair of the injured spinal cord. Here, we show that the implantation of Schwann cells as cell suspensions with in-situ gelling laminin:collagen matrices after spinal-cord contusion significantly enhances long-term cell survival but not proliferation, as well as improves graft vascularization and the degree of axonal in-growth over the standard implantation vehicle, minimal media. The use of a matrix to suspend cells prior to implantation should be an important consideration for achieving improved survival and effectiveness of cellular therapies for future clinical application. PMID:20144012

  1. Factors affecting directional migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to the injured spinal cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Peng; Pan, Su; Cheng, Jieping; Yang, Maoguang; Qi, Zhiping; Hou, Tingting; Yang, Xiaoyu

    2014-01-01

    Microtubule-associated protein 1B plays an important role in axon guidance and neuronal migration. In the present study, we sought to discover the mechanisms underlying microtubule-associated protein 1B mediation of axon guidance and neuronal migration. We exposed bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to okadaic acid or N-acetyl-D-erythro-sphingosine (an inhibitor and stimulator, respectively, of protein phosphatase 2A) for 24 hours. The expression of the phosphorylated form of type I microtubule-associated protein 1B in the cells was greater after exposure to okadaic acid and lower after N-acetyl-D-erythro-sphingosine. We then injected the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells through the ear vein into rabbit models of spinal cord contusion. The migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells towards the injured spinal cord was poorer in cells exposed to okadaic acid- and N-acetyl-D-erythro-sphingosine than in non-treated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Finally, we blocked phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathways in rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells using the inhibitors LY294002 and U0126, respectively. LY294002 resulted in an elevated expression of phosphorylated type I microtubule-associated protein 1B, whereas U0126 caused a reduction in expression. The present data indicate that PI3K and ERK1/2 in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells modulate the phosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein 1B via a cross-signaling network, and affect the migratory efficiency of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells towards injured spinal cord. PMID:25374590

  2. Evaluation of the thin agar layer method for the recovery of pressure-injured and heat-injured Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavieri, Nicolas A; Sebranek, Joseph G; Cordray, Joseph C; Dickson, James S; Jung, Stephanie; Manu, David K; Mendonça, Aubrey F; Brehm-Stecher, Byron F; Stock, Joseph; Stalder, Kenneth J

    2014-05-01

    A sublethally injured bacterial cell has been defined as a cell that survives a stress such as heating, freezing, acid treatment, or other antimicrobial intervention but can repair the cellular damage exerted by the stressor and later regain its original ability to grow. Consequently, sublethally injured cells are not likely to be included in conventional enumeration procedures, which could result in unrealistically low counts unless efforts are made to encourage recovery of the injured cells before enumeration. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of the thin agar layer (TAL) method for the recovery of pressure-injured and heat-injured Listeria monocytogenes in a tryptic soy broth with 0.6% yeast extract system. Pressure injury consisted of treatment of a culture of mixed L. monocytogenes strains with high hydrostatic pressure at 400 or 600 MPa for 1 s, 2 min, 4 min, or 6 min at a process temperature of 12±2 °C. Heat injury consisted of treatment of a culture of mixed L. monocytogenes strains at 60±1 °C for 3, 6, or 9 min. Growth media were tryptic soy agar (TSA) with 0.6% yeast extract, modified Oxford medium (MOX), and TAL, which consisted of a 7-ml layer of TSA overlaid onto solidified MOX. Counts of viable L. monocytogenes on TAL were higher than those on MOX in the heat-injury experiment but not in the pressure-injury experiment. Therefore, the effectiveness of the TAL method may be specific to the type of injury applied to the microorganism and should be investigated in a variety of cellular injury scenarios.

  3. Autoserum: An Optimal Supplement for Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells of Liver-Injured Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinglin Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are an attractive source for the clinical cell therapy of liver injury. Although the use of adult serum, platelet lysate, or cord blood serum solves some of the problems caused by fetal bovine serum (FBS, the allogeneic immune response, contamination, and donor-to-donor and donor-to-receptor differences still obstruct the application of MSCs. In this study, the influences of autoserum from liver-injured rats (LIRs and allogeneic serum from healthy rats on the isolation and culture of bone marrow MSCs (BMSCs were examined and compared to FBS. The results showed that BMSCs cultured with autoserum or allogeneic serum exhibited better MSC-specific morphology, lower rate of cell senescent, and higher proliferation kinetics than those with FBS. In addition, autoserum promoted the osteogenic differentiation potential of BMSCs as allogeneic serum did. Although there were no significant differences in proliferation activity, immunophenotypic characterization, and differentiation potential between BMSCs cultured with autoserum and those with allogeneic serum, the potential adverse immunological reactions in patients with allogeneic material transplantation must be considered. We therefore believe that the autoserum from liver-injured patients may be a better choice for MSC expansion to meet the needs of liver injury therapy.

  4. Spray method for recovery of heat-injured Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Kyeong-Hwan; Kim, Sang-Oh; Park, Ki-Hwan; Chung, Myung-Sub; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2012-10-01

    Selective agar is inadequate for supporting recovery of injured cells. During risk assessment of certain foods, both injured and noninjured cells must be enumerated. In this study, a new method (agar spray method) for recovering sublethally heat-injured microorganisms was developed and used for recovery of heat-injured Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes. Molten selective agar was applied as an overlay to presolidified nonselective tryptic soy agar (TSA) by spray application. Heat-injured cells (55°C for 10 min in 0.1% peptone water or 55°C for 15 min in sterilized skim milk) were inoculated directly onto solidified TSA. After a 2-h incubation period for cell repair, selective agar was applied to the TSA surface with a sprayer, and the plates were incubated. The recovery rate for heat-injured Salmonella Typhimurium and L. monocytogenes with the spray method was compared with the corresponding rates associated with TSA alone, selective media alone, and the conventional overlay method (selective agar poured on top of resuscitated cells grown on TSA and incubated for 2 h). No significant differences (P > 0.05) were found in pathogen recovery obtained with TSA, the overlay method, and the spray method. However, a lower recovery rate (P recovery and detection of injured cells.

  5. Cell proliferation and thymocyte subset reconstitution in sublethally irradiated mice: Compared kinetics of endogenous and intrathymically transferred progenitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penit, C.; Ezine, S.

    1989-01-01

    After sublethal (6 Gy) whole-body irradiation, the C57BL/Ba (Thy-1.1) murine thymus regenerated in two waves, on days 3-10 and 25-32, separated by a severe relapse. The second phase of depletion-reconstitution reproduced the first one, in a less synchronous manner. The depletion affected all cell subsets, but CD4+ CD8- cells decreased later than immature cells. Cell proliferation, measured by BrdUrd incorporation, started on day 3 after irradiation and concerned CD4- CD8-, CD4- CD8+, and CD4+ CD8+ cells, sequentially. CD4+ CD8- cells never represented a significant percentage of cycling cells. When irradiation was immediately followed by an intrathymic injection of 10(5) C57BL/Ka (Thy-1.2) bone marrow cells, the relapse in thymus reconstitution was no longer observed. Detected with anti-Thy-1.2 antibodies, donor cells started cycling on day 14 and showed only one wave of proliferation. In these chimeras, recipient thymocytes behave exactly like thymocytes of solely irradiated mice. Intrathymically transferred CD4- CD8- thymocytes 10(5) showed the same proliferation kinetics as endogenous cells, with a peak in number on day 10 but completely disappeared from the thymus on days 14-21. These data reflect maturational differences between intrathymic and bone marrow precursor cells and suggest different radiosensitivities not linked to proliferative status. The resting state of the thymus immigrants was shown by the absence of Thy-1 acquisition by bone marrow cells continuously labeled for 10 days with BrdUrd in vivo before intrathymic transfer. When such labeled bone marrow cells were injected in the thymus, only the minor BrdUrd- subset gave rise to Thy-1+ cells

  6. Crosstalk Between Activated Myofibroblasts and β Cells in Injured Mouse Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayan, Jennifer-Ann; Peng, Zhechu; Zeng, Ni; He, Lina; Chen, Jingyu; Stiles, Bangyan L

    2015-10-01

    In injury conditions, myofibroblasts are induced to lay down matrix proteins and support the repair process. In this study, we investigated the role of myofibroblasts, particularly stellate cells, in the growth and regeneration of pancreatic β cells. We used both in vitro and in vivo approaches to address whether stellate cells may promote the growth of β cells. Our experiments demonstrated that activated stellate cells support the proliferation of β cells in vitro. In vivo, mesenchymals surrounding the pancreatic islets are activated (induced to proliferate) in the islet regeneration model of Pten null mice. These mesenchymals display markers of pancreatic stellate cells, such as desmin and to a lesser extent, smooth muscle actin α. We have shown previously that targeted β-cell deletion of Pten lead to a significant increase in total islet mass. This phenotype was accompanied by an increase in peri-islet mitotic activity, particularly in islets injured by streptozotocin, a β cell-specific toxin. Together with the in vitro observations, our data, here, suggest that that these mesenchymal cells may support the regeneration of the islets. Identifying how the communication occurs may provide clinically relevant mechanism for inducing β-cell regeneration.

  7. Intrathymic radioresistant stem cells follow an IL-2/IL-2R pathway during thymic regeneration after sublethal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuniga-Pfluecker, J.C.K.; Kruisbeek, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    Sublethally irradiated mice undergo thymic regeneration which follows a phenotypic pattern of events similar to that observed during normal fetal development. Thymic regeneration after irradiation is the product of a limited pool of intrathymic radioresistant stem cells undergoing simultaneous differentiation. We show that in this model of T cell development, thymic regeneration follows a pathway in which the IL-2R is transiently expressed on CD4-/CD8- cells. IL-2R expression occurred during the exponential growth period of thymic regeneration, and IL-2R blocking prevented this explosive growth. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the IL-2R blockade affected primarily the development of the immature CD3-/CD4-/CD8- (triple negative) cells and their ability to generate CD3+/CD4+/CD8+ or CD3+/CD4+/CD8- and CD3+/CD4-/CD8+ thymocytes. Thus, our findings demonstrate that blocking of the IL-2R resulted in an arrest in proliferation and differentiation by intrathymic radioresistant stem cells, indicating that the IL-2/IL-2R pathway is necessary for the expansion of immature triple negative T cells

  8. Effect of prolonged exposure to sublethal concentrations of DDT and DDE on protein expression in human pancreatic beta cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlikova, Nela, E-mail: nela.pavlikova@lf3.cuni.cz [Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); Smetana, Pavel [Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); Halada, Petr [Laboratory of Molecular Structure Characterization, Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic); Kovar, Jan [Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-10-15

    Pollution of the environment represents one of less explored potential reasons for the worldwide epidemic of type 2 diabetes. One of the most prevalent organochlorine pollutants remains the pesticide DDT and its degradation product DDE. Despite some epidemiologic correlations between levels of DDT and DDE in human organism and the prevalence of diabetes, there is almost no information about the exact targets of these compounds inside pancreatic beta cells. To detect functional areas of pancreatic beta cells that could be affected by exposure to DDT and DDE, we analyzed changes in protein expression in the NES2Y human pancreatic beta cell line exposed to three sublethal concentrations (0.1 μM, 1 μM, 10 μM) of DDT and DDE for 1 month. Protein separation and identification was achieved using high-resolution 2D-electrophoresis, computer analysis and mass spectrometry. With these techniques, four proteins were found downregulated after exposure to 10 μM DDT: three cytoskeletal proteins (cytokeratin 8, cytokeratin 18 and actin) and one protein involved in glycolysis (alpha-enolase). Two proteins were downregulated after exposure to 10 μM DDE: cytokeratin 18 and heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H1 (HNRH1). These changes correlate with previously described effects of other stress conditions (e.g. exposure to palmitate, hyperglycemia, imidazoline derivative, and cytokines) on protein expression in pancreatic beta cells. We conclude that cytoskeletal proteins and their processing, glucose metabolism, and mRNA processing may represent targets affected by exposure to conditions hostile to pancreatic beta cells, including exposure to DDT and DDE. - Highlights: • Epidemiologic studies connect pollution with incidence of diabetes mellitus. • We explored the effect of DDT and DDE on protein expression in the NES2Y pancreatic beta cell line. • One month exposure to three sublethal concentrations of DDT and DDE was employed. • Expression of alpha-enolase, actin

  9. Effect of prolonged exposure to sublethal concentrations of DDT and DDE on protein expression in human pancreatic beta cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlikova, Nela; Smetana, Pavel; Halada, Petr; Kovar, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Pollution of the environment represents one of less explored potential reasons for the worldwide epidemic of type 2 diabetes. One of the most prevalent organochlorine pollutants remains the pesticide DDT and its degradation product DDE. Despite some epidemiologic correlations between levels of DDT and DDE in human organism and the prevalence of diabetes, there is almost no information about the exact targets of these compounds inside pancreatic beta cells. To detect functional areas of pancreatic beta cells that could be affected by exposure to DDT and DDE, we analyzed changes in protein expression in the NES2Y human pancreatic beta cell line exposed to three sublethal concentrations (0.1 μM, 1 μM, 10 μM) of DDT and DDE for 1 month. Protein separation and identification was achieved using high-resolution 2D-electrophoresis, computer analysis and mass spectrometry. With these techniques, four proteins were found downregulated after exposure to 10 μM DDT: three cytoskeletal proteins (cytokeratin 8, cytokeratin 18 and actin) and one protein involved in glycolysis (alpha-enolase). Two proteins were downregulated after exposure to 10 μM DDE: cytokeratin 18 and heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H1 (HNRH1). These changes correlate with previously described effects of other stress conditions (e.g. exposure to palmitate, hyperglycemia, imidazoline derivative, and cytokines) on protein expression in pancreatic beta cells. We conclude that cytoskeletal proteins and their processing, glucose metabolism, and mRNA processing may represent targets affected by exposure to conditions hostile to pancreatic beta cells, including exposure to DDT and DDE. - Highlights: • Epidemiologic studies connect pollution with incidence of diabetes mellitus. • We explored the effect of DDT and DDE on protein expression in the NES2Y pancreatic beta cell line. • One month exposure to three sublethal concentrations of DDT and DDE was employed. • Expression of alpha-enolase, actin

  10. Graphene oxide significantly inhibits cell growth at sublethal concentrations by causing extracellular iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qilin; Zhang, Bing; Li, Jianrong; Du, Tingting; Yi, Xiao; Li, Mingchun; Chen, Wei; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    Graphene oxide (GO)-based materials are increasingly being used in medical materials and consumer products. However, their sublethal effects on biological systems are poorly understood. Here, we report that GO (at 10 to 160 mg/L) induced significant inhibitory effects on the growth of different unicellular organisms, including eukaryotes (i.e. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, and Komagataella pastoris) and prokaryotes (Pseudomonas fluorescens). Growth inhibition could not be explained by commonly reported cytotoxicity mechanisms such as plasma membrane damage or oxidative stress. Based on transcriptomic analysis and measurement of extra- and intracellular iron concentrations, we show that the inhibitory effect of GO was mainly attributable to iron deficiency caused by binding to the O-functional groups of GO, which sequestered iron and disrupted iron-related physiological and metabolic processes. This inhibitory mechanism was corroborated with supplementary experiments, where adding bathophenanthroline disulfonate-an iron chelating agent-to the culture medium exerted similar inhibition, whereas removing surface O-functional groups of GO decreased iron sequestration and significantly alleviated the inhibitory effect. These findings highlight a potential indirect detrimental effect of nanomaterials (i.e. scavenging of critical nutrients), and encourage research on potential biomedical applications of GO-based materials to sequester iron and enhance treatment of iron-dependent diseases such as cancer and some pathogenic infections.

  11. Occurrence of sublethal injury after pulsed electric fields depending on the micro-organism, the treatment medium ph and the intensity of the treatment investigated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, D; Gómez, N; Mañas, P; Condón, S; Raso, J; Pagán, R

    2005-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the occurrence of sublethal injury after pulsed electric field (PEF) depending on the treatment time, the electric field strength and the pH of the treatment media in two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis ssp. niger, Listeria monocytogenes) and six Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella serotype Senftenberg 775W, Salmonella serotype Typhimurium, Yersinia enterocolitica) bacterial strains. A characteristic behaviour was observed for the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria studied. Whereas Gram-positive bacteria showed a higher PEF resistance at pH 7.0, the Gram-negative were more resistant at pH 4.0. In these conditions, in which bacteria showed their maximum resistance, a large proportion of sublethally injured cells were detected. In most cases, the longer the treatment time and the higher the electric field applied, the greater the proportion of sublethally injured cells that were detected. No sublethal injury was detected when Gram-positive bacteria were treated at pH 4.0 and Gram-negative at pH 7.0. Sublethal injury was detected after PEF so, bacterial inactivation by PEF is not an 'all or nothing' event. This work could be useful for improving food preservation by PEF.

  12. DNA polymerase inhibitors and heat alter fixation of postirradiation sublethal damage in L5178Y-S cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapiszewska, M.; Szumiel, I.; Lange, C.S.

    1988-01-01

    We have used the inhibitor of DNA polymerase alpha, aphidicolin (apc) (0.5 μg/ml for 1 h), or that of DNA polymerase beta, dideoxythymidine triphosphate (ddTTP) (5 μg/ml), as well as heat (15 min at 43 deg C) to examine fixation of sublethal damage (SLD) induced by X-rays in L5178Y-S (LY-S) cells. This cell line has the unique property of responding to split X-ray doses at 37 deg C by decreased survival. This effect was partly abolished by heating the cells before irradiation with the second dose; the protection was most pronounced when the cells were heated 30-120 min. after the first dose of radiation. Since similar changes in postirradiation survival occurred when ddTTP was applied, we suggest that heat induces a loss of polymerase beta activity. Apc gave a smaller protective effect. We interpreted these results as suggesting that mismatching takes place during DNA semiconservative replication or repair; inhibition of replication results in survival increase, by preventing misrepair. A proper timing of treatment with the inhibitors or heat is essential to obtain the sparing effect, i.e. to prevent SLD fixation. 27 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  13. Gene expression changes in the injured spinal cord following transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells or olfactory ensheathing cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Torres-Espín

    Full Text Available Transplantation of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC or olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC have demonstrated beneficial effects after spinal cord injury (SCI, providing tissue protection and improving the functional recovery. However, the changes induced by these cells after their transplantation into the injured spinal cord remain largely unknown. We analyzed the changes in the spinal cord transcriptome after a contusion injury and MSC or OEC transplantation. The cells were injected immediately or 7 days after the injury. The mRNA of the spinal cord injured segment was extracted and analyzed by microarray at 2 and 7 days after cell grafting. The gene profiles were analyzed by clustering and functional enrichment analysis based on the Gene Ontology database. We found that both MSC and OEC transplanted acutely after injury induce an early up-regulation of genes related to tissue protection and regeneration. In contrast, cells transplanted at 7 days after injury down-regulate genes related to tissue regeneration. The most important change after MSC or OEC transplant was a marked increase in expression of genes associated with foreign body response and adaptive immune response. These data suggest a regulatory effect of MSC and OEC transplantation after SCI regarding tissue repair processes, but a fast rejection response to the grafted cells. Our results provide an initial step to determine the mechanisms of action and to optimize cell therapy for SCI.

  14. The radiobiology of laser-driven particle beams: focus on sub-lethal responses of normal human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manti, L.; Perozziello, F.M.; Romagnani, L.; Borghesi, M.; Doria, D.; Candiano, G.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Leanza, R.; Romano, F.; Scuderi, V.; Tramontana, A.; Chaudhary, P.; Gwynne, D.; Prise, K. M.

    2017-01-01

    Accelerated proton beams have become increasingly common for treating cancer. The need for cost and size reduction of particle accelerating machines has led to the pioneering investigation of optical ion acceleration techniques based on laser-plasma interactions as a possible alternative. Laser-matter interaction can produce extremely pulsed particle bursts of ultra-high dose rates (≥ 10 9 Gy/s), largely exceeding those currently used in conventional proton therapy. Since biological effects of ionizing radiation are strongly affected by the spatio-temporal distribution of DNA-damaging events, the unprecedented physical features of such beams may modify cellular and tissue radiosensitivity to unexplored extents. Hence, clinical applications of laser-generated particles need thorough assessment of their radiobiological effectiveness. To date, the majority of studies have either used rodent cell lines or have focussed on cancer cell killing being local tumour control the main objective of radiotherapy. Conversely, very little data exist on sub-lethal cellular effects, of relevance to normal tissue integrity and secondary cancers, such as premature cellular senescence. Here, we discuss ultra-high dose rate radiobiology and present preliminary data obtained in normal human cells following irradiation by laser-accelerated protons at the LULI PICO2000 facility at Laser Lab Europe, France.

  15. Combination of edaravone and neural stem cell transplantation repairs injured spinal cord in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y Y; Peng, C G; Ye, X B

    2015-12-29

    This study sought to observe the effect of the combination of edaravone and neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation on the repair of complete spinal cord transection in rats. Eighty adult female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used to establish the injury model of complete spinal cord transection at T9. Animals were divided randomly into four groups (N = 20 each): control, edaravone, transplantation, and edaravone + transplantation. The recovery of spinal function was evaluated with the Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) rating scale on days 1, 3, and 7 each week after the surgery. After 8 weeks, the BBB scores of the control, edaravone, transplantation, and combination groups were 4.21 ± 0.11, 8.46 ± 0.1, 8.54 ± 0.13, and 11.21 ± 0.14, respectively. At 8 weeks after surgery, the spinal cord was collected; the survival and transportation of transplanted cells were observed with PKH-26 labeling, and the regeneration and distribution of spinal nerve fibers with fluorescent-gold (FG) retrograde tracing. Five rats died due to the injury. PKH-26-labeled NSCs had migrated into the spinal cord. A few intact nerve fibers and pyramidal neurons passed the injured area in the transplantation and combination groups. The numbers of PKH-26-labeled cells and FG-labeled nerve fibers were in the order: combination group > edaravone group and transplantation group > control group (P edaravone can enhance the survival and differentiation of NSCs in injured areas; edaravone with NSC transplantation can improve the effectiveness of spinal cord injury repair in rats.

  16. Exposure to Sub-lethal 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid Arrests Cell Division and Alters Cell Surface Properties in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Supriya V.; Kamencic, Belma; Körnig, André; Shahina, Zinnat; Dahms, Tanya E. S.

    2018-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a robust, easily adaptable and culturable bacterium in vitro, and a model bacterium for studying the impact of xenobiotics in the environment. We have used correlative atomic force – laser scanning confocal microscopy (AFM-LSCM) to characterize the mechanisms of cellular response to the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). One of the most extensively used herbicides world-wide, 2,4-D is known to cause hazardous effects in diverse non-target organisms. Sub-lethal concentrations of 2,4-D caused DNA damage in E. coli WM1074 during short exposure periods which increased significantly over time. In response to 2,4-D, FtsZ and FtsA relocalized within seconds, coinciding with the complete inhibition of cell septation and cell elongation. Exposure to 2,4-D also resulted in increased activation of the SOS response. Changes to cell division were accompanied by concomitant changes to surface roughness, elasticity and adhesion in a time-dependent manner. This is the first study describing the mechanistic details of 2,4-D at sub-lethal levels in bacteria. Our study suggests that 2,4-D arrests E. coli cell division within seconds after exposure by disrupting the divisome complex, facilitated by dissipation of membrane potential. Over longer exposures, 2,4-D causes filamentation as a result of an SOS response to oxidative stress induced DNA damage. PMID:29472899

  17. Effect of prolonged exposure to sublethal concentrations of DDT and DDE on protein expression in human pancreatic beta cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlikova, Nela; Smetana, Pavel; Halada, Petr; Kovar, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Pollution of the environment represents one of less explored potential reasons for the worldwide epidemic of type 2 diabetes. One of the most prevalent organochlorine pollutants remains the pesticide DDT and its degradation product DDE. Despite some epidemiologic correlations between levels of DDT and DDE in human organism and the prevalence of diabetes, there is almost no information about the exact targets of these compounds inside pancreatic beta cells. To detect functional areas of pancreatic beta cells that could be affected by exposure to DDT and DDE, we analyzed changes in protein expression in the NES2Y human pancreatic beta cell line exposed to three sublethal concentrations (0.1 μM, 1 μM, 10 μM) of DDT and DDE for 1 month. Protein separation and identification was achieved using high-resolution 2D-electrophoresis, computer analysis and mass spectrometry. With these techniques, four proteins were found downregulated after exposure to 10 μM DDT: three cytoskeletal proteins (cytokeratin 8, cytokeratin 18 and actin) and one protein involved in glycolysis (alpha-enolase). Two proteins were downregulated after exposure to 10 μM DDE: cytokeratin 18 and heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H1 (HNRH1). These changes correlate with previously described effects of other stress conditions (e.g. exposure to palmitate, hyperglycemia, imidazoline derivative, and cytokines) on protein expression in pancreatic beta cells. We conclude that cytoskeletal proteins and their processing, glucose metabolism, and mRNA processing may represent targets affected by exposure to conditions hostile to pancreatic beta cells, including exposure to DDT and DDE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Phospholipid metabolism in lymphoid cells at delayed periods following sublethal γ-irradiation of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novoselova, E.G.

    1991-01-01

    Dynamics of phospholipid metabolism in rat thymocytes and bone marrow cells was studied 1-6 months after fractionated irradiation. The rate of total and individual lipid synthesis was shown to increase in the exposed cells. The rate of lipid synthesis increased 1 and 2 months after irradiation and was normalized 3 and 6 months after irradiation

  19. Effect of cell cycle stage, dose rate and repair of sublethal damage of radiation-induced apoptosis in F9 teratocarcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langley, R.E.; Quartuccio, S.G.; Kennealey, P.T.

    1995-01-01

    There are at least two different models of cell death after treatment with ionizing radiation. The first is a failure to undergo sustained cell division despite metabolic survival, and we refer to this end point as open-quotes classical reproductive cell death.close quotes The second is a process that results in loss of cell integrity. This second category includes cellular necrosis as well as apoptosis. Earlier studies in our laboratory showed that the predominant mechanism of cell death for irradiated F9 cell is apoptosis, and there is no indication that these cells die by necrosis. We have therefore used cells of this cell line to reassess basic radiobiological principles with respect to apoptosis. Classical reproductive cell death was determined by staining colonies derived from irradiated cells and scoring colonies of less than 50 cells as reproductively dead and colonies of more than 50 cells as survivors. Cells that failed to produce either type of colony (detached from the plate or disintegrated) were scored as having undergone apoptosis. Using these criteria we found that the fraction of the radiation-killed F9 cells that died by apoptosis did not vary when cells were irradiated at different stages of the cell cycle despite large variations in overall survival. This suggests that the factors that influence radiation sensitivity throughout the cell cycle have an equal impact on apoptosis and classical reproductive cell death. There was no difference in cell survival between split doses and single doses of X rays, suggesting that sublethal damage repair is not a factor in radiation-induced apoptosis of F9 cells. Apoptosis was not affected by changes in dose rate in the range of 0.038-4.96 Gy/min. 48 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  20. Effects of Quercetin on CYP450 and Cytokines in Aroclor 1254 Injured Endometrial Cells of the Pregnant Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are widespread persistent residual environmental pollutants, which affect seriously the growth and reproductive alterations in humans and animals. Aroclor 1254 is a commercial mixture of PCBs. Quercetin is a flavonoid, which acts on estrogen receptors and causes the development of estrogen-related diseases. In this paper, the primary cultured endometrial cells in the pregnant rats were isolated and Aroclor 1254 was used to induce the injured endometrial cells model. The cells were treated with gradient quercetin, the viability of the endometrial cells, the expressions of CYP450, the contents of TNF-α, IL-6, estradiol (E2, and progesterone (P4 were measured. It showed that the viability of the cultured endometrial cells, the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP2B1, and the contents of TNF-α, E2, and IL-6 in the injured endometrial cells increased with the treatment of quercetin. It shows that quercetin has protective effect on the injured endometrial cells in the pregnant rats, this provide a basis on herbal medicine protection for animal reproductive diseases caused by environmental endocrine disruptors.

  1. Normal and sublethally irradiated stem and granulocyte progenitor cell regeneration in an in vivo culture system. The cellular response to humoral factors released through the action of cyclophosphamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacVittie, T.

    1977-01-01

    The in vivo diffusion chamber (DC) method of marrow culture was used to determine if the injection of host mice with cyclophosphamide (CY) caused, through its cytoxic action, the release of a humoral factor(s) capable of initiating stem cell (CFU-s) and granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cell (CFU-c) proliferation. Host mice were injected with CY 1-4 days prior to 800 rad of 60 Co WBI and implantation of DCs containing normal or 400 rad sublethally irradiated (SLI) marrow cells. The greatest proliferative response within CFU-s and CFU-c populations occurred in those mice injected with CY 3 days prior to implant. The marked CFU-s and CFU-c regeneration was initiated during the initial 24 hr of culture in both normal and SLI marrow cells. Thereafter growth rates were approximately the same. SLI marrow, however, showed a greater response to the humoral effects of CY injection than did normal marrow. These data provided evidence that CY induced the release of a diffusible factor(s) capable of accelerating regeneration of normal and sublethally irradiated CFU-s and CFU-c, the magnitude of which was dependent upon the time elapsed between CY injected and implantation of DCs. The marked proliferative response of the SLI stem and progenitor cells to the humoral stimulation may be indicative of the heterogeneity of both CFU-s and CFU-c populations surviving sublethal radiation exposure. The target cells may have possessed a differential sensitivity to the factor(s) initiating cell proliferation

  2. Effects of sub-lethal neurite outgrowth inhibitory concentrations of chlorpyrifos oxon on cytoskeletal proteins and acetylcholinesterase in differentiating N2a cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaskos, J., E-mail: flaskos@vet.auth.gr [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Nikolaidis, E. [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Harris, W. [School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Clifton Lane, Nottingham NG11 8NS (United Kingdom); Sachana, M. [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Hargreaves, A.J., E-mail: alan.hargreaves@ntu.ac.uk [School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Clifton Lane, Nottingham NG11 8NS (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Previous work in our laboratory has shown that sub-lethal concentrations (1-10 {mu}M) of chlorpyrifos (CPF), diazinon (DZ) and diazinon oxon (DZO) inhibit the outgrowth of axon-like neurites in differentiating mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells concomitant with altered levels and/or phosphorylation state of axonal cytoskeleton and growth-associated proteins. The aim of the present work was to determine whether chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) was capable of inhibiting N2a cell differentiation in a similar manner. Using experimental conditions similar to our previous work, sub-lethal concentrations (1-10 {mu}M) of CPO were found to inhibit N2a cell differentiation. However, unlike previous studies with DZ and DZO, there was a high level of sustained inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in CPO treated cells. Impairment of neurite outgrowth was also associated with reduced levels of growth associated protein-43 and neurofilament heavy chain (NFH), and the distribution of NFH in cells stained by indirect immunofluorescence was disrupted. However, in contrast to previous findings for DZO, the absolute level of phosphorylated NFH was unaffected by CPO exposure. Taken together, the findings suggest that sub-lethal concentrations of CPO inhibit axon outgrowth in differentiating N2a cells and that this effect involves reduced levels of two proteins that play key roles in axon outgrowth and maintenance. Although the inhibition of neurite outgrowth is unlikely to involve AChE inhibition directly, further work will help to determine whether the persistent inhibition of AChE by CPO can account for the different effects induced by CPO and DZO on the levels of total and phosphorylated NFH. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sub-lethal levels of chlorpyrifos oxon inhibit neurite outgrowth in N2a cells Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetylcholinesterase exhibits sustained inhibition throughout exposure Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The levels of neurofilament heavy chain and GAP-43

  3. Effects of sub-lethal neurite outgrowth inhibitory concentrations of chlorpyrifos oxon on cytoskeletal proteins and acetylcholinesterase in differentiating N2a cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaskos, J.; Nikolaidis, E.; Harris, W.; Sachana, M.; Hargreaves, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous work in our laboratory has shown that sub-lethal concentrations (1–10 μM) of chlorpyrifos (CPF), diazinon (DZ) and diazinon oxon (DZO) inhibit the outgrowth of axon-like neurites in differentiating mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells concomitant with altered levels and/or phosphorylation state of axonal cytoskeleton and growth-associated proteins. The aim of the present work was to determine whether chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) was capable of inhibiting N2a cell differentiation in a similar manner. Using experimental conditions similar to our previous work, sub-lethal concentrations (1–10 μM) of CPO were found to inhibit N2a cell differentiation. However, unlike previous studies with DZ and DZO, there was a high level of sustained inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in CPO treated cells. Impairment of neurite outgrowth was also associated with reduced levels of growth associated protein-43 and neurofilament heavy chain (NFH), and the distribution of NFH in cells stained by indirect immunofluorescence was disrupted. However, in contrast to previous findings for DZO, the absolute level of phosphorylated NFH was unaffected by CPO exposure. Taken together, the findings suggest that sub-lethal concentrations of CPO inhibit axon outgrowth in differentiating N2a cells and that this effect involves reduced levels of two proteins that play key roles in axon outgrowth and maintenance. Although the inhibition of neurite outgrowth is unlikely to involve AChE inhibition directly, further work will help to determine whether the persistent inhibition of AChE by CPO can account for the different effects induced by CPO and DZO on the levels of total and phosphorylated NFH. -- Highlights: ► Sub-lethal levels of chlorpyrifos oxon inhibit neurite outgrowth in N2a cells ► Acetylcholinesterase exhibits sustained inhibition throughout exposure ► The levels of neurofilament heavy chain and GAP-43 protein are reduced ► Neurofilament heavy chain forms aggregates in cell

  4. Sublethal concentration of H2O2 enhances the protective effect of mesenchymal stem cells in rat model of spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Asrin; Amiri, Iraj; Roushandeh, Amaneh Mohammadi; Choshali, Zoleikha Golipour; Alizadeh, Zohreh; Artimani, Tayebeh; Afshar, Saeid; Asl, Sara Soleimani

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the effect of H 2 O 2 on the migration and antioxidant defense of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and the neurotrophic effects of H 2 O 2 -treated MSCs on spinal cord injury (SCI). Sublethal concentrations of H 2 O 2 decreased cell migration and expression of CXCR4 and CCR2 as well as Nrf2 expression in MSCs. In the second phase, transplantation of treated and untreated MSCs to SCI caused minor changes in locomotor dysfunction. There was a significantly difference between cell-treated and spinal cord injury groups in expression of BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor). Transplantation of H 2 O 2 -treated cells caused an increase in BDNF expression compared to non-treated cells. Transplantation of H 2 O 2 -treated stem cells may have protective effects against SCI through by increasing neurotrophic factors.

  5. Stromal Derived Factor-1/CXCR4 Axis Involved in Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Recruitment to Injured Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuai Xiao Ling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanism of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal stem cells (BMSCs mobilization and migration to the liver was poorly understood. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 participates in BMSCs homing and migration into injury organs. We try to investigate the role of SDF-1 signaling in BMSCs migration towards injured liver. The expression of CXCR4 in BMSCs at mRNA level and protein level was confirmed by RT-PCR, flow cytometry, and immunocytochemistry. The SDF-1 or liver lysates induced BMSCs migration was detected by transwell inserts. CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100, and anti-CXCR4 antibody were used to inhibit the migration. The Sprague-Dawley rat liver injury model was established by intraperitoneal injection of thioacetamide. The concentration of SDF-1 increased as modeling time extended, which was determined by ELISA method. The Dir-labeled BMSCs were injected into the liver of the rats through portal vein. The cell migration in the liver was tracked by in vivo imaging system and the fluorescent intensity was measured. In vivo, BMSCs migrated into injured liver which was partially blocked by AMD3100 or anti-CXCR4 antibody. Taken together, the results demonstrated that the migration of BMSCs was regulated by SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling which involved in BMSCs recruitment to injured liver.

  6. Deterministic Encapsulation of Human Cardiac Stem Cells in Variable Composition Nanoporous Gel Cocoons To Enhance Therapeutic Repair of Injured Myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Pushpinder; Alarcon, Emilio I; Yeuchyk, Tanya; Parent, Sandrine; de Kemp, Robert A; Variola, Fabio; Courtman, David; Stewart, Duncan J; Davis, Darryl R

    2018-04-20

    Although cocooning explant-derived cardiac stem cells (EDCs) in protective nanoporous gels (NPGs) prior to intramyocardial injection boosts long-term cell retention, the number of EDCs that finally engraft is trivial and unlikely to account for salutary effects on myocardial function and scar size. As such, we investigated the effect of varying the NPG content within capsules to alter the physical properties of cocoons without influencing cocoon dimensions. Increasing NPG concentration enhanced cell migration and viability while improving cell-mediated repair of injured myocardium. Given that the latter occurred with NPG content having no detectable effect on the long-term engraftment of transplanted cells, we found that changing the physical properties of cocoons prompted explant-derived cardiac stem cells to produce greater amounts of cytokines, nanovesicles, and microRNAs that boosted the generation of new blood vessels and new cardiomyocytes. Thus, by altering the physical properties of cocoons by varying NPG content, the paracrine signature of encapsulated cells can be enhanced to promote greater endogenous repair of injured myocardium.

  7. Role of protein synthesis in the repair of sublethal x-ray damage in a mutant Chinese hamster ovary cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yezzi, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    A temperature-sensitive mutant for protein synthesis, CHO-TSH1, was compared to the wild-type cell, CHO-SC1, in single- and split-radiation-dose schemes. When the cultures were incubated at 40 0 C for 2 hrs before a first dose and maintained at 40 0 C during a 2 hr dose fractionation interval, repair of radiation damage was reduced in the mutant compared to the wild type. These observations implied that a pool of proteins was involved in the repair of sublethal X-ray damage. The effect of diminished repair under conditions of inhibition of protein synthesis was found to be cell-cycle dependent in survival studies with synchronized mutant cell populations. Repair was found to be almost completely eliminated if the temperature sequence described above was applied in the middle of the DNA synthetic phase. Distinct perturbations in the cell-cycle progression were noted following heat alone or heat with radiation. A delay in the progression of synchronized G 1 -phase and S-phase cells was demonstrated autoradiographically after inhibition of protein synthesis. In addition, treated S-phase cells showed a transient increase in the percent labelled cells after the cells were returned to their normal growth temperature of 35 0 C. This observation was suggestive of an unusual pattern of DNA synthesis during the recovery period. Split-dose experiments were done using incubation with cycloheximide to chemically inhibit protein synthesis. Both the chemical and thermal inhibition of protein synthesis substantiate its necessity for the repair of sublethal damage

  8. Sublethal concentrations of the platinum(II) complex [Pt(O,O'-acac)(gamma-acac)(DMS)] alter the motility and induce anoikis in MCF-7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscella, Antonella; Calabriso, Nadia; Vetrugno, Carla; Urso, Loredana; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo; De Pascali, Sandra Angelica; Marsigliante, Santo

    2010-07-01

    We showed previously that a new Pt(II) complex ([Pt(O,O'-acac)(gamma-acac)(DMS)]) exerted high and fast apoptotic processes in MCF-7 cells. The objective of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that [Pt(O,O'-acac)(gamma-acac)(DMS)] is also able to exert anoikis and alter the migration ability of MCF-7 cells, and to show some of the signalling events leading to these alterations. Cells were treated with sublethal doses of [Pt(O,O'-acac)(gamma-acac)(DMS)], and the efficiency of colony initiation and anchorage-independent growth was assayed; cell migration was examined by in vitro culture wounding assay. Gelatin zymography for MMP-2 and -9 activities, Western blottings of MMPs, MAPKs, Src, PKC-epsilon and FAK, after [Pt(O,O'-acac)(gamma-acac)(DMS)] treatment, were also performed. Sub-cytotoxic drug concentrations decreased the: (i) anchorage-dependent and -independent growth; (ii) migration ability; and (iii) expression and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9. [Pt(O,O'-acac)(gamma-acac)(DMS)] provoked the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the activation of p38MAPK, Src and PKC-epsilon. p38MAPK phosphorylation, cell anoikis and migration due to [Pt(O,O'-acac)(gamma-acac)(DMS)] were blocked by PKC-epsilon inhibition. Furthermore, Src inhibition blocked the [Pt(O,O'-acac)(gamma-acac)(DMS)]-provoked activation of PKC-epsilon, while ROS generation blockage inhibited the activation of Src, and also the decrement of phosphorylated FAK observed in detached [Pt(O,O'-acac)(gamma-acac)(DMS)]-treated cells. Sublethal concentrations of [Pt(O,O'-acac)(gamma-acac)(DMS)] induced anoikis and prevented events leading to metastasis via alterations in cell migration, anchorage independency, stromal interactions and MMP activity. Hence, [Pt(O,O'-acac)(gamma-acac)(DMS)] may be a promising therapeutic agent for preventing growth and metastasis of breast cancer.

  9. Subchronic exposure to sublethal dose of imidacloprid changes electrophysiological properties and expression pattern of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes in insect neurosecretory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzidane, Yassine; Goven, Delphine; Abd-Ella, Aly Ahmed; Deshayes, Caroline; Lapied, Bruno; Raymond, Valérie

    2017-09-01

    Neonicotinoids are the most important class of insecticides used in agriculture over the last decade. They act as selective agonists of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The emergence of insect resistance to these insecticides is one of the major problems, which limit the use of neonicotinoids. The aim of our study is to better understand physiological changes appearing after subchronic exposure to sublethal doses of insecticide using complementary approaches that include toxicology, electrophysiology, molecular biology and calcium imaging. We used cockroach neurosecretory cells identified as dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons, known to express two α-bungarotoxin-insensitive (α-bgt-insensitive) nAChR subtypes, nAChR1 and nAChR2, which differ in their sensitivity to imidacloprid. Although nAChR1 is sensitive to imidacloprid, nAChR2 is insensitive to this insecticide. In this study, we demonstrate that subchronic exposure to sublethal dose of imidacloprid differentially changes physiological and molecular properties of nAChR1 and nAChR2. Our findings reported that this treatment decreased the sensitivity of nAChR1 to imidacloprid, reduced current density flowing through this nAChR subtype but did not affect its subunit composition (α3, α8 and β1). Subchronic exposure to sublethal dose of imidacloprid also affected nAChR2 functions. However, these effects were different from those reported on nAChR1. We observed changes in nAChR2 conformational state, which could be related to modification of the subunit composition (α1, α2 and β1). Finally, the subchronic exposure affecting both nAChR1 and nAChR2 seemed to be linked to the elevation of the steady-state resting intracellular calcium level. In conclusion, under subchronic exposure to sublethal dose of imidacloprid, cockroaches are capable of triggering adaptive mechanisms by reducing the participation of imidacloprid-sensitive nAChR1 and by optimizing functional properties of nAChR2, which is

  10. Effects of Thy-1+ cell depletion on the capacity of donor lymphoid cells to induce tolerance across an entire MHC disparity in sublethally irradiated adult hosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, G.E.; Watts, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    Thy-1+ cell depletion with anti-Thy-1.2 mAb and complement markedly reduced the capacity of C57BL/6J, H-2b bone marrow to establish mixed lymphoid chimerism and induce tolerance to C57BL/6J skin grafts across an entire MHC disparity in BALB/c, H-2d hosts conditioned with sublethal, fractionated 7.5 Gy total-body irradiation. In this model tolerance can be transferred to secondary irradiated BALB/c hosts only by cells of C57BL/6J donor, not host, genotype isolated from the spleens of tolerant hosts. Thy-1+ cell depletion abolished the capacity of C57BL/6J donor cells from tolerant BALB/c host spleens to transfer tolerance. The capacity of semiallogeneic BALB/c x C57BL/6J F1, H-2d/b donor BM and spleen cells to induce chimerism and tolerance to C57BL/6J skin grafts in BALB/c parental hosts was also reduced by Thy-1+ cell depletion. Thus the requirement for donor Thy-1+ cells cannot be explained simply on the basis of alloaggression. It is unlikely that the requisite Thy-1+ cells are nonspecific suppressor cells: Thy-1+ cell depletion had no effect on the slight but significant prolongation of third-party C3H/HeJ, H-2k skin grafts in irradiated BALB/c hosts injected with allogeneic C57BL/6J or semiallogeneic BALB/c x C57BL/6J F1 BM compared to irradiated controls injected with medium only. Furthermore, injections of semiallogeneic F1 spleen cells had no significant effect on the survival of the third-party grafts, although these cells were fully capable of inducing tolerance, and their capacity to induce tolerance was significantly reduced by Thy-1+ cell depletion. The requirement for a specific population of lymphoid cells, i.e. Thy-1+, remains unexplained but suggests that donor cells might play a role in the induction or maintenance of tolerance in this model other than merely providing a circulating source of donor antigens

  11. Effect of indomethacin, diclofenac sodium and sodium salicylate on peripheral blood cell counts in sublethally gamma-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospisil, M.; Netikova, J.; Kozubik, A.; Pipalova, I.

    1989-01-01

    Treatment with indomethacin and diclofenac sodium was found to increase granulocyte counts in the blood of sublethally gamma-irradiated mice. Treatment with sodium salicylate was ineffective in this respect, administration of sodium salicylate together with indomethacin even decreased the indomethacin-induced effects. The results suggest that the hemopoiesis-stimulating effects of non-steroidal anti-flammatory drugs cannot be correlated with the anti-inflammatory activity but rather with the side effects of these compounds, including the action on gastro-intestinal prostanoid production. This conclusion doubts on the possibility of the usefulness of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in conditions of the radiation syndrome. (orig.) [de

  12. Human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells and brain-derived neurotrophic factor protect injured optic nerve: viscoelasticity characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-man Lv

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The optic nerve is a viscoelastic solid-like biomaterial. Its normal stress relaxation and creep properties enable the nerve to resist constant strain and protect it from injury. We hypothesized that stress relaxation and creep properties of the optic nerve change after injury. More-over, human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells may restore these changes to normal. To validate this hypothesis, a rabbit model of optic nerve injury was established using a clamp approach. At 7 days after injury, the vitreous body re-ceived a one-time injection of 50 µg human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or 1 × 106 human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells. At 30 days after injury, stress relaxation and creep properties of the optic nerve that received treatment had recovered greatly, with patho-logical changes in the injured optic nerve also noticeably improved. These results suggest that human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or umbilical cord blood-derived stem cell intervention promotes viscoelasticity recovery of injured optic nerves, and thereby contributes to nerve recovery.

  13. Protective effect of milk constituents and sublethal injuries limiting process effectiveness during PEF inactivation of Lb. rhamnosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, H; Schulz, A; Karapetkov, N; Knorr, D

    2009-08-31

    The inactivation of Lb. rhamnosus by pulsed electric field treatment (PEF) was studied in different fractions of raw milk and Ringer solution in order to evaluate the protective effect of nutrient rich media in comparison to aqueous buffer solutions. Apart from monitoring of culturability, analysis of the physiological fitness of Lb. rhamnosus was conducted aiming to identify sublethally damaged cells. Therefore, flow cytometry and a selective medium plating technique were used and compared to each other. The goal of the study was to apply three different parameters describing the physiological fitness of the model organism Lb. rhamnosus after PEF treatment such as culturability, membrane permeability and metabolic activity depending on treatment media and parameters. A concentration dependent protective effect of the milk protein fraction could be shown and allocated to micellar casein as the major milk protein. Increasing the concentration of whey proteins up to 2% showed a similar impact on limiting the PEF inactivation of Lb. rhamnosus. The evaluation of physiological fitness of cells was based on a determination of structural and functional characteristics by rapid cellular staining using carboxyfluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide. This approach showed good accordance to the conventional selective medium plating technique for the enumeration of sublethally-injured bacteria but flow cytometry provided additional information for the characterisation of this fraction. The extent of occurrence of dead, sublethal and vital fractions of cells was found dependent on the PEF treatment parameters such as electrical field strength and energy input as well as the different milk fractions used as treatment media.

  14. Human amniotic epithelial cell transplantation for the repair of injured brachial plexus nerve: evaluation of nerve viscoelastic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transplantation of embryonic stem cells can effectively improve the creeping strength of nerves near an injury site in animals. Amniotic epithelial cells have similar biological properties as embryonic stem cells; therefore, we hypothesized that transplantation of amniotic epithelial cells can repair peripheral nerve injury and recover the creeping strength of the brachial plexus nerve. In the present study, a brachial plexus injury model was established in rabbits using the C 6 root avulsion method. A suspension of human amniotic epithelial cells was repeatedly injected over an area 4.0 mm lateral to the cephal and caudal ends of the C 6 brachial plexus injury site (1 × 10 6 cells/mL, 3 μL/injection, 25 injections immediately after the injury. The results showed that the decrease in stress and increase in strain at 7,200 seconds in the injured rabbit C 6 brachial plexus nerve were mitigated by the cell transplantation, restoring the viscoelastic stress relaxation and creep properties of the brachial plexus nerve. The forepaw functions were also significantly improved at 26 weeks after injury. These data indicate that transplantation of human amniotic epithelial cells can effectively restore the mechanical properties of the brachial plexus nerve after injury in rabbits and that viscoelasticity may be an important index for the evaluation of brachial plexus injury in animals.

  15. Cytotoxicity and Hsp 70 induction in Hep G2 cells in response to zearalenone and cytoprotection by sub-lethal heat shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassen, Wafa; Golli, Emna El; Baudrimont, Isabelle; Mobio, A. Theophile; Ladjimi, M. Moncef; Creppy, E. Edmond; Bacha, Hassen

    2005-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a mycotoxin with several adverse effects in laboratory and domestic animals. The mechanism of ZEN toxicity that involves mainly binding to oestrogen receptors and inhibition of macromolecules synthesis is not fully understood. Using human hepatocytes Hep G2 cells as a model, the aim of this work was (i) to investigate the ability of ZEN to induce heat shock proteins Hsp 70 and (ii) to find out the mechanisms of ZEN cytotoxicity by examining cell proliferation and protein synthesis. Our study demonstrated that ZEN induces Hsp 70 expression in a time and dose-dependant manner; this induction occurs at non-cytotoxic concentrations, it could be therefore considered as a biomarker of toxicity. A cytoprotective effect of Hsp 70 was elicited when Hep G2 cells were exposed to Sub-Lethal heat shock prior to ZEN treatment and evidenced by a reduced ZEN cytolethality. This cytoprotection suggests that Hsp 70 may constitute an important cellular defence mechanism. Finally, our data show that ZEN is cytotoxic in Hep G2 cells by inhibiting cell proliferation and total protein synthesis and pointed out oxidative damage as possible pathway involved in ZEN toxicity; however, other investigations are needed to further confirm Zen induced oxidative stress

  16. HYSTOMORPHOLOGIC CHANGES IN INJURED MENISCI IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Bogatov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work was studying histological changes in the injured menisci in children. The histological evaluation of injured menisci received during arthroscopy was performed. The prescription of injury varied from several days till 3 years. It was shown that injured fragment of the meniscus is viable up to 3 months since trauma. It was also obvious that active migration of the meniscus cells occur in the injured fragment and microvessels are seen in 50% of the meniscus tissues.

  17. In vivo transformation of neural stem cells following transplantation in the injured nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Christine; Redeker, Joern; Jokuszies, Andreas; Vogt, Peter M

    2010-04-01

    Johnson et al report tumor formation following murine neural precursor cell transplantation in a rat peripheral nerve injury model, emphasizing the importance of full in vitro characterization of cells prior to transplantation. Cell lines can change during expansion and subclones which may become tumerogenic may be selected in the process of expansion. Cell transplantation studies with committed cells that have been minimally manipulated and expanded in culture such as olfactory ensheathing cells and Schwann cells may pose less risk of tumerogenicity, but have the disadvantage of limited cell harvest yields. The balance between in vitro transformation of expanded cell lines and the limitation of cell harvest yields from preparation of more stable committed cells must be considered in selection of cells for therapeutic intervention for nerve repair. Copyright Thieme Medical Publishers.

  18. Inactivation by oxidation and recruitment into stress granules of hOGG1 but not APE1 in human cells exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravard, Anne; Campalans, Anna; Vacher, Monique; Gouget, Barbara; Levalois, Celine; Chevillard, Sylvie; Radicella, J. Pablo

    2010-01-01

    The induction of mutations in mammalian cells exposed to cadmium has been associated with the oxidative stress triggered by the metal. There is increasing evidence that the mutagenic potential of Cd is not restricted to the induction of DNA lesions. Cd has been shown to inactivate several DNA repair enzymes. Here we show that exposure of human cells to sub-lethal concentrations of Cd leads to a time- and concentration-dependent decrease in hOGG1 activity, the major DNA glycosylase activity responsible for the initiation of the base excision repair (BER) of 8-oxoguanine, an abundant and mutagenic form of oxidized guanine. Although there is a slight effect on the level of hOGG1 transcripts, we show that the inhibition of the 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase activity is mainly associated with an oxidation of the hOGG1 protein and its disappearance from the soluble fraction of total cell extracts. Confocal microscopy analyses show that in cells exposed to Cd hOGG1-GFP is recruited to discrete structures in the cytoplasm. These structures were identified as stress granules. Removal of Cd from the medium allows the recovery of the DNA glycosylase activity and the presence of hOGG1 in a soluble form. In contrast to hOGG1, we show here that exposure to Cd does not affect the activity of the second enzyme of the pathway, the major AP endonuclease APE1.

  19. MR diffusion tensor imaging in the evaluation of neural progenitor cells transplantation to acute injured canine spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoying; Tan Ke; Ni Shilei; Bao Shengde; Jiang Xuexiang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of transplantation of telomerase immortalized human neural progenitor cells to acute injured canine spinal cord by using MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Methods: Telomerase immortalized human neural progenitor cells with expression of green fluorescent protein were prepared for transplantation. Eight adult canines with left spinal cord hemisection at the level of T13 were examined by MR diffusion tensor imaging four times sequentially: prior to injury, one week after injury, one week after transplantation (two weeks after injury), and four weeks after transplantation. Results: The ADC values of the injured spinal cord were (1.00 ± 0.15) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, (1.65 ± 0.45) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, (1.44 ± 0.48) xl0 -3 mm 2 /s, and (1.43 ± 0.26) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, respectively. There was statistically significant difference between the data obtained at different times (F= 6.038, P=0.005). The FA values of the injured spinal cord were 0.59±0.11, 0.30±0.17, 0.36±0.25, and 0.34±0.11, respectively. There was also statistically significant difference between the data obtained at different times (F=5.221, P=0.009). The ADC values of the intact spinal cord were (1.01±0.17) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, (1.32±0.06) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, (1.10±0.24) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, and (1.14±0.22) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the data obtained at different times (F=1.303, P=0.306). The FA values of the intact spinal cord were 0.60 ± 0.09, 0.38 ± 0.25, 0.46 ± 0.15, and 0.50 ± 0.21, respectively. There was also no statistically significant difference between the data obtained at different times (F=2.797, P=0.072). Conclusion: DTI can provide useful information for spinal cord injury and regeneration in experimental spinal cord injury. (authors)

  20. Critical analysis of the maximum non inhibitory concentration (MNIC) method in quantifying sub-lethal injury in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells exposed to either thermal or pulsed electric field treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kethireddy, V; Oey, I; Jowett, Tim; Bremer, P

    2016-09-16

    Sub-lethal injury within a microbial population, due to processing treatments or environmental stress, is often assessed as the difference in the number of cells recovered on non-selective media compared to numbers recovered on a "selective media" containing a predetermined maximum non-inhibitory concentration (MNIC) of a selective agent. However, as knowledge of cell metabolic response to injury, population diversity and dynamics increased, the rationale behind the conventional approach of quantifying sub-lethal injury must be scrutinized further. This study reassessed the methodology used to quantify sub-lethal injury for Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells (≈ 4.75 Log CFU/mL) exposed to either a mild thermal (45°C for 0, 10 and 20min) or a mild pulsed electric field treatment (field strengths of 8.0-9.0kV/cm and energy levels of 8, 14 and 21kJ/kg). Treated cells were plated onto either Yeast Malt agar (YM) or YM containing NaCl, as a selective agent at 5-15% in 1% increments. The impact of sub-lethal stress due to initial processing, the stress due to selective agents in the plating media, and the subsequent variation of inhibition following the treatments was assessed based on the CFU count (cell numbers). ANOVA and a generalised least squares model indicated significant effects of media, treatments, and their interaction effects (P<0.05) on cell numbers. It was shown that the concentration of the selective agent used dictated the extent of sub-lethal injury recorded owing to the interaction effects of the selective component (NaCl) in the recovery media. Our findings highlight a potential common misunderstanding on how culture conditions impact on sub-lethal injury. Interestingly for S. cerevisiae cells the number of cells recovered at different NaCl concentrations in the media appears to provide valuable information about the mode of injury, the comparative efficacy of different processing regimes and the inherent degree of resistance within a population. This

  1. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy for Protection and Repair of Injured Vital Organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Poll, D.; Parekkadan, B.; Rinkes, I. H. M. Borel; Tilles, A. W.; Yarmush, M. L.

    Recently there has been a paradigm shift in what is considered to be the therapeutic promise of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in diseases of vital organs. Originally, research focused on MSCs as a source of regenerative cells by differentiation of transplanted cells into lost cell types. It is now

  2. Role of protein synthesis in the repair of sublethal x-ray damage in a mutant Chinese hamster ovary cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yezzi, M.J.

    1985-04-01

    A temperature-sensitive mutant for protein synthesis, CHO-TSH1, has been compared to the wild-type cell, CHO-sC1, in single- and split-radiation-dose schemes. When the exponentially growing TS mutant and the wild-type cells were treated at 40 0 C for up to 2 hrs prior to graded doses of x rays, the survival curves were identical and were the same as those obtained without heat treatment. If the cultures were incubated at 40 0 C for 2 hrs before a first dose and maintained at 40 0 C during a 2 hr dose fractionation interval, repair of radiation damage was reduced in the mutant compared to the wild type. These observations implied that a pool of proteins was involved in the repair of sublethal x-ray damage. However, if repair was measured by the alkaline-unwinding technique under the same time and temperature schemes, no difference in the kientics of DNA strand rejoining was observed. Misrepair processes may permit restoration of DNA strand integrity but not allow functional repair. The effect of diminished repair under conditions of inhibition of protein synthesis was found to be cell-cycle dependent in survival studies with synchronized mutant cell populations. Repair was found to be almost completely eliminated if the temperature sequence described above was applied in the middle of the DNA synthetic phase. Treatment of cell populations in the middle of G 1 -phase yielded repair inhibition comparable to that observed with the asynchronous cells. Splitdose experiments were done using pre-incubation with cycloheximide to chemically inhibit protein synthesis. WT cells and TS cells were treated with cycloheximide at 35 0 C for 2 hrs before a first dose and during a 2 hr dose fractionation interval. 23 figs., 7 tabs

  3. Role of protein synthesis in the repair of sublethal x-ray damage in a mutant Chinese hamster ovary cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yezzi, M.J.

    1985-04-01

    A temperature-sensitive mutant for protein synthesis, CHO-TSH1, has been compared to the wild-type cell, CHO-sC1, in single- and split-radiation-dose schemes. When the exponentially growing TS mutant and the wild-type cells were treated at 40/sub 0/C for up to 2 hrs prior to graded doses of x rays, the survival curves were identical and were the same as those obtained without heat treatment. If the cultures were incubated at 40/sup 0/C for 2 hrs before a first dose and maintained at 40/sup 0/C during a 2 hr dose fractionation interval, repair of radiation damage was reduced in the mutant compared to the wild type. These observations implied that a pool of proteins was involved in the repair of sublethal x-ray damage. However, if repair was measured by the alkaline-unwinding technique under the same time and temperature schemes, no difference in the kientics of DNA strand rejoining was observed. Misrepair processes may permit restoration of DNA strand integrity but not allow functional repair. The effect of diminished repair under conditions of inhibition of protein synthesis was found to be cell-cycle dependent in survival studies with synchronized mutant cell populations. Repair was found to be almost completely eliminated if the temperature sequence described above was applied in the middle of the DNA synthetic phase. Treatment of cell populations in the middle of G/sub 1/-phase yielded repair inhibition comparable to that observed with the asynchronous cells. Splitdose experiments were done using pre-incubation with cycloheximide to chemically inhibit protein synthesis. WT cells and TS cells were treated with cycloheximide at 35/sup 0/C for 2 hrs before a first dose and during a 2 hr dose fractionation interval. 23 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Proteomic analysis of differentiating neuroblastoma cells treated with sub-lethal neurite inhibitory concentrations of diazinon: Identification of novel biomarkers of effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, W.; Sachana, M.; Flaskos, J.; Hargreaves, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    In previous work we showed that sub-lethal levels of diazinon inhibited neurite outgrowth in differentiating N2a neuroblastoma cells. Western blotting analysis targeted at proteins involved in axon growth and stress responses, revealed that such exposure led to a reduction in the levels of neurofilament heavy chain, microtubule associated protein 1 B (MAP 1B) and HSP-70. The aim of this study was to apply the approach of 2 dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify novel biomarkers of effect. A number of proteins were found to be up-regulated compared to the control on silver-stained gels. These were classified in to 3 main groups of proteins: cytosolic factors, chaperones and the actin-binding protein cofilin, all of which are involved in cell differentiation, survival or metabolism. The changes observed for cofilin were further confirmed by quantitative Western blotting analysis with anti-actin and anti-cofilin antibodies. Indirect immunofluorescence staining with the same antibodies indicated that the microfilament network was disrupted in diazinon-treated cells. Our data suggest that microfilament organisation is disrupted by diazinon exposure, which may be related to increased cofilin expression.

  5. Slow-Adhering Stem Cells Derived from Injured Skeletal Muscle Have Improved Regenerative Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    stress urinary incontinence . Urology 2006, 68:449–454 15. Chermansky CJ, Tarin T, Kwon DD, Jankowski RJ, Cannon TW, de Groat WC, Huard J, Chancellor...from control noninjured muscle. These data suggest that traumatic injury may modify stem cell characteristics through trophic factors and improve the...alter the microenvironment of resident muscle cells (ie, stimu- lating cell dedifferentiation on various trophic factors )20,21 and result in profound

  6. Sublethal concentrations of 17-AAG suppress homologous recombination DNA repair and enhance sensitivity to carboplatin and olaparib in HR proficient ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Eun; Battelli, Chiara; Watson, Jacqueline; Liu, Joyce; Curtis, Jennifer; Morse, Alexander N; Matulonis, Ursula A; Chowdhury, Dipanjan; Konstantinopoulos, Panagiotis A

    2014-05-15

    The promise of PARP-inhibitors(PARPis) in the management of epithelial ovarian cancer(EOC) is tempered by the fact that approximately 50% of patients with homologous recombination (HR)-proficient tumors do not respond well to these agents. Combination of PARPis with agents that inhibit HR may represent an effective strategy to enhance their activity in HR-proficient tumors. Using a bioinformatics approach, we identified that heat shock protein 90 inhibitors(HSP90i) may suppress HR and thus revert HR-proficient to HR-deficient tumors. Analysis of publicly available gene expression data showed that exposure of HR-proficient breast cancer cell lines to HSP90i 17-AAG(17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin) downregulated HR, ATM and Fanconi Anemia pathways. In HR-proficient EOC cells, 17-AAG suppressed HR as assessed using the RAD51 foci formation assay and this was further confirmed using the Direct Repeat-GFP reporter assay. Furthermore, 17-AAG downregulated BRCA1 and/or RAD51 protein levels, and induced significantly more γH2AX activation in combination with olaparib compared to olaparib alone. Finally, sublethal concentrations of 17-AAG sensitized HR-proficient EOC lines to olaparib and carboplatin but did not affect sensitivity of the HR-deficient OVCAR8 line arguing that the 17-AAG mediated sensitization is dependent on suppression of HR. These results provide a preclinical rationale for using a combination of olaparib/17-AAG in HR-proficient EOC.

  7. Behavior of pulsed electric field injured Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells in apple juice amended with pyruvate and catalase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulse Electric Field (PEF) treatment has been used to inactivate bacteria in liquid foods. However, information on the behavior of PEF injured Escherichia coli bacteria in media during storage at 5 and 23C are limited. In this study, we investigated the fate of E. coli O157:H7 cells at 6.8 log CFU/m...

  8. Neural stem cells in the ischemic and injured brain: endogenous and transplanted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jing; Liu, Baohua; Song, Lei; Lu, Lei; Xu, Haitao; Gu, Yue

    2012-12-01

    Neural stem cells functions as the pool of new neurons in adult brain, and plays important roles in normal brain function. Additionally, this pool reacts to brain ischemia, hemorrhage, trauma and many kinds of diseases, serving as endogenous repair mechanisms. The present manuscript discussed the responses of adult neurogenesis to brain ischemia and other insults, then the potential of neural stem cell transplantation therapy to treat such brain injury conditions.

  9. Genetic modification of mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing CCR1 increases cell viability, migration, engraftment, and capillary density in the injured myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Zhang, Zhiping; Guo, Jian; Ni, Aiguo; Deb, Arjun; Zhang, Lunan; Mirotsou, Maria; Pratt, Richard E; Dzau, Victor J

    2010-06-11

    Although mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation has been shown to promote cardiac repair in acute myocardial injury in vivo, its overall restorative capacity appears to be restricted mainly because of poor cell viability and low engraftment in the ischemic myocardium. Specific chemokines are upregulated in the infarcted myocardium. However the expression levels of the corresponding chemokine receptors (eg, CCR1, CXCR2) in MSCs are very low. We hypothesized that this discordance may account for the poor MSC engraftment and survival. To determine whether overexpression of CCR1 or CXCR2 chemokine receptors in MSCs augments their cell survival, migration and engraftment after injection in the infarcted myocardium. Overexpression of CCR1, but not CXCR2, dramatically increased chemokine-induced murine MSC migration and protected MSC from apoptosis in vitro. Moreover, when MSCs were injected intramyocardially one hour after coronary artery ligation, CCR1-MSCs accumulated in the infarcted myocardium at significantly higher levels than control-MSCs or CXCR2-MSCs 3 days postmyocardial infarction (MI). CCR1-MSC-injected hearts exhibited a significant reduction in infarct size, reduced cardiomyocytes apoptosis and increased capillary density in injured myocardium 3 days after MI. Furthermore, intramyocardial injection of CCR1-MSCs prevented cardiac remodeling and restored cardiac function 4 weeks after MI. Our results demonstrate the in vitro and in vivo salutary effects of genetic modification of stem cells. Specifically, overexpression of chemokine receptor enhances the migration, survival and engraftment of MSCs, and may provide a new therapeutic strategy for the injured myocardium.

  10. Lipid accumulation in human breast cancer cells injured by iron depletors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bortoli, Maida; Taverna, Elena; Maffioli, Elisa; Casalini, Patrizia; Crisafi, Francesco; Kumar, Vikas; Caccia, Claudio; Polli, Dario; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Bongarzone, Italia

    2018-04-03

    Current insights into the effects of iron deficiency in tumour cells are not commensurate with the importance of iron in cell metabolism. Studies have predominantly focused on the effects of oxygen or glucose scarcity in tumour cells, while attributing insufficient emphasis to the inadequate supply of iron in hypoxic regions. Cellular responses to iron deficiency and hypoxia are interlinked and may strongly affect tumour metabolism. We examined the morphological, proteomic, and metabolic effects induced by two iron chelators-deferoxamine (DFO) and di-2-pyridylketone 4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Dp44mT)-on MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-157 breast cancer cells. These chelators induced a cytoplasmic massive vacuolation and accumulation of lipid droplets (LDs), eventually followed by implosive, non-autophagic, and non-apoptotic death similar to methuosis. Vacuoles and LDs are generated by expansion of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) based on extracellular fluid import, which includes unsaturated fatty acids that accumulate in LDs. Typical physiological phenomena associated with hypoxia are observed, such as inhibition of translation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and metabolic remodelling. These survival-oriented changes are associated with a greater expression of epithelial/mesenchymal transcription markers. Iron starvation induces a hypoxia-like program able to scavenge nutrients from the extracellular environment, and cells assume a hypertrophic phenotype. Such survival strategy is accompanied by the ER-dependent massive cytoplasmic vacuolization, mitochondrial dysfunctions, and LD accumulation and then evolves into cell death. LDs containing a greater proportion of unsaturated lipids are released as a consequence of cell death. The consequence of the disruption of iron metabolism in tumour tissue and the effects of LDs on intercellular communication, cancer-inflammation axis, and immunity remain to be explored. Considering the potential benefits, these are crucial

  11. Single dose of inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor induces prolonged inflammatory cell accumulation and fibrosis around injured tendon and synovium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Darmani

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available THE aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of inhibition of nitric oxide (NO production after injury on inflammatory cell accumulation and fibrosis around digital flexor tendon and synovium. A standard crush injury was applied to the flexor tendons of the middle digit of the hindpaw and the overlying muscle and synovium of female Wistar rats. Thirty animals received an intraperitoneal injection of either isotonic saline or N(G-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 5 mg/kg immediately following the crush injury, and five animals were then sacrificed at various intervals and the paws processed for histology. Another group of five animals was sacrificed after 3 days for nitrite determinations. The results showed that nitrite production and hence NO synthase activity is doubled at the acute phase of tendon wound healing, and we can prevent this by administering a single dose of L-NAME immediately after injury. The incidence and severity of fibrocellular adhesions between tendon and synovium was much more marked in animals treated with L-NAME. Treatment with L-NAME elicited a chronic inflammatory response characterised by a persistent and extraordinarily severe accumulation of large numbers of inflammatory cells in the subcutaneous tissues, in muscle and in tendon. These findings indicate that in the case of injured tendon and synovium, NO could act to protect the healing tissue from an uncontrolled inflammatory response.

  12. Protective mechanism of agmatine pretreatment on RGC-5 cells injured by oxidative stress

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    Y. Iizuka

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Agmatine has neuroprotective effects on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs as well as cortical and spinal neurons. It protects RGCs from oxidative stress even when it is not present at the time of injury. As agmatine has high affinity for various cellular receptors, we assessed protective mechanisms of agmatine using transformed RGCs (RGC-5 cell line. Differentiated RGC-5 cells were pretreated with 100 μM agmatine and consecutively exposed to 1.0 mM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. Cell viability was determined by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and the effects of selective alpha 2-adrenergic receptor antagonist yohimbine (0-500 nM and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA receptor agonist NMDA (0-100 µM were evaluated. Agmatine’s protective effect was compared to a selective NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801. After a 16-h exposure to H2O2, the LDH assay showed cell loss greater than 50%, which was reduced to about 30% when agmatine was pretreated before injury. Yohimbine almost completely inhibited agmatine’s protective effect, but NMDA did not. In addition, MK-801 (0-100 µM did not significantly attenuate the H2O2-induced cytotoxicity. Our results suggest that neuroprotective effects of agmatine on RGCs under oxidative stress may be mainly attributed to the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor signaling pathway.

  13. Intraovarian Transplantation of Female Germline Stem Cells Rescue Ovarian Function in Chemotherapy-Injured Ovaries.

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    Jiaqiang Xiong

    Full Text Available Early menopause and infertility often occur in female cancer patients after chemotherapy (CTx. For these patients, oocyte/embryo cryopreservation or ovarian tissue cryopreservation is the current modality for fertility preservation. However, the above methods are limited in the long-term protection of ovarian function, especially for fertility preservation (very few females with cancer have achieved pregnancy with cryopreserved ovarian tissue or eggs until now. In addition, the above methods are subject to their scope (females with no husband or prepubertal females with no mature oocytes. Thus, many females who suffer from cancers would not adopt the above methods pre- and post-CTx due to their uncertainty, safety and cost-effectiveness. Therefore, millions of women have achieved long-term survival after thorough CTx treatment and have desired to rescue their ovarian function and fertility with economic, durable and reliable methods. Recently, some studies showed that mice with infertility caused by CTx can produce normal offspring through intraovarian injection of exogenous female germline stem cells (FGSCs. Though exogenous FGSC can be derived from mice without immune rejection in the same strain, it is difficult to obtain human female germline stem cells (hFGSCs, and immune rejection could occur between different individuals. In this study, infertility in mice was caused by CTx, and the ability of FGSCs to restore ovarian function or even produce offspring was assessed. We had successfully isolated and purified the FGSCs from adult female mice two weeks after CTx. After infection with GFP-carrying virus, the FGSCs were transplanted into ovaries of mice with infertility caused by CTx. Finally, ovarian function was restored and the recipients produced offspring long-term. These findings showed that mice with CTx possessed FGSCs, restoring ovarian function and avoiding immune rejection from exogenous germline stem cells.

  14. Intraovarian Transplantation of Female Germline Stem Cells Rescue Ovarian Function in Chemotherapy-Injured Ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jiaqiang; Lu, Zhiyong; Wu, Meng; Zhang, Jinjin; Cheng, Jing; Luo, Aiyue; Shen, Wei; Fang, Li; Zhou, Su; Wang, Shixuan

    2015-01-01

    Early menopause and infertility often occur in female cancer patients after chemotherapy (CTx). For these patients, oocyte/embryo cryopreservation or ovarian tissue cryopreservation is the current modality for fertility preservation. However, the above methods are limited in the long-term protection of ovarian function, especially for fertility preservation (very few females with cancer have achieved pregnancy with cryopreserved ovarian tissue or eggs until now). In addition, the above methods are subject to their scope (females with no husband or prepubertal females with no mature oocytes). Thus, many females who suffer from cancers would not adopt the above methods pre- and post-CTx due to their uncertainty, safety and cost-effectiveness. Therefore, millions of women have achieved long-term survival after thorough CTx treatment and have desired to rescue their ovarian function and fertility with economic, durable and reliable methods. Recently, some studies showed that mice with infertility caused by CTx can produce normal offspring through intraovarian injection of exogenous female germline stem cells (FGSCs). Though exogenous FGSC can be derived from mice without immune rejection in the same strain, it is difficult to obtain human female germline stem cells (hFGSCs), and immune rejection could occur between different individuals. In this study, infertility in mice was caused by CTx, and the ability of FGSCs to restore ovarian function or even produce offspring was assessed. We had successfully isolated and purified the FGSCs from adult female mice two weeks after CTx. After infection with GFP-carrying virus, the FGSCs were transplanted into ovaries of mice with infertility caused by CTx. Finally, ovarian function was restored and the recipients produced offspring long-term. These findings showed that mice with CTx possessed FGSCs, restoring ovarian function and avoiding immune rejection from exogenous germline stem cells.

  15. Comparing the different response of PNS and CNS injured neurons to mesenchymal stem cell treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfrini, Marianna; Ravasi, Maddalena; Maggioni, Daniele; Donzelli, Elisabetta; Tredici, Giovanni; Cavaletti, Guido; Scuteri, Arianna

    2018-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult bone marrow-derived stem cells actually proposed indifferently for the therapy of neurological diseases of both the Central (CNS) and the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS), as a panacea able to treat so many different diseases by their immunomodulatory ability and supportive action on neuronal survival. However, the identification of the exact mechanism of MSC action in the different diseases, although mandatory to define their real and concrete utility, is still lacking. Moreover, CNS and PNS neurons present many different biological properties, and it is still unclear if they respond in the same manner not only to MSC treatment, but also to injuries. For these reasons, in this study we compared the susceptibility of cortical and sensory neurons both to toxic drug exposure and to MSC action, in order to verify if these two neuronal populations can respond differently. Our results demonstrated that Cisplatin (CDDP), Glutamate, and Paclitaxel-treated sensory neurons were protected by the co-culture with MSCs, in different manners: through direct contact able to block apoptosis for CDDP- and Glutamate-treated neurons, and by the release of trophic factors for Paclitaxel-treated ones. A possible key soluble factor for MSC protection was Glutathione, spontaneously released by these cells. On the contrary, cortical neurons resulted more sensitive than sensory ones to the toxic action of the drugs, and overall MSCs failed to protect them. All these data identified for the first time a different susceptibility of cortical and sensory neurons, and demonstrated a protective action of MSCs only against drugs in peripheral neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Ror1 receptor tyrosine kinase plays a critical role in regulating satellite cell proliferation during regeneration of injured muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamizaki, Koki; Doi, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Makoto; Saji, Takeshi; Kanagawa, Motoi; Toda, Tatsushi; Fukada, So-Ichiro; Ho, Hsin-Yi Henry; Greenberg, Michael Eldon; Endo, Mitsuharu; Minami, Yasuhiro

    2017-09-22

    The Ror family receptor tyrosine kinases, Ror1 and Ror2, play important roles in regulating developmental morphogenesis and tissue- and organogenesis, but their roles in tissue regeneration in adult animals remain largely unknown. In this study, we examined the expression and function of Ror1 and Ror2 during skeletal muscle regeneration. Using an in vivo skeletal muscle injury model, we show that expression of Ror1 and Ror2 in skeletal muscles is induced transiently by the inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-1β, after injury and that inhibition of TNF-α and IL-1β by neutralizing antibodies suppresses expression of Ror1 and Ror2 in injured muscles. Importantly, expression of Ror1 , but not Ror2 , was induced primarily in Pax7-positive satellite cells (SCs) after muscle injury, and administration of neutralizing antibodies decreased the proportion of Pax7-positive proliferative SCs after muscle injury. We also found that stimulation of a mouse myogenic cell line, C2C12 cells, with TNF-α or IL-1β induced expression of Ror1 via NF-κB activation and that suppressed expression of Ror1 inhibited their proliferative responses in SCs. Intriguingly, SC-specific depletion of Ror1 decreased the number of Pax7-positive SCs after muscle injury. Collectively, these findings indicate for the first time that Ror1 has a critical role in regulating SC proliferation during skeletal muscle regeneration. We conclude that Ror1 might be a suitable target in the development of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to manage muscular disorders. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. 28Si total body irradiation injures bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells via induction of cellular apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jianhui; Feng, Wei; Wang, Yingying; Allen, Antiño R.; Turner, Jennifer; Stewart, Blair; Raber, Jacob; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Zhou, Daohong; Shao, Lijian

    2017-05-01

    Long-term space mission exposes astronauts to a radiation environment with potential health hazards. High-energy charged particles (HZE), including 28Si nuclei in space, have deleterious effects on cells due to their characteristics with high linear energy transfer and dense ionization. The influence of 28Si ions contributes more than 10% to the radiation dose equivalent in the space environment. Understanding the biological effects of 28Si irradiation is important to assess the potential health hazards of long-term space missions. The hematopoietic system is highly sensitive to radiation injury and bone marrow (BM) suppression is the primary life-threatening injuries after exposure to a moderate dose of radiation. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the acute effects of low doses of 28Si irradiation on the hematopoietic system in a mouse model. Specifically, 6-month-old C57BL/6 J mice were exposed to 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 Gy 28Si (600 MeV) total body irradiation (TBI). The effects of 28Si TBI on BM hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) were examined four weeks after the exposure. The results showed that exposure to 28Si TBI dramatically reduced the frequencies and numbers of HSCs in irradiated mice, compared to non-irradiated controls, in a radiation dose-dependent manner. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in BM HPCs regardless of radiation doses. Furthermore, irradiated HSCs exhibited a significant impairment in clonogenic ability. These acute effects of 28Si irradiation on HSCs may be attributable to radiation-induced apoptosis of HSCs, because HSCs, but not HPCs, from irradiated mice exhibited a significant increase in apoptosis in a radiation dose-dependent manner. However, exposure to low doses of 28Si did not result in an increased production of reactive oxygen species and DNA damage in HSCs and HPCs. These findings indicate that exposure to 28Si irradiation leads to acute HSC damage.

  18. Sequential appearance of thymocyte subpopulations and T cell antigen receptor gene messages in the mouse thymus after sublethal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomooka, S.; Matsuzaki, G.; Kishihara, K.; Tanaka, K.; Yoshikai, Y.; Taniguchi, K.; Himeno, K.; Nomoto, K.

    1987-01-01

    The sequential differentiation patterns of thymocyte were observed with cell surface phenotypes and the expression of T cell antigen receptor in 800 rad irradiated adult mice. Thymus was severely reduced in size and cell number by day 5 after whole body irradiation and rapidly recovered from day 7 to day 14. Surface marker analysis on day 5 after irradiation showed thymocytes with Thy-1low L3T4+/Lyt-2- dominantly existed and suggested that these cells were radioresistant-survived cells. On the other hand, thymocytes on day 7 were composed of a large number of Thy-1high L3T4+/Lyt-2+ blast-like cells and a relatively high proportion of Thy-1high L3T4-/Lyt-2- cells which expressed a large amount of gamma-chain gene messages but scarcely any alpha- and beta-chain gene messages similar to the fetal thymocytes. On day 14, thymocytes were composed mostly of Thy-1high H-2low L3T4+/Lyt-2+ subpopulation which expressed a remarkably low level of gamma-chain gene messages, and high levels of alpha- and beta-chain transcripts analogous to those of normal adult thymus. Taken together, intrathymic radioresistent stem cells for T thymocytes seem to proliferate and differentiate after irradiation with the same pattern as was seen in a fetal thymus development

  19. Virally delivered, constitutively active NFκB improves survival of injured retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvoriantchikova, Galina; Pappas, Steve; Luo, Xueting; Ribeiro, Marcio; Danek, Dagmara; Pelaez, Daniel; Park, Kevin K; Ivanov, Dmitry

    2016-12-01

    As axon damage and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss lead to blindness, therapies that increase RGC survival and axon regrowth have direct clinical relevance. Given that NFκB signaling is critical for neuronal survival and may regulate neurite growth, we investigated the therapeutic potential of NFκB signaling in RGC survival and axon regeneration. Although both NFκB subunits (p65 and p50) are present in RGCs, p65 exists in an inactive (unphosphorylated) state when RGCs are subjected to neurotoxic conditions. In this study, we used a phosphomimetic approach to generate DNA coding for an activated (phosphorylated) p65 (p65mut), then employed an adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) to deliver the DNA into RGCs. We tested whether constitutive p65mut expression prevents death and facilitates neurite outgrowth in RGCs subjected to transient retinal ischemia or optic nerve crush (ONC), two models of neurotoxicity. Our data indicate that RGCs treated with AAV2-p65mut displayed a significant increase in survival compared to controls in ONC model (77 ± 7% vs. 25 ± 3%, P-value = 0.0001). We also found protective effect of modified p65 in RGCs of ischemic retinas (55 ± 12% vs. 35 ± 6%), but not to a statistically significant degree (P-value = 0.14). We did not detect a difference in axon regeneration between experimental and control animals after ONC. These findings suggest that increased NFκB signaling in RGCs attenuates retinal damage in animal models of neurodegeneration, but insignificantly impacts axon regeneration. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A single exposure to a sublethal pediocin concentration initiates a resistance-associated temporal cell envelope and general stress response in Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Bahl, Martin Iain; Licht, Tine Rask

    2015-01-01

    was to determine if exposure to sublethal concentrations of pediocin-containing Lactobacillus plantarum WHE 92 supernatant could prime L. monocytogenes for resistance. By transcriptomic analysis, we found two, 55 and 539 genes differentially expressed after 10, 60 and 180 min of exposure to L. plantarum WHE 92...... resistant than wild types to L. plantarum WHE 92 supernatant. LisRK, SigB and SigL regulation and genes associated with resistance are involved in the temporal adaptive response to pediocin and all three regulatory systems affect pediocin resistance. Thus, a single exposure to a sublethal pediocin...

  1. Influence of vaccination with Bordetella pertussis cells on haemopoiesis in sublethally irradiated mice and their radiation lethality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiek, S.; Bitny-Szlachto, S.

    1978-01-01

    Post-irradiation lethality of CFW mice has turned out to be enhanced by vaccination with Bordetella pertussis cells 10 min., 48 hrs. prior or 48 hrs. after the exposure to X-rays. The sensitization factor was found to be 1.23, as it revealed by decrease of radiation LD 50 . Granulopoiesis and erythropoiesis proved to be stimulated by vaccination, in mice irradiated with 200 or 400 R but not in those after 600 R. Direct radiosensitivity of CFU was not altered by vaccination, but the subsequent loss of bone marrow stem cells was enhanced in vaccinated mice. On the other hand, endocolonization of spleens with bone marrow stem cells has turned out to be highly enhanced by the vaccine, resulting in confluent growth of colonies. This effect of the vaccine was not abolished by hydroxyurea given 15 min. or 1 hr. after vaccination. Enhanced post-irradiation lethality is considered to result from fall of the bone marrow stem cell pool below the level indispensable to ensure the post-irradiation recovery of the haemopoietic system. (author)

  2. Low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field pretreated bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote the regeneration of crush-injured rat mental nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, NaRi; Lee, Sung-Ho; Ju, Kyung Won; Woo, JaeMan; Kim, BongJu; Kim, SoungMin; Jahng, Jeong Won; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2018-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been shown to promote the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves. Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) reportedly promotes the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of BMSCs. Low-frequency PEMF can induce the neuronal differentiation of BMSCs in the absence of nerve growth factors. This study was designed to investigate the effects of low-frequency PEMF pretreatment on the proliferation and function of BMSCs and the effects of low-frequency PEMF pre-treated BMSCs on the regeneration of injured peripheral nerve using in vitro and in vivo experiments. In in vitro experiments, quantitative DNA analysis was performed to determine the proliferation of BMSCs, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect S100 (Schwann cell marker), glial fibrillary acidic protein (astrocyte marker), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor (neurotrophic factors) mRNA expression. In the in vivo experiments, rat models of crush-injured mental nerve established using clamp method were randomly injected with low-frequency PEMF pretreated BMSCs, unpretreated BMSCs or PBS at the injury site (1 × 10 6 cells). DiI-labeled BMSCs injected at the injury site were counted under the fluorescence microscope to determine cell survival. One or two weeks after cell injection, functional recovery of the injured nerve was assessed using the sensory test with von Frey filaments. Two weeks after cell injection, axonal regeneration was evaluated using histomorphometric analysis and retrograde labeling of trigeminal ganglion neurons. In vitro experiment results revealed that low-frequency PEMF pretreated BMSCs proliferated faster and had greater mRNA expression of growth factors than unpretreated BMSCs. In vivo experiment results revealed that compared with injection of unpretreated BMSCs, injection of low-frequency PEMF pretreated BMSCs led to higher myelinated axon count and axon density and

  3. Comparison of three fluorescence labeling and tracking methods of endothelial progenitor cells in laser-injured retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Shi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare three kinds of fluorescent probes for in vitro labeling and in vivo tracking of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs in a mouse model of laser-induced retinal injury. METHODS: EPCs were isolated from human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells and labeled with three different fluorescent probes: 5-(and-6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE, 1,1′-dilinoleyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindo-carbocyanine perchlorate linked acetylated low-density lipoprotein (DiI-AcLDL, and green fluorescent protein (GFP. The fluorescent intensity of EPCs was examined by confocal microscopy. Survival rate of labeled EPCs was calculated with trypan blue staining, and their adhesive capability was assessed. A mouse model of retinal injury was induced by laser, and EPCs were injected into the vitreous cavity. Frozen section and fluorescein angiography on flat-mounted retinal samples was employed to track the labeled EPCs in vivo. RESULTS: EPCs labeled with CFSE and DiI-AcLDL exhibited an intense green and red fluorescence at the beginning; the fluorescence intensity decreased gradually to 20.23% and 49.99% respectively, after 28d. On the contrary, the florescent intensity of GFP-labeled EPCs increased in a time-dependent manner. All labeled EPCs showed normal morphology and no significant change in survival and adhesive capability. In the mouse model, transplantation of EPCs showed a protective effect against retinal injury. EPCs labeled with CFSE and DiI-AcLDL were successfully tracked in mice during the development of retinal injury and repair; however, GFP-labeled EPCs were not detected in the laser-injured mouse retina. CONCLUSION: The three fluorescent markers used in this study have their own set of advantages and disadvantages. CFSE and DiI-AcLDL are suitable for short-term EPC-labeling, while GFP should be used for long-term labeling. The choice of fluorescent markers should be guided by the purpose of the study.

  4. The effect of postirradiation holding at 22 degrees C on the repair of sublethal, potentially lethal and potentially neoplastic transforming damage in gamma-irradiated HeLa x skin fibroblast human hybrid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redpath, J.L.; Antoniono, R.J.; Mendonca, M.S.; Sun, C.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of postirradiation holding at 22 degrees C on cell growth, progression of cells through the cell cycle, and the repair of sublethal, potentially lethal and potentially neoplastic transforming damage in γ-irradiated HeLa x skin fibroblast human hybrid cells has been examined. Cell growth and cell cycle progression were essentially stopped at this reduced temperature. Cell survival was dramatically reduced by holding confluent cultures for 6 h at 22 degrees C, as opposed to 37 degrees C, after 7.5 Gy γ radiation delivered at a rate of 2 Gy/min. Return of the cells to 37 degrees C for 6 h after holding at 22 degrees C did not result in increased survival. A similar effect was obtained when the cells were held at 22 degrees C between split-dose irradiation of log-phase cultures where no increase in survival was observed over a split-dose interval of 4 h. In this case a partial increase in survival was observed upon returning the cells to 37 degrees C for 3 h after holding at 22 degrees C for the first 3 h of the split-dose interval. Neoplastic transformation frequency was not enhanced by holding confluent cultures for 6 h at 22 degrees C after 7.5 Gy γ radiation. This is consistent with previous observations that misrepair of potentially neoplastic transforming damage already occurs at 37 degrees C. The overall results are interpreted in terms of the reduced temperature favoring misrepair, rather than inhibition of repair, of sublethal, potentially lethal and potentially transforming radiation damage. 24 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Sublethal concentrations of ichthyotoxic alga Prymnesium parvum affect rainbow trout susceptibility to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nikolaj Gedsted; Lorenzen, Ellen; Boutrup, Torsten Snogdal

    2016-01-01

    Ichthyotoxic algal blooms are normally considered a threat to maricultured fish only when blooms reach lethal cell concentrations. The degree to which sublethal algal concentrations challenge the health of the fish during blooms is practically unknown. In this study, we analysed whether sublethal...

  6. Mechanisms of adhesion and subsequent actions of a haematopoietic stem cell line, HPC-7, in the injured murine intestinal microcirculation in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean P J Kavanagh

    Full Text Available Although haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs migrate to injured gut, therapeutic success clinically remains poor. This has been partially attributed to limited local HSC recruitment following systemic injection. Identifying site specific adhesive mechanisms underpinning HSC-endothelial interactions may provide important information on how to enhance their recruitment and thus potentially improve therapeutic efficacy. This study determined (i the integrins and inflammatory cyto/chemokines governing HSC adhesion to injured gut and muscle (ii whether pre-treating HSCs with these cyto/chemokines enhanced their adhesion and (iii whether the degree of HSC adhesion influenced their ability to modulate leukocyte recruitment.Adhesion of HPC-7, a murine HSC line, to ischaemia-reperfused (IR injured mouse gut or cremaster muscle was monitored intravitally. Critical adhesion molecules were identified by pre-treating HPC-7 with blocking antibodies to CD18 and CD49d. To identify cyto/chemokines capable of recruiting HPC-7, adhesion was monitored following tissue exposure to TNF-α, IL-1β or CXCL12. The effects of pre-treating HPC-7 with these cyto/chemokines on surface integrin expression/clustering, adhesion to ICAM-1/VCAM-1 and recruitment in vivo was also investigated. Endogenous leukocyte adhesion following HPC-7 injection was again determined intravitally.IR injury increased HPC-7 adhesion in vivo, with intestinal adhesion dependent upon CD18 and muscle adhesion predominantly relying on CD49d. Only CXCL12 pre-treatment enhanced HPC-7 adhesion within injured gut, likely by increasing CD18 binding to ICAM-1 and/or CD18 surface clustering on HPC-7. Leukocyte adhesion was reduced at 4 hours post-reperfusion, but only when local HPC-7 adhesion was enhanced using CXCL12.This data provides evidence that site-specific molecular mechanisms govern HPC-7 adhesion to injured tissue. Importantly, we show that HPC-7 adhesion is a modulatable event in IR injury and

  7. Sublethal damages: their nature and repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saenko, A.S.; Synzynys, B.I.; Trofimova, S.F. (Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Meditsinskoj Radiologii, Obninsk (USSR)); Gotlib, V.Ya.; Pelevina, I.I. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Khimicheskoj Fiziki)

    1983-05-12

    The molecular nature of sublethal damage (SLD) arising after ionizing irradiation of cultured mammalian cells was considered on the basis of data on DNA repair and cell recovery after SLD observed in lymphosarcoma cells as well as of literature data. The rate of SLD recovery and that of restoration of the cell's ability to initiate DNA synthesis were shown to be similar in new replicons. These data along with knowledge about the role of exchange type chromosomal aberrations in reproductive death permitted us to propose the hypothesis that conformational changes of chromatine - most probably, relaxation of condensed chromosomal material - are damage registered as SLD at the cellular level. Double-strand breaks and a slowly repaired part of DNA single-strand breaks are candidates for SLD.

  8. MiR-103 alleviates autophagy and apoptosis by regulating SOX2 in LPS-injured PC12 cells and SCI rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guowei; Chen, Tao; Zhu, Yingxian; Xiao, Xiaoyu; Bu, Juyuan; Huang, Zongwen

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies revealed that microRNAs (miRNAs) may play crucial roles in the responses and pathologic processes of spinal cord injury (SCI). This study aimed to investigate the effect and the molecular basis of miR-103 on LPS-induced injuries in PC12 cells in vitro and SCI rats in vivo . PC12 cells were exposed to LPS to induce cell injuries to mimic the in vitro model of SCI. The expression of miR-103 and SOX2 in PC12 cells were altered by transient transfections. Cell viability and apoptotic cell rate were measured by CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry assay. Furthermore, Western blot analysis was performed to detect the expression levels of apoptosis- and autophagy- related proteins, MAPK/ERK pathway- and JAK/STAT pathway-related proteins. In addition, we also assessed the effect of miR-103 agomir on SCI rats. LPS exposure induced cell injuries in PC12 cells. miR-103 overexpression significantly increased cell viability, reduced cell apoptosis and autophagy, and opposite results were observed in miR-103 inhibition. miR-103 attenuated LPS-induced injuries by indirect upregulation of SOX2. SOX2 overexpression protected PC12 cells against LPS-induced injuries, while SOX2 inhibition expedited LPS-induced cell injuries. Furthermore, miR-103 overexpression inhibited MAPK/ERK pathway and JAK/STAT pathway through upregulation of SOX2. We also found that miR-103 agomir inhibited cell apoptosis and autophagy in SCI rats. This study demonstrates that miR-103 may represent a protective effect against cell apoptosis and autophagy in LPS-injured PC12 cells and SCI rats by upregulation of SOX2 expression.

  9. Effect of Content of Sulfate Groups in Seaweed Polysaccharides on Antioxidant Activity and Repair Effect of Subcellular Organelles in Injured HK-2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Tao Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the repair effect of subcellular structure injuries of the HK-2 cells of four degraded seaweed polysaccharides (DSPs, namely, the degraded Porphyra yezoensis, Gracilaria lemaneiformis, Sargassum fusiform, and Undaria pinnatifida polysaccharides. The four DSPs have similar molecular weight, but with different content of sulfate groups (i.e., 17.9%, 13.3%, 8.2%, and 5.5%, resp.. The damaged model was established using 2.8 mmol/L oxalate to injure HK-2 cells, and 60 μg/mL of various DSPs was used to repair the damaged cells. With the increase of sulfate group content in DSPs, the scavenging activity of radicals and their reducing power were all improved. Four kinds of DSPs have repair effect on the subcellular organelles of damaged HK-2 cells. After being repaired by DSPs, the release amount of lactate dehydrogenase was decreased, the integrity of cell membrane and lysosome increased, the Δψm increased, the cell of G1 phase arrest was inhibited, the proportion of S phase increased, and cell apoptotic and necrosis rates were significantly reduced. The greater the content of sulfate group is, the stronger is the repair ability of the polysaccharide. These DSPs, particularly the polysaccharide with higher sulfate group content, may be a potential drug for the prevention and cure of kidney stones.

  10. Bioactive Profiles, Antioxidant Activities, Nitrite Scavenging Capacities and Protective Effects on H2O2-Injured PC12 Cells of Glycyrrhiza Glabra L. Leaf and Root Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Dong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the total flavonoid content of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. leaf and root extracts. Results suggested that the total flavonoid content in the leaf extract was obviously higher than that in the root extract. Pinocembrin, the main compound in the leaf extract after purification by column chromatography, showed good antioxidant activity and nitrite scavenging capacity, but moderate inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase. Liquiritin was the main compound in root extract and possessed strong inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase. Both compounds exhibited significant protection effect on H2O2-injured PC12 cells at a low concentration. These results indicate that Glycyrrhiza glabra L. leaf is potential as an important raw material for functional food.

  11. Influence of serum extraction from the culture medium and of sublethal X-ray irradiation upon microvilli and invaginations of the membrane of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells in monolayer culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laudenbach, G.; Pfab, R.; Hess, F.; Schachtschabel, D.O.

    1984-01-01

    In order to find out modifications of microvilli and invaginations, the cellular surfaces of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells in monolayer culture (basal medium of Eagle + 10% fetal calf serum) were investigated with the aid of electron-microscopic cross-sections. The tumor cells had been cultured without serum 24 hours prior to investigation or irradiated with 2 Gy. Morphometric evaluation after cell culture in a serum-free medium showed a reduced number of microvilli and a diminution of sections of microvilli. As already described before, a reduction of cell proliferation, of the microtubule-microfilament system, and of the endocytosis activity occurs under these serum-free conditions. The number of invaginations (related to a constant membrane part) was reduced by nearly 50% after serum extraction. Similarly to serum extraction, sublethal X-ray irradiation reduced the sections of microvilli, whereas the number of microvilli increased slightly. Contrary to the effect of serum extraction, the irradiated cells showed twice as many invaginations as the non-irradiated control cells. These differences in the surface structures are interpreted as a result of modified growth stimulations (+- serum) and radiogenic reparation processes. (orig.) [de

  12. Identification and Characterization of Mesenchymal-Epithelial Progenitor-Like Cells in Normal and Injured Rat Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Daqing; Yovchev, Mladen I.; Zhang, Jinghang; Alfieri, Alan A.; Tchaikovskaya, Tatyana; Laconi, Ezio; Dabeva, Mariana D.

    2016-01-01

    In normal rat liver, thymocyte antigen 1 (Thy1) is expressed in fibroblasts/myofibroblasts and in some blood progenitor cells. Thy1-expressing cells also accumulate in the liver during impaired liver regeneration. The origin and nature of these cells are not well understood. By using RT-PCR analysis and immunofluorescence microscopy, we describe the presence of rare Thy1+ cells in the liver lobule of normal animals, occasionally forming small collections of up to 20 cells. These cells constitute a small portion (1.7% to 1.8%) of nonparenchymal cells and reveal a mixed mesenchymal-epithelial phenotype, expressing E-cadherin, cytokeratin 18, and desmin. The most potent mitogens for mesenchymal-epithelial Thy1+ cells in vitro are the inflammatory cytokines interferon γ, IL-1, and platelet-derived growth factor-BB, which are not produced by Thy1+ cells. Thy1+ cells express all typical mesenchymal stem cell and hepatic progenitor cell markers and produce growth factor and cytokine mRNA (Hgf, Il6, Tgfa, and Tweak) for proteins that maintain oval cell growth and differentiation. Under appropriate conditions, mesenchymal-epithelial cells differentiate in vitro into hepatocyte-like cells. In this study, we show that the adult rat liver harbors a small pool of endogenous mesenchymal-epithelial cells not recognized previously. In the quiescent state, these cells express both mesenchymal and epithelial cell markers. They behave like hepatic stem cells/progenitors with dual phenotype, exhibiting high plasticity and long-lasting proliferative activity. PMID:25447047

  13. Analysis of cell cycle regulated and regulating proteins following exposure of lung derived cells to sub-lethal doses of a-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, D.; Claudio, P. P.; Cassone, M.; Lucchetti, C.; D'Agostino, L.; Caputi, M.; Giordano, A.

    Introduction Since the last century mankind had to face an increased exposure to man made and natural sources of radiation Radiation represents a therapeutic instrument for radiosensitive cancers as well as a cytotoxic agent for normal human tissues The effects of prolonged exposure to low doses of high energy radiation are still not well-known at the molecular and clinical level Understanding their molecular effects will aid in developing more tailored therapeutic strategies as well as implementing radio-protective measures essential prerequisite for the long-time permanence of men in space Objective of the study The general aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility and the response of lung epithelial cells to DNA damage induced by ionizing radiations We decided to study a panel of epithelial bronchial cell lines because of their fast-growth rate and their prominent exposure to both environmental and medical radiations The specific objective of our study was to qualitatively and semi-quantitatively assess the involvement and behaviour of selected genes in DNA damage DNA-repair mechanisms and apoptosis which follow radiation exposure with the aim to determine the involvement of the most promising targets for the early detection of radiation-mediated lung damage before chronic disease develops Methods Four epithelial cell lines one normal and three neoplastic were selected in order to detect and compare survival cell cycle and protein expression differences related to their different genetic asset

  14. A mast cell secretagogue, compound 48/80, prevents the accumulation of hyaluronan in lung tissue injured by ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, K.; Bjermer, L.; Hellstroem, S.H.; Henriksson, R.; Haellgren, R.

    1990-01-01

    Irradiation with a single dose of 30 Grey on the basal regions of the lungs of Sprague-Dawley rats induced a peribronchial and alveolar inflammation. Infiltration of mast cells in the edematous alveolar interstitial tissue and also in the peribronchial tissue were characteristic features of the lesion. The appearance of mast cells was already seen 4 wk after irradiation and by weeks 6 to 8 there was a heavy infiltration. The staining properties suggested that they were connective tissue-type mast cells. The infiltration of mast cells was paralleled by an accumulation of hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid) in the alveolar interstitial tissue 6 and 8 wk after irradiation. The recovery of hyaluronan (HA) during bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of the lungs also increased at this time. Treatment with a mast cell secretagogue, compound 48/80, induced a distinct reduction of granulated mast cells in the alveolar tissue. Regular treatment with compound 48/80 from the time of irradiation considerably reduced the HA recovery during BAL and the HA accumulation in the interstitial tissue but did not affect the interstitial infiltration of mononuclear cells and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. By contrast, an accumulation of HA in the alveolar interstitial space was induced when compound 48/80 was given not until mast cell infiltration of the lung had started. The effects of compound 48/80 indicate that the connective tissue response after lung irradiation is dependent on whether or not mast cell degranulation is induced before or after the mast cell infiltration of the alveolar tissue

  15. Bone marrow stem cells delivered into the subarachnoid space via cisterna magna improve repair of injured rat spinal cord white matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcol, Wiesław; Slusarczyk, Wojciech; Sieroń, Aleksander L; Koryciak-Komarska, Halina; Lewin-Kowalik, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The influence of bone marrow stem cells on regeneration of spinal cord in rats was investigated. Young adult male Wistar rats were used (n=22). Focal injury of spinal cord white matter at Th10 level was produced using our original non-laminectomy method by means of high-pressured air stream. Cells from tibial and femoral bone marrow of 1-month old rats (n=3) were cultured, labeled with BrdU/Hoechst and injected into cisterna magna (experimental group) three times: immediately after spinal cord injury and 3 as well as 7 days later. Neurons in brain stem and motor cortex were labeled with FluoroGold (FG) delivered caudally from the injury site a week before the end of experiment. Functional outcome and morphological features of regeneration were analyzed during 12-week follow-up. The lesions were characterized by means of MRI. Maximal distance of expansion of implanted cells in the spinal cord was measured and the number of FG-positive neurons in the brain was counted. Rats treated with stem cells presented significant improvement of locomotor performance and spinal cord morphology when compared to the control group. Distance covered by stem cells was 7 mm from the epicenter of the injury. Number of brain stem and motor cortex FG-positive neurons in experimental group was significantly higher than in control. Obtained data showed that bone marrow stem cells are able to induce the repair of injured spinal cord white matter. The route of cells application via cisterna magna appeared to be useful for their delivery in spinal cord injury therapy. PMID:26628950

  16. Changes in antibiotic sensitivity and cell surface hydrophobicity in Escherichia coli injured by heating, freezing, drying or gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, B.M.

    1983-01-01

    Escherichia coli cells exposed to mild heating, freezing and thawing, drying or γ-radiation were sensitised to hydrophobic antibiotics and sodium deoxycholate but not to small hydrophilic antibiotics. These stress treatments also caused increases in cell surface hydrophobicity broadly reflecting the degree of sensitivity to hydrophobic antibiotics. (Auth.)

  17. Effect of set up time on sublethal repair in multifield fractionated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehwar, T.S.; Beriwal, Sushil; Sharma, S.C.

    1998-01-01

    The sublethal repair between two doses given with a variable time interval for mammalian cells in tissue culture was first demonstrated successfully by Elkind and Sutton. Subsequently on the basis of concept of sublethal damage repair between fractions, the radio therapists and radio biologists realized that dose can be increased by increasing the small size fractions. This concept is successfully being used in modern radiotherapy

  18. Neuronal regeneration in injured rat spinal cord after human dental pulp derived neural crest stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabatas, S; Demir, C S; Civelek, E; Yilmaz, I; Kircelli, A; Yilmaz, C; Akyuva, Y; Karaoz, E

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effect of human Dental Pulp-Neural Crest Stem Cells (hDP-NCSCs) delivery on lesion site after spinal cord injury (SCI), and to observe the functional recovery after transplantation. Neural Crest Stem Cells (NCSCs) were isolated from human Dental Pulp (hDP). The experimental rat population was divided into four groups (n = 6/24). Their behavioral motility was scored regularly. After 4-weeks, rats were sacrificed, and their spinal cords were examined for Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) labeled hDP-NCSCs by immunofluorescence (IF) staining. In early post-injury (p.i) period, the ultrastructure of spinal cord tissue was preserved in Group 4. The majority of cells forming the ependymal region around the central canal were found to be hDP-NCSCs. While the grey-and-white-matter around the ependymal region was composed of e.g. GFP cells, with astrocytic-like appearance. The scores showed significant motor recovery in hind limb functions in Group 4. However, no obvious change was observed in other groups. Cells e.g., mesenchymal (Vimentin+) which express GFP+ cells in the gray-and-white-matter around the ependymal region could indicate the potential to self-renewal and plasticity. Thus, transplantation of hDP-NCSCs might be an effective strategy to improve functional recovery following spinal cord trauma (Fig. 10, Ref. 32).

  19. Direct Conversion of Human Fibroblasts into Schwann Cells that Facilitate Regeneration of Injured Peripheral Nerve In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowa, Yoshihiro; Kishida, Tsunao; Tomita, Koichi; Yamamoto, Kenta; Numajiri, Toshiaki; Mazda, Osam

    2017-04-01

    Schwann cells (SCs) play pivotal roles in the maintenance and regeneration of the peripheral nervous system. Although transplantation of SCs enhances repair of experimentally damaged peripheral and central nerve tissues, it is difficult to prepare a sufficient number of functional SCs for transplantation therapy without causing adverse events for the donor. Here, we generated functional SCs by somatic cell reprogramming procedures and demonstrated their capability to promote peripheral nerve regeneration. Normal human fibroblasts were phenotypically converted into SCs by transducing SOX10 and Krox20 genes followed by culturing for 10 days resulting in approximately 43% directly converted Schwann cells (dSCs). The dSCs expressed SC-specific proteins, secreted neurotrophic factors, and induced neuronal cells to extend neurites. The dSCs also displayed myelin-forming capability both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, transplantation of the dSCs into the transected sciatic nerve in mice resulted in significantly accelerated regeneration of the nerve and in improved motor function at a level comparable to that with transplantation of the SCs obtained from a peripheral nerve. The dSCs induced by our procedure may be applicable for novel regeneration therapy for not only peripheral nerve injury but also for central nerve damage and for neurodegenerative disorders related to SC dysfunction. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:1207-1216. © 2017 The Authors Stem Cells Translational Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  20. Use of Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Bone Marrow for the Treatment of Naturally Injured Spinal Cord in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euler Moraes Penha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of stem cells in injury repair has been extensively investigated. Here, we examined the therapeutic effects of autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC transplantation in four dogs with natural traumatic spinal cord injuries. MSC were cultured in vitro, and proliferation rate and cell viability were evaluated. Cell suspensions were prepared and surgically administered into the spinal cord. The animals were clinically evaluated and examined by nuclear magnetic resonance. Ten days after the surgical procedure and MSC transplantation, we observed a progressive recovery of the panniculus reflex and diminished superficial and deep pain response, although there were still low proprioceptive reflexes in addition to a hyperreflex in the ataxic hind limb movement responses. Each dog demonstrated an improvement in these gains over time. Conscious reflex recovery occurred simultaneously with moderate improvement in intestine and urinary bladder functions in two of the four dogs. By the 18th month of clinical monitoring, we observed a remarkable clinical amelioration accompanied by improved movement, in three of the four dogs. However, no clinical gain was associated with alterations in magnetic resonance imaging. Our results indicate that MSC are potential candidates for the stem cell therapy following spinal cord injury.

  1. Transplanted Dental Pulp Stem Cells Migrate to Injured Area and Express Neural Markers in a Rat Model of Cerebral Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuemei; Zhou, Yinglian; Li, Hulun; Wang, Rui; Yang, Dan; Li, Bing; Cao, Xiaofang; Fu, Jin

    2018-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is a major cause of disability and mortality worldwide, while effective restorative treatments are limited at present. Stem cell transplantation holds therapeutic potential for ischemic vascular diseases and may provide an opportunity for neural regeneration. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) origin from neural crest and have neuro-ectodermal features including proliferation and multilineage differentiation potentials. The rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was used to evaluate whether intravenous administration of DPSCs can reduce infarct size and to estimate the migration and trans-differentiation into neuron-like cells in focal cerebral ischemia models. Brain tissues were collected at 4 weeks following cell transplantation and analyzed with immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methods. Intravenously administration of rat-derived DPSCs were found to migrate into the boundary of ischemic areas and expressed neural specific markers, reducing infarct volume and cerebral edema. These results suggest that DPSCs treatment may serve as a potential therapy for clinical stroke patients in the future. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Care for the Critically Injured Burn Patient Modulation of Burn Scars Through Laser Assisted Delivery of Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    FL 33186 REPORT DATE: October 2016 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick...2016 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sept 2015 to 29 Sept 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Care for the Critically...associated with a debridement effect that might facilitate cells to enter tissues or deliver materials to the burn scar. This effect is noted more

  3. Electroacupuncture ameliorates cognitive impairment through inhibition of NF-κB-mediated neuronal cell apoptosis in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injured rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaodong; Yang, Shanli; Liu, Jiao; Huang, Jia; Peng, Jun; Lin, Jiumao; Tao, Jing; Chen, Lidian

    2013-05-01

    Cognitive impairment is a serious mental deficit following stroke that severely affects the quality of life of stroke survivors. Nuclear factor‑κB (NF-κB)-mediated neuronal cell apoptosis is involved in the development of post-stroke cognitive impairment; therefore, it has become a promising target for the treatment of impaired cognition. Acupuncture at the Baihui (DU20) and Shenting (DU24) acupoints is commonly used in China to clinically treat post‑stroke cognitive impairment; however, the precise mechanism of its action is largely unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of electroacupuncture against post-stroke cognitive impairment and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms using a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Electroacupuncture at Baihui and Shenting was identified to significantly ameliorate neurological deficits and reduce cerebral infarct volume. Additionally, electroacupuncture improved learning and memory ability in cerebral I/R injured rats, demonstrating its therapeutic efficacy against post-stroke cognitive impairment. Furthermore, electroacupuncture significantly suppressed the I/R-induced activation of NF-κB signaling in ischemic cerebral tissues. The inhibitory effect of electroacupuncture on NF-κB activation led to the inhibition of cerebral cell apoptosis. Finally, electroacupuncture markedly downregulated the expression of pro-apoptotic Bax and Fas, two critical downstream target genes of the NF-κB pathway. Collectively, our findings suggest that inhibition of NF-κB‑mediated neuronal cell apoptosis may be one mechanism via which electroacupuncture at Baihui and Shenting exerts a therapeutic effect on post-stroke cognitive impairment.

  4. Evaluation of commercial kit based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid detection of low levels of uninjured and injured Salmonella on duck meat, bean sprouts, and fishballs in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hazel Sin Yue; Zheng, Qianwang; Miks-Krajnik, Marta; Turner, Matthew; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate performance of the commercial kit based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in comparison with the International Organization for Standardization method for detecting uninjured and sublethally injured Salmonella cells artificially inoculated at levels of 10(0) and 10(1) CFU/25 g on raw duck wing, raw mung bean sprouts, and processed fishballs. Injured cells were prepared by a heat treatment for duck wings and fishball samples and a chlorine treatment for bean sprout samples. Additionally, a validation study was performed on naturally contaminated food samples sold in Singapore. A total of 110 samples of each commodity were analyzed in this study. Regardless of inoculum levels, the detection by the commercial LAMP kit showed 100% sensitivity and specificity for both inoculated and uninoculated samples compared with the International Organization for Standardization method, with the exception of bean sprout samples. Only 20% of bean sprout samples inoculated with 10(0) CFU/25 g injured Salmonella cells were positive by using the commercial LAMP-based kit. However, all negative samples became positive following a secondary enrichment in Rappaport-Vassiliadis medium with soy broth or after concentration by centrifugation. These results suggest that secondary enrichment or centrifugation should be considered as an additional step to increase the sensitivity of the commercial LAMP-based kit with low numbers of injured target cells in samples with high background microflora (such as mung bean sprouts). The validation study also showed that the commercial LAMP-based kit provided 91% sensitivity and 95% specificity for naturally contaminated samples. Thus, this study demonstrates that the commercial LAMP-based kit might be a cost-effective method, as this system could provide rapid, accurate detection of both uninjured and injured Salmonella cells on raw duck wings, raw mung bean sprouts, and processed fishballs in

  5. Lethal and sublethal cellular injury in multifraction irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Withers, H.R.

    1975-01-01

    Work has been carried out on cellular injury in multifraction irradiation of mouse tissues and compared with similar work on human skin reported earlier by Dutreix et al (Eur. J. Cancer.; 9:159 (1973)). In agreement with Dutreix et al it is emphasized that the absolute amount of sublethal injury repaired per fractionation interval (Dsub(r)) is not as important to radiotherapists as the change in the amount repaired (ΔDsub(r)) when the dose-per-fraction is altered. It was found that although there is a critical divergence at low doses, the data for mouse tissues are similar to those previously given for human skin and support the conclusions: (i) That the capacity of many normal cells for accumulating and repairing sublethal radiation injury is probably not greatly different. (ii) That fixed exponents used for fraction number and time in iso-effect formulae are inaproporiate. At low doses-per-fraction, repair of sublethal injury is complete, or nearly so, and hence, additional fractionation of dose does not give appreciable additional sparing, whereas rapidly-regenerating tissues, due to the lengthening of overall time, would continue being spared by repopulation. (U.K.)

  6. Sublethal injury and virulence changes in Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua treated with antimicrobials carvacrol and citral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A; Genovés, S; Martorell, P; Zanini, S F; Rodrigo, D; Martinez, A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two antimicrobial substances, carvacrol and citral, on Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua cells, as well as possible virulence changes in injured cells, using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model test. The results indicated that the percentage of sublethal damage was higher in L. monocytogenes than in L. innocua. The results of the study carried out by using C. elegans indicated that C. elegans fed in a lawn of L. monocytogenes previously treated with carvacrol showed a loss in life span (p ≤ 0.05) as compared with L. monocytogenes treated with citral, Escherichia coli OP50 as a negative control, and treated and untreated L. innocua. Egg laying was also affected: worms fed in a lawn of treated and untreated L. monocytogenes laid fewer eggs than those fed in a lawn of treated and untreated L. innocua or fed with OP50 as a negative control. Worms fed in a lawn of treated and untreated L. innocua also laid fewer eggs than those fed with OP50 as a negative control. A phenotype named bag of worms and an undescribed new one, "vulva inflammation", were also observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sublethal dose of irradiation enhances invasion of malignant glioma cells through p53-MMP 2 pathway in U87MG mouse brain tumor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Jian; Park, In-Ho; Ryu, Hyang-Hwa; Li, Song-Yuan; Li, Chun-Hao; Lim, Sa-Hoe; Wen, Min; Jang, Woo-Youl; Jung, Shin

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma is a highly lethal neoplasm that frequently recurs locally after radiotherapy, and most of these recurrences originate from near the irradiated target field. In the present study, we identified the effects of radiation on glioma invasion and p53, TIMP-2, and MMP-2 expression through in vitro and in vivo experiments. The U87MG (wt p53) and U251 (mt p53) human malignant glioma cell lines were prepared, and the U2OS (wt 53) and Saos2 (del p53) osteosarcoma cell lines were used as p53 positive and negative controls. The four cell lines and p53 knock-downed U87MG cells received radiation (2–6 Gy) and were analyzed for expression of p53 and TIMP-2 by Western blot, and MMP-2 activity was detected by zymography. In addition, the effects of irradiation on directional invasion of malignant glioma were evaluated by implanting nude mice with bioluminescent u87-Fluc in vivo followed by MMP-2, p53, and TIMP-2 immunohisto-chemistry and in situ zymography. MMP-2 activity and p53 expression increased in proportional to the radiation dose in cell lines with wt p53, but not in the cell lines with del or mt p53. TIMP-2 expression did not increase in U87MG cells. MMP-2 activity decreased in p53 knock-downed U87MG cells but increased in the control group. Furthermore, radiation enhanced MMP-2 activity and increased tumor margin invasiveness in vivo. Tumor cells invaded by radiation overexpressed MMP-2 and p53 and revealed high gelatinolytic activity compared with those of non-radiated tumor cells. Radiation-induced upregulation of p53 modulated MMP-2 activity, and the imbalance between MMP-2 and TIMP-2 may have an important role in glioblastoma invasion by degrading the extracellular matrix. Bioluminescent “U87-Fluc”was useful for observing tumor formation without sacrifice after implanting tumor cells in the mouse brain. These findings suggest that the radiotherapy involved field for malignant glioma needs to be reconsidered, and that future trials should investigate

  8. The anti-inflammatory effect of melatonin in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells exposed to sublethal dose of hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nopparat, Chutikorn; Chantadul, Varunya; Permpoonputtana, Kannika; Govitrapong, Piyarat

    2017-06-01

    Brain inflammaging is considered as one of the underlying factors of neurodegenerative diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of melatonin, an endogenous indoleamine mainly synthesized by the pineal gland, on hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-induced inflammaging state in SH-SY5Y cells. Our data showed that p21 Cip1 and p16 INK4a , cell cycle arrest markers, and the number of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-βgal) staining increased significantly in H 2 O 2 -treated cells. Melatonin treatment could reverse this effect. Flow cytometry analysis showed a significantly higher percentage in the G0/G1 phase and a lower proportion in the S phase of H 2 O 2 treated cells. Cells pretreated with H 2 O 2 showed a dramatic decrease in the formation of Ki67 immunoactivity while the treatment with melatonin increased Ki67-positive cell. Both mRNA and protein expression levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6 and, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) which were increased after induction with H 2 O 2 , could be attenuated by melatonin. In addition, melatonin decreased the phospho-nuclear factor kappa B (pNF-κB) expression and prevented its nuclear translocation, as well as abrogated the reduction of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in SH-SY5Y cells exposed to H 2 O 2 . The present data suggested the importance of melatonin on ameliorating inflammation in SH-SY5Y cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Functional modifications of macrophage activity after sublethal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    The modifications of macrophage activity following sublethal irradiation, both in vivo and in vitro, were studied using spreading and C3b-receptor-mediated ingestion assays. Nonelicited peritoneal washout cells were examined for changes in activity and selected population characteristics. The cells from irradiated mice were from a resident peritoneal population and not immigrating cells. The macrophage population showed enhanced activity early with a refractory period (24-48) when the macrophages were unresponsive to stimulation by irradiated lymphocytes. The enhanced activity was inversely dose dependent on macrophage. The lymphocytes showed a regulatory function(s) on the time post irradiation at which they were examined. Early lymphocytes exhibited the ability to enhance the activity of normal macrophages while lymphocytes removed 24 hours post irradiation could suppress the activity of already activated macrophages. The effect(s) of the various lymphocyte populations were reproduced with cell-free supernatants which was indicative of the production of lymphokines. Separation on nylon wool columns indicated that the activity resided primarily in the T-cell population of lymphocytes. In vitro irradiation indicated that stimulation of the lymphocytes is macrophage dependent. Additional work indicated that sublethally irradiated macrophages did not inhibit replication of the coccidian protozoon Toxoplasma gondii although they did show increased phagocytosis. Examination of the serum from whole body irradiated mice showed the presence of a postirradiation substance which enhanced the phagocytosis of normal macrophages. It was not present in the serum of normal mice and was not endotoxin

  10. Link for Injured Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Marizen; Toussaint, Maisha; Woods-Jaeger, Briana; Harland, Karisa; Wetjen, Kristel; Wilgenbusch, Tammy; Pitcher, Graeme; Jennissen, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Objective Injury, the most common type of pediatric trauma, can lead to a number of adverse psychosocial outcomes, including posttraumatic stress disorder. Currently, few evidence-based parent programs exist to support children hospitalized after a traumatic injury. Using methods in evaluation and intervention research, we completed a formative research study to develop a new program of psychological first aid, Link for Injured Kids, aimed to educate parents in supporting their children after a severe traumatic injury. Methods Using qualitative methods, we held focus groups with parents and pediatric trauma providers of children hospitalized at a Level I Children's Hospital because of an injury in 2012. We asked focus group participants to describe reactions to trauma and review drafts of our intervention materials. Results Health professionals and caregivers reported a broad spectrum of emotional responses by their children or patients; however, difficulties were experienced during recovery at home and upon returning to school. All parents and health professionals recommended that interventions be offered to parents either in the emergency department or close to discharge among admissions. Conclusions Results from this study strongly indicate a need for posttrauma interventions, particularly in rural settings, to support families of children to address the psychosocial outcomes in the aftermath of an injury. Findings presented here describe the process of intervention development that responds to the needs of an affected population. PMID:26428077

  11. GM-CSF produced by non-hematopoietic cells is required for early epithelial cell proliferation and repair of injured colonic mucosa1,2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Laia; McAllister, Christopher S.; Lakhdari, Omar; Minev, Ivelina; Shenouda, Steve; Kagnoff, Martin F.

    2012-01-01

    GM-CSF is a growth factor that promotes the survival and activation of macrophages and granulocytes, and dendritic cell (DC) differentiation and survival in vitro. The mechanism by which exogenous GM-CSF ameliorates the severity of Crohn’s disease in humans and colitis in murine models has been considered mainly to reflect its activity on myeloid cells. We used GM-CSF deficient (GM-CSF−/−) mice to probe the functional role of endogenous host-produced GM-CSF in a colitis model induced after injury to the colon epithelium. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) at doses that resulted in little epithelial damage and mucosal ulceration in wild type (WT) mice resulted in marked colon ulceration and delayed ulcer healing in GM-CSF−/− mice. Colon crypt epithelial cell proliferation in vivo was significantly decreased in GM-CSF−/− mice at early times after DSS injury. This was paralleled by decreased expression of crypt epithelial cell genes involved in cell cycle, proliferation, and wound healing. Decreased crypt cell proliferation and delayed ulcer healing in GM-CSF−/− mice were rescued by exogenous GM-CSF, indicating the lack of a developmental abnormality in the epithelial cell proliferative response in those mice. Non-hematopoietic cells and not myeloid cells produced the GM-CSF important for colon epithelial proliferation after DSS-induced injury as revealed by bone marrow chimera and DC depletion experiments, with colon epithelial cells being the cellular source of GM-CSF. Endogenous epithelial cell produced GM-CSF has a novel non-redundant role in facilitating epithelial cell proliferation and ulcer healing in response to injury of the colon crypt epithelium. PMID:23325885

  12. Severely Heat Injured Survivors of E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 43888 Display Variable and Heterogeneous Stress Resistance Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayán, Elisa; Govers, Sander K.; Michiels, Chris W.; Aertsen, Abram

    2016-01-01

    Although minimal food processing strategies aim to eliminate foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms through a combination of mild preservation techniques, little is actually known on the resistance behavior of the small fraction of microorganisms surviving an inimical treatment. In this study, the conduct of severely heat stressed survivors of E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 43888, as an indicator for the low infectious dose foodborne enterohemorrhagic strains, was examined throughout their resuscitation and outgrowth. Despite the fact that these survivors were initially sublethally injured, they were only marginally more sensitive to a subsequent heat treatment and actually much more resistant to a subsequent high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) shock in comparison with unstressed control cells. Throughout further resuscitation, however, their initial HHP resistance rapidly faded out, while their heat resistance increased and surpassed the initial heat resistance of unstressed control cells. Results also indicated that the population eventually emerging from the severely heat stressed survivors heterogeneously consisted of both growing and non-growing cells. Together, these observations provide deeper insights into the particular behavior and heterogeneity of stressed foodborne pathogens in the context of food preservation. PMID:27917163

  13. Severely heat injured survivors of E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 43888 display variable and heterogeneous stress resistance behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Gayán

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Although minimal food processing strategies aim to eliminate foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms through a combination of mild preservation techniques, little is actually known on the resistance behavior of the small fraction of microorganisms surviving an inimical treatment. In this study, the conduct of severely heat stressed survivors of E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 43888, as an indicator for the low infectious dose foodborne enterohaemorrhagic strains, was examined throughout their resuscitation and outgrowth. Despite the fact that these survivors were initially sublethally injured, they were only marginally more sensitive to a subsequent heat treatment and actually much more resistant to a subsequent high hydrostatic pressure (HHP shock in comparison with unstressed control cells. Throughout further resuscitation, however, their initial HHP resistance rapidly faded out, while their heat resistance increased and surpassed the initial heat resistance of unstressed control cells. Results also indicated that the population eventually emerging from the severely heat stressed survivors heterogeneously consisted of both growing and non-growing persister-like cells. Together, these observations provide deeper insights into the particular behavior and heterogeneity of stressed foodborne pathogens in the context of food preservation.

  14. Hematologic status of mice submitted to sublethal total body irradiation with mixed neutron-gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herodin, F.; Court, L.

    1989-01-01

    The hematologic status of mice exposed to sublethal whole body irradiation with mixed neutron-gamma radiation (mainly neutrons) is studied. A slight decrease of the blood cell count is still observed below 1 Gy. The recovery of bone marrow granulocyte-macrophage progenitors seems to require more time than after pure gamma irradiation [fr

  15. Targeted Intra-arterial Transplantation of Stem Cells to the Injured CNS is More Effective than Intravenous Administration - Engraftment is Dependent on Cell Type and Adhesion Molecule Expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, Johan; Södersten, Erik; Sundström, Erik

    2011-01-01

    with inflammation, such as traumatic brain injury, there is a transient up-regulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 which might provide enviromental cues for migration of stem cells from blood to parenchyma. The aim of this study was to i) analyze the effect of intra-arterial administration on cellular engraftment, ii...

  16. Sialic acid accelerates the electrophoretic velocity of injured dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-xu Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve injury has been shown to result in ectopic spontaneous discharges on soma and injured sites of sensory neurons, thereby inducing neuropathic pain. With the increase of membrane proteins on soma and injured site neurons, the negatively charged sialic acids bind to the external domains of membrane proteins, resulting in an increase of this charge. We therefore speculate that the electrophoretic velocity of injured neurons may be faster than non-injured neurons. The present study established rat models of neuropathic pain via chronic constriction injury. Results of the cell electrophoresis test revealed that the electrophoretic velocity of injured neuronal cells was faster than that of non-injured (control cells. We then treated cells with divalent cations of Ca 2+ and organic compounds with positive charges, polylysine to counteract the negatively charged sialic acids, or neuraminidase to specifically remove sialic acids from the membrane surface of injured neurons. All three treatments significantly reduced the electrophoretic velocity of injured neuronal cells. These findings suggest that enhanced sialic acids on injured neurons may accelerate the electrophoretic velocity of injured neurons.

  17. Effects of anti-inflammatory compounds on sulfur mustard injured cells: Recommendations and caveats suggested by in vitro cell culture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menacher, Georg; Steinritz, Dirk; Schmidt, Annette; Popp, Tanja; Worek, Franz; Gudermann, Thomas; Thiermann, Horst; Balszuweit, Frank

    2018-09-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a vesicant agent who had its first military use 100 years ago, in Ypres. Since then it has been used in several conflicts like the Iran-Iraq war in the 1980s. The use of SM in Syria 2015 indicated the still existing threat. Despite decades of research no causal antidote against SM intoxication is available, so far. A SM intoxication is accompanied by necrosis, apoptosis and inflammation. To counteract the SM-induced inflammation, glucocorticoids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory compounds (NSAIDs) are recommended. Aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the anti-inflammatory compounds dexamethasone, ibuprofen and diclofenac in vitro. For that purpose, two different cell culture models were used. Firstly, a monoculture of keratinocytes (HaCaT) and secondly, an established co-culture of keratinocytes (HaCaT) and immunocompetent cells (THP-1) to identify the role of immune cells in the process and to mimic the dermal physiology more closely. Both models were challenged with different SM concentrations (100, 200 and 300μM) and treated with different anti-inflammatory compounds one hour after the SM exposure. Analytical analysis of necrosis (ToxiLight), apoptosis (CDDE) and inflammation (IL-6 and -8 ELISAs) followed 24h thereafter. Dexamethasone provided small but consistent protective effects in the monoculture. For the reduction of apoptosis, 3μM dexamethasone was sufficient. The most effective reduction regarding interleukin (IL) production was found with 6μM dexamethasone. Protective effects were less pronounced in co-culture, which implies, that the protective effects of dexamethasone are rather generic and not due to a modulation of the immune cells. Against our expectations, ibuprofen strongly amplified apoptosis and necrosis in SM exposed cells in the monoculture as well as the co-culture. Therefore, use of ibuprofen for treatment of SM intoxication should at least be considered most critically, if not even regarded as

  18. Histone Demethylase JMJD2A Inhibition Attenuates Neointimal Hyperplasia in the Carotid Arteries of Balloon-Injured Diabetic Rats via Transcriptional Silencing: Inflammatory Gene Expression in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Qi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Diabetic patients suffer from severe neointimal hyperplasia following angioplasty. The epigenetic abnormalities are increasingly considered to be relevant to the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiovascular complications. But the epigenetic mechanisms linking diabetes and coronary restenosis have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we explored the protective effect and underlying mechanisms of demethylases JMJD2A inhibition in balloon-injury induced neointimal formation in diabetic rats. Methods: JMJD2A inhibition was achieved by the chemical inhibitor 2,4-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (2,4-PDCA and small interfering RNA (siRNA. In vitro, we investigated the proliferation, migration and inflammation of rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs in response to high glucose (HG. In vivo, diabetic rats induced using high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin (35mg/kg underwent carotid artery balloon injury. Morphometric analysis was performed using hematein eosin and immumohistochemical staining. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP was conducted to detect modification of H3K9me3 at inflammatory genes promoters. Results: The global JMJD2A was increased in HG-stimulated VSMCs and balloon-injured arteries of diabetic rats, accompanied by decreased H3K9me3. The inhibition of JMJD2A suppressed VSMCs proliferation, migration and inflammation induced by high glucose (HG in vitro. And JMJDA2A inhibition attenuated neointimal formation in balloon-injured diabetic rats. The underlying mechanisms were relevant to the restoration of H3K9me3 levels at the promoters of MCP-1 and IL-6, and then the suppressed expression of MCP-1 and IL-6. Conclusion: The JMJD2A inhibition significantly attenuated neointimal formation in balloon injured diabetic rats via the suppression of VSMCs proliferation, migration, and inflammation by restoring H3K9me3.

  19. Study of human mesenchymal stem cells plasticity into radiation injured tissues in a N.O.D./S.C.I.D. mouse model: therapeutic approach of the multiple organ dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, S.

    2006-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (h.M.S.C.) has recently been brought into the spotlight of many fields of research. One possible application of the approach is the repair of injured tissues arising from side effects of radiation treatments and accidents. The first challenge in cell therapy is to assess the quality of the cell and the ability to retain their differentiation potential during the expansion process. Efficient delivery to the sites of intended action is also necessary. We addressed both questions using h.M.S.C. cultured and then infused to Non Obese Diabetes/Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (N.O.D./S.C.I.D.) mice submitted to total body irradiation. Further, we tested the impact of additional local irradiation superimposed to total body irradiation (T.B.I.), as a model of accidental irradiation. Our results showed that the h.M.S.C. used for transplant have been expanded without significant loss in their differentiation capacities. After transplantation into adult unconditioned mice, h.M.S.C. not only migrate in bone marrow but also into other tissues. Total body irradiation increased h.M.S.C. implantation in bone marrow and muscle and further led to engraftment in brain, heart, and liver. Local irradiation, in addition to T.B.I., increased both specific homing of injected cells to the injured tissues and to other tissues outside the local irradiation field. M.S.C. may participate to restoration of intestinal homeostasis 3 days post abdominal irradiation. This study suggests that using the potential of h.M.S.C. to home to various organs in response to tissue injuries could be a promising strategy to repair the radiation induced damages. (author)

  20. Mac-1low early myeloid cells in the bone marrow-derived SP fraction migrate into injured skeletal muscle and participate in muscle regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojima, Koichi; Uezumi, Akiyoshi; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Masuda, Satoru; Morita, Yohei; Fukase, Akiko; Hattori, Akihito; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Miyagoe-Suzuki, Yuko; Takeda, Shin'ichi

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that bone marrow (BM) cells, including the BM side population (BM-SP) cells that enrich hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), are incorporated into skeletal muscle during regeneration, but it is not clear how and what kinds of BM cells contribute to muscle fiber regeneration. We found that a large number of SP cells migrated from BM to muscles following injury in BM-transplanted mice. These BM-derived SP cells in regenerating muscles expressed different surface markers from those of HSCs and could not reconstitute the mouse blood system. BM-derived SP/Mac-1 low cells increased in number in regenerating muscles following injury. Importantly, our co-culture studies with activated satellite cells revealed that this fraction carried significant potential for myogenic differentiation. By contrast, mature inflammatory (Mac-1 high ) cells showed negligible myogenic activities. Further, these BM-derived SP/Mac-1 low cells gave rise to mononucleate myocytes, indicating that their myogenesis was not caused by stochastic fusion with host myogenic cells, although they required cell-to-cell contact with myogenic cells for muscle differentiation. Taken together, our data suggest that neither HSCs nor mature inflammatory cells, but Mac-1 low early myeloid cells in the BM-derived SP fraction, play an important role in regenerating skeletal muscles

  1. Hepatic regeneration after sublethal partial liver irradiation in cirrhotic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Ke; Lai Songtao; Ma Ningyi; Zhao Jiandong; Ren Zhigang; Wang Jian; Liu Jin; Jiang Guoliang

    2011-01-01

    Our previous animal study had demonstrated that partial liver irradiation (IR) could stimulate regeneration in the protected liver, which supported the measurements adopted in radiotherapy planning for hepatocellular carcinoma. The purpose of this present study is to investigate whether cirrhotic liver repopulation could be triggered by partial liver IR. The cirrhosis was induced by thioacetamide (TAA) in rats. After cirrhosis establishment, TAA was withdrawn. In Experiment 1, only right-half liver was irradiated with single doses of 5 Gy, 10 Gy and 15 Gy, respectively. In Experiment 2, right-half liver was irradiated to 15 Gy, and the left-half to 2.5 Gy, 5 Gy and 7.5 Gy, respectively. The regeneration endpoints, including liver index (LI); mitotic index (MI); liver proliferation index (LPI); proliferating cell nuclear antigen-labeling index (PCNA-LI); serum hepatic growth factor (HGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor (TGF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6, were evaluated on 0 day, 30-day, 60-day, 90-day, 120-day and 150-day after IR. Serum and in situ TGF-β1 were also measured. In both experimental groups, the IR injuries were sublethal, inducing no more than 9% animal deaths. Upon TAA withdrawal, hepatic regeneration decelerated in the controls. In Experiment 1 except for LI, all other regeneration parameters were significantly higher than those in controls for both right-half and left-half livers. In Experiment 2 all regeneration parameters were also higher compared with those in controls for both half livers. Serum HGF and VEGF were increased compared with that of controls. Both unirradiated and low dose-irradiated cirrhotic liver were able to regenerate triggered by sublethal partial liver IR and higher doses and IR to both halves liver triggered a more enhanced regeneration. (author)

  2. Naftidrofuryl affects neurite regeneration by injured adult auditory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, P P; Staecker, H; Moonen, G; van de Water, T R

    1993-07-01

    Afferent auditory neurons are essential for the transmission of auditory information from Corti's organ to the central auditory pathway. Auditory neurons are very sensitive to acute insult and have a limited ability to regenerate injured neuronal processes. Therefore, these neurons appear to be a limiting factor in restoration of hearing function following an injury to the peripheral auditory receptor. In a previous study nerve growth factor (NGF) was shown to stimulate neurite repair but not survival of injured auditory neurons. In this study, we have demonstrated a neuritogenesis promoting effect of naftidrofuryl in an vitro model for injury to adult auditory neurons, i.e. dissociated cell cultures of adult rat spiral ganglia. Conversely, naftidrofuryl did not have any demonstrable survival promoting effect on these in vitro preparations of injured auditory neurons. The potential uses of this drug as a therapeutic agent in acute diseases of the inner ear are discussed in the light of these observations.

  3. The effects of oil sands wastewater on fish resulting from exposure to sub-lethal concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholz, D.A.; Goudey, J.S.; Balch, G.C.; Nelson, L.R.; MacKinnon, M.

    1995-01-01

    Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of oil sands wastewater in flow through laboratory experiments as well as to artificial ponds containing sub-lethal concentrations of tailings pond water and fine tails in order to study the viability of the wet landscape remediation option. Large (200--300 g) fish were used for all the exposures in this preliminary study and the following data were collected: blood cell counts, sex hormone concentrations, sexual maturation, stress protein concentrations, PAH-metabolites in bile, condition factors, liver somatic indices, mixed function oxygenase induction, PAHs in muscle, external condition and the condition of internal organs. The data obtained from this study revealed no adverse effects upon fish during extended field exposures. Given similar exposure conditions in the release waters of a wet landscape reclamation, the data suggest that there may be no adverse effects upon fish, however, longer term studies, other indicator organisms and additional chronic tests should be conducted

  4. Transplantation of Allogeneic PW1pos/Pax7neg Interstitial Cells Enhance Endogenous Repair of Injured Porcine Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona C. Lewis, BSc, PhD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle-derived PW1pos/Pax7neg interstitial cells (PICs express and secrete a multitude of proregenerative growth factors and cytokines. Utilizing a porcine preclinical skeletal muscle injury model, delivery of allogeneic porcine PICs (pPICs significantly improved and accelerated myofiber regeneration and neocapillarization, compared with saline vehicle control-treated muscles. Allogeneic pPICs did not contribute to new myofibers or capillaries and were eliminated by the host immune system. In conclusion, allogeneic pPIC transplantation stimulated the endogenous stem cell pool to bring about enhanced autologous skeletal muscle repair and regeneration. This allogeneic cell approach is considered a cost-effective, easy to apply, and readily available regenerative therapeutic strategy.

  5. The sublethal effects of zinc at different water temperatures on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sublethal effects of zinc at different water temperatures on selected ... of 96h at different water temperatures representing the seasonal temperatures in the ... are mobilised to meet increased energy demands during periods of stress.

  6. Expert medical testimony for your injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Gerald J

    2013-10-01

    Many injured patients sustain some type of loss. If someone else is responsible for the injury, the injured patient can pursue compensation for this loss. In the course of treating an injured patient, you may be asked to participate in the legal process to resolve such claims. The basic components of a personal injury claim are reviewed. An overview of the legal process will help clarify your role in the legal process. Enhanced understanding will allow you to provide important medical testimony for your injured patient.

  7. Short-term low-frequency electrical stimulation enhanced remyelination of injured peripheral nerves by inducing the promyelination effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor on Schwann cell polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Lidan; Xia, Rong; Ding, Wenlong

    2010-09-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) has been found to aid repair of nerve injuries and have been shown to increase and direct neurite outgrowth during stimulation. However, the effect of ES on peripheral remyelination after nerve damage has been investigated less well, and the mechanism underlying its action remains unclear. In the present study, the crush-injured sciatic nerves in rats were subjected to 1 hr of continuous ES (20 Hz, 100 microsec, 3 V). Electron microscopy and nerve morphometry were performed to investigate the extent of regenerated nerve myelination. The expression profiles of P0, Par-3, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the injuried sciatic nerves and in the dorsal root ganglion neuron/Schwann cell cocultures were examined by Western blotting. Par-3 localization in the sciatic nerves was determined by immunohistochemistry to demonstrate Schwann cell polarization during myelination. We reported that 20-Hz ES increased the number of myelinated fibers and the thickness myelin sheath at 4 and 8 weeks postinjury. P0 level in the ES-treated groups, both in vitro and in vivo, was enhanced compared with the controls. The earlier peak of Par-3 in the ES-treated groups indicated an earlier initiation of Schwann cell myelination. Additionally, ES significantly elevated BDNF expression in nerve tissues and in cocultures. ES on the site of nerve injury potentiates axonal regrowth and myelin maturation during peripheral nerve regeneration. Furthermore, the therapeutic actions of ES on myelination are mediated via enhanced BDNF signals, which drive the promyelination effect on Schwann cells at the onset of myelination.

  8. Development of a Tissue-Engineered Artificial Ligament: Reconstruction of Injured Rabbit Medial Collateral Ligament With Elastin-Collagen and Ligament Cell Composite Artificial Ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirukawa, Masaki; Katayama, Shingo; Sato, Tatsuya; Inoue, Kota; Niwa, Kosuke; Ito, Naoya; Hattori, Tetsuya; Hosoi, Takashi; Unno, Hironori; Suzuki, Yoshiaki; Hasegawa, Masahiro; Miyamoto, Keiichi; Horiuchi, Takashi

    2018-04-16

    Ligament reconstruction using a tissue-engineered artificial ligament (TEAL) requires regeneration of the ligament-bone junction such that fixation devices such as screws and end buttons do not have to be used. The objective of this study was to develop a TEAL consisting of elastin-coated polydioxanone (PDS) sutures covered with elastin and collagen fibers preseeded with ligament cells. In a pilot study, a ring-type PDS suture with a 2.5 mm (width) bone insertion was constructed with/without elastin coating (Ela-coat and Non-coat) and implanted into two bone tunnels, diameter 2.4 mm, in the rabbit tibia (6 cases each) to access the effect of elastin on the bond strength. PDS specimens taken together with the tibia at 6 weeks after implantation indicated growth of bone-like hard tissues around bone tunnels accompanied with narrowing of the tunnels in the Ela-coat group and not in the Non-coat group. The drawout load of the Ela-coat group was significantly higher (28.0 ± 15.1 N, n = 4) than that of the Non-coat group (7.6 ± 4.6 N, n = 5). These data can improve the mechanical bulk property of TEAL through extracellular matrix formation. To achieve this TEAL model, 4.5 × 10 6 ligament cells were seeded on elastin and collagen fibers (2.5 cm × 2.5 cm × 80 µm) prior to coil formation around the elastin-coated PDS core sutures having ball-shape ends with a diameter of 2.5 mm. Cell-seeded and cell-free TEALs were implanted across the femur and the tibia through bone tunnels with a diameter of 2.4 mm (6 cases each). There was no incidence of TEAL being pulled in 6 weeks. Regardless of the remarkable degradation of PDS observed in the cell-seeded group, both the elastic modulus and breaking load of the cell-seeded group (n = 3) were comparable to those of the sham-operation group (n = 8) (elastic modulus: 15.4 ± 1.3 MPa and 18.5 ± 5.7 MPa; breaking load: 73.0 ± 23.4 N and 104.8 ± 21.8 N, respectively) and higher than those

  9. Sublethal RNA Oxidation as a Mechanism for Neurodegenerative Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Smith

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Although cellular RNA is subjected to the same oxidative insults as DNA and other cellular macromolecules, oxidative damage to RNA has not been a major focus in investigations of the biological consequences of free radical damage. In fact, because it is largely single-stranded and its bases lack the protection of hydrogen bonding and binding by specific proteins, RNA may be more susceptible to oxidative insults than is DNA. Oxidative damage to protein-coding RNA or non-coding RNA will, in turn, potentially cause errors in proteins and/or dysregulation of gene expression. While less lethal than mutations in the genome, such sublethal insults to cells might be associated with underlying mechanisms of several chronic diseases, including neurodegenerative disease. Recently, oxidative RNA damage has been described in several neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and prion diseases. Of particular interest, oxidative RNA damage can be demonstrated in vulnerable neurons early in disease, suggesting that RNA oxidation may actively contribute to the onset of the disease. An increasing body of evidence suggests that, mechanistically speaking, the detrimental effects of oxidative RNA damage to protein synthesis are attenuated, at least in part, by the existence of protective mechanisms that prevent the incorporation of the damaged ribonucleotides into the translational machinery. Further investigations aimed at understanding the processing mechanisms related to oxidative RNA damage and its consequences may provide significant insights into the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative and other degenerative diseases and lead to better therapeutic strategies.

  10. Chronic exposure to sublethal doses of radiation mimetic ZeocinTM selects for clones deficient in homologous recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delacote, Fabien; Deriano, Ludovic; Lambert, Sarah; Bertrand, Pascale; Saintigny, Yannick; Lopez, Bernard S.

    2007-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are highly toxic lesions leading to genome variability/instability. The balance between homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), two alternative DSB repair systems, is essential to ensure genome maintenance in mammalian cells. Here, we transfected CHO hamster cells with the pcDNA TM 3.1/Zeo plasmid, and selected transfectants with Zeocin TM , a bleomycin analog which produces DSBs. Despite the presence of a Zeocin TM resistance gene in pcDNA TM 3.1/Zeo, Zeocin TM induced 8-10 γ-H2AX foci per cell. This shows that the Zeocin TM resistance gene failed to fully detoxify cells treated with Zeocin TM , and that during selection cells were submitted to a chronic sublethal DSB stress. Selected clones show decreases in both spontaneous and induced intrachromosomal HR. In contrast, in an in vitro assay, these clones show an increase in NHEJ products specific to the KU86 pathway. We selected cells, in the absence of pcDNA TM 3.1/Zeo, with low and sublethal doses of Zeocin TM , producing a mean 8-10 γ-H2AX foci per cell. Newly selected clones exhibited similar phenotypes: HR decrease accompanied by an increase in KU86-dependent NHEJ efficiency. Thus chronic exposure to sublethal numbers of DSBs selects cells whose HR versus NHEJ balance is altered. This may well have implications for radio- and chemotherapy, and for management of environmental hazards

  11. Development of biotest assays using cell cultures from fish for the demonstration of lethal and sublethal damage to organisms due to environmental pollutants in water. Cellular biomarkers in fish cell cultures; Entwicklung von Biotestverfahren mit Zellkulturen aus Fischen zum Nachweis letaler und subletaler Schaeden von Organismen durch Umweltschadstoffe im Wasser. Zellulaere Biomarker in Fischzellkulturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braunbeck, T [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Zoologisches Inst. 1

    1994-06-01

    By means of isolated hepatocytes from rainbow trout (Oncorhyuchus myskiss), the reference substances 4-chloro-aniline, 2,4-dichlorophenol, dinitro-o-cresol and 4-nitrophenol, the pesticides atrazine and disulfotone, the ichthyotherapeutic malachite green, and landfill leachates were studied for their toxic effect. As new endpoints, ultrastructural and enzyme-biochemical parameters were established, which are suitable as a sensitive test system for acute, subacute, and sublethal pollutant effects. In comparison with conventional toxicity tests, ultrastructural and biochemical studies represent the currently most sensitive methods for demonstrating the (eco-) toxicological potential of pollutants. In all experiments, clear time-effect and dose-effect relationships could be made out. Isolated hepatocytes from the liver of rainbow trout reacted more sensitively than the permanent cell lines R1 and RTG-2 investigated in parallel. In cytotoxicity tests with the fibrocytic fish cell lines R1 and RTG-2 from the liver or gonad of rainbow trout, cytotoxicity data for various organic pollutants and organic and inorganic heavy metal compounds were acquired. The results form the basis of a concept for assessing the ecotoxicological potential of environmental pollutants by means of multi-stage cell tests, which is described in the paper. (orig./VHE) [Deutsch] Mit isolierten Hepatocyten aus Regenbogenforellen (oncorhyuchus myskiss) wurden die Referenzsubstanzen 4-Chloranilin, 2,4-Dichlorphenol, Dinitro-o-kresol und 4-Nitrophenol, die Pestizide Atrazin und Disulfoton, das Fischtherapeutikum Malachitgruen sowie Deponiesickerwaesser auf toxische Wirkungen untersucht. Als neuer Endpunkt wurden ultrastrukturelle und enzymbiochemische Parameter ermittelt, die sich als empfindliches Nachweissystem fuer akute, subakute und subletale Schadstoffwirkungen eignen. Im Vergleich mit konventionellen Toxizitaetstests stellen ultrastrukturelle und biochemischen Studien die derzeit empfindlichsten

  12. Sublethal effects of imidacloprid on targeting muscle and ribosomal protein related genes in the honey bee Apis mellifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan-Yan; Luo, Qi-Hua; Hou, Chun-Sheng; Wang, Qiang; Dai, Ping-Li; Gao, Jing; Liu, Yong-Jun; Diao, Qing-Yun

    2017-11-21

    A sublethal concentration of imidacloprid can cause chronic toxicity in bees and can impact the behavior of honey bees. The nectar- and water-collecting, and climbing abilities of bees are crucial to the survival of the bees and the execution of responsibilities in bee colonies. Besides behavioral impact, data on the molecular mechanisms underlying the toxicity of imidacloprid, especially by the way of RNA-seq at the transcriptomic level, are limited. We treated Apis mellifera L. with sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid (0.1, 1 and 10 ppb) and determined the effect on behaviors and the transcriptomic changes. The sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid had a limited impact on the survival and syrup consumption of bees, but caused a significant increase in water consumption. Moreover, the climbing ability was significantly impaired by 10 ppb imidacloprid at 8 d. In the RNA-seq analysis, gene ontology (GO) term enrichment indicated a significant down-regulation of muscle-related genes, which might contribute to the impairment in climbing ability of bees. The enriched GO terms were attributed to the up-regulated ribosomal protein genes. Considering the ribosomal and extra-ribosomal functions of the ribosomal proteins, we hypothesized that imidacloprid also causes cell dysfunction. Our findings further enhance the understanding of imidacloprid sublethal toxicity.

  13. Can PRP effectively treat injured tendons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, James H-C

    2014-01-01

    PRP is widely used to treat tendon and other tissue injuries in orthopaedics and sports medicine; however, the efficacy of PRP treatment on injured tendons is highly controversial. In this commentary, I reason that there are many PRP- and patient-related factors that influence the outcomes of PRP treatment on injured tendons. Therefore, more basic science studies are needed to understand the mechanism of PRP on injured tendons. Finally, I suggest that better understanding of the PRP action mechanism will lead to better use of PRP for the effective treatment of tendon injuries in clinics.

  14. Transplantation of Human Dental Pulp-Derived Stem Cells or Differentiated Neuronal Cells from Human Dental Pulp-Derived Stem Cells Identically Enhances Regeneration of the Injured Peripheral Nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Imran; Park, Ju-Mi; Kang, Young-Hoon; Byun, June-Ho; Kim, Dae-Geon; Kim, Joo-Heon; Kang, Dong-Ho; Rho, Gyu-Jin; Park, Bong-Wook

    2017-09-01

    Human dental mesenchymal stem cells isolated from the dental follicle, pulp, and root apical papilla of extracted wisdom teeth have been known to exhibit successful and potent neurogenic differentiation capacity. In particular, human dental pulp-derived stem cells (hDPSCs) stand out as the most prominent source for in vitro neuronal differentiation. In this study, to evaluate the in vivo peripheral nerve regeneration potential of hDPSCs and differentiated neuronal cells from DPSCs (DF-DPSCs), a total of 1 × 10 6 hDPSCs or DF-hDPSCs labeled with PKH26 tracking dye and supplemented with fibrin glue scaffold and collagen tubulization were transplanted into the sciatic nerve resection (5-mm gap) of rat models. At 12 weeks after cell transplantation, both hDPSC and DF-hDPSC groups showed notably increased behavioral activities and higher muscle contraction forces compared with those in the non-cell transplanted control group. In immunohistochemical analysis of regenerated nerve specimens, specific markers for angiogenesis, axonal fiber, and myelin sheath increased in both the cell transplantation groups. Pretransplanted labeled PKH26 were also distinctly detected in the regenerated nerve tissues, indicating that transplanted cells were well-preserved and differentiated into nerve cells. Furthermore, no difference was observed in the nerve regeneration potential between the hDPSC and DF-hDPSC transplanted groups. These results demonstrate that dental pulp tissue is an excellent stem cell source for nerve regeneration, and in vivo transplantation of the undifferentiated hDPSCs could exhibit sufficient and excellent peripheral nerve regeneration potential.

  15. Impacts of chronic sublethal exposure to clothianidin on winter honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkassab, Abdulrahim T; Kirchner, Wolfgang H

    2016-07-01

    A wide application of systemic pesticides and detection of their residues in bee-collected pollen and nectar at sublethal concentrations led to the emergence of concerns about bees' chronic exposure and possible sublethal effects on insect pollinators. Therefore, special attention was given to reducing unintentional intoxications under field conditions. The sensitivity of winter bees throughout their long lifespan to residual exposure of pesticides is not well known, since most previous studies only looked at the effects on summer bees. Here, we performed various laboratory bioassays to assess the effects of clothianidin on the survival and behavior of winter bees. Oral lethal and sublethal doses were administered throughout 12-day. The obtained LD50 values at 48, 72, 96 h and 10 days were 26.9, 18.0, 15.1 and 9.5 ng/bee, respectively. Concentrations <20 µg/kg were found to be sublethal. Oral exposure to sublethal doses was carried out for 12-day and, the behavioral functions were tested on the respective 13th day. Although slight reductions in the responses at the concentrations 10 and 15 µg/kg were observed, all tested sublethal concentrations had showed non-significant effects on the sucrose responsiveness, habitation of the proboscis extension reflex and olfactory learning performance. Nevertheless, chronic exposure to 15 µg/kg affected the specificity of the early long-term memory (24 h). Since the tested concentrations were in the range of field-relevant concentrations, our results strongly suggest that related-effects on winter and summer bees' sensitivity should also be studied under realistic conditions.

  16. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Fenpropathrin on the Biological Performance of Scolothrips longicornis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakyari, Hajar; Enkegaard, Annie

    2013-01-01

    Determination of negative nontarget effects of pesticides on beneficial organisms by measuring only lethal effects is likely to underestimate effects of sublethal doses. In this study, the sublethal effects of fenpropathrin on the predatory thrips Scolothrips longicornis Priesner (Thysanoptera: T...

  17. Injured athletes' perceptions about social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Damien; Shannon, Vanessa R

    2011-11-01

    According to the buffering hypothesis, social support moderates the harmful effects of stress and, in turn, indirectly affects injured athletes' health and well-being. Previous research suggests that perceptions of social support influence athletes' psychological reactions, as well as their rehabilitation adherence, but additional research in this area is warranted. To examine injured athletes' perceptions regarding satisfaction, availability, and contribution for each of the 8 types of social support. Descriptive. Mid-Atlantic Division II and III institutions. 49 injured athletes. Social support was assessed using a modified version of the Social Support Survey. Injured athletes were significantly more satisfied with social support provided by athletic trainers (ATCs) than that provided by coaches and teammates. In addition, injured athletes reported that social support provided by ATCs contributed significantly more to their overall well-being. Athletes reported several significant differences regarding satisfaction and contribution to well-being among the 8 different types of social support. Injury, an unavoidable part of sport, is often accompanied by negative psychological reactions. This reaction may have a negative influence on an athlete's experience of injury and rehabilitation. Findings suggest that perceptions of social support provided by ATCs have the greatest influence on injured athletes' rehabilitation and well-being.

  18. Induction of the early response protein EGR-1 in human tumour cells after ionizing radiation is correlated with a reduction of repair of lethal lesions and an increase of repair of sublethal lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, Nicolaas A. P.; ten Cate, Rosemarie; van Bree, Chris; Haveman, Jaap

    2004-01-01

    The role of EGR-1 in potentially lethal damage repair (PLDR) was studied. Induction of the early response protein EGR-1 and survival after ionizing radiation of two human tumour cell lines after culturing for 48 h in serum-deprived medium was investigated. The glioblastoma cell line (Gli-6) and a

  19. Histopathological effects of lethal and sub-lethal concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The histopathological effects of lethal and sub-lethal concentrations of glyphosate on African catfish Clarias gariepinus were investigated. C. gariepinus juveniles were assessed in a static renewal bioassay for 96 hours (acute toxicity) and 28 days (chronic toxicity) using varying concentrations (0.0 mg/l 20.0 mg/l, 30.0 mg/l, ...

  20. Toxic effects of sublethal concentrations of diethyl Phthalate on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation on the effect of Diethyl phthalate (DEP) on the gill of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus was carried out in the laboratory. Seventy-five (75) catfish fingerlings were subjected to continuous exposure to sublethal concentrations of DEP (30, 40, 60 and 80 ìg/L) for a period of four weeks. The gills of the catfish ...

  1. Effects Of Exposure To Sublethal Concentrations Of Azadirachta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physiological impairment on the fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus when exposed to sublethal concentrations of Azadirachta Indica was investigated. The fish were exposed to concentrations of 1.25, 2.50, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0 ML -1 for the period of 12 weeks. The crude protein content decreased with increased concentration ...

  2. Sublethal effects of carbaryl on embryonic and gonadal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carbaryl is a broad-spectrum insecticide used to control insect pests. In aquatic environments, it can disrupt the endocrine system and adversely affect the reproductive function of aquatic animals. This study investigated sublethal impacts of carbaryl on embryos and gonads of zebrafish Danio rerio in order to assess the ...

  3. Effects of sublethal doses of chlorfluazuron on the ovarian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB_YOMI

    2011-10-12

    Oct 12, 2011 ... eggs (Perveen, 2000a). The objectives of this research were to determine the effects of sublethal doses of chlorfluazuron (LD10or LD30) on the amounts of ovarianprotein, lipid, carbohydrates, DNA, and RNA, and ecdysteroid titres in different developmental stages of S. litura, a major crop pest around the ...

  4. Study of the effects of low-dose radiation and rhEGF on growth of cultured human epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jicheng; Zhao Xiaoyu; Sheng Weihua; Tang Zhongyi

    1998-01-01

    In authors' study, the method of taking skin sample, mincing and trypsinizing the sample are presented. The cells were inoculated on adherent membrane or, for sublethally injured 3T3 cells, in culture dish fed with Eargles' medium supplemented with fetal calf serum and various growth-stimulating factors. The cultures were incubated at 37 degree C in an atmosphere containing 5% CO 2 . The medium was changed every three days. The cultured cells became confluent in about two weeks. At the same time, low-dose-radiation and rhEGF were used to influence the growth of the epithelial cells and to test the effects of dosage and concentration. The results showed that low-dose-radiation in the conditions like authors' study could enhance the growth of human epithelial cells just like rhEGF, and it has synergetic effects with rhEGF. The mechanism is discussed

  5. Measurement of oxygen enhancement ratio for sub-lethal region using saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nairy, Rajesha K.; Anjaria, K.B.; Bhat, Nagesh N.; Chaurasia, Rajesh K.; Balakrishnan, Sreedevi; Yerol, Narayana

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen is one of the best known modifiers of radiation sensitivity and the biological effects is greater in the presence of oxygen, and significant modifying effect will be observed only for low LET radiations. The reduced oxygen availability is sensed which trigger homeostatic responses, which impact on virtually all areas of biology and medicine. Failure to achieve complete response following radiotherapy of large tumors is attributed to the presence of radio-resistant hypoxic cells, therefore clarifying the mechanism of the oxygen effect is important. In the present study, a mutant type diploid yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7 was used to study Oxygen Enhancement Ratio (OER) using 60 Co gamma radiation. Cells were washed thrice by centrifugation (2000 g for 5 min) and re-suspended to a cell concentration of 1x108 cells mL-1 in a sterile polypropylene vial for irradiation (sub-lethal dose range, 0-100 Gy). Hypoxic conditions were achieved by incubating the cells in airtight vials at 30℃ for 30 min prior to irradiation. The gene conversion and back mutation analysis were carried out according to the standard protocol. Gene conversion is the radio-sensitive biological endpoint, that can be studied in Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7 yeast cells at trp locus in tryptophan (Trp- medium) deficient medium. The dose response relation at euoxic and hypoxic condition in sub-lethal doses are found to be linear and is represented by Y (Euoxic) = (6.54±0.102) D with R2=0.999 and for hypoxic condition Y(Hypoxic) = (3.346±0.033) D with R2=0.996. The OER can be calculated by dividing the euoxic slope with hypoxic slope, and is 1.95. Back mutation, which is a result of reversion of Isoleucine auxotrophs to prototrophs gives very good information at sub-lethal doses. The dose response relation between back mutated cells and radiation doses at Euoxic and hypoxic condition can be represented as Y(Euoxic) = (2.85±0.126) D with R2= 0.976 and for hypoxic condition Y

  6. Pesticides and Arthropods: Sublethal Effects and Demographic Toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Marčić

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Insecticides and acaricides designed to control primary harmful insects and mites may also variously affect some other arthopods present in an (agroecosystem (e.g. secondary pests, predators, parasitoids, saprophytes, bioindicators, pollinators. Apart from insecticides and acaricides, arthropods may also be affected by the activity of other pesticides (fungicides, herbicides, etc.. Regardless of whether they are deemed desirable or not, the effects that pesticides have on arthopods need to be quantified as closely as possible through appropriate experimental procedures. Data acquired in tests designed to determined LD50/LC50 values are inadequate for evaluation of pesticide effectiveness in the field as pesticidesalso cause various sublethal effects, generally disregarded in such investigations. The sublethal effects of pesticides refer to any altered behaviour and/or physiology of individuals that have survived exposure to pesticides at doses/concentrations that can be lethal(within range causing mortality in an experimental population that exceeds mortality in an untreated population or sublethal (below that range. Pesticides affect locomotion and mobility, stimulate dispersion of arthropods from treated areas, complicate or prevent their navigation, orientation and ability to locate hosts, and cause changes in their feeding, mating and egg-laying patterns. Sublethal pesticide effects on arthropod physiology reflect on the life span, rate of development, fecundity and/or fertility, sex ratio and immunity of surviving individuals. Different parameters are being used in arthropod bioassays to determine sublethal effects (ED50/EC50, LOEC, NOEC, total effect index. Compared to acute toxicity tests, these parameters improve the quality of evaluation and create a more accurate view of the effects of a pesticide. However, such approach covers mainly fecundity/fertility alone, while all other sublethal effects remain unaccounted for. Besides, it

  7. Nursing care of the thermally injured patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfving, U

    1980-01-01

    Team work is required in the treatment of the thermally injured patient--nursing staff being part of the team. The nurses are with the patient for 24 hours a day and they have to understand the objectives of all other members of the team involved in the treatment as well as thoroughly mastering their own work. For the nursing staff the care of the thermally injured patient is a challenge. The work demands strong motivation and interest--it includes at times painful treatment, isolation and also constant alertness. It is important that the nursing staff is given continuous training so that they are able to give the required care efficiently and to keep up active interest. Practical work is the best way of getting aquainted with the complex forms of treatment of the thermally injured patient. It also lessens the fear of a badly burned patient. Nursing care of the thermally injured patient consists of good basic care, local attention and active observation. The basic care consists of basic hygiene, diet, observation of the patient's psychological condition, giving emotional support, encouraging initiative physiotherapy and postural treatment.

  8. Sublethal Heavy Metal Stress Stimulates Innate Immunity in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilanjan Chakraborty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of sublethal heavy metal stress as plant biotic elicitor for triggering innate immunity in tomato plant was investigated. Copper in in vivo condition induced accumulation of defense enzymes like peroxidase (PO, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, and β-1,3 glucanase along with higher accumulation of total phenol, antioxidative enzymes (catalase and ascorbate peroxidase, and total chlorophyll content. Furthermore, the treatment also induced nitric oxide (NO production which was confirmed by realtime visualization of NO burst using a fluorescent probe 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2DA and spectrophotometric analysis. The result suggested that the sublethal dose of heavy metal can induce an array of plant defense responses that lead to the improvement of innate immunity in plants.

  9. Gene expression in Listeria monocytogenes exposed to sublethal concentration of benzalkonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburro, Manuela; Ripabelli, Giancarlo; Vitullo, Monia; Dallman, Timothy James; Pontello, Mirella; Amar, Corinne Francoise Laurence; Sammarco, Michela Lucia

    2015-06-01

    In this study, tolerance at sublethal concentration of benzalkonium chloride and transcription levels of mdrL, ladR, lde, sigB and bcrABC genes in Listeria monocytogenes strains were evaluated. Viable cells reduction occurred in 45% of strains and clinical isolates showed lower sensitivity than isolates from foods. An increased transcription of an efflux system encoding gene was found in 60% of strains, and simultaneous mdrL overexpression and ladR underexpression occurred in 30% of isolates. A significant association between reduced benzalkonium chloride activity and both mdrL and sigB overexpression was observed; sigB expression also correlated with both mdrL and ladR genes. The bcrABC gene was only found in six strains, all isolated from foods and sensitive to benzalkonium chloride, and in four strains an underexpression was observed. Disinfection at sublethal concentration was less effective in clinical isolates, and mdrL and sigB expression was significantly affected by disinfection. Further insights are needed to understand the adaptation to benzalkonium chloride and to evaluate whether changes in gene expression could affect the L. monocytogenes virulence traits and persistence in the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Biochemical and Hematological Profiles of Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio under Sublethal Effects of Trivalent Chromium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynab Abedi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In natural waters and/or aquaculture facilities, fish are often exposed to chromium waste and demonstrate cumulative deleterious effects. To our knowledge, there are no studies concerning the effects of trivalent Cr on C. carpio hematology. This study presents hematological and some biochemical parameters of common carp, Cyprinus carpio, affected by sublethal concentration of trivalent chromium. Methods: The fish in the experimental aquaria (three replicates each were exposed to a sublethal chromium chloride concentration of 2 mg L−1, which was prepared as stock solution and added depending on the volume of the aquaria to obtain the required concentration. After a period of 28 days, parameters such as hematocrit (Hct, hemoglobin (Hb, lymphocytes (Lym, neutrophils (Neu, total protein (TP, albumin, immunoglobulin M (IgM, glucose, red and white blood cells (RBC and WBC, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC were examined. Results: Chromium exposure for 28 days significantly (P0.05 between the Cr-exposed fish and the control. Conclusion: Hematological indices of fish, caused by chromium toxicity to C. carpio, can be secondary responses to toxicants, including exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals, which reflect the launch of stress reaction in the affected fish.

  11. Extra lethal damage due to residual incompletely repaired sublethal damage in hyperfractionated and continuous radiation treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.; van de Geijn, J.; Goffman, T. (ROB, DCT, NCI, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (US))

    1991-05-01

    In the conventional linear--quadratic model of single-dose response, the {alpha} and {beta} terms reflect lethal damage created {ital during} the delivery of a dose, from two different presumed molecular processes, one linear with dose, the other quadratic. With the conventional one-fraction-per-day (or less) regimens, the sublethal damage (SLD), presumably repairing exponentially over time, is essentially completely fixed by the time of the next dose of radiation. If this assumption is true, the effects of subsequent fractions of radiation should be independent, that is, there should be little, if any, reversible damage left from previous fractions, at the time of the next dose. For multiple daily fractions, or for the limiting case, continuous radiation, this simplification may overlook damaged cells that have had insufficient time for repair. A generalized method is presented for accounting for extra lethal damage (ELD) arising from such residual SLD for hyperfractionation and continuous irradiation schemes. It may help to predict differences in toxicity and tumor control, if any, obtained with unconventional'' treatment regimens. A key element in the present model is the finite size and the dynamic character of the pool of sublethal damage. Besides creating the usual linear and quadratic components of lethal damage, each new fraction converts a certain fraction of the existing SLD into ELD, and creates some new SLD.

  12. Extra lethal damage due to residual incompletely repaired sublethal damage in hyperfractionated and continuous radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.; van de Geijn, J.; Goffman, T.

    1991-01-01

    In the conventional linear--quadratic model of single-dose response, the α and β terms reflect lethal damage created during the delivery of a dose, from two different presumed molecular processes, one linear with dose, the other quadratic. With the conventional one-fraction-per-day (or less) regimens, the sublethal damage (SLD), presumably repairing exponentially over time, is essentially completely fixed by the time of the next dose of radiation. If this assumption is true, the effects of subsequent fractions of radiation should be independent, that is, there should be little, if any, reversible damage left from previous fractions, at the time of the next dose. For multiple daily fractions, or for the limiting case, continuous radiation, this simplification may overlook damaged cells that have had insufficient time for repair. A generalized method is presented for accounting for extra lethal damage (ELD) arising from such residual SLD for hyperfractionation and continuous irradiation schemes. It may help to predict differences in toxicity and tumor control, if any, obtained with ''unconventional'' treatment regimens. A key element in the present model is the finite size and the dynamic character of the pool of sublethal damage. Besides creating the usual linear and quadratic components of lethal damage, each new fraction converts a certain fraction of the existing SLD into ELD, and creates some new SLD

  13. Sub-Lethal Dose of Shiga toxin 2 from Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Affects Balance and Cerebellar Cythoarquitecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana eD’Alessio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli may damage the central nervous system before or concomitantly to manifested hemolytic uremic syndrome symptoms. The cerebellum is frequently damaged during this syndrome, however the deleterious effects of Shiga toxin 2 has never been integrally reported by ultrastructural, physiological and behavioral means. The aim of this study was to determine the cerebellar compromise after intravenous administration of a sub-lethal dose of Shiga toxin 2 by measuring the cerebellar blood brain barrier permeability, behavioral task of cerebellar functionality (inclined plane test, and ultrastructural analysis (transmission electron microscope. Intravenous administration of vehicle (control group, sub-lethal dose of 0.5 ηg and 1 ηg of Stx2 per mouse were tested for behavioral and ultrastructural studies. A set of three independent experiments were performed for each study (n=6. Blood–Brain Barrier resulted damaged and consequently its permeability was significantly increased. Lower scores obtained in the inclined plane task denoted poor cerebellar functionality in comparison to their controls. The most significant lower score was obtained after 5 days of 1ηg of toxin administration. Transmission electron microscope micrographs from the Stx2-treated groups showed neurons with a progressive neurodegenerative condition in a dose dependent manner. As sub-lethal intravenous Shiga toxin 2 altered the blood brain barrier permeability in the cerebellum the toxin penetrated the cerebellar parenchyma and produced cell damaged with significant functional implications in the test balance.

  14. Use of a special airbed for transporting injured persons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker, R

    1981-04-01

    A description is given of a special airbed for the purpose of transporting injured persons, especially those with injuries to the spinal column. This special airbed moulds itself to the shape of the injured party. (In German)

  15. Impacts of Sublethal Mercury Exposure on Birds: A Detailed Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Margaret C; Cristol, Daniel A

    Mercury is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant known to accumulate in, and negatively affect, fish-eating and oceanic bird species, and recently demonstrated to impact some terrestrial songbirds to a comparable extent. It can bioaccumulate to concentrations of >1 μg/g in tissues of prey organisms such as fish and insects. At high enough concentrations, exposure to mercury is lethal to birds. However, environmental exposures are usually far below the lethal concentrations established by dosing studies.The objective of this review is to better understand the effects of sublethal exposure to mercury in birds. We restricted our survey of the literature to studies with at least some exposures >5 μg/g. The majority of sublethal effects were subtle and some studies of similar endpoints reached different conclusions. Strong support exists in the literature for the conclusion that mercury exposure reduces reproductive output, compromises immune function, and causes avoidance of high-energy behaviors. For some endpoints, notably certain measures of reproductive success, endocrine and neurological function, and body condition, there is weak or contradictory evidence of adverse effects and further study is required. There was no evidence that environmentally relevant mercury exposure affects longevity, but several of the sublethal effects identified likely do result in fitness reductions that could adversely impact populations. Overall, 72% of field studies and 91% of laboratory studies found evidence of deleterious effects of mercury on some endpoint, and thus we can conclude that mercury is harmful to birds, and the many effects on reproduction indicate that bird population declines may already be resulting from environmental mercury pollution.

  16. Sublethal effect of neem extract on mediterranean fruit fly adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Alves Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The sublethal effect of extracts of Azadirachta indica on Ceratitis capitata was evaluated. Two pairs of flies were treated in plastic tubes with cotton placed in plastic cages. An artificial diet (hydrolyzed protein + sugar was provided ad libitum. The extracts affected significantly the longevity of C. capitata. The pre-oviposition period were not significantly affected by the extracts. The A. indica branches extracted with dichloromethane (888 ppm affected significantly the fecundity and fertility, reducing the number of eggs laid to approximately 80 % and the egg hatching by 30 % at the 8th day. Therefore, the neem branches extracted with dichloromethane affected the reproduction of C. capitata.

  17. Investigation of ionizing sublethal doses effects on endogenous radioresistance background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryashov, Yu.B.; Goncharenko, E.N.; Antonova, S.V.; Akhalaya, M.Ya.; Bajzhumanov, A.A.; Shestakova, S.V.

    1997-01-01

    Sublethal doses of X-radiation (0.5 Gy and 1 Gy) caused the alterations in levels of main components of endogenous radioresistance background in rat tissues. There were demonstrated the decrease of serotonin content in stomach mocosa and spleen, adrenalin, noradrenalin and corticosteroids contents in adrenal glands, nonprotein thiols content in spleen and the increase of lipid peroxide level in serum on the 3-14 days after irradiation. The recovery of the investigated parameters was occurred to the 21 day after exposure. (author)

  18. Recovery from sublethal damage during fractionated irradiation of human FaDu SCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, Cordula; Zips, Daniel; Krause, Mechthild; Voelkel, Wolfram; Thames, Howard D.; Baumann, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: The present study addresses whether recovery of sublethal damage in tumours may change during fractionated irradiation in FaDu human squamous cell carcinoma and whether such an effect might contribute to the pronounced time factor of fractionated irradiation previously found in this tumour. Patients and methods: FaDu tumours were transplanted s.c. into the right hind leg of NMRI nu/nu mice. Single doses or 2, 4, and 8 equal fractions in 3.5 days were applied in previously unirradiated tumours and after priming with 18 fractions of 3 Gy in 18 or 36 days. All irradiations were given under clamp hypoxic conditions. Experimental endpoints were tumour control dose 50% (TCD 50 ) and α/β values without and after priming. Results: Without priming TCD 50 increased with increasing number of fractions from 38.8 Gy (95% CI 35;45) after single dose irradiation to 54.0 Gy (42;57) after 8 fractions. No increase in TCD 50 when given in 1, 2, 4, or 8 fractions in 3.5 days was found after priming with 18 3-Gy fractions in 18 and 36 days. After priming with 18 fractions in 18 days TCD 50 remained constant at 25 Gy and after priming with 18 fractions in 36 days at 42 Gy. The α/β ratio without priming was 68 Gy (42;127). After fractionated irradiation with 18 3-Gy fractions in 18 and 36 days the α/β ratio increased to 317 Gy (38;∞) and to infinite, respectively. Conclusions: Our results indicate that clonogenic cells in FaDu tumours lose entirely their capacity to recover from sublethal radiation damage during fractionated irradiation. Therefore, an increased repair capacity as an explanation for the pronounced time factor of fractionated irradiation in this tumour can be ruled out

  19. Study of human mesenchymal stem cells plasticity into radiation injured tissues in a N.O.D./S.C.I.D. mouse model: therapeutic approach of the multiple organ dysfunction; Etude de la capacite plastique des Cellules Souches Mesenchymateuses humaines (CSM) apres irradiation du tissu receveur: approche therapeutique de l'atteinte multiorgane radio-induite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, S

    2006-01-15

    The therapeutic potential of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (h.M.S.C.) has recently been brought into the spotlight of many fields of research. One possible application of the approach is the repair of injured tissues arising from side effects of radiation treatments and accidents. The first challenge in cell therapy is to assess the quality of the cell and the ability to retain their differentiation potential during the expansion process. Efficient delivery to the sites of intended action is also necessary. We addressed both questions using h.M.S.C. cultured and then infused to Non Obese Diabetes/Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (N.O.D./S.C.I.D.) mice submitted to total body irradiation. Further, we tested the impact of additional local irradiation superimposed to total body irradiation (T.B.I.), as a model of accidental irradiation. Our results showed that the h.M.S.C. used for transplant have been expanded without significant loss in their differentiation capacities. After transplantation into adult unconditioned mice, h.M.S.C. not only migrate in bone marrow but also into other tissues. Total body irradiation increased h.M.S.C. implantation in bone marrow and muscle and further led to engraftment in brain, heart, and liver. Local irradiation, in addition to T.B.I., increased both specific homing of injected cells to the injured tissues and to other tissues outside the local irradiation field. M.S.C. may participate to restoration of intestinal homeostasis 3 days post abdominal irradiation. This study suggests that using the potential of h.M.S.C. to home to various organs in response to tissue injuries could be a promising strategy to repair the radiation induced damages. (author)

  20. Study of human mesenchymal stem cells plasticity into radiation injured tissues in a N.O.D./S.C.I.D. mouse model: therapeutic approach of the multiple organ dysfunction; Etude de la capacite plastique des Cellules Souches Mesenchymateuses humaines (CSM) apres irradiation du tissu receveur: approche therapeutique de l'atteinte multiorgane radio-induite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, S

    2006-01-15

    The therapeutic potential of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (h.M.S.C.) has recently been brought into the spotlight of many fields of research. One possible application of the approach is the repair of injured tissues arising from side effects of radiation treatments and accidents. The first challenge in cell therapy is to assess the quality of the cell and the ability to retain their differentiation potential during the expansion process. Efficient delivery to the sites of intended action is also necessary. We addressed both questions using h.M.S.C. cultured and then infused to Non Obese Diabetes/Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (N.O.D./S.C.I.D.) mice submitted to total body irradiation. Further, we tested the impact of additional local irradiation superimposed to total body irradiation (T.B.I.), as a model of accidental irradiation. Our results showed that the h.M.S.C. used for transplant have been expanded without significant loss in their differentiation capacities. After transplantation into adult unconditioned mice, h.M.S.C. not only migrate in bone marrow but also into other tissues. Total body irradiation increased h.M.S.C. implantation in bone marrow and muscle and further led to engraftment in brain, heart, and liver. Local irradiation, in addition to T.B.I., increased both specific homing of injected cells to the injured tissues and to other tissues outside the local irradiation field. M.S.C. may participate to restoration of intestinal homeostasis 3 days post abdominal irradiation. This study suggests that using the potential of h.M.S.C. to home to various organs in response to tissue injuries could be a promising strategy to repair the radiation induced damages. (author)

  1. Slow elimination of injured liver DNA bases of γ-irradiated old mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaziev, A.I.; Malakhov, L.V.; Fomenko, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    The paper presents a study of the elimination of injured bases from the liver DNA of old and young mice after their exposure to γ rays. The presented data show that if DNA from the liver of irradiated mice is treated with incision enzymes, its priming activity is increased. In the case of enzymatic treatment of DNA isolated 5 h after irradiation we find a great difference between the priming activity of the liver DNA of old and young mice. The reason for this difference is that the liver DNA of 20-month old mice 5 h after irradiation still has many unrepaired injured bases. These data indicated that the rate of incision of γ-injured DNA bases in the liver of old mice is lower than in the liver of young mice. In the liver of mice of different age the rate of restitution of DNA, single-strand breaks induced by γ rays in doses up to 100 Gy is the same. At the same time, the level of induced reparative synthesis of DNA in cells of an old organism is lower than in cells of a young organism. The obtained data suggest that reduction of the rate of elimination of modified bases from the cell DNA of 20-month old mice is due to reduction of the activity of the DNA repair enzymes or to restrictions in the chromatin in the access of these enzymes to the injured regions of DNA in the cells of old animals

  2. High hydrostatic pressure resistance of Campylobacter jejuni after different sublethal stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagarzazu, N; Cebrián, G; Condón, S; Mackey, B; Mañas, P

    2010-07-01

    To study the development of resistance responses in Campylobacter jejuni to high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatments after the exposure to different stressful conditions that may be encountered in food-processing environments, such as acid pH, elevated temperatures and cold storage. Campylobacter jejuni cells in exponential and stationary growth phase were exposed to different sublethal stresses (acid, heat and cold shocks) prior to evaluate the development of resistance responses to HHP. For exponential-phase cells, neither of the conditions tested increased nor decreased HHP resistance of C. jejuni. For stationary-phase cells, acid and heat adaptation-sensitized C. jejuni cells to the subsequent pressure treatment. On the contrary, cold-adapted stationary-phase cells developed resistance to HHP. Whereas C. jejuni can be classified as a stress sensitive micro-organism, our findings have demonstrated that it can develop resistance responses under different stressing conditions. The resistance of stationary phase C. jejuni to HHP was increased after cells were exposed to cold temperatures. The results of this study contribute to a better knowledge of the physiology of C. jejuni and its survival to food preservation agents. Results here presented may help in the design of combined processes for food preservation based on HHP technology. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Distal axotomy enhances retrograde presynaptic excitability onto injured pyramidal neurons via trans-synaptic signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendran, Tharkika; Larsen, Rylan S; Bigler, Rebecca L; Frost, Shawn B; Philpot, Benjamin D; Nudo, Randolph J; Taylor, Anne Marion

    2017-09-20

    Injury of CNS nerve tracts remodels circuitry through dendritic spine loss and hyper-excitability, thus influencing recovery. Due to the complexity of the CNS, a mechanistic understanding of injury-induced synaptic remodeling remains unclear. Using microfluidic chambers to separate and injure distal axons, we show that axotomy causes retrograde dendritic spine loss at directly injured pyramidal neurons followed by retrograde presynaptic hyper-excitability. These remodeling events require activity at the site of injury, axon-to-soma signaling, and transcription. Similarly, directly injured corticospinal neurons in vivo also exhibit a specific increase in spiking following axon injury. Axotomy-induced hyper-excitability of cultured neurons coincides with elimination of inhibitory inputs onto injured neurons, including those formed onto dendritic spines. Netrin-1 downregulation occurs following axon injury and exogenous netrin-1 applied after injury normalizes spine density, presynaptic excitability, and inhibitory inputs at injured neurons. Our findings show that intrinsic signaling within damaged neurons regulates synaptic remodeling and involves netrin-1 signaling.Spinal cord injury can induce synaptic reorganization and remodeling in the brain. Here the authors study how severed distal axons signal back to the cell body to induce hyperexcitability, loss of inhibition and enhanced presynaptic release through netrin-1.

  4. Toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic modeling of quantal and graded sublethal endpoints: a brief discussion of concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashauer, R.; Agatz, A.; Albert, C.; Ducrot, V.; Galic, N.G.; Hendriks, J.; Jager, T.; Kretschmann, A.; O'Connor, I.; Rubach, M.N.; Nyman, M.; Schmitt, W.; Stadnicka, J.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the advantages and problems of using toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TKTD) models for the analysis, understanding, and simulation of sublethal effects. Only a few toxicodynamic approaches for sublethal effects are available. These differ in their effect mechanism and emphasis on linkages

  5. Sublethal Toxic effects of spent Oil Based Drilling Mud and Cuttings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sublethal toxic effects of spent oil based drilling mud collected from an abandoned oil drilling site in Mpanak, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria were assessed in the earthworm Aporrectodea longa. The test annelid was exposed to sub-lethal Concentration of 0ppm SPP; 62,500ppm SPP; 125, 000ppm SPP; 250,000ppm SPP and ...

  6. Sublethal effect of imidacloprid on Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) feeding, digging, and foraging behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is increasing evidence that exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides at sublethal levels impairs colonies of honeybee and other pollinators. Recently, it was found that sublethal contamination with neonicotinoids also affect growth and behavior of ants. In this study, we exposed red imported fi...

  7. Survival rate of honeybee (Apis mellifera) workers after exposure to sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blacquiere, T.

    2010-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a commonly used systemic insecticide which can induce several sublethal effects. Previous research has not shown any increased mortality in bees that were fed with sublethal doses. However, there is very little research conducted with the focus on survival rate of honeybees in the

  8. DO GENERAL MEDICAL PRACTITIONERS EXAMINE INJURED RUNNERS?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Videbæk, Solvej; Jensen, A V; Rasmussen, S

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: General Medical Practitioners (GMP) in Denmark perform clinical examinations of patients with musculoskeletal pain. However, the prevalence proportion of examinations caused by running-related injuries remains unknown. PURPOSE: The primary purpose of the present study was to estimate...... the prevalence proportion of consultations in general medical practice caused by running-related injuries. The secondary purpose was to estimate the prevalence proportion of injured runners, who consult their GMP, that are referred to additional examinations or treatments. STUDY DESIGN: A survey-based study...

  9. Sub-lethal effects of the neurotoxic pyrethroid insecticide Fastac 50EC on the general motor and locomotor activities of the non-targeted beneficial carabid beetle Platynus assimilis (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooming, Ene; Merivee, Enno; Must, Anne; Sibul, Ivar; Williams, Ingrid

    2014-06-01

    Sub-lethal effects of pesticides on behavioural endpoints are poorly studied in carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae) though changes in behaviour caused by chemical stress may affect populations of these non-targeted beneficial insects. General motor activity and locomotion are inherent in many behavioural patterns, and changes in these activities that result from xenobiotic influence mirror an integrated response of the insect to pesticides. Influence of pyrethroid insecticides over a wide range of sub-lethal doses on the motor activities of carabids still remains unclear. Video tracking of Platynus assimilis showed that brief exposure to alpha-cypermethrin at sub-lethal concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 100 mg L(-1) caused initial short-term (24 h) locomotor hypo-activity. In addition, significant short- and long-term concentration and time-dependent changes occurred in general motor activity patterns and rates. Conspicuous changes in motor activity of Platynus assimilis beetles treated at alpha-cypermethrin concentrations up to 75,000-fold lower than maximum field recommended concentration (MFRC) suggest that many, basic fitness-related behaviours might be severely injured as well. These changes may negatively affect carabid populations in agro-ecosystems. Long-term hypo-activity could directly contribute to decreased trap captures of carabids frequently observed after insecticide application in the field. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Field-level sublethal effects of approved bee hive chemicals on Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jennifer A; Hood, W Michael; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Delaplane, Keith S

    2013-01-01

    In a study replicated across two states and two years, we tested the sublethal effects on honey bees of the miticides Apistan (tau fluvalinate) and Check Mite+ (coumaphos) and the wood preservative copper naphthenate applied at label rates in field conditions. A continuous covariate, a colony Varroa mite index, helped us disambiguate the effects of the chemicals on bees while adjusting for a presumed benefit of controlling mites. Mite levels in colonies treated with Apistan or Check Mite+ were not different from levels in non-treated controls. Experimental chemicals significantly decreased 3-day brood survivorship and increased construction of queen supercedure cells compared to non-treated controls. Bees exposed to Check Mite+ as immatures had higher legacy mortality as adults relative to non-treated controls, whereas bees exposed to Apistan had improved legacy mortality relative to non-treated controls. Relative to non-treated controls, Check Mite+ increased adult emergence weight. Although there was a treatment effect on a test of associative learning, it was not possible to statistically separate the treatment means, but bees treated with Apistan performed comparatively well. And finally, there were no detected effects of bee hive chemical on colony bee population, amount of brood, amount of honey, foraging rate, time required for marked released bees to return to their nest, percentage of released bees that return to the nest, and colony Nosema spore loads. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine sublethal effects of bee hive chemicals applied at label rates under field conditions while disambiguating the results from mite control benefits realized from the chemicals. Given the poor performance of the miticides at reducing mites and their inconsistent effects on the host, these results defend the use of bee health management practices that minimize use of exotic hive chemicals.

  11. The assessment of sublethal effects of pollutants in the sea. Review of the problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldichuk, M

    1979-08-08

    Sublethal effects of pollution may be significant to survival of a stock of marine fish or even a species. Such effects sometimes lead to reproductive failure and have been identified so far only in freshwater systems. Atlantic salmon have disappeared from many streams in Europe and eastern North America, partly as a result of pollution in their freshwater spawning areas and in their estuarine nursing grounds. Reductions in populations of marine fishes due to pollution solely have not yet been demonstrated. However, Baltic Sea seals, where reproductive failure is apparently associated with high concentrations of DDT and polychlorinated biphenyl in the blubber, may have suffered a decline owing to the presence of these organochlorines. Sublethal effects of pollutants have been studied in the laboratory, essentially under four categories: (1) physiology (growth, swimming performance, respiration, circulation); (2) biochemistry/cell structure (blood chemistry, enzyme activity, endocrinology, histochemistry); (3) behaviour/neurophysiology; and (4) reproduction. Not all pollutants elicit meaningful responses in all categories, and a response is not always linear with pollutant concentration. For application to survival of populations the response has to be ultimately related to a healthy progression through a full life cycle, including successful reproduction. In recent time, physiological studies have moved into polluted marine environments with mobile laboratories having continuous sampling capability, to observe effects of pollutants in situ on marine organisms. The Controlled Ecosystem Pollution Experiment (Cepex) in Saanich Inlet, British Columbia, endeavours to investigate the effects of low concentrations of pollutants on marine organisms in large plastic silos having a slow replacement of water.

  12. Field-level sublethal effects of approved bee hive chemicals on Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Berry

    Full Text Available In a study replicated across two states and two years, we tested the sublethal effects on honey bees of the miticides Apistan (tau fluvalinate and Check Mite+ (coumaphos and the wood preservative copper naphthenate applied at label rates in field conditions. A continuous covariate, a colony Varroa mite index, helped us disambiguate the effects of the chemicals on bees while adjusting for a presumed benefit of controlling mites. Mite levels in colonies treated with Apistan or Check Mite+ were not different from levels in non-treated controls. Experimental chemicals significantly decreased 3-day brood survivorship and increased construction of queen supercedure cells compared to non-treated controls. Bees exposed to Check Mite+ as immatures had higher legacy mortality as adults relative to non-treated controls, whereas bees exposed to Apistan had improved legacy mortality relative to non-treated controls. Relative to non-treated controls, Check Mite+ increased adult emergence weight. Although there was a treatment effect on a test of associative learning, it was not possible to statistically separate the treatment means, but bees treated with Apistan performed comparatively well. And finally, there were no detected effects of bee hive chemical on colony bee population, amount of brood, amount of honey, foraging rate, time required for marked released bees to return to their nest, percentage of released bees that return to the nest, and colony Nosema spore loads. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine sublethal effects of bee hive chemicals applied at label rates under field conditions while disambiguating the results from mite control benefits realized from the chemicals. Given the poor performance of the miticides at reducing mites and their inconsistent effects on the host, these results defend the use of bee health management practices that minimize use of exotic hive chemicals.

  13. Child passengers injured in motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Eduardo; Kelley-Baker, Tara

    2015-02-01

    During 2010, 171,000 children aged 0-14 were injured in motor vehicle crashes. Despite the severity of the problem, research has been limited, and most of what we know about these children emanates from fatal crash databases. Using information from the General Estimates System, this effort examines the occurrence of non-fatal crashes among children aged 0-14 over the last decade. We found that about 1% of the non-injured children in the file had been driven by a driver who was positive for alcohol. This percentage climbed to about 2% among children who had suffered injuries. Compared with the proportion of alcohol-positive drivers at the time of the crash, the proportion of drivers who sped or failed to obey a traffic signal was significantly higher. The finding that drinking and driving with children did not decrease over time questions the adequacy of the extant child endangerment laws. Copyright © 2014 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of sublethal exposure of Cartap on hypothalamo-neurosecretory system of the freshwater spotted murrel, Channa punctatus (Bloch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, D K; Bohidar, K; Pandey, A K

    2008-11-01

    In order to record the effect of carbamate pesticide on hypothalamus of Channa punctatus, fish were exposed to sublethal concentration (0.18 mg l(-1), 30% LC50 for 96 hr) of Cartap for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr under static bioassay condition. Hypothalamo-neurosecretory complex of the murrel consisted mainly of nucleus preopticus (NPO), nucleus lateralis tuberis (NLT) and their axonal tracts. NPO is a paired structure situtated on either side of the third ventricle anterodorsal to the optic chiasma and looked inverted L-shape in the sagittal section. NPO is morphologically divisible into a dorsal pars magnocellularis (PMC) consisting of large neurons and ventral pars parvocellularis (PPC) formed of smaller neurosecretory cells. NLT cells are distributed in the infundibular floor adjacent to the pituitary stalk. Sublethal Cartap treatment induced an initial hypertrophy of the neurosecretory cells of NPO and NLT followed by loss of staining affinity as well as varying degrees of cytoplasmic vacuolization and necrosis. Herring bodies (HB) were also encountered in the neurohypophysis of the treated fishes.

  15. Gamma knife irradiation of injured sciatic nerve induces histological and behavioral improvement in the rat neuropathic pain model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Yagasaki

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of gamma knife (GK irradiation on injured nerves using a rat partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSL model. GK irradiation was performed at one week after ligation and nerve preparations were made three weeks after ligation. GK irradiation is known to induce immune responses such as glial cell activation in the central nervous system. Thus, we determined the effects of GK irradiation on macrophages using immunoblot and histochemical analyses. Expression of Iba-1 protein, a macrophage marker, was further increased in GK-treated injured nerves as compared with non-irradiated injured nerves. Immunohistochemical study of Iba-1 in GK-irradiated injured sciatic nerves demonstrated Iba-1 positive macrophage accumulation to be enhanced in areas distal to the ligation point. In the same area, myelin debris was also more efficiently removed by GK-irradiation. Myelin debris clearance by macrophages is thought to contribute to a permissive environment for axon growth. In the immunoblot study, GK irradiation significantly increased expressions of βIII-tubulin protein and myelin protein zero, which are markers of axon regeneration and re-myelination, respectively. Toluidine blue staining revealed the re-myelinated fiber diameter to be larger at proximal sites and that the re-myelinated fiber number was increased at distal sites in GK-irradiated injured nerves as compared with non-irradiated injured nerves. These results suggest that GK irradiation of injured nerves facilitates regeneration and re-myelination. In a behavior study, early alleviation of allodynia was observed with GK irradiation in PSL rats. When GK-induced alleviation of allodynia was initially detected, the expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, a potent analgesic factor, was significantly increased by GK irradiation. These results suggested that GK irradiation alleviates allodynia via increased GDNF. This study provides novel evidence that GK

  16. Do general medical practitioners examine injured runners?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Solvej Videbæk; Jensen, A V; Rasmussen, Sten

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: General Medical Practitioners (GMP) in Denmark perform clinical examinations of patients with musculoskeletal pain. However, the prevalence proportion of examinations caused by running-related injuries remains unknown. PURPOSE: The primary purpose of the present study was to estimate...... the prevalence proportion of consultations in general medical practice caused by running-related injuries. The secondary purpose was to estimate the prevalence proportion of injured runners, who consult their GMP, that are referred to additional examinations or treatments. STUDY DESIGN: A survey-based study....... METHODS: An online survey was distributed in October and November 2015 to more than 370 GMPs in Denmark and completed by 27. RESULTS: The median prevalence proportion of consultations caused by running-related injuries in the prior two weeks was 0.80% [25th percentile = 0.00%; 75th percentile = 1...

  17. The involvement of IL-17A in the murine response to sub-lethal inhalational infection with Francisella tularensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal Markel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is an intercellular bacterium often causing fatal disease when inhaled. Previous reports have underlined the role of cell-mediated immunity and IFNgamma in the host response to Francisella tularensis infection.Here we provide evidence for the involvement of IL-17A in host defense to inhalational tularemia, using a mouse model of intranasal infection with the Live Vaccine Strain (LVS. We demonstrate the kinetics of IL-17A production in lavage fluids of infected lungs and identify the IL-17A-producing lymphocytes as pulmonary gammadelta and Th17 cells. The peak of IL-17A production appears early during sub-lethal infection, it precedes the peak of immune activation and the nadir of the disease, and then subsides subsequently. Exogenous airway administration of IL-17A or of IL-23 had a limited yet consistent effect of delaying the onset of death from a lethal dose of LVS, implying that IL-17A may be involved in restraining the infection. The protective role for IL-17A was directly demonstrated by in vivo neutralization of IL-17A. Administration of anti IL-17A antibodies concomitantly to a sub-lethal airway infection with 0.1xLD(50 resulted in a fatal disease.In summary, these data characterize the involvement and underline the protective key role of the IL-17A axis in the lungs from inhalational tularemia.

  18. A Locomotor Deficit Induced by Sublethal Doses of Pyrethroid and Neonicotinoid Insecticides in the Honeybee Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charreton, Mercédès; Decourtye, Axel; Henry, Mickaël; Rodet, Guy; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe; Charnet, Pierre; Collet, Claude

    2015-01-01

    The toxicity of pesticides used in agriculture towards non-targeted organisms and especially pollinators has recently drawn the attention from a broad scientific community. Increased honeybee mortality observed worldwide certainly contributes to this interest. The potential role of several neurotoxic insecticides in triggering or potentiating honeybee mortality was considered, in particular phenylpyrazoles and neonicotinoids, given that they are widely used and highly toxic for insects. Along with their ability to kill insects at lethal doses, they can compromise survival at sublethal doses by producing subtle deleterious effects. In this study, we compared the bee's locomotor ability, which is crucial for many tasks within the hive (e.g. cleaning brood cells, feeding larvae…), before and after an acute sublethal exposure to one insecticide belonging to the two insecticide classes, fipronil and thiamethoxam. Additionally, we examined the locomotor ability after exposure to pyrethroids, an older chemical insecticide class still widely used and known to be highly toxic to bees as well. Our study focused on young bees (day 1 after emergence) since (i) few studies are available on locomotion at this stage and (ii) in recent years, pesticides have been reported to accumulate in different hive matrices, where young bees undergo their early development. At sublethal doses (SLD48h, i.e. causing no mortality at 48 h), three pyrethroids, namely cypermethrin (2.5 ng/bee), tetramethrin (70 ng/bee), tau-fluvalinate (33 ng/bee) and the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam (3.8 ng/bee) caused a locomotor deficit in honeybees. While the SLD48h of fipronil (a phenylpyrazole, 0.5 ng/bee) had no measurable effect on locomotion, we observed high mortality several days after exposure, an effect that was not observed with the other insecticides. Although locomotor deficits observed in the sublethal range of pyrethroids and thiamethoxam would suggest deleterious effects in the field, the case of

  19. A Locomotor Deficit Induced by Sublethal Doses of Pyrethroid and Neonicotinoid Insecticides in the Honeybee Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercédès Charreton

    Full Text Available The toxicity of pesticides used in agriculture towards non-targeted organisms and especially pollinators has recently drawn the attention from a broad scientific community. Increased honeybee mortality observed worldwide certainly contributes to this interest. The potential role of several neurotoxic insecticides in triggering or potentiating honeybee mortality was considered, in particular phenylpyrazoles and neonicotinoids, given that they are widely used and highly toxic for insects. Along with their ability to kill insects at lethal doses, they can compromise survival at sublethal doses by producing subtle deleterious effects. In this study, we compared the bee's locomotor ability, which is crucial for many tasks within the hive (e.g. cleaning brood cells, feeding larvae…, before and after an acute sublethal exposure to one insecticide belonging to the two insecticide classes, fipronil and thiamethoxam. Additionally, we examined the locomotor ability after exposure to pyrethroids, an older chemical insecticide class still widely used and known to be highly toxic to bees as well. Our study focused on young bees (day 1 after emergence since (i few studies are available on locomotion at this stage and (ii in recent years, pesticides have been reported to accumulate in different hive matrices, where young bees undergo their early development. At sublethal doses (SLD48h, i.e. causing no mortality at 48 h, three pyrethroids, namely cypermethrin (2.5 ng/bee, tetramethrin (70 ng/bee, tau-fluvalinate (33 ng/bee and the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam (3.8 ng/bee caused a locomotor deficit in honeybees. While the SLD48h of fipronil (a phenylpyrazole, 0.5 ng/bee had no measurable effect on locomotion, we observed high mortality several days after exposure, an effect that was not observed with the other insecticides. Although locomotor deficits observed in the sublethal range of pyrethroids and thiamethoxam would suggest deleterious effects in the field

  20. Contact Irritant Responses of Aedes aegypti Using Sublethal Concentration and Focal Application of Pyrethroid Chemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Manda, Hortance; Shah, Pankhil; Polsomboon, Suppaluck; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Castro-Llanos, Fanny; Morrison, Amy; Burrus, Roxanne G.; Grieco, John P.; Achee, Nicole L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated contact irritant and spatial repellent behaviors in Aedes aegypti following exposure to sublethal concentrations of chemicals. These sublethal actions are currently being evaluated in the development of a push-pull strategy for Ae. aegypti control. This study reports on mosquito escape responses after exposure to candidate chemicals for a contact irritant focused push-pull strategy using varying concentrations and focal application. METHODS: Cont...

  1. Protective effect study of polysaccharides from tremella fuciformis on hematopoietic function in radiation-injured mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Wenqing; Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Tianjin; Gao Wenyuan; Shen Xiu; Wang Yueying; Liu Peixun

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the protective effects of polysaccharides of Tremella fuciformis on hematopoietic function in radiation-injured mice. Methods; Colony-forming unit of spleen (CFU-S), number of nucleated cells in bone marrow (BMNC) and spleen index were used to investigated the effect of polysacharides from tremella fuciformis at 6 mg/kg, 12 mg/kg, 24 mg/kg on hematopoietic function of mice irradiated with 7.5 Gy 137 Cs γ-rays. Results: On the 9 the day after irradiation compared with the negative control group number of nucleated cells in bone marrow, colony-forming unit of spleen and spleen index of mice have treated with polysaccharides from Tremella fuciformis intraperitoneally for three days prior to irradiation increased markedly. Conclusion: Polysaccharides of tremella fuciformis have protective effect on hematopoietic function of radiation-injured mice. (authors)

  2. Sublethal Effects of Fenoxycarb on the Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudvand, Mohammad; Moharramipour, Saeid

    2015-01-01

    The effects of fenoxycarb, a Juvenile hormone analogue, at sublethal concentrations were tested on some biological parameters of Plutella xylostella (L.) in two consecutive generations. The calculated LC10, LC25, and LC50 values of the insecticide were 21.58, 43.25, and 93.62 mg/liter on third-instar larvae, respectively. Fenoxycarb significantly reduced pupal weight and oviposition period in parent generation. In addition, the fecundity of treated groups (LC10 = 71.06, LC25 = 40.60 eggs per female) in parents was significantly lower than control (169.40 eggs per female). Although fenoxycarb could not affect gross reproductive rate and death rate, it decreased net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of increase, and birth rate in offspring generation. Also, mean generation time and doubling time of treated insects was significantly longer than control at LC10 level. Therefore, the data from this study suggested that fenoxycarb could adversely cause population decline in the subsequent generation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  3. Response of sublethally irradiated monkeys to a replicating viral antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmas, D.E.; Spertzel, R.O.

    1975-01-01

    Temporal effects of exposure to sublethal, total-body x radiation (400 R) on responses to vaccination with the attenuated Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis vaccine virus, TC-83, were examined in rhesus monkeys. Viremia, often with delayed onset, was prolonged even when irradiation preceded vaccination by 28 days. Virus titers were increased, particularly in groups irradiated 4 or 7 days before vaccination. Delay in appearance of hemagglutination-inhibition and serum-neutralizing antibody correlated closely with persistence of viremia in irradiated-vaccinated monkeys. The temporal course of antibody response was markedly affected by the interval between irradiation and injection of this replicating antigen. With longer intervals between irradiation and vaccination, the somewhat depressed antibody responses approached normal or surpassed those of nonirradiated monkeys. Vaccination 14 days after radiation exposure resulted in lethality to 8 of 12 monkeys, apparently as a result of secondary infection. The additional lymphopenic stress due to the effect of TC-83, superimposed on the severely depressed hematopoietic competence at 14 days, undoubtedly contributed to this increased susceptibility to latent infection

  4. The nature and impact of stigma towards injured workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsh, Bonnie; Slack, Tesha; King, Carole Anne

    2012-06-01

    Many injured workers experience high levels of stigma and discrimination, which compound their physical injuries and cause social and psychological harm. Despite a growing awareness of the prevalence of such stigma, there is little research that focuses on the sources, nature and consequences of stigma with respect to the lives of injured workers. The purpose of this paper is to advance knowledge related to stigma towards injured workers, specifically to explain the nature and processes of stigma and their influence on injured workers' lives. Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, data from focus groups (n = 28 participants) and individual interviews (n = 18) were analyzed to discern how stigma is exhibited and perpetuated, and its impact on the lives of injured workers. The study culminated in a preliminary theoretical framework that delineates the key components of the manifestations and impacts of stigma that includes stereotypes, unethical practices and maltreatment negatively affecting work, relationships and the mental health of injured workers. The development of sound conceptualizations in this area can advance our understanding of stigma processes and provide a framework for anti-stigma efforts. The findings have implications for public education, workplace interventions and services for injured workers.

  5. Sublethal red tide toxin exposure in free-ranging manatees (Trichechus manatus) affects the immune system through reduced lymphocyte proliferation responses, inflammation, and oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, Catherine J.; Butawan, Matthew; Yordy, Jennifer; Ball, Ray; Flewelling, Leanne; Wit, Martine de; Bonde, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Sublethal brevetoxin exposure affects manatee immune function. • Plasma brevetoxin levels correlate with oxidative stress in rescued manatees. • Brevetoxin exposure affects lymphocyte proliferation in rescued manatees. • Plasma brevetoxin concentrations ranged from 0 to 19 ng PbTx-3 eq/mL. - Abstract: The health of many Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is adversely affected by exposure to blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. K. brevis blooms are common in manatee habitats of Florida’s southwestern coast and produce a group of cyclic polyether toxins collectively referred to as red tide toxins, or brevetoxins. Although a large number of manatees exposed to significant levels of red tide toxins die, several manatees are rescued from sublethal exposure and are successfully treated and returned to the wild. Sublethal brevetoxin exposure may potentially impact the manatee immune system. Lymphocyte proliferative responses and a suite of immune function parameters in the plasma were used to evaluate effects of brevetoxin exposure on health of manatees rescued from natural exposure to red tide toxins in their habitat. Blood samples were collected from rescued manatees at Lowry Park Zoo in Tampa, FL and from healthy, unexposed manatees in Crystal River, FL. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) isolated from whole blood were stimulated with T-cell mitogens, ConA and PHA. A suite of plasma parameters, including plasma protein electrophoresis profiles, lysozyme activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and reactive oxygen/nitrogen (ROS/RNS) species, was also used to assess manatee health. Significant decreases (p < 0.05) in lymphocyte proliferation were observed in ConA and PHA stimulated lymphocytes from rescued animals compared to non-exposed animals. Significant correlations were observed between oxidative stress markers (SOD, ROS/RNS) and plasma brevetoxin concentrations. Sublethal exposure to brevetoxins in the

  6. Sublethal red tide toxin exposure in free-ranging manatees (Trichechus manatus) affects the immune system through reduced lymphocyte proliferation responses, inflammation, and oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Catherine J., E-mail: cjwalsh@mote.org [Marine Immunology Program, Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson Parkway, Sarasota, FL 34236 (United States); Butawan, Matthew, E-mail: mattbutawan@outlook.com [Marine Immunology Program, Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson Parkway, Sarasota, FL 34236 (United States); Yordy, Jennifer, E-mail: jennifer.e.balmer@gmail.com [Marine Immunology Program, Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson Parkway, Sarasota, FL 34236 (United States); Ball, Ray, E-mail: Ray.Ball@lowryparkzoo.com [Lowry Park Zoo, 1101 W Sligh Ave, Tampa, FL 33604 (United States); Flewelling, Leanne, E-mail: Leanne.Flewelling@MyFWC.com [Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, 100 8th Ave SE, St. Petersburg, FL 33701 (United States); Wit, Martine de, E-mail: Martine.deWit@MyFWC.com [Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, 100 8th Ave SE, St. Petersburg, FL 33701 (United States); Bonde, Robert K., E-mail: rbonde@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, Sirenia Project, 7920 NE 71st Street, Gainesville, FL 32653 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Sublethal brevetoxin exposure affects manatee immune function. • Plasma brevetoxin levels correlate with oxidative stress in rescued manatees. • Brevetoxin exposure affects lymphocyte proliferation in rescued manatees. • Plasma brevetoxin concentrations ranged from 0 to 19 ng PbTx-3 eq/mL. - Abstract: The health of many Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is adversely affected by exposure to blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. K. brevis blooms are common in manatee habitats of Florida’s southwestern coast and produce a group of cyclic polyether toxins collectively referred to as red tide toxins, or brevetoxins. Although a large number of manatees exposed to significant levels of red tide toxins die, several manatees are rescued from sublethal exposure and are successfully treated and returned to the wild. Sublethal brevetoxin exposure may potentially impact the manatee immune system. Lymphocyte proliferative responses and a suite of immune function parameters in the plasma were used to evaluate effects of brevetoxin exposure on health of manatees rescued from natural exposure to red tide toxins in their habitat. Blood samples were collected from rescued manatees at Lowry Park Zoo in Tampa, FL and from healthy, unexposed manatees in Crystal River, FL. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) isolated from whole blood were stimulated with T-cell mitogens, ConA and PHA. A suite of plasma parameters, including plasma protein electrophoresis profiles, lysozyme activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and reactive oxygen/nitrogen (ROS/RNS) species, was also used to assess manatee health. Significant decreases (p < 0.05) in lymphocyte proliferation were observed in ConA and PHA stimulated lymphocytes from rescued animals compared to non-exposed animals. Significant correlations were observed between oxidative stress markers (SOD, ROS/RNS) and plasma brevetoxin concentrations. Sublethal exposure to brevetoxins in the

  7. Radiography of the acutely injured shoulder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neep, M.J.; Aziz, A.

    2011-01-01

    Routine radiological examination of the acute shoulder has been unchanged in radiology departments for many years. At UCLH (University College London Hospitals, UK) this examination consists of two projections, an AP (antero-posterior) and an LS (lateral scapula). Following a review of the related literature and the possible advantages of an axial style projection, a study was performed to evaluate whether a new projection named modified trauma axial (MTA) shoulder projection could replace the existing LS projection in the routine examination of the acute shoulder. A retrospective analysis of 244 acute shoulder examinations over a 5-month period was performed. AP, LS and MTA projections were taken with paired AP and LS, and AP and MTA radiographs were reported separately. 97 traumatic abnormalities were reported using AP and MTA whilst only 64 abnormalities were reported using AP and LS views. The MTA projection demonstrated it was significant for evaluating articular surfaces of the humeral head and glenoid, defects in the humeral head, greater tuberosity fractures, glenoid fractures and fractures of the acromion. It was established that if the LS projection was replaced with the MTA view no traumatic pathologies would have been overlooked and in fact there was a 52% increase in traumatic abnormalities detected. Use of a chi-squared test demonstrated a highly significant difference in the number of traumatic abnormalities detected between the two pairs of projection combinations (p = 0.0004). Based on this study and the examined literature the routine examination of the acutely injured shoulder is recommended to include the AP and MTA projections only.

  8. Survival and differentiation of human embryonic stem cell-derived neural precursors grafted spinally in spinal ischemia-injured rats or in naive immunosuppressed minipigs: a qualitative and quantitative study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kakinohana, O.; Juhásová, Jana; Juhás, Štefan; Motlík, Jan; Platoshyn, O.; Galik, J.; Hefferan, M. P.; Yuan, S. H.; Vidal, J. G.; Carson, C. T.; Van Gorp, S.; Goldberg, D.; Leerink, M.; Lazar, P.; Maršala, S.; Miyanohara, A.; Keshavarzi, S.; Ciacci, J. D.; Maršala, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 12 (2012), s. 2603-2619 ISSN 0963-6897 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0538; GA TA ČR TA01011466 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : spinal cord ischemia * human embryonic stem (ES) cells * neuronal precursors (NPCs) Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.422, year: 2012

  9. Adenovirus vector-mediated ex vivo gene transfer of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) tohuman umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) promotescrush-injured rat sciatic nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hei, Wei-Hong; Almansoori, Akram A; Sung, Mi-Ae; Ju, Kyung-Won; Seo, Nari; Lee, Sung-Ho; Kim, Bong-Ju; Kim, Soung-Min; Jahng, Jeong Won; He, Hong; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2017-03-16

    This study was designed toinvestigate the efficacy of adenovirus vector-mediated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) ex vivo gene transfer to human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) in a rat sciatic nerve crush injury model. BDNF protein and mRNA expression after infection was checked through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250g, 6 weeks old) were distributed into threegroups (n=20 each): the control group, UCB-MSC group, and BDNF-adenovirus infected UCB-MSC (BDNF-Ad+UCB-MSC) group. UCB-MSCs (1×10 6 cells/10μl/rat) or BDNF-Ad+UCB-MSCs (1×10 6 cells/10μl/rat)were transplantedinto the rats at the crush site immediately after sciatic nerve injury. Cell tracking was done with PKH26-labeled UCB-MSCs and BDNF-Ad+UCB-MSCs (1×10 6 cells/10μl/rat). The rats were monitored for 4 weeks post-surgery. Results showed that expression of BDNF at both the protein and mRNA levels was higher inthe BDNF-Ad+UCB-MSC group compared to theUCB-MSC group in vitro.Moreover, BDNF mRNA expression was higher in both UCB-MSC group and BDNF-Ad+ UCB-MSC group compared tothe control group, and BDNF mRNA expression in theBDNF-Ad+UCB-MSC group was higher than inboth other groups 5days after surgeryin vivo. Labeled neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), axon counts, axon density, and sciatic function index were significantly increased in the UCB-MSC and BDNF-Ad+ UCB-MSCgroupscompared to the controlgroup four weeksaftercell transplantation. Importantly,the BDNF-Ad+UCB-MSCgroup exhibited more peripheral nerve regeneration than the other two groups.Our results indicate thatboth UCB-MSCs and BDNF-Ad+UCB-MSCscan improve rat sciatic nerve regeneration, with BDNF-Ad+UCB-MSCsshowing a greater effectthan UCB-MSCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. GHSR deficiency suppresses neointimal formation in injured mouse arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Man; Wang, Mo; Wang, Zhipeng; Liu, Yahan; Zhang, Weizhen; Wang, Nanping

    2016-01-01

    Growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) is involved in appetite regulation and energy homeostasis. In the present study, we examined the role of GHSR in neointimal formation following vascular injury. In the mouse model of femoral artery wire injury, we found that vessel intima-to-media ratio was significantly reduced in GHSR deficiency (GHSR −/− ) mice compared with that in wild-type mice. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the smooth muscle cell (SMCs) in the neointima were significantly decreased in the injured arteries of GHSR −/− mice which was associated with decreased SMC proliferation and migration. Furthermore, immunoblotting demonstrated that, in cultured rat aortic SMCs, small interfering RNA-mediated GHSR knockdown suppressed the activation of Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathway. These findings suggested a novel role of GHSR in neointimal formation likely via promoting the proliferation and migration of SMCs involving Akt and ERK1/2 signaling. Therefore, GHSR may be a potential therapeutic target in restenosis and vascular remodeling. - Highlights: • GHSR deficiency inhibits neointimal formation after vascular injury. • GHSR deficiency suppresses SMCs numbers in vivo. • Knockdown GHSR represses SMCs proliferation and migration in vitro. • Knockdown GHSR inhibited Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in SMCs.

  11. Antecedent control in the treatment of brain-injured clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zencius, A H; Wesolowski, M D; Burke, W H; McQuade, P

    1989-01-01

    Three brain-injured clients failed to respond significantly to consequence management programmes designed to increase attendance, use of a cane, and to reduce unauthorized breaks. When antecedent stimulus control procedures were applied, attendance and use of a cane increased and unauthorized breaks decreased. The study shows that antecedent control may be the treatment of choice when treating brain-injured clients with memory loss.

  12. Sublethal toxicity and biotransformation of pyrene in Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaeta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeenpaeae, K.; Leppaenen, M.T.; Kukkonen, J.V.K.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the toxicity and biotransformation of polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pyrene in the oligochaete aquatic worm, Lumbriculus variegatus. PAHs are ubiquitous environmental pollutants that pose a hazard to aquatic organisms, and metabolizing capability is poorly known in the case of many invertebrate species. To study the toxicity and biotransformation of pyrene, the worm was exposed for 15 days to various concentrations of water-borne pyrene. The dorsal blood vessel pulse rate was used as a sublethal endpoint. Pyrene biotransformation by L. variegatus was studied and the critical body residues (CBR) were estimated for pyrene toxicity. The toxicokinetics of pyrene uptake was evaluated. A combination of radiolabeled ( 14 C) and nonlabeled pyrene was used in the exposures, and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) and high-pressure liquid chromatography were employed in both water and tissue residue analyses. The results showed that L. variegatus was moderately able to metabolize pyrene to 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP), thus demonstrating that the phase-I-like oxidizing enzyme system metabolizes pyrene in L. variegatus. The amount of the 1-HP was 1-2% of the amount of pyrene in the worm tissues. The exposure to pyrene reduced the blood vessel pulse rate significantly (p < 0.05), showing that pyrene had a narcotic effect. The estimated CBRs remained constant during the exposure time, varying from 0.120 to 0.174 mmol pyrene/kg worm wet weight. The bioconcentration factors (BCF) decreased as exposure concentration increased. It was suggested that the increased toxicity of pyrene accounted for the decrease in BCFs by lowering the activity of the organism

  13. Effects of in vivo applications of peripheral blood-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (PB-MSCs) and platlet-rich plasma (PRP) on experimentally injured deep digital flexor tendons of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinello, Tiziana; Bronzini, Ilaria; Perazzi, Anna; Testoni, Stefania; De Benedictis, Gulia Maria; Negro, Alessandro; Caporale, Giovanni; Mascarello, Francesco; Iacopetti, Ilaria; Patruno, Marco

    2013-02-01

    Tendon injuries, degenerative tendinopathies, and overuse tendinitis are common in races horses. Novel therapies aim to restore tendon functionality by means of cell-based therapy, growth factor delivery, and tissue engineering approaches. This study examined the use of autologous mesenchymal stromal cells derived from peripheral blood (PB-MSCs), platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and a combination of both for ameliorating experimental lesions on deep digital flexor tendons (DDFT) of Bergamasca sheep. In particular, testing the combination of blood-derived MSCs and PRP in an experimental animal model represents one of the few studies exploring a putative synergistic action of these treatments. Effectiveness of treatments was evaluated at 30 and 120 days comparing clinical, ultrasonographic, and histological features together with immunohistochemical expression of collagen types 1 and 3, and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). Significant differences were found between treated groups and their corresponding controls (placebo) regarding tendon morphology and extracellular matrix (ECM) composition. However, our results indicate that the combined use of PRP and MSCs did not produce an additive or synergistic regenerative response and highlighted the predominant effect of MSCs on tendon healing, enhanced tissue remodeling and improved structural organization. Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  14. Histological and functional benefit following transplantation of motor neuron progenitors to the injured rat spinal cord.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharyn L Rossi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Motor neuron loss is characteristic of cervical spinal cord injury (SCI and contributes to functional deficit.In order to investigate the amenability of the injured adult spinal cord to motor neuron differentiation, we transplanted spinal cord injured animals with a high purity population of human motor neuron progenitors (hMNP derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs. In vitro, hMNPs displayed characteristic motor neuron-specific markers, a typical electrophysiological profile, functionally innervated human or rodent muscle, and secreted physiologically active growth factors that caused neurite branching and neuronal survival. hMNP transplantation into cervical SCI sites in adult rats resulted in suppression of intracellular signaling pathways associated with SCI pathogenesis, which correlated with greater endogenous neuronal survival and neurite branching. These neurotrophic effects were accompanied by significantly enhanced performance on all parameters of the balance beam task, as compared to controls. Interestingly, hMNP transplantation resulted in survival, differentiation, and site-specific integration of hMNPs distal to the SCI site within ventral horns, but hMNPs near the SCI site reverted to a neuronal progenitor state, suggesting an environmental deficiency for neuronal maturation associated with SCI.These findings underscore the barriers imposed on neuronal differentiation of transplanted cells by the gliogenic nature of the injured spinal cord, and the physiological relevance of transplant-derived neurotrophic support to functional recovery.

  15. Lethal and sublethal effects of imidacloprid on Osmia lignaria and clothianidin on Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, V A; Nadeau, J L; Higo, H A; Winston, M L

    2008-06-01

    We examined lethal and sublethal effects of imidacloprid on Osmia lignaria (Cresson) and clothianidin on Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). We also made progress toward developing reliable methodology for testing pesticides on wild bees for use in pesticide registration by using field and laboratory experiments. Bee larvae were exposed to control, low (3 or 6 ppb), intermediate (30 ppb), or high (300 ppb) doses of either imidacloprid or clothianidin in pollen. Field experiments on both bee species involved injecting the pollen provisions with the corresponding pesticide. Only O. lignaria was used for the laboratory experiments, which entailed both injecting the bee's own pollen provisions and replacing the pollen provision with a preblended pollen mixture containing imidacloprid. Larval development, emergence, weight, and mortality were monitored and analyzed. There were no lethal effects found for either imidacloprid or clothianidin on O. lignaria and M. rotundata. Minor sublethal effects were detected on larval development for O. lignaria, with greater developmental time at the intermediate (30 ppb) and high doses (300 ppb) of imidacloprid. No similar sublethal effects were found with clothianidin on M. rotundata. We were successful in creating methodology for pesticide testing on O. lignaria and M. rotundata; however, these methods can be improved upon to create a more robust test. We also identified several parameters and developmental stages for observing sublethal effects. The detection of sublethal effects demonstrates the importance of testing new pesticides on wild pollinators before registration.

  16. [Description of the severely injured in the DRG system: is treatment of the severely injured still affordable?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlke, L; Lefering, R; Siebert, H; Windolf, J; Roeder, N; Franz, D

    2013-11-01

    Due to the heterogeneity of severely injured patients (multiple trauma) it is difficult to assign them to homogeneic diagnosis-related groups (DRG). In recent years this has led to a systematic underfunding in the German reimbursement system (G-DRG) for cases of multiply injured patients. This project aimed to improve the reimbursement by modifying the case allocation algorithms of multiply injured patients within the G-DRG system. A retrospective analysis of standardized G-DRG data according to §21 of the Hospital Reimbursement Act (§ 21 KHEntgG) including case-related cost data from 3,362 critically injured patients from 2007 and 2008 from 10 university hospitals and 7 large municipal hospitals was carried out. For 1,241 cases complementary detailed information was available from the trauma registry of the German Trauma Society to monitor the case allocation of multiply injured patients within the G-DRG system. Analysis of coding and grouping, performance of case allocation and the homogeneity of costs in the G-DRG versions 2008-2012 was carried out. The results showed systematic underfunding of trauma patients in the G-DRG version 2008 but adequate cost covering in the majority of cases with the G-DRG versions 2011 and 2012. Cost coverage was foundfor multiply injured patients from the clinical viewpoint who were identified as multiple trauma by the G-DRG system. Some of the overfunded trauma patients had high intensive care costs. Also there was underfunding for multiple injured patients not identified as such in the G-DRG system. Specific modifications of the G-DRG allocation structures could increase the appropriateness of reimbursement of multiply injured patients. Data-based analysis is an essential prerequisite for a constructive development of the G-DRG system and a necessary tool for the active participation of medical specialist societies.

  17. Technology Use, Preferences, and Capacity in Injured Patients at Risk for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Cory M; Van Eaton, Erik G; Russo, Joan E; Kelly, Victoria C; Jurkovich, Gregory J; Darnell, Doyanne A; Whiteside, Lauren K; Wang, Jin; Parker, Lea E; Payne, Thomas H; Mooney, Sean D; Bush, Nigel; Zatzick, Douglas F

    2017-01-01

    This investigation comprehensively assessed the technology use, preferences, and capacity of diverse injured trauma survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. A total of 121 patients participating in a randomized clinical trial (RCT) of stepped collaborative care targeting PTSD symptoms were administered baseline one-, three-, and six-month interviews that assessed technology use. Longitudinal data about the instability of patient cell phone ownership and phone numbers were collected from follow-up interviews. PTSD symptoms were also assessed over the course of the six months after injury. Regression analyses explored the associations between cell phone instability and PTSD symptoms. At baseline, 71.9% (n = 87) of patients reported current cell phone ownership, and over half (58.2%, n = 46) of these patients possessed basic cell phones. Only 19.0% (n = 23) of patients had no change in cell phone number or physical phone over the course of the six months postinjury. In regression models that adjusted for relevant clinical and demographic characteristics, cell phone instability was associated with higher six-month postinjury PTSD symptom levels (p risk for the development of PTSD have unique technology use patterns, including high rates of cell phone instability. These observations should be strongly considered when developing technology-supported interventions for injured patients with PTSD.

  18. Supporting data for comparative proteomic analysis of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 exposed to a sublethal concentration of nisin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendi Nishino Miyamoto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we provide the LC–MS/MS data from a comparative analysis of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 treated and non-treated with a sublethal concentration of nisin (10−3 mg/mL. Protein samples were analyzed by multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT approach, in an off-line configuration. The raw MS/MS data allowed the detection of 49,591 spectra which resulted in 576 protein identifications. After Scaffold validation, 179 proteins were identified with high confidence. A label-free quantitative analysis based of normalized spectral abundance factor (NSAF was used and 13 proteins were found differentially expressed between nisin-treated and non-treated cells. Gene ontology analysis of differentially expressed proteins revealed that most of them are correlated to metabolic process, oxidative stress response mechanisms and molecular binding. A detailed analysis and discussion of these data may be found in Miyamoto et al. [1].

  19. Remyelination of the injured spinal cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Masanori; Li, Bingcang; Lankford, Karen L.; Radtke, Christine; Kocsis, Jeffery D.

    2008-01-01

    Contusive spinal cord injury (SCI) can result in necrosis of the spinal cord, but often long white matter tracts outside of the central necrotic core are demyelinated. One experimental strategy to improve functional outcome following SCI is to transplant myelin-forming cells to remyelinate these axons and improve conduction. This review focuses on transplantation studies using olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) to improve functional outcome in experimental models of SCI and demyelination. The biology of the OEC, and recent experimental research and clinical studies using OECs as a potential cell therapy candidate are discussed. PMID:17618995

  20. Effect of sublethal doses of gamma radiation on DNA super helicity and survival of human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koceva-Chyla, A.

    1992-01-01

    Effect of sublethal doses of gamma radiation on cell survival and DNA super helicity in human fibroblasts was studied. Cell survival was estimated on the basis the basis of clonal growth of irradiated fibroblasts in monolayer culture in vitro. The nucleoid sedimentation technique was used to study ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage in vivo as well as to examine DNA super helicity. Increased concentrations of ethidium bromine (EB) were used to titrate the DNA super coiling response in non-irradiated cells. This response consisted of a relaxation phase (1-5 μg/ml EB) and rewinding phase (5-20 μg/ml EB). Observed biphasic dependence of sedimentation distance of nucleoid on the concentration of EB suggests the dye altered the amount of DNA super coiling in situ. The degree of DNA super coiling and thus the sedimentation rate of nucleoid in absence of EB was very sensitive to strand break induced in DNA by the doses of gamma radiation employed in the cell survival assay. Doses of 2-8 Gy of gamma radiation induced a dose -dependent reduction in the sedimentation of nucleoid. Loss of negative DNA super coiling was initially rapid (about 30% after the dose of 2 Gy) and then proceeded at a slower rate (about 35% and 48% after the doses of 4 Gy and 8 Gy respectively), indicating a significant relaxation of nucleoid structure at the doses of gamma radiation greater than 4 Gy, at which also significant decrease in fibroblasts survival occurred. Significant loss of negative DNA super coiling within the range of doses of gamma radiation resulting in significant decrease of cell survival suggests that destabilizing effect of radiation on DNA tertiary- and quaternary structures (extensive DNA breaks and relaxation of nucleonic super helicity) disturb normal functions and replications of genomic DNA, in consequence leading to a reproductive death of cells. Considering the sensitivity and simplicity of the method, the nucleoid sedimentation technique might be also a useful tool

  1. Sublethal effects of some synthetic and botanical insecticides on Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeily Saeideh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to direct mortality caused by insecticides, some biological traits of insects may also be affected by sublethal insecticide doses. In this study, we used the age-stage, two-sex life table method to evaluate the sublethal effects of the four synthetic insecticides: abamectin, imidacloprid, diazinon, and pymetrozin as well as the botanical insecticide taken from Calotropis procera (Asclepiadaceae extract, on eggs of the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hem.: Aleyrodidae. The lowest and highest survival rates and oviposition periods were observed in whiteflies treated by diazinon and imidacloprid, respectively. We found significant differences in the net reproductive rate (R0, the intrinsic rate of increase (r, the finite rate of increase (?, and the gross reproductive rate (GRR among different insecticides. Altogether, our results showed that pymetrozin and C. procera induced the most sublethal effects, thus they may be suitable candidates for use in integrated pest management programs of B. tabaci.

  2. Sublethal Dosage of Imidacloprid Reduces the Microglomerular Density of Honey Bee Mushroom Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yi-Chan; Yang, En-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    The dramatic loss of honey bees is a major concern worldwide. Previous studies have indicated that neonicotinoid insecticides cause behavioural abnormalities and have proven that exposure to sublethal doses of imidacloprid during the larval stage decreases the olfactory learning ability of adults. The present study shows the effect of sublethal doses of imidacloprid on the neural development of the honey bee brain by immunolabelling synaptic units in the calyces of mushroom bodies. We found that the density of the synaptic units in the region of the calyces, which are responsible for olfactory and visual functions, decreased after being exposed to a sublethal dose of imidacloprid. This not only links a decrease in olfactory learning ability to abnormal neural connectivity but also provides evidence that imidacloprid damages the development of the nervous system in regions responsible for both olfaction and vision during the larval stage of the honey bee. PMID:26757950

  3. Vertical transmission of sublethal granulovirus infection in the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, J P; Griffiths, C M; Cory, J S; Smith, P; Sait, S M

    2002-03-01

    Knowledge of the mechanisms of pathogen persistence in relation to fluctuations in host density is crucial to our understanding of disease dynamics. In the case of insect baculoviruses, which are typically transmitted horizontally via a lifestage that can persist outside the host, a key issue that remains to be elucidated is whether the virus can also be transmitted vertically as a sublethal infection. We show that RNA transcripts for the Plodia interpunctella GV granulin gene are present in a high proportion of P. interpunctella insects that survive virus challenge. Granulin is a late-expressed gene that is only transcribed after viral genome replication, its presence thus strongly indicates that viral genome replication has occurred. Almost all insects surviving the virus challenge tested positive for viral RNA in the larval and pupal stage. However, this proportion declined in the emerging adults. Granulin mRNA was also detected in both the ovaries and testes, which may represent a putative mechanism by which reduced fecundity in sublethally affected hosts might be manifested. RNA transcripts were also detected in 60-80% of second-generation larvae that were derived from mating surviving adults, but there was no difference between the sexes, with both males and females capable of transmitting a sublethal infection to their offspring. The data indicate that low-level persistent infection, with at least limited gene expression, can occur in P. interpunctella following survival of a granulovirus challenge. We believe that this is the first demonstration of a persistent, sublethal infection by a baculovirus to be initiated by a sublethal virus dose. We hypothesize that the 'latent' baculovirus infections frequently referred to in the literature may also be low level persistent, sublethal infections resulting from survival from initial baculovirus exposure.

  4. Toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic modelling of quantal and graded sub-lethal endpoints - a brief discussion of concepts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashauer, R.; Agatz, A.; Albert, C.; Ducrot, V.; Galic, N.; Hendriks, A.J.; Jager, T.; Kretschmann, A.; O'Connor, I.; Rubach, M.N.; Nyman, A.M.; Schmitt, W.; Stadnicka, J.; van den Brink, P.; Preuss, T.G.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the advantages and problems of using toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TKTD) models for the analysis, understanding, and simulation of sublethal effects. Only a few toxicodynamic approaches for sublethal effects are available. These differ in their effect mechanism and emphasis on linkages

  5. Electrical stimulation promotes regeneration of injured oculomotor nerves in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Du

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional recovery after oculomotor nerve injury is very poor. Electrical stimulation has been shown to promote regeneration of injured nerves. We hypothesized that electrical stimulation would improve the functional recovery of injured oculomotor nerves. Oculomotor nerve injury models were created by crushing the right oculomotor nerves of adult dogs. Stimulating electrodes were positioned in both proximal and distal locations of the lesion, and non-continuous rectangular, biphasic current pulses (0.7 V, 5 Hz were administered 1 hour daily for 2 consecutive weeks. Analysis of the results showed that electrophysiological and morphological recovery of the injured oculomotor nerve was enhanced, indicating that electrical stimulation improved neural regeneration. Thus, this therapy has the potential to promote the recovery of oculomotor nerve dysfunction.

  6. Health and Occupational Outcomes Among Injured, Nonstandard Shift Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Imelda S; Smith, Peter M; Mustard, Cameron A; Gignac, Monique A M

    2015-11-01

    This study compares health and occupational outcomes following a work-related injury for nonstandard and day-shift workers. National Population Health Survey data were used to explore outcomes 2 years post-work injury. Retrospective-matched cohort analyses examined main effects and interactions of shift schedule and work injury with changes in health, shift schedule, and labor force status. Models were adjusted for respondent characteristics, baseline health status, and occupational strength requirements. Injured nonstandard shift workers reported lower health utility index scores, compared with uninjured and injured daytime workers and uninjured nonstandard-shift workers. No significant interactions between shift and injury were found with schedule change and leaving the labor force. Injured nonstandard-shift workers are as likely to remain employed as other groups, but may be vulnerable in terms of diminished health.

  7. Recovery of immune competence following sublethal irradiation: the role of the mouse strains, thymic function and aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, W.J.

    1976-01-01

    The bone marrow, thymus and lymphohematopoietic microenvironments are determining factors in recovery of immune competence following sublethal irradiation. Because of age-related degenerative changes in all of these parameters it was anticipated that immune competence of irradiated old mice would show an altered pattern of recovery. Therefore, three age groups (3-7, 15, and 23-34-months) of C57BL/6J mice were treated with either 250R, 500R or 600R. At various intervals thereafter their spleen cells were assessed for recovery of humoral and cell-mediated immunologic activity and for thymus derived (T-), bone marrow derived (B-) and stem-cell compartments. Two age groups (3-7 and 23-months) of C3H/Anf Cum mice were also treated with the two highest doses or irradiation and their spleen cells tested only for recovery of T- and B-cell compartments. The results showed that recovery of immune competence following 250R was independent of age

  8. Histological studies on the regeneration of small-intestine epithelium of rats irradiated with sublethal doses of x rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewicki, Z; Figurski, R; Sulikowska, A

    1975-01-01

    The dynamics of regeneration of small-intestine epithelium was studied in rats irradiated with x rays in sublethal doses of 550, 600, or 750 R. Sixty-two irradiated and 22 control animals were used in the experiment. They were killed 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 14, and 25 days after the irradiation. Specimens of duodenum and jejunum were examined histologically, the sections being stained with H. E. and p.a.S. Already 1 and 2 days after irradiation the intestinal villi became shorter and deformed. The blood vessels were damaged, the enterocytes showed features of degeneration and vacuolization, the epithelium was detached by the exudate which accumulated in the strong. Irradiation markedly disturbed the regeneration of intestinal epithelium in the period from the 1st to the 6th day. Cytological calculations indicate tha on the 1st and 2nd days after irradiation the number of epithelial cells of the villi, and particularly of young cryptal ones, markedly dropped. On the 4th and 6th days increased proliferation of young cryptal cells considerably surpassed the physiological rate. The accompanying disturbances in differentiation consisted in a decreased acidophilic to basophilic cells ration and in retardation of maturation of goblet cells. The absolute number of goblet cells was increased, as well as their proportion to the number of enterocytes.

  9. Effects of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on central and peripheral T lymphocyte reconstitution after sublethal irradiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hongxia; Guo Mei; Sun Xuedong; Ai Huisheng; Sun Wanjun; Hu Hailan; Wei Li

    2013-01-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is one of the most critical cytokines used for the treatment of acute radiation syndrome (ARS). In addition to the hematopoietic effects of G-CSF on the differentiation and proliferation of myeloid progenitor cells, G-CSF is also known to have immunomodulatory effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether G-CSF could accelerate central and peripheral T lymphocyte recovery after a sublethal dose of irradiation. Female BALB/c mice were subjected to 6 Gy of total body irradiation and then were treated with either 100 μg/kg G-CSF or an equal volume of PBS once daily for 14 days. Percentages of thymocyte subpopulations including CD4- CD8-, CD4+ CD8+, CD4+ CD8- and CD4- CD8+ T cells, peripheral CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Recent thymic emigrants (RTEs) were assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers specific to the 257-bp T cell receptor rearrangement excision circles (sjTRECs). The proliferative capacity of splenic mononuclear cells upon exposure to ConA was measured by using the Cell Count Kit-8 (CCK-8). G-CSF treatment promoted thymocyte regeneration, accelerated the recovery of CD4+ CD8+ cells and increased the frequency of thymocyte sjTRECs. These effects were more prominent at early time points (Day 28) after irradiation. G-CSF also increased the rate of recovery of peripheral CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ cells and shortened the period of severe lymphopenia following irradiation. G-CSF also increased the splenic mononuclear cell mitotic responsiveness to ConA more than control-treated cells. Our results show that G-CSF accelerates T cell recovery through both thymic-dependent and thymic-independent pathways, which could be used to increase the rate of immune reconstitution after sublethal irradiation. (author)

  10. Intramuscular Cobinamide Sulfite in a Rabbit Model of Sub-Lethal Cyanide Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Matthew; Kim, Jae G.; Mahon, Sari B.; Lee, Jangwoen; Kreuter, Kelly A.; Blackledge, William; Mukai, David; Patterson, Steve; Mohammad, Othman; Sharma, Vijay S.; Boss, Gerry R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the ability of an intramuscular cobinamide sulfite injection to rapidly reverse the physiologic effects of cyanide toxicity. Background Exposure to cyanide in fires and industrial exposures and intentional cyanide poisoning by terrorists leading to mass casualties is an ongoing threat. Current treatments for cyanide poisoning must be administered intravenously, and no rapid treatment methods are available for mass casualty cyanide exposures. Cobinamide is a cobalamin (vitamin B12) analog with an extraordinarily high affinity for cyanide that is more water-soluble than cobalamin. We investigated the use of intramuscular cobinamide sulfite to reverse cyanide toxicity induced physiologic changes in a sublethal cyanide exposure animal model. Methods New Zealand white rabbits were given 10 mg sodium cyanide intravenously over 60 minutes. Quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy monitoring of tissue oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations were performed concurrently with blood cyanide level measurements and cobinamide levels. Immediately after completion of the cyanide infusion, the rabbits were injected intramuscularly with cobinamide sulfite (n=6) or inactive vehicle (controls, n=5). Results Intramuscular administration led to rapid mobilization of cobinamide and was extremely effective at reversing the physiologic effects of cyanide on oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin extraction. Recovery time to 63% of their baseline values in the central nervous system was in a mean of 1032 minutes in the control group and 9 minutes in the cobinamide group with a difference of 1023 minutes (95% confidence interval [CI] 116, 1874 minutes). In muscle tissue, recovery times were 76 and 24 minutes with a difference of 52 minutes (95% CI 7, 98min). Red blood cell cyanide levels returned towards normal significantly faster in cobinamide sulfite-treated animals than in control animals. Conclusions Intramuscular

  11. Formation of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm in the Presence of Sublethal Concentrations of Disinfectants Studied via a Transcriptomic Analysis Using Transcriptome Sequencing (RNA-seq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppelt, J.; Cincarova, L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus is a common biofilm-forming pathogen. Low doses of disinfectants have previously been reported to promote biofilm formation and to increase virulence. The aim of this study was to use transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis to investigate global transcriptional changes in S. aureus in response to sublethal concentrations of the commonly used food industry disinfectants ethanol (EtOH) and chloramine T (ChT) and their combination (EtOH_ChT) in order to better understand the effects of these agents on biofilm formation. Treatment with EtOH and EtOH_ChT resulted in more significantly altered expression profiles than treatment with ChT. Our results revealed that EtOH and EtOH_ChT treatments enhanced the expression of genes responsible for regulation of gene expression (sigB), cell surface factors (clfAB), adhesins (sdrDE), and capsular polysaccharides (cap8EFGL), resulting in more intact biofilm. In addition, in this study we were able to identify the pathways involved in the adaptation of S. aureus to the stress of ChT treatment. Further, EtOH suppressed the effect of ChT on gene expression when these agents were used together at sublethal concentrations. These data show that in the presence of sublethal concentrations of tested disinfectants, S. aureus cells trigger protective mechanisms and try to cope with them. IMPORTANCE So far, the effect of disinfectants is not satisfactorily explained. The presented data will allow a better understanding of the mode of disinfectant action with regard to biofilm formation and the ability of bacteria to survive the treatment. Such an understanding could contribute to the effort to eliminate possible sources of bacteria, making disinfectant application as efficient as possible. Biofilm formation plays significant role in the spread and pathogenesis of bacterial species. PMID:29030437

  12. Comparison of postural stability between injured and uninjured ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Feng; Lee, I-Jung; Liao, Jung-Hsien; Wu, Hong-Wen; Su, Fong-Chin

    2011-06-01

    Ballet movements require a limited base of support; thus, ballet dancers require a high level of postural control. However, postural stability in ballet dancers is still unclear and needs to be understood. To evaluate ballet dancers' postural stability in performing single-leg standing, the en pointe task, and the first and fifth positions and to determine differences in task performance among healthy nondancers, healthy dancers, and dancers with ankle sprains. Controlled laboratory study. Injured dancers, uninjured dancers, and nondancers were recruited for this study (N = 33 age-matched participants; n= 11 per group). The tasks tested were single-leg standing with eyes open and closed, first position, fifth position, and en pointe. Center of pressure parameters were calculated from the ground-reaction force collected with 1 force plate. Analysis of variance was used to assess the differences of center of pressure parameters among 3 groups in single-leg standing; independent t test was used to examine the differences of center of pressure parameters between injured and uninjured dancers. During single-leg standing, injured dancers had significantly greater maximum displacement in the medial-lateral direction and total trajectory of center of pressure, compared with the uninjured dancers and nondancers. During the first and fifth positions, the injured dancers demonstrated significantly greater standard deviation of center of pressure position in the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior directions, compared with the uninjured dancers. During en pointe, the injured dancers had significantly greater maximum displacement in the medial-lateral direction and the anterior-posterior direction, compared with the uninjured dancers. The injured and uninjured dancers demonstrated differences in postural stability in the medial-lateral direction during single-leg standing and the ballet postures. Although the injured dancers received ballet training, their postural stability

  13. Physiological stress and ethanol accumulation in tree stems and woody tissues at sublethal temperatures from fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick G. Kelsey; Douglas J. Westlind

    2017-01-01

    The lethal temperature limit is 60 degrees Celsius (°C) for plant tissues, including trees, with lower temperatures causing heat stress. As fire injury increases on tree stems, there is an accompanying rise in tissue ethanol concentrations, physiologically linked to impaired mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation energy production. We theorize that sublethal tissue...

  14. Acute and sub-lethal response to mercury in Arctic and boreal calanoid copepods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overjordet, Ida Beathe; Altin, Dag; Berg, Torunn; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik

    2014-10-01

    Acute lethal toxicity, expressed as LC50 values, is a widely used parameter in risk assessment of chemicals, and has been proposed as a tool to assess differences in species sensitivities to chemicals between climatic regions. Arctic Calanus glacialis and boreal Calanus finmarchicus were exposed to mercury (Hg(2+)) under natural environmental conditions including sea temperatures of 2° and 10°C, respectively. Acute lethal toxicity (96 h LC50) and sub-lethal molecular response (GST expression; in this article gene expression is used as a synonym of gene transcription, although it is acknowledged that gene expression is also regulated, e.g., at translation and protein stability level) were studied. The acute lethal toxicity was monitored for 96 h using seven different Hg concentrations. The sub-lethal experiment was set up on the basis of nominal LC50 values for each species using concentrations equivalent to 50, 5 and 0.5% of their 96 h LC50 value. No significant differences were found in acute lethal toxicity between the two species. The sub-lethal molecular response revealed large differences both in response time and the fold induction of GST, where the Arctic species responded both faster and with higher mRNA levels of GST after 48 h exposure. Under the natural exposure conditions applied in the present study, the Arctic species C. glacialis may potentially be more susceptible to mercury exposure on the sub-lethal level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. EVALUATION OF SUBLETHAL EFFECTS OF Ipomoea cairica LINN. EXTRACT ON LIFE HISTORY TRAITS OF DENGUE VECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Fatma ZUHARAH

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant derived insecticides have considerable potential for mosquito control because these products are safer than conventional insecticides. This study aimed to investigate sublethal activities of Ipomoea carica or railway creeper crude acethonilic extract against life history trait of dengue vectors, Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti. The late third instar larvae of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti were exposed to a sublethal dose at LC50 and larvae that survived were further cultured. Overall, Ipomea cairica crude extracts affected the whole life history of both Aedes species. The study demonstrated significantly lower egg production (fecundity and eggs hatchability (fertility in Ae. albopictus. The sublethal dose of crude extracts reduced significantly the width of larval head capsule and the wing length of both sexes in both Aedes species. The significance of sublethal effects of I. cairica against Aedes mosquitoes was an additional hallmark to demonstrate further activity of this plant despite its direct toxicity to the larvae. The reduced reproductive capacity as well as morphological and physiological anomalies are some of the effects that make I. cairica a potential candidate to be used as a new plant-based insecticide to control dengue vectors.

  16. Monitoring colony-level effects of sublethal pesticide exposure on honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of sublethal pesticide exposure to honey bee colonies may be significant but difficult to detect in the field using standard visual assessment methods. Here we describe methods to measure the quantities of adult bees, brood and food resources by weighing hives and hive parts, by photogra...

  17. Effect of lethal and sub-lethal concentrations of tobacco (Nicotiana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lethal and sub-lethal bioassays on Clarias gariepinus were conducted to evaluate the toxicity of tobacco (Nicotiana tobaccum) leaf dust on weight gain and haematological indices of Clarias gariepinus (mean weight 10.5±0.70g) in glass aquaria with aeration system. The concentrations used during the lethal exposure are: ...

  18. Effect of sublethal preculturing on the survival of probiotics and metabolite formation in set-yoghurt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Settachaimongkon, S.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Winata, V.; Wang, X.; Nout, M.J.R.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.; Zwietering, M.H.; Smid, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of preculturing of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB12 under sublethal stress conditions on their survival and metabolite formation in set-yoghurt. Prior to co-cultivation with yoghurt starters in milk,

  19. Assessment of chronic sublethal effects of imidacloprid on honey bee colony health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we present results of a three-year study to determine the fate of imidacloprid residues in hive matrices and to assess chronic sublethal effects on whole honey bee colonies fed supplemental pollen diet containing imidacloprid at 5, 20 and 100 µg/kg over multiple brood cycles. Various endpoints ...

  20. Sub-lethal effects of neonicitinoids on the alfalfa leafcutter bee, Megachile rotundata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonicotinoids are commonly used pesticides in U.S. agriculture. For many beneficial insect species, lethal effects of neonicotinoids are well-documented; however, much less is known about sublethal exposure. The alfalfa leaf cutter bee Megachile rotundata is a managed pollinator that constructs com...

  1. Development of Cardiovascular and Neurodevelopmental Metrics as Sublethal Endpoints for the Fish Embryo Toxicity Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzykwa, Julie C; Olivas, Alexis; Jeffries, Marlo K Sellin

    2018-06-19

    The fathead minnow fish embryo toxicity (FET) test has been proposed as a more humane alternative to current toxicity testing methods, as younger organisms are thought to experience less distress during toxicant exposure. However, the FET test protocol does not include endpoints that allow for the prediction of sublethal adverse outcomes, limiting its utility relative to other test types. Researchers have proposed the development of sublethal endpoints for the FET test to increase its utility. The present study 1) developed methods for previously unmeasured sublethal metrics in fathead minnows (i.e., spontaneous contraction frequency and heart rate) and 2) investigated the responsiveness of several sublethal endpoints related to growth (wet weight, length, and growth-related gene expression), neurodevelopment (spontaneous contraction frequency, and neurodevelopmental gene expression), and cardiovascular function and development (pericardial area, eye size and cardiovascular related gene expression) as additional FET test metrics using the model toxicant 3,4-dichloroaniline. Of the growth, neurological and cardiovascular endpoints measured, length, eye size and pericardial area were found to more responsive than the other endpoints, respectively. Future studies linking alterations in these endpoints to longer-term adverse impacts are needed to fully evaluate the predictive power of these metrics in chemical and whole effluent toxicity testing. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of sublethal concentrations of formalin on weight gain in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus, was exposed to various sublethal concentrations (25.0, 12.50, 6.25, 3.125, 1.56 and 0.0 mgl-1) of formalin to investigate their effects on the weight gain of the fish. Decrease in weight gain, directly proportional to the toxicant concentration, was observed in fish exposed to ...

  3. Sublethal Effects of Insecticide Exposure on Megacopta cribraria (Fabricius) Nymphs: Key Biological Traits and Acetylcholinesterase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jin; Reisig, Dominic D; Li, Guoping; Wu, Yuqing

    2016-01-01

    Megacopta cribraria F. (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), the kudzu bug, is an invasive insect pest of U.S. soybean. At present, insecticide application is the primary and most effective control option for M. cribraria In this study, the potential effects of sublethal and low-lethal concentrations (LC10 and LC40) of three common insecticides on key biological traits and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of the treated nymphal stage of insect were assessed. The results show that the sublethal concentration of imidacloprid significantly reduced adult emergence rate of M. cribraria A low-lethal concentration of imidacloprid significantly increased nymphal development time, but significantly decreased adult emergence rate and adult longevity. Both sublethal and low-lethal concentrations of acephate caused an increase in nymphal development time and a reduction in adult emergence rate and adult longevity. Fecundity of females was significantly reduced only by exposure to low-lethal concentrations of acephate. Sublethal and low-lethal concentrations of bifenthrin increased nymphal development time, but significantly decreased adult emergence rate. In addition, we found that the AChE activity of M. cribraria was significantly increased only by LC40 imidacloprid, but strongly inhibited by acephate. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  4. HGF Mediates the Anti-inflammatory Effects of PRP on Injured Tendons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianying; Middleton, Kellie K.; Fu, Freddie H.; Im, Hee-Jeong; Wang, James H-C.

    2013-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) containing hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and other growth factors are widely used in orthopaedic/sports medicine to repair injured tendons. While PRP treatment is reported to decrease pain in patients with tendon injury, the mechanism of this effect is not clear. Tendon pain is often associated with tendon inflammation, and HGF is known to protect tissues from inflammatory damages. Therefore, we hypothesized that HGF in PRP causes the anti-inflammatory effects. To test this hypothesis, we performed in vitro experiments on rabbit tendon cells and in vivo experiments on a mouse Achilles tendon injury model. We found that addition of PRP or HGF decreased gene expression of COX-1, COX-2, and mPGES-1, induced by the treatment of tendon cells in vitro with IL-1β. Further, the treatment of tendon cell cultures with HGF antibodies reduced the suppressive effects of PRP or HGF on IL-1β-induced COX-1, COX-2, and mPGES-1 gene expressions. Treatment with PRP or HGF almost completely blocked the cellular production of PGE2 and the expression of COX proteins. Finally, injection of PRP or HGF into wounded mouse Achilles tendons in vivo decreased PGE2 production in the tendinous tissues. Injection of platelet-poor plasma (PPP) however, did not reduce PGE2 levels in the wounded tendons, but the injection of HGF antibody inhibited the effects of PRP and HGF. Further, injection of PRP or HGF also decreased COX-1 and COX-2 proteins. These results indicate that PRP exerts anti-inflammatory effects on injured tendons through HGF. This study provides basic scientific evidence to support the use of PRP to treat injured tendons because PRP can reduce inflammation and thereby reduce the associated pain caused by high levels of PGE2. PMID:23840657

  5. HGF mediates the anti-inflammatory effects of PRP on injured tendons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianying Zhang

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP containing hepatocyte growth factor (HGF and other growth factors are widely used in orthopaedic/sports medicine to repair injured tendons. While PRP treatment is reported to decrease pain in patients with tendon injury, the mechanism of this effect is not clear. Tendon pain is often associated with tendon inflammation, and HGF is known to protect tissues from inflammatory damages. Therefore, we hypothesized that HGF in PRP causes the anti-inflammatory effects. To test this hypothesis, we performed in vitro experiments on rabbit tendon cells and in vivo experiments on a mouse Achilles tendon injury model. We found that addition of PRP or HGF decreased gene expression of COX-1, COX-2, and mPGES-1, induced by the treatment of tendon cells in vitro with IL-1β. Further, the treatment of tendon cell cultures with HGF antibodies reduced the suppressive effects of PRP or HGF on IL-1β-induced COX-1, COX-2, and mPGES-1 gene expressions. Treatment with PRP or HGF almost completely blocked the cellular production of PGE2 and the expression of COX proteins. Finally, injection of PRP or HGF into wounded mouse Achilles tendons in vivo decreased PGE2 production in the tendinous tissues. Injection of platelet-poor plasma (PPP however, did not reduce PGE2 levels in the wounded tendons, but the injection of HGF antibody inhibited the effects of PRP and HGF. Further, injection of PRP or HGF also decreased COX-1 and COX-2 proteins. These results indicate that PRP exerts anti-inflammatory effects on injured tendons through HGF. This study provides basic scientific evidence to support the use of PRP to treat injured tendons because PRP can reduce inflammation and thereby reduce the associated pain caused by high levels of PGE2.

  6. RFID Tracking of Sublethal Effects of Two Neonicotinoid Insecticides on the Foraging Behavior of Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Christof W.; Tautz, Jürgen; Grünewald, Bernd; Fuchs, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The development of insecticides requires valid risk assessment procedures to avoid causing harm to beneficial insects and especially to pollinators such as the honeybee Apis mellifera. In addition to testing according to current guidelines designed to detect bee mortality, tests are needed to determine possible sublethal effects interfering with the animal's vitality and behavioral performance. Several methods have been used to detect sublethal effects of different insecticides under laboratory conditions using olfactory conditioning. Furthermore, studies have been conducted on the influence insecticides have on foraging activity and homing ability which require time-consuming visual observation. We tested an experimental design using the radiofrequency identification (RFID) method to monitor the influence of sublethal doses of insecticides on individual honeybee foragers on an automated basis. With electronic readers positioned at the hive entrance and at an artificial food source, we obtained quantifiable data on honeybee foraging behavior. This enabled us to efficiently retrieve detailed information on flight parameters. We compared several groups of bees, fed simultaneously with different dosages of a tested substance. With this experimental approach we monitored the acute effects of sublethal doses of the neonicotinoids imidacloprid (0.15–6 ng/bee) and clothianidin (0.05–2 ng/bee) under field-like circumstances. At field-relevant doses for nectar and pollen no adverse effects were observed for either substance. Both substances led to a significant reduction of foraging activity and to longer foraging flights at doses of ≥0.5 ng/bee (clothianidin) and ≥1.5 ng/bee (imidacloprid) during the first three hours after treatment. This study demonstrates that the RFID-method is an effective way to record short-term alterations in foraging activity after insecticides have been administered once, orally, to individual bees. We contribute further information on

  7. RFID tracking of sublethal effects of two neonicotinoid insecticides on the foraging behavior of Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof W Schneider

    Full Text Available The development of insecticides requires valid risk assessment procedures to avoid causing harm to beneficial insects and especially to pollinators such as the honeybee Apis mellifera. In addition to testing according to current guidelines designed to detect bee mortality, tests are needed to determine possible sublethal effects interfering with the animal's vitality and behavioral performance. Several methods have been used to detect sublethal effects of different insecticides under laboratory conditions using olfactory conditioning. Furthermore, studies have been conducted on the influence insecticides have on foraging activity and homing ability which require time-consuming visual observation. We tested an experimental design using the radiofrequency identification (RFID method to monitor the influence of sublethal doses of insecticides on individual honeybee foragers on an automated basis. With electronic readers positioned at the hive entrance and at an artificial food source, we obtained quantifiable data on honeybee foraging behavior. This enabled us to efficiently retrieve detailed information on flight parameters. We compared several groups of bees, fed simultaneously with different dosages of a tested substance. With this experimental approach we monitored the acute effects of sublethal doses of the neonicotinoids imidacloprid (0.15-6 ng/bee and clothianidin (0.05-2 ng/bee under field-like circumstances. At field-relevant doses for nectar and pollen no adverse effects were observed for either substance. Both substances led to a significant reduction of foraging activity and to longer foraging flights at doses of ≥0.5 ng/bee (clothianidin and ≥1.5 ng/bee (imidacloprid during the first three hours after treatment. This study demonstrates that the RFID-method is an effective way to record short-term alterations in foraging activity after insecticides have been administered once, orally, to individual bees. We contribute further

  8. In-hospital mortality pattern of severely injured children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Hien Quoc; Steinmetz, Jacob; Rasmussen, Lars S

    2012-01-01

    the mortality pattern of severely injured children admitted to a Danish level I trauma centre. METHODS: We included trauma patients aged 15 years or less, who subsequent a trauma team activation were admitted during the 9-year period 1999-2007. Data were collected prospectively for subjects who had a length...

  9. Effect of sildenafil on erectile dysfunction in spinal Cord injured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of sildenafil on erectile dysfunction in spinal Cord injured patients. ... Trauma was the etiology in 87.5% of the cases (44% were road accidents). 12/16 patients were paraplegics (10 above ... in SCI patients. This approach is compatible with the efforts to improve the quality of life and rehabilitation of these patients.

  10. The acutely ACL injured knee assessed by MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frobell, R B; Roos, H P; Roos, E M

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To map by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and quantitative MRI (qMRI) concomitant fractures and meniscal injuries, and location and volume of traumatic bone marrow lesions (BMLs) in the acutely anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injured knee. To relate BML location and volume to cortic...

  11. Replantation and revascularization vs. amputation in injured digits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, Marjolein A. M.; Neuhaus, Valentin; Becker, Stéphanie J. E.; Lee, Sang-Gil; Ring, David C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze factors associated with the decision to replant or revascularize rather than amputate an injured digit as well as factors associated with successful replantation or revascularization. We reviewed 315 complete and subtotal amputations at or proximal to the

  12. Long-term functional health status of severely injured patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtslag, H. R.; Post, M. W.; Lindeman, E.; Van der Werken, Chr.

    Background: Studies of the consequences of major trauma have traditionally focused on mortality rates. The aims of this study were, firstly, to investigate the long-term functional health status in a large, unselected group of severely injured patients and to compare this with normative data, and

  13. Recovery of an injured fornix in a stroke patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Sang Seok; Jang, Sung Ho

    2013-11-01

    Knowledge about recovery of an injured fornix following brain injury is limited. We describe here a patient who showed recovery of an injured fornix following stroke. A 57-year-old female patient underwent coiling for a ruptured anterior communicating cerebral artery aneurysm, and conservative management for subarachnoid and intraventricular haemorrhage. The patient showed severe cognitive impairment 6 weeks after onset. However, her cognition showed continuous improvement with time; based on the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Memory Assessment Scale, her cognition was within the normal range 7 months after onset. Findings from diffusion tensor tractography at 6 weeks and 7 months showed discontinuations in both columns of the fornix. The proximal portion of both crus also showed discontinuation on diffusion tensor tractography at 6 weeks and 7 months; however, on 7-month diffusion tensor tractography, the end of the fornical body was shown to be connected to the splenium of the corpus callosum and then branched to the right medial temporal lobe and right thalamus. The unusual neural connection between the injured fornix and the thalamus appears to be a recovery phenomenon, which allows the injured fornix and the medial temporal lobe to obtain cholinergic innervation from cholinergic nuclei in the brainstem rather than from cholinergic nuclei in the basal forebrain.

  14. Coagulopathy: Its Pathophysiology and Treatment in the Injured Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-30

    death. In fact, in their series, 77% of brain-injured patients who died had a coagulopathy at the time of hospital admission.8 Similarly, Faringer et...coagulation process. Arch Surg 1996;131:923–927. 9. Faringer PD, Mullins RJ, Johnson RL, Trunkey DD. Blood component supplementation during massive

  15. Valsartan attenuates intimal hyperplasia in balloon-injured rat aortic arteries through modulating the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas receptor axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yonghong; Cai, Shanglang; Wang, Qixin; Zhou, Jingwei; Hou, Bo; Yu, Haichu; Ge, Zhiming; Guan, Renyan; Liu, Xu

    2016-05-15

    The role of the Mas receptor in the activity of valsartan against intimal hyperplasia is unclear. Herein, we investigated the role of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas receptor axis on the activity of valsartan against intimal hyperplasiain balloon-injured rat aortic arteries. Wistar rats were randomized equally into the sham control group, injured group, and injured plus valsartan (20 mg/kg/d)-treated group. Valsartan significantly attenuated the vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and intimal and medial thickening on days 14 and 28 after injury. The angiotensin-(1-7) levels as well as ACE2 and Mas receptor mRNA/protein expression were significantly decreased in the injured rats, compared to the uninjured rats; meanwhile, the angiotensin II level as well as the ACE and AT1 receptor mRNA/protein expression were increased (all P valsartan significantly increased the angiotensin-(1-7) levels as well as ACE2 and Mas receptor mRNA/protein expression but decreased the angiotensin II level, ACE and AT1 receptor mRNA/protein expression, as well as the p-ERK protein expression, compared to the injured group (all P valsartan attenuates neointimal hyperplasiain balloon-injured rat aortic arteries through activation of the ACE2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas axis as well as inhibition of the ACE-angiotensin II-AT1 and p-ERK pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Chronic exposure to sublethal hexavalent chromium affects organ histopathology and serum cortisol profile of a teleost, Channa punctatus (Bloch)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Ashish K.; Mohanty, Banalata

    2009-01-01

    Effects of chronic exposures (one and two months) to sublethal doses of hexavalent chromium (2 and 4 mg/L potassium dichromate) on organ histopathology and serum cortisol profile were investigated and their overall impact on growth and behavior of a teleost fish, Channa punctatus was elucidated. Histopathological lesions were distinct in the vital organs gill, kidney and liver. The gill lamellae became lifted, fused, and showed oedema. Hyperplasia and hypertrophy of lamellar epithelial cells were distinct with desquamation. Hypertrophy of epithelial cells of renal tubules and reduction in tubular lumens were observed in the trunk kidney. The atrophy of the head kidney interrenal cells and decreased serum cortisol level indicated exhaustion of interrenal activity. Hepatocyte vacuolization and shrinkage, nuclear pyknosis and increase of sinusoidal spaces were observed in the liver. Abnormal behavioral patterns and reduced growth rate were also noticed in the exposed fish. The chronic hexavalent chromium exposure thus by affecting histopathology of gill, kidney (including interrenal tissue) and liver could impair the vital functions of respiration, excretion, metabolic regulation and maintenance of stress homeostasis which in the long-run may pose serious threat to fish health and affect their population.

  17. Chronic exposure to sublethal hexavalent chromium affects organ histopathology and serum cortisol profile of a teleost, Channa punctatus (Bloch)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Ashish K. [Department of Zoology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002 (India); Mohanty, Banalata, E-mail: drbana_mohanty@rediffmail.com [Department of Zoology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002 (India)

    2009-09-01

    Effects of chronic exposures (one and two months) to sublethal doses of hexavalent chromium (2 and 4 mg/L potassium dichromate) on organ histopathology and serum cortisol profile were investigated and their overall impact on growth and behavior of a teleost fish, Channa punctatus was elucidated. Histopathological lesions were distinct in the vital organs gill, kidney and liver. The gill lamellae became lifted, fused, and showed oedema. Hyperplasia and hypertrophy of lamellar epithelial cells were distinct with desquamation. Hypertrophy of epithelial cells of renal tubules and reduction in tubular lumens were observed in the trunk kidney. The atrophy of the head kidney interrenal cells and decreased serum cortisol level indicated exhaustion of interrenal activity. Hepatocyte vacuolization and shrinkage, nuclear pyknosis and increase of sinusoidal spaces were observed in the liver. Abnormal behavioral patterns and reduced growth rate were also noticed in the exposed fish. The chronic hexavalent chromium exposure thus by affecting histopathology of gill, kidney (including interrenal tissue) and liver could impair the vital functions of respiration, excretion, metabolic regulation and maintenance of stress homeostasis which in the long-run may pose serious threat to fish health and affect their population.

  18. Effects of Sub-lethal Concentrations of Silver Nanoparticles on a Simulated Intestinal Prokaryotic–Eukaryotic Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Garuglieri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology applications are expected to bring a range of benefits to the food sector, aiming to provide better quality and conservation. In this research, the physiological response of both an Escherichia coli mono-species biofilm and Caco-2 intestinal cells to sub-lethal concentrations of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs has been investigated. In order to simulate the anaerobic and aerobic compartments required for bacteria and intestinal cells growth, a simplified semi-batch model based on a transwell permeable support was developed. Interaction between the two compartments was obtained by exposing Caco-2 intestinal cells to the metabolites secreted by E. coli biofilm after its exposure to AgNPs. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the effect of AgNPs on Caco-2 cells that takes into consideration previous AgNP-intestinal biofilm interactions, and at concentrations mimicking real human exposure. Our data show that 1 μg/mL AgNPs in anaerobic conditions (i promote biofilm formation up to 2.3 ± 0.3 fold in the first 72 h of treatment; (ii increase reactive oxygen species (ROS production to 84 ± 21% and change the physiological status of microbial cells after 96 h of treatment; (iii seriously affect a 72-h old established biofilm, increasing the level of oxidative stress to 86 ± 21%. Moreover, the results indicate that oxygen renders the biofilm more adequate to counteract AgNP effects. Comet assays on Caco-2 cells demonstrated a protective role of biofilm against the genotoxic effect of 1 μg/mL AgNPs on intestinal epithelial cells.

  19. Endothelial glycocalyx shedding and vascular permeability in severely injured trauma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbar, Elaheh; Cardenas, Jessica C; Baimukanova, Gyulnar

    2015-01-01

    of trauma patients. METHODS: Plasma samples were collected from 5 healthy consented volunteers and 22 severely injured trauma patients upon admission to the emergency department. ELISA assays were performed to quantify shed HA, HS, CS and syndecan-1 in plasma. A colloid osmometer and Electric Cell......-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) system were used to measure plasma colloid osmotic pressure (COP) and cell permeability, respectively. Thrombin generation was measured using a calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT). Initial vital signs, routine laboratory values, and injury severity scores (ISS) were recorded. Non......COP (≤16 mmHg) had significantly increased syndecan-1 and HA compared to those with normal COP, which corresponded to increased cell permeability via ECIS. CS and HS did not vary between COP groups. Lastly, patients with low COP displayed reduced peak thrombin...

  20. Post-exercise dynamics of serum amyloid A blood concentration in thoroughbred horses classified as injured and non-injured after the race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turlo, A; Cywinska, A; Czopowicz, M; Witkowski, L; Szarska, E; Winnicka, A

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate serum amyloid A (SAA) concentration in horses with orthopedic injuries acquired during racing and in healthy ones after completing the race. Injuries of bone and tendon did not cause radical increase in SAA concentration observed in other inflammatory conditions. SAA concentration correlated positively with white blood cell count (WBC) on the 3rd-4th days after race being significantly higher in the injured horses than in the control group in that time. It was suggested that racing effort may cause increase in SAA level, more pronounced in horses manifesting clinical signs of orthopedic injury after the race. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased sphingosine-1-phosphate improves muscle regeneration in acutely injured mdx mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Presently, there is no effective treatment for the lethal muscle wasting disease Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Here we show that increased sphingosine-1-phoshate (S1P) through direct injection or via the administration of the small molecule 2-acetyl-4(5)-tetrahydroxybutyl imidazole (THI), an S1P lyase inhibitor, has beneficial effects in acutely injured dystrophic muscles of mdx mice. Methods We treated mdx mice with and without acute injury and characterized the histopathological and functional effects of increasing S1P levels. We also tested exogenous and direct administration of S1P on mdx muscles to examine the molecular pathways under which S1P promotes regeneration in dystrophic muscles. Results Short-term treatment with THI significantly increased muscle fiber size and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle specific force in acutely injured mdx limb muscles. In addition, the accumulation of fibrosis and fat deposition, hallmarks of DMD pathology and impaired muscle regeneration, were lower in the injured muscles of THI-treated mdx mice. Furthermore, increased muscle force was observed in uninjured EDL muscles with a longer-term treatment of THI. Such regenerative effects were linked to the response of myogenic cells, since intramuscular injection of S1P increased the number of Myf5nlacz/+ positive myogenic cells and newly regenerated myofibers in injured mdx muscles. Intramuscular injection of biotinylated-S1P localized to muscle fibers, including newly regenerated fibers, which also stained positive for S1P receptor 1 (S1PR1). Importantly, plasma membrane and perinuclear localization of phosphorylated S1PR1 was observed in regenerating muscle fibers of mdx muscles. Intramuscular increases of S1P levels, S1PR1 and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (P-rpS6), and elevated EDL muscle specific force, suggest S1P promoted the upregulation of anabolic pathways that mediate skeletal muscle mass and function. Conclusions These data show that S1P is

  2. Recurrent sublethal warming reduces embryonic survival, inhibits juvenile growth, and alters species distribution projections under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Michael A; Riddell, Eric A; Levy, Ofir; Sears, Michael W

    2018-01-01

    The capacity to tolerate climate change often varies across ontogeny in organisms with complex life cycles. Recently developed species distribution models incorporate traits across life stages; however, these life-cycle models primarily evaluate effects of lethal change. Here, we examine impacts of recurrent sublethal warming on development and survival in ecological projections of climate change. We reared lizard embryos in the laboratory under temperature cycles that simulated contemporary conditions and warming scenarios. We also artificially warmed natural nests to mimic laboratory treatments. In both cases, recurrent sublethal warming decreased embryonic survival and hatchling sizes. Incorporating survivorship results into a mechanistic species distribution model reduced annual survival by up to 24% compared to models that did not incorporate sublethal warming. Contrary to models without sublethal effects, our model suggests that modest increases in developmental temperatures influence species ranges due to effects on survivorship. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  3. Caring for the injured child in settings of limited resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Jacob

    2016-02-01

    Children represent the most vulnerable members of our global society, a truth that is magnified when they are physically wounded. In much of the developed world, society has responded by offering protection in the form of law, injury prevention guidelines, and effective trauma systems to provide care for the injured child. Much of our world, though, remains afflicted by poverty and a lack of protective measures. As the globe becomes smaller by way of ease of travel and technology, surgeons are increasingly able to meet these children where they live and in doing so offer their hands and voices to care and protect these young ones. This article is intended as an overview of current issues in pediatric trauma care in the developing world as well as to offer some tips for the volunteer surgeon who may be involved in the care of the injured child in a setting of limited resource availability. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Occupational wellbeing--management of injured workers with psychosocial barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Peter

    2006-12-01

    Although most injured workers return to work with minimal intervention, approximately 20% show levels of distress and disability beyond that expected for the injury. The level of morale in a workplace seems to play a major role in this. Workers who experience positive emotions leading to increased morale are more likely to be resilient following injury. It is important for general practitioners to recognise the nonclinical factors that exert a significant influence over employee wellbeing and return to work outcomes. Some management strategies are presented. General practitioners who work collaboratively with all major stakeholders, who identify and manage psychosocial barriers early, who take an active role in promoting positive expectations, and who focus on the immediate problem rather than its industrial associations will achieve better outcomes for their injured patients.

  5. Development of a CPM Machine for Injured Fingers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yili; Zhang, Fuxiang; Ma, Xin; Meng, Qinggang

    2005-01-01

    Human fingers are easy to be injured. A CPM machine is a mechanism based on the rehabilitation theory of continuous passive motion (CPM). To develop a CPM machine for the clinic application in the rehabilitation of injured fingers is a significant task. Therefore, based on the theories of evidence based medicine (EBM) and CPM, we've developed a set of biomimetic mechanism after modeling the motions of fingers and analyzing its kinematics and dynamics analysis. We also design an embedded operating system based on ARM (a kind of 32-bit RISC microprocessor). The equipment can achieve the precise control of moving scope of fingers, finger's force and speed. It can serves as a rational checking method and a way of assessment for functional rehabilitation of human hands. Now, the first prototype has been finished and will start the clinical testing in Harbin Medical University shortly.

  6. Lithium-stimulated recovery of granulopoiesis after sublethal irradiation is not mediated via increased levels of colony stimulating factor (CSF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallicchio, V.S.; Chen, M.G.; Watts, T.D.

    1985-01-01

    Lithium accelerates the recovery of granulopoiesis following sublethal (2 Gy) whole body x-irradiation. Studies are described that further define this Li-mediated recovery by measuring the levels of colony-stimulating factor (CSF) present in serum from mice administered 105 μg/mouse (total dose) of ultra-pure Li 2 CO 3 for 3 days following irradiation. On days 1-28 following the last lithium dose, the serum was tested for its CSF activity against both normal non-adherent derived bone marrow target cells and non-adherent marrow cells from mice administered cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg body weight). Serum was assayed at 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10% final concentration. No significant difference in the total number of CFU-GM was observed from normal marrow using either serum from irradiated mice or lithium-treated and irradiated mice, although the irradiation did produce a 300% rise in CFU-GM colonies compared to normal serum (days 4 and 10-15). From regenerating marrow, a significant difference (P <= 0.01) was observed in CFU-GM cultured with serum at 0.1% concentration from irradiated and lithium-treated mice compared to irradiated mice without lithium. The presence of CSF was confirmed by its reduced activity in the presence of anti-(CSF). (U.K.)

  7. Psychiatric morbidity among physically injured Syrian refugees in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nuaimi, Saleem; Aldandashi, Samer; Easa, Abdul Kadir Saed; Saqqur, Maher

    2018-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, the mental health status of physically injured Syrian refugees has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among physically injured Syrian refugees in Turkey receiving treatment at the main rehabilitation centre near the Syrian border. This is a cross sectional study. Information was collected from consenting injured Syrian refugees at Dar-el-Shefa'a Hospital in Reyhanlı (Turkey) during a one week period in December 2012 and another one week period in August 2013. A clinical psychiatric interview was conducted to determine a diagnosis according to the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV-TR. A total of 40 refugees consented and completed a clinical psychiatric interview. All refugees in this study did not have a significant past psychiatric history. The most prevalent current diagnosis was major depressive disorder (22.5%), adjustment disorder (20%), and post-traumatic stress disorder (15%). Five (12.5%) patients had no evidence of a psychiatric disorder. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among injured Syrian refugees in our study was extremely high. This may help guide the treatment and management of this select population. This study had a low number of participants. The method of assessment was not standardized with a validated tool. This study may help guide the treatment and management of this select population, both in neighbouring countries and as resettled refugees in Western host countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of sublethal exposure to metofluthrin on the fitness of Aedes aegypti in a domestic setting in Cairns, Queensland

    OpenAIRE

    Buhagiar, Tamara S.; Devine, Gregor J.; Ritchie, Scott A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Metofluthrin is highly effective at reducing biting activity in Aedes aegypti. Its efficacy lies in the rapid onset of confusion, knockdown, and subsequent kill of a mosquito. In the field, there are a variety of scenarios that might result in sublethal exposure to metofluthrin, including mosquitoes that are active at the margins of the chemical?s lethal range, brief exposure as mosquitoes fly in and out of treated spaces or decreasing efficacy of the emanators with time. Sublethal...

  9. Sublethal haematological effects of zinc on the freshwater fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... were taken from the control and experimental fish. ... differential white blood cell counts were decreased except for the lymphocytes in which ... this indicates a depressive effect on tissue respiration ..... the reduction in cellular blood iron, resulting in reduced ... Changes in carbohydrate metabolism occur in.

  10. Gastrointestinal uptake and fate of cadmium in rainbow trout acclimated to sublethal dietary cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, M.J.; McDonald, D.G.; Wood, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    Adult rainbow trout were pre-exposed to a sublethal concentration of dietary Cd (500 mg/kg dry wt.) for 30 days to induce acclimation. A gastrointestinal dose of radiolabeled Cd (276 μg/kg wet wt.) was infused into the stomach of non-acclimated and Cd-acclimated trout through a stomach catheter. Repetitive blood samples over 24 h and terminal tissue samples were taken to investigate the gastrointestinal uptake, plasma clearance kinetics, and tissue distribution of Cd. Only a small fraction of the infused dose (non-acclimated: 2.4%; Cd-acclimated: 6.6%) was internalized across the gut wall, while most was bound in the gut tissues (10-24%) or remained in the lumen (16-33%) or lost from the fish (∼50%) over 24 h. Cadmium loading during pre-exposure produced a profound increase of total Cd in the blood plasma (∼28-fold) and red blood cells (RBC; ∼20-fold). The plasma Cd-time profiles consisted of an apparent rising (uptake) phase and a declining (clearance) phase with a maximum value of uptake in 4 h, suggesting that uptake of gastrointestinally infused Cd was very rapid. Acclimation to dietary Cd did not affect plasma Cd clearance (∼0.5 ml/min), but enhanced new Cd levels in the plasma (but not in the RBC), and resulted in a longer half-life for plasma Cd. Tissue total and new Cd levels varied in different regions of the gastrointestinal tract, and overall levels in gut tissues were much greater than in non-gut tissues, reflecting the Cd exposure route. Dietary Cd, but not the infused Cd, greatly increased total Cd levels of all gut tissues in the order posterior-intestine (640-fold) > cecae (180-fold) > mid-intestine (94-fold) > stomach (53-fold) in Cd-acclimated fish relative to naieve fish. Among non-gut tissues in the Cd-acclimated fish, the great increases of total Cd levels were observed in the liver (73-fold), kidney (39-fold), carcass (35-fold), and gills (30-fold). The results provide some clear conclusions that may be useful for environmental risk

  11. Solute transport across the articular surface of injured cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Hooi Chuan; Moeini, Mohammad; Quinn, Thomas M

    2013-07-15

    Solute transport through extracellular matrix (ECM) is important to physiology and contrast agent-based clinical imaging of articular cartilage. Mechanical injury is likely to have important effects on solute transport since it involves alteration of ECM structure. Therefore it is of interest to characterize effects of mechanical injury on solute transport in cartilage. Using cartilage explants injured by an established mechanical compression protocol, effective partition coefficients and diffusivities of solutes for transport across the articular surface were measured. A range of fluorescent solutes (fluorescein isothiocyanate, 4 and 40kDa dextrans, insulin, and chondroitin sulfate) and an X-ray contrast agent (sodium iodide) were used. Mechanical injury was associated with a significant increase in effective diffusivity versus uninjured explants for all solutes studied. On the other hand, mechanical injury had no effects on effective partition coefficients for most solutes tested, except for 40kDa dextran and chondroitin sulfate where small but significant changes in effective partition coefficient were observed in injured explants. Findings highlight enhanced diffusive transport across the articular surface of injured cartilage, which may have important implications for injury and repair situations. Results also support development of non-equilibrium methods for identification of focal cartilage lesions by contrast agent-based clinical imaging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Understanding contextual influences of community reintegration among injured servicemembers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Brent L; McGuire, Francis A; Linder, Sandra M; Britt, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    As part of a larger mixed-methods research project investigating the influence of contextual factors on community reintegration (CR), this qualitative study sought to understand the subjective experiences of injured servicemembers and their perception of how contextual factors influenced their CR. More specifically, this article addresses how the influences of contextual factors differ between injured servicemembers with different levels of CR. Using a phenomenological framework, semistructured interviews were conducted with nine injured, community-dwelling servicemembers with low, moderate, and high levels of CR (three per category). Participants provided in-depth descriptions of the contextual barriers and facilitators of CR. Thematic analysis indicated the importance of social support and personal factors (e.g., self-efficacy, personal motivation) as the primary means for being reintegrated into their homes and communities. Other themes indicated factors that had an indirect but important influence on CR, including adapted sports, recreation, and other social programs; rehabilitation programs and therapists; school, work, and volunteering; and organizations and policies in developing social supports and personal factors. Comparisons between servicemembers indicated participants with low CR described many more contextual barriers and far fewer contextual facilitators to reintegration than those with high CR. Those with moderate CR were unique in that they described many facilitators and barriers to reintegration.

  13. Acute Chemical Incidents With Injured First Responders, 2002-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikova, Natalia; Wu, Jennifer; Yang, Alice; Orr, Maureen

    2018-04-01

    IntroductionFirst responders, including firefighters, police officers, emergency medical services, and company emergency response team members, have dangerous jobs that can bring them in contact with hazardous chemicals among other dangers. Limited information is available on responder injuries that occur during hazardous chemical incidents. We analyzed 2002-2012 data on acute chemical incidents with injured responders from 2 Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry chemical incident surveillance programs. To learn more about such injuries, we performed descriptive analysis and looked for trends. The percentage of responders among all injured people in chemical incidents has not changed over the years. Firefighters were the most frequently injured group of responders, followed by police officers. Respiratory system problems were the most often reported injury, and the respiratory irritants, ammonia, methamphetamine-related chemicals, and carbon monoxide were the chemicals more often associated with injuries. Most of the incidents with responder injuries were caused by human error or equipment failure. Firefighters wore personal protective equipment (PPE) most frequently and police officers did so rarely. Police officers' injuries were mostly associated with exposure to ammonia and methamphetamine-related chemicals. Most responders did not receive basic awareness-level hazardous material training. All responders should have at least basic awareness-level hazardous material training to recognize and avoid exposure. Research on improving firefighter PPE should continue. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:211-221).

  14. Biofabricated Structures Reconstruct Functional Urinary Bladders in Radiation-injured Rat Bladders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Tetsuya; Shimamura, Mitsuru; Ogawa, Teruyuki; Minagawa, Tomonori; Nagai, Takashi; Silwal Gautam, Sudha; Ishizuka, Osamu

    2018-05-08

    The ability to repair damaged urinary bladders through the application of bone marrow-derived cells is in the earliest stages of development. We investigated the application of bone marrow-derived cells to repair radiation-injured bladders. We used a three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting robot system to biofabricate bone marrow-derived cell structures. We then determined if the biofabricated structures could restore the tissues and functions of radiation-injured bladders. The bladders of female 10-week-old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were irradiated with 2-Gy once a week for 5 weeks. Adherent and proliferating bone marrow-derived cells harvested from the femurs of male 17-week-old green fluorescence protein-transfected Tg-SD rats were cultured in collagen-coated flasks. Bone marrow-derived cell spheroids were formed in 96-well plates. Three layers of spheroids were assembled by the bioprinter onto a 9x9 microneedle array. The assembled spheroids were perfusion cultured for 7 days, and then the microneedle array was removed. Two weeks after the last radiation treatment, the biofabricated structures were transplanted into an incision on the anterior wall of the bladders (n=10). Control rats received the same surgery but without the biofabricated structures (sham-structure, n=12). At 2 and 4 weeks after surgery, the sham-structure control bladder tissues exhibited disorganized smooth muscle layers, decreased nerve cells, and significant fibrosis with increased presence of fibrosis-marker P4HB-positive cells and hypoxia-marker HIF1α-positive cells. The transplanted structures survived within the recipient tissues, and blood vessels extended within them from the recipient tissues. The bone marrow-derived cells in the structures differentiated into smooth muscle cells and formed smooth muscle clusters. The recipient tissues near the transplanted structures had distinct smooth muscle layers and reconstructed nerve cells, and only minimal fibrosis with decreased presence of P4

  15. 1H NMR metabolomics of earthworm exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of phenanthrene in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Sarah A.E.; McKelvie, Jennifer R.; Simpson, Andre J.; Simpson, Myrna J.

    2010-01-01

    1 H NMR metabolomics was used to monitor earthworm responses to sub-lethal (50-1500 mg/kg) phenanthrene exposure in soil. Total phenanthrene was analyzed via soxhlet extraction, bioavailable phenanthrene was estimated by hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) and 1-butanol extractions and sorption to soil was assessed by batch equilibration. Bioavailable phenanthrene (HPCD-extracted) comprised ∼65-97% of total phenanthrene added to the soil. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed differences in responses between exposed earthworms and controls after 48 h exposure. The metabolites that varied with exposure included amino acids (isoleucine, alanine and glutamine) and maltose. PLS models indicated that earthworm response is positively correlated to both total phenanthrene concentration and bioavailable (HPCD-extracted) phenanthrene in a freshly spiked, unaged soil. These results show that metabolomics is a powerful, direct technique that may be used to monitor contaminant bioavailability and toxicity of sub-lethal concentrations of contaminants in the environment. These initial findings warrant further metabolomic studies with aged contaminated soils. - 1 H NMR metabolomics is used to directly monitor metabolic responses of Eisenia fetida after 48 h of exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of phenanthrene in soil.

  16. Chronic Sublethal Effects of Cantharidin on the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyu Huang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae, is a major pest of cruciferous vegetables worldwide. Cantharidin, a natural toxin isolated from blister beetles, has been reported to be toxic to P. xylostella. However, little is known on the chronic sublethal effects of cantharidin on this species. In this study, we assessed the changes of susceptibility, development, reproduction and other demographic parameters in both the selected P. xylostella strain (Sub, selected by LC25 cantharidin for consecutive 12 generations and the revertant strain (SubR, derived from the Sub strain without being exposed to cantharidin for 12 generations. Results revealed that the two strains maintained a relatively high-level susceptibility to cantharidin. Severe adverse effects on the population dynamics and fitness in Sub strain were observed. In addition, repeated exposure of P. xylostella to sublethal concentration of cantharidin resulted in negative effects on adult performance and deformities in adults. Although morphologically normal for individuals, the SubR strain exhibited a disadvantage in population growth rate. Our results showed that sublethal concentration of cantharidin exhibited severe negative effects on population growth for longtime. These findings would be useful for assessing the potential effects and risk of cantharidin on P. xylostella and for developing effective integrated pest management.

  17. Chronic Sublethal Effects of Cantharidin on the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhengyu; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-05-29

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is a major pest of cruciferous vegetables worldwide. Cantharidin, a natural toxin isolated from blister beetles, has been reported to be toxic to P. xylostella. However, little is known on the chronic sublethal effects of cantharidin on this species. In this study, we assessed the changes of susceptibility, development, reproduction and other demographic parameters in both the selected P. xylostella strain (Sub, selected by LC25 cantharidin for consecutive 12 generations) and the revertant strain (SubR, derived from the Sub strain without being exposed to cantharidin for 12 generations). Results revealed that the two strains maintained a relatively high-level susceptibility to cantharidin. Severe adverse effects on the population dynamics and fitness in Sub strain were observed. In addition, repeated exposure of P. xylostella to sublethal concentration of cantharidin resulted in negative effects on adult performance and deformities in adults. Although morphologically normal for individuals, the SubR strain exhibited a disadvantage in population growth rate. Our results showed that sublethal concentration of cantharidin exhibited severe negative effects on population growth for longtime. These findings would be useful for assessing the potential effects and risk of cantharidin on P. xylostella and for developing effective integrated pest management.

  18. Sublethal dose of phoxim and Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus interact to elevate silkworm mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, ZhiYa; Li, FanChi; Hu, JingSheng; Ding, Chao; Wang, Chaoqian; Tian, JiangHai; Xue, Bin; Xu, KaiZun; Shen, WeiDe; Li, Bing

    2017-03-01

    Silkworm (Bombyx mori) is an economically important insect. It is relatively less resistant to certain chemicals and environment exposures such as pesticides and pathogens. After pesticide exposures, the silkworms are more susceptible to microbial infections. The mechanism underlying the susceptibility might be related to immune response and oxidative stress. A sublethal dose of phoxim combined with Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) elevated the silkworm mortality at 96 h. We found a higher content of H 2 O 2 and increased levels of genes related to oxidative stress and immune response after treatment with a sublethal dose of phoxim for 24 h or 48 h. However, such response decreased with longer pesticide treatment. Mortality increased by 44% when B. mori was exposed to combined treatment with BmNPV and phoxim rather than BmNPV alone. The level of examined immune-related and oxidative-stress-related genes significantly decreased in the combined treatment group compared with the BmNPV group. Our results indicated that, with long-term exposure to pesticides such as OPs, even at sublethal dose, the oxidative stress response and immune responses in silkworm were inhibited, which may lead to further immune impairment and accumulation of oxidative stress, resulting in susceptibility to the virus and harm to the silkworm. Our study provided insights for understanding the susceptibility to pathogen after pesticide exposures, which may promote the development of better pesticide controls to avoid significant economic losses. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Chronic Sublethal Effects of Cantharidin on the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhengyu; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-01-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is a major pest of cruciferous vegetables worldwide. Cantharidin, a natural toxin isolated from blister beetles, has been reported to be toxic to P. xylostella. However, little is known on the chronic sublethal effects of cantharidin on this species. In this study, we assessed the changes of susceptibility, development, reproduction and other demographic parameters in both the selected P. xylostella strain (Sub, selected by LC25 cantharidin for consecutive 12 generations) and the revertant strain (SubR, derived from the Sub strain without being exposed to cantharidin for 12 generations). Results revealed that the two strains maintained a relatively high-level susceptibility to cantharidin. Severe adverse effects on the population dynamics and fitness in Sub strain were observed. In addition, repeated exposure of P. xylostella to sublethal concentration of cantharidin resulted in negative effects on adult performance and deformities in adults. Although morphologically normal for individuals, the SubR strain exhibited a disadvantage in population growth rate. Our results showed that sublethal concentration of cantharidin exhibited severe negative effects on population growth for longtime. These findings would be useful for assessing the potential effects and risk of cantharidin on P. xylostella and for developing effective integrated pest management. PMID:26035491

  20. Host defenses in experimental scrub typhus: effect of sublethal gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of sublethal gamma radiation on inbred mice chronically infected with scrub typhus rickettsiae was examined. Inbred mice which have been inoculated with Gilliam or Karp strain of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi by the subcutaneous route harbored the infection for at least one year. Irradiation of these animals at 12 or 52 weeks post inoculation at normally sublethal levels induced a significantly higher percentage of rickettsemic mice (recrudescence) than in the unirradiated similarly infected control animals. In addition, sublethal irradiation at 12 weeks also induced a quantitative increase in total rickettsiae. Homologous antibody titers to the rickettsiae were examined for five weeks following irradiation to determine the role of the humoral response in radiation induced recrudescence. Modification of recrudescence was investigated using radioprotective drugs. The expected results of this investigation supported the conclusion that the recrudescence of a chronic rickettsial infection in the appropriate host following immunological impairment due to battlefield or clinical exposure to gamma radiation can result in an acute, possibly lethal rickettsemia

  1. Effect of sublethal gamma radiation on host defenses in experimental scrub typhus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, D.J.; Rees, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of sublethal gamma radiation on inbred mice chronically infected with scrub typhus rickettsiae was examined. Inbred mice which were inoculated with the Gilliam or Karp strain of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi by the subcutaneous route harbored the infection for at least 1 year. Irradiation of these animals at 12 or 52 weeks postinoculation with normally sublethal levels induced a significantly higher percentage of rickettsemic mice (recrudescence) than was seen in the unirradiated, similarly infected control animals. In addition, sublethal irradiation at 12 weeks induced a quantitative increase in total rickettsiae. Homologous antibody titers to the rickettsiae were examined for 5 weeks after irradiation to determine the role of the humoral response in radiation-induced recrudescence. Unirradiated, infected mice showed consistent titers of about 320 throughout the 5-week observation period, and the titer was not affected by exposure of up to 500 rads of gamma radiation. Drug dose-dependent radioprotection and modification of recrudescence was noted in infected, irradiated mice treated with the antiradiation compound S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethyl phosphorothioic acid. The results of this investigation supported the conclusion that the recrudescence of a chronic rickettsial infection in the appropriate host after immunological impairment due to gamma radiation can result in an acute, possibly lethal rickettsemia

  2. Enhanced proliferation of transfused marrow and reversal of normal growth inhibition of female marrow in male hosts 2 months after sublethal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brecher, G.; Mulcahy, K.; Tjio, J.H.; Raveche, E.

    1985-01-01

    It is well established that 0.5 to 1 million marrow cells suffice to rescue (though not necessarily fully restore) lethally irradiated mice, while even 40 million cells result only in minimal seeding in isogeneic, nonirradiated mice. It was originally suggested that the results imply the existence of special proliferative sites which are filled in the nonirradiated animal, but are emptied by high doses of irradiation. In 1982 the authors demonstrated the feasibility of establishing substantial numbers of donor cells in normal, non-irradiated hosts. After four daily transfusions of 50 million marrow cells, 20-40% of the host's marrow consisted of cells of donor origin. The present paper reports the marked enhancement of the proliferation of transfused marrow cells in mice exposed to sublethal doses of irradiation of 300-900 R. Two months later, when the peripheral blood counts of the irradiated animals had returned to normal, transfusion of 100 million cells resulted in donor cell percentages of 55-100% in the peripheral blood and marrow. The authors previously found that male donor cells proliferated as readily in female as in male hosts, while female donor cells proliferated to a comparable degree only in female hosts. In the present study, male animals that had been exposed to 600-900 R 2 months earlier sustained proliferation of male and female donor cells equally well

  3. A novel strategy to activate cytoprotective genes in the injured brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Jing; Redell, John B.; Moore, Anthony N.; Dash, Pramod K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A strategy to increase cytoprotective gene expression in injured tissue is outlined. → A peptide containing a DEETGE motif can increase Nrf2 responsive genes in vivo. → Gene expression in injured brains requires a calpain cleavage site. → This peptide decreases BBB compromise when infused pre- or post-brain injury. → Cleavage sites for disease-specific proteases could be used to treat that condition. -- Abstract: The transcription factor nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) regulates the expression of multiple cytoprotective genes that have been shown to offer protection in response to a number of insults. The present study describes a novel strategy to increase expression of Nrf2-responsive genes in brain injured mice. Under normal conditions, the adapter protein Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) binds to Nrf2 and promotes its proteosomal degradation in the cytoplasm. The amino acid sequence DEETGE, located at amino acid 77-82 of Nrf2, is critical for Nrf2-Keap1 interaction, and synthetic peptides containing this sequence can be used to disrupt the complex in vitro. We observed that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of a peptide containing the DEETGE sequence along with the cell transduction domain of the HIV-TAT protein (TAT-DEETGE) into brain-injured mice did not increase the mRNA levels for Nrf2-driven genes. However, when a calpain cleavage sequence was introduced between the TAT sequence and the DEETGE sequence, the new peptide (TAT-CAL-DEETGE) increased the mRNA levels of these genes. Increased gene expression was not observed when the TAT-CAL-DEETGE peptide was injected into uninjured animals. Furthermore, injection of TAT-CAL-DEETGE peptides before or after brain injury reduced blood-brain barrier compromise, a prominent secondary pathology that negatively influences outcome. The present strategy to increase Nrf2-responsive gene expression can be adapted to treat other insults or diseases based on their

  4. Lethal and sublethal effects of azadirachtin on the bumblebee Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Wagner Faria; De Meyer, Laurens; Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Smagghe, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Azadirachtin is a biorational insecticide commonly reported as selective to a range of beneficial insects. Nonetheless, only few studies have been carried out with pollinators, usually emphasizing the honeybee Apis mellifera and neglecting other important pollinator species such as the bumblebee Bombus terrestris. Here, lethal and sublethal effects of azadirachtin were studied on B. terrestris via oral exposure in the laboratory to bring out the potential risks of the compound to this important pollinator. The compound was tested at different concentrations above and below the maximum concentration that is used in the field (32 mg L(-1)). As most important results, azadirachtin repelled bumblebee workers in a concentration-dependent manner. The median repellence concentration (RC50) was estimated as 504 mg L(-1). Microcolonies chronically exposed to azadirachtin via treated sugar water during 11 weeks in the laboratory exhibited a high mortality ranging from 32 to 100 % with a range of concentrations between 3.2 and 320 mg L(-1). Moreover, no reproduction was scored when concentrations were higher than 3.2 mg L(-1). At 3.2 mg L(-1), azadirachtin significantly inhibited the egg-laying and, consequently, the production of drones during 6 weeks. Ovarian length decreased with the increase of the azadirachtin concentration. When azadirachtin was tested under an experimental setup in the laboratory where bumblebees need to forage for food, the sublethal effects were stronger as the numbers of drones were reduced already with a concentration of 0.64 mg L(-1). Besides, a negative correlation was found between the body mass of male offspring and azadirachtin concentration. In conclusion, our results as performed in the laboratory demonstrated that azadirachtin can affect B. terrestris with a range of sublethal effects. Taking into account that sublethal effects are as important as lethal effects for the development and survival of the colonies of B. terrestris

  5. Effects of sub-lethal high-pressure homogenization treatment on the outermost cellular structures and the volatile-molecule profiles of two strains of probiotic lactobacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabanelli, Giulia; Vernocchi, Pamela; Patrignani, Francesca; Del Chierico, Federica; Putignani, Lorenza; Vinderola, Gabriel; Reinheimer, Jorge A; Gardini, Fausto; Lanciotti, Rosalba

    2015-01-01

    Applying sub-lethal levels of high-pressure homogenization (HPH) to lactic acid bacteria has been proposed as a method of enhancing some of their functional properties. Because the principal targets of HPH are the cell-surface structures, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of sub-lethal HPH treatment on the outermost cellular structures and the proteomic profiles of two known probiotic bacterial strains. Moreover, the effect of HPH treatment on the metabolism of probiotic cells within a dairy product during its refrigerated storage was investigated using SPME-GC-MS. Transmission electron microscopy was used to examine the microstructural changes in the outermost cellular structures due to HPH treatment. These alterations may be involved in the changes in some of the technological and functional properties of the strains that were observed after pressure treatment. Moreover, the proteomic profiles of the probiotic strains treated with HPH and incubated at 37°C for various periods showed different peptide patterns compared with those of the untreated cells. In addition, there were differences in the peaks that were observed in the low-mass spectral region (2000-3000 Da) of the spectral profiles of the control and treated samples. Due to pressure treatment, the volatile-molecule profiles of buttermilk inoculated with treated or control cells and stored at 4°C for 30 days exhibited overall changes in the aroma profile and in the production of molecules that improved its sensory profile, although the two different species imparted specific fingerprints to the product. The results of this study will contribute to understanding the changes that occur in the outermost cellular structures and the metabolism of LAB in response to HPH treatment. The findings of this investigation may contribute to elucidating the relationships between these changes and the alterations of the technological and functional properties of LAB induced by pressure treatment.

  6. Antifibrotic effects of Smad4 small interfering RNAs in injured skeletal muscle after acute contusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Chen, J; Chen, S; Zhang, Q; Chen, S

    2011-10-01

    Muscle injuries are common musculoskeletal problems encountered in sports medicine clinics. In this study, we examined the effect of lentivirus-mediated small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting Smad4 on the suppression of the fibrosis in injured skeletal muscles. We found that Smad4-siRNA could efficiently knock down the expression of Smad4 in the C2C12 myoblast cells and in the contunded mice gastrocnemius muscle. The expression of mRNA level of Smad4 decreased to 11% and 49% compared to the control group, respectively, and the expression of protein level decreased to 13% and 57% respectively. Moreover, the lentivirus-mediated siRNA was stably transfected only into the skeletal muscle and not into the liver of the animals. In contunded mice gastrocnemius, the collagenous and vimentin-positive area in the Smad4 siRNA group reduced to 36% and 37% compared to the control group, respectively. Furthermore, compared to the scrambled Smad4 siRNA-injected mice and PBS control-injected mice, the muscle function of the mice injected with lentivirus-mediated Smad4 siRNA improved in terms of both fast-twitch and tetanic strength (P<0.05). The results suggest that the gene therapy of inhibiting Smad4 by lentivirus-mediated siRNA could be a useful approach to prevent scar tissue formation and improve the function of injured skeletal muscle. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Cellular adverse actions of dibromoacetonitrile, a by-product in water bacterial control, at sublethal levels in rat thymocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Takumi; Akiyoshi, Kenji; Erdenedalai, Erdenebat; Enhetomuru, Anu; Imai, Shoji; Oyama, Yasuo

    2018-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dibromoacetonitrile (DBAN), a by-product in water bacterial control, at sublethal concentrations on rat thymocytes, by using a cytometric technique with appropriate fluorescent dyes. By using this method, the possibility that DBAN induces cellular actions related to oxidative stress was assessed. DBAN reduced the content of cellular nonprotein thiols under Zn 2+ -free conditions. It elevated the intracellular level of Zn 2+ , being independent from external Zn 2+ . DBAN increased cell vulnerability to the cytotoxic action of hydrogen peroxide. These actions of DBAN were likely related to oxidative stress. DBAN is formed by the reaction of bromides and chlorinated oxidants during water disinfection. Hydrolysis of 2,2-dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide, an antimicrobial used in hydraulic fracturing fluids for production of shale gas and oil, produces DBAN. Therefore, the concern regarding the levels of DBAN in industrial water systems is necessary to avoid the environmental risk to humans and wild mammals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Alexithymia, impulsiveness, and psychopathology in nonsuicidal self-injured adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatta M

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Michela Gatta,1 Francesco Dal Santo,1 Alessio Rago,1 Andrea Spoto,2 Pier Antonio Battistella1 1Childhood Adolescence Family Unit, Ulss 16 – Padua University, 2Department of General Psychology, Padua University, Padova, Italy Introduction: Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI is a multifaceted phenomenon and a major health issue among adolescents. A better understanding of self-injury comorbidities is crucial to improve our ability to assess, treat, and prevent NSSI.Purpose: This study aimed at analyzing some of the psychobehavioral correlates of NSSI: psychological problems, alexithymia, impulsiveness, and sociorelational aspects.Patients and methods: This was a case–control study. The clinical sample (n=33 included adolescents attending our unit for NSSI and other issues; the controls (n=79 were high-school students. Data were collected using six questionnaires: Youth Self-Report, Barratt’s Impulsiveness Scale, Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Children’s Depression Inventory, Symptom Checklist-90-R, and Child Behavior Checklist.Results: Cases scored significantly higher in all questionnaires. Habitual self-injurers scored higher on impulsiveness and alexithymia. The gesture’s repetition seems relevant to the global clinical picture: habitual self-injurers appear more likely to seek help from the sociosanitary services. We found a difference between the self-injurers’ and their parents’ awareness of the disorder.Conclusion: Habitual self-injurers show signs of having difficulty with assessing the consequences of their actions (nonplanning impulsiveness and the inability to manage their feelings. Given the significantly higher scores found for cases than for controls on all the psychopathological scales, NSSI can be seen as a cross-category psychiatric disorder, supporting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders decision to include it as a pathological entity in its own right. Keywords: NSSI, self-cutting, psychiatric

  9. Reconstruction of Injured Carotid Artery in a Comatose Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arben Zenelaj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A man 30 years old,was brought to the emergency department after being injured on the left side of the neck area.Massive bleeding from the wound caused by glass was observed.The patient was in cerebral coma and hemorrahagic shock.The eye pupils remained isochoric during and after the operation.He was taken immediately at the surgery room.The bleeding was stopped by using external compression.Exposure of the left neck blood vessels was carried out.The left common carotid artery and internal jugular vein was revealed.A provisory Pruitt-Inahara shunt was put in the common carotid artery,while teh injured vein was ligated.The suture of the left common carotid artery using Prolen 6-0 completed the procedure.After the surgery the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit.About two hours later he woke up,conscious.The left thoracic drainage because of the hemothorax was applied in the second postoperative day.The patient was lively and discharged from the hospitall in the 14-th postoperative day.The right facial paresis and mild left side hemiparesis persisted.Two months after the event no residual neurologic deficits were observed. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(3.000: 598-601

  10. Diagnostic radiology on multiple injured patients: interdisciplinary management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsenmaier, U.; Pfeifer, K.J.; Kanz, K.G.; Mutschler, W.

    2001-01-01

    The presence of a radiologist within the admitting area of an emergency department and his capability as a member of the trauma team have a major impact on the role of diagnostic radiology in trauma care. The knowledge of clinical decision criteria, algorithms, and standards of patient care are essential for the acceptance within a trauma team. We present an interdisciplinary management concept of diagnostic radiology for trauma patients, which comprises basic diagnosis, organ diagnosis, radiological ABC, and algorithms of early clinical care. It is the result of a prospective study comprising over 2000 documented multiple injured patients. The radiologist on a trauma team should support trauma surgery and anesthesia in diagnostic and clinical work-up. The radiological ABC provides a structured approach for diagnostic imaging in all steps of the early clinical care of the multiple injured patient. Radiological ABC requires a reevaluation in cases of equivocal findings or difficulties in the clinical course. Direct communication of radiological findings with the trauma team enables quick clinical decisions. In addition, the radiologist can priority-oriented influence the therapy by using interventional procedures. The clinical radiologist is an active member of the interdisciplinary trauma team, not only providing diagnostic imaging but also participating in clinical decisions. (orig.) [de

  11. Histological examination of sublethal effects of diazinon on ovary of bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, H.M.; Maxwell, L.B.

    2003-01-01

    Sublethal doses of diazinon can alter microscopic anatomy of fish ovary. - The effects of the insecticide, diazinon (an organophosphorous compound), on the ovaries of bluegill (Lepomis macrohirus) were studied. Histological preparations of bluegill ovarian tissue was examined at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h and 1, 2 and 3 weeks following exposure to sublethal doses of diazinon (60 μg/l). The control contained primary follicles with an intact ovigerous lamellae and tunica albuginea. The control also revealed well developed stage IV oocytes with properly distributed provitelline nucleoli. After 24 h of exposure to diazinon, primary follicles began to show adhesion and cytoplasmic retraction in oocyte II occured. Cytoplasmic degeneration and additional adhesion and more retraction were visible at 48 h in oocyte II; 72 h brought forth adhesion, retraction and cytoplamic expulsion from oocyte IV. The number of atretic oocytes increased. Damages to the oocyte IV started to occur after 72 h of exposure. Cytoplasmic retraction and clumping was more visible at 96 h in oocyte IV. Partial destruction of the ovigerous lamellae and vitellogenic membrane occurred after 1 week. Two weeks continued to reveal destruction of follicles. Severe damage of the ovigerous lamellae, increased intrafollicular spaces, vacuolated cytoplasm, extrusion of karyoplasm and necrosis in the cytoplasm were most evident following 3 weeks of exposure. The ovarian wall became frayed and broken. Additionally, a marked increase of atretic follicles, shrinkage, and embedded nucleoli into the surrounding cytoplasm in oocyte II, III and IV were observed at week 3. This study revealed that oocytes at their different stages of maturation get affected differently at various exposure. Based on observations of the ovarian tissue compositional and structural changes following given exposure times, it becomes evident that consistent sublethal doses of diazinon can and will alter microscopic anatomy of the fish ovary

  12. Histological examination of sublethal effects of diazinon on ovary of bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, H.M.; Maxwell, L.B

    2003-01-01

    Sublethal doses of diazinon can alter microscopic anatomy of fish ovary. - The effects of the insecticide, diazinon (an organophosphorous compound), on the ovaries of bluegill (Lepomis macrohirus) were studied. Histological preparations of bluegill ovarian tissue was examined at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h and 1, 2 and 3 weeks following exposure to sublethal doses of diazinon (60 {mu}g/l). The control contained primary follicles with an intact ovigerous lamellae and tunica albuginea. The control also revealed well developed stage IV oocytes with properly distributed provitelline nucleoli. After 24 h of exposure to diazinon, primary follicles began to show adhesion and cytoplasmic retraction in oocyte II occured. Cytoplasmic degeneration and additional adhesion and more retraction were visible at 48 h in oocyte II; 72 h brought forth adhesion, retraction and cytoplamic expulsion from oocyte IV. The number of atretic oocytes increased. Damages to the oocyte IV started to occur after 72 h of exposure. Cytoplasmic retraction and clumping was more visible at 96 h in oocyte IV. Partial destruction of the ovigerous lamellae and vitellogenic membrane occurred after 1 week. Two weeks continued to reveal destruction of follicles. Severe damage of the ovigerous lamellae, increased intrafollicular spaces, vacuolated cytoplasm, extrusion of karyoplasm and necrosis in the cytoplasm were most evident following 3 weeks of exposure. The ovarian wall became frayed and broken. Additionally, a marked increase of atretic follicles, shrinkage, and embedded nucleoli into the surrounding cytoplasm in oocyte II, III and IV were observed at week 3. This study revealed that oocytes at their different stages of maturation get affected differently at various exposure. Based on observations of the ovarian tissue compositional and structural changes following given exposure times, it becomes evident that consistent sublethal doses of diazinon can and will alter microscopic anatomy of the fish ovary.

  13. Kinetics and capacity of repair of sublethal damage in mouse lip mucosa during fractionated irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, K.K.; Xu, F.X.; Landuyt, W.; van der Schueren, E.

    1985-01-01

    The kinetics and capacity of repair of sublethal damage in mouse lip mucosa have been investigated. To assess the rate of repair 2 and 5 irradiations have been given with intervals ranging from 1 to 24 hours. It was found that the sublethal damage induced by a dose of approximately 10 Gy was fully recovered in approximately 4 hr. After a dose of 5-6 Gy, cellular repair was completed within 3 hr. The half time of repair (T1/2) was estimated to be approximately 72 min for 10 Gy and approximately 54 min for 5-6 Gy. Although these results suggest that the rate of repair is dependent on the fraction size, the possible influence of the amount of repair of sublethal radiation damage with the various fraction sizes used can not be ruled out. To evaluate the capacity of repair, a single dose, 2, 4 and 10 fractions have been given in a maximal overall time of 3 days in order to minimize the influence of repopulation. The slope of the isoeffective curve was 0.32 and the alpha/beta ratio was 8.5 Gy. This indicates that the capacity of cellular repair of lip mucosa is similar to those of other rapidly proliferating tissues but smaller than those of late responding tissues. The results of the present and other studies demonstrate that there are considerable differences in the repair characteristics between acutely and late responding tissues. These features have to be dealt with when fractionation schedules are markedly altered

  14. [Sublethal effects of spinetoram and azadirachtin on development and reproduction of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang Ming; Zhi, Jun Rui; Li, Shun Xin; Liu, Li

    2016-11-18

    To evaluate the sublethal effects of spinetoram and azadirachtin on western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, leaf dipping method was used to determine their sublethal concentrations (LC 25 ) on the 2 nd instar nymph, and their influences on development and reproduction of F. occidentalis were studied. The results showed exposure of sublethal concentrations of spinetoram and azadirachtin to F. accidentalis had different degrees of effects on this insect pest. Under bisexual reproduction, the LC 25 spinetoram had no significant influences on pre-oviposition period, female adult longevity and fecundity, but male adult longevity was significantly shorter than the control. The LC 25 azadirachtin significantly reduced fecundity and prolonged pre-oviposition period. Under parthenogenesis, the LC 25 spinetoram and azadirachtin extended the pre-oviposition duration, whereas the LC 25 azadirachtin shortened the female adult longevity and significantly decreased fecundity. The LC 25 spinetoram and azadirachtin had different influences on developmental duration of each stage of next generation. The immature stage in treatment group of the LC 25 spinetoram was shorter than that in treatment group of the LC 25 azadirachtin, under bisexual reproduction or parthenogenesis. Intrinsic rate of increase (r m ) and finite rate of increase (λ) of population treated by the LC 25 spinetoram were higher than those of the control, whereas the r m , R 0 , and λ of population treated by the LC 25 azadirachtin were lower than those of the control. The findings indicated that the effects of the LC 25 spinetoram and azadirachtin on the development and reproduction of F. accidentalis were different. The LC 25 spinetoram had certain stimulating effect, whereas the LC 25 azadirach-tinon had significant inhibitory effect. Two biopesticides' influences were related with the reproductive patterns of F. accidentalis.

  15. Contact irritant responses of Aedes aegypti Using sublethal concentration and focal application of pyrethroid chemicals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hortance Manda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated contact irritant and spatial repellent behaviors in Aedes aegypti following exposure to sublethal concentrations of chemicals. These sublethal actions are currently being evaluated in the development of a push-pull strategy for Ae. aegypti control. This study reports on mosquito escape responses after exposure to candidate chemicals for a contact irritant focused push-pull strategy using varying concentrations and focal application. METHODS: Contact irritancy (escape behavior, knockdown and 24 hour mortality rates were quantified in populations of female Ae. aegypti under laboratory conditions and validated in the field (Thailand and Peru using experimental huts. Evaluations were conducted using varying concentrations and treatment surface area coverage (SAC of three pyrethroid insecticides: alphacypermethrin, lambacyhalothrin and deltamethrin. RESULTS: Under laboratory conditions, exposure of Ae. aegypti to alphacypermethrin using the standard field application rate (FAR resulted in escape responses at 25% and 50% SAC that were comparable with escape responses at 100% SAC. Significant escape responses were also observed at <100% SAC using ½FAR of all test compounds. In most trials, KD and 24 hour mortality rates were higher in mosquitoes that did not escape than in those that escaped. In Thailand, field validation studies indicated an early time of exit (by four hours and 40% increase in escape using ½FAR of alphacypermethrin at 75% SAC compared to a matched chemical-free control. In Peru, however, the maximum increase in Ae. aegypti escape from alphacypermethrin-treated huts was 11%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results presented here suggest a potential role for sublethal and focal application of contact irritant chemicals in an Ae. aegypti push-pull strategy to reduce human-vector contact inside treated homes. However, the impact of an increase in escape response on dengue virus transmission is

  16. Contact irritant responses of Aedes aegypti Using sublethal concentration and focal application of pyrethroid chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manda, Hortance; Shah, Pankhil; Polsomboon, Suppaluck; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Castro-Llanos, Fanny; Morrison, Amy; Burrus, Roxanne G; Grieco, John P; Achee, Nicole L

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated contact irritant and spatial repellent behaviors in Aedes aegypti following exposure to sublethal concentrations of chemicals. These sublethal actions are currently being evaluated in the development of a push-pull strategy for Ae. aegypti control. This study reports on mosquito escape responses after exposure to candidate chemicals for a contact irritant focused push-pull strategy using varying concentrations and focal application. Contact irritancy (escape) behavior, knockdown and 24 hour mortality rates were quantified in populations of female Ae. aegypti under laboratory conditions and validated in the field (Thailand and Peru) using experimental huts. Evaluations were conducted using varying concentrations and treatment surface area coverage (SAC) of three pyrethroid insecticides: alphacypermethrin, lambacyhalothrin and deltamethrin. Under laboratory conditions, exposure of Ae. aegypti to alphacypermethrin using the standard field application rate (FAR) resulted in escape responses at 25% and 50% SAC that were comparable with escape responses at 100% SAC. Significant escape responses were also observed at time of exit (by four hours) and 40% increase in escape using ½FAR of alphacypermethrin at 75% SAC compared to a matched chemical-free control. In Peru, however, the maximum increase in Ae. aegypti escape from alphacypermethrin-treated huts was 11%. Results presented here suggest a potential role for sublethal and focal application of contact irritant chemicals in an Ae. aegypti push-pull strategy to reduce human-vector contact inside treated homes. However, the impact of an increase in escape response on dengue virus transmission is currently unknown and will depend on rate of biting on human hosts prior to house exiting.

  17. Acute toxicities and sublethal effects of some conventional insecticides on Trichogramma chilonis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, De-Sen; He, Yu-Rong; Guo, Xiang-Ling; Luo, Yong-Li

    2012-08-01

    The acute toxicity of 10 conventional insecticides to adult of Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) was bioassayed by membrane method, and then their sublethal effects on the parasitoid were evaluated in the laboratory. Based on sublethal concentration (LC30) values at 8 h after treatment, we determined that adult T. chilonis were the most susceptible to chlorfenapyr, followed by fipronil, spinosad, avermectins, beta-cypermethrin, and cartap, with lethal concentration (LC)30 values of 0.3133, 0.3269, 1.5408, 3.2961, 6.1469, and 9.021 mg/liter, respectively. The field-recommended concentrations of chlorfluazuron, indoxacarb, Bacillus thuringiensis, and tebufenozide caused Cartap and spinosad also reduced longevity (8 and 7.9 d) and fecundity (110.77 and 117.2) of treated adults, but cartap enhanced the female percentage of F1 offspring (61.6%), resulting a statistical higher R0, r(m), and lambda of treated T. chilonis. In contrast, chlorfluazuron and tebufenozide increased longevity (16.4 and 15.4 d) and fecundity (248 and 256.9) of treated adults but slightly decreased the female percentage of F1 offspring (31.4 and 38.1%). Although chlorfenapyr showed no adverse influence on longevity and fecundity, it remarkably reduced the female percentage of F1 offspring (13.5%), leading to a lower R0, r(m), and lambda of treated T. chilonis. Indoxacarb, B. thuringiensis, and beta-cypermethrin had no obvious sublethal effects on the longevity and fecundity of treated adults. Based on these results, we consider B. thuringienesis, chlorfluazuron, indoxacarb, beta-cypermethrin, and tebufenozide safe to T. chilonis, suggesting that these insecticides are compatible with this parasitoid when being used in the field. However, fipronil, chlorfenapyr, spinosad, and avermectins were very harmful to T. chilonis. Timing of application of these insecticides was critical.

  18. Sublethal effects of tritium on aquatic systems. Ecological effects of lithium and beryllium on aquatic communities. Teratological effects of low-level magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, J.A.; Poston, T.M.; Skalaski, J.R.; Emery, R.M.; Klopfer, D.C.; Abernethy, C.S.

    1981-01-01

    Studies of the sublethal effects of tritium on the relatively radiosensitive immune process of the rainbow trout suggest that a higher RBE value than is now recognized by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) may be required. Studies included an evaluation of potential toxicity of lithium on embryological life of rainbow trout and an assessment of fate and effects of lithium in artificial stream habitats. Levels of lithium necessary to cause an observed effect would have to be at least three orders of magnitude above observed background. Studies on teratogenic effects of low-level magnetic fields address the need to assess the potential harmful effects of magnetic fields on attendant personnel working in the transport and hot cell areas of fusion reactors

  19. Sublethal effects of heavy metals on biochemical composition and their recovery in Indian major carps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Smita; Gupta, R.K.; Jain, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    Studies were conducted to assess the effects of sublethal exposure of heavy metals cadmium, arsenic and zinc for 45 days on Indian major carps, Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala and Catla catla. Heavy metal treatments in general showed significant reduction in carbohydrate and lipid contents content in muscles as well as in gills in all the three fish species. The order of reduction of muscle and gill carbohydrate and lipid content due to different treatments was Cd + As + Zn > Cd + As > As + Zn > Cd + Zn > Cd > As > Zn. When fish were transferred to metal free water for 30 days, the level of carbohydrate and lipid contents improved considerably in all the three fish species

  20. Induction of specific Escherichia coli genes by sublethal treatments with alkylating agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Volkert, M R; Nguyen, D C

    1984-01-01

    Fusions of the lac operon to genes induced by treatment with sublethal levels of alkylating agents have been selected from random insertions of the Mu-dl(ApRlac) phage by screening for induction of beta-galactosidase activity in the presence of methyl methanesulfonate. Genetic analysis reveals that these fusions resulted from insertion of Mu-dl(ApRlac) into two regions of the chromosome. One region (aidA) is near his and, based on phenotypic effects, appears to represent insertion into the al...

  1. The Effect of A Single Sub-Lethal Dose of Whole Body Irradiation on the Small Intestine of Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ramli, M. A.; Kubba, M. A.; Al-Bassam, L. S.; Belhaj, K.; Al-shawish, N. M.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of whole body radiation with a single sub-lethal dose at 4 Gy on rat small intestine was studied histologically and quantitatively. Irradiated animals were euthanized at 24 hours, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post- irradiation. Crypts of Leiberkuhn and peyer's patches were especially targeted by irradiation. The crypts showed severe cellular fragmentation in the germinal cellular compartments twenty Four hours after irradiation resulting in partial denudation of villi especially at their Tips. At three days, these cells resumed their proliferative activity with the appearance of unusually large numbers of mitotic figures. Cellular regeneration in the crypts and on the villous surface showed improvement with advancing time till day 28 when the villi had complete epithelial covering and the proliferative activity of the germinal cryptic cells returned to normal. The quantitative study included the measurement of about fifty villi at each time after irradiation. A significant decrease in villous length was noticed at twenty four hours post-irradiation compared to the control values. The length of villi plateaued at about this level till day twenty one when it slightly increased to reach a sub normal mean length on day 28. We concluded that whole body irradiation with a single dose at 4 Gy was enough to induce cryptic cellular necrosis with sloughing of epithelial villous columnar covering. This cellular damage was, however, sub- total since quick regenerative cellular activity was noticed three days post-irradiation. The decrease in the villous length paralleled the cryptic cellular damage whereas full recovery was not achieved despite obvious cellular regeneration.

  2. Chronic exposure of corals to fine sediments: lethal and sub-lethal impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florita Flores

    Full Text Available Understanding the sedimentation and turbidity thresholds for corals is critical in assessing the potential impacts of dredging projects in tropical marine systems. In this study, we exposed two species of coral sampled from offshore locations to six levels of total suspended solids (TSS for 16 weeks in the laboratory, including a 4 week recovery period. Dose-response relationships were developed to quantify the lethal and sub-lethal thresholds of sedimentation and turbidity for the corals. The sediment treatments affected the horizontal foliaceous species (Montipora aequituberculata more than the upright branching species (Acropora millepora. The lowest sediment treatments that caused full colony mortality were 30 mg l(-1 TSS (25 mg cm(-2 day(-1 for M. aequituberculata and 100 mg l(-1 TSS (83 mg cm(-2 day(-1 for A. millepora after 12 weeks. Coral mortality generally took longer than 4 weeks and was closely related to sediment accumulation on the surface of the corals. While measurements of damage to photosystem II in the symbionts and reductions in lipid content and growth indicated sub-lethal responses in surviving corals, the most reliable predictor of coral mortality in this experiment was long-term sediment accumulation on coral tissue.

  3. Sublethal toxicity of nano-titanium dioxide and carbon nanotubes in a sediment dwelling marine polychaete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galloway, Tamara, E-mail: t.s.galloway@exeter.ac.u [School of Biosciences, Hatherly Laboratories, University of Exeter, EX4 4PS, Exeter, Devon (United Kingdom); Lewis, Ceri [School of Biosciences, Hatherly Laboratories, University of Exeter, EX4 4PS, Exeter, Devon (United Kingdom); Dolciotti, Ida [Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Institute of Biology and Genetics, Via Ranieri, Monte Dago, 60121 Ancona (Italy); Johnston, Blair D. [School of Biosciences, Hatherly Laboratories, University of Exeter, EX4 4PS, Exeter, Devon (United Kingdom); Moger, Julian [School of Physics, Stocker Road, University of Exeter, Devon EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Regoli, Francesco [Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Institute of Biology and Genetics, Via Ranieri, Monte Dago, 60121 Ancona (Italy)

    2010-05-15

    The ecotoxicology of manufactured nanoparticles (MNPs) in estuarine environments is not well understood. Here we explore the hypothesis that nanoTiO{sub 2} and single walled nanotubes (SWNT) cause sublethal impacts to the infaunal species Arenicola marina (lugworm) exposed through natural sediments. Using a 10 day OECD/ASTM 1990 acute toxicity test, no significant effects were seen for SWNT up to 0.03 g/kg and no uptake of SWNTs into tissues was observed. A significant decrease in casting rate (P = 0.018), increase in cellular damage (P = 0.04) and DNA damage in coelomocytes (P = 0.008) was measured for nanoTiO{sub 2}, with a preliminary LOEC of 1 g/kg. Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy (CARS) located aggregates of TiO{sub 2} of >200 nm within the lumen of the gut and adhered to the outer epithelium of the worms, although no visible uptake of particles into tissues was detected. - This study explores the hypothesis that nano-TiO{sub 2} and single walled nanotubes (SWNT) can cause sublethal impacts to Arenicola marina exposed through natural sediments.

  4. Sub-lethal toxicity of chlorpyrifos on Common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758: Biochemical response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Banaee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate pesticide, is widely used to control pests in agriculture farms and orchards of fruit trees. In this study, the fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos which were determined based on numerical value of 96 h LC50. Blood was sampled after 10, 20 and 30 days and biochemical parameters including glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, triglyceride and cholesterol levels, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase (CK, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and acetylcholinsetrase (AChE activities were measured. Behavioral changes in the fish were also recorded during the experiment. Unbalanced swimming, swimming in the surface water and hyperglycemia, increased blood triglyceride, and increased levels of AST, LDH and CK activities as well as decreased levels of AChE activity were important changes that were observed in the specimens exposed to chlorpyrifos during experimental periods. The most important alterations in the blood biochemical parameters were measured in the specimens exposed to 40 µg/L chlorpyrifos on the 20th and 30th day of the trial. In conclusion, results of the present study indicated that exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos as low as 40 µg/L may cause biochemical and behavioral changes in Cyprinus carpio.

  5. Avoidance behaviour and anxiety in rats irradiated with a sublethal dose of gamma-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomášová, Lenka; Smajda, B; Bona, M

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess, whether a sublethal dose of gamma-rays will influence the avoidance behaviour and anxiety in rats and whether the response to radiation depends on time of day of its application. Adult male Wistar rats were tested in elevated plus-maze, in hot plate test and in the light/dark box in 4 regular intervals during a day. After two weeks the animals were irradiated with a whole-body dose 6 Gy of gamma-rays. One day after irradiation the animals were repeatedly tested in the same way, as before irradiation. In the plus-maze test an increased level of anxiety was established. The irradiation significantly decreased the locomotor activity of rats, but the extent of exploratory and comfortable behaviour were not altered. After irradiation, an elevated aversion to the thermal stimulus was observed in the hot plate test. The effects of radiation were more pronounced in the light period of the day, than in the dark one. No significant differences in aversion to light were detected after irradiation. The obtained results indicate, that sublethal doses of ionizing radiation can markedly influence the reactivity of animals to adverse stimuli, their motoric activity and emotional status, as well.

  6. Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae that survive sublethal doses of nucleopolyhedrovirus exhibit high metabolic rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwer, Gustav; Nardini, Luisa; Duncan, Frances D

    2009-04-01

    To determine the effect of sublethal doses of Helicoverpa armigera single nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearSNPV) on the metabolic rate of H. armigera, the respiration rates of third instar H. armigera larvae inoculated with sublethal doses of HearSNPV were evaluated. Respiration rates, measured as the rate of CO(2) production (VCO(2)), were recorded daily using closed-system respirometry. By 4 days post-inoculation (dpi), the metabolic rates of LD(25) or LD(75) survivors were significantly higher than that of uninoculated controls. When dose data were pooled, the VCO(2) values of larvae that survived inoculation (0.0288mlh(-1)), the uninoculated controls (0.0250mlh(-1)), and the larvae that did not survive inoculation (0.0199mlh(-1)) differed significantly from one another. At 4dpi, the VCO(2) of the uninoculated controls were significantly lower than the VCO(2) of inoculation survivors, but significantly higher than the VCO(2) of inoculation non-survivors. Inoculation survivors may have had high metabolic rates due to a combination of viral replication, organ damage, and an energy-intensive induced cellular immune response. The high 4dpi metabolic rate of inoculation survivors may reflect an effective immune response and may be seen as the metabolic signature of larvae that are in the process of surviving inoculation with HearSNPV.

  7. Chronic Exposure of Corals to Fine Sediments: Lethal and Sub-Lethal Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Florita; Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Smith, Luke D.; Cooper, Timothy F.; Abrego, David; Negri, Andrew P.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the sedimentation and turbidity thresholds for corals is critical in assessing the potential impacts of dredging projects in tropical marine systems. In this study, we exposed two species of coral sampled from offshore locations to six levels of total suspended solids (TSS) for 16 weeks in the laboratory, including a 4 week recovery period. Dose-response relationships were developed to quantify the lethal and sub-lethal thresholds of sedimentation and turbidity for the corals. The sediment treatments affected the horizontal foliaceous species (Montipora aequituberculata) more than the upright branching species (Acropora millepora). The lowest sediment treatments that caused full colony mortality were 30 mg l−1 TSS (25 mg cm−2 day−1) for M. aequituberculata and 100 mg l−1 TSS (83 mg cm−2 day−1) for A. millepora after 12 weeks. Coral mortality generally took longer than 4 weeks and was closely related to sediment accumulation on the surface of the corals. While measurements of damage to photosystem II in the symbionts and reductions in lipid content and growth indicated sub-lethal responses in surviving corals, the most reliable predictor of coral mortality in this experiment was long-term sediment accumulation on coral tissue. PMID:22662225

  8. Effects of Sublethal Concentrations of Insecticides on the Functional Response of Two Mirid Generalist Predators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeliki F Martinou

    Full Text Available The use of agrochemicals particularly pesticides, can hamper the effectiveness of natural enemies, causing disruption in the ecosystem service of biological control. In the current study, the effects of the insecticides thiacloprid and chlorantraniliprole on the functional response curves were assessed for two mirid predator nymphs, Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur and Nesidiocoris tenuis Reuter. In the absence of insecticides, both predators exhibited a type II functional response when feeding on eggs of the moth Ephestia kuehniella. N. tenuis seems to be a more efficient predator than M. pygmaeus, as model estimated handling time was significantly lower for the former than for the latter. Residual exposure of M. pygmaeus to sublethal concentrations of either insecticide was associated with a change in the asymptote but not the type of the functional response curve. Thiacloprid seems to be the least compatible with M. pygmaeus, as it led to both a significant reduction of the attack rate and an increase in handling time. In contrast, chlorantraniliprole exposure significantly increased the handling time, but not the attack rate of the predator. Residual exposure of N. tenuis to sublethal concentrations of either insecticide did not have a significant effect on the type nor the parameters of the functional response model. The results show that pesticide residues that do not have lethal effects on beneficial arthropods can reduce prey consumption depending on predator species and on likely risks associated with toxicity.

  9. Effects of Sublethal Concentrations of Insecticides on the Functional Response of Two Mirid Generalist Predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinou, Angeliki F; Stavrinides, Menelaos C

    2015-01-01

    The use of agrochemicals particularly pesticides, can hamper the effectiveness of natural enemies, causing disruption in the ecosystem service of biological control. In the current study, the effects of the insecticides thiacloprid and chlorantraniliprole on the functional response curves were assessed for two mirid predator nymphs, Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur and Nesidiocoris tenuis Reuter. In the absence of insecticides, both predators exhibited a type II functional response when feeding on eggs of the moth Ephestia kuehniella. N. tenuis seems to be a more efficient predator than M. pygmaeus, as model estimated handling time was significantly lower for the former than for the latter. Residual exposure of M. pygmaeus to sublethal concentrations of either insecticide was associated with a change in the asymptote but not the type of the functional response curve. Thiacloprid seems to be the least compatible with M. pygmaeus, as it led to both a significant reduction of the attack rate and an increase in handling time. In contrast, chlorantraniliprole exposure significantly increased the handling time, but not the attack rate of the predator. Residual exposure of N. tenuis to sublethal concentrations of either insecticide did not have a significant effect on the type nor the parameters of the functional response model. The results show that pesticide residues that do not have lethal effects on beneficial arthropods can reduce prey consumption depending on predator species and on likely risks associated with toxicity.

  10. Acute, sublethal, and combination effects of azadirachtin and Bacillus thuringiensis on the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Zahra; Saber, Moosa; Vojoudi, Samad; Mahdavi, Vahid; Parsaeyan, Ehsan

    2014-02-26

    The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous and cosmopolitan insect pest that causes damage to various plants. In this study, the lethal and sublethal effects of azadirachtin and Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner sub sp . kurstaki (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) were evaluated on third instar H. armigera under laboratory conditions. The LC50 values of azadirachtin and Bt were 12.95 and 96.8 µg a.i./mL, respectively. A total mortality of 56.7% was caused on third instar larvae when LC20 values of the insecticides were applied in combination with each other. The LT50 values of azadirachtin and Bt were 4.8 and 3.6 days, respectively. The results of the sublethal study showed that the application of LC30 value of azadirachtin and Bt reduced the larval and pupal weight and increased larval and pupal duration of H. armigera. The longevity and fecundity of female adults were affected significantly by the insecticides. Female fecundity was reduced by the treatments, respectively. The lowest adult emergence ratio and pupation ratio were observed in the azadirachtin treatment. The results indicated that both insecticides have high potential for controlling of the pest. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  11. Gene expression changes in honey bees induced by sublethal imidacloprid exposure during the larval stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Cheng; Chang, Yu-Wen; Lu, Kuang-Hui; Yang, En-Cheng

    2017-09-01

    Honey bee larvae exposed to sublethal doses of imidacloprid show behavioural abnormalities as adult insects. Previous studies have demonstrated that this phenomenon originates from abnormal neural development in response to imidacloprid exposure. Here, we further investigated the global gene expression changes in the heads of newly emerged adults and observed that 578 genes showed more than 2-fold changes in gene expression after imidacloprid exposure. This information might aid in understanding the effects of pesticides on the health of pollinators. For example, the genes encoding major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs), a group of multifunctional proteins with significant roles in the sustainable development of bee colonies, were strongly downregulated. These downregulation patterns were further confirmed through analyses using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction on the heads of 6-day-old nurse bees. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate that sublethal doses of imidacloprid affect mrjp expression and likely weaken bee colonies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sublethal and hormesis effects of imidacloprid on the soybean aphid Aphis glycines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yanyan; Xiao, Da; Li, Jinyu; Chen, Zhou; Biondi, Antonio; Desneux, Nicolas; Gao, Xiwu; Song, Dunlun

    2015-04-01

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, is a major pest in soybean crop. Current management of this pest relies mainly on insecticides applications, and the neonicotinoid imidacloprid has been proposed as an effective insecticide to control A. glycines in soybean field. Imidacloprid at lethal concentrations not only exerts acute toxicity to A. glycines, but also cause various biological changes when aphids are chronically exposed to lower concentrations. In this study, we assessed the effects of a low-lethal (0.20 mg L(-1)) and two sublethal (0.05 and 0.10 mg L(-1)) imidacloprid concentrations on various A. glycines life history traits. Aphid exposure to 0.20 mg L(-1) imidacloprid caused slower juvenile development, shorter reproductive period, and reduced adult longevity, fecundity and total lifespan. Stimulatory effects, i.e. hormesis, on reproduction and immature development duration were observed in aphids exposed to the lower sublethal imidacloprid concentrations. Consequently, the net reproduction rate (R 0) was significantly higher than in the control aphids. These findings stress the importance of the actual imidacloprid concentration in its toxicological properties on A. glycines. Therefore, our results would be useful for assessing the overall effects of imidacloprid on A. glycines and for optimizing integrated pest management programs targeting this pest.

  13. Using photopigment biomarkers to quantify sub-lethal effects of petroleum pollution on natural phytoplankton assemblages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swistak, J.; Pinckney, J.; Piehler, M.; Paerl, H.

    1995-01-01

    Although much work has been undertaken to determine the toxicity of petroleum pollutants to phytoplankton, most studies have used pure cultures to monitor growth of selected phytoplankton species. Fewer have considered the net effect on entire microalgal communities. Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to characterize diagnostic microalgal pigments, the authors were able to simultaneously assess sub-lethal pollutant effects on entire communities as well as on individual phytoplankton functional groups. Incubations of natural water samples with diesel fuel, an important contributor to coastal petroleum pollution, revealed significant changes in photopigments and relative abundance of taxonomic groups at sub-lethal concentrations. Differential rates of change of indicator pigment concentrations suggest a range of sensitivity among phytoplankton groups. In preliminary experiments, cyanobacteria exhibited the greatest overall tolerance to the diesel fuel concentrations tested, while cryptomonads displayed the most sensitivity. The authors are currently evaluating the responses of seasonal phytoplankton populations from 3 sites exposed to varied levels of petroleum pollution. HPLC will be used to characterize phytoplankton populations and to determine if the most abundant groups are also the most tolerant of diesel fuel. Preliminary experiments indicate that diesel fuel pollution may modify the structure and function of phytoplankton communities and subsequently alter the trophodynamics of impacted systems

  14. Potential hepatic toxicity of buprofezin at sublethal concentrations: ROS-mediated conversion of energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaotong; Ku, Tingting; Zhu, Na; Ning, Xia; Wei, Wei; Li, Guangke; Sang, Nan

    2016-12-15

    Buprofezin is known for its broad-spectrum action and environmental safety. The popularity of buprofezin has raised concerns about its potentially adverse effects on human health and risk to the environment. In this study, we first identified the liver as one of the major organs in which buprofezin accumulated, and we detected a severe oxidative stress response. Next, we demonstrated that sublethal concentrations of buprofezin promoted the conversion of energy metabolism from the aerobic tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and oxidative phosphorylation to anaerobic glycolysis. Importantly, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation partially accounted for the shunting of the energy metabolism through the buprofezin-mediated inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase activity. ROS directly perturbed the activities of several key TCA cycle enzymes, stimulated glycolysis, and indirectly disturbed the activity of the respiratory chain complex by altering mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). These findings clarify the potential mechanisms of buprofezin toxicity and provide biomarkers for buprofezin-mediated hepatotoxicity at sublethal concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Lethal and sublethal effects of four essential oils on the egg parasitoids Trissolcus basalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdin González, Jorge Omar; Laumann, Raúl Alberto; da Silveira, Samantha; Moraes, Maria Carolina Blassioli; Borges, Miguel; Ferrero, Adriana Alicia

    2013-07-01

    The essential oils from leaves of Schinus molle var. areira, Aloysia citriodora, Origanum vulgare and Thymus vulgaris have showed potential as phytoinsecticides against the green stink bug, Nezara viridula. In this work were evaluated their toxicological and behavioral effects on the parasitoid Trissolcus basalis, a biological control agent of this pest insect. Essential oils were obtained via hydrodestillation from fresh leaves. Insecticide activity in T. basalis females was evaluated in direct contact and fumigation bioassays. Behavioral effects were evaluated in olfactometer bioassays. To evaluate the residual toxicity, females of the parasitoids were exposed to oil residues; in these insects, the sublethal effects were evaluated (potential parasitism and survivorship of immature stages). The essential oils from O. vulgare and T. vulgaris proved to be highly selective when used as fumigant and did not change parasitoid behavior. After one week, the residues of these oils were harmless and did not show sublethal effects against T. basalis. According with these results, essential oils have potential applications for the integrated management of N. viridula. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Radioprotection of mice by lactoferrin against irradiation with sublethal X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Yoshikazu; Homma-Takeda, Shino; Kim, Hee-Sun; Kakuta, Izuru

    2014-01-01

    The influence of a host defense protein, lactoferrin (LF), contained in exocrine secretions such as milk, on radiation disorder was investigated. A total of 25 C3H/He mice in each of two groups were maintained with 0.1% LF-added and LF-free diets, respectively, for one month. The mice were then treated with single whole-body X-ray irradiation at a sublethal dose (6.8 Gy), and the survival rate after irradiation was investigated. The survival rate at 30 d after irradiation was relatively higher in the LF group than in the control group (LF-free), (85 and 62%, respectively). The body weight 15 d after X-ray irradiation was also significantly greater in the LF group than in the control group. The hemoglobin level and hematocrit value were higher in the LF group at 5 d before X-ray irradiation. Another 52 mice underwent whole-body X-ray irradiation at the sublethal dose (6.8 Gy), and then LF was intraperitoneally injected once at 4 mg/animal to half of them. The survival rate in LF-treated mice 30 d after irradiation was 92%, significantly higher than in mice treated with saline (50%) (P = 0.0012). In addition, LF showed hydroxyl radical scavenger activity in vitro. These findings suggest that LF may inhibit radiation damage. (author)

  17. The sublethal effects of the organochlorines dieldrin and lindane on growth and reproduction of Eudrilus eugeniae and Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental exposure of the earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae to organochlorines showed that dieldrin causes damage to sperm ultrastructure when viewed electronmicroscopically. Worms containing concentrations of 7,27 mg/kg dieldrin and higher showed more than 10% sperm damage. Exposure of Eisenia fetida to sublethal concentrations of lindane did not result in sperm damage but demonstrated an increase in growth and reproductive activity. It is argued that quantification of sperm damage and correlation with pesticide concentration could provide a useful tool for evaluating environmental quality. Furthermore, the effects of sublethal concentrations of pesticides that manifest themselves in increased growth and reproductive activity could affect ecological balances.

  18. Effects of hypertonic dextrose on injured rat skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunduracioglu, Burak; Ulkar, Bulent; Sabuncuoglu, Bizden T; Can, Belgin; Bayrakci, Kenan

    2006-04-01

    Histological examination of proliferative therapy effects on the healing process of muscular injury. We performed this study between March and August 2002 at Ankara University, School of Medicine, Laboratory of Animal Experiments, Ankara, Turkey. We used an experimental animal model by conducting a standardized cut injury of the gastrocnemius muscle in 30 adult male albino rats, which we divided into 2 groups; proliferative therapy group and control group. We evaluated the injured rat muscles by light microscopy on the fifth, eight, and twelfth day of injury. The muscular regeneration process began at day 5 in both the control and proliferative therapy groups. The proliferative therapy group revealed a prominent inflammatory reaction, fibroblast migration, and necrosis with accompanying regeneration and excessive connective tissue formation. We cannot consider proliferative therapy an appropriate treatment modality for muscular injuries, unless there is evidence of normal muscle physiology and biomechanics post traumatically.

  19. Can injured adult CNS axons regenerate by recapitulating development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Brett J; Bradke, Frank

    2017-10-01

    In the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS), neurons typically fail to regenerate their axons after injury. During development, by contrast, neurons extend axons effectively. A variety of intracellular mechanisms mediate this difference, including changes in gene expression, the ability to form a growth cone, differences in mitochondrial function/axonal transport and the efficacy of synaptic transmission. In turn, these intracellular processes are linked to extracellular differences between the developing and adult CNS. During development, the extracellular environment directs axon growth and circuit formation. In adulthood, by contrast, extracellular factors, such as myelin and the extracellular matrix, restrict axon growth. Here, we discuss whether the reactivation of developmental processes can elicit axon regeneration in the injured CNS. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Distribution of the amelogenin protein in developing, injured and carious human teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thimios eMitsiadis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Amelogenin is the major enamel matrix protein with key roles in amelogenesis. Although for many decades amelogenin was considered to be exclusively expressed by ameloblasts, more recent studies have shown that amelogenin is also expressed in other dental and no-dental cells. However, amelogenin expression in human tissues remains unclear. Here, we show that amelogenin protein is not only expressed during human embryonic development but also in pathological conditions such as carious lesions and injuries after dental cavity preparation. In developing embryonic teeth, amelogenin stage-specific expression is found in all dental epithelia cell populations but with different instensities. In the different layers of enamel matrix, waves of positive versus negative immunostaining for amelogenin are detected suggesting that the secretion of amelogenin protein is orchestreted by a biological clock. Amelogenin is also expressed transiently in differentiating odontoblasts during predentin formation, but was absent in mature functional odontoblasts. In intact adult teeth, amelogenin was not present in dental pulp, odontoblasts, and dentin. However, in injured and carious adult human teeth amelogenin is strongly re-expressed in newly differentiated odontoblasts and is distributed in the dentinal tubuli under the lesion site. In an in vitro culture system, amelogenin is expressed preferentially in human dental pulp cells that start differentiating into odontoblast-like cells and form mineralization nodules. These data suggest that amelogenin plays important roles not only during cytodifferentiation, but also during tooth repair processes in humans.

  1. Experimental study of the effects of helium-neon laser radiation on repair of injured tendon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong-Qing; Li, Zhu-Yi; Weng, Long-Jiang; An, Mei; Li, Kai-Yun; Chen, Shao-Rong; Wang, Jian-Xin; Lu, Yu

    1993-03-01

    Despite extensive research into the biology of tendon healing, predictably restoring normal function to a digit after a flexor tendon laceration remains one of the most difficult problems facing the hand surgeon. The challenge of simultaneously achieving tendon healing while minimizing the peritendinous scar formation, which limits tendon gliding, has captured the attention of investigators for many years. It has been said that low-power density helium-neon laser radiation had effects on anti-inflammation, detumescence, progressive wound healing, and reducing intestinal adhesions. This experimental study aims at whether helium-neon laser can reduce injured tendon adhesions and improve functional recovery of the injured tendon. Fifty white Leghorn hens were used. Ten were randomly assigned as a normal control group, the other forty were used in the operation. After anesthetizing them with Amytal, a half of the profundus tendons of the second and third foretoes on both sides of the feet were cut. Postoperatively, the hens moved freely in the cages. One side of the toes operated on were randomly chosen as a treatment group, the other side served as an untreated control group. The injured tendon toes in the treatment group were irradiated for twenty minutes daily with a fiber light needle of helium-neon laser therapeutic apparatus (wavelength, 6328 angstroms) at a constant power density of 12.74 mW/cm2, the first exposure taking place 24 hours after the operation. The longest course of treatment was 3 weeks. The control group was not irradiated. At 3 days, 1, 2, 3, and 5 weeks after surgery, 8 hens were sacrificed and their tendons were examined. The experimental results: (1) active, passive flexion and tendon gliding functional recovery were significantly better in the treatment group (p < 0.01); (2) width and thickness of the tendon at the cut site were significantly smaller in the treatment group (p < 0.01); (3) degrees of tendon adhesions were significantly lighter

  2. Describing and comparing the characteristics of injured bicyclists and other injured road users: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamini Gopinath

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to establish the frequency and characteristics (e.g. socioeconomic, pre-injury, and crash-related parameters of injured bicyclists and other injured road users. Methods 748 participants aged ≥17 years who had sustained a minor or non-catastrophic injury in a land-transport crash, were interviewed after presenting to a metro hospital emergency department in New South Wales, Australia. A telephone-administered questionnaire obtained information on socio-economic, pre-injury health, and crash-related characteristics. These factors were then compared between injured bicyclists and other road users (car driver/passengers, motorcyclists/pillion and pedestrians/skateboarders. Cycling injury severity was characterized by three metrics (sustaining multiple injuries; hospital admission for ≥12 h; and sustaining a head/neck and/or facial injury. Results In this cohort of people with injuries, 238 (32 % were bicyclists. Frequency of cycling injuries were significantly different between age-groups among men (p = 0.0002, and were more common in men aged 45–59. Bicyclists were more likely to be aged 45–59, married, have university/tertiary qualifications and have a professional occupation compared to other road users (all p <0.0001. Bicyclists compared to participants involved in other types of land transport crashes were more likely to self-report excellent general health (p = 0.01, and were less likely to report a great/overwhelming perceived danger of death or 15.0 % versus 23–41 %; p <0.0001. Frequency of upper extremity and lower extremity injuries in bicyclists were 81.9 % and 60.5 %, respectively. Explanatory variables significantly associated with injury severity metrics were age, education level, paid work status and perceived danger of death/disability in the crash. Conclusions Minor cycling injuries were a relatively common cause of mild-moderate injury presentations to metro emergency

  3. Gene expression of hematoregulatory cytokines is elevated endogenously after sublethal gamma irradiation and is differentially enhanced by therapeutic administration of biologic response modifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, V.M.; Adamovicz, J.J.; Madonna, G.S.; Gause, W.C.; Elliott, T.B.; Moore, M.M.; Ledney, G.D.; Jackson, W.E. III

    1994-01-01

    Prompt, cytokine-mediated restoration of hematopoiesis is a prerequisite for survival after irradiation. Therapy with biologic response modifiers (BRMs), such as LPS, 3D monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), and synthetic trehalose dicrynomycolate (S-TDCM) presumably accelerates hematopoietic recovery after irradiation are poorly defined. One hour after sublethal (7.0 Gy) 60 Co gamma irradiation, B6D2F1/J female mice received a single i.p. injection of LPS, MPL, S-TDCM, an extract from Serratia marcescens (Sm-BRM), or Tween 80 in saline (TS). Five hours later, a quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assay demonstrated marked splenic gene expression for IL-1β, IL-3, IL-6, and granulocyte-CSF (G-CSF). Enhanced gene expression for TNF-α, macrophage-CSF (M-CSF), and stem cell factor (SCF) was not detected. Injection of any BRM further enhanced cytokine gene expression and plasma levels of CSF activity within 24 h after irradiation and hastened bone marrow recovery. Mice injected with S-TDCM or Sm-BRM sustained expression of the IL-6 gene for at least 24 h after irradiation. Sm-BRM-treated mice exhibited greater gene expression for IL-1β, IL-3, TNF-α, and G-CSF at day 1 than any other BRM. When challenged with 2 LD 50/30 of Klebsiella pneumoniae 4 days after irradiation, 100% of Sm-BRM-treated mice and 70% of S-TDCM-treated mice survived, whereas ≤30% of mice treated with LPS, MPL, or TS survived. Thus, sublethal irradiation induces transient, splenic cytokine gene expression that can be differentially amplified and prolonged by BRMs. BRMs that sustained and/or enhanced irradiation-induced expression of specific cytokine genes improved survival after experimental infection. 67 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  4. Sublethal effects of tritium on aquatic systems. Ecological effects of lithium and beryllium on important aquatic organisms and associted communities. Teratogenic effects of low-level magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, J.A.; Emery, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Continuing studies of the sublethal effects of tritium on freshwater species emphasize the potential for genetic transmission of suppressed immune competence in offspring of parental rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) exposed to tritium (0, 0.04, 0.4, 40.0 rads) during embryogenesis. We plan to determine the relative biological effectiveness of tritium beta irradiation when compared to 60 Co gamma irradiation using the relatively radiosensitive immune process of rainbow trout. During FY 1979, we concluded genetic effects studies and prepared a manuscript for open literature publication summarizing FY 1977 and FY 1978 studies on the permanence of suppression of the primary immune response in rainbow trout sublethally irradiated during embryogenesis. We are also studying the potential effects of beryllium and lithium on aquatic systems. Because of mining and refining subsequent to the use of these metals in the construction of fusion reactors, increased levels of each are likely to be encountered in surface waters. Studies included an evaluation of potential toxicity of lithium on embryological life stages of rainbow trout and an assessment of fate and effects in artificial stream habitats. Levels of lithium necessary to cause an observed effect would have to be at least three orders of magnitude above observed background. Studies initiated in FY 1978 include evaluation of effects of low-level magnetic fields on embryologic development of rainbow trout. The objective of these studies to provide data useful in assessing potentially harmful effects of low-level magnetic fields encountered by attendant personnel working in the transport and hot cell areas of fusion reactors. This approach is less costly than using mammalian systems, provides large numbers of experimental organisms for meaningful statistical analysis and permits examination of potential latent effects in a representative vertebrate

  5. Process of tight junction recovery in the injured vocal fold epithelium: Morphological and paracellular permeability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ryo; Katsuno, Tatsuya; Kishimoto, Yo; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Mizuta, Masanobu; Suehiro, Atsushi; Yamashita, Masaru; Nakamura, Tatsuo; Tateya, Ichiro; Omori, Koichi

    2018-04-01

    The vocal fold epithelium that includes tight junction (TJ)-based barrier function protects underlying connective tissues from external insults. TJs play an important role to control paracellular permeability of not only solutes but also ions, and preserve the vocal fold homeostasis. However, the distribution of TJs and paracellular diffusion barrier across the entire vocal fold epithelium are still unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the distribution of TJs in the vocal fold epithelium and to characterize the recovery process of TJ-based paracellular diffusion barrier in a rat model of vocal fold injury. Animal experiments with controls. Normal and vocal fold-injured rats were used. Larynges were harvested for immunohistochemical examination of TJ proteins. For functional analysis, a tracer permeability assay was performed using EZ-Link Sulfo-NHS-LC-Biotin. TJ proteins occludin and zonula occludens 1 signals were localized to the junctional regions of the most luminal cell layers of the vocal fold epithelium. The injured region had been recovered with epithelium at 5 days postinjury, but the paracellular diffusion barrier assays revealed that biotinylation reagents diffused into the lamina propria at 5 days postinjury, and were blocked at the epithelium at 14 and 28 days postinjury. It was strongly suggested that TJs in the vocal fold epithelium exist at the junctional regions of the first layer of stratified squamous epithelium. TJ-based paracellular diffusion barrier following vocal fold injury is recovered by 14 days postinjury, and this period corresponds with the time course of structural changes in the regenerating epithelium layer. NA. Laryngoscope, 128:E150-E156, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Synergistic Effect of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Bradykinin Potential Factor Isolated from Venom on Thymus and Spleen of Sublethally Irradiated Guinea Pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Sinna, G.; Kafafy, Y.; Nassar, A.Y.; Salman, A.

    2005-01-01

    The buthus occitanus, scorpion venom contains a strong bradykinin potentiating factor (BPF) that augments bradykinin effects through enhancing its release. Based on the cytoprotective ability of BPF, the present work investigates it as a radioprotectant. Sublethal whole-body y-irradiation at 1.5 Gy was used. Bone marrow cells suspension (BM cells) alone or in combination with BPF was utilized. Three to four weeks-aged male Guinea pigs were grouped into two major groups. The first was non-irradiated control that was divided into subgroups treated i.p. with BM cells (2.5xl06 cells), one dose of BPF (lug/g b wt), BM cells+ BPF, one week spaced two doses of BPF, BM cells+ 2 doses of BPF, one week spaced three doses of BPF or BM cells+ 3 doses of BPF. Second major group (irradiated group) at 1.5 Gy that, subdivided and treated similarly. 5 animals from each group were killed at 7, 14 and 21 days from the initiation of treatment (3 h after irradiation). The subgroups of non-irradiated animals showed an increase in spleen wt and colony formation, thymus population, and globulins content particularly in those subgroups that stayed for the later time periods (14 and 21 days) and that treated with combined BM cells+ BPF or that groups that were treated with two or three BPF doses. Irradiation caused dramatic destruction in thymus and the spleen reflected on reduction of the lower globulins content. Treatment with BM cells, BM cells+ double doses of BPF or triple doses of BPF caused complete recovery in all measured indices, the best result was observed in those of subgroups treated with BM cells+ double doses of BPF or treated with triple doses of BPF. They completely normalized the investigated parameters after 14 and 21 days respectively

  7. Ca2+ signaling in injured in situ endothelium of rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berra-Romani, Roberto; Raqeeb, Abdul; Avelino-Cruz, José Everardo; Moccia, Francesco; Oldani, Amanda; Speroni, Francisco; Taglietti, Vanni; Tanzi, Franco

    2008-09-01

    The inner wall of excised rat aorta was scraped by a microelectrode and Ca2+ signals were investigated by fluorescence microscopy in endothelial cells (ECs) directly coupled with injured cells. The injury caused an immediate increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), followed by a long-lasting decay phase due to Ca2+ influx from extracellular space. The immediate response was mainly due to activation of purinergic receptors, as shown by the effect of P2X and P2Y receptors agonists and antagonists, such as suramin, alpha,beta-MeATP, MRS-2179 and 2-MeSAMP. Inhibition of store-operated Ca2+ influx did not affect either the peak response or the decay phase. Furthermore, the latter was: (i) insensitive to phospholipase C inhibition, (ii) sensitive to the gap junction blockers, palmitoleic acid, heptanol, octanol and oleamide, and (iii) sensitive to La3+ and Ni2+, but not to Gd3+. Finally, ethidium bromide or Lucifer Yellow did not enter ECs facing the scraped area. These results suggest that endothelium scraping: (i) causes a short-lasting stimulation of healthy ECs by extracellular nucleotides released from damaged cells and (ii) uncouples the hemichannels of the ECs facing the injury site; these hemichannels do not fully close and allow a long-lasting Ca2+ entry.

  8. Prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances in injured drivers : comparison between Belgium and The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legrand, S.-A. Houwing, S. Hagenzieker, M. & Verstraete, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    The study objective was to compare the prevalence of alcohol and (il)licit drugs in seriously injured drivers in Belgium (BE) and the Netherlands (NL). Injured car and van drivers admitted to the emergency departments of five hospitals in Belgium and three in the Netherlands from January 2008 to May

  9. Quantitative Study of Vibrational Symmetry of Injured Vocal Folds via Digital Kymography in Excised Canine Larynges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krausert, Christopher R.; Ying, Di; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Jack J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Digital kymography and vocal fold curve fitting are blended with detailed symmetry analysis of kymograms to provide a comprehensive characterization of the vibratory properties of injured vocal folds. Method: Vocal fold vibration of 12 excised canine larynges was recorded under uninjured, unilaterally injured, and bilaterally injured…

  10. Alcohol and drugs in seriously injured drivers in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legrand, Sara‐Ann; Isalberti, Cristina; Linden, Trudy Van

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the presence of alcohol and drugs in drivers severely injured in traffic crashes in six European countries. Data were collected from 2492 seriously injured drivers of cars and vans in Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Italy, Lithuania, and the Netherlands...

  11. Alcohol and drugs in seriously injured drivers in 6 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legrand, Sara-Ann; Isalberti, Cristina; Linden, Trudy Van der

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the presence of alcohol and drugs in drivers severely injured in traffic crashes in 6 European countries. Methods: Data were collected from 2492 seriously injured drivers of cars and vans in Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Italy, Lithuania and The Netherlands, between 2007...

  12. Employment among Spinal Cord Injured Patients Living in Turkey: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Berrin; Erhan, Belgin; Bardak, Ayse Nur

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the rate of employment and to establish the factors affecting vocational status in spinal cord injured patients living in Turkey. One hundred and fifty-two traumatic spinal cord injured patients older than 18 years with injury duration of at least 1 year and living in the community were included in the study;…

  13. Toxicity, sublethal effects, and potential modes of action of select fungicides on freshwater fish and invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elskus, Adria A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite decades of agricultural and urban use of fungicides and widespread detection of these pesticides in surface waters, relatively few data are available on the effects of fungicides on fish and invertebrates in the aquatic environment. Nine fungicides are reviewed in this report: azoxystrobin, boscalid, chlorothalonil, fludioxonil, myclobutanil, fenarimol, pyraclostrobin, pyrimethanil, and zoxamide. These fungicides were identified as emerging chemicals of concern because of their high or increasing global use rates, detection frequency in surface waters, or likely persistence in the environment. A review of the literature revealed significant sublethal effects of fungicides on fish, aquatic invertebrates, and ecosystems, including zooplankton and fish reproduction, fish immune function, zooplankton community composition, metabolic enzymes, and ecosystem processes, such as leaf decomposition in streams, among other biological effects. Some of these effects can occur at fungicide concentrations well below single-species acute lethality values (48- or 96-hour concentration that effects a response in 50 percent of the organisms, that is, effective concentration killing 50 percent of the organisms in 48 or 96 hours) and chronic sublethal values (for example, 21-day no observed adverse effects concentration), indicating that single-species toxicity values may dramatically underestimate the toxic potency of some fungicides. Fungicide modes of toxic action in fungi can sometimes reflect the biochemical and (or) physiological effects of fungicides observed in vertebrates and invertebrates; however, far more studies are needed to explore the potential to predict effects in nontarget organisms based on specific fungicide modes of toxic action. Fungicides can also have additive and (or) synergistic effects when used with other fungicides and insecticides, highlighting the need to study pesticide mixtures that occur in surface waters. For fungicides that partition to

  14. Lethal and sub-lethal effects of five pesticides used in rice farming on the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico, Andreu; Sabater, Consuelo; Castillo, María Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    The toxicity of five pesticides typically used in rice farming (trichlorfon, dimethoate, carbendazim, tebuconazole and prochloraz) was evaluated on different lethal and sub-lethal endpoints of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The evaluated endpoints included: avoidance behaviour after an exposure

  15. Sub-lethal effects of Vip3A toxin on survival, development and fecundity of Heliothis virescens and Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulzar, Asim; Wright, Denis J

    2015-11-01

    The assessment of sub-lethal effects is important to interpret the overall insecticide efficacy in controlling insect pest populations. In addition to the lethal effect, sub-lethal effects may also occur in exposed insects. Vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vips) have shown a broad spectrum of insecticidal activity against many insect pest species. In this study the sub-lethal effects of the Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal toxin Vip3A on the development and reproduction of Heliothis virescens F. and Plutella xylostella L. were evaluated in the laboratory. The results indicated that the sub-lethal concentration of Vip3A increased the duration of the larval and pupal stages as compared with the control treatment for both species. The percent pupation and percent adult emergence were significantly lower for Vip3A-treated insects. The proportion of pairs that produced eggs and the longevity of adults were not significantly different between treatments. H. virescens and P. xylostella treated with Vip3A showed an 11 and 17 % decrease in their intrinsic rate of increase (rm) respectively compared with untreated insects. The results from this study will be helpful to develop the strategy to incorporate Vip 3A containing crops in an integrated pest management programme.

  16. Lethal and sublethal effects of pesticides in the management of Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) (Acari: Tarsonemidae) on Capsicum annuum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Mariana O; Oliveira, José V; Esteves Filho, Alberto B; Barbosa, Douglas Rs; Santos, Andrezo A

    2017-10-01

    The evaluation of lethal and sublethal effects is of great importance for a complete assessment of the total impact of chemical compounds upon pest populations and the development of management strategies. In this study, we evaluated the lethal and sublethal effects of different synthetic and botanical products on the broad mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks), a major pest of Capsicum annuum L. and other crops. Abamectin had the highest lethal effect on P. latus, followed by spiromesifen, azadirachtin, neem oil and nitrogen fertiliser + citric acid. The sublethal effects of the products were indicated by the influence on mite population growth, affecting the numbers of females, males, larvae, pupae and eggs. Furthermore, a negative instantaneous rate of increase in P. latus and repellent effects were observed. The lethal and sublethal effects of abamectin, spiromesifen, azadirachtin and neem oil significantly affect P. latus population growth, as well as causing repellence to this mite on C. annuum, and they should be considered in the integrated pest management of this mite. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Notochord in Tilapia nilotica Exposed to Sublethal Dose of Malathion, S[1, 2-Di(EthoxycarbonylEthyl] Dimethyl Phosphorothiolothionate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Amparado

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Exposure of Tilapia nilotica embryos to sublethal dose of 1.0 ppm commercial grade malathion, S[1,2-di(ethoxycarbonylethyl] dimethyl phosphorothiolothionate from day-10 post fertilization resulted in notochordal aberrations. Pesticide-treated fishes exhibited constriction of the notochordal sheath, folding at the posterior sections and larger notochord than those of the control group.

  18. Effect of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on murine thymic emigration and subsets reconstitution after a sublethal dose of irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hongxia; Guo Mei; Sun Xuedong; Ai Huisheng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) on murine thymic emigration and subsets reconstitution after a sublethal dose of irradiation. Methods: Female BALB/c mice were irradiated with a 6.0 Gy of γ-ray total-body irradiation and then randomly divided into GCSF group and control group. For mice in the GCSF group, recombinant human G-CSF 100 μg · kg -1 · d -1 was injected subcutaneously once daily for 14 continuous days and mice in the control group were given the same volume of phosphate buffered solution (PBS). At 7, 14, 21 and 28 days later, mice were killed and thymus mononuclear cell suspension were analyzed by flow cytometry for the percentage of the four stages of thymic CD4 - CD8 - double negative cells (DN1-4) and the CD4 + CD8 + double positive ( CD4 + CD8 + DP), CD4 + CD8 - single positive (CD4 + SP), CD4 - CD8 + single positive cells (CD8 + SP).Real-time PCR was used for detection and quantitation of murine T cell receptor rearrangement excision circles (sjTRECs) of the thymic cells of 30 and 60 d after irradiation. Results: The percentage of thymic DN1 cells in GCSF group was significantly higher than that of the control group 7 d after irradiation (t=9.59, P<0.05). 21 d later, the proportion of thymic DN3 and DN4 cells were higher than those of the control group (t=16.37, 7.6, P<0.05). The percentage of thymic CD4 + CD8 + DP cells decreased 7 d after irradiation,increased at 14 d, decreased again at 21 days,and then got a permanent recover. The percentage of thymic CD4 + CD8 + DP cells in the GCSF group recovered to normal and was significantly higher than that of the control group 28 days after irradiation (t=12.22, P<0.05). The percentage of thymic CD8 + SP cells of the GCSF group was significantly higher than that of the control group 21 d after irradiation (t=3.77, P<0.05), while G-CSF had no obvious influence on the percentage of the thymic CD4 + SP cells. The sjTRECs copies in the

  19. Voltage-gated sodium channel expression in mouse DRG after SNI leads to re-evaluation of projections of injured fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laedermann, Cédric J; Pertin, Marie; Suter, Marc R; Decosterd, Isabelle

    2014-03-11

    Dysregulation of voltage-gated sodium channels (Na(v)s) is believed to play a major role in nerve fiber hyperexcitability associated with neuropathic pain. A complete transcriptional characterization of the different isoforms of Na(v)s under normal and pathological conditions had never been performed on mice, despite their widespread use in pain research. Na(v)s mRNA levels in mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were studied in the spared nerve injury (SNI) and spinal nerve ligation (SNL) models of neuropathic pain. In the SNI model, injured and non-injured neurons were intermingled in lumbar DRG, which were pooled to increase the tissue available for experiments. A strong downregulation was observed for every Na(v)s isoform expressed except for Na(v)1.2; even Na(v)1.3, known to be upregulated in rat neuropathic pain models, was lower in the SNI mouse model. This suggests differences between these two species. In the SNL model, where the cell bodies of injured and non-injured fibers are anatomically separated between different DRG, most Na(v)s were observed to be downregulated in the L5 DRG receiving axotomized fibers. Transcription was then investigated independently in the L3, L4 and L5 DRG in the SNI model, and an important downregulation of many Na(v)s isoforms was observed in the L3 DRG, suggesting the presence of numerous injured neurons there after SNI. Consequently, the proportion of axotomized neurons in the L3, L4 and L5 DRG after SNI was characterized by studying the expression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3). Using this marker of nerve injury confirmed that most injured fibers find their cell bodies in the L3 and L4 DRG after SNI in C57BL/6 J mice; this contrasts with their L4 and L5 DRG localization in rats. The spared sural nerve, through which pain hypersensitivity is measured in behavioral studies, mostly projects into the L4 and L5 DRG. The complex regulation of Na(v)s, together with the anatomical rostral shift of the DRG harboring injured

  20. The growth and development of Schistosoma mansoni in mice exposed to sublethal doses of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, R.; Wilson, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    The maturation of Schistosoma mansoni was studied in mice exposed to various sublethal doses of radiation. Although the treatment of mice with 500 rads of radiation prior to infection did not alter parasite maturation, doses in excess of 500 rads led to a reduction in worm burden. This could not be attributed to a delay in the arrival of parasites in the hepatic portal system. Worms developing in mice treated with 800 rads commenced egg-laying about 1 wk later than worms in intact mice, and the rate of egg deposition appeared to be lower in irradiated hosts. The data demonstrate that exposure of C57BL/6 mice to doses of radiation in excess of 500 rads impairs their ability to carry infections of S. mansoni. The findings do not support the hypothesis that primary worm burdens in the mouse are controlled by a host immune response

  1. PAH-induced sublethal narcosis alters the bioenergetics and bioaccumulation of Fundulus heteroclitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merten, A. [NOAA Office of Response and Restoration, Hazardous Materials and Response, Seattle (United States); Beard, E.; Baker, B. [Univ. of Maryland, Solomons (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Accumulation of non-polar narcotic chemicals in organisms alters their metabolic rates and, therefore their energetic demands. Since exposure of these hydrophobic chemicals is primarily through the diet, we hypothesize that decreasing metabolic rates caused by accumulation of narcotics reduces feeding which, in turn, decreases further exposure to the narcotic. Thus, dietary exposure to and accumulation of narcotics may cause a negative feedback, reducing net bioaccumulation. The purpose of this short paper is to discuss the results of a long-term fish contaminant exposure study and to describe a fish bioenergetics model coupled to a PCBbioaccumulation model. The laboratory component consisted of exposing the estuarine fish Fundulus heteroclitus to environmentally-relevant levels of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) through their diet. We developed the model to further examine and understand the consequences of sublethal narcosis at both the individual and population levels of Fundulus heteroclitus.

  2. Interactions between Entomopathogenic Fungus, Metarhizium Anisopliae and Sublethal Doses of Spinosad for Control of House Fly, Musca Domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sharififard

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metarhizium anisopliae strain IRAN 437C is one of the most virulent fungal isolates against house fly, Musca domestica. The objective of this study was to determine the interaction of this isolate with sublethal doses of spino­sad against housefly.Methods: In adult bioassay, conidia of entomopathogenic fungus were applied as inoculated bait at 105 and 107 spore per gram and spinosad at 0.5, 1 and 1.5 µg (A.I. per gram bait. In larval bioassay, conidia were applied as combina­tion of spore with larval bedding at 106 and 108 spore per gram and spinosad at sublethals of 0.002, 0.004 and 0.006 µg (AI per gram medium. Results: Adult mortality was 48% and 72% for fungus alone but ranged from 66–87% and 89–95% in combination treat­ments of 105 and 107 spore/g with sublethal doses of spinosad respectively. The interaction between 105 spore/g with sublethals exhibited synergistic effect, but in combination of 107 spore in spite of higher mortality, the interac­tion was additive. There was significant difference in LT50 among various treatments. LT50 values in all combination treat­ments were smaller than LT50 values in alone ones. Larval mortality was 36% and 69% for fungus alone but ranged from 58%–78% and 81%–100% in combination treatments of 106 and 108 spore/g medium with sublethals of spino­sad respectively. The interaction was synergistic in all combination treatments of larvae.Conclusion: The interaction between M. anispliae and spinosad indicated a synergetic effect that increased the house fly mortality as well as reduced the lethal time.

  3. Acute toxicity and sublethal effects of gallic and pelargonic acids on the zebrafish Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techer, Didier; Milla, Sylvain; Fontaine, Pascal; Viot, Sandrine; Thomas, Marielle

    2015-04-01

    Gallic and pelargonic acids are naturally found in a variety of plants and food products. Despite their extensive use in man-made applications, little is known regarding their potential risks to aquatic vertebrates. The aim of this work was to assess the acute toxicity of these polyphenolic and fatty acid compounds to the zebrafish. In order to get insights into sublethal effects, the enzyme activity of usual biomarkers related to oxidative stress and biotransformation were also assessed in fish. These latter included total superoxide dismutase, catalase as well as total glutathione peroxidase for antioxidant defence mechanisms and glutathione S-transferase for biotransformation related enzyme. Gallic acid was practically non-toxic (96-h lethal concentration (LC50) > 100 mg/L) whereas pelargonic acid was slightly toxic (96-h LC50 of 81.2 mg/L). Moreover, biomarker analyses indicated enhanced superoxide dismutase activity in fish exposed to 20, 40 and 100 mg/L of gallic acid compared to control. A dose-dependent induction of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase was reported following gallic acid exposure at the tested concentrations of 10, 20 and 40 mg/L, with the exception of 100 mg/L of substance where basal activity levels were reported. In the case of pelargonic acid, there was no change in antioxidant enzyme activity while an inhibition of glutathione S-transferase was observed from organisms exposed to 45, 58 and 76 mg/L of test solution. The results concerning sublethal effects on biological parameters of zebrafish highlighted thereby the need for further investigations following chronic exposure to both organic acids.

  4. Lethal and sublethal effects of azadirachtin and cypermethrin on Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Zahra; Saber, Moosa; Gharekhani, Gholamhossein; Mehrvar, Ali; Kamita, Shizuo George

    2014-04-01

    Habrobracon hebetor Say is an ectoparasitoid of larval stage of various lepidopteran pests. Lethal and sublethal effects of azadirachtin and cypermethrin were evaluated on adult and preimaginal stages of H. hebetor under laboratory conditions. Contact exposure bioassays with adults indicated that the lethal concentration (LC50) of two commercial azadirachtin-containing formulations, NeemGuard and BioNeem, were 43.5 and 10.2 microg a.i./ml, respectively. The LC50 of cypermethrin was 5.4 microg a.i./ml. When larval stage of H. hebetor was exposed to these insecticides with a field recommended concentration of NeemGuard, BioNeem, or cypermethrin by a dip protocol, the emergence rate was reduced by 39.0, 36.6, and 97.6%, respectively. To assay the sublethal effects of these insecticides, adult wasps were exposed to an LC30 concentration of the insecticides, and then demographic parameters of the surviving wasps were determined. Fecundity, fertility, and parameters including the intrinsic rate of increase (r(m)) were affected negatively. The r(m) values following exposure to NeemGuard, BioNeem, cypermethrin, or mock treatment were 0.143, 0.149, 0.160, and 0.179, respectively, female offspring per female per day, respectively. The current study showed that cypermethrin had more acute toxicity on larval and adult stages of H. hebetor compared with azadirachin. The commercial formulations of azadirachtin and cypermethrin negatively affected most of the life table parameters of the parasitoid. Semifield and field studies are needed for obtaining more applicable results on combining H. hebetor and the tested insecticides for an integrated pest management-based strategy for crop protection.

  5. Effect of sublethal levels of ionizing radiation on a predator-prey interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chee, P.C.

    1976-01-01

    The predator-prey interaction studied was that between the largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) in an artificial test environment. Experiments were first conducted to determine the 50% lethal dose at 30 days of the minnow. Three different dose rates were used to test the effect of dose rate on the 50% lethal dose value. After the 50% lethal dose was determined the predator-prey interaction experiment was conducted using 30% of the 50% lethal dose as the highest radiation dose, this dose being considered the upper limit to sublethal radiation levels. A 4 x 4 Latin square design was chosen for the experiment, with four treatment levels (control plus three radiation levels) and four replicates. In each test 10 prey minnow were offered to one predator bass and the number of prey left after 14 days was the parameter of interest. A predator-prey interaction experiment using a single high level of radiation and two types of controls as conducted to ascertain the ability of the test environment to detect changes in the predator-prey interaction. The two types of controls were irradiated prey not exposed to predation and non-irradiated prey exposed to predation. An experiment was also conducted to test the correlation between the physical activity patterns of minnow and different doses of radiation. At a dose rate of 37.8 rad/min the 50% lethal dose at 30 days for minnow was found to be 2650 rad. It was found that dose rate had a strong influence on the 50% lethal dose. In the predator-prey interaction test it was found that the 14-day survival rate of prey was unaffected by sublethal levels of ionizing radiation. No significant correlation was detected between the physical activity patterns of minnow and radiation dose

  6. Social reintegration of traumatic brain-injured: the French experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truelle, J-L; Wild, K Von; Onillon, M; Montreuil, M

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) may lead to specific handicap, often hidden, mainly due to cognitive and behavioural sequelae. Social re-entry is a long-term, fluctuant and precarious process. The French experience will be illustrated by 6 initiatives answering to 6 challenges to do with TBI specificities:1. bridging the gap, between initial rehabilitation and community re-entry, via transitional units dealing with assessment, retraining, social/vocational orientation and follow-up. Today, there are 30 such units based on multidisciplinary teams.2. assessing recovery by TBI-specific and validated evaluation tools: EBIS holistic document, BNI Screening of higher cerebral functions, Glasgow outcome extended, and QOLIBRI, a TBI-specific quality of life tool.3. promoting specific re-entry programmes founded on limited medication, ecological neuro-psychological rehabilitation, exchange groups and workshops, violence prevention, continuity of care, environmental structuration, and "resocialisation".4. taking into account the "head injured family"5. facilitating recovery after sports-related concussion6. facing medico-legal consequences and compensation: In that perspective, we developed guidelines for TBI-specific expert appraisal, including mandatory neuro-psychological assessment, family interview and an annual forum gathering lawyers and health professionals.

  7. Management of Sexual Disorders in Spinal Cord Injured Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander R Vaccaro

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injured (SCI patients have sexual disorders including erectile dysfunction (ED, impotence, priapism, ejaculatory dysfunction and infertility. Treatments for erectile dysfunction include four steps. Step 1 involves smoking cessation, weight loss, and increasing physical activity. Step 2 is phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5I such as Sildenafil (Viagra, intracavernous injections of Papaverine or prostaglandins, and vacuum constriction devices. Step 3 is a penile prosthesis, and Step 4 is sacral neuromodulation (SNM. Priapism can be resolved spontaneously if there is no ischemia found on blood gas measurement or by Phenylephrine. For anejaculatory dysfunction, massage, vibrator, electrical stimulation and direct surgical biopsy can be used to obtain sperm which can then be used for intra-uterine or in-vitro fertilization. Infertility treatment in male SCI patients involves a combination of the above treatments for erectile and anejaculatory dysfunctions. The basic approach to and management of sexual dysfunction in female SCI patients are similar as for men but do not require treatment for erectile or ejaculatory problems.

  8. Rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury in the injured war fighter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elterman, Joel; Zonies, David; Stewart, Ian; Fang, Raymond; Schreiber, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a recognized complication of traumatic injury. The correlation of an elevated creatine kinase (CK) level and the development of acute kidney injury (AKI) has been studied in the civilian population. We sought to review the prevalence of rhabdomyolysis in injured war fighters and determine if peak CK levels correlate with AKI. This is a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted at a US military treatment facility from January to November 2010. Inclusion criteria were active duty patients transported after explosive, penetrating, or blunt injury. Patients with burns or non-trauma-related admissions were excluded. Rhabdomyolysis was defined as a CK level greater than 5,000 U/L. AKI was defined using the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes classification. Mann-Whitney U-tests were used to determine the significance for continuous data. Correlations were determined using Spearman's ρ. Significance was set at p Rhabdomyolysis developed in 79 patients (24.8%). The median peak CK for all patients was 4,178 U/L and ranged from 208 U/L to 120,000 U/L. Stage 1, 2, and 3 AKI developed in 56 (17.6%), 3 (0.9%), and 7 (2.2%) patients, respectively. There was a weak but statistically significant correlation between peak CK and AKI (r = 0.26, p rhabdomyolysis in combat casualties and would allow for standardized comparisons in future work. Epidemiologic/prognostic study, level III.

  9. Relationship between stress ankle radiographs and injured ligaments on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyoung Min; Chung, Chin Youb; Chung, Myung Ki; Won, Sung Hun; Lee, Seung Yeol; Park, Moon Seok; Kwon, Soon-Sun

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the relationship between the injured lateral ankle ligaments on MRI and stress ankle radiographs. Two hundred and twenty-nine consecutive patients (mean age 35.5 years, SD 14.6 years; 136 males and 93 females) that underwent ankle stress radiographs and MRI for lateral ankle instability were included. Tibiotalar tilt angle and anterior translation of talus were measured on stress ankle radiographs. Degree of lateral ligaments (anterior talofibular, calcaneofibular, and posterior talofibular) and deltoid ligament injuries were evaluated and scored as intact (0), partial injury (1), and complete injury (2) on MR images. Effusion of ankle joint was also recorded. The effects of gender, age, injuries of ligaments, and ankle joint effusion on stress radiographs were statistically analyzed. Gender (p = 0.010), age (p = 0.020), and anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) injury (p < 0.001) were the factors significantly affecting tibiotalar tilt angle. Posterior talofibular ligament (PTFL) injury (p = 0.014) was found to be the only significant factor affecting the anterior translation on the anterior drawer radiographs. ATFL injury and PTFL injury on MRI significantly affected tibiotalar tilt angle and anterior drawer on stress radiographs. Other factors, such as age and gender, need to be considered in evaluating radiographic lateral ankle instability. (orig.)

  10. Corps de ballet: the case of the injured ballet dancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Bryan S; Wainwright, Steven P

    2003-05-01

    This paper contributes to debate on social constructionism in the sociology of health and illness through a study of injury among ballet dancers. In this empirical study of classical ballet dancers, we outline a phenomenology of the injured and ageing body in terms of a critical commentary on constructionism. We explore dancers' experiences of embodiment to illustrate our critique of recent interpretations of dance as a textual practice. Those forms of social constructionism that define the body as a text provide a forceful attack on discourses of authority and legitimation, but we argue that they are problematic as epistemologies and ontologies of embodiment. Through a phenomenological understanding of the experiences of embodiment, we observe how injury and ageing disrupt the practical accomplishments that underpin the ballet habitus and the dancer's identity. Although ballet injuries can terminate a dancing career, they are accepted as an inevitable part of the vocation of ballet. Our aim is to understand the interaction between injuries, dancers' experiences of discomfort and the social support that emerges from the ballet dancers as a social group. We draw on the concepts of social solidarity and collective consciousness in Emile Durkheim to show that injury is mediated through the social bonding of dancers into a professional ballet company, where injury is accepted as a sign of vocational commitment, and suggest that this 'collective effervescence' gives a novel meaning to the idea of a corps de ballet.

  11. Maladaptation of cerebral perfusion in the spinal cord injured individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Ihn Ho; Chun, Kyung A.; Lee, Hyoung Woo; Ahn, Sang Ho; Hayashida, Kohei [National Cardiovascular Center, Osaka (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the tilt-induced alteration of cerebral perfusion of spinal cord injured individuals. Supine and upright sitting brain SPECT was performed using a 1-day protocol with {sup 99m}Tc-ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD) in 11 SCI individuals (mean age, 32.6 y), with lesions between C3 and T4, ad 5 AB individuals (mean age, 31.4 y). The patients rested on a wheelchair in the supine position. Then, they sat up and, at the same time 555MBq of ECD was injected. The upright SPECT was done. Finally, 740MBq of ECD was injected and supine SPECT was performed again. The SPECT data were acquired with dual head gamma camera (E-cam, Siemens). For semiquantitative analysis, 14 ROIs were drawn on the brain. In the SCI individuals, the radiotracer uptake in the frontal, temporal and parietal areas were significantly decreased in the upright SPECT. No postural changes was evident in the occipital lobe, basal ganglia and thalamus in the SCI individuals. In the AB individuals, there were no such changes on the upright SPECT. Postural cerebral hypoperfusion in the frontal, temporal and parietal areas in the SCI individuals might relate to maladaptation of the vascular response during the upright position.

  12. MR imaging of the injured meniscus of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Naotaka; Imamura, Kiyohiko; Uematsu, Koichi; Iwamura, Yuichi; Ohniwa, Hideo; Ishii, Masayoshi

    1992-01-01

    MR imagings (0.5 Tesla 5 mm slice, TR/TE: 510-620 msec/27-30) of the injured menisci in 38 knees of 38 patients (28 men and 10 women, with an average age of 25.9) were compared with their arthroscopic findings and classified into two types, the one with linear high-density area and the non-linear one. Menisci with longitudinal tears in 10 knees of 17 and with horizontal tears in 4 of 8 showed a linear high-density area in MRI, but the others including menisci with transverse tears (in 8 knees) or bucket-handle tears (in 7 knees) showed a non-linear high density area. These results may be due to both the angle between the tear and the slice lines of MR imaging, and the degeneration of menisci. The MRI of normal menisci in 10 knees were also investigated. A false-positive high-density area was often seen at the synovia-meniscal junction in the coronal plane of MR imaging and was seen at the posterior or anterior menisci in the saggital plane. (author)

  13. Evaluation of blood and serum markers in spinal cord injured patients with pressure sores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurcay, Eda; Bal, Ajda; Gurcay, Ahmet G; Cakci, Aytul

    2009-03-01

    To evaluate blood and serum markers in traumatic spinal cord injured (SCI) patients, with and without pressure sores. This cross-sectional study was performed at the Ministry of Health Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit, and Numune Education and Research Hospitals, Ankara, Turkey, from 2006-2008. A total of 23 SCI patients with pressure sores (group I) and a control group of 25 SCI patients without pressure sores (group II) were evaluated. Characteristics of sores were examined with respect to duration, location, grade, tissue types, surface area, and exudate amount. Recorded laboratory parameters included erythrocyte sedimentation rates (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Htc), lymphocytes, white blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), serum iron, transferrin, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), ferritin, total protein, albumin, vitamin B12, and zinc. The most common pressure sore location was the sacrum (38%). Compared to the control group, the patients with pressure sores showed anemia with reduced serum iron, transferrin, TIBC, and increased ferritin. They also had increased ESR, CRP, and WBC and reduced lymphocytes, total protein, albumin and zinc. Statistically significant correlations were found between CRP, Hb, Htc, lymphocytes, RBC, WBC, and serum protein levels, and grade of pressure sores. Clinicians should regularly screen patients with respect to blood and serum markers, in order to determine any risks for pressure sores, and they should perform immediate preventive measures based on the patient's condition.

  14. The Effect of Propolis in Healing Injured Nasal Mucosa: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Anwar, Mohammad Waheed; Abdelmonem, Said; Abdelsameea, Ahmed A.; AlShawadfy, Mohamed; El-Kashishy, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction  Mechanical trauma to the nasal mucosa increases the risk of synechia formation, especially after chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal surgeries. Objective  This study was carried to assess the effect of propolis administration in healing injured nasal mucosa in rats. Methods  We randomly divided eighteen rats into three equal experimental groups: (1) non-treated group; (2) gum tragacanth (suspending agent for propolis) treated group; and (3) propolis treated group. The non-treated group received no treatment for 15 days. The second group received gum tragacanth administration (5 ml/kg, orally) once daily for 15 days. The third group received propolis suspension orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg once daily for 15 days. At the beginning of this study, we induced unilateral mechanical nasal trauma on the right nasal mucosa of all rats in the three groups using a brushing technique. A pathologist stained tissue samples using hematoxylin and examined eosin by using a light microscope. Results  The severity of inflammation was milder with the absence of ulcerations in the propolis treated group compared with the non-treated and gum tragacanth groups. Goblet cell and ciliated cell loss was substantially lower in patients treated with propolis compared with groups without treatment and those treated with gum tragacanth. Conclusion  Propolis decreased inflammation and enhanced healing of wounds of the nasal mucosa in rats. PMID:27413403

  15. The Effect of Propolis in Healing Injured Nasal Mucosa: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Anwar, Mohammad Waheed

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Mechanical trauma to the nasal mucosa increases the risk of synechia formation, especially after chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal surgeries. Objective This study was carried to assess the effect of propolis administration in healing injured nasal mucosa in rats. Methods We randomly divided eighteen rats into three equal experimental groups: (1 non-treated group; (2 gum tragacanth (suspending agent for propolis treated group; and (3 propolis treated group. The non-treated group received no treatment for 15 days. The second group received gum tragacanth administration (5 ml/kg, orally once daily for 15 days. The third group received propolis suspension orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg once daily for 15 days. At the beginning of this study, we induced unilateral mechanical nasal trauma on the right nasal mucosa of all rats in the three groups using a brushing technique. A pathologist stained tissue samples using hematoxylin and examined eosin by using a light microscope. Results The severity of inflammation was milder with the absence of ulcerations in the propolis treated group compared with the non-treated and gum tragacanth groups. Goblet cell and ciliated cell loss was substantially lower in patients treated with propolis compared with groups without treatment and those treated with gum tragacanth. Conclusion Propolis decreased inflammation and enhanced healing of wounds of the nasal mucosa in rats.

  16. Low-doses of cisplatin injure hippocampal synapses: a mechanism for 'chemo' brain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Adrienne L; Gong, Xing; Di, Kaijun; Bota, Daniela A

    2014-05-01

    Chemotherapy-related cognitive deficits are a major neurological problem, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The death of neural stem/precursor cell (NSC) by cisplatin has been reported as a potential cause, but this requires high doses of chemotherapeutic agents. Cisplatin is frequently used in modern oncology, and it achieves high concentrations in the patient's brain. Here we report that exposure to low concentrations of cisplatin (0.1μM) causes the loss of dendritic spines and synapses within 30min. Longer exposures injured dendritic branches and reduced dendritic complexity. At this low concentration, cisplatin did not affect NSC viability nor provoke apoptosis. However, higher cisplatin levels (1μM) led to the rapid loss of synapses and dendritic disintegration, and neuronal-but not NSC-apoptosis. In-vivo treatment with cisplatin at clinically relevant doses also caused a reduction of dendritic branches and decreased spine density in CA1 and CA3 hippocampal neurons. An acute increase in cell death was measured in the CA1 and CA3 neurons, as well as in the NSC population located in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the cisplatin treated animals. The density of dendritic spines is related to the degree of neuronal connectivity and function, and pathological changes in spine number or structure have significant consequences for brain function. Therefore, this synapse and dendritic damage might contribute to the cognitive impairment observed after cisplatin treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Neuronal glycosylation differentials in normal, injured and chondroitinase-treated environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcoyne, Michelle; Sharma, Shashank; McDevitt, Niamh; O’Leary, Claire; Joshi, Lokesh; McMahon, Siobhán S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Carbohydrates are important in the CNS and ChABC has been used for spinal cord injury (SCI) treatment. ► Neuronal glycosylation in injury and after ChABC treatment is unknown. ► In silico mining verified that glyco-related genes were differentially regulated after SCI. ► In vitro model system revealed abnormal sialylation in an injured environment. ► The model indicated a return to normal neuronal glycosylation after ChABC treatment. -- Abstract: Glycosylation is found ubiquitously throughout the central nervous system (CNS). Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are a group of molecules heavily substituted with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and are found in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and cell surfaces. Upon CNS injury, a glial scar is formed, which is inhibitory for axon regeneration. Several CSPGs are up-regulated within the glial scar, including NG2, and these CSPGs are key inhibitory molecules of axonal regeneration. Treatment with chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) can neutralise the inhibitory nature of NG2. A gene expression dataset was mined in silico to verify differentially regulated glycosylation-related genes in neurons after spinal cord injury and identify potential targets for further investigation. To establish the glycosylation differential of neurons that grow in a healthy, inhibitory and ChABC-treated environment, we established an indirect co-culture system where PC12 neurons were grown with primary astrocytes, Neu7 astrocytes (which overexpress NG2) and Neu7 astrocytes treated with ChABC. After 1, 4 and 8 days culture, lectin cytochemistry of the neurons was performed using five fluorescently-labelled lectins (ECA MAA, PNA, SNA-I and WFA). Usually α-(2,6)-linked sialylation scarcely occurs in the CNS but this motif was observed on the neurons in the injured environment only at day 8. Treatment with ChABC was successful in returning neuronal glycosylation to normal conditions at all timepoints for MAA, PNA and SNA-I staining

  18. Neuronal glycosylation differentials in normal, injured and chondroitinase-treated environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilcoyne, Michelle; Sharma, Shashank [Glycoscience Group, National Centre for Biomedical Engineering Science, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); McDevitt, Niamh; O' Leary, Claire [Anatomy, School of Medicine, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Joshi, Lokesh [Glycoscience Group, National Centre for Biomedical Engineering Science, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); McMahon, Siobhan S., E-mail: siobhan.mcmahon@nuigalway.ie [Anatomy, School of Medicine, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland)

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbohydrates are important in the CNS and ChABC has been used for spinal cord injury (SCI) treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neuronal glycosylation in injury and after ChABC treatment is unknown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In silico mining verified that glyco-related genes were differentially regulated after SCI. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In vitro model system revealed abnormal sialylation in an injured environment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The model indicated a return to normal neuronal glycosylation after ChABC treatment. -- Abstract: Glycosylation is found ubiquitously throughout the central nervous system (CNS). Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are a group of molecules heavily substituted with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and are found in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and cell surfaces. Upon CNS injury, a glial scar is formed, which is inhibitory for axon regeneration. Several CSPGs are up-regulated within the glial scar, including NG2, and these CSPGs are key inhibitory molecules of axonal regeneration. Treatment with chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) can neutralise the inhibitory nature of NG2. A gene expression dataset was mined in silico to verify differentially regulated glycosylation-related genes in neurons after spinal cord injury and identify potential targets for further investigation. To establish the glycosylation differential of neurons that grow in a healthy, inhibitory and ChABC-treated environment, we established an indirect co-culture system where PC12 neurons were grown with primary astrocytes, Neu7 astrocytes (which overexpress NG2) and Neu7 astrocytes treated with ChABC. After 1, 4 and 8 days culture, lectin cytochemistry of the neurons was performed using five fluorescently-labelled lectins (ECA MAA, PNA, SNA-I and WFA). Usually {alpha}-(2,6)-linked sialylation scarcely occurs in the CNS but this motif was observed on the neurons in the injured environment only at day 8. Treatment

  19. Healing or harming? Healthcare provider interactions with injured workers and insurers in workers' compensation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgour, Elizabeth; Kosny, Agnieszka; McKenzie, Donna; Collie, Alex

    2015-03-01

    Healthcare providers (HCPs) are influential in the injured worker's recovery process and fulfil many roles in the delivery of health services. Interactions between HCPs and insurers can also affect injured workers' engagement in rehabilitation and subsequently their recovery and return to work. Consideration of the injured workers' perceptions and experiences as consumers of medical and compensation services can provide vital information about the quality, efficacy and impact of such systems. The aim of this systematic review was to identify and synthesize published qualitative research that focused on the interactions between injured workers, HCPs and insurers in workers' compensation systems in order to identify processes or interactions which impact injured worker recovery. A search of six electronic databases for literature published between 1985 and 2012 revealed 1,006 articles. Screening for relevance identified 27 studies which were assessed for quality against set criteria. A final 13 articles of medium and high quality were retained for data extraction. Findings were synthesized using a meta-ethnographic approach. Injured workers reported that HCPs could play both healing and harming roles in their recovery. Supportive patient-centred interaction with HCPs is important for injured workers. Difficult interactions between HCPs and insurers were highlighted in themes of adversarial relations and organisational pressures. Insurer and compensation system processes exerted an influence on the therapeutic relationship. Recommendations to improve relationships included streamlining administrative demands and increasing education and communication between the parties. Injured workers with long term complex injuries experience difficulties with healthcare in the workers' compensation context. Changes in insurer administrative demands and compensation processes could increase HCP participation and job satisfaction. This in turn may improve injured worker recovery

  20. Effect of storage temperature on survival and recovery of thermal and extrusion injured Escherichia coli K-12 in whey protein concentrate and corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukuku, Dike O; Mukhopadhyay, Sudarsan; Onwulata, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we reported inactivation of Escherichia coli populations in corn product (CP) and whey protein product (WPP) extruded at different temperatures. However, information on the effect of storage temperatures on injured bacterial populations was not addressed. In this study, the effect of storage temperatures on the survival and recovery of thermal death time (TDT) disks and extrusion injured E. coli populations in CP and WPP was investigated. CP and WPP inoculated with E. coli bacteria at 7.8 log(10) CFU/g were conveyed separately into the extruder with a series 6300 digital type T-35 twin screw volumetric feeder set at a speed of 600 rpm and extruded at 35°C, 55°C, 75°C, and 95°C, or thermally treated with TDT disks submerged into water bath set at 35°C, 55°C, 75°C, and 95°C for 120 s. Populations of surviving bacteria including injured cells in all treated samples were determined immediately and every day for 5 days, and up to 10 days for untreated samples during storage at 5°C, 10°C, and 23°C. TDT disks treatment at 35°C and 55°C did not cause significant changes in the population of the surviving bacteria including injured populations. Extrusion treatment at 35°C and 55°C led to significant (pagar plates. The results of this study showed that further inactivation of the injured populations occurred during storage at 5°C for 5 days suggesting the need for immediate storage of 75°C extruded CP and WPP at 5°C for at least 24 h to enhance their microbial safety.

  1. Effects of melatonin in rats in the initial third stage of pregnancy exposed to sub-lethal doses of herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Lécio Leone de; Teixeira, Álvaro Aguiar Coelho; Soares, Anísio Francisco; Cunha, Franklin Magliano da; Silva, Valdemiro Amaro da; Vieira Filho, Leucio Duarte; Wanderley-Teixeira, Valéria

    2017-04-01

    Exposure to the herbicides Paraquat (PQ) and Roundup ® may cause cell lesions due to an increase in oxidative stress levels in different biological systems, even in the reproductive system. Evaluate the possible changes in reproductive parameters and hepatic, as well as its prevention by simultaneous application of melatonin. Thirty-five female rats at the age of 3 months were divided into seven groups: three groups exposed to sub-lethal doses of the herbicides PQ (50mg/kg) and Roundup ® (500mg/kg) (n=5, G2, G3 and G4); three groups exposed to herbicides and simultaneous treatment with 10mg/kg of Melatonin (n=5, G5, G6 and G7) and control group (n=5, G1) from the first to the seventh day of pregnancy. On the seventh day of pregnancy, the rats were anesthetized and euthanized, followed by laparotomy to remove their reproductive tissues and liver. Body and ovary weights were taken and the number of implantation sites, corpora lutea, preimplantation losses, implantation rates were counted and histopathology of the implantation sites, morphometry of the surface and glandular epithelia of endometrium and hepatic oxidative stress were undertaken. The present study shows the decrease in body and ovary weight, decrease in the number of implantation sites, implantation rate, in the total number of corpora lutea and increase of preimplantation percentages were observed when compared to the G1: Fig. 1 and Table 1, (p>0.001 ANOVA/Tukey). The histopathological analysis of the implantation sites showed a disorder of the cytotrophoblast and cell degeneration within the blastocyst cavity in Fig. 4. Morphometry revealed a reduction in surface and glandular epithelia and in the diameter of the endometrial glands (Table 2; p>0.05 ANOVA/Tukey), whereas in liver, serum levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were found to be significantly elevated (Fig. 2; p>0.001; p>0.05 ANOVA/Tukey), and serum level of reduced glutathione (GSH) was significantly lower (Fig. 3; p>0

  2. A model to predict progression in brain-injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasino, N; Forteza, D; Godino, M; Mizraji, R; Alvarez, I

    2014-11-01

    The study of brain death (BD) epidemiology and the acute brain injury (ABI) progression profile is important to improve public health programs, organ procurement strategies, and intensive care unit (ICU) protocols. The purpose of this study was to analyze the ABI progression profile among patients admitted to ICUs with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) ≤8, as well as establishing a prediction model of probability of death and BD. This was a retrospective analysis of prospective data that included all brain-injured patients with GCS ≤8 admitted to a total of four public and private ICUs in Uruguay (N = 1447). The independent predictor factors of death and BD were studied using logistic regression analysis. A hierarchical model consisting of 2 nested logit regression models was then created. With these models, the probabilities of death, BD, and death by cardiorespiratory arrest were analyzed. In the first regression, we observed that as the GCS decreased and age increased, the probability of death rose. Each additional year of age increased the probability of death by 0.014. In the second model, however, BD risk decreased with each year of age. The presence of swelling, mass effect, and/or space-occupying lesion increased BD risk for the same given GCS. In the presence of injuries compatible with intracranial hypertension, age behaved as a protective factor that reduced the probability of BD. Based on the analysis of the local epidemiology, a model to predict the probability of death and BD can be developed. The organ potential donation of a country, region, or hospital can be predicted on the basis of this model, customizing it to each specific situation.

  3. Development of a New Technique to Assess Susceptibility to Predation Resulting from Sublethal Stresses (Indirect Mortality)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cada, G.F.

    2003-08-25

    Fish that pass through a hydroelectric turbine may not be killed directly, but may nonetheless experience sublethal stresses that will increase their susceptibility to predators (indirect mortality). There is a need to develop reliable tests for indirect mortality so that the full consequences of passage through turbines (and other routes around a hydroelectric dam) can be assessed. We evaluated a new technique for assessing indirect mortality, based on a behavioral response to a startling stimulus (akin to perceiving an approaching predator). We compare this technique to the standard predator preference test. The behavioral response is a rapid movement commonly referred to as a startle response, escape response, or C-shape, based on the characteristic body position assumed by the fish. When viewed from above, a startled fish bends into a C-shape, then springs back and swims away in a direction different from its original orientation. This predator avoidance (escape) behavior can be compromised by sublethal stresses that temporarily stun or disorient the fish. We subjected striped shiners and fathead minnows to varying intensities of either turbulence (10-, 20- or 30-min) or 2-min exposures to a fish anesthetic (100 or 200 mg/L of tricaine methanesulfonate), and evaluated their subsequent behavior. Individual fish were given a startle stimulus and filmed with a high-speed video camera. Each fish was startled and filmed twice before being stressed, and then at 1-, 5-, 15-, and 30-min post-exposure. The resulting image files were analyzed for a variety of behavioral measures including: presence of a response, time to first reaction, duration of reaction, time to formation of maximum C-shape, time to completion of C-shape, and completeness of C-shape. The most immediate measure of potential changes in fish behavior was whether stressed fish exhibited a startle response. For striped shiners, the number of fish not responding to the stimulus was significantly different

  4. Assessing Sub-Lethal Impacts of Petroleum Compounds on Marine Benthic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgren, J. Fredrik

    2012-07-01

    Petroleum and its different distillates commonly end up in the marine environment. One source of these additions is discharges originating from shipping activities; accidents, ship wrecks, operational spills etc. Depending on several different factors that govern the fate of petroleum released into the marine environment the effects of the discharge will differ, from acute toxic to long term sub-lethal effects. While effects on biota from large spills have thoroughly been investigated in the past long term sub-lethal effects are somewhat less examined. Therefore the objective of this thesis has been to develop and apply a method to analyze what effects low concentrations of petroleum, which often ends up in marine sediments, have on benthic sediment biota. Ecotoxicological endpoints that were evaluated were density changes of meiofauna and variations in the microbial community function, measured as inorganic nutrient fluxes over the sediment-water interface the potential to perform a metabolic process. These types of organisms are two important key players in marine benthic sedimentary habitats, performing ecosystem services such as degradation of organic matter, recycling of nutrients and various pollutants and they constitute a carbon link to higher trophic levels. As manual classification of meiofauna is very time-consuming process including an extended learning process for the taxonomist, this thesis is in its first part focused at the field of automatic classification. To classify meiofaunal communities a novel technique was developed where the image analysis software ZooImage was adapted to automatically classify higher taxonomic taxa of meiofauna, with successful results. The technique was evaluated by classifying meiofaunal communities from five different depths in the Gullmar Fjord, Sweden. The accuracy of the analyses was tested using ZooImage's internal 10-fold cross-validation method, and by comparing digitalized samples from the different sites

  5. Differences in kinetic variables between injured and noninjured novice runners : A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredeweg, Steef W.; Kluitenberg, Bas; Bessem, Bram; Buist, Ida

    Objectives: This prospective study examined differences in kinetic variables between injured and noninjured novice female and male runners and their potential contribution to RRIs. Design: A prospective cohort study. Methods: At baseline vertical ground reaction forces were assessed with an

  6. Perspective of young drivers towards the care of the road traffic injured

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2014-12-09

    Dec 9, 2014 ... Key words: Young driver, road traffic injured, pre-hospital care, training. INTRODUCTION .... Response time is considered an important criterion in assessing the ... safety was a priority ever before attempting to rescue the ...

  7. Collecting core data in severely injured patients using a consensus trauma template: an international multicentre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringdal, Kjetil G; Lossius, Hans Morten; Jones, J Mary

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: No worldwide, standardised definitions exist for documenting, reporting, and comparing data from severely injured trauma patients. This study evaluated the feasibility of collecting the data variables of the international consensus-derived Utstein Trauma Template. METHODS:...

  8. Toxicological findings in fatally injured pilots of 979 amateur-built aircraft accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    "Biological samples collected from fatally injured pilots in aviation accidents involving all types of aircraft, including : amateur-built aircraft, are submitted to the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) for accident investigation. : These sam...

  9. Multisensory training for postural sway control in non-injured elderly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multisensory training for postural sway control in non-injured elderly females. ... Elderly adults demonstrate increased postural sway, which may ultimately lead to falls. ... Keywords: multisensory training, postural sway control, balance ability, ...

  10. Evaluation of bronchiectasis in war chemically-injured patients via high resolution computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Jalli

    2017-12-01

    Discussion and conclusion: Findings of chest HRCT demonstrated tubular bronchiectasis was the most frequent type of this disease that involve the chemically injured patients and RLL had been the most frequently involved lobe of the lung with bronchiectasis.

  11. Imaging of Homeostatic, Neoplastic, and Injured Tissues by HA-Based Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiseh, Mandana; Breadner, Daniel; Ma, Jenny; Akentieva, Natalia; Savani, Rashmin C; Harrison, Rene; Mikilus, David; Collis, Lisa; Gustafson, Stefan; Lee, Ting-Yim; Koropatnick, James; Luyt, Leonard G.; Bissell, Mina J.; Turley, Eva A.

    2013-01-01

    An increase in hyaluronan (HA) synthesis, cellular uptake, and metabolism occurs during the remodeling of tissue microenvironments following injury and during disease processes such as cancer. We hypothesized that multimodality HA-based probes selectively target and detectably accumulate at sites of high HA metabolism, thus providing a flexible imaging strategy for monitoring disease and repair processes. Kinetic analyses confirmed favorable available serum levels of the probe following intravenous (i.v.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) injection. Nuclear (technetium-HA, 99mTc-HA, and iodine-HA, 125I-HA), optical (fluorescent Texas Red-HA, TR-HA), and magnetic resonance (gadolinium-HA, Gd-HA) probes imaged liver (99mTc-HA), breast cancer cells/xenografts (TR-HA, Gd-HA), and vascular injury (125I-HA, TR-HA). Targeting of HA probes to these sites appeared to result from selective HA receptor-dependent localization. Our results suggest that HA-based probes, which do not require polysaccharide backbone modification to achieve favorable half-life and distribution, can detect elevated HA metabolism in homeostatic, injured, and diseased tissues. PMID:22066590

  12. Inhibition of hydrogen peroxide induced injuring on human skin fibroblast by Ulva prolifera polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chuner; Guo, Ziye; Yang, Yayun; Geng, Zhonglei; Tang, Langlang; Zhao, Minglin; Qiu, Yuyan; Chen, Yifan; He, Peimin

    2016-10-01

    Ulva prolifera can protect human skin fibroblast from being injured by hydrogen peroxide. This work studied the composition of Ulva prolifera polysaccharide and identified its physicochemical properties. The results showed that the cell proliferation of 0.5mg/mL crude polysaccharide was 154.4% of that in negative control group. Moreover, ROS detection indices, including DCFH-DA, GSH-PX, MDA and CAT, indicated that crude polysaccharide could improve cellular ability to scavenge free radical and decrease the injury on human skin fibroblast by hydrogen peroxide. In purified polysaccharide, the activity of fraction P1-1 was the highest, with 174.6% of that in negative control group. The average molecular weight of P1-1 was 137kD with 18.0% of sulfate content. This work showed the inhibition of hydrogen peroxide induced injuries on human skin fibroblast by Ulva prolifera polysaccharide, which may further evaluate the application of U. prolifera on cosmetics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Sublethal Fungicides on Mutation Rates and Genomic Variation in Fungal Plant Pathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaradasa, B Sajeewa; Everhart, Sydney E

    2016-01-01

    Pathogen exposure to sublethal doses of fungicides may result in mutations that may represent an important and largely overlooked mechanism of introducing new genetic variation into strictly clonal populations, including acquisition of fungicide resistance. We tested this hypothesis using the clonal plant pathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Nine susceptible isolates were exposed independently to five commercial fungicides with different modes of action: boscalid (respiration inhibitor), iprodione (unclear mode of action), thiophanate methyl (inhibition of microtubulin synthesis) and azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin (quinone outside inhibitors). Mycelium of each isolate was inoculated onto a fungicide gradient and sub-cultured from the 50-100% inhibition zone for 12 generations and experiment repeated. Mutational changes were assessed for all isolates at six neutral microsatellite (SSR) loci and for a subset of isolates using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). SSR analysis showed 12 of 85 fungicide-exposed isolates had a total of 127 stepwise mutations with 42 insertions and 85 deletions. Most stepwise deletions were in iprodione- and azoxystrobin-exposed isolates (n = 40/85 each). Estimated mutation rates were 1.7 to 60-fold higher for mutated loci compared to that expected under neutral conditions. AFLP genotyping of 33 isolates (16 non-exposed control and 17 fungicide exposed) generated 602 polymorphic alleles. Cluster analysis with principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) identified fungicide-exposed isolates as a distinct group from non-exposed control isolates (PhiPT = 0.15, P = 0.001). Dendrograms based on neighbor-joining also supported allelic variation associated with fungicide-exposure. Fungicide sensitivity of isolates measured throughout both experiments did not show consistent trends. For example, eight isolates exposed to boscalid had higher EC50 values at the end of the experiment, and

  14. Effects of Sublethal Fungicides on Mutation Rates and Genomic Variation in Fungal Plant Pathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sajeewa Amaradasa

    Full Text Available Pathogen exposure to sublethal doses of fungicides may result in mutations that may represent an important and largely overlooked mechanism of introducing new genetic variation into strictly clonal populations, including acquisition of fungicide resistance. We tested this hypothesis using the clonal plant pathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Nine susceptible isolates were exposed independently to five commercial fungicides with different modes of action: boscalid (respiration inhibitor, iprodione (unclear mode of action, thiophanate methyl (inhibition of microtubulin synthesis and azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin (quinone outside inhibitors. Mycelium of each isolate was inoculated onto a fungicide gradient and sub-cultured from the 50-100% inhibition zone for 12 generations and experiment repeated. Mutational changes were assessed for all isolates at six neutral microsatellite (SSR loci and for a subset of isolates using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs. SSR analysis showed 12 of 85 fungicide-exposed isolates had a total of 127 stepwise mutations with 42 insertions and 85 deletions. Most stepwise deletions were in iprodione- and azoxystrobin-exposed isolates (n = 40/85 each. Estimated mutation rates were 1.7 to 60-fold higher for mutated loci compared to that expected under neutral conditions. AFLP genotyping of 33 isolates (16 non-exposed control and 17 fungicide exposed generated 602 polymorphic alleles. Cluster analysis with principal coordinate analysis (PCoA and discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC identified fungicide-exposed isolates as a distinct group from non-exposed control isolates (PhiPT = 0.15, P = 0.001. Dendrograms based on neighbor-joining also supported allelic variation associated with fungicide-exposure. Fungicide sensitivity of isolates measured throughout both experiments did not show consistent trends. For example, eight isolates exposed to boscalid had higher EC50 values at the end of the

  15. Effects of Sublethal Fungicides on Mutation Rates and Genomic Variation in Fungal Plant Pathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaradasa, B. Sajeewa

    2016-01-01

    Pathogen exposure to sublethal doses of fungicides may result in mutations that may represent an important and largely overlooked mechanism of introducing new genetic variation into strictly clonal populations, including acquisition of fungicide resistance. We tested this hypothesis using the clonal plant pathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Nine susceptible isolates were exposed independently to five commercial fungicides with different modes of action: boscalid (respiration inhibitor), iprodione (unclear mode of action), thiophanate methyl (inhibition of microtubulin synthesis) and azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin (quinone outside inhibitors). Mycelium of each isolate was inoculated onto a fungicide gradient and sub-cultured from the 50–100% inhibition zone for 12 generations and experiment repeated. Mutational changes were assessed for all isolates at six neutral microsatellite (SSR) loci and for a subset of isolates using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). SSR analysis showed 12 of 85 fungicide-exposed isolates had a total of 127 stepwise mutations with 42 insertions and 85 deletions. Most stepwise deletions were in iprodione- and azoxystrobin-exposed isolates (n = 40/85 each). Estimated mutation rates were 1.7 to 60-fold higher for mutated loci compared to that expected under neutral conditions. AFLP genotyping of 33 isolates (16 non-exposed control and 17 fungicide exposed) generated 602 polymorphic alleles. Cluster analysis with principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) identified fungicide-exposed isolates as a distinct group from non-exposed control isolates (PhiPT = 0.15, P = 0.001). Dendrograms based on neighbor-joining also supported allelic variation associated with fungicide-exposure. Fungicide sensitivity of isolates measured throughout both experiments did not show consistent trends. For example, eight isolates exposed to boscalid had higher EC50 values at the end of the experiment

  16. Sublethal pesticide doses negatively affect survival and the cellular responses in American foulbrood-infected honeybee larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Javier Hernández; Krainer, Sophie; Engert, Antonia; Schuehly, Wolfgang; Riessberger-Gallé, Ulrike; Crailsheim, Karl

    2017-02-01

    Disclosing interactions between pesticides and bee infections is of most interest to understand challenges that pollinators are facing and to which extent bee health is compromised. Here, we address the individual and combined effect that three different pesticides (dimethoate, clothianidin and fluvalinate) and an American foulbrood (AFB) infection have on mortality and the cellular immune response of honeybee larvae. We demonstrate for the first time a synergistic interaction when larvae are exposed to sublethal doses of dimethoate or clothianidin in combination with Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of AFB. A significantly higher mortality than the expected sum of the effects of each individual stressor was observed in co-exposed larvae, which was in parallel with a drastic reduction of the total and differential hemocyte counts. Our results underline that characterizing the cellular response of larvae to individual and combined stressors allows unmasking previously undetected sublethal effects of pesticides in colony health.

  17. Evaluation of Pyrethrin Formulations on Dengue/Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever Vectors in the Laboratory and Sublethal Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sulaiman

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In Southeast Asia, Aedes aegypti (L. has been incriminated as principal vector of dengue viruses and Ae. albopictus as the secondary vector of dengue fever. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of three for-mula¬tions of pyrethrin derived from Tanacetum cinerariaefolium against the dengue/dengue haemorrhagic fever vectors Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus in the laboratory. The testings employed 2 methodologies: the WHO Larval Bioassay and WHO Adult Bioassay. The results showed that all the three pyrethrin formulations had larvicidal and adulticidal activi-ties. The impact of the sublethal doses of pyrethrin formulations on Aedes spp. larvae resulted in 4-6% of alive adult emergence compared to 90% of Ae. aegypti emerging adults and 96% Ae. albopictus alive adult emergence in the control. The impact of sublethal doses of the pyrethrin formulations caused very low fecundity on both Aedes spp. compared to the control (P< 0.05.

  18. Evaluation of Pyrethrin Formulations on Dengue/Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever Vectors in the Laboratory and Sublethal Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sulaiman

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In Southeast Asia, Aedes aegypti (L. has been incriminated as principal vector of dengue viruses and Ae. albopictus as the secondary vector of dengue fever. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of three for-mula¬tions of pyrethrin derived from Tanacetum cinerariaefolium against the dengue/dengue haemorrhagic fever vectors Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus in the laboratory. The testings employed 2 methodologies: the WHO Larval Bioassay and WHO Adult Bioassay. The results showed that all the three pyrethrin formulations had larvicidal and adulticidal activi-ties. The impact of the sublethal doses of pyrethrin formulations on Aedes spp. larvae resulted in 4-6% of alive adult emergence compared to 90% of Ae. aegypti emerging adults and 96% Ae. albopictus alive adult emergence in the control. The impact of sublethal doses of the pyrethrin formulations caused very low fecundity on both Aedes spp. compared to the control (P< 0.05.

  19. Electrical stimulation enhanced remyelination of injured sciatic nerves by increasing neurotrophins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, L D; Xia, R; Ding, W L

    2010-09-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that electrical stimulation (ES) enhances axonal regeneration following central and peripheral nerve injury. However, the effect of ES on peripheral remyelination after nerve damage has been investigated less, and the mechanism underlying its action remains unclear. In the present study, neuron/Schwann cell (SC) co-cultures in vitro and crush-injured sciatic nerves in rats were subjected to 1 h of continuous ES (20 Hz, 100 micros, 3 V). Electron microscopy and nerve morphometry were performed to investigate the extent of regenerated nerve myelination. The expression profiles of P0, Par-3 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in vitro and in vivo were examined by western blotting. We reported that 20 Hz ES increased the number of regenerated and myelinated axons at 4 and 8 weeks after injury. P0 level in the ES-treated groups, as well as myelin sheath thickness, were enhanced compared with the controls. The earlier peak Par-3 in the ES-treated groups indicated earlier initiation of SC myelination. Moreover, the similar results were achieved in the cell co-culture. Additionally, brief ES significantly elevated BDNF expression in co-cultured cells and nerve tissues. In conclusion, ES of the site of nerve injury potentiates axonal regrowth and myelin maturation during peripheral nerve regeneration. Further, the therapeutic actions of ES on myelination that is mediated via enhanced BDNF signals, which driving the promyelination effect on SCs at the onset of myelination. Copyright (c) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Protective effect study of polysaccharides from tremella fuciformis on hematopoietic function in radiation-injured mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Wen-qing; Yang, Fu-jun; Shen, Xiu; Wang, Yue-ying; Liu, Pei-xun

    2008-01-01

    A kind of water-soluble homogeneous polysaccharide named as TFB was isolated and purified from Tremella Fuciformis by DEAE-Sephadex A-25 and Sephadex G-150. Its chemical and physical characteristics was determined by chemical methods, gas chromatography, mass spectrum and size exclusion chromatography. Colony-forming unit of spleen(CFU-S), number of nucleated cells in bone marrow (BMNC) and spleen index were adopted to investigate the effect on hematopoietic function of TFB at 6 mg/kg, 12 mg/kg, 24 mg/kg in mice irradiated with 7.5 Gy 137 Cs γ-rays. The results indicated that TFB is composed of glucose, mannose and serine in closely molar ratios of 8:2:0.1. Its relative molecular weight is estimated to be 68,000 by HPGPC. Its main chain is comprised of 1,4 linked glucose and 1,2,3,4,6 linked mannose, the branch point is at the site of mannose. Side chain is comprised of terminal glucose, Serine, H 2 N-1,4,6 linked mannose. Glucose uronic acid may be in main chain because of its 32.88 % content. The numbers of nucleated cells in bone marrow, colony-forming unit of spleen and spleen index increased markedly compared with the negative control group in mice treated with WTF-B administered 6 mg/kg ip. for three days prior to 137 Cs-γray irradiation, and the number of nucleated cells in bone marrow increased markedly but the CFU-S manifested no difference in mice treated with WTF-B administered 12 mg/kg and 24 mg/kg ip. compared with the negative control group. We can make conclusion that Polysaccharides of Tremella fuciformis has protective effects on hematopoietic function in radiation-injured mice, its optimal dose is 6 mg/kg. (author)

  1. Proximal and distal effects of play on child compliance with a brain-injured parent.

    OpenAIRE

    Ducharme, J M; Rushford, N

    2001-01-01

    Individuals with brain injury may experience severe cognitive and other impairments. For brain-injured parents, such deficits may be associated with child behavior problems, including noncompliance. We assessed the effects of a play period conducted by a brain-injured father on the compliance of his son, who had become uncooperative with his father after the injury. The child consistently demonstrated improved compliance during proximal and distal compliance sessions that followed father-son ...

  2. Upregulation of endothelial heme oxygenase-1 expression through the activation of the JNK pathway by sublethal concentrations of acrolein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C C; Hsieh, C W; Lai, P H; Lin, J B; Liu, Y C; Wung, B S

    2006-08-01

    Acrolein is a highly electrophilic alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde that is present in cigarette smoke. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a cytoprotective enzyme activated by various such electrophilic compounds. In this study, the regulatory effects of acrolein upon the expression of HO-1 were investigated in endothelial cells (ECs). We demonstrate that acrolein induces the elevation of HO-1 protein levels, and subsequent enzyme activity, at non-cytotoxic concentrations. An additional alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, was also found to increase HO-1 expression and have less cytotoxicity than acrolein. Moreover, acrolein-mediated HO-1 induction is abrogated in the presence of actinomycin D and cycloheximide. Nrf2 is a transcription factor involved in the induction of HO-1 through an antioxidant response element (ARE) in the promoter region of the HO-1 gene. We show that acrolein induces Nrf2 translocation and ARE-luciferase reporter activity. Acrolein was also found to induce the production of both superoxide and H2O2 at levels greater than 100 microM. However, with the exception of NAC, no antioxidant generated any effect upon acrolein-dependent HO-1 expression in ECs. Our present findings suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may not be a major modulator for HO-1 induction. Using buthionine sulfoximine to deplete the intracellular GSH levels further enhanced the effects of acrolein. We also found that cellular GSH level was rapidly reduced after both 10 and 100 microM acrolein treatment. However, after 6 h of exposure to ECs, only 10 microM acrolein treatment increases GSH level. In addition, only the JNK inhibitor SP600125 and tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein had any significant inhibitory impact upon the upregulation of HO-1 by acrolein. Pretreatment with a range of other PI3 kinase inhibitors, including wortmannin and LY294002, showed no effects. Hence, we show in our current experiments that a sublethal concentration of acrolein is in fact a

  3. Upregulation of endothelial heme oxygenase-1 expression through the activation of the JNK pathway by sublethal concentrations of acrolein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.C.; Hsieh, C.W.; Lai, P.H.; Lin, J.B.; Liu, Y.C.; Wung, B.S.

    2006-01-01

    Acrolein is a highly electrophilic α,β-unsaturated aldehyde that is present in cigarette smoke. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a cytoprotective enzyme activated by various such electrophilic compounds. In this study, the regulatory effects of acrolein upon the expression of HO-1 were investigated in endothelial cells (ECs). We demonstrate that acrolein induces the elevation of HO-1 protein levels, and subsequent enzyme activity, at non-cytotoxic concentrations. An additional α,β-unsaturated aldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, was also found to increase HO-1 expression and have less cytotoxicity than acrolein. Moreover, acrolein-mediated HO-1 induction is abrogated in the presence of actinomycin D and cycloheximide. Nrf2 is a transcription factor involved in the induction of HO-1 through an antioxidant response element (ARE) in the promoter region of the HO-1 gene. We show that acrolein induces Nrf2 translocation and ARE-luciferase reporter activity. Acrolein was also found to induce the production of both superoxide and H 2 O 2 at levels greater than 100 μM. However, with the exception of NAC, no antioxidant generated any effect upon acrolein-dependent HO-1 expression in ECs. Our present findings suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may not be a major modulator for HO-1 induction. Using buthionine sulfoximine to deplete the intracellular GSH levels further enhanced the effects of acrolein. We also found that cellular GSH level was rapidly reduced after both 10 and 100 μM acrolein treatment. However, after 6 h of exposure to ECs, only 10 μM acrolein treatment increases GSH level. In addition, only the JNK inhibitor SP600125 and tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein had any significant inhibitory impact upon the upregulation of HO-1 by acrolein. Pretreatment with a range of other PI3 kinase inhibitors, including wortmannin and LY294002, showed no effects. Hence, we show in our current experiments that a sublethal concentration of acrolein is in fact a novel HO-1 inducer

  4. Comparative study on the immunocompetent activity of three different kinds of Peh-Hue-Juwa-Chi-Cao, Hedyotis diffusa, H. corymbosa and Mollugo pentaphylla after sublethal whole body X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang JenqJer; Hsu HsueYin; Ho YauHui; Lin ChunChing

    1997-01-01

    This brief communication describes the immunocompetent activity of the Chinese folk-medicinal herbs, Hedyotis corymbosa, H. diffusa and Mollugo pentaphylla in mice after moderate whole body x-irradiation. These antitumour drugs, given at doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day for 7 consecutive days before x-irradiation protected ICR strain mice from the sublethal effects of radiation at a dose of 4 Gy, especially for the dose at 1000 mg/kg. Prior administration of H. corymbosa and H. diffusa ameliorated the leukopenia and splenic cellular decrease induced by sublethal irradiation, and slightly increased the immunocompetence of splenic cells after being stimulated by mitogens. However, administration of M. pentaphylla before x-irradiation exerted a less protective effect on ameliorating leukopenia and on splenic cellular immunocompetence. These findings suggest that some types of Peh-Hue-Juwa-Chi-Caoi (PHJCC) may also be effective in the prevention of haematopoietic damage when used in combination with radiotherapy. (author)

  5. Comparative study on the immunocompetent activity of three different kinds of Peh-Hue-Juwa-Chi-Cao, Hedyotis diffusa, H. corymbosa and Mollugo pentaphylla after sublethal whole body X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JenqJer, Yang; HsueYin, Hsu; YauHui, Ho; ChunChing, Lin [School of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical College, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    1997-07-01

    This brief communication describes the immunocompetent activity of the Chinese folk-medicinal herbs, Hedyotis corymbosa, H. diffusa and Mollugo pentaphylla in mice after moderate whole body x-irradiation. These antitumour drugs, given at doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day for 7 consecutive days before x-irradiation protected ICR strain mice from the sublethal effects of radiation at a dose of 4 Gy, especially for the dose at 1000 mg/kg. Prior administration of H. corymbosa and H. diffusa ameliorated the leukopenia and splenic cellular decrease induced by sublethal irradiation, and slightly increased the immunocompetence of splenic cells after being stimulated by mitogens. However, administration of M. pentaphylla before x-irradiation exerted a less protective effect on ameliorating leukopenia and on splenic cellular immunocompetence. These findings suggest that some types of Peh-Hue-Juwa-Chi-Caoi (PHJCC) may also be effective in the prevention of haematopoietic damage when used in combination with radiotherapy. (author)

  6. Sublethal Growth Effects and Mortality to Marine Bivalves and Fish from Long-Term Exposure to Tributyltin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    sublethal toxicity of tributyltin oxide (TBTO) and its putative environmental product, tribu- tyltin sulfide ( TBTS ) to zoeal mud crabs, RIthropanopeus...Organotin .,’vwfuf coatingsu~~ study better defines the longterm toxicity and bloaccumnulation potential of tributyltin released from antifouting...larval fish survival at low tributyltin concentrations were also tested. Acute toxicity tests (96 hours) were con- ducted with mysid shrmp (Aawhomyot

  7. Do biopesticides affect the demographic traits of a parasitoid wasp and its biocontrol services through sublethal effects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Biondi

    Full Text Available Pesticide risk assessments are usually based on short-term acute toxicity tests, while longer-term population dynamic related traits, critical to the success of biological control and Integrated Pest Management (IPM programs, are often overlooked. This is increasingly important with respect to new biopesticides that frequently cause no short-term acute effects, but that can induce multiple physiological and behavioral sublethal effects, leading to a decrease in population growth and ecosystem services. In this study we assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of six biopesticides [abamectin, azadirachtin, Bacillus thuringiensis, borax plus citrus oil (Prev-Am®, emamectin benzoate, and spinosad], used in tomato crops to control the invasive pest Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, on adults and pupae of the parasitoid Bracon nigricans (Hymenoptera: Braconidae. Data on female survival and production of female offspring were used to calculate population growth indexes as a measure of population recovery after pesticide exposure. Spinosad caused 100% and 80% mortality in exposed adults (even 10 d after the treatment and pupae, respectively. Although most of the biopesticides had low levels of acute toxicity, multiple sublethal effects were observed. The biocontrol activity of both females that survived 1-h and 10-d old residues, and females that emerged from topically treated pupae was significantly affected by the application of the neurotoxic insecticides emamectin benzoate and abamectin. Furthermore, very low B. nigricans demographic growth indices were estimated for these two insecticides, indicating potential local extinction of the wasp populations. Among the tested products, Bt proved to be the safest for B. nigricans adults and pupae. Our findings emphasize that acute toxicity assessment alone cannot fully predict the actual impact of pesticides on non-target parasitoids. Thus, sublethal effects related to the species specific life

  8. Do Biopesticides Affect the Demographic Traits of a Parasitoid Wasp and Its Biocontrol Services through Sublethal Effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Antonio; Zappalà, Lucia; Stark, John D.; Desneux, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Pesticide risk assessments are usually based on short-term acute toxicity tests, while longer-term population dynamic related traits, critical to the success of biological control and Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs, are often overlooked. This is increasingly important with respect to new biopesticides that frequently cause no short-term acute effects, but that can induce multiple physiological and behavioral sublethal effects, leading to a decrease in population growth and ecosystem services. In this study we assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of six biopesticides [abamectin, azadirachtin, Bacillus thuringiensis, borax plus citrus oil (Prev-Am®), emamectin benzoate, and spinosad], used in tomato crops to control the invasive pest Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), on adults and pupae of the parasitoid Bracon nigricans (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Data on female survival and production of female offspring were used to calculate population growth indexes as a measure of population recovery after pesticide exposure. Spinosad caused 100% and 80% mortality in exposed adults (even 10 d after the treatment) and pupae, respectively. Although most of the biopesticides had low levels of acute toxicity, multiple sublethal effects were observed. The biocontrol activity of both females that survived 1-h and 10-d old residues, and females that emerged from topically treated pupae was significantly affected by the application of the neurotoxic insecticides emamectin benzoate and abamectin. Furthermore, very low B. nigricans demographic growth indices were estimated for these two insecticides, indicating potential local extinction of the wasp populations. Among the tested products, Bt proved to be the safest for B. nigricans adults and pupae. Our findings emphasize that acute toxicity assessment alone cannot fully predict the actual impact of pesticides on non-target parasitoids. Thus, sublethal effects related to the species specific life-history variables

  9. The effect of postirradiation application of aspartic acid salts on hemopoietic recovery in sublethally X-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospisil, M.; Netikova, J.; Vasku, J.; Urbanek, E.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of aspartic acid salts, especially of K and Mg aspartates, on certain hematological changes in the peripheral blood and hemopoietic organs of sublethally X-irratiated male mice of the strain C57Bl/10 was investigated. Salts of aspartic acid were administered in tap water after irradiation. A favorable effect of aspartic acid salts on erythropoietic recovery and on regeneration of thymus weight was found during the first two weeks after irradiation. (orig.) [de

  10. Safety knowledge and risk behaviour of injured and uninjured young skiers and snowboarders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnab, A J; Cadman, R E; Greenlaw, J V

    1998-09-01

    Earlier studies of ski injury indicated that youths were at increased risk of injury, that males were most likely to injure the head or face, and that females were most likely to injure the knee. To obtain information about safety knowledge and risk behaviour that might contribute to injury among young skiers and snow-boarders. Survey of knowledge and behaviour in injured and noninjured cohorts. Blackcomb Mountain, Whistler, British Columbia. A total of 863 noninjured and 118 injured skiers and snowboarders aged five to 17 years using Blackcomb during 1993/94. Skier Knowledge Inventory Questionnaire. The injured cohort had less knowledge of the Skiers Responsibility Code. In both groups, almost half had had no lessons, 31% had had bindings adjusted by nonprofessionals and chair lift safety bars were used one ride in four by children age 13 to 17 years. The injuried cohort wore helmets slightly less often. Both groups regularly skied through the trees (60% to 70%), and one-thirds had skied on closed runs. Excessive speed was identified as the major cause of injury. Skiers did not recognize jumping as contributing to injury. Lack of knowledge of safety rules was more prevalent among the injured cohort. Skiing without due care - including skiing through tress, skiing on closed runs, skiing with excessive speed and jumping, particularly by snowboarders - were identified as potential causes of injury.

  11. Radioprotection of vitamin D on mice injured by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaohui; Zhou Zhengyu; Li Bingyan; Nie Jihua; Tong Jian; Zhang Zengli

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the radioprotective effect of vitamin D against irradiation injury, the mice exposed to 60 Co γ-rays at 6 Gy was treated with preparation of vitamin D(Alfacalcidol Soft Capsules). Cell cycle and apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM) following staining of cells with propidium iodide (PI). Peripheral blood cell counts were analyzed by autoanalyzer. It has been found that vitamin D significantly increases white blood cell (WBC) counts, decreases bone marrow PEC micronucleus rate. FCM analysis shows that compared with damaged group, G2 and S phases of bone marrow cells in vitamin D protection group increases significantly at 24 h after whole body irradiation, whereas G1 phase cells decrease at the same times. So vitamin D might be a new radioprotection agent and it should be deserved further study. (authors)

  12. Performance of honey bee colonies under a long-lasting dietary exposure to sublethal concentrations of the neonicotinoid insecticide thiacloprid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siede, Reinhold; Faust, Lena; Meixner, Marina D; Maus, Christian; Grünewald, Bernd; Büchler, Ralph

    2017-07-01

    Substantial honey bee colony losses have occurred periodically in the last decades. The drivers for these losses are not fully understood. The influence of pests and pathogens are beyond dispute, but in addition, chronic exposure to sublethal concentrations of pesticides has been suggested to affect the performance of honey bee colonies. This study aims to elucidate the potential effects of a chronic exposure to sublethal concentrations (one realistic worst-case concentration) of the neonicotinoid thiacloprid to honey bee colonies in a three year replicated colony feeding study. Thiacloprid did not significantly affect the colony strength. No differences between treatment and control were observed for the mortality of bees, the infestation with the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and the infection levels of viruses. No colony losses occurred during the overwintering seasons. Furthermore, thiacloprid did not influence the constitutive expression of the immunity-related hymenoptaecin gene. However, upregulation of hymenoptaecin expression as a response to bacterial challenge was less pronounced in exposed bees than in control bees. Under field conditions, bee colonies are not adversely affected by a long-lasting exposure to sublethal concentrations of thiacloprid. No indications were found that field-realistic and higher doses exerted a biologically significant effect on colony performance. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Synergistic Effect of Combining Plutella xylostella Granulovirus and Bacillus thuringiensis at Sublethal Dosages on Controlling of Diamondback Moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guangjie; Li, Chuanming; Liu, Qin; Xu, Jian

    2015-10-01

    Plutella xylostella granulovirus (PxGV) and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are both entomo-pathogens to the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). The purpose of the present study was to measure the effect of the combination of PxGV and Bt at sublethal dosages on the development and mortality of diamondback moth in a laboratory setting. Bt and PxGV exhibited synergistic effect on diamondback moth larval mortality and effectively controlled diamondback moth populations with low dose combination treatment. The combination of three parts per million Bt and 1.3 × 10(3) occlusion bodies per milliliter of PxGV revealed a higher larval mortality compared with the treatment of Bt or PxGV alone. Combination of Bt and PxGV at sublethal concentrations also increased larval duration, reduced oviposition and decreased adult longevity remarkably, resulting in the lowest population trend index among the treatments. The results suggested that the combination of Bt and PxGV at sublethal dosages might provide a valuable way to improve the control efficacy of diamondback moth compared with treatment of Bt or PxGV alone. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. {sup 1}H NMR metabolomics of earthworm exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of phenanthrene in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Sarah A.E.; McKelvie, Jennifer R.; Simpson, Andre J. [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail Toronto, Ontario, M1C 1A4 (Canada); Simpson, Myrna J., E-mail: myrna.simpson@utoronto.c [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail Toronto, Ontario, M1C 1A4 (Canada)

    2010-06-15

    {sup 1}H NMR metabolomics was used to monitor earthworm responses to sub-lethal (50-1500 mg/kg) phenanthrene exposure in soil. Total phenanthrene was analyzed via soxhlet extraction, bioavailable phenanthrene was estimated by hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) and 1-butanol extractions and sorption to soil was assessed by batch equilibration. Bioavailable phenanthrene (HPCD-extracted) comprised approx65-97% of total phenanthrene added to the soil. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed differences in responses between exposed earthworms and controls after 48 h exposure. The metabolites that varied with exposure included amino acids (isoleucine, alanine and glutamine) and maltose. PLS models indicated that earthworm response is positively correlated to both total phenanthrene concentration and bioavailable (HPCD-extracted) phenanthrene in a freshly spiked, unaged soil. These results show that metabolomics is a powerful, direct technique that may be used to monitor contaminant bioavailability and toxicity of sub-lethal concentrations of contaminants in the environment. These initial findings warrant further metabolomic studies with aged contaminated soils. - {sup 1}H NMR metabolomics is used to directly monitor metabolic responses of Eisenia fetida after 48 h of exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of phenanthrene in soil.

  15. Does selective logging stress tropical forest invertebrates? Using fat stores to examine sublethal responses in dung beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Filipe; Barlow, Jos; Araújo, Bárbara; Louzada, Julio

    2016-12-01

    The increased global demand for tropical timber has driven vast expanses of tropical forests to be selectively logged worldwide. While logging impacts on wildlife are predicted to change species distribution and abundance, the underlying physiological responses are poorly understood. Although there is a growing consensus that selective logging impacts on natural populations start with individual stress-induced sublethal responses, this literature is dominated by investigations conducted with vertebrates from temperate zones. Moreover, the sublethal effects of human-induced forest disturbance on tropical invertebrates have never been examined. To help address this knowledge gap, we examined the body fat content and relative abundance of three dung beetle species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) with minimum abundance of 40 individuals within each examined treatment level. These were sampled across 34 plots in a before-after control-impact design (BACI) in a timber concession area of the Brazilian Amazon. For the first time, we present evidence of logging-induced physiological stress responses in tropical invertebrates. Selective logging increased the individual levels of fat storage and reduced the relative abundance of two dung beetle species. Given this qualitative similarity, we support the measurement of body fat content as reliable biomarker to assess stress-induced sublethal effects on dung beetles. Understanding how environmental modification impacts the wildlife has never been more important. Our novel approach provides new insights into the mechanisms through which forest disturbances impose population-level impacts on tropical invertebrates.

  16. Use of various acute, sublethal and early life-stage tests to evaluate the toxicity of refinery effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherry, J.; Scott, B.; Dutka, B.

    1997-01-01

    The toxicities of effluents from three Ontario, Canada, refineries were assessed with microbes, plants, invertebrates, and fish. Acute toxicity was assessed by the Microtox test, an assay based on electron transport activity in submitochondrial particles, and Daphnia magna (water flea); growth of Selenastrum capricornutum (alga); growth of Lemna minor (aquatic plant); germination of Lactuca sativa (nonaquatic plant); survival, growth, and maturation of Panagrellus redivivus (nematode); and genotoxicity in the SOS-Chromotest. Only the Microtox test and the submitochondrial particle test detected acute toxicity in the effluent samples. Reduced survival and sublethal responses were caused by some effluents, but not all effluents were toxic, and none caused a response in all of the tests applied. The results suggest that the effluent treatment systems used at Ontario refineries have largely eliminated acute toxicity to the organisms in their test battery. Although reduced survival and sublethal effects were detected in some of the effluents, the effects were minor. Some of the tests provided evidence, albeit weak, of variations in the responses of the test organisms to a temporal series of effluent samples. Not unexpectedly, there were also minor differences in the responses of the tests to effluents from the three refineries. The fathead minnow test seems to be a sensitive indicator of the sublethal toxicity of Ontario refinery effluents

  17. Sublethal effects of buprofezin on development and reproduction in the white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ehsan; Liao, Xun; Yang, Peng; Mao, Kaikai; Zhang, Xiaolei; Shakeel, Muhammad; Salim, Abdalla M A; Wan, Hu; Li, Jianhong

    2017-12-05

    In the present study, the effects of sublethal concentrations of buprofezin on life-table traits of S. furcifera were evaluated for two consecutive generations (F0 and F1). Our results exhibited that the fecundity, life span (longevity) and hatchability of the F0 and F1 generations were significantly decreased at LC 30 compared to the control. However, copulation was not significantly affected for the F0 or F1 generations at sublethal concentrations. The female life span was affected negatively at both treatments in F0 and at LC 30 in F1, compared to the control. Furthermore, significant effects of the sublethal concentrations were found on the developmental rate of all instars except the 3 rd instar of F1. However, the pre-adult period, total pre-oviposition period (TPOP) and adult pre-oviposition period (APOP) significantly increased in F1 individuals at LC 30 and LC 10 compared to the control. Our findings revealed that demographic characters (survival rate, intrinsic rate of increase (ri), finite rate of increase (λ), net reproductive rate (R 0 ), and gross reproductive rate (GRR)) of the F1 generation (from F0 parents) significantly decreased compared to the untreated group; however, the generation time (T) increased at LC 10 . Therefore, the results suggested that buprofezin could adversely affect individuals in the successive generation.

  18. Kinetics of sublethal damage recovery in mouse lip mucosa comparing low and high-LET radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalliet, P.; Landuyt, W.; Schueren, E. van der; Vynckier, S.; Wambersie, A.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of d(50)+Be neutrons on the lip mucosa in mice were investigated as a model of early effects. The biological endpoint eas the incidence of desquamation in the lower lip after selective irradiation of the snout of the animals. ED 50 (dose leading to desquamation in 50% of the animals) were calculated by probit analysis. Fractionated (two, four and ten fractions) and protracted (43.5, 11.5 and 0.88 Gy.h -1 ) irradiations have been carried out. Results were analysed using the mathematical method of Dale. An α/β of 39.6 Gy and a t 1/2 of recovery of sublethal damage of 47 min have been derived. These results have been compared to data previously obtained with cobalt-60 gamma rays. Using the same mathematical approach, and comparing similar fractionated and protracted experiments, an α/β of 7.4 Gy and a t 1/2 of recovery of 47 min have been calculated. There was no significant difference in the repair kinetics after irradiations with gamma rays or d(50)+Be neutrons. (orig.) [de

  19. Integrated microfluidic technology for sub-lethal and behavioral marine ecotoxicity biotests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yushi; Reyes Aldasoro, Constantino Carlos; Persoone, Guido; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2015-06-01

    Changes in behavioral traits exhibited by small aquatic invertebrates are increasingly postulated as ethically acceptable and more sensitive endpoints for detection of water-born ecotoxicity than conventional mortality assays. Despite importance of such behavioral biotests, their implementation is profoundly limited by the lack of appropriate biocompatible automation, integrated optoelectronic sensors, and the associated electronics and analysis algorithms. This work outlines development of a proof-of-concept miniaturized Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) platform for rapid water toxicity tests based on changes in swimming patterns exhibited by Artemia franciscana (Artoxkit M™) nauplii. In contrast to conventionally performed end-point analysis based on counting numbers of dead/immobile specimens we performed a time-resolved video data analysis to dynamically assess impact of a reference toxicant on swimming pattern of A. franciscana. Our system design combined: (i) innovative microfluidic device keeping free swimming Artemia sp. nauplii under continuous microperfusion as a mean of toxin delivery; (ii) mechatronic interface for user-friendly fluidic actuation of the chip; and (iii) miniaturized video acquisition for movement analysis of test specimens. The system was capable of performing fully programmable time-lapse and video-microscopy of multiple samples for rapid ecotoxicity analysis. It enabled development of a user-friendly and inexpensive test protocol to dynamically detect sub-lethal behavioral end-points such as changes in speed of movement or distance traveled by each animal.

  20. Assessment of Mercury Bioaccumulation in Zebra Cichlid (Cichlasoma Nigrofasciatum Exposed to Sublethal Concentrations of Permethrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Banaee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aquatic ecosystems are frequently subjected to contamination by toxic heavy metals and pesticides, yet very little is known about the influence of pesticides on bioaccumulation of heavy metals in aquatic organisms. Mercury is a toxic metal with no known biological benefit to organisms. Bioavailability of mercury in aquatic environments depends on biological and non-biological parameters including other pollutants. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to determine the effects of permethrin on bioaccumulation of mercury in zebra cichlid. Methods: Acute toxicity (LC50 of permethrin and mercury chloride was evaluated by estimating mortality in Probit Model in SPSS (version 19.0 IBM. In sub-lethal toxicity, zebra cichlid (Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum was exposed to various concentrations of permethrin (0.0, 0.40, 0.80, 1.20 and 1.60 µg.L-1 combined with 20 µg.L-1 mercury chloride for 15 days. At the end of the experiment, mercury concentrations were measured using ICP-OES-Perkin elmer (optima 7300-DV. Results: 96 h LC50 values of permethrin and mercury for C. nigrofasciatum were calculated to be 17.55 µg.L-1 and 140.38 µg.L-1, respectively. Our results clearly showed that the bioaccumulation of mercury in the specimens increased with increasing concentrations of permethrin to 1.20 and 1.60 µg.L-1. Conclusion: Increasing the concentration of permethrin had synergistic effects on the bioaccumulation of mercury in fish.

  1. Evaluation of sublethal toxicity of zinc and chromium in Eudrilus eugeniae using biochemical and reproductive parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, P Mahaboob; Latha, V

    2016-05-01

    Zinc (Zn) and chromium (Cr) act as essential nutrients; however, they can be toxic at higher concentrations. In this study, earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae was studied for its sensitivity to sublethal doses of Cr (8 ppm) and Zn (350 ppm) in terms of alterations occurred in oxidative stress indices and reproductive parameters in the testis. A significant (p food intake was observed on 7, 14 and 21 days of Cr toxicity; while increased rate was evident upon 7 days of Zn exposure. Changes evident in the rate of cocoon production (-39.54 and +38.63 %), hatchability (-77.85 and +30.0 %) highlight higher toxic potential of Cr than Zn, respectively. Moderate to severe vacuolization in spermatic follicles and higher incidence of tailless (+52.6 % in Cr and 20.8 % in Zn), and head bent (+18.8 % in Cr and 0 % in Zn) sperms were evident in Cr(VI) exposed worms emphasizing the higher vulnerability of E. eugeniae to Cr toxicity. A significant (p implied from results that excessive free radical production and inadequate antioxidant defenses have lead to morphological alterations in sperms which sequentially reduced the reproductive rate.

  2. Toxicity assessment of sodium fluoride in Drosophila melanogaster after chronic sub-lethal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Moumita; Rajak, Prem; Khatun, Salma; Roy, Sumedha

    2017-01-01

    Sodium fluoride (NaF), one of the most frequently used fluoride compound is composed of Na + and F - . Apart from its use in water fluoridation, NaF also acts as a major component for different dental products like toothpastes, gels and mouth rinses etc. The present study was carried out to explore the toxic impact of chronic NaF exposure on a non-target organism, Drosophila melanogaster. The larvae exposed to different concentrations of NaF through food showed a significant increase in HSP70 expression both qualitatively and quantitatively. The altered tail length and tail intensity in Comet assay validate the increased DNA damage in treated larvae. The activity of AChE, oxidative stress marker enzymes, phase I and phase II detoxifying enzymes were found to be significantly inhibited in the treated larvae when compared to control though there was no evidence of dose dependent change in each case. The alterations in the mentioned parameters can be due to increased body Fluoride ion (F - ) concentration since the analysis with ion electrode analyzer revealed that F - concentration increased significantly with NaF treatment. Hence, the results suggest that D. melanogaster manifest prominent toxic response when subjected to chronic exposure to sub-lethal NaF concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sublethal Effects of Neonicotinoid Insecticide on Calling Behavior and Pheromone Production of Tortricid Moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Roldán, Miguel A; Gemeno, César

    2017-09-01

    In moths, sexual behavior combines female sex pheromone production and calling behavior. The normal functioning of these periodic events requires an intact nervous system. Neurotoxic insecticide residues in the agroecosystem could impact the normal functioning of pheromone communication through alteration of the nervous system. In this study we assess whether sublethal concentrations of the neonicotinoid insecticide thiacloprid, that competitively modulates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the dendrite, affect pheromone production and calling behavior in adults of three economically important tortricid moth pests; Cydia pomonella (L.), Grapholita molesta (Busck), and Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller). Thiacloprid significantly reduced the amount of calling in C. pomonella females at LC 0.001 (a lethal concentration that kills only 1 in 10 5 individuals), and altered its calling period at LC 1 , and in both cases the effect was dose-dependent. In the other two species the effect was similar but started at higher LCs, and the effect was relatively small in L. botrana. Pheromone production was altered only in C. pomonella, with a reduction of the major compound, codlemone, and one minor component, starting at LC 10 . Since sex pheromones and neonicotinoids are used together in the management of these three species, our results could have implications regarding the interaction between these two pest control methods.

  4. Induced tolerance from a sublethal insecticide leads to cross-tolerance to other insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Jessica; Jones, Devin K; Relyea, Rick A

    2014-04-01

    As global pesticide use increases, the ability to rapidly respond to pesticides by increasing tolerance has important implications for the persistence of nontarget organisms. A recent study of larval amphibians discovered that increased tolerance can be induced by an early exposure to low concentrations of a pesticide. Since natural systems are often exposed to a variety of pesticides that vary in mode of action, we need to know whether the induction of increased tolerance to one pesticide confers increased tolerance to other pesticides. Using larval wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus), we investigated whether induction of increased tolerance to the insecticide carbaryl (AChE-inhibitor) can induce increased tolerance to other insecticides that have the same mode of action (chlorpyrifos, malathion) or a different mode of action (Na(+)channel-interfering insecticides; permethrin, cypermethrin). We found that embryonic exposure to sublethal concentrations of carbaryl induced higher tolerance to carbaryl and increased cross-tolerance to malathion and cypermethrin but not to chlorpyrifos or permethrin. In one case, the embryonic exposure to carbaryl induced tolerance in a nonlinear pattern (hormesis). These results demonstrate that that the newly discovered phenomenon of induced tolerance also provides induced cross-tolerance that is not restricted to pesticides with the same mode of action.

  5. Sublethal Effects in Pest Management: A Surrogate Species Perspective on Fruit Fly Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Banks

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tephritid fruit flies are economically important orchard pests globally. While much effort has focused on controlling individual species with a combination of pesticides and biological control, less attention has been paid to managing assemblages of species. Although several tephritid species may co-occur in orchards/cultivated areas, especially in mixed-cropping schemes, their responses to pesticides may be highly variable. Furthermore, predictive efforts about toxicant effects are generally based on acute toxicity, with little or no regard to long-term population effects. Using a simple matrix model parameterized with life history data, we quantified the responses of several tephritid species to the sublethal effects of a toxicant acting on fecundity. Using a critical threshold to determine levels of fecundity reduction below which species are driven to local extinction, we determined that threshold levels vary widely for the three tephritid species. In particular, Bactrocera dorsalis was the most robust of the three species, followed by Ceratitis capitata, and then B. cucurbitae, suggesting individual species responses should be taken into account when planning for area-wide pest control. The rank-order of susceptibility contrasts with results from several field/lab studies testing the same species, suggesting that considering a combination of life history traits and individual species susceptibility is necessary for understanding population responses of species assemblages to toxicant exposure.

  6. Sublethal toxicity of quinalphos on oxidative stress and antioxidant responses in a freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemalatha, Devan; Amala, Antony; Rangasamy, Basuvannan; Nataraj, Bojan; Ramesh, Mathan

    2016-11-01

    Extensive use of quinalphos, an organophosphorus pesticide, is likely to reach the aquatic environment and thereby posing a health concern for aquatic organisms. Oxidative stress and antioxidant responses may be good indicators of pesticide contamination in aquatic organisms. The data on quinalphos induced oxidative stress and antioxidant responses in carps are scanty. This study is aimed to assess the two sublethal concentrations of quinalphos (1.09 and 2.18 μL L -1 ) on oxidative stress and antioxidant responses of Cyprinus carpio for a period of 20 days. In liver, the malondialdehyde level was found to be significantly increased in both the concentrations. The results of the antioxidant parameters obtained show a significant increase in superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione-S-transferase activity in liver of fish. These results demonstrate that environmentally relevant levels of the insecticide quinalphos can cause oxidative damage and increase the antioxidant scavenging capacity in C. carpio. This may reflect the potential role of these parameters as useful biomarkers for the assessment of pesticide contamination. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1399-1406, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Sublethal Effects of the Neonicotinoid Insecticide Thiamethoxam on the Transcriptome of the Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Teng-Fei; Wang, Yu-Fei; Liu, Fang; Qi, Lei; Yu, Lin-Sheng

    2017-12-05

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are now the most widely used insecticides in the world. Previous studies have indicated that sublethal doses of neonicotinoids impair learning, memory capacity, foraging, and immunocompetence in honey bees (Apis mellifera, Linnaeus) (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Despite these, few studies have been carried out on the molecular effects of neonicotinoids. In this study, we focus on the second-generation neonicotinoid thiamethoxam, which is currently widely used in agriculture to protect crops. Using high-throughput RNA-Seq, we investigated the transcriptome profile of honey bees after subchronic exposure to 10 ppb thiamethoxam over 10 d. In total, 609 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, of which 225 were upregulated and 384 were downregulated. Several genes, including vitellogenin, CSP3, defensin-1, Mrjp1, and Cyp6as5 were selected and further validated using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays. The functions of some DEGs were identified, and Gene Ontology-enrichment analysis showed that the enriched DEGs were mainly linked to metabolism, biosynthesis, and translation. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis showed that thiamethoxam affected biological processes including ribosomes, the oxidative phosphorylation pathway, tyrosine metabolism pathway, pentose and glucuronate interconversions, and drug metabolism. Overall, our results provide a basis for understanding the molecular mechanisms of the complex interactions between neonicotinoid insecticides and honey bees. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Lethal and sublethal measures of chronic copper toxicity in the eastern narrowmouth toad, Gastrophryne carolinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, R Wesley; Scott, David E; Kuhne, Wendy; Soteropoulos, Diana; Lance, Stacey L

    2015-03-01

    Many metals are acutely toxic to aquatic organisms at high concentrations and for some metals, such as copper (Cu), even low-level chronic contamination may be cause for conservation concern. Amphibian susceptibility to Cu has been examined in only a few species, and susceptibility is highly variable. The lethal and sublethal effects were examined of chronic aqueous Cu exposure on embryonic and larval eastern narrowmouth toads, Gastrophryne carolinensis. Copper levels as low as 10 μg Cu/L reduced embryonic and larval survival. Embryonic survivorship varied within- and between-source populations, with embryos derived from uncontaminated-wetland parents having greater survival at lower Cu levels than embryos from parents from a metal-contaminated constructed wetland. At 30 μg/L, embryos from the contaminated site had greater survival. Overall survival from oviposition to metamorphosis was 68.9% at 0 μg/L and 5.4% at 10 μg/L. Similarly, embryos exposed to ≥50 μg/L demonstrated developmental delays in transition from embryo to free-swimming larva. These results demonstrate a negative population-specific response to environmentally relevant levels of Cu. © 2014 SETAC.

  9. Haematological changes in Bufo maculatus treated with sublethal concentrations of Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Ikechukwu Ezemonye

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult Bufo maculatus was exposed to sublethal cadmium concentrations of 0.25, 0.50, 1.00 and 2.00 mg/L. The toxicant from which the cadmium concentrations were prepared was cadmium chloride (CdCl2.H2O. There were three replicate tanks per treatment and three individuals per tank including control groups. The hematologic alterations based on the examination of blood indices during the 28 days of exposure showed that total erythrocyte count (TEC, hematocrit (Hct and hemoglobin (Hb concentration decreased (P<0.05 relative to controls. The decline was concentration- dependent as concentration of cadmium increased. The decline in hemoglobin and hematocrit in the experimental organism could be due to a decrease in the synthesis or release of erythrocytes into the circulation or an increase in the rate of erythrocyte destruction inflicted by cadmium toxicity. There was significant (P<0.05 elevation in total leuko- leukocyte count (TLC with increase in the concen- cyte concentration of cadmium. The increase in total leukocyte count observed in this study could be attributed to a stimulation of the immune system in response to tissue damage caused by cadmium toxicity. The study has shown that the exposure of the Bufo maculatus toad to cadmium can inflict alterations in the hematologic indices, which could induce unfavorable physiological changes in the amphibian, which may lead to death. There is, therefore, the need to protect amphibians in order to sustain the biodiversity in the Nigerian Niger Delta ecological zone.

  10. Sub-lethal cadmium exposure increases phytochelatin concentrations in the aquatic snail Lymnaea stagnalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SF, Gonçalves [Department of Biology & CESAM, Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); SK, Davies [Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Bennett, M. [Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Raab, A.; Feldmann, J. [TESLA, Department of Chemistry, University of Aberdeen, Meston Walk, Aberdeen AB24 3UE, Scotland (United Kingdom); Kille, P. [Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3US (United Kingdom); Loureiro, S. [Department of Biology & CESAM, Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); DJ, Spurgeon [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Benson Lane, Wallingford OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); JG, Bundy, E-mail: j.bundy@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    Phytochelatins are metal-binding metabolites found in almost all plant species and some animal groups, including nematodes and annelids, where they can play an important role in detoxifying metals such as cadmium. Species from several other taxa contain a phytochelatin synthase (PCS) gene orthologue, including molluscs, indicating they may have the potential to synthesize phytochelatins. However, the presence of a gene alone does not demonstrate that it plays a functional role in metal detoxification. In the present study, we show that the aquatic snail Lymnaea stagnalis produced both penta- and heptapeptide phytochelatins (i.e. phytochelatin-2 and phytochelatin-3), and their levels increased in response to sub-lethal levels of cadmium. - Highlights: • Little is known about the role of phytochelatins in metal detoxification in animals. • We detected phytochelatins (PC{sub 2} and PC{sub 3}) in a mollusc species, Lymnaea stagnalis. • Phytochelatins increased in Lymnaea stagnalis when exposed to cadmium. • Future research on phytochelatin responses in molluscs would be valuable.

  11. Radioprotective effect of chitosan in sub-lethally X-ray irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Yoshikazu; Ikota, Nobuo; Arima, Hiromi; Watanabe, Yoshito; Yukawa, Masae; Ozawa, Toshihiko [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Kim, Hee-Sun [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Corp., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Radiation Health Research Inst.; Bom, Hee-Seung; Kim, Young-Ho [Chonnam Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of). Hospital

    2003-03-01

    The radioprotective effect of chitosan was studied in mice following whole-body X-ray irradiation. C3H/He mice were exposed to 7 Gy, and their survival rates were examined. The survival rates of chitosan-diet mice were about 20% higher than those of mice on a standard diet, and the rates dropped sharply to a plateau at day 10 after X-ray irradiation. The chitosan-diet mice had an increased weight ratio of spleen to body within the experimental period. The leukocyte, thrombocyte, and erythrocyte counts as well as the hematocrit and hemoglobin levels were recovered significantly and more rapidly in the chitosan-diet mice than the standard-diet mice at day 14 after irradiation. The scavenging abilities of chitosan were evaluated by the electron spin resonance (ESR) spin-trapping method. These observations suggested that chitosan led to hematopoetic activation and leuko-cytogenesis in mice after sub-lethal dose irradiation, and that the biological response might be caused by radical trapping or scavenging. (author)

  12. Sublethal doses of neonicotinoid imidacloprid can interact with honey bee chemosensory protein 1 (CSP1) and inhibit its function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hongliang; Tan, Jing; Song, Xinmi; Wu, Fan; Tang, Mingzhu; Hua, Qiyun; Zheng, Huoqing; Hu, Fuliang

    2017-01-01

    As a frequently used neonicotinoid insecticide, imidacloprid can impair the chemoreceptive behavior of honey bees even at sublethal doses, while the physiochemical mechanism has not been further revealed. Here, multiple fluorescence spectra, thermodynamic method, and molecular docking were used to study the interaction and the functional inhibition of imidacloprid to the recombinant CSP1 protein in Asian honey bee, Apis cerana. The results showed that the fluorescence intensity (λ em  = 332 nm) of CSP1 could be significantly quenched by imidacloprid in a dynamic mode. During the quenching process, ΔH > 0, ΔS > 0, indicating that the acting forces of imidacloprid with CSP1 are mainly hydrophobic interactions. Synchronous fluorescence showed that the fluorescence of CSP1 was mainly derived from tryptophan, and the hydrophobicity of tryptophan decreased with the increase of imidacloprid concentration. Molecular docking predicted the optimal pose and the amino acid composition of the binding process. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra showed that imidacloprid reduced the α-helix of CSP1 and caused the extension of the CSP1 peptide chain. In addition, the binding of CSP1 to floral scent β-ionone was inhibited by nearly 50% of the apparent association constant (K A ) in the presence of 0.28–2.53 ng/bee of imidacloprid, and the inhibition rate of nearly 95% at 3.75 ng/bee of imidacloprid at sublethal dose level. This study initially revealed the molecular physiochemical mechanism that sublethal doses of neonicotinoid still interact and inhibit the physiological function of the honey bees' chemoreceptive system. - Highlights: • Sublethal doses of imidacloprid can directly interact with CSP1 in Apis cerana. • Sublethal imidacloprid can inhibit the function of CSP1 binding to semiochemicals. • The fluorescence intensity of CSP1 quenched by imidacloprid in a dynamic mode. • The binding between CSP1 and imidacloprid are driven by hydrophobic interactions.

  13. Differential Gene Expression in Explanted Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells 24-Hours Post-Exposure to 532 nm, 3.0 ns Pulsed Laser Light and 1064 nm, 170 ps Pulsed Laser Light 12-Hours Post-Exposure: Results Compendium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Obringer, John

    2004-01-01

    .... We assessed the sublethal insult to human retinal pigment epithelial cells using a cadaver organ donor explant system for genes differentially expressed 12 and 24 hours post- exposure using gene...

  14. Ultrastructural Changes in Cherimoya Fruit Injured by Chilling

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez, Margarita; Mar Sola, Maria del; Pascual, Luis; Rodriguez-Garcia, Maria Isabel; Vargas, Alberto M.

    1992-01-01

    Cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) is an important fruit crop that is grown in the South of Spain. Ultrastructural modifications of cherimoya fruit were studied after low-temperature storage. When cherimoya was stored at 4 oc for 6 days, the starch grains did not suffer degradation and the cell walls remained intact. The membrane systems were severely damaged , result ing in a loss of cell compartmentalization. Cherimoya rewarmed to 22 0 C after 9 days of low temperature storage is not able t...

  15. Radiation studies on sensitivity and repair of human mammary epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy Chuihsu Yang; Stampfer, M.R.; Tobias, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    The authors present results indicating that normal breast epithelial cells and fibroblasts respond to X-rays similarly, lacking significant repair of sublethal damage when 2 Gy was used as the conditioning dose. Epithelial cells from tumor and from parenchymal tissue peripheral to the tumor, however, did show an efficient repair of sublethal damage. The reasons for this difference is unknown. Heavy-ion studies suggest energetic carbon and neon particles can be more effective in killing normal and tumour cells. The RBE for normal cells, however, appeared to be slightly less than for tumor cells. The repair of sublethal damage in tumor cells was less for neon particles than for X-rays. These findings suggest that heavy ions might be more advantageous than X-rays in treating breast tumors. (author)

  16. Identification of water soluble and particle bound compounds causing sublethal toxic effects. A field study on sediments affected by a chlor-alkali industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosch, Carme; Olivares, Alba; Faria, Melissa; Navas, Jose M.; Olmo, Ivan del; Grimalt, Joan O.; Pina, Benjamin; Barata, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    A combination of cost effective sublethal Daphnia magna feeding tests, yeast- and cell culture-based bioassays and Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) procedures was used to characterize toxic compounds within sediments collected in a river area under the influence of the effluents from a chlor-alkali industry (Ebro River, NE Spain). Tests were designed to measure and identify toxic compounds in the particulate and filtered water fractions of sediment elutriates. The combined use of bioassays responding to elutriates and dioxin-like compounds evidenced the existence of three major groups of hazardous contaminants in the most contaminated site: (A) metals such as cadmium and mercury bound to sediment fine particles that could be easily resuspended and moved downstream, (B) soluble compounds (presumably, lye) able to alkalinize water to toxic levels, and (C) organochlorine compounds with high dioxin-like activity. These results provided evidence that elutriate D. magna feeding responses can be used as surrogate assays for more tedious chronic whole sediment tests, and that the incorporation of such tests in sediment TIE procedures may improve the ability to identify the toxicity of particle-bound and water-soluble contaminants in sediments.

  17. A biomarker model of sublethal genotoxicity (DNA single-strand breaks and adducts) using the sentinel organism Aporrectodea longa in spiked soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Francis L.; Piearce, Trevor G.; Hewer, Alan; Phillips, David H.; Semple, Kirk T.

    2005-01-01

    There is a need to develop risk biomarkers during the remediation of contaminated land. We employed the earthworm, Aporrectodea longa (Ude), to determine whether genotoxicity measures could be applied to this organism's intestinal tissues. Earthworms were added, for 24 h or 7 days, to soil samples spiked with benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and/or lindane. After exposure, intestinal tissues (crop/gizzard or intestine) were removed prior to the measurement in disaggregated cells of DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) by the alkaline comet assay. Damage was quantified by comet tail length (CTL, μm). B[a]P 24-h exposure induced dose-related increases (P 32 P-postlabelling, showed a two-adduct-spot pattern. This preliminary investigation suggests that earthworm tissues may be incorporated into genotoxicity assays to facilitate hazard identification within terrestrial ecosystems. - Sublethal genotoxicity in the sentinel organism A. longa can be used to monitor the effects of contaminants in soil

  18. Discovery and Function of a General Core Hormetic Stress Response in E. coli Induced by Sublethal Concentrations of Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Aurélie; Fleurier, Sébastien; Frénoy, Antoine; Dairou, Julien; Bredeche, Marie-Florence; Sanchez-Vizuete, Pilar; Song, Xiaohu; Matic, Ivan

    2016-09-27

    A better understanding of the impact of antibiotics on bacteria is required to increase the efficiency of antibiotic treatments and to slow the emergence of resistance. Using Escherichia coli, we examined how bacteria exposed to sublethal concentrations of ampicillin adjust gene expression patterns and metabolism to simultaneously deal with the antibiotic-induced damage and maintain rapid growth. We found that the treated cells increased energy production, as well as translation and macromolecular repair and protection. These responses are adaptive, because they confer increased survival not only to lethal ampicillin treatment but also to non-antibiotic lethal stresses. This robustness is modulated by nutrient availability. Because different antibiotics and other stressors induce the same set of responses, we propose that it constitutes a general core hormetic stress response. It is plausible that this response plays an important role in the robustness of bacteria exposed to antibiotic treatments and constant environmental fluctuations in natural environments. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dose-dependent hepatic transcriptional responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) exposed to sublethal doses of gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, You, E-mail: you.song@niva.no [Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Faculty of Environmental Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Sciences (IMV), Centre for Environmental Radioactivity - CERAD, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Gaustadalléen 21, N-0349 Oslo (Norway); Salbu, Brit; Teien, Hans-Christian; Heier, Lene Sørlie [Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Faculty of Environmental Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Sciences (IMV), Centre for Environmental Radioactivity - CERAD, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Rosseland, Bjørn Olav [Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Faculty of Environmental Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Sciences (IMV), Centre for Environmental Radioactivity - CERAD, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Tollefsen, Knut Erik [Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Faculty of Environmental Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Sciences (IMV), Centre for Environmental Radioactivity - CERAD, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Gaustadalléen 21, N-0349 Oslo (Norway)

    2014-11-15

    affected DEGs associated with cellular signaling and immune response; 70 mGy radiation affected cell cycle regulation and DNA damage repair, cellular energy production; and 280 mGy radiation affected pathways related to cell cycle regulation and DNA repair, mitochondrial dysfunction and immune functions. Twelve genes representative of key pathways found in this study were verified by qPCR. Potential common MoAs of low-dose gamma radiation may include induction of oxidative stress, DNA damage and disturbance of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Although common MoAs were proposed, a number of DEGs and pathways were still found to be dose-specific, potentially indicating multiple mechanisms of action (MOAs) of low-dose gamma radiation in fish. In addition, plasma glucose displayed an apparent increase with increasing radiation doses, although the results were not significantly different from the control. These findings suggested that sublethal doses of gamma radiation may cause dose-dependent transcriptional changes in the liver of Atlantic salmon after short-term exposure. The current study predicted multiple MoA for gamma radiation and may aid future impact assessment of environmental radioactivity in fish.

  20. Iris reconstruction combined with iris-claw intraocular lens implantation for the management of iris-lens injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shufang; Wang, Mingling; Xiao, Tianlin; Zhao, Zhenquan

    2016-03-01

    To study the efficiency and safety of iris reconstruction combined with iris-claw intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in the patients with iris-lens injuries. Retrospective, noncomparable consecutive case series study. Eleven patients (11 eyes) following iris-lens injuries underwent iris reconstructions combined with iris-claw IOL implantations. Clinical data, such as cause and time of injury, visual acuity (VA), iris and lens injuries, surgical intervention, follow-up period, corneal endothelial cell count, and optical coherence tomography, were collected. Uncorrected VA (UCVA) in all injured eyes before combined surgery was equal to or iris returned to its natural round shape or smaller pupil, and the iris-claw IOLs in the 11 eyes were well-positioned on the anterior surface of reconstructed iris. No complications occurred in those patients. Iris reconstruction combined with iris-claw IOL implantation is a safe and efficient procedure for an eye with iris-lens injury in the absence of capsular support.

  1. Helicopter versus ground emergency medical services for the transportation of traumatically injured children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Camille L; Metzger, Ryan R; Pyle, Laura; Darmofal, Joe; Scaife, Eric; Moulton, Steven L

    2015-02-01

    Helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) are a common mode of transportation for pediatric trauma patients. We hypothesized that HEMS improve outcomes for traumatically injured children compared to ground emergency medical services (GEMS). We queried trauma registries of two level 1 pediatric trauma centers for children 0-17 years, treated from 2003 to 2013, transported by HEMS or GEMS, with known transport starting location and outcome. A geocoding service estimated travel distance and time. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to adjust for injury severity variables and travel distance/time. We identified 14,405 traumatically injured children; 3870 (26.9%) transported by HEMS and 10,535 (73.1%) transported by GEMS. Transport type was not significantly associated with survival, ICU length of stay, or discharge disposition. Transport by GEMS was associated with a 68.6%-53.1% decrease in hospital length of stay, depending on adjustment for distance/time. Results were similar for children with severe injuries, and with propensity score matched cohorts. Of note, 862/3850 (22.3%) of HEMS transports had an ISS<10 and hospitalization<1 day. HEMS do not independently improve outcomes for traumatically injured children, and 22.3% of children transported by HEMS are not significantly injured. These factors should be considered when requesting HEMS for transport of traumatically injured children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A prospective study on time to recovery in 254 injured novice runners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Oestergaard Nielsen

    Full Text Available Describe the diagnoses and the time to recovery of running-related injuries in novice runners.Prospective cohort study on injured runners.This paper is a secondary data analysis of a 933-person cohort study (DANO-RUN aimed at characterizing risk factors for injury in novice runners. Among those sustaining running-related injuries, the types of injuries and time to recovery is described in the present paper. All injured runners were diagnosed after a thorough clinical examination and then followed prospectively during their recovery. If they recovered completely from injury, time to recovery of each injury was registered.A total of 254 runners were injured. The proportion of runners diagnosed with medial tibial stress syndrome was 15%, 10% for patellofemoral pain, 9% for medial meniscal injury, 7% for Achilles tendinopathy and 5% for plantar fasciitis. Among the 220 runners (87% recovering from their injury, the median time to recovery was 71 days (minimum  = 9 days, maximum  = 617 days.Medial tibial stress syndrome was the most common injury followed by patellofemoral pain, medial meniscal injury and Achilles tendinopathy. Half of the injured runners were unable to run 2×500 meters without pain after 10 weeks. Almost 5% of the injured runners received surgical treatment.

  3. The SOS response increases bacterial fitness, but not evolvability, under a sublethal dose of antibiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Barceló, Clara; Kojadinovic, Mila; Moxon, Richard; MacLean, R Craig

    2015-10-07

    Exposure to antibiotics induces the expression of mutagenic bacterial stress-response pathways, but the evolutionary benefits of these responses remain unclear. One possibility is that stress-response pathways provide a short-term advantage by protecting bacteria against the toxic effects of antibiotics. Second, it is possible that stress-induced mutagenesis provides a long-term advantage by accelerating the evolution of resistance. Here, we directly measure the contribution of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa SOS pathway to bacterial fitness and evolvability in the presence of sublethal doses of ciprofloxacin. Using short-term competition experiments, we demonstrate that the SOS pathway increases competitive fitness in the presence of ciprofloxacin. Continued exposure to ciprofloxacin results in the rapid evolution of increased fitness and antibiotic resistance, but we find no evidence that SOS-induced mutagenesis accelerates the rate of adaptation to ciprofloxacin during a 200 generation selection experiment. Intriguingly, we find that the expression of the SOS pathway decreases during adaptation to ciprofloxacin, and this helps to explain why this pathway does not increase long-term evolvability. Furthermore, we argue that the SOS pathway fails to accelerate adaptation to ciprofloxacin because the modest increase in the mutation rate associated with SOS mutagenesis is offset by a decrease in the effective strength of selection for increased resistance at a population level. Our findings suggest that the primary evolutionary benefit of the SOS response is to increase bacterial competitive ability, and that stress-induced mutagenesis is an unwanted side effect, and not a selected attribute, of this pathway. © 2015 The Authors.

  4. Mortality and some biochemical changes in mink (Mustela vison) given sublethal doses of aflatoxin each day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C C; Marth, E H; Shackelford, R M

    1976-10-01

    Two feeding trials were done to study the susceptibility of mink (Mustela vison) to multiple sublethal doses of aflatoxins. In the 1st trial, twenty 3-month-old male mink were divided equally among groups. Each mink in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 was given a meatball daily that contained 15, 30, 45, or 0 mug of aflatoxins (B1:G1, 40:60), respectively. All mink in group 3 died between the 25th and the 30th days of the feeding trial. Each mink had ingested 1,035 to 1,480 mug of aflatoxins. Four of the mink in group 2 died almost as soon as did mink in group 3. Four mink in group 1 died between 40 and 59 days after the start of the feeding trial. Generally, a marked increase in plasma cholesterol and alkaline phosphatase activity appeared before mink died. The liver from animals that died of aflatoxicosis showed prominent pathologic changes which included hemorrhages and appearance of pink yellow spots. Histopathologic examination of liver from dead mink revealed fatty infiltration, bile duct proliferation, bile stasis, pseudotubular formation, congestion, and fibrosis. The feeding trial was repeated with 20 mink (8 males and 12 females) that were 1.5 to 2 years old. In this instance, 0, 20, 40, and 60 mug of aflatoxins were administered each day. All treated animals, except 1, were dead within 37 days after the experiment started. The survivor was given the lowest dosage of toxins and died after 52 days by which time 960 mug of aflatoxins were consumed. Plasma cholesterol content and alkaline phosphatase activity generally were similar to those observed in younger mink of the 1st feeding trial.

  5. Sublethal Effects of Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) on Life Table Parameters of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Reitz, Stuart R; Wang, Haihong; Lei, Zhongren

    2015-06-01

    We assessed effects of parental exposure to Beauveria bassiana on life history traits of subsequent generations of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Progeny from individuals that survived fungal exposure as second instars had significantly shorter egg stages, but longer prepupal development times than corresponding untreated controls. However, survivorship to adulthood of these progeny groups did not differ. Although fecundities of the parental types did not differ, the sex ratio of progeny from fungal-treated parents was male-biased, whereas sex ratio of progeny from untreated control parents was even. We calculated life table parameters for the progeny and found that all parameters, except for generation time, were significantly less for the progeny of fungal-treated parents than for progeny of untreated parents. The intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of increase, net reproductive rate, mean generation time, and gross reproductive rate were 0.199 d(-1), 1.229 d(-1), 21.84, 15.48 d, and 27.273, respectively, for progeny of treated thrips, and 0.266 d(-1), 1.316 d(-1), 52.540, 14.92 d, and 70.64, respectively, for progeny of control thrips. Consequently, population projections demonstrated that offspring of parents exposed to B. bassiana would increase their population more slowly than those from untreated parents. These results demonstrate that B. bassiana has sublethal effects that reduce the reproductive success of F. occidentalis and these effects should be taken into account when evaluating its use in management programs for F. occidentalis. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Lethal and sublethal effects of glyphosate (roundup active) to embryos of colombian anurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triana Velasquez, Teofila Maria; Montes Rojas, Claudia; Bernal Bautista, Manuel Hernando

    2013-01-01

    Glyphosate is an herbicide widely used in agriculture, which may affect non-target species. the aim of this study was to determine the lethal (median lethal concentration - LC 5 0) and sublethal effects (changes on body size and development) of glyphosate (roundup active) to embryos of four anuran species, exposed during 96 hours under laboratory and microcosm tests. under laboratory conditions, engystomops pustulosus was the most tolerant species (LC 5 0 = 3033,18 ?g a.e./L) and rhinella marina was the most sensitive (lc50 = 1421,46 ?g a.e./L), which also showed a delayed development and significantly reduced body size. The other species had an intermediate LC50 (Rhinella humboldti = 2899.54 ?g a.e./L; hypsiboas crepitans = 2151,88 ?g a.e./L). In all cases, the laboratory LC 5 0 was lower than the concentration used in field (5392.92 ?g a.e./L), indicating a high toxic effect. In the microcosm tests, embryos of e. pustulosus were the most tolerant (LC 5 0 = 19,41 kg a.e./ha), while R. humboldti were the most sensitive (LC 5 0 = 10,61 kg a.e./ha). In this case, all four study species had a higher LC 5 0 than the concentration sprayed in field (3,69 kg a.e./ ha), so a lower lethal effect, and there were no significant differences in body size and development. This result shows that the glyphosate, as the commercial presentation roundup active, produce a moderate mortality on anuran embryos.

  7. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Insecticides Used on Citrus, on the Ectoparasitoid Tamarixia radiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloti, Vitor Hugo; Alves, Gustavo Rodrigues; Araújo, Diogo Feliciano Dias; Picoli, Mateus Manara; Moral, Rafael de Andrade; Demétrio, Clarice Garcia Borges; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a disease associated with the bacteria "Candidatus Liberibacter spp." and has been devastating citrus orchards around the world. Its management involves control of the insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. However, the indiscriminate use of chemicals has caused pest outbreaks and eliminated the natural enemies of the vector, such as the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston), the main agent for biological control of D. citri. This study assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides recommended for integrated production of citrus on the parasitoid T. radiata. When adult parasitoids were exposed to residues of 25 insecticides, 20% of them, i.e., gamma-cyhalothrin, etofenprox, azadirachtin, tebufenozide and pyriproxyfen, were considered as harmless (Class 1), 12% as slightly harmful (Class 2), 12% as moderately harmful (Class 3) and 56% as harmful (Class 4), according to the classification proposed by the IOBC/WPRS. Afterward, 14 insecticides (5 harmless and 9 harmful) were sprayed on the parasitoid pupae. Of the 14 insecticides tested, only the organophosphates dimethoate and chlorpyrifos affected the parasitoid emergence. The effects of insecticides on the parasitism capacity of adults exposed to residues of azadirachtin, etofenprox, gamma-cyhalothrin, pyriproxyfen and tebufenozide (harmless) were also evaluated. Tebufenozide and gamma-cyhalothrin affected the parasitism of the F0 generation, but did not affect the emergence of the F1 and F2 generations. Therefore, for an effective IPM program, selective insecticides or harmful pesticides to adult parasitoids could be used in the field, provided that the adults do not occur naturally and the chemical applications do not coincide with parasitoid releases.

  8. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Insecticides Used on Citrus, on the Ectoparasitoid Tamarixia radiata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Hugo Beloti

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing (HLB is a disease associated with the bacteria "Candidatus Liberibacter spp." and has been devastating citrus orchards around the world. Its management involves control of the insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. However, the indiscriminate use of chemicals has caused pest outbreaks and eliminated the natural enemies of the vector, such as the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston, the main agent for biological control of D. citri. This study assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides recommended for integrated production of citrus on the parasitoid T. radiata. When adult parasitoids were exposed to residues of 25 insecticides, 20% of them, i.e., gamma-cyhalothrin, etofenprox, azadirachtin, tebufenozide and pyriproxyfen, were considered as harmless (Class 1, 12% as slightly harmful (Class 2, 12% as moderately harmful (Class 3 and 56% as harmful (Class 4, according to the classification proposed by the IOBC/WPRS. Afterward, 14 insecticides (5 harmless and 9 harmful were sprayed on the parasitoid pupae. Of the 14 insecticides tested, only the organophosphates dimethoate and chlorpyrifos affected the parasitoid emergence. The effects of insecticides on the parasitism capacity of adults exposed to residues of azadirachtin, etofenprox, gamma-cyhalothrin, pyriproxyfen and tebufenozide (harmless were also evaluated. Tebufenozide and gamma-cyhalothrin affected the parasitism of the F0 generation, but did not affect the emergence of the F1 and F2 generations. Therefore, for an effective IPM program, selective insecticides or harmful pesticides to adult parasitoids could be used in the field, provided that the adults do not occur naturally and the chemical applications do not coincide with parasitoid releases.

  9. Effects of sublethal exposure to lead on levels of energetic compounds in Procambarus clarkii (Girard, 1852)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, M.; Torreblanca, A.; Del Ramo, J.; Diaz-Mayans, J. (Univ. of Valencia (Spain))

    1994-05-01

    Lead is neither essential nor beneficial to living organisms; all existing data show that its metabolic effects are adverse. Lead is toxic to all phyla of aquatic biota. Most of the lead discharged into surface water is rapidly incorporated into suspended and bottom sediments. The American red crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, lives in a wide range of environmental conditions that include highly polluted waters. Lead present in take sediments can be available to aquatic animals such as P. clarkii because it is a detritivor and burrow into the sediment. In fact, we found remarkable levels of lead in tissues of P. clarkii caught in Albufera Lake and kept 15 days in clean water (e. g. 223 [mu]g/g dry weight in gills). Furthermore, P. clarkii has a high capacity for lead accumulation from water, and gills were the most important tissue of lead accumulation. Among effects that contaminants have on the physiology of the organisms, energetic state variables are important, since they will alter both survival and reproduction. Hepatopancreas is a major site for the energetic reserve in crayfish and is a site of lead accumulation, although metal concentration in this organ is not as high as gills. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in energy reserves in hepatopancreas and gills of the crayfish P. clarkii, in response to sublethal exposure to lead. Gills are directly exposed to contaminants in the environment, and they are the first organ showing alterations by the action of the contaminants. Hepatopancreas was also chosen due to both, its relevance in the energetic metabolism and its role in heavy metal detoxification mechanisms.

  10. Metalloporphyrin Co(III)TMPyP ameliorates acute, sublethal cyanide toxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Oscar S; Yuan, Quan; Amoscato, Andrew A; Pearce, Linda L; Peterson, Jim

    2012-12-17

    The formation of Co(III)TMPyP(CN)(2) at pH 7.4 has been shown to be completely cooperative (α(H) = 2) with an association constant of 2.1 (±0.2) × 10(11). The kinetics were investigated by stopped-flow spectrophotometry and revealed a complicated net reaction exhibiting 4 phases at pH 7.4 under conditions where cyanide was in excess. The data suggest molecular HCN (rather than CN(-)) to be the attacking nucleophile around neutrality. The two slower phases do not seem to be present when cyanide is not in excess, and the other two phases have rates comparable to that observed for cobalamin, a known effective cyanide scavenger. Addition of bovine serum albumin (BSA) did not affect the cooperativity of cyanide binding to Co(III)TMPyP, only lowered the equilibrium constant slightly to 1.2 (±0.2) × 10(11) and had an insignificant effect on the observed rate. A sublethal mouse model was used to assess the effectiveness of Co(III)TMPyP as a potential cyanide antidote. The administration of Co(III)TMPyP to sodium cyanide intoxicated mice resulted in the time required for the surviving mice to right themselves from a supine position being significantly decreased (9 ± 2 min) compared to that of the controls (33 ± 2 min). All observations were consistent with the demonstrated antidotal activity of Co(III)TMPyP operating through a cyanide-binding (i.e., scavenging) mechanism.

  11. DNA repair in mutagen-injured higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veleminsky, J.; Gichner, T.

    1978-01-01

    Data are summarized proving the occurrence of photoreactivation of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers in cells of Nicotiana tabucum, Gingko and carrot, the excision of dimers in cells of Nicotiana tabacum, Gingko and carrot, the excision of dimers in protoplasts of carrot and in embryos of Lathyrus sativus, and the repair of DNA single-strand breaks induced in carrot protoplasts and barley embryonic cells by ionizing radiation. In irradiated barley embryos the unscheduled DNA synthesis and higher accessibility of induced primers to DNA polymerase I of E. coli were observed preferentially in G 1 cells with diffused chromatin. These reactions were inhibited by caffeine and EDTA. Unscheduled DNA synthesis was also observed in synchronized irradiated root cuttings of Vicia faba and in barley embryos treated with 4-nitroquinoline oxide, the latter being inhibited by caffeine and hydroxyurea. Repair synthesis was also established in barley embryos treated with mutagenic N-methyl-N-nitrosourea under conditions that postponed the onset of germination after the treatment. The same conditions enhanced the repair of DNA single-strand breaks induced by this mutagen and several other monofunctional alkylating compounds. From tissues of barley and of Phaseolus multiflorus, endonucleases for apurinic sites were isolated and characterized. Some of them are located in chromatin, others in chloroplasts. The relation between DNA repair and genetic effects of mutagens in higher plants is also discussed. (Auth.)

  12. Association between gene expression biomarkers of immunosuppression and blood transfusion in severely injured polytrauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, Hew Dt; Brohi, Karim; Pearse, Rupert M; Mein, Charles A; Wozniak, Eva; Prowle, John R; Hinds, Charles J; OʼDwyer, Michael J

    2015-04-01

    To explore the hypothesis that blood transfusion contributes to an immunosuppressed phenotype in severely injured patients. Despite trauma patients using disproportionately large quantities of blood and blood products, the immunomodulatory effects of blood transfusion in this group are inadequately described. A total of 112 ventilated polytrauma patients were recruited. Messenger RNA (mRNA) was extracted from PAXGene tubes collected within 2 hours of the trauma, at 24 hours, and at 72 hours. T-helper cell subtype specific cytokines and transcription factors were quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Median injury severity score was 29. Blood transfusion was administered to 27 (24%) patients before the 2-hour sampling point. Transfusion was associated with a greater immediate rise in IL-10 (P = 0.003) and IL-27 (P = 0.04) mRNA levels. Blood products were transfused in 72 (64%) patients within the first 24 hours. There was an association between transfusion at 24 hours and higher IL-10 (P < 0.0001), lower Foxp3 (P = 0.01), GATA3 (P = 0.006), and RORγt (P = 0.05) mRNA levels at 24 hours. There were greater reductions in T-bet (P = 0.03) mRNA levels and lesser increases in TNFα (P = 0.015) and IFNγ (P = 0.035) at 24 hours in those transfused. Multiple regression models confirmed that the transfusion of blood products was independently associated with altered patterns of gene expression. Blood stream infections occur in 15 (20.8%) of those transfused in the first 24 hours, compared with 1 patient (2.5%) not transfused (OR = 10.3 [1.3-81], P = 0.008). The primarily immunosuppressive inflammatory response to polytrauma may be exacerbated by the transfusion of blood products. Furthermore, transfusion was associated with an increased susceptibility to nosocomial infections.

  13. The experience of being a partner to a spinal cord injured person:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angel, Sanne; Buus, Niels

    2011-01-01

    tasks. Some sought to reestablish their usual functions outside the family, whereas others focused on establishing a new life together. The partners experienced much distress and appreciated the support they got, but felt that they were mainly left to manage the difficult process on their own.......This qualitative interview study focuses on the personal experiences of partners to a spinal cord injured person. Using a Ricoeurian phenomenological-hermeneutic approach, we analysed seven partners’ narratives 1 and 2 years after their partner’s injury. The study revealed how the injury...... supporting the injured partner and the demanding tasks of everyday life outside the institution. After discharge, partners struggled for the injured partner to regain a well-functioning everyday life and for reestablishing life as a couple. The partner struggled to manage the overwhelming amount of everyday...

  14. Fipronil promotes motor and behavioral changes in honey bees (Apis mellifera) and affects the development of colonies exposed to sublethal doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaluski, Rodrigo; Kadri, Samir Moura; Alonso, Diego Peres; Martins Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo; de Oliveira Orsi, Ricardo

    2015-05-01

    Bees play a crucial role in pollination and generate honey and other hive products; therefore, their worldwide decline is cause for concern. New broad-spectrum systemic insecticides such as fipronil can harm bees and their use has been discussed as a potential threat to bees' survival. In the present study, the authors evaluate the in vitro toxicity of fipronil and note behavioral and motor activity changes in Africanized adult Apis mellifera that ingest or come into contact with lethal or sublethal doses of fipronil. The effects of sublethal doses on brood viability, population growth, behavior, and the expression of the defensin 1 gene in adult bees were studied in colonies fed with contaminated sugar syrup (8 µg fipronil L(-1) ). Fipronil is highly toxic to bees triggering agitation, seizures, tremors, and paralysis. Bees that are exposed to a lethal or sublethal doses showed reduced motor activity. The number of eggs that hatched, the area occupied by worker eggs, and the number of larvae and pupae that developed were reduced, adult bees showed lethargy, and colonies were abandoned when they were exposed to sublethal doses of fipronil. No change was seen in the bees' expression of defensin 1. The authors conclude that fipronil is highly toxic to honey bees and even sublethal doses may negatively affect the development and maintenance of colonies. © 2015 SETAC.

  15. Inductions of reproduction and population growth in the generalist predator Cyrtorhinus lividipennis (Hemiptera: Miridae) exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weiwei; Xu, Qiujing; Zhu, Jun; Liu, Chen; Ge, Linquan; Yang, Guoqing; Liu, Fang

    2017-08-01

    The miridbug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, is a significant predacious enemy of rice planthoppers. The effects of sub-lethal concentrations of triazophos, deltamethrin and imidacloprid on fecundity, egg hatchability, expression levels of genes associated with reproduction, and population growth in C. lividipennis were investigated. The fecundities for three pair combinations (♀ c × ♂ t , ♀ t × ♂ c and ♀ t × ♂ t ) treated with sub-lethal concentrations of the insecticides triazophos, deltamethrin and imidacloprid (LC 10 and LC 20 ) showed a significant increase compared to the untreated pairs (♀ c × ♂ c ). However, sub-lethal concentration treatments did not affect the egg hatchability. The ClVg expression levels of female adults exposed to triazophos, deltamethrin and imidacloprid (LC 20 ) increased by 52.6, 48.9 and 91.2%, respectively. The ClSPATA13 expression level of adult males exposed to triazophos, deltamethrim and imidacloprid (LC 20 ) increased by 80.7, 41.3 and 48.3%, respectively. Furthermore, sub-lethal concentrations of insecticides (LC 20 ) caused increased population numbers in C. lividipennis. Sub-lethal concentrations of triazophos, deltamethrin and imidacloprid stimulated reproduction and enhanced population growth of C. lividipennis. The reproductive stimulation might result from the up-regulation of ClVg or ClSPATA13. These findings may be useful in mediating populations of planthoppers. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Screening injured children for physical abuse or neglect in emergency departments: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, J; Lecky, F; Hodes, D; Pitt, M; Taylor, B; Gilbert, Ruth

    2010-03-01

    Screening markers are used in emergency departments (EDs) to identify children who should be assessed for possible physical abuse and neglect. We conducted three systematic reviews evaluating age, repeat attendance and injury type as markers for physical abuse or neglect in injured children attending EDs. We included studies comparing markers in physically abused or neglected children and non-abused injured children attending ED or hospital. We calculated likelihood ratios (LRs) for age group, repeat attendance and injury type (head injury, bruises, fractures, burns or other). Given the low prevalence of abuse or neglect, we considered that an LR of 10 or more would be clinically useful. All studies were poor quality. Infancy increased the risk of physical abuse or neglect in severely injured or admitted children (LRs 7.7-13.0, 2 studies) but was not strongly associated in children attending the ED (LR 1.5, 95% CI: 0.9, 2.8; one study). Repeat attendance did not substantially increase the risk of abuse or neglect and may be confounded by chronic disease and socio-economic status (LRs 0.8-3.9, 3 studies). One study showed no evidence that the type of injury substantially increased the risk of physical abuse or neglect in severely injured children. There was no evidence that any of the markers (infancy, type of injury, repeated attendance) were sufficiently accurate (i.e. LR >or= 10) to screen injured children in the ED to identify those requiring paediatric assessment for possible physical abuse or neglect. Clinicians should be aware that among injured children at ED a high proportion of abused children will present without these characteristics and a high proportion of non-abused children will present with them. Information about age, injury type and repeat attendances should be interpreted in this context.

  17. Exposure to Sublethal Doses of Fipronil and Thiacloprid Highly Increases Mortality of Honeybees Previously Infected by Nosema ceranae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidau, Cyril; Diogon, Marie; Aufauvre, Julie; Fontbonne, Régis; Viguès, Bernard; Brunet, Jean-Luc; Texier, Catherine; Biron, David G.; Blot, Nicolas; El Alaoui, Hicham; Belzunces, Luc P.; Delbac, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    Background The honeybee, Apis mellifera, is undergoing a worldwide decline whose origin is still in debate. Studies performed for twenty years suggest that this decline may involve both infectious diseases and exposure to pesticides. Joint action of pathogens and chemicals are known to threaten several organisms but the combined effects of these stressors were poorly investigated in honeybees. Our study was designed to explore the effect of Nosema ceranae infection on honeybee sensitivity to sublethal doses of the insecticides fipronil and thiacloprid. Methodology/Finding Five days after their emergence, honeybees were divided in 6 experimental groups: (i) uninfected controls, (ii) infected with N. ceranae, (iii) uninfected and exposed to fipronil, (iv) uninfected and exposed to thiacloprid, (v) infected with N. ceranae and exposed 10 days post-infection (p.i.) to fipronil, and (vi) infected with N. ceranae and exposed 10 days p.i. to thiacloprid. Honeybee mortality and insecticide consumption were analyzed daily and the intestinal spore content was evaluated 20 days after infection. A significant increase in honeybee mortality was observed when N. ceranae-infected honeybees were exposed to sublethal doses of insecticides. Surprisingly, exposures to fipronil and thiacloprid had opposite effects on microsporidian spore production. Analysis of the honeybee detoxification system 10 days p.i. showed that N. ceranae infection induced an increase in glutathione-S-transferase activity in midgut and fat body but not in 7-ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase activity. Conclusions/Significance After exposure to sublethal doses of fipronil or thiacloprid a higher mortality was observed in N. ceranae-infected honeybees than in uninfected ones. The synergistic effect of N. ceranae and insecticide on honeybee mortality, however, did not appear strongly linked to a decrease of the insect detoxification system. These data support the hypothesis that the combination of the increasing

  18. Sublethal Exposure to Diatomaceous Earth Increases Net Fecundity of Flour Beetles (Tribolium confusum) by Inhibiting Egg Cannibalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shostak, Allen W.

    2014-01-01

    Population regulation results from an interplay of numerous intrinsic and external factors, and for many insects cannibalism is such a factor. This study confirms a previously-reported observation that sublethal exposure to the fossilized remains of diatoms (i.e. diatomaceous earth) increases net fecundity (eggs produced minus eggs destroyed/day) of flour beetles, Tribolium confusum. The aim was to experimentally test two non-mutually-exclusive ecological mechanisms potentially responsible for the increased net fecundity: higher egg production and lower egg cannibalism. Adult T. confusum were maintained at low or high density in medium containing sublethal (0–4%) diatomaceous earth. Net fecundity increased up to 2.1× control values during diatomaceous earth exposure, and returned to control levels following removal from diatomaceous earth. Cannibalism assays on adults showed that diatomaceous earth reduced the number of eggs produced to 0.7× control values at low density and to 0.8× controls at high density, and also reduced egg cannibalism rates of adults to as little as 0.4× control values, but at high density only. Diatomaceous earth also reduced cannibalism by larvae on eggs to 0.3× control values. So, while the presence of diatomaceous earth reduced egg production, net fecundity increased as a result of strong suppression of the normal egg cannibalism by adults and larvae that occurs at high beetle density. Undisturbed cultures containing sublethal diatomaceous earth concentrations reached higher population densities than diatomaceous earth-free controls. Cohort studies on survival from egg to adult indicated that this population increase was due largely to decreased egg cannibalism by adult females. This is the first report of inhibition of egg cannibalism by diatomaceous earth on larval or adult insects. The ability of diatomaceous earth to alter cannibalism behavior without causing mortality makes it an ideal investigative tool for cannibalism

  19. Sublethal doses of neonicotinoid imidacloprid can interact with honey bee chemosensory protein 1 (CSP1) and inhibit its function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongliang; Tan, Jing; Song, Xinmi; Wu, Fan; Tang, Mingzhu; Hua, Qiyun; Zheng, Huoqing; Hu, Fuliang

    2017-04-29

    As a frequently used neonicotinoid insecticide, imidacloprid can impair the chemoreceptive behavior of honey bees even at sublethal doses, while the physiochemical mechanism has not been further revealed. Here, multiple fluorescence spectra, thermodynamic method, and molecular docking were used to study the interaction and the functional inhibition of imidacloprid to the recombinant CSP1 protein in Asian honey bee, Apis cerana. The results showed that the fluorescence intensity (λ em  = 332 nm) of CSP1 could be significantly quenched by imidacloprid in a dynamic mode. During the quenching process, ΔH > 0, ΔS > 0, indicating that the acting forces of imidacloprid with CSP1 are mainly hydrophobic interactions. Synchronous fluorescence showed that the fluorescence of CSP1 was mainly derived from tryptophan, and the hydrophobicity of tryptophan decreased with the increase of imidacloprid concentration. Molecular docking predicted the optimal pose and the amino acid composition of the binding process. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra showed that imidacloprid reduced the α-helix of CSP1 and caused the extension of the CSP1 peptide chain. In addition, the binding of CSP1 to floral scent β-ionone was inhibited by nearly 50% of the apparent association constant (K A ) in the presence of 0.28-2.53 ng/bee of imidacloprid, and the inhibition rate of nearly 95% at 3.75 ng/bee of imidacloprid at sublethal dose level. This study initially revealed the molecular physiochemical mechanism that sublethal doses of neonicotinoid still interact and inhibit the physiological function of the honey bees' chemoreceptive system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Lethal and Sub-lethal Effects of Four Insecticides on the Aphidophagous Coccinellid Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depalo, Laura; Lanzoni, Alberto; Masetti, Antonio; Pasqualini, Edison; Burgio, Giovanni

    2017-12-05

    Conventional insecticide assays, which measure the effects of insecticide exposure on short-term mortality, overlook important traits, including persistence of toxicity or sub-lethal effects. Therefore, such approaches are especially inadequate for prediction of the overall impact of insecticides on beneficial arthropods. In this study, the side effects of four modern insecticides (chlorantraniliprole, emamectin benzoate, spinosad, and spirotetramat) on Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were evaluated under laboratory conditions by exposition on treated potted plants. In addition to investigation of acute toxicity and persistence of harmful activity in both larvae and adults of A. bipunctata, demographic parameters were evaluated, to provide a comprehensive picture of the nontarget effects of these products. Field doses of the four insecticides caused detrimental effects to A. bipunctata; but in different ways. Overall, spinosad showed the best toxicological profile among the products tested. Emamectin benzoate could be considered a low-risk insecticide, but had high persistence. Chlorantraniliprole exhibited lethal effects on early instar larvae and adults, along with a long-lasting activity, instead spirotetramat showed a low impact on larval and adult mortality and can be considered a short-lived insecticide. However, demographic analysis demonstrated that chlorantraniliprole and spirotetramat caused sub-lethal effects. Our findings highlight that sole assessment of mortality can lead to underestimation of the full impact of pesticides on nontarget insects. Demographic analysis was demonstrated to be a sensitive method for detection of the sub-lethal effects of insecticides on A. bipunctata, and this approach should be considered for evaluation of insecticide selectivity. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Effects of sublethal exposure to metofluthrin on the fitness of Aedes aegypti in a domestic setting in Cairns, Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhagiar, Tamara S; Devine, Gregor J; Ritchie, Scott A

    2017-05-31

    Metofluthrin is highly effective at reducing biting activity in Aedes aegypti. Its efficacy lies in the rapid onset of confusion, knockdown, and subsequent kill of a mosquito. In the field, there are a variety of scenarios that might result in sublethal exposure to metofluthrin, including mosquitoes that are active at the margins of the chemical's lethal range, brief exposure as mosquitoes fly in and out of treated spaces or decreasing efficacy of the emanators with time. Sublethal effects are key elements of insecticide exposure and selection. The metofluthrin dose for each treatment group of male and female Ae. aegypti was controlled using exposure time intervals to a 10% active ingredient (AI) metofluthrin emanator. Room size and distance from the emanator for all groups was maintained at 3 m. In bioassay cages, male Ae. aegypti were exposed at 0, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40-min intervals. Females were exposed in bioassay cages at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 60-min intervals. Mortality rates and fecundity were observed between the exposure time groups for both sexes. Female Ae. aegypti exposed for 60 min had a significantly higher mortality rate (50%), after a 24-h recovery period, than other exposure times, 10, 20, 30 and 40 min (P metofluthrin exposure were as likely to produce viable eggs with an unexposed female as males that had not been exposed (P > 0.05). Regardless of sex, if a mosquito survived exposure, it would be as biologically successful as its unexposed counterpart. Portability of the metofluthrin emanator and delayed knockdown effects create opportunities for sublethal exposure and potential pyrethroid resistance development in Ae. aegypti, and should be taken into consideration in recommendations for field application of this product, including minimum exposure periods and a prescribed number of emanators per room based on volume.

  2. Frequent and seasonally variable sublethal anthrax infections are accompanied by short-lived immunity in an endemic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizauskas, Carrie A; Bellan, Steven E; Turner, Wendy C; Vance, Russell E; Getz, Wayne M

    2014-09-01

    Few studies have examined host-pathogen interactions in wildlife from an immunological perspective, particularly in the context of seasonal and longitudinal dynamics. In addition, though most ecological immunology studies employ serological antibody assays, endpoint titre determination is usually based on subjective criteria and needs to be made more objective. Despite the fact that anthrax is an ancient and emerging zoonotic infectious disease found world-wide, its natural ecology is not well understood. In particular, little is known about the adaptive immune responses of wild herbivore hosts against Bacillus anthracis. Working in the natural anthrax system of Etosha National Park, Namibia, we collected 154 serum samples from plains zebra (Equus quagga), 21 from springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) and 45 from African elephants (Loxodonta africana) over 2-3 years, resampling individuals when possible for seasonal and longitudinal comparisons. We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to measure anti-anthrax antibody titres and developed three increasingly conservative models to determine endpoint titres with more rigourous, objective mensuration. Between 52 and 87% of zebra, 0-15% of springbok and 3-52% of elephants had measurable anti-anthrax antibody titres, depending on the model used. While the ability of elephants and springbok to mount anti-anthrax adaptive immune responses is still equivocal, our results indicate that zebra in ENP often survive sublethal anthrax infections, encounter most B. anthracis in the wet season and can partially booster their immunity to B. anthracis. Thus, rather than being solely a lethal disease, anthrax often occurs as a sublethal infection in some susceptible hosts. Though we found that adaptive immunity to anthrax wanes rapidly, subsequent and frequent sublethal B. anthracis infections cause maturation of anti-anthrax immunity. By triggering host immune responses, these common sublethal infections may act as

  3. Changes in liver glycogen reserve in Wistar rats as a result of polysaccharide treatment and single sublethal gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metodiev, S.; Lambov, V.; Pavlova, N.

    1993-01-01

    The phase changes in the quantity of liver glycogen after single sublethal irradiation are investigated. The lowest concentration levels are registered at days 1, 3, 8 and 13 post irradiation. The effect of polysaccharide radioresistance modulation on the liver glycogen concentration is evaluated. The subcutaneous polysaccharide application of the immuno-active product PL prevents the sharp decrease of the liver glycogen concentration level, as a result of radiation provoked damages. The polysaccharide protection is most effective 5 - 21 days after irradiation. The conclusions are based on enzymic and hystomorphological studies. (author)

  4. Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide facilitates restoration of injured intestinal mucosal immunity in Muscovy duck reovirus-infected Muscovy ducklings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yijian; Jiang, Huihui; Zhu, Erpeng; Li, Jian; Wang, Quanxi; Zhou, Wuduo; Qin, Tao; Wu, Xiaoping; Wu, Baocheng; Huang, Yifan

    2018-02-01

    To elucidate the effect of Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide (HEP) on the intestinal mucosal immunity in normal and Muscovy duck reovirus (MDRV)-infected Muscovy ducklings, 1-day-old healthy Muscovy ducklings were pretreated with 0.2g/L HEP and/or following by MDRV infection in this study, duodenal samples were respectively collected at 1, 3, 6, 10, 15 and 21day post-infection, tissue sections were prepared for observation of morphological structure and determination of intestinal parameters (villus height/crypt depth ratio, villus surface area) as well as counts of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), goblet cells, mast cells. Additionally, dynamics of secretory immunoglobin A (sIgA), interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) productions in intestinal mucosa were measured with radioimmunoassay. Results showed that HEP significantly improved intestinal morphological structure and related indexes, and significantly inhibited the reduction of intestinal mucosal IELs, goblet cells and mast cells caused by MDRV infection. Furthermore, HEP significantly increased the secretion of sIgA, IFN-γ and IL-4 to enhance intestinal mucosal immune functions. Our findings indicate that HEP treatment can effectively repair MDRV-caused injures of small intestinal mucosal immune barrier, and improve mucosal immune function in sick Muscovy ducklings, which will provide valuable help for further application of HEP in prevention and treatment of MDRV infection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Changes in the Expression of Biofilm-Associated Surface Proteins in Staphylococcus aureus Food-Environmental Isolates Subjected to Sublethal Concentrations of Disinfectants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Cincarova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sublethal concentrations (sub-MICs of certain disinfectants are no longer effective in removing biofilms from abiotic surfaces and can even promote the formation of biofilms. Bacterial cells can probably adapt to these low concentrations of disinfectants and defend themselves by way of biofilm formation. In this paper, we report on three Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formers (strong B+++, moderate B++, and weak B+ that were cultivated with sub-MICs of commonly used disinfectants, ethanol or chloramine T, and quantified using Syto9 green fluorogenic nucleic acid stain. We demonstrate that 1.25–2.5% ethanol and 2500 μg/mL chloramine T significantly enhanced S. aureus biofilm formation. To visualize differences in biofilm compactness between S. aureus biofilms in control medium, 1.25% ethanol, or 2500 μg/mL chloramine T, scanning electron microscopy was used. To describe changes in abundance of surface-exposed proteins in ethanol- or chloramine T-treated biofilms, surface proteins were prepared using a novel trypsin shaving approach and quantified after dimethyl labeling by LC-LTQ/Orbitrap MS. Our data show that some proteins with adhesive functions and others with cell maintenance functions and virulence factor EsxA were significantly upregulated by both treatments. In contrast, immunoglobulin-binding protein A was significantly downregulated for both disinfectants. Significant differences were observed in the effect of the two disinfectants on the expression of surface proteins including some adhesins, foldase protein PrsA, and two virulence factors.

  6. Intersex and liver alterations induced by long-term sublethal exposure to 17α-ethinylestradiol in adult male Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Pisces: Poeciliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Brian Jonathan; López, Gabriela Carina; Cristos, Diego Sebastián; Crespo, Diana Cristina; Somoza, Gustavo Manuel; Carriquiriborde, Pedro

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the responses of the gonopodium morphology and the gonadal and liver histology of adult male Cnesterodon decemmaculatus to sublethal long-term exposure concentrations of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2). Two experiments were conducted exposing the fish to waterborne concentrations of EE2 ranging from 20 ng/L to 200 ng/L for 8 wk, 12 wk, and 16 wk. Intersex gonads were observed after 8 wk and 16 wk in fish exposed to 200 ng EE2/L and 100 ng EE2/L, respectively. Oocytes' development from testis germ cells and replacement of the efferent duct periodic acid-Schiff-positive secretion surrounding spermatozeugmata by parenchymal tissue and duct structure alterations were the major observed changes in the gonads. In contrast, no response was observed in the gonopodium morphology. Liver histology was also altered, showing increasing steatosis, single-cell necrosis to generalized necrosis, and disruption of acinar organization from 100 ng EE2/L to 200 ng EE2/L. In summary, the present results showed that although EE2 was not able to alter the morphology of a developed gonopodium, it was capable of inducing development of testicular oocytes in adult male C. decemmaculatus at environmentally relevant concentrations. Thus, externally normal but intersex C. decemmaculatus males would be expected in the wastewater-receiving streams that the species inhabits. According to the literature, the present study would be the first indicating estrogen-induced intersex in adult male poeciliid. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1738-1745. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  7. Assessment of Chronic Sublethal Effects of Imidacloprid on Honey Bee Colony Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dively, Galen P.; Embrey, Michael S.; Kamel, Alaa; Hawthorne, David J.; Pettis, Jeffery S.

    2015-01-01

    Here we present results of a three-year study to determine the fate of imidacloprid residues in hive matrices and to assess chronic sublethal effects on whole honey bee colonies fed supplemental pollen diet containing imidacloprid at 5, 20 and 100 μg/kg over multiple brood cycles. Various endpoints of colony performance and foraging behavior were measured during and after exposure, including winter survival. Imidacloprid residues became diluted or non-detectable within colonies due to the processing of beebread and honey and the rapid metabolism of the chemical. Imidacloprid exposure doses up to 100 μg/kg had no significant effects on foraging activity or other colony performance indicators during and shortly after exposure. Diseases and pest species did not affect colony health but infestations of Varroa mites were significantly higher in exposed colonies. Honey stores indicated that exposed colonies may have avoided the contaminated food. Imidacloprid dose effects was delayed later in the summer, when colonies exposed to 20 and 100 μg/kg experienced higher rates of queen failure and broodless periods, which led to weaker colonies going into the winter. Pooled over two years, winter survival of colonies averaged 85.7, 72.4, 61.2 and 59.2% in the control, 5, 20 and 100 μg/kg treatment groups, respectively. Analysis of colony survival data showed a significant dose effect, and all contrast tests comparing survival between control and treatment groups were significant, except for colonies exposed to 5 μg/kg. Given the weight of evidence, chronic exposure to imidacloprid at the higher range of field doses (20 to 100 μg/kg) in pollen of certain treated crops could cause negative impacts on honey bee colony health and reduced overwintering success, but the most likely encountered high range of field doses relevant for seed-treated crops (5 μg/kg) had negligible effects on colony health and are unlikely a sole cause of colony declines. PMID:25786127

  8. Return to work and quality of life in severely injured patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, R. B.; Van der Sluis, C. K.; Ten Duis, H. J.

    2006-01-01

    Background. Little is known about the long-term consequences of severe injuries in terms of return to productivity and quality of life. Methods. In this study we focused on the return to work status and quality of life in 53 severely injured patients (AIS/ISS >= 16, mean ISS 24, range 16 - 54), mean

  9. Effectiveness of a web-based intervention for injured claimants: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, N.A.; Akkermans, A.J.; Cuijpers, P.; Bruinvels, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is considerable evidence showing that injured people who are involved in a compensation process show poorer physical and mental recovery than those with similar injuries who are not involved in a compensation process. One explanation for this reduced recovery is that the legal

  10. Integrating and Analyzing Psychosocial and Stage Theories To Challenge the Development of the Injured Collegiate Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Laura L.

    2003-01-01

    Integrated a psychosocial developmental theory (the Kubler-Ross Stage Theory) and a psychological stage theory (the Ross Stage Theory) and a psychological stage theory (the Chickering and Reisser psychosocial and developmental theory) for challenging injured collegiate student-athletes' personal development. A search of online databases from…

  11. Supervisor Autonomy and Considerate Leadership Style are Associated with Supervisors' Likelihood to Accommodate Back Injured Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Connor; Kristman, Vicki L; Shaw, William; Williams-Whitt, Kelly; Reguly, Paula; Soklaridis, Sophie

    2015-09-01

    To determine the association between supervisors' leadership style and autonomy and supervisors' likelihood of supporting job accommodations for back-injured workers. A cross-sectional study of supervisors from Canadian and US employers was conducted using a web-based, self-report questionnaire that included a case vignette of a back-injured worker. Autonomy and two dimensions of leadership style (considerate and initiating structure) were included as exposures. The outcome, supervisors' likeliness to support job accommodation, was measured with the Job Accommodation Scale (JAS). We conducted univariate analyses of all variables and bivariate analyses of the JAS score with each exposure and potential confounding factor. We used multivariable generalized linear models to control for confounding factors. A total of 796 supervisors participated. Considerate leadership style (β = .012; 95% CI .009-.016) and autonomy (β = .066; 95% CI .025-.11) were positively associated with supervisors' likelihood to accommodate after adjusting for appropriate confounding factors. An initiating structure leadership style was not significantly associated with supervisors' likelihood to accommodate (β = .0018; 95% CI -.0026 to .0061) after adjusting for appropriate confounders. Autonomy and a considerate leadership style were positively associated with supervisors' likelihood to accommodate a back-injured worker. Providing supervisors with more autonomy over decisions of accommodation and developing their considerate leadership style may aid in increasing work accommodation for back-injured workers and preventing prolonged work disability.

  12. Supervisor Autonomy and Considerate Leadership Style are Associated with Supervisors’ Likelihood to Accommodate Back Injured Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Connor; Kristman, Vicki L; Williams-Whitt, Kelly; Reguly, Paula; Shaw, William; Soklaridis, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To determine the association between supervisors’ leadership style and autonomy and supervisors’ likelihood of supporting job accommodations for back-injured workers. METHODS A cross-sectional study of supervisors from Canadian and US employers was conducted using a web-based, self-report questionnaire that included a case vignette of a back-injured worker. Autonomy and two dimensions of leadership style (considerate and initiating structure) were included as exposures. The outcome, supervisors’ likeliness to support job accommodation, was measured with the Job Accommodation Scale. We conducted univariate analyses of all variables and bivariate analyses of the JAS score with each exposure and potential confounding factor. We used multivariable generalized linear models to control for confounding factors. RESULTS A total of 796 supervisors participated. Considerate leadership style (β= .012; 95% CI: .009–.016) and autonomy (β= .066; 95% CI: .025–.11) were positively associated with supervisors’ likelihood to accommodate after adjusting for appropriate confounding factors. An initiating structure leadership style was not significantly associated with supervisors’ likelihood to accommodate (β = .0018; 95% CI: −.0026–.0061) after adjusting for appropriate confounders. CONCLUSIONS Autonomy and a considerate leadership style were positively associated with supervisors’ likelihood to accommodate a back-injured worker. Providing supervisors with more autonomy over decisions of accommodation and developing their considerate leadership style may aid in increasing work accommodation for back-injured workers and preventing prolonged work disability. PMID:25595332

  13. Return to work and quality of life in severely injured patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, R. B.; Van der Sluis, C. K.; Ten Duis, H. J.

    Background. Little is known about the long-term consequences of severe injuries in terms of return to productivity and quality of life. Methods. In this study we focused on the return to work status and quality of life in 53 severely injured patients (AIS/ISS >= 16, mean ISS 24, range 16 - 54), mean

  14. The relationship between physical and psychological complaints and quality of life in severely injured patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Delft-Schreurs, K.; van Delft-Schreurs, C.C.H.M.; van Son, M.A.C.; de Jongh, M.A.C.; Lansink, K.W.W.; de Vries, J.; Verhofstad, M.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was two-fold. The first goal was to investigate which variables were associated with the remaining physical limitations of severely injured patients after the initial rehabilitation phase. Second, we investigated whether physical limitations were attributable to the

  15. The relationship between physical and psychological complaints and quality of life in severely injured patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Delft-Schreurs, K. (Katinka); C.C.H.M. van Delft-Schreurs (C. C H M); M.A.C. van Son; M.A.C. de Jongh (Mariska); K.W.W. Lansink (Koen); J. de Vries (Jolanda); M.H.J. Verhofstad (Michiel)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: The purpose of this study was two-fold. The first goal was to investigate which variables were associated with the remaining physical limitations of severely injured patients after the initial rehabilitation phase. Second, we investigated whether physical limitations were

  16. Key Considerations for Using No-Harm Contracts with Clients Who Self-Injure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyldahl, Rebecca S.; Richardson, Brent

    2011-01-01

    One of the more controversial issues in working with people who self-injure is whether counselors should use no-harm contracts. Important therapeutic considerations include the efficacy of such contracts or agreements in preventing self-injury, the emotional and behavioral responses of clients, and the perceived protection these contracts or…

  17. Body temperature responses in spinal cord injured individuals during exercise in the cold and heat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, C.R.L.; Binkhorst, R.A.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of arm exercise on the heat balance in spinal cord-injured (SCI) individuals with complete lesions at ambient temperatures of 10 and 35 degrees C. Four SCI with a high lesion (> or = T6) (SCI-H), seven with a low lesion (< T6) (SCI-L), and ten

  18. Missed posterior dislocation of the hip in a head-injured patient with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Head injury increases the risk of missed diagnosis by making patient-derived history impossible. The risk of missing a posterior dislocation of the hip in a head-injured patient is aggravated when an ipsilateral femoral shaft fracture co-exists. Adequate radiological evaluation of bone and joints is therefore of ...

  19. What Is the Relationship of Fear Avoidance to Physical Function and Pain Intensity in Injured Athletes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischerauer, Stefan F.; Talaei-Khoei, Mojtaba; Bexkens, Rens; Ring, David C.; Oh, Luke S.; Vranceanu, Ana-Maria

    2018-01-01

    Fear avoidance can play a prominent role in maladaptive responses to an injury. In injured athletes, such pain-related fear or fear avoidance behavior may have a substantial influence on the recovery process. Specifically, it may explain why some are able to reach their preinjury abilities, whereas

  20. Sexuality and sexual dysfunction in spinal cord-injured men in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Ramazan Yavuz; Coşkun Çelik, Evrim; Karataş, Metin

    2015-01-01

    To provide a comprehensive evaluation of sexual function and dysfunction in spinal cord-injured men based on self-reports of patients. Forty-seven spinal cord-injured men who completed the spinal shock and rehabilitation period were included. Patients were asked to complete a questionnaire developed to assess social status, sexual activities, abilities, and sexuality education after injury. Neurologic levels of patients were classified according to American Spinal Cord Injury Association protocol. Erectile function was evaluated by International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire. Patients were aged between 20 and 62 years (mean: 35.2). Twenty-eight patients had T10 and above, 15 between T11 and L2, and 4 cauda conus injury. While 61.7% of the patients declared sexual activity, 93.6% declared some degree of erection. Mean IIEF-5 score was 5.3 and 87.3% of the patients had moderate to severe erectile dysfunction. Continuation of sexual activity after injury is very important and has a great impact on quality of life and interpersonal relationships for spinal cord-injured men. More attention must be given to sexuality after spinal cord injury. A very high rate of sexual dysfunction in spinal cord-injured patients was found and the importance of sexual education was emphasized in this study.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal and chronically injured adult rat spinal cord in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guizar-Sahagun, G.; Rivera, F.; Babinski, E.; Berlanga, E.; Madrazo, M.; Franco-Bourland, R.; Grijalva, I.; Gonzalez, J.; Contreras, B.; Madrazo, I.

    1994-01-01

    We assessed the capacity of MRI to show and characterise the spinal cord (SC) in vivo in normal and chronically injured adult rats. In the chronically injured animals the SC was studied by MRI and histological examination. MRI was performed at 1.5 T, using gradient-echo and spin-echo (SE) sequences, the latter with and without gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA). Several positions were tried for good alignment and to diminish interference by respiratory movements. Images of the SC were obtained in sagittal, coronal, and axial planes. Normal SC was observed as a continuous intensity in both sequences, although contrast resolution was better using SE; it was not possible to differentiate the grey and white matter. Low signal was seen in the damaged area in chronically injured rats, which corresponded to cysts, trabeculae, mononuclear infiltrate, and fibroglial wall on histological examination. Gd-DTPA failed to enhance the SC in normal or chronically injured rats. It did, however, cause enhancement of the lesion after acute SC injury. (orig.)

  2. Work Safety Climate, Musculoskeletal Discomfort, Working While Injured, and Depression Among Migrant Farmworkers in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Hara, Heather; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Isom, Scott; Chen, Haiying; Quandt, Sara A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. This analysis described Latino migrant farmworkers’ work safety climate and its association with musculoskeletal discomfort, working while injured or ill, and depressive symptoms. Methods. Data were from a cross-sectional survey of 300 farmworkers conducted in North Carolina in 2009. Generalized estimating equations models were used to investigate the association of work safety climate with health and safety outcomes. Results. Farmworkers perceived their work safety climate to be poor. About 40% had elevated musculoskeletal discomfort, 5.0% had worked at least 1 day while injured or ill, and 27.9% had elevated depressive symptoms. The odds of elevated musculoskeletal discomfort were 12% lower and the odds of working while injured or ill were 15% lower with each 1-unit increase in the work safety climate. Work safety climate was not associated with depressive symptoms. Conclusions. Work safety climate was important for agricultural workers. Poor work safety climate was associated with health outcomes (musculoskeletal discomfort) and safety (working while injured or ill). Interventions to improve work safety climate in agriculture are needed, with these interventions being directed to employers and workers. PMID:22401520

  3. Rehabilitation Counselor Competencies When Working With Hispanic/Latino Immigrant Injured Workers: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Román, Leslie M.; Estrada-Hernández, Noel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To explore and identify attitudes, knowledge, and skills rehabilitation practitioners in the private sector need when working with Hispanic/Latino immigrant injured workers. Methods: This study employed a 3-round Delphi study to obtain a consensus of 8 rehabilitation practitioners who had experience and expertise working with…

  4. [What kind of health information search the spinal cord injured patients from Spain on the internet?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bea-Muñoz, Manuel; Medina-Sánchez, María; Flórez-García, Mariano

    2015-04-16

    Internet is an alternative for health education to the population. Spinal cord injured individuals usually consult the Internet about their health problems. To identify the health information sources, the more consulted items and the confidence in Internet information of a group of spinal cord injured individuals from Spain. A survey to spinal cord injured individuals from Spain was conducted, with a questionnaire in Google Drive. It was accessible with a link in ASPAYM-Asturias web page. The questionnaire included epidemiological data and information about Internet use and confidence in its contents. 121 individuals answered the survey, 64% male, with an average age of 45 years. The predominant aetiology was traumatic (70%) and 72% were paraplegics. 83% prefer to consult health care providers directly. More of 70% of the sample searches health problems on the Internet, mostly web pages in Spanish. The preferred item was 'orthopaedic materials and wheelchairs'. 27% of the sample trusts in the Internet information and 32% don't. This research provides information about Internet use of spinal cord injured individuals in Spain. Although we have to admit some bias in the study, more than 70% of the sample searches health problems on the Internet, mostly web pages in Spanish. About one in four individuals trust in information from Internet and most of the sample prefers recommendations directly from healthcare professionals.

  5. The effect of expedited rotator cuff surgery in injured workers: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmjou, Helen; Lincoln, Sandra; Boljanovic, Dragana; Gallay, Stephen; Henry, Patrick; Richards, Robin R; Holtby, Richard

    2017-07-01

    Expediting rotator cuff surgery is expected to facilitate recovery and return to work in injured workers. This case-control study examined the effect of expedited rotator cuff surgery on recovery and work status in injured workers. Injured workers who had undergone an expedited rotator cuff surgery funded by parallel-pay insurance (study group) were compared with workers who had used the public health insurance (control group) while adjusting for sex, age, severity of pathology, and follow-up period. Disability was measured by the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) Standardized Assessment Form score. The percentage of patients who exceeded the minimal clinically important difference of 17 points in the ASES was calculated. The study group waited less time to have surgery than the control group (P workers who underwent expedited rotator cuff surgery reported less disability and had a more successful return to work after surgery than injured workers who waited longer for specialist assessment and surgery within the public health system. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Pattern of Pressure Sores in Spinal Injured Patients with in the First ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Before 2006, all our spinal injured patients were nursed on conventional form mattress without pressure redistributing support surface. Pressure sore was a common complication and was a major contributing factor to prolonged hospitalization. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the pattern of pressure ...

  7. Saving the injured: Rescue behavior in the termite-hunting ant Megaponera analis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Erik Thomas; Schmitt, Thomas; Hovestadt, Thomas; Mitesser, Oliver; Stiegler, Jonas; Linsenmair, Karl Eduard

    2017-04-01

    Predators of highly defensive prey likely develop cost-reducing adaptations. The ant Megaponera analis is a specialized termite predator, solely raiding termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae (in this study, mostly colonies of Pseudocanthotermes sp.) at their foraging sites. The evolutionary arms race between termites and ants led to various defensive mechanisms in termites (for example, a caste specialized in fighting predators). Because M. analis incurs high injury/mortality risks when preying on termites, some risk-mitigating adaptations seem likely to have evolved. We show that a unique rescue behavior in M. analis , consisting of injured nestmates being carried back to the nest, reduces combat mortality. After a fight, injured ants are carried back by their nestmates; these ants have usually lost an extremity or have termites clinging to them and are able to recover within the nest. Injured ants that are forced experimentally to return without help, die in 32% of the cases. Behavioral experiments show that two compounds, dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide, present in the mandibular gland reservoirs, trigger the rescue behavior. A model accounting for this rescue behavior identifies the drivers favoring its evolution and estimates that rescuing enables maintenance of a 28.7% larger colony size. Our results are the first to explore experimentally the adaptive value of this form of rescue behavior focused on injured nestmates in social insects and help us to identify evolutionary drivers responsible for this type of behavior to evolve in animals.

  8. Do workers' compensation laws protect industrial hygienists from lawsuits by injured workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, N C

    1993-11-01

    Workers' compensation laws provide injured employees with a swifter, more certain, and less litigious system of compensation than existed under the common law. Although workers' compensation is almost always an injured employee's exclusive remedy against the employer, the employee may bring a common-law tort action against a "third party" who may be liable in whole or in part for the employee's injury. This article investigates whether industrial hygienists are "third parties" and therefore subject to suit by injured employees who claim that industrial hygienists negligently caused their injuries. The author concludes that in most states, where the industrial hygienist and the injured worker are fellow employees, the industrial hygienist shares the employer's immunity from suit. As to the consultant who performs industrial hygiene services as an independent contractor, the author concludes that the employer's nondelegable duty to provide a safe workplace offers industrial hygiene consultants an argument that they share the employer's immunity from suit. Countervailing arguments, however, leave the industrial hygiene consultant vulnerable to negligence claims in many jurisdictions. There is a trend among the states to extend the employer's immunity to those who provide safety and health services to the employer.

  9. Multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter infections in critically injured Canadian forces soldiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brisebois Ronald

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Military members, injured in Afghanistan or Iraq, have returned home with multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections. The source of these infections is unknown. Methods Retrospective study of all Canadian soldiers who were injured in Afghanistan and who required mechanical ventilation from January 1 2006 to September 1 2006. Patients who developed A. baumannii ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP were identified. All A. baumannii isolates were retrieved for study patients and compared with A. baumannii isolates from environmental sources from the Kandahar military hospital using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Results During the study period, six Canadian Forces (CF soldiers were injured in Afghanistan, required mechanical ventilation and were repatriated to Canadian hospitals. Four of these patients developed A. baumannii VAP. A. baumannii was also isolated from one environmental source in Kandahar – a ventilator air intake filter. Patient isolates were genetically indistinguishable from each other and from the isolates cultured from the ventilator filter. These isolates were resistant to numerous classes of antimicrobials including the carbapenems. Conclusion These results suggest that the source of A. baumannii infection for these four patients was an environmental source in the military field hospital in Kandahar. A causal linkage, however, was not established with the ventilator. This study suggests that infection control efforts and further research should be focused on the military field hospital environment to prevent further multi-drug resistant A. baumannii infections in injured soldiers.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal and chronically injured adult rat spinal cord in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guizar-Sahagun, G [Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico) Dept. of Clinical Research in Neurology and Neurosurgery, Hospital de Especialidades, Centro Medico Nacional Siglo XXI, Inst. Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico City (Mexico); Rivera, F [Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico); Babinski, E [Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico); Berlanga, E [Dept. of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Hospital Angeles del Pedregal, Mexico City (Mexico); Madrazo, M [Dept. of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Hospital Angeles del Pedregal, Mexico City (Mexico); Franco-Bourland, R [Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico) Dept. of Biochemistry, Inst. Nacional de la Nutricion, Mexico City (Mexico); Grijalva, I [Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico) Dept. of Clinical Research in Neurology and Neurosurgery, Hospital de Espe