WorldWideScience

Sample records for subjects viewed pleasant

  1. Subjective intensity and pleasantness in taste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis contains studies on intensity and pleasantness in taste perception. There is a formal relationship between intensity and hedonic value of stimuli, which can be expressed in an inverted U. The fact that pleasantness depends partially on stimulus intensity poses a problem when one wants to

  2. Sensory perception and pleasantness of food flavour in elderly subjects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de C.; Polet, P.; Staveren, van W.A.

    1994-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the perceived intensity and pleasantness of different food flavors. A group of 32 young subjects (mean age: 22, range 20-25) and 23 elderly subjects (mean age: 76, range 72-82) judged the intensity and the pleasantness of five series of food flavors, each with

  3. Pleasant touch moderates the subjective but not objective aspects of body perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Marie Lloyd

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Un-myelinated C tactile afferents (CT afferents are a key finding in affective touch. These fibres, which activate in response to a caress-like touch to hairy skin (CT afferents are not found in palm skin, may have more in common with interoceptive systems encoding body ownership, than afferent systems processing other tactile stimuli. We tested whether subjective embodiment of a rubber hand (measured through questionnaire items was increased when tactile stimulation was applied to the back of the hand at a rate optimal for CT afferents (3cm/s vs. stimulation of glabrous skin (on the palm of the hand or at a non-optimal rate (30cm/s, which should not activate these fibres. We also collected ratings of tactile pleasantness and a measure of perceived limb position, proprioceptive drift, which is mediated by different mechanisms of multisensory integration than those responsible for feelings of ownership. The results of a multiple regression analysis revealed that proprioceptive drift was a significant predictor of subjective strength of the illusion when tactile stimuli were applied to the back of the hand, regardless of stroking speed. This relationship was modified by pleasantness, with higher ratings when stimulation was applied to the back of the hand at the slower vs. faster stroking speed. Pleasantness was also a unique predictor of illusion strength when fast stroking was applied to the palm of the hand. However, there were no conditions under which pleasantness was a significant predictor of drift. Since the illusion was demonstrated at a non-optimal stroking speed an integrative role for CT afferents within the illusion cannot be fully supported. Pleasant touch, however, does moderate the subjective aspects of the rubber hand illusion, which under certain tactile conditions may interact with proprioceptive information about the body or have a unique influence on subjective body perception.

  4. Effects of listening to pleasant music on chronic unilateral neglect: a single-subject study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pei-Luen; Chen, Mei-Ching; Huang, Yu-Ting; Lin, Keh-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the positive emotion induced by pleasant music may improve cognitive functions. We used the single-subject design to study whether listening to preferred music may reduce unilateral neglect in two participants with post-stroke neglect. These participants were instructed to listen to their preferred music every day for 5 weeks, followed by 2 weeks of follow-up assessment. Outcome measures involved the Star Cancellation Test, the Line Bisection Test, and the visual exploration task. A combination of visual analysis and the two-standard-deviation band method was used for data analysis. Both participants showed significant intervention-related improvements on all outcome measures except the Line Bisection Test, on which one participant showed no improvement. The therapeutic effects were maintained during the follow-up phase. The findings suggest that positive emotion, evoked by preferred music, may be used to ameliorate unilateral neglect. Further research using controlled trials is warranted to validate the findings.

  5. Marketing actions can modulate neural representations of experienced pleasantness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plassmann, Hilke; O'Doherty, John; Shiv, Baba; Rangel, Antonio

    2008-01-22

    Despite the importance and pervasiveness of marketing, almost nothing is known about the neural mechanisms through which it affects decisions made by individuals. We propose that marketing actions, such as changes in the price of a product, can affect neural representations of experienced pleasantness. We tested this hypothesis by scanning human subjects using functional MRI while they tasted wines that, contrary to reality, they believed to be different and sold at different prices. Our results show that increasing the price of a wine increases subjective reports of flavor pleasantness as well as blood-oxygen-level-dependent activity in medial orbitofrontal cortex, an area that is widely thought to encode for experienced pleasantness during experiential tasks. The paper provides evidence for the ability of marketing actions to modulate neural correlates of experienced pleasantness and for the mechanisms through which the effect operates.

  6. Olfactory Cerebral Evoked Potentials for Pleasant and Unpleasant Smells in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiko Igasaki

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between sensory estimation and evoked potential when pleasant or unpleasant smell delivered to human nose was investigated. Ten healthy men participated. First, the subject was presented gamma-undecalactone (pleasant smell or isovaleric acid (unpleasant smell, and instructed to estimate the odor magnitude and pleasantness/unpleasantness (sensory test session. Then, evoked potentials of the subject were measured from 19 scalp electrodes when pleasant or unpleasant smell were delivered 100 times to the subject, respectively (EEG measurement session. In the sensory test session, both the evaluation of odor magnitude and pleasantness/unpleasantness were significantly changed according to the concentration of smells. On the Pz scalp electrode, the positive potentials at the latency of 610 ms and 450 ms were observed in the pleasant and unpleasant stimulation, respectively. Statistically, it was found that the variance of the positive potential latency in unpleasant stimulation was significantly smaller than that in pleasant stimulation. It was also found that the positive potential latency in unpleasant stimulation was significantly earlier than that in pleasant stimulation. The small variance of latency and the earlier latency for unpleasant smell could be considered to reflect human behavior, such as quick reaction for avoiding dangerous odor to save one's life.

  7. Added Mastication Sound Affects Food Texture and Pleasantness

    OpenAIRE

    Mami Masuda; Katsunori Okajima

    2011-01-01

    When eating, specific sounds are generated depending on the food, thus strong associations between food and mastication-sound exist. In the present study, we investigated how the sound of chewing affects the perceived texture and pleasantness of food. Mastication sounds were recorded prior to the experiment for each subject while chewing several foods. These artificial mastication sounds were then presented to subjects during the experiment while they chewed several foods. The onset of the ar...

  8. Pleasantness, activation, and sex differences in advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whissell, C; McCall, L

    1997-10-01

    Advertisements in men's, women's, girls', and boys' magazines (n = 38,195 words) were scored objectively in terms of 15 measures of linguistic style, e.g., use of common words, use of long words, use of specific words and emotional tone (pleasantness and activation, as measured by the Dictionary of Affect). There were several sex- and age-related differences among advertisements from different sources. Advertisements from boys' magazines were extremely active, those from women's and girls' magazines were shorter and unusually pleasant. In two follow-up studies (N = 122 volunteers), objective emotional measures of advertising text proved to be related to ratings of persuasion and of success of appeal for individual advertisements. The most preferred advertisement for women was pleasant and active, that for men unpleasant and active. When men and women created advertisements, women's were shorter and more pleasant.

  9. Pleasant music as a countermeasure against visually induced motion sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, Behrang; Hecht, Heiko

    2014-05-01

    Visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) is a well-known side-effect in virtual environments or simulators. However, effective behavioral countermeasures against VIMS are still sparse. In this study, we tested whether music can reduce the severity of VIMS. Ninety-three volunteers were immersed in an approximately 14-minute-long video taken during a bicycle ride. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups, either including relaxing music, neutral music, stressful music, or no music. Sickness scores were collected using the Fast Motion Sickness Scale and the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire. Results showed an overall trend for relaxing music to reduce the severity of VIMS. When factoring in the subjective pleasantness of the music, a significant reduction of VIMS occurred only when the presented music was perceived as pleasant, regardless of the music type. In addition, we found a gender effect with women reporting more sickness than men. We assume that the presentation of pleasant music can be an effective, low-cost, and easy-to-administer method to reduce VIMS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Pleasantness of Creative Tasks and Creative Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenasni, Franck; Lubart, Todd

    2011-01-01

    To examine the impact of emotion on creative potential, experimental studies have typically focused on the impact of induced or spontaneous mood states on creative performance. In this report the relationship between the perceived pleasantness of tasks (using divergent thinking and story writing tasks) and creative performance was examined.…

  11. Auditory-olfactory integration: congruent or pleasant sounds amplify odor pleasantness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seo, Han-Seok; Hummel, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    ...) and the "halo/horns effect" of auditory pleasantness (Experiment 2). First, in Experiment 1, participants were presented with congruent, incongruent, or neutral sounds before and during the presentation of odor...

  12. To View or Not To View: The Influence of Social Networks and Subjective Norms on Online Pornography Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Ying Lin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the influence of social networks and subjective norms on an individual’s online pornography consumption. The empirical survey results of 324 voluntary participants indicated that the individual’s positive outcome evaluation was associated with a higher level of online pornography exposure. Social pressure also plays a significant, but negative, role in one’s viewing decision.

  13. Sensitivity of physiological emotional measures to odors depends on the product and the pleasantness ranges used

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Marie Pichon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Emotions are characterized by synchronized changes in several components of an organism. Among them, physiological variations provide energy support for the expression of approach/avoid action tendencies induced by relevant stimuli, while self-reported subjective pleasantness feelings integrate all other emotional components and are plastic.Consequently, emotional responses evoked by odors should be highly differentiated when they are linked to different functions of olfaction (e.g., avoiding environmental hazards. As this differentiation has been observed for contrasted odors (very pleasant or unpleasant, we questioned whether subjective and physiological emotional response indicators could still disentangle subtle affective variations when no clear functional distinction is made (mildly pleasant or unpleasant fragrances. Here, we compared the sensitivity of behavioral and physiological (respiration, skin conductance, facial electromyography (EMG, and heart rate indicators in differentiating odor-elicited emotions in two situations: when a wide range of odor families was presented (e.g., fruity, animal, covering different functional meanings; or in response to a restricted range of products in one particular family (fragrances. Results show clear differences in physiological indicators to odors that display a wide range of reported pleasantness, but these differences almost entirely vanish when fragrances are used even though their subjective pleasantness still differed. Taken together, these results provide valuable information concerning the ability of classic verbal and psychophysiological measures to investigate subtle differences in emotional reactions to a restricted range of similar olfactory stimuli.

  14. Unpleasant and Pleasant Referential Thinking: Relations with Self- Processing, Paranoia, and Other Schizotypal Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, David C; Kerns, John G

    2011-04-01

    Referential thinking is the tendency to view innocuous stimuli as having a specific meaning for the self and is associated with personality traits and disorders. In three studies, this research examined the relations among referential thinking, self-processing, and paranoia. In study 1, follow-up questions on the Referential Thinking Scale (Lenzenweger, Bennett, & Lilenfeld, 1997) revealed that referential thoughts are experienced as unpleasant and pleasant. In Study 2, unpleasant referential thinking was more strongly associated with paranoia and maladaptive self-processing and personality. CFAs in Study 1 and 2 found that unpleasant and pleasant referential thinking loaded on different factors. In Study 3, a group of participants with elevated schizotypal personality reported more unpleasant and pleasant referential thoughts than a control group.

  15. Unpleasant and Pleasant Referential Thinking: Relations with Self- Processing, Paranoia, and Other Schizotypal Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, David C.; Kerns, John G.

    2015-01-01

    Referential thinking is the tendency to view innocuous stimuli as having a specific meaning for the self and is associated with personality traits and disorders. In three studies, this research examined the relations among referential thinking, self-processing, and paranoia. In study 1, follow-up questions on the Referential Thinking Scale (Lenzenweger, Bennett, & Lilenfeld, 1997) revealed that referential thoughts are experienced as unpleasant and pleasant. In Study 2, unpleasant referential thinking was more strongly associated with paranoia and maladaptive self-processing and personality. CFAs in Study 1 and 2 found that unpleasant and pleasant referential thinking loaded on different factors. In Study 3, a group of participants with elevated schizotypal personality reported more unpleasant and pleasant referential thoughts than a control group. PMID:26028792

  16. Physical factors influencing pleasant touch during passive fingertip stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Klöcker

    Full Text Available Tactile explorations with the fingertips provide information regarding the physical properties of surfaces and their relative pleasantness. Previously, we performed an investigation in the active touch domain and linked several surface properties (i.e. frictional force fluctuations and net friction with their pleasantness levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate physical factors being important for pleasantness perception during passive fingertip stimulation. Specifically we were interested to see whether factors, such as surfaces' topographies or their frictional characteristics could influence pleasantness. Furthermore, we ascertained how the stimulus pleasantness level was impacted by (i the normal force of stimulus application (FN and (ii the stimulus temperature (TS.The right index fingertips of 22 blindfolded participants were stimulated using 27 different stimuli, which varied in average roughness (Ra and TS. A 4-axis robot moved the stimuli horizontally under participants' fingertips with three levels of FN. The robot was equipped with force sensors, which recorded the FN and friction force (FT during stimulation. Participants rated each stimulus according to a three-level pleasantness scale, as very pleasant (scored 0, pleasant (scored 1, or unpleasant (scored 2. These ordinal pleasantness ratings were logarithmically transformed into linear and unidimensional pleasantness measures with the Rasch model. Statistical analyses were conducted to investigate a possible link between the stimulus properties (i.e. Ra, FN, FT, and TS and their respective pleasantness levels. Only the mean Ra and FT values were negatively correlated with pleasantness. No significant correlation was detected between FN or TS and pleasantness.Pleasantness perception, resulting from passive fingertip stimulation, seems to be influenced by the surfaces' average roughness levels and average FT occurring during fingertip stimulation.

  17. Physical Factors Influencing Pleasant Touch during Passive Fingertip Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klöcker, Anne; Oddo, Calogero Maria; Camboni, Domenico; Penta, Massimo; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    Objective Tactile explorations with the fingertips provide information regarding the physical properties of surfaces and their relative pleasantness. Previously, we performed an investigation in the active touch domain and linked several surface properties (i.e. frictional force fluctuations and net friction) with their pleasantness levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate physical factors being important for pleasantness perception during passive fingertip stimulation. Specifically we were interested to see whether factors, such as surfaces' topographies or their frictional characteristics could influence pleasantness. Furthermore, we ascertained how the stimulus pleasantness level was impacted by (i) the normal force of stimulus application (FN) and (ii) the stimulus temperature (TS). Methods and Results The right index fingertips of 22 blindfolded participants were stimulated using 27 different stimuli, which varied in average roughness (Ra) and TS. A 4-axis robot moved the stimuli horizontally under participants' fingertips with three levels of FN. The robot was equipped with force sensors, which recorded the FN and friction force (FT) during stimulation. Participants rated each stimulus according to a three-level pleasantness scale, as very pleasant (scored 0), pleasant (scored 1), or unpleasant (scored 2). These ordinal pleasantness ratings were logarithmically transformed into linear and unidimensional pleasantness measures with the Rasch model. Statistical analyses were conducted to investigate a possible link between the stimulus properties (i.e. Ra, FN, FT, and TS) and their respective pleasantness levels. Only the mean Ra and FT values were negatively correlated with pleasantness. No significant correlation was detected between FN or TS and pleasantness. Conclusion Pleasantness perception, resulting from passive fingertip stimulation, seems to be influenced by the surfaces' average roughness levels and average FT occurring during fingertip

  18. Enhanced Choice for Viewing Cocaine Pictures in Cocaine Addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, S.J.; Goldstein, R.; Moeller, S.J.; Maloney, T. Parvaz, M.A.; Dunning, J.P.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik, P.A.; Hajcak, G.; Telang, F.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2009-02-01

    Individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD) chose cocaine over nondrug rewards. In two newly designed laboratory tasks with pictures, we document this modified choice outside of a cocaine administration paradigm. Choice for viewing cocaine, pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral pictures-under explicit contingencies (choice made between two fully visible side-by-side images) and under more implicit contingencies (selections made between pictures hidden under flipped-over cards)-was examined in 20 CUD and 20 matched healthy control subjects. Subjects also provided self-reported ratings of each picture's pleasantness and arousal. Under both contingencies, CUD subjects chose to view more cocaine pictures than control subjects, group differences that were not fully explained by the self-reported picture ratings. Furthermore, whereas CUD subjects choice for viewing cocaine pictures exceeded choice for viewing unpleasant pictures (but did not exceed choice for viewing pleasant pictures, in contrast to their self-reported ratings), healthy control subjects avoided viewing cocaine pictures as frequently as, or even more than, unpleasant pictures. Finally, CUD subjects with the most cocaine viewing selections, even when directly compared with selections of the pleasant pictures, also reported the most frequent recent cocaine use. Enhanced drug-related choice in cocaine addiction can be demonstrated even for nonpharmacologic (pictorial) stimuli. This choice, which is modulated by alternative stimuli, partly transcends self-reports (possibly indicative of a disconnect in cocaine addiction between self-reports and objective behavior) to provide an objective marker of addiction severity. Neuroimaging studies are needed to establish the neural underpinnings of such enhanced cocaine-related choice.

  19. Enhanced choice for viewing cocaine pictures in cocaine addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Scott J; Maloney, Thomas; Parvaz, Muhammad A; Dunning, Jonathan P; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Woicik, Patricia A; Hajcak, Greg; Telang, Frank; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D; Goldstein, Rita Z

    2009-07-15

    Individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD) chose cocaine over nondrug rewards. In two newly designed laboratory tasks with pictures, we document this modified choice outside of a cocaine administration paradigm. Choice for viewing cocaine, pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral pictures--under explicit contingencies (choice made between two fully visible side-by-side images) and under more implicit contingencies (selections made between pictures hidden under flipped-over cards)--was examined in 20 CUD and 20 matched healthy control subjects. Subjects also provided self-reported ratings of each picture's pleasantness and arousal. Under both contingencies, CUD subjects chose to view more cocaine pictures than control subjects, group differences that were not fully explained by the self-reported picture ratings. Furthermore, whereas CUD subjects' choice for viewing cocaine pictures exceeded choice for viewing unpleasant pictures (but did not exceed choice for viewing pleasant pictures, in contrast to their self-reported ratings), healthy control subjects avoided viewing cocaine pictures as frequently as, or even more than, unpleasant pictures. Finally, CUD subjects with the most cocaine viewing selections, even when directly compared with selections of the pleasant pictures, also reported the most frequent recent cocaine use. Enhanced drug-related choice in cocaine addiction can be demonstrated even for nonpharmacologic (pictorial) stimuli. This choice, which is modulated by alternative stimuli, partly transcends self-reports (possibly indicative of a disconnect in cocaine addiction between self-reports and objective behavior) to provide an objective marker of addiction severity. Neuroimaging studies are needed to establish the neural underpinnings of such enhanced cocaine-related choice.

  20. Effects of affective picture viewing on postural control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beek Peter J

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emotion theory holds that unpleasant events prime withdrawal actions, whereas pleasant events prime approach actions. Recent studies have suggested that passive viewing of emotion eliciting images results in postural adjustments, which become manifest as changes in body center of pressure (COP trajectories. From those studies it appears that posture is modulated most when viewing pictures with negative valence. The present experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that pictures with negative valence have a greater impact on postural control than neutral or positive ones. Thirty-four healthy subjects passively viewed a series of emotion eliciting images, while standing either in a bipedal or unipedal stance on a force plate. The images were adopted from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS. We analysed mean and variability of the COP and the length of the associated sway path as a function of emotion. Results The mean position of the COP was unaffected by emotion, but unipedal stance resulted in overall greater body sway than bipedal stance. We found a modest effect of emotion on COP: viewing pictures of mutilation resulted in a smaller sway path, but only in unipedal stance. We obtained valence and arousal ratings of the images with an independent sample of viewers. These subjects rated the unpleasant images as significantly less pleasant than neutral images, and the pleasant images as significantly more pleasant than neutral images. However, the subjects rated the images as overall less pleasant and less arousing than viewers in a closely comparable American study, pointing to unknown differences in viewer characteristics. Conclusion Overall, viewing emotion eliciting images had little effect on body sway. Our finding of a reduction in sway path length when viewing pictures of mutilation was indicative of a freezing strategy, i.e. fear bradycardia. The results are consistent with current knowledge about the

  1. South African Teachers' Views on the Inclusion of Spirituality Education in the Subject Life Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Anne C.

    2012-01-01

    As part of a larger research project into the practice and effectiveness of Life Orientation (LO), a compulsory subject in South African schools, this study investigated the views that teachers have regarding the constructs spirituality and religion within the context of LO. LO attempts to teach skills, attitudes and values from a holistic…

  2. Predicting Odor Pleasantness from Odorant Structure: Pleasantness as a Reflection of the Physical World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Experiment 7 was conducted in a well ventilated concrete room in the Arab village of Dir El Asad in the Northern Galilee part of Israel. All odorants were...Finally, studies with newborns suggest that at least some aspects of olfactory pleasantness may be innate (Steiner, 1979; Soussignan et al...6C, 6E) suggests that we have revealed a genuine mechanism that is independent of the odorants used to build the model, or the particular methods of

  3. Pleasant mood intensifies brain processing of cognitive control: ERP correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiajin; Xu, Shuang; Yang, Jiemin; Liu, Qiang; Chen, Antao; Zhu, Liping; Chen, Jie; Li, Hong

    2011-04-01

    The present study investigated the impact of auditory-induced mood on brain processing of cognitive control using a Stroop color-word interference task. A total of 135 positive, negative, and neutral sounds (45 of each) were presented in separate blocks for a mood induction procedure, which was then followed by a Stroop color-word task in each trial. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded for color-word congruent, incongruent and neutral (color-word irrelevant) words and subjects named the printed colors of the words by pressing the appropriate key (irrespective of word meaning). Response latency was delayed during incongruent vs. neutral trials, and this cost did not interact significantly with mood states. ERP data showed prolonged peak latencies in the P200 component and more negative deflections in the Late Positive Component (LPC, 450-550 ms) during incongruent vs. neutral conditions, regardless of mood states. Moreover, the negative deflections (N450) in the 450-550 ms interval of the incongruent- neutral difference waves, which index cognitive control effect in brain potentials, was more pronounced in the pleasant, but not in the unpleasant, mood state when compared with the neutral mood state. These data suggest that, pleasant mood intensifies brain processing of cognitive control, in a situation requiring effective inhibition of task-irrelevant distracting information. In addition, N450 component serves as an affective marker, embodying not only cognitive control effect in the brain but also its interaction with mood states. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Sexuality and the human body: the subject's view through video images].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, E; Siqueira, V H

    1999-11-01

    This study analyzes images of the body linked to sexual and reproductive behavior found in the communication processes mediated by so-called educational videos. In the relationship between subject and technology, the paper is intended to characterize the discourses and the view or perspective currently shaping health education practices. Focusing on the potential in the relationship between the enunciator and subjects represented in the text and the interaction between health professionals and messages, the study attempts to characterize the discourses and questions providing the basis for a given view of the body and sexuality. The study was conducted in the years 1996-1997 and focused on health professionals from the public health system. The results show a concept of sexuality that tends to generalize the meaning ascribed to sexual experience, ignoring the various ways by which different culturally defined groups attribute meaning to the body.

  5. Pleasant music improves visual attention in patients with unilateral neglect after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Ching; Tsai, Pei-Luen; Huang, Yu-Ting; Lin, Keh-Chung

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether listening to pleasant music improves visual attention to and awareness of contralesional stimuli in patients with unilateral neglect after stroke. A within-subject design was used with 19 participants with unilateral neglect following a right hemisphere stroke. Participants were tested in three conditions (pleasant music, unpleasant music and white noise) within 1 week. All musical pieces were chosen by the participants. In each condition, participants were asked to complete three sub-tests of the Behavioural Inattention Test (the Star Cancellation Test, the Line Bisection Test and the Picture Scanning test) and a visual exploration task with everyday scenes. Eye movements in the visual exploration task were recorded simultaneously. Mood and arousal induced by different auditory stimuli were assessed using visual analogue scales, heart rate and galvanic skin response. Compared with unpleasant music and white noise, participants rated their moods as more positive and arousal as higher with pleasant music, but also showed significant improvement on all tasks and eye movement data, except the Line Bisection Test. The findings suggest that pleasant music can improve visual attention in patients with unilateral neglect after stroke. Additional research using randomized controlled trials is required to validate these findings.

  6. Functional neuroimaging of umami taste: what makes umami pleasant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Edmund T

    2009-09-01

    The cortical processing of umami shows what makes it pleasant and appetitive. The pleasantness of umami reflects and is correlated with processing in the secondary taste cortex in the orbitofrontal cortex and tertiary taste cortex in the anterior cingulate cortex, whereas processing in the primary (insular) taste cortex reflects physical properties such as intensity. However, glutamate presented alone as a taste stimulus is not highly pleasant and does not act synergistically with other tastes (sweet, salt, bitter, and sour). When glutamate is given in combination with a consonant, savory odor (vegetable), the resulting flavor, formed by a convergence of the taste and olfactory pathways in the orbitofrontal cortex, can be much more pleasant. This pleasantness is shown by much greater activation of the medial orbitofrontal cortex and pregenual cingulate cortex than the sum of the activations by the taste and olfactory components presented separately. Furthermore, activations in these brain regions were correlated with the pleasantness and fullness of the flavor and with the consonance of the taste and olfactory components. The concept is proposed that umami can be thought of as a rich and delicious flavor that is produced by a combination of glutamate taste and a consonant savory odor. Glutamate is thus a flavor enhancer because of the way that it can combine supralinearly with consonant odors in cortical areas in which the taste and olfactory pathways converge far beyond the receptors. Cognitive and attentional modulation of the orbitofrontal cortex also contributes to the pleasantness and appetitive value of umami.

  7. The mere exposure effect depends on an odor's initial pleasantness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delplanque, Sylvain; Coppin, Géraldine; Bloesch, Laurène; Cayeux, Isabelle; Sander, David

    2015-01-01

    The mere exposure phenomenon refers to improvement of one's attitude toward an a priori neutral stimulus after its repeated exposure. The extent to which such a phenomenon influences evaluation of a priori emotional stimuli remains under-investigated. Here we investigated this question by presenting participants with different odors varying in a priori pleasantness during different sessions spaced over time. Participants were requested to report each odor's pleasantness, intensity, and familiarity. As expected, participants became more familiar with all stimuli after the repetition procedure. However, while neutral and mildly pleasant odors showed an increase in pleasantness ratings, unpleasant and very pleasant odors remained unaffected. Correlational analyses revealed an inverse U-shape between the magnitude of the mere exposure effect and the initial pleasantness of the odor. Consequently, the initial pleasantness of the stimuli appears to modulate the impact of repeated exposures on an individual's attitude. These data underline the limits of mere exposure effect and are discussed in light of the biological relevance of odors for individual survival.

  8. Subjective quality and depth assessment in stereoscopic viewing of volume-rendered medical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousson, Johanna; Couturou, Jeanne; Vetsuypens, Arnout; Platisa, Ljiljana; Kumcu, Asli; Kimpe, Tom; Philips, Wilfried

    2014-03-01

    No study to-date explored the relationship between perceived image quality (IQ) and perceived depth (DP) in stereoscopic medical images. However, this is crucial to design objective quality metrics suitable for stereoscopic medical images. This study examined this relationship using volume-rendered stereoscopic medical images for both dual- and single-view distortions. The reference image was modified to simulate common alterations occurring during the image acquisition stage or at the display side: added white Gaussian noise, Gaussian filtering, changes in luminance, brightness and contrast. We followed a double stimulus five-point quality scale methodology to conduct subjective tests with eight non-expert human observers. The results suggested that DP was very robust to luminance, contrast and brightness alterations and insensitive to noise distortions until standard deviation σ=20 and crosstalk rates of 7%. In contrast, IQ seemed sensitive to all distortions. Finally, for both DP and IQ, the Friedman test indicated that the quality scores for dual-view distortions were significantly worse than scores for single-view distortions for multiple blur levels and crosstalk impairments. No differences were found for most levels of brightness, contrast and noise distortions. So, DP and IQ didn't react equivalently to identical impairments, and both depended whether dual- or single-view distortions were applied.

  9. Identification of pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant odors in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Vidyulata; Turetsky, Bruce I; Moberg, Paul J

    2011-05-15

    Recent work on odor hedonics in schizophrenia has indicated that patients display abnormalities in hedonic judgments of odors in comparison to healthy comparison participants. In the current study, identification accuracy for pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant odors in individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls was examined. Thirty-three schizophrenia patients (63% male) and thirty-one healthy volunteers (65% male) were recruited. The groups were well matched on age, sex, and smoking status. Participants were administered the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test, which was subsequently divided into 16 pleasant, 15 neutral, and 9 unpleasant items. Analysis of identification z-scores for pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant odors revealed a significant diagnosis by valence interaction. Post-hoc analysis revealed that schizophrenia participants made more identification errors on pleasant and neutral odors compared to healthy controls, with no differences observed for unpleasant odors. No effect was seen for sex. The findings from the current investigation suggest that odor identification accuracy in patients is influenced by odor valence. This pattern of results parallels a growing body of literature indicating that patients display aberrant pleasantness ratings for pleasant odors and highlights the need for additional research on the influence of odor valence on olfactory identification performance in individuals with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Training compensatory viewing strategies : feasiblity and effect on practical fitness to drive in subjects with visual field defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Tanja R.M.; Brouwer, Wiebo H.; Cornelissen, Frans W.; Kooijman, Aart C.

    2002-01-01

    Fifty-one subjects with visual field defects were trained to use compensatory viewing strategies.The subjects were referred to the training program by an official driving examiner of the Dutch Central Bureau of Driving Licenses. Three training programs were compared: laboratory training, mobility

  11. Pleasant/Unpleasant Filtering for Affective Image Retrieval Based on Cross-Correlation of EEG Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keranmu Xielifuguli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available People often make decisions based on sensitivity rather than rationality. In the field of biological information processing, methods are available for analyzing biological information directly based on electroencephalogram: EEG to determine the pleasant/unpleasant reactions of users. In this study, we propose a sensitivity filtering technique for discriminating preferences (pleasant/unpleasant for images using a sensitivity image filtering system based on EEG. Using a set of images retrieved by similarity retrieval, we perform the sensitivity-based pleasant/unpleasant classification of images based on the affective features extracted from images with the maximum entropy method: MEM. In the present study, the affective features comprised cross-correlation features obtained from EEGs produced when an individual observed an image. However, it is difficult to measure the EEG when a subject visualizes an unknown image. Thus, we propose a solution where a linear regression method based on canonical correlation is used to estimate the cross-correlation features from image features. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the validity of sensitivity filtering compared with image similarity retrieval methods based on image features. We found that sensitivity filtering using color correlograms was suitable for the classification of preferred images, while sensitivity filtering using local binary patterns was suitable for the classification of unpleasant images. Moreover, sensitivity filtering using local binary patterns for unpleasant images had a 90% success rate. Thus, we conclude that the proposed method is efficient for filtering unpleasant images.

  12. Broad-band Gausssian noise is most effective in improving motor performance and is most pleasant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos eTrenado

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Modern attempts to improve human performance focus on stochastic resonance (SR. SR is a phenomenon in nonlinear systems characterized by a response increase of the system induced by a particular level of input noise. Recently, we reported that an optimum level of 0-15 Hz Gaussian noise applied to the human index finger improved static isometric force compensation. A possible explanation was a better sensorimotor integration caused by increase in sensitivity of peripheral receptors and/or of internal SR. The present study in 10 subjects compares SR effects in the performance of the same motor task and on pleasantness, by applying three Gaussian noises chosen on the sensitivity of the fingertip receptors (0-15 Hz mostly for Merkel receptors, 250-300 Hz for Pacini corpuscules and 0-300 Hz for all. We document that only the 0-300 Hz noise induced SR effect during the transitory phase of the task. In contrast, the motor performance was improved during the stationary phase for all three noise frequency bandwidths. This improvement was stronger for 0-300 Hz and 250-300 Hz than for 0-15 Hz noise. Further, we found higher degree of pleasantness for 0-300 Hz and 250-300 Hz noise bandwidths than for 0-15 Hz. Thus, we show that the most appropriate Gaussian noise that could be used in haptic gloves is the 0-300 Hz, as it improved motor performance during both stationary and transitory phases. In addition, this noise had the highest degree of pleasantness and thus reveals that the glabrous skin can also forward pleasant sensations. These new findings provide worthy information for neurorehabilitation.

  13. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  14. Perceptual space, pleasantness and periodicity of multi-tone sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Töpken, Stephan; Verhey, Jesko L; Weber, Reinhard

    2015-07-01

    Technical sounds often contain several tonal components, forming a multi-tone sound. The present study investigates the perception of multi-tone sounds consisting of two harmonic complexes with different fundamental frequencies and combination tones with frequencies that are equal to the sum of multiple integers of the two fundamentals. The experimental parameter is the ratio between the two fundamental frequencies ρ. A total of 15 synthetic multi-tone sounds are rated by 37 participants. In the first experiment, the perceptual space is assessed based on 16 adjective scales using categorical scaling. The resulting perceptual space has the four dimensions (i) pleasant, (ii) power, (iii) temporal structure, and (iv) spectral content of the sounds. In the second experiment, the pleasantness is measured with a paired comparison test. The data consistently show that sounds based on ratios of small integers (e.g., ρ=4:3) are significantly less pleasant than sounds with ratios based on large integers which were constructed by a slight detuning from a ratio of small integers. The repetition rate derived from an autocorrelation analysis of the stimuli turns out to be a good predictor of the (un-)pleasantness sensation.

  15. Modulation of the startle reflex by pleasant and unpleasant music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mathieu; Mailhot, Jean-Philippe; Gosselin, Nathalie; Paquette, Sébastien; Peretz, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    The issue of emotional feelings to music is the object of a classic debate in music psychology. Emotivists argue that emotions are really felt in response to music, whereas cognitivists believe that music is only representative of emotions. Psychophysiological recordings of emotional feelings to music might help to resolve the debate, but past studies have failed to show clear and consistent differences between musical excerpts of different emotional valence. Here, we compared the effects of pleasant and unpleasant musical excerpts on the startle eye blink reflex and associated body markers (such as the corrugator and zygomatic activity, skin conductance level and heart rate). The startle eye blink amplitude was larger and its latency was shorter during unpleasant compared with pleasant music, suggesting that the defensive emotional system was indeed modulated by music. Corrugator activity was also enhanced during unpleasant music, whereas skin conductance level was higher for pleasant excerpts. The startle reflex was the response that contributed the most in distinguishing pleasant and unpleasant music. Taken together, these results provide strong evidence that emotions were felt in response to music, supporting the emotivist stance.

  16. Valence of emotions and moral decision-making: increased pleasantness to pleasant images and decreased unpleasantness to unpleasant images are associated with utilitarian choices in healthy adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Perera, Martina; Martí-García, Celia; Pérez-García, Miguel; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Moral decision-making is a key asset for humans’ integration in social contexts, and the way we decide about moral issues seems to be strongly influenced by emotions. For example, individuals with deficits in emotional processing tend to deliver more utilitarian choices (accepting an emotionally aversive action in favor of communitarian well-being). However, little is known about the association between emotional experience and moral-related patterns of choice. We investigated whether subjective reactivity to emotional stimuli, in terms of valence, arousal, and dominance, is associated with moral decision-making in 95 healthy adults. They answered to a set of moral and non-moral dilemmas and assessed emotional experience in valence, arousal and dominance dimensions in response to neutral, pleasant, unpleasant non-moral, and unpleasant moral pictures. Results showed significant correlations between less unpleasantness to negative stimuli, more pleasantness to positive stimuli and higher proportion of utilitarian choices. We also found a positive association between higher arousal ratings to negative moral laden pictures and more utilitarian choices. Low dominance was associated with greater perceived difficulty over moral judgment. These behavioral results are in fitting with the proposed role of emotional experience in moral choice. PMID:24133433

  17. Emotion modulation of the startle reflex in essential tremor: Blunted reactivity to unpleasant and pleasant pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafo, Jacob A; Mikos, Ania; Mangal, Paul C; Scott, Bonnie M; Trifilio, Erin; Okun, Michael S; Bowers, Dawn

    2017-01-01

    Essential tremor is a highly prevalent movement disorder characterized by kinetic tremor and mild cognitive-executive changes. These features are commonly attributed to abnormal cerebellar changes, resulting in disruption of cerebellar-thalamo-cortical networks. Less attention has been paid to alterations in basic emotion processing in essential tremor, despite known cerebellar-limbic interconnectivity. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that a psychophysiologic index of emotional reactivity, the emotion modulated startle reflex, would be muted in individuals with essential tremor relative to controls. Participants included 19 essential tremor patients and 18 controls, who viewed standard sets of unpleasant, pleasant, and neutral pictures for six seconds each. During picture viewing, white noise bursts were binaurally presented to elicit startle eyeblinks measured over the orbicularis oculi. Consistent with past literature, controls' startle eyeblink responses were modulated according to picture valence (unpleasant > neutral > pleasant). In essential tremor participants, startle eyeblinks were not modulated by emotion. This modulation failure was not due to medication effects, nor was it due to abnormal appraisal of emotional picture content. Neuroanatomically, it remains unclear whether diminished startle modulation in essential tremor is secondary to aberrant cerebellar input to the amygdala, which is involved in priming the startle response in emotional contexts, or due to more direct disruption between the cerebellum and brainstem startle circuitry. If the former is correct, these findings may be the first to reveal dysregulation of emotional networks in essential tremor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of Left Ventricular Torsion in Short Axis View between Healthy Subjects and Significant Coronary Artery Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Arab

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary artery disease causes changes in biomechanical parameters and function of myocardial. Recently, torsion angle is one of the most important mechanical parameters. Therefore in this study, torsion angle in healthy subjects and LAD significant coronary artery disease patients, using echo tracking method in short axis view, was evaluated.Materials and Methods: In cross sectional study, 14 healthy subjects and 10 patients with significant stenosis of LAD were evaluated. Two dimensional echocardiography images were scanned in apical and basal parasternal short axis view were recorded. Successive ultrasonic images were processed by echo tracking under block matching algorithm and peak torsion angle were estimated. Difference between healthy group and patient group were extracted by using peak torsion angle by the confidence level of 95%.Results: In this study, basal rotation angle, apical rotation angle and torsion angle in short axis view in significant coronary artery disease patients significantly decreased 33%, 44% and 38% relative to healthy subjects, respectively. Also time to reach peak torsion angle in LAD coronary artery stenosis patients increased 19% relative to healthy group.Conclusion: It seems, torsion angle in short axis view, can diagnose LAD coronary artery stenosis patients reative to healthy subject.

  19. Trainee Teachers' Views on What Helps Them to Use Information and Communication Technology Effectively in Their Subject Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, R.; Haydn, T.

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the views of initial teacher trainees on various components of their training in the use of new technology to teach their subject. The research focused on trainees' reflections on their experiences of trying to "get better" at information and communication technology (ICT) in the course of their training. Data collection…

  20. From Gender-segregated Subjects to Multi-material Craft: Craft Student Teachers’Views on the Future of the Craft Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaana Lepistö

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the views of student teachers of craft about the future of craft as a school subject. The study was conducted at the University of Turku, Department of Teacher Education, in Rauma in 2014. The literature review revealed that the subject of craft in Finnish basic education is understood as a dialog between the maker and the materials. However, teaching and learning craft in schools and in teacher education has a strong gender-based tradition. The aim of this study is to investigate student teachers’ understanding of craft as a school subject in the future and their solutions to teaching craft in basic education. The data were collected from essays (N = 20 written by student teachers of craft. The essays were analyzed qualitatively using content analysis. The results showed that the student teachers of craft viewed holistic craft, reflective action readiness, entrepreneurial behaviour, multiple skills, the use of versatile materials, and craft as sources of pleasure and the main solutions for the future of craft as a subject.

  1. Teachers Guide to the Shakers at Pleasant Hill. A Resource Unit for Elementary Teachers. Intermediate Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakertown at Pleasant Hill, Kentucky, Inc., Harrodsburg.

    The guide provides activities for use with children in grades four through six before and after a field trip to Shakertown at Pleasant Hill. Established as a Shaker community in 1805, Pleasant Hill now has 27 buildings restored and open for public use. The study of Pleasant Hill can be used as an example of rural or village life in nineteenth…

  2. Photometric analysis of esthetically pleasant and unpleasant facial profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Nunes da Rocha Fortes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify which linear, angular and proportionality measures could influence a profile to be considered esthetically pleasant or unpleasant, and to assess sexual dimorphism. Methods: 150 standardized facial profile photographs of dental students of both sexes were obtained and printed on photographic paper. Ten plastic surgeons, ten orthodontists and ten layperson answered a questionnaire characterizing each profile as pleasant, acceptable or unpleasant. With the use of a score system, the 15 most pleasant and unpleasant profiles of each sex were selected. The photographs were scanned into AutoCAD computer software. Linear, angular and proportion measurements were obtained using the software tools. The average values between groups were compared by the Student's t-test and the Mann-Whitney test at 5%. Results: The linear measures LL-S, LL-H, LL-E, LL-B and Pn-H showed statistically significant differences (p < 0.05. Statistical differences were also found in the angular measures G'.Pn.Pg', G'.Sn.Pg' and Sn.Me'.C and in the proportions G'-Sn:Sn-Me' and Sn-Gn':Gn'-C (p < 0.05. Differences between sexes were found for the linear measure Ala-Pn, angles G'-Pg'.N-Pn, Sn.Me'.C, and proportions Gn'-Sn:Sn-Me' and Ala-Pn:N'-Sn. (p < 0.05. Conclusion: The anteroposterior position of the lower lip, the amount of nose that influences the profile, facial convexity, total vertical proportion and lip-chin proportion appear to influence pleasantness of facial profile. Sexual dimorphism was identified in nasal length, nasofacial and lower third of the face angles, total vertical and nasal height/length proportions.

  3. Testing of the Pleasant Bayou Well through October 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randolph, P.L.; Hayden, C.G.; Mosca, V.L.; Anhaiser, J.L.

    1992-08-01

    Pleasant Bayou location was inactive from 1983 until the cleanout of the production and disposal wells in 1986. The surface facilities were rehabilitated and after shakedown of the system, additional repair of wellhead valves, and injection of an inhibitor pill, continuous long-term production was started in 1988. Over two years of production subsequent to that are reviewed here, including: production data, brine sampling and analysis, hydrocarbon sampling and analysis, solids sampling and analysis, scale control and corrosion monitoring and control.

  4. The Effect of Age on Neural Processing of Pleasant Soft Touch Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April C May

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tactile interactions with our environment stimulate afferent fibers within the skin, which deliver information about sensations of pain, texture, itch and other feelings to the brain as a comprehensive sense of self. These tactile interactions can stimulate brain regions involved in interoception and reward processing. This study examined subjective, behavioral, and neural processing as a function of age during stimulation of A-beta (Aβ and C tactile (CT afferents using a soft brush stroke task. 16 adolescents (ages 15-17, 22 young adults (ages 20-28, and 20 mature adults (ages 29-55 underwent a simple continuous performance task while periodically anticipating and experiencing a soft touch to the palm or forearm, during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. fMRI results showed that adolescents displayed greater bilateral posterior insula activation than young and mature adults across all conditions and stimulus types. Adolescents also demonstrated greater bilateral posterior insula activation than young and mature adults specifically in response to the soft touch condition. Adolescents also exhibited greater activation than mature adults in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus and striatum during the soft touch condition. However, mature adults showed greater striatum activation than adolescents and young adults during anticipation. In the left anterior cingulate cortex, mature adults exhibited greater activation than adolescents and young adults when anticipating the upcoming touch. These results support the hypothesis that adolescents show an exaggerated neural response to pleasant stimulation of afferents, which may have profound effects on how they approach or avoid social and risky situations. In particular, heightened interoceptive reactivity to pleasant stimuli might cause adolescents to seek experiences that are associated with pleasant stimulation.

  5. The brain’s response to pleasant touch: an EEG investigation of tactile caressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsimrat eSingh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Somatosensation as a proximal sense can have a strong impact on our attitude towards physical objects and other human beings. However, relatively little is known about how hedonic valence of touch is processed at the cortical level. Here we investigated the electrophysiological correlates of affective tactile sensation during caressing of the right forearm with pleasant and unpleasant textile fabrics. We show dissociation between more physically driven differential brain responses to the different fabrics in early somatosensory cortex – the well-known mu-suppression (10-20 Hz - and a beta-band response (25-30 Hz in presumably higher-order somatosensory areas in the right-hemisphere that correlated well with the subjective valence of tactile caressing. Importantly, when using single trial classification techniques, beta-power significantly distinguished between pleasant and unpleasant stimulation on a single trial basis with high accuracy. Our results therefore suggest a dissociation of the sensory and affective aspects of touch in the somatosensory system and may provide features that may be used for single trial decoding of affective mental states from simple electroencephalographic measurements.

  6. The importance of context: when relative relief renders pain pleasant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leknes, Siri; Berna, Chantal; Lee, Michael C; Snyder, Gregory D; Biele, Guido; Tracey, Irene

    2013-03-01

    Context can influence the experience of any event. For instance, the thought that "it could be worse" can improve feelings towards a present misfortune. In this study we measured hedonic feelings, skin conductance, and brain activation patterns in 16 healthy volunteers who experienced moderate pain in two different contexts. In the "relative relief context," moderate pain represented the best outcome, since the alternative outcome was intense pain. However, in the control context, moderate pain represented the worst outcome and elicited negative hedonic feelings. The context manipulation resulted in a "hedonic flip," such that moderate pain elicited positive hedonics in the relative relief context. Somewhat surprisingly, moderate pain was even rated as pleasant in this context, despite being reported as painful in the control context. This "hedonic flip" was corroborated by physiological and functional neuroimaging data. When moderate pain was perceived as pleasant, skin conductance and activity in insula and dorsal anterior cingulate were significantly attenuated relative to the control moderate stimulus. "Pleasant pain" also increased activity in reward and valuation circuitry, including the medial orbitofrontal and ventromedial prefrontal cortices. Furthermore, the change in outcome hedonics correlated with activity in the periacqueductal grey (PAG) of the descending pain modulatory system (DPMS). The context manipulation also significantly increased functional connectivity between reward circuitry and the PAG, consistent with a functional change of the DPMS due to the altered motivational state. The findings of this study point to a role for brainstem and reward circuitry in a context-induced "hedonic flip" of pain. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. All rights reserved.

  7. Distinct neural networks underlying empathy for pleasant and unpleasant touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Claus; Silani, Giorgia; Singer, Tania

    2015-09-01

    In spite of considerable progress in the understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the experience of empathy, the majority of previous investigations have focused on how we share negative affective states (and in particular pain) of others, whereas only few studies have targeted empathy for positive emotions. This bias has precluded addressing one of the central tenets of the shared representations account of empathy, which is that different networks should be engaged when empathizing with emotions that are represented on different neural levels. The aim of the present study was to overcome this limitation and to test whether empathy for pleasant and unpleasant affective touch is underpinned by different neural networks. To this end we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), with two independent replication experiments (N = 18, N = 32), and a novel paradigm enabling the joint investigation of first-hand and vicarious responses to pleasant and unpleasant affect induced via visuo-tactile stimulation. This revealed that empathy is subserved by distinct neural networks, with those regions recruited in the first-hand experience of positive or negative affective states also being specifically recruited when empathizing with these respective states in others. More specifically, the first-hand and vicarious experience of pleasant touch commonly recruited medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), while unpleasant touch was associated with shared activation in the right fronto-insular cortex. The observation that specifically tailored subsystems of the human brain are engaged to share positive versus negative touch of others brings fresh evidence to one of the major goals of the social neuroscience of empathy: to identify which specific aspects of the affective states of others are shared, and what role this plays in enabling the understanding of the emotions of others. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Experiencing Extended Point-of-View Shots : A Film-Phenomenological Perspective on Extreme Character Subjectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanich, Julian; Reinerth, Maike Sarah; Thon, Jan-Noel

    2017-01-01

    The wish to accurately represent the subjective perceptual experience of a filmic character and to intimately connect these character perceptions with the viewer’s experience has a long history. However, this history of extreme first-person perspectives in film—from the inside out, so to speak—is a

  9. Compensatory viewing training improves practical fitness to drive of subjects with impaired vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, Aart C.; Brouwer, Wiebo H.; Coeckelbergh, Tanja R.M.; Tant, Mark L.M.; Cornelissen, Frans W.; Bredewoud, Ruud A.; Melis-Dankers, Bart J.M.

    2004-01-01

    In many countries strict legal requirements for obtaining a driver’s license are in effect for visual acuity and visual field.We studied the relationship between these characteristics and driving safety and driving proficiency in an on-the-road test of practical fitness to drive in subjects with

  10. Mormon and Jewish views of the afterlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David; Portner, Jodi; Sierra, Duvan

    2004-12-01

    In their responses to a questionnaire, undergraduates, 60 Mormons, viewed the afterlife as less pleasant than did the 37 Jews, while the Jews were more concerned with sin and judgment and more often believed in reincarnation.

  11. Neural basis of moral elevation demonstrated through inter-subject synchronization of cortical activity during free-viewing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoë A Englander

    Full Text Available Most research investigating the neural basis of social emotions has examined emotions that give rise to negative evaluations of others (e.g. anger, disgust. Emotions triggered by the virtues and excellences of others have been largely ignored. Using fMRI, we investigated the neural basis of two "other-praising" emotions--Moral Elevation (a response to witnessing acts of moral beauty, and Admiration (which we restricted to admiration for physical skill.Ten participants viewed the same nine video clips. Three clips elicited moral elevation, three elicited admiration, and three were emotionally neutral. We then performed pair-wise voxel-by-voxel correlations of the BOLD signal between individuals for each video clip and a separate resting-state run. We observed a high degree of inter-subject synchronization, regardless of stimulus type, across several brain regions during free-viewing of videos. Videos in the elevation condition evoked significant inter-subject synchronization in brain regions previously implicated in self-referential and interoceptive processes, including the medial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and insula. The degree of synchronization was highly variable over the course of the videos, with the strongest synchrony occurring during portions of the videos that were independently rated as most emotionally arousing. Synchrony in these same brain regions was not consistently observed during the admiration videos, and was absent for the neutral videos.Results suggest that the neural systems supporting moral elevation are remarkably consistent across subjects viewing the same emotional content. We demonstrate that model-free techniques such as inter-subject synchronization may be a useful tool for studying complex, context dependent emotions such as self-transcendent emotion.

  12. Neural basis of moral elevation demonstrated through inter-subject synchronization of cortical activity during free-viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englander, Zoë A; Haidt, Jonathan; Morris, James P

    2012-01-01

    Most research investigating the neural basis of social emotions has examined emotions that give rise to negative evaluations of others (e.g. anger, disgust). Emotions triggered by the virtues and excellences of others have been largely ignored. Using fMRI, we investigated the neural basis of two "other-praising" emotions--Moral Elevation (a response to witnessing acts of moral beauty), and Admiration (which we restricted to admiration for physical skill). Ten participants viewed the same nine video clips. Three clips elicited moral elevation, three elicited admiration, and three were emotionally neutral. We then performed pair-wise voxel-by-voxel correlations of the BOLD signal between individuals for each video clip and a separate resting-state run. We observed a high degree of inter-subject synchronization, regardless of stimulus type, across several brain regions during free-viewing of videos. Videos in the elevation condition evoked significant inter-subject synchronization in brain regions previously implicated in self-referential and interoceptive processes, including the medial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and insula. The degree of synchronization was highly variable over the course of the videos, with the strongest synchrony occurring during portions of the videos that were independently rated as most emotionally arousing. Synchrony in these same brain regions was not consistently observed during the admiration videos, and was absent for the neutral videos. Results suggest that the neural systems supporting moral elevation are remarkably consistent across subjects viewing the same emotional content. We demonstrate that model-free techniques such as inter-subject synchronization may be a useful tool for studying complex, context dependent emotions such as self-transcendent emotion.

  13. Reduced dietary intake of simple sugars alters perceived sweet taste intensity but not perceived pleasantness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Paul M; Nattress, Laura; Flammer, Linda J; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2016-01-01

    Individuals who adhere to reduced-sodium diets come to prefer less salt over time, but it is unclear whether sweet taste perception is modulated by reduced sugar intake. The objective was to determine how a substantial reduction in dietary intake of simple sugars affects sweetness intensity and pleasantness of sweet foods and beverages. Healthy men and women aged 21-54 y participated for 5 mo. After the baseline month, 2 subject groups were matched for demographic characteristics, body mass index, and intake of simple sugars. One group (n = 16; 13 of whom completed key experimental manipulations) was randomly assigned to receive a low-sugar diet during the subsequent 3 mo, with instructions to replace 40% of calories from simple sugars with fats, proteins, and complex carbohydrates. The other (control) group (n = 17; 16 of whom completed the study) did not change their sugar intake. During the final month, both groups chose any diet they wished. Each month subjects rated the sweetness intensity and pleasantness of vanilla puddings and raspberry beverages that varied in sucrose concentration. ANOVA showed no systematic differences between groups in rated sweetness during the baseline or first diet month. During the second diet month, the low-sugar group rated low-sucrose pudding samples as more intense than did the control group (significant group-by-concentration interaction, P = 0.002). During the third diet month, the low-sugar subjects rated both low and high concentrations in puddings as ∼40% sweeter than did the control group (significant effect of group, P = 0.01). A weaker effect on rated sweetness was obtained for the beverages. Rated pleasantness was not affected for either of the stimuli. This experiment provides empirical evidence that changes in consumption of simple sugars influence perceived sweet taste intensity. More work is needed to determine whether sugar intake ultimately shifts preferences for sweet foods and beverages. This trial was

  14. Influence of viewing device and soundtrack in HDTV on subjective video quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redl, Arne; Keimel, Christian; Diepold, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Today in many homes big TV screens and hifi systems are common. But is the perception of subjective video quality under professional test conditions the same as at home? Therefore we examined two things: How large is the influence of the presentation device but also the influence of the soundtrack, both in HDTV (1080p50). Previous work has shown that a difference is noticeable, but there have not been studies with consumer devices, yet. It was also shown that there is an influence of the soundtrack, but only in SDTV or lower resolutions. Therefore we conducted subjective video tests: One test with different devices, a 23-inch-reference monitor, a high quality 56-inch-LCD-TV and an HD-projector, and one test in which we presented a soundtrack on a 7.1-channel hifi system in addition to the HD-projector. The results show two things: First the test subjects had a higher quality of experience with the consumer devices than with the reference monitor, although the video quality of the reference monitor itself was rated better in an additional questionnaire and the mean opinion score (MOS). The second result is that there is no significant difference in the MOS between showing the videos on the projector with or without sound.

  15. Fear of environmental hazards - a subjective view; Umweltangst - eine subjektive Betrachtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, M. [Inst. fuer Wasser-, Boden- und Lufthygiene, Berlin (Germany)

    1994-02-01

    This contribution is a combination of texts from lectures and drafts of publications. It is `subjective` inasmuch the thoughts voiced therein are based on personal experiences the author gathered in the course of his scientific activities, hid contacts with the population and during his giving advice to the public on the subject of `anthropogenic ozone`. Some of the opinions voiced may be provocative. This is, in fact, intended, as the purpose of this text is to initiate discussion on the topic `fear of environmental hazards`, summarized in the German expression `Umweltangst`. (orig.) [Deutsch] Dieser Beitrag ist eine Zusammenstellung aus Vortragsmanuskripten und Entwuerfen fuer Veroeffentlichungen. `Subjektiv` ist er insofern als er von persoenlichen Erfahrungen ausgeht, die der Autor waehrend seiner wissenschaftlichen Taetigkeit, aber auch im Kontakt mit der Bevoelkerung in Feldstudien und waehrend seiner beratenden Taetigkeit zum Thema `anthropogenes Ozon` gesammelt hat. Einige der geaeusserten Gedanken moegen provokatorisch wirken. Dies ist durchaus beabsichtigt, da dieser Text als Anregung zur Diskussion ueber das Thema `Umweltangst` gedacht ist. (orig.)

  16. Effect of aging on hedonic appreciation of pleasant and unpleasant odors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Joussain

    Full Text Available Does hedonic appreciation evolve differently for pleasant odors and unpleasant odors during normal aging? To answer this question we combined psychophysics and electro-encephalographic recordings in young and old adults. A first study showed that pleasant odorants (but not unpleasant ones were rated as less pleasant by old adults. A second study validated this decrease in hedonic appreciation for agreeable odors and further showed that smelling these odorants decreased beta event-related synchronization in aged participants. In conclusion, the study offers new insights into the evolution of odor hedonic perception during normal aging, highlighting for the first time a change in processing pleasant odors.

  17. "Not a very nice subject." Changing views of parasites and parasitology in the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickerman, Keith

    2009-10-01

    The man in-the-street who frequently asks the question "Why am I here?" finds even more difficulty with the question "Why are parasites here?" The public's distaste for parasites (and by implication, for parasitologists!) is therefore understandable, as maybe was the feeling of early 20th century biologists that parasites were a puzzle because they did not conform to the then widely held association between evolution and progress, let alone the reason why a benevolent Creator should have created them. In mid-century, the writer, contemplating a career in parasitology was taken aback when he found that extolled contemporary biologists disdained parasites or thought little of parasitology as an intellectual subject. These attitudes reflected a lack of appreciation of the important role of parasites in generating evolutionary novelty and speciation, also unawareness of the value of parasite life-cycle studies for formulating questions of wider significance in biology, deficiencies which were gratifyingly beginning to be remedied in the latter half of the century.

  18. An ethical-critical view of the tourism as intercultural subject/ phenomenon for study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste Nava Jiménez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cultural diversity is undoubtedly one of the features of today's world opportunities for new approaches in social research. Questions such as: Is Tourism an object of study? Is Tourism an intercultural subject for study? need to be analyzed and discussed from a different stand point. The aim of this paper is to consider tourism not only as a social manifestation impregnated of cultural diversity but also as an object of consumption. Tourism is primarily a social phenomenon whose possibility to be analyzed and interpreted depends on the meaning and transcendence of human beings’ understanding. The purpose of this research, through a reflexive analysis of the literature, is to establish a degree of interdisciplinarity between tourism studies and contemporary world rich in cultural diversity and complex social facts. The paper proposes three main axes. First, we will address multiculturalism as and epistemic framework of the phenomenon of tourism. Secondly, we will present a reflective approach to represent a critical-ethical structure between tourism and interculturalism. Thirdly, we propose tourism defines itself.

  19. Compaction measurements on cores from the Pleasant Bayou wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jogi, P.N.; Gray, K.E.; Ashman, T.R.; Thompson, T.W.; Bebout, D.G.; Bachman, A.L. (eds.)

    1981-01-01

    Additional measurements of compressibility, compaction coefficients, porosities, permeabilities, and resistivities have been conducted on cores from Pleasant Bayou wells No. 1 and No. 2. All rock parameters show non-linear behavior with changing reservoir or pore pressure, which is of interest in modelling reservoir performance and subsidence. Compressibilities and uniaxial compaction coefficients decline by a factor of 2 to 3 as reservoir pressure declines from geopressured to normal hydrostatic conditions. Porosity reductions are 6 to 8% while permeability reductions are on the order of 10 to 30% over that reservoir pressure range. Measured formation factors were 2 to 4 times log derived values for F. Matrix compressibilities were not insignificant relative to bulk compressibilities.

  20. Do Pleasant Emotional Ads Make Consumers Like Your Brand More?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geuens Maggie

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Emotionally pleasant TV commercials are often preferred over merely factual ones. A large-scale study of Belgian TV ads confirms this notion and shows that such commercials also create more positive feelings toward the advertised brand. Interestingly, these effects depend on neither the level of involvement associated with the product category nor the type of product. Independent of the perceived creativity of the commercial or its informational value, emotionality had a significant impact on the evaluation of a brand. However, the effects were slightly more pronounced for products that align themselves with pleasure and experience than for functional products. Advertisers should therefore leverage the power of emotions not only because these ads are better liked, but more importantly because they lead to more favorable brand attitudes.

  1. Planetary Exploration Education: As Seen From the Point of View of Subject Matter Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, M. P.; Anderson, R. B.; Gaither, T. A.; Vaughan, R. G.

    2016-12-01

    Planetary Learning that Advances the Nexus of Engineering, Technology, and Science (PLANETS) was selected as one of 27 new projects to support the NASA Science Mission Directorate's Science Education Cooperative Agreement Notice. Our goal is to develop and disseminate out-of-school time (OST) curricular and related educator professional development modules that integrate planetary science, technology, and engineering. We are a partnership between planetary science Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), curriculum developers, science and engineering teacher professional development experts and OST teacher networks. The PLANETS team includes the Center for Science Teaching and Learning (CSTL) at Northern Arizona University (NAU); the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Science Center (Astrogeology), and the Boston Museum of Science (MOS). Here, we present the work and approach by the SMEs at Astrogeology. As part of this overarching project, we will create a model for improved integration of SMEs, curriculum developers, professional development experts, and educators. For the 2016 and 2017 Fiscal Years, our focus is on creating science material for two OST modules designed for middle school students. We will begin development of a third module for elementary school students in the latter part of FY2017. The first module focuses on water conservation and treatment as applied on Earth, the International Space Station, and at a fictional Mars base. This unit involves the science and engineering of finding accessible water, evaluating it for quality, treating it for impurities (i.e., dissolved and suspended), initial use, a cycle of greywater treatment and re-use, and final treatment of blackwater. The second module involves the science and engineering of remote sensing as it is related to Earth and planetary exploration. This includes discussion and activities related to the electromagnetic spectrum, spectroscopy and various remote sensing systems and techniques. In

  2. Changes in the perceived pleasantness of fluids before and after fluid loss through exercise: a demonstration of the association between perceived pleasantness and physiological usefulness in everyday life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, K M

    2005-01-17

    It has previously been suggested that the perceived pleasantness of a food item in any situation may be directly related to the physiological usefulness of that item to the consumer in that situation. This study investigated changes in the perceived pleasantness of fluids before and after fluid loss through exercise-an everyday situation in which physiological need can alter. Total of 40 exercisers achieving high fluid loss (Group H) and 41 exercisers achieving low fluid loss (Group L) rated seven fluids of varying osmolality, electrolyte content, and energy content on measures of pleasantness, before and after exercise. After fluid loss compared to before fluid loss, perceived pleasantness of all fluids increased (F(1,79)=14.58, peveryday situations.

  3. The self-pleasantness judgment modulates the encoding performance and the Default Mode Network activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrone-Bertolotti eMarcela

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study, we evaluated the effect of self-relevance on cerebral activity and behavioral performance during an incidental encoding task. Recent findings suggest that pleasantness judgments reliably induce self-oriented (internal thoughts and increase default mode network (DMN activity. We hypothesized that this increase in DMN activity would relate to increased memory recognition for pleasantly-judged stimuli (which depend on internally-oriented attention but decreased recognition for unpleasantly-judged items (which depend on externally-oriented attention. To test this hypothesis, brain activity was recorded from 21 healthy participants while they performed a pleasantness judgment requiring them to rate visual stimuli as pleasant or unpleasant. One hour later, participants performed a surprise memory recognition test outside of the scanner. Thus, we were able to evaluate the effects of pleasant and unpleasant judgments on cerebral activity and incidental encoding. The behavioral results showed that memory recognition was better for items rated as pleasant than items rated as unpleasant. The whole brain analysis indicated that successful encoding activates the inferior frontal and lateral temporal cortices, whereas unsuccessful encoding recruits two key medial posterior DMN regions, the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus. A region of interest analysis including classic DMN areas, revealed significantly greater involvement of the medial Prefrontal Cortex in pleasant compared to unpleasant judgments, suggesting this region’s involvement in self-referential (i.e., internal processing. This area may be responsible for the greater recognition performance seen for pleasant stimuli. Furthermore, a significant interaction between the encoding performance (successful vs. unsuccessful and pleasantness was observed for the posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus and inferior frontal gyrus. Overall, our

  4. Disparity in neural and subjective responses to food images in women with obesity and normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbine, Kaylie A; Larson, Michael J; Romney, Lora; Bailey, Bruce W; Tucker, Larry A; Christensen, William F; LeCheminant, James D

    2017-02-01

    Self-reports tend to differ from objective measurements of food intake, particularly in adults with obesity; however, no studies have examined how neural responses to food (an objective measure) and subjective ratings of food differ by BMI status. This study tested normal-weight women (NWW) and women with obesity (OBW) for group differences in neural indices of attention towards food pictures, subjective ratings of these pictures, and the disparity between objective and subjective measurements. Twenty-two NWW (21.8 ± 1.7 kg/m 2 ) and 22 OBW (37.0 ± 5.7 kg/m 2 ) viewed food and flower pictures while late positive potential amplitude, an event-related potential, was recorded. Participants rated pictures for arousal and valence. Late positive potential amplitude was larger toward food than flower pictures. OBW self-reported flower pictures as more pleasant than food; NWW showed no difference for pleasantness. There were no significant main effects or interactions for arousal. Standardized scores showed that only on subjective, but not objective, measures did OBW compared with NWW disproportionately indicate food pictures as less pleasant than flowers. Compared with NWW, OBW showed larger discrepancies between neural and subjective reports of attention towards food. Inaccurate self-reports of attention towards food may reduce the efficiency of health interventions. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  5. Reduced pleasant touch appraisal in the presence of a disgusting odor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Croy

    Full Text Available Odors are powerful emotional stimuli influencing mood, attention and behavior. Here we examined if odors change the perception of pleasant touch. In line with the warning function of the olfactory system, we proposed that especially unpleasant odors will reduce touch pleasantness, presumably through a disgust-related mechanism.Forty-five healthy participants (mean age 23.3 +/- 3years SD, 24 females were presented to slow (3 cm/s and fast (30 cm/s brush stroking delivered by a robot to the forearm. Touch pleasantness under the influence of an unpleasant odor (Civette, smelling like feces and an intensity matched pleasant odor (Rose was compared to an odorless control condition. In a pilot study with 30 participants (mean age 25.9 +/-6 years, 21 females, the odors were matched according to their intensity, and we studied the influence of disgust sensitivity on the perception of 4 different odor qualities.The unpleasant odor decreased touch pleasantness for both stroking velocities compared to the odorless control (p<0.005 whereas the rose odor did not change touch pleasantness significantly. Disgust sensitivity was correlated with the modulation of touch pleasantness. The pilot study revealed a significant correlation between disgust sensitivity and the perception of the unpleasant odor qualities (r = -0.56; p = 0.007, but not with any of the other odors.Unpleasant odors are powerful in modulating touch pleasantness, and disgust might be a moderating variable.

  6. Reduced pleasant touch appraisal in the presence of a disgusting odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croy, Ilona; Angelo, Silvia D'; Olausson, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    Odors are powerful emotional stimuli influencing mood, attention and behavior. Here we examined if odors change the perception of pleasant touch. In line with the warning function of the olfactory system, we proposed that especially unpleasant odors will reduce touch pleasantness, presumably through a disgust-related mechanism. Forty-five healthy participants (mean age 23.3 +/- 3years SD, 24 females) were presented to slow (3 cm/s) and fast (30 cm/s) brush stroking delivered by a robot to the forearm. Touch pleasantness under the influence of an unpleasant odor (Civette, smelling like feces) and an intensity matched pleasant odor (Rose) was compared to an odorless control condition. In a pilot study with 30 participants (mean age 25.9 +/-6 years, 21 females), the odors were matched according to their intensity, and we studied the influence of disgust sensitivity on the perception of 4 different odor qualities. The unpleasant odor decreased touch pleasantness for both stroking velocities compared to the odorless control (p<0.005) whereas the rose odor did not change touch pleasantness significantly. Disgust sensitivity was correlated with the modulation of touch pleasantness. The pilot study revealed a significant correlation between disgust sensitivity and the perception of the unpleasant odor qualities (r = -0.56; p = 0.007), but not with any of the other odors. Unpleasant odors are powerful in modulating touch pleasantness, and disgust might be a moderating variable.

  7. Evaluation of subjective image quality in relation to diagnostic task for cone beam computed tomography with different fields of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofthag-Hansen, Sara; Thilander-Klang, Anne; Gröndahl, Kerstin

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate subjective image quality for two diagnostic tasks, periapical diagnosis and implant planning, for cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) using different exposure parameters and fields of view (FOVs). Examinations were performed in posterior part of the jaws on a skull phantom with 3D Accuitomo (FOV 3 cm×4 cm) and 3D Accuitomo FPD (FOVs 4 cm×4 cm and 6 cm×6 cm). All combinations of 60, 65, 70, 75, 80 kV and 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 mA with a rotation of 180° and 360° were used. Dose-area product (DAP) value was determined for each combination. The images were presented, displaying the object in axial, cross-sectional and sagittal views, without scanning data in a random order for each FOV and jaw. Seven observers assessed image quality on a six-point rating scale. Intra-observer agreement was good (κw=0.76) and inter-observer agreement moderate (κw=0.52). Stepwise logistic regression showed kV, mA and diagnostic task to be the most important variables. Periapical diagnosis, regardless jaw, required higher exposure parameters compared to implant planning. Implant planning in the lower jaw required higher exposure parameters compared to upper jaw. Overall ranking of FOVs gave 4 cm×4 cm, 6 cm×6 cm followed by 3 cm×4 cm. This study has shown that exposure parameters should be adjusted according to diagnostic task. For this particular CBCT brand a rotation of 180° gave good subjective image quality, hence a substantial dose reduction can be achieved without loss of diagnostic information. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Touch perceptions across skin sites: differences between sensitivity, direction discrimination and pleasantness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle eAckerley

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Human skin is innervated with different tactile afferents over the body, which are found at varying densities. We investigate how the relationships between tactile pleasantness, sensitivity and discrimination differ across the skin. Tactile pleasantness was assessed by stroking a soft brush over the skin, using five velocities (0.3, 1, 3, 10, 30 cm s-1, known to differentiate hedonic touch, and pleasantness ratings were gained. The ratings velocity-profile is known to correlate with firing in unmyelinated C-tactile afferents. Tactile sensitivity thresholds were determined using monofilament force detection and the tactile discrimination level was obtained in the direction discrimination of a moving probe; both tasks readily activate myelinated touch receptors. Perceptions were measured over five skin sites: forehead, arm, palm, thigh and shin. The assessment of tactile pleasantness over the skin resulted in a preference for the middle velocities (1-10 cm s-1, where higher ratings were gained compared to the slowest and fastest velocities. This preference in tactile pleasantness was found across all the skin sites, apart from at the palm, where no decrease in pleasantness for the faster stroking velocities was seen. We find that tactile sensitivity and discrimination vary across the skin, where the forehead and palm show increased acuity. Tactile sensitivity and discrimination levels also correlated significantly, although the tactile acuity did not relate to the perceived pleasantness of touch. Tactile pleasantness varied in a subtle way across skin sites, where the middle velocities were always rated as the most pleasant, but the ratings at hairy skin sites were more receptive to changes in stroking velocity. We postulate that although the mechanoreceptive afferent physiology may be different over the skin, the perception of pleasant touch can be interpreted using all of the available incoming somatosensory information in combination with

  9. Study of face pleasantness using facial analysis in standardized frontal photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imara de Almeida Castro Morosini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research was to check if the numeric facial analysis can determine facial attractiveness. METHOD: The sample consisted of frontal and lateral standard facial photographs, in natural head position, of 85 Brazilian Caucasian women, without facial plastic surgery report. The sample mean age was 23 years and 9 months. A group of 5 orthodontists, 5 layman and 5 plastic artists classified the photographs according to their own attractiveness graduation in: pleasant, acceptable and not pleasant. The numeric facial analysis was then performed using a computerized method. Linear, proportional and angular measurements were compared among groups. RESULTS: According subjective analysis the sample was consisted of 18.8% of pleasant, 70.6% of acceptable and 10.6% of not pleasant. In most measurements there were no differences among groups. Just in three of them significant statistical difference was observed and in two of them the comparison value was within decision limit. All the differences found were related to the lower third of the face and to facial pattern. CONCLUSION: On the present research, the numeric facial analysis, by itself, was not capable of detecting facial attractiveness, considering that beauty judgment seems to be very personal.OBJETIVO: esse estudo foi desenvolvido com o propósito de verificar se a análise facial numérica realizada em fotografias frontais é sensível em detectar a atratividade da face. MÉTODOS: a amostra foi composta por fotografias faciais padronizadas, frontais e laterais, em posição natural da cabeça, de 85 mulheres brasileiras, leucodermas, com idades entre 18 e 30 anos, sem histórico de cirurgia plástica facial. A idade média da amostra foi de 23 anos e 9 meses. As fotografias foram classificadas de acordo com o grau de atratividade da face por uma banca composta de cinco especialistas em Ortodontia, cinco leigos e cinco artistas plásticos. A partir dessa classifica

  10. The mere exposure effect depends on an odour’s initial pleasantness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain eDelplanque

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The mere exposure phenomenon refers to improvement of one’s attitude toward an a priori neutral stimulus after its repeated exposure. The extent to which such a phenomenon influences evaluation of a priori emotional stimuli remains under-investigated. Here we investigated this question by presenting participants with different odours varying in a priori pleasantness during different sessions spaced over time. Participants were requested to report each odour’s pleasantness, intensity, and familiarity. As expected, participants became more familiar with all stimuli after the repetition procedure. However, while neutral and mildly pleasant odours showed an increase in pleasantness ratings, unpleasant and very pleasant odours remained unaffected. Correlational analyses revealed an inverse U-shape between the magnitude of the mere exposure effect and the initial pleasantness of the odour. Consequently, the initial pleasantness of the stimuli appears to modulate the impact of repeated exposures on an individual’s attitude. These data underline the limits of mere exposure effect and are discussed in light of the biological relevance of odours for individual survival.

  11. A psychophysiological investigation of laterality in human emotion elicited by pleasant and unpleasant film clips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Veena

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on laterality in emotion suggests a dichotomy between the brain hemispheres. The present study aimed to investigate this further using a modulated startle reflex paradigm. Methods We examined the effects of left and the right ear stimulation on the modulated startle reflex (as indexed by eyeblink magnitude, measured from the right eye employing short (2 min film clips to elicit emotions in 16 right-handed healthy participants. The experiment consisted of two consecutive sessions on a single occasion. The acoustic startle probes were presented monaurally to one of the ears in each session, counterbalanced across order, during the viewing of film clips. Results The findings showed that eyeblink amplitude in relation to acoustic startle probes varied linearly, as expected, from pleasant through neutral to unpleasant film clips, but there was no interaction between monaural probe side and foreground valence. Conclusions Our data indicate the involvement of both hemispheres when affective states, and associated startle modulations, are produced, using materials with both audio and visual properties. From a methodological viewpoint, the robustness of film clip material including audio properties might compensate for the insufficient information reaching the ipsilateral hemisphere when using static pictures. From a theoretical viewpoint, a right ear advantage for verbal processing may account for the failure to detect the expected hemispheric difference. The verbal component of the clips would have activated the left hemisphere, possibly resulting in an increased role for the left hemisphere in both positive and negative affect generation.

  12. Choice to view cocaine images predicts concurrent and prospective drug use in cocaine addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Scott J; Beebe-Wang, Nicasia; Woicik, Patricia A; Konova, Anna B; Maloney, Thomas; Goldstein, Rita Z

    2013-06-01

    Identifying variables that predict drug use in treatment-seeking drug addicted individuals is a crucial research and therapeutic goal. This study tested the hypothesis that choice to view cocaine images is associated with concurrent and prospective drug use in cocaine addiction. To establish choice-concurrent drug use associations, 71 cocaine addicted subjects (43 current users and 28 treatment seekers) provided data on (A) choice to view cocaine images and affectively pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral images [collected under explicit contingencies (when choice was made between two fully visible side-by-side images) and under more probabilistic contingencies (when choice was made between pictures hidden under flipped-over cards)]; and (B) past-month cocaine and other drug use. To establish choice-prospective drug use associations, 20 of these treatment-seeking subjects were followed over the next 6 months. Baseline cocaine-related picture choice as measured by both tasks positively correlated with subjects' concurrent cocaine and other drug use as driven by the actively-using subjects. In a subsequent multiple regression analysis, choice to view cocaine images as compared with affectively pleasant images (under probabilistic contingencies) was the only predictor that continued to be significantly associated with drug use. Importantly, this same baseline cocaine>pleasant probabilistic choice also predicted the number of days drugs were used (cocaine, alcohol, and marijuana) over the next 6 months. Simulated cocaine choice - especially when probabilistic and when compared with other positive reinforcers - may provide a valid laboratory marker of current and future drug use in cocaine addiction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reduced Pleasant Touch Appraisal in the Presence of a Disgusting Odor

    OpenAIRE

    Ilona Croy; Angelo, Silvia D'; Håkan Olausson

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Odors are powerful emotional stimuli influencing mood, attention and behavior. Here we examined if odors change the perception of pleasant touch. In line with the warning function of the olfactory system, we proposed that especially unpleasant odors will reduce touch pleasantness, presumably through a disgust-related mechanism. Methods Forty-five healthy participants (mean age 23.3 +/− 3years SD, 24 females) were presented to slow (3 cm/s) and fast (30 cm/s) brush stroking delivere...

  14. Major depressive disorder is characterized by greater reward network activation to monetary than pleasant image rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoski, Moria J; Rittenberg, Alison; Dichter, Gabriel S

    2011-12-30

    Anhedonia, the loss of interest or pleasure in normally rewarding activities, is a hallmark feature of unipolar Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). A growing body of literature has identified frontostriatal dysfunction during reward anticipation and outcomes in MDD. However, no study to date has directly compared responses to different types of rewards such as pleasant images and monetary rewards in MDD. To investigate the neural responses to monetary and pleasant image rewards in MDD, a modified Monetary Incentive Delay task was used during functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess neural responses during anticipation and receipt of monetary and pleasant image rewards. Participants included nine adults with MDD and 13 affectively healthy controls. The MDD group showed lower activation than controls when anticipating monetary rewards in right orbitofrontal cortex and subcallosal cortex, and when anticipating pleasant image rewards in paracingulate and supplementary motor cortex. The MDD group had relatively greater activation in right putamen when anticipating monetary versus pleasant image rewards, relative to the control group. Results suggest reduced reward network activation in MDD when anticipating rewards, as well as relatively greater hypoactivation to pleasant image than monetary rewards. 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Context influences on the relationship between views of aging and subjective age: The moderating role of culture and domain of functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Thomas M; O'Brien, Erica L; Voss, Peggy; Kornadt, Anna E; Rothermund, Klaus; Fung, Helene H; Popham, Lauren E

    2017-08-01

    Subjective age has been shown to reliably predict a variety of psychological and physical health outcomes, yet our understanding of its determinants is still quite limited. Using data from the Aging as Future project, the authors examined the degree to which views of aging influence subjective age and how this influence varies across cultures and domains of everyday functioning. Using data from 1,877 adults aged from 30 to 95 years of age collected in China, Germany, and the United States, they assessed how general attitudes about aging and perceptions of oneself as an older adult influenced subjective age estimates in 8 different domains of functioning. More positive attitudes about aging were associated with older subjective ages, whereas more positive views of self in old age were associated with younger subjective age. It is hypothesized that these effects are reflective of social-comparison processes and self-protective mechanisms. These influences varied considerably over contexts, with views of aging having a greater impact in domains associated with stronger negative stereotypes of aging (e.g., health) compared to those with more positive ones (e.g., family). Culture also moderated the impact of aging views in terms of the strength of prediction, direction of effect, and age of greatest influence, presumably due to cultural differences in the salience and strength of aging-related belief systems across contexts. The results illustrate the contextual sensitivity of subjective age and highlight the role played by an individual's views of old age-both in general and regarding oneself-in determining their own experience of aging. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Food perception with age and its relationship to pleasantness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, S.; Bult, J.H.F.; Mojet, J.; Kroeze, J.H.A.

    2007-01-01

    Differences between elderly subjects (n = 46, 61¿86 years) and young subjects (n = 36, 18¿25 years) in food perception and food liking were investigated. Intensity and liking ratings were assessed for custard dessert, in which flavor enrichment, textural change, and irritant addition were

  17. Lessons Learned? Teaching Student Teachers to Use ICT in Their Subject Teaching: A View from the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydn, Terry

    2010-01-01

    The paper looks at the ways in which policymakers in the UK have attempted to get student teachers to use new technology effectively in their subject teaching over the past decade. During this period, there have been changes in the competence frameworks for validating student teachers' ability to use ICT in their subject teaching, and the UK…

  18. Music and emotion: electrophysiological correlates of the processing of pleasant and unpleasant music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammler, Daniela; Grigutsch, Maren; Fritz, Thomas; Koelsch, Stefan

    2007-03-01

    Human emotion and its electrophysiological correlates are still poorly understood. The present study examined whether the valence of perceived emotions would differentially influence EEG power spectra and heart rate (HR). Pleasant and unpleasant emotions were induced by consonant and dissonant music. Unpleasant (compared to pleasant) music evoked a significant decrease of HR, replicating the pattern of HR responses previously described for the processing of emotional pictures, sounds, and films. In the EEG, pleasant (contrasted to unpleasant) music was associated with an increase of frontal midline (Fm) theta power. This effect is taken to reflect emotional processing in close interaction with attentional functions. These findings show that Fm theta is modulated by emotion more strongly than previously believed.

  19. The sweet smell of ... implicit helping: effects of pleasant ambient fragrance on spontaneous help in shopping malls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Some studies have shown that pleasant scent encourages the prosocial behavior of people requested for help. However, the effect of pleasant ambient odor on spontaneous helping has never been tested. Male and female confederates accidentally dropped a glove on the floor while walking in places with pleasant ambient odors (e.g., pastries) and in places with no odor. The confederate continued his/her walk, seemingly unaware of his/her loss. It was found that passers-by helped the confederates more favorably in the pleasant-smelling areas. Positive mood induced by ambient smell was used to explain such results.

  20. Mental Reactivation and Pleasantness Judgment of Experience Related to Vision, Hearing, Skin Sensations, Taste and Olfaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina G Kolbeneva

    Full Text Available Language acquisition is based on our knowledge about the world and forms through multiple sensory-motor interactions with the environment. We link the properties of individual experience formed at different stages of ontogeny with the phased development of sensory modalities and with the acquisition of words describing the appropriate forms of sensitivity. To test whether early-formed experience related to skin sensations, olfaction and taste differs from later-formed experience related to vision and hearing, we asked Russian-speaking participants to categorize or to assess the pleasantness of experience mentally reactivated by sense-related adjectives found in common dictionaries. It was found that categorizing adjectives in relation to vision, hearing and skin sensations took longer than categorizing adjectives in relation to olfaction and taste. In addition, experience described by adjectives predominantly related to vision, hearing and skin sensations took more time for the pleasantness judgment and generated less intense emotions than that described by adjectives predominantly related to olfaction and taste. Interestingly the dynamics of skin resistance corresponded to the intensity and pleasantness of reported emotions. We also found that sense-related experience described by early-acquired adjectives took less time for the pleasantness judgment and generated more intense and more positive emotions than that described by later-acquired adjectives. Correlations were found between the time of the pleasantness judgment of experience, intensity and pleasantness of reported emotions, age of acquisition, frequency, imageability and length of sense-related adjectives. All in all these findings support the hypothesis that early-formed experience is less differentiated than later-formed experience.

  1. Emotional responses to pleasant and unpleasant music correlate with activity in paralimbic brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, A J; Zatorre, R J; Bermudez, P; Evans, A C

    1999-04-01

    Neural correlates of the often-powerful emotional responses to music are poorly understood. Here we used positron emission tomography to examine cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes related to affective responses to music. Ten volunteers were scanned while listening to six versions of a novel musical passage varying systematically in degree of dissonance. Reciprocal CBF covariations were observed in several distinct paralimbic and neocortical regions as a function of dissonance and of perceived pleasantness/unpleasantness. The findings suggest that music may recruit neural mechanisms similar to those previously associated with pleasant/unpleasant emotional states, but different from those underlying other components of music perception, and other emotions such as fear.

  2. A study of pleasantness and annoyance in simulated soundscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarez, Jorge; Konstantinos, Angelakis; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2006-01-01

    An experimental study has been conducted in the Acoustic Technology Department of the Technical University of Denmark. Audio-visual simulations of a park and an urban square were attempted; a series of listening tests were carried out. The subjects were asked to qualify the soundscape in terms...

  3. The Persian Checklist of Pleasant Events (PCPE: ‎Development, Validity and Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Bakht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Experiencing ‎pleasant events during daily life ‎has a significant positive role in ‎the personal mental health and ‎acts as a keystone for “behavioral ‎activation” (BA interventions. ‎There are serious differences in ‎the pleasant event schedules in ‎different cultures and countries. ‎We aimed to develop a Persian ‎checklist of pleasant events ‎‎(PCPE to provide and validate a ‎culturally compatible checklist for ‎Iranians.‎Methods: To develop a checklist ‎of pleasant events, inspired by ‎Pleasant Events Schedule (PES ‎‎(MacPhillamy & Lewinsohn, ‎‎1982, we held three focused ‎group discussions with 24 normal ‎healthy participants from both ‎genders (female = 12 and asked ‎them to mention as much ‎pleasant events as possible. ‎When the list reached saturation ‎level, the inappropriate items with ‎respect to legal, cultural and ‎religious concerns were omitted. ‎The final checklist of PCPE ‎consists of two subscales: ‎Frequency (frequency of events ‎during last month and ‎pleasantness (perceived ‎pleasantness of events. The total ‎score consists of frequency ‎multiplied by pleasantness. To ‎test the reliability and validity of ‎the checklist, the PCPE, ‎Depression, Anxiety and Stress ‎Scale (DASS, the Persian ‎version of WHO Quality of Life ‎and the Demographic ‎Questionnaire were administered ‎in a sample of 104 participants ‎‎(50 male and 54 female.‎Results: Frequency, ‎pleasantness and the total scores ‎of PCPE showed high levels of ‎internal consistency (Cronbach’s ‎alpha, .976, .976 & .974, ‎respectively. Further support for ‎the convergent validity of the ‎PCPE was obtained via ‎moderate negative correlations ‎with depression, anxiety, stress ‎scores in DASS and positive ‎correlation with quality of life as ‎well as respondent’s perceived ‎happiness. There were negative ‎correlations between

  4. Environmental Effects Exceed Genetic Effects on Perceived Intensity and Pleasantness of Several Odors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knaapila, Antti; Tuorila, Hely; Silventoinen, Karri

    2008-01-01

    and pleasantness of cinnamon, chocolate, turpentine, and isovaleric acid (sweaty) odors by quantitative genetic modeling of odor rating data from 856 twin individuals (including 83 complete monozygotic and 275 dizygotic twin pairs) aged 10-60 years (44% males and 56% females) from Australia, Denmark, and Finland...

  5. Engagement of pleasant activities in patients with substance use disorders : A correlational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozen, Hendrik G.; Strietman, Martin; Wiersema, Hans; Meyers, Robert J.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Feij, Jan A.; Greeven, Peter G. J.; Vingerhoets, Ad J. J. M.; van den Brink, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a growing awareness that the treatment of patients with substance use disorders (SUDs) should target increasing patients’ involvement in alternative pleasant reinforcers that compete with the reinforcing effects of substance use. The present cross-sectional study sought to

  6. Pleasantness and arousal in twenty-five positive emotions elicited by durable products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortíz Nicolás, J.C.; Aurisicchio, M.; Desmet, P.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports quantitative research into two basic dimensions of emotions: pleasantness and arousal. Fifty-nine participants evaluated these two dimensions for a set of twenty-five positive emotions in relation to human-product interactions. Three levels of arousal were iden- tified:

  7. Engagement in Pleasant Leisure Activities and Blood Pressure: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study in Alzheimer Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mausbach, Brent T; Romero-Moreno, Rosa; Bos, Taylor; von Känel, Roland; Ziegler, Michael G; Allison, Matthew A; Mills, Paul J; Dimsdale, Joel E; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Losada, Andrés; Márquez-González, María; Patterson, Thomas L; Grant, Igor

    2017-09-01

    Elevated blood pressure is a significant public health concern, particularly given its association with cardiovascular disease risk, including stroke. Caring for a loved one with Alzheimer disease has been associated with physical health morbidity, including higher blood pressure. Engagement in adaptive coping strategies may help prevent blood pressure elevation in this population. This 5-year longitudinal study examined whether greater participation in pleasant leisure activities was associated with reduced blood pressure in caregivers. Participants were 126 in-home spousal Alzheimer's caregivers (M [SD] age = 74.2 [7.9] years) that completed five yearly assessments. Linear mixed-effects models analysis was used to examine the longitudinal relationship between pleasant leisure activities and caregivers' blood pressure, after adjusting for demographic and health characteristics. Greater engagement in pleasant leisure activities was associated with reduced mean arterial blood pressure (B = -0.08, SE = 0.04, p = .040). Follow-up analyses indicated that engagement in activities was significantly associated with reduced diastolic (B = -0.07, SE = 0.03, p = .030) but not systolic blood pressure (B = -0.10, SE = 0.06, p = .114). In addition, mean arterial blood pressure was significantly reduced when caregiving duties ended because of placement of care recipients in nursing homes (B = -3.10, SE = 1.11, p = .005) or death of the care recipient (B = -2.64, SE = 1.14, p = .021). Greater engagement in pleasant leisure activities was associated with lowered caregivers' blood pressure over time. Participation in pleasant leisure activities may have cardiovascular health benefits for Alzheimer's caregivers.

  8. Sequential unfolding of appraisals: EEG evidence for the interaction of novelty and pleasantness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Peer, Jacobien M; Grandjean, Didier; Scherer, Klaus R

    2014-02-01

    An important question in emotion research is what elicits emotions and causes variations in their quality and intensity. Appraisal theories propose a cognitive process through which stimuli are evaluated on a number of different criteria. The combination of results on these criteria determines which specific emotion is elicited. In the present study, we addressed several questions regarding the mechanisms underlying this process, specifically whether appraisal criteria are processed (a) in a fixed sequence, (b) independently of each other, and (c) by different neural structures or circuits. Two appraisal criteria, stimulus novelty and pleasantness, were manipulated with a 3-stimulus oddball paradigm with affective pictures. Electroencephalographic (EEG) markers for the appraisal processes were distinguished using a spatiotemporal clustering analysis. Consistent with theories that assume a fixed sequence of the appraisal process, the analyses revealed early effects of novelty on global field power and the topographical pattern of EEG activity, followed in time by effects involving pleasantness. Moreover, both measures showed significant interactions of novelty and pleasantness in late processing stages (650 ms-800 ms), indicating that the processing of pleasantness depends on the preceding appraisal of novelty. The results of spatiotemporal clustering suggest that the late processing of highly relevant stimuli is not based on a single mechanism, but consists of the initial activation of distinct neural processes to evaluate novel stimuli, followed by activation of different neural mechanisms for the combined evaluation of both novel and highly valenced (i.e., unpleasant or pleasant) stimuli (a distinction that is not apparent in conventional event-related potential measures). PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Pleasantness of facial profile and its correlation with soft tissue cephalometric parameters: Perception of orthodontists and lay people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, Geraldo Eugênio; Sodré, Leonardo Oliveira; da Cunha, Tereza Cristina Rodrigues; Torres, Fernando César; Rosário, Henrique Damian; Paranhos, Luiz Renato

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the perception of orthodontists and of lay people about the facial profile and its possible correlation with cephalometrics parameters. A total of 20 evaluators were divided into two groups (10 orthodontists and 10 people with no relation to such area - lay people). They were asked to evaluate the photographs of 25 young males and of 25 young females, aged 17-24-year-old (mean age of 22.3 years, standard deviation 2.41 years). Photographs were randomly arranged in a photo album. The evaluators rated each photograph by means of a scale ranging from "good" to "deficient" based on the pleasantness of their facial profile. Nasolabial angle, Holdaway's H-line and the distance from H-line to nose tip were measured, in order to verify a possible relation between these soft tissue profile cephalometric measurements and the subjective ratings. The kappa statistics test showed a concordance of 0.23 among orthodontists and 0.24 among lay people. Regarding the perception of orthodontists and lay people on facial profile, no significant divergence could be detected. For the correlation between cephalometric parameters and subjective ratings, there was a statistically significant correlation between the measures H and H-nose and the rating ascribed to the profile. It was concluded that smaller the difference from the normal cephalometric pattern, the higher was the rating given to the profile, demonstrating an important relation between subjective and objective criteria.

  10. The Relationships between Belief, Attitude, Subjective Norm, and Behavior Towards Infant Food Formula Selection: The Views of the Malaysian Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ramayah

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to determine the relationships between belief, attitude, subjective norm, intention, and behavior towards the choice of infant food based on the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA. An analysis on a sample of 108 mothers indicates that the TRA could be used in predicting choice decision of infant food formulas by explaining 57 percent of the variance in the behavioral intention. The subjective norm component had a higher predictive power than the attitudinal component. Of this normative component, parents or relatives and doctors were found to be more influential. Intention to choose an infant formula was also influenced by family income. The belief outcomes in evaluating a premium infant formula and economic infant formula were found to be different. For premium infant formula, brand trusted, closest to breast milk and nutrients content were identified as the dominant attributes. In contrast, availability, affordable, and nutrients content were identified as the prime beliefs in evaluating economic infant formula. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  11. Does the Subject Content of the Pharmacy Degree Course Influence the Community Pharmacist’s Views on Competencies for Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Jeffrey; De Paepe, Kristien; Sánchez Pozo, Antonio; Rekkas, Dimitrios; Volmer, Daisy; Hirvonen, Jouni; Bozic, Borut; Skowron, Agnieska; Mircioiu, Constantin; Marcincal, Annie; Koster, Andries; Wilson, Keith; van Schravendijk, Chris; Wilkinson, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Do community pharmacists coming from different educational backgrounds rank the importance of competences for practice differently—or is the way in which they see their profession more influenced by practice than university education? A survey was carried out on 68 competences for pharmacy practice in seven countries with different pharmacy education systems in terms of the relative importance of the subject areas chemical and medicinal sciences. Community pharmacists were asked to rank the competences in terms of relative importance for practice; competences were divided into personal and patient-care competences. The ranking was very similar in the seven countries suggesting that evaluation of competences for practice is based more on professional experience than on prior university education. There were some differences for instance in research-related competences and these may be influenced, by education. PMID:28975909

  12. Does the Subject Content of the Pharmacy Degree Course Influence the Community Pharmacist’s Views on Competencies for Practice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Atkinson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Do community pharmacists coming from different educational backgrounds rank the importance of competences for practice differently—or is the way in which they see their profession more influenced by practice than university education? A survey was carried out on 68 competences for pharmacy practice in seven countries with different pharmacy education systems in terms of the relative importance of the subject areas chemical and medicinal sciences. Community pharmacists were asked to rank the competences in terms of relative importance for practice; competences were divided into personal and patient-care competences. The ranking was very similar in the seven countries suggesting that evaluation of competences for practice is based more on professional experience than on prior university education. There were some differences for instance in research-related competences and these may be influenced, by education.

  13. Subjective Outcome Evaluation of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Secondary 2 Program: Views of the Program Participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 196 secondary schools participated in the Secondary 2 Program of the Full Implementation Phase of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes. After completion of the Tier 1 Program, 30,731 students responded to the Subjective Outcome Evaluation Form (Form A to assess their perceptions of the program, instructors, and perceived effectiveness of the program. Based on the consolidated reports submitted by the schools to the funding body, the research team aggregated the consolidated data to form a “reconstructed” overall profile on the perceptions of the program participants. Findings demonstrated that high proportions of the respondents had positive perceptions of the program and the instructors, and roughly four-fifths of the respondents regarded the program as beneficial to them. Correlation analyses showed that perceived program and instructor characteristics were positively associated with perceived benefits of the program.

  14. "How pleasant to watch Nothing": Narrativity and Desire in V.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Gilmore

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Pynchon's seriously playful manipulation of narrative makes the reading of his first novel V. an exploration of V. not only as literary experience but also as psychoanalytic quest into the self of the reader. Like the detective genre that he parodies, V. is a novel that invites the reader to follow along in the process of investigating V. and in so doing of asking the question of what is V., but more importantly of what is my V.? The course of the present investigation will be one of going beyond the multiplicity of possible V.s in order to determine the essence of V, insofar as this may be a vehicle for analyzing the manner in which Pynchon utilizes narrative in order to formally exemplify the content of his novel. What will then be important to look at is not the particular manner(s in which V. appears in the novel and to try and prioritize one over the others or rule some out; what must be determined in order to comprehend the essence of V. is that which supplies the relation between all the various manifestations of V. in the novel. This process entails an articulation of the relation in question in the sense of an examination of both the links and those things which are linked in such an articulation so that the totality may be glimpsed and thus the essence of V. understood. What this points toward is the necessity of an emphasis of focus upon the formal dimension of the text and concomitantly the formal nature of V.In order to facilitate this inquiry, special attention is given to the third chapter, “In which Stencil, a quick change artist, does eight impersonations.” By analyzing the narrative stylistics utilized by Pynchon in this section, the formal exemplification of the novel’s content may be revealed in its multi-dimensional structure, thus opening up the subtle ways in which Pynchon uses narrative form to invoke his subject matter and accentuate it. Because of Stencil’s role in the novel as a major narrative figure and chief

  15. "How pleasant to watch Nothing": Narrativity and Desire in V.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Gilmore

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Pynchon's seriously playful manipulation of narrative makes the reading of his first novel 'V.' an exploration of V. not only as literary experience but also as psychoanalytic quest into the self of the reader.  Like the detective genre that he parodies, 'V.' is a novel that invites the reader to follow along in the process of investigating V. and in so doing of asking the question of what is V., but more importantly of what is my V.?  The course of the present investigation will be one of going beyond the multiplicity of possible V.s in order to determine the essence of V, insofar as this may be a vehicle for analyzing the manner in which Pynchon utilizes narrative in order to formally exemplify the content of his novel.  What will then be important to look at is not the particular manner(s in which V. appears in the novel and to try and prioritize one over the others or rule some out; what must be determined in order to comprehend the essence of V. is that which supplies the relation between all the various manifestations of V. in the novel.  This process entails an articulation of the relation in question in the sense of an examination of both the links and those things which are linked in such an articulation so that the totality may be glimpsed and thus the essence of V. understood.  What this points toward is the necessity of an emphasis of focus upon the formal dimension of the text and concomitantly the formal nature of V. In order to facilitate this inquiry, special attention is given to the third chapter, “In which Stencil, a quick change artist, does eight impersonations.”  By analyzing the narrative stylistics utilized by Pynchon in this section, the formal exemplification of the novel’s content may be revealed in its multi-dimensional structure, thus opening up the subtle ways in which Pynchon uses narrative form to invoke his subject matter and accentuate it.  Because of Stencil’s role in the novel as a major

  16. Evaluation of the Brain Activity Using the Functional Near-Infared Spectroscopy while Having Stimulated by Pleasant and Unpleasant Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Hirotoshi; Hiroshige, Satoru; Ide, Hideto

    We propose the psychological research and physiological measurements. We used oxyHb as physiological measurements in order to evaluate the emotion of “pleasant-unpleasant”. Concretely, we evaluated the difference in the emotion of “pleasant-unpleasant” from oxyHb of the frontal lobe. The experiment showed that a relation between psychological amount and ⊿oxyHb. Based on the result, we presumed the psychological amount using the multiple regression analysis. As a result, it turned out that we can evaluate the emotion of “pleasant-unpleasant” by fNIRS.

  17. La depresión femenina vista desde la subjetividad de las mujeres Female depression viewed from women's subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Asunción Lara

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue explorar la manera en que la depresión femenina es conceptualizada, vivida y significada por las propias mujeres, a partir de la revisión de un material sobre el tema. Se utilizó la técnica de grupos focales para la presentación del texto, el cual versa sobre la depresión, sus causas y estrategias para enfrentarla. Participaron veintiséis mujeres divididas en cuatro grupos. El análisis de las transcripciones de audiograbaciones llevó a identificar cuatro categorías: vivencia de la depresión, historia infantil, condición social de la mujer y estrategias de enfrentamiento. La mayoría mencionó haber padecido episodios de depresión en su vida aunque no los había reconocido como tales. Se percatan de la influencia que tiene la socialización del papel femenino y los acontecimientos de la infancia en la depresión y utilizan diversas estrategias para enfrentarla. Las mujeres encontraron similitudes en sus vivencias a las descritas en el material y a partir de éste relataron sus propias experiencias de depresión. La depresión es un tema central en sus vidas y están ávidas de hablar de ésta.The aim of the study was to explore the way in which depression in women is conceptualized, experienced, and given meaning from the perspective of the women themselves, based on a review of text material on the subject. The focus group technique was used to present the text, which deals with depression, its causes, and coping strategies. Twenty-seven women, divided into four groups, participated in the study. Analyses of the transcriptions of self-recordings led to the identification of four categories: the experience of depression, childhood experiences, the female social condition, and coping strategies. The majority mentioned having had bouts of depression in their lives, although they had not recognized them as such. They were aware of the role played by socialization of the female role and certain childhood

  18. Humor use in romantic relationships: the effects of relationship satisfaction and pleasant versus conflict situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butzer, Bethany; Kuiper, Nicholas A

    2008-05-01

    In this study, the authors explored the use of positive, negative, and avoiding humor in 2 types of situations by individuals in romantic relationships. Participants (N = 154) rated their frequency of humor use in either a typical conflict scenario with their partner or a typical pleasant event. Participants also indicated their overall degree of romantic relationship satisfaction. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that individuals who were more satisfied with their relationship reported higher levels of positive humor use and lower levels of negative and avoiding humor use. Furthermore, lower levels of negative and avoiding humor use were reported for the conflict situation. Last, a significant 2-way interaction revealed that individuals who were high in relationship satisfaction reported significantly lower levels of negative humor use in a conflict situation as compared with a pleasant encounter. In contrast, individuals who were low in relationship satisfaction reported the same high levels of negative humor use regardless of whether they were in a conflict situation or a pleasant encounter. The authors discuss these findings in terms of the need for further research to clearly delineate the factors that may influence the complex use of humor in romantic relationships.

  19. Competence, achievement goals, motivational climate, and pleasant psychobiosocial states in youth sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoli, Laura; Bertollo, Maurizio; Comani, Silvia; Robazza, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    We examined the three-way interactions among competence (actual and perceived), individuals' dispositional goal orientation (task/ego), and perceived sport motivational climate (mastery/performance) in the prediction of pleasant psychobiosocial states (i.e. emotion, cognition, motivation, bodily reaction, movement, performance, and communication) as conceptualized by the Individual Zones of Optimal Functioning model. The sample consisted of 320 Italian youths (160 girls and 160 boys) aged 13-14 years who were involved in individual or team sports. The assessment included a perceived competence scale, a goal orientation questionnaire, a motivational climate inventory, and pleasant psychobiosocial descriptors. An actual competence scale was also administered to coaches asking them to assess their youngsters. Moderated hierarchical regression analysis showed that perceived competence, actual competence, and task orientation were the strongest predictors of pleasant psychobiosocial states. Moreover, actual competence and perceived competence interacted in different ways with dispositional goal orientations and motivational climate perceptions in the prediction of psychobiosocial states. It is therefore recommended that both constructs be included in motivational research.

  20. Visual-gustatory interaction: orbitofrontal and insular cortices mediate the effect of high-calorie visual food cues on taste pleasantness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Ohla

    Full Text Available Vision provides a primary sensory input for food perception. It raises expectations on taste and nutritional value and drives acceptance or rejection. So far, the impact of visual food cues varying in energy content on subsequent taste integration remains unexplored. Using electrical neuroimaging, we assessed whether high- and low-calorie food cues differentially influence the brain processing and perception of a subsequent neutral electric taste. When viewing high-calorie food images, participants reported the subsequent taste to be more pleasant than when low-calorie food images preceded the identical taste. Moreover, the taste-evoked neural activity was stronger in the bilateral insula and the adjacent frontal operculum (FOP within 100 ms after taste onset when preceded by high- versus low-calorie cues. A similar pattern evolved in the anterior cingulate (ACC and medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC around 180 ms, as well as, in the right insula, around 360 ms. The activation differences in the OFC correlated positively with changes in taste pleasantness, a finding that is an accord with the role of the OFC in the hedonic evaluation of taste. Later activation differences in the right insula likely indicate revaluation of interoceptive taste awareness. Our findings reveal previously unknown mechanisms of cross-modal, visual-gustatory, sensory interactions underlying food evaluation.

  1. Psycho-acoustical valuation of pleasant and less perceptible sound characters in wind turbine noise; Psyko-akustisk vaerdering av behagliga och mindre maerkbara ljudkaraktaerer i vindkraftverksljud - interaktiv utvaerdering och akustisk beskrivning av den skvalpande karaktaeren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson Waye, Kerstin; Agge, Agneta

    2001-03-01

    The report describes phase 3 in the ongoing project 'Perception and annoyance of wind turbine sounds'. The overall aim of the project is to increase the knowledge of annoyance and perception of wind turbine sounds in order for the industry to optimise wind turbine constructions. The specific aim for phase 3 was to evaluate the most noticeable and annoying psycho-acoustical character described as 'lapping'. The lapping characteristic was evaluated in experimental studies comprising in total 24 test subjects. With the object to obtain a pleasant sound test subjects were asked to vary four parameters related to the psycho-acoustical perception of 'lapping' in the original sound. The variations of parameters were carried out using an interactive sound processing system and done in such a way so the resulting sound always had a constant dBA level. The resulting values of three of the four parameters were significantly different compared to the original sound. A pleasant sound thus had low contents of the different lapping characteristics. While no difference was found between the original sound and the resulting sound with regard to the equivalent frequency spectra, some differences could be detected using Zwickers loudness calculations. Some differences may be attributed to a lower degree of roughness in the 'pleasant sound'. It is however more likely that the difference between the noises as regard the content of specific loudness in the frequency range of 1270 to 3150 may be of greater importance. Analysis of conventional acoustical measures were not sufficient to predict subjects perception of noticeable and unpleasant characteristics in wind turbine sounds. Further analysis should be pursued of how to best describe an unpleasant or pleasant wind turbine sound.

  2. On the pleasantness of a haptic stimulation: how different textures can be recognized through heart rate variability nonlinear analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardelli, Mimma; Greco, Alberto; Bianchi, Matteo; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale; Valenza, Gaetano

    2016-08-01

    The hedonic attributes of cutaneous elicitation play a crucial role in everyday life, influencing our behavior and psychophysical state. However, the correlation between such a hedonic aspect of touch and the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)-related physiological response, which is intimately connected to emotions, still needs to be deeply investigated. This study reports on caress-like stimuli conveyed to the forearm of 32 healthy subjects through different fabrics actuated by a haptic device, which can control both the strength (i.e. the normal force exerted by the fabric) and the velocity of the elicitation. The mimicked caresses were elicited with a fixed force of 6 N, two levels of velocity of 9.4 mm/sec and 65 mm/sec, and four different fabrics with different textures: burlap, hemp, velvet and silk. Participants were asked to score the caress-like stimuli in terms of arousal and valence through a self-assessment questionnaire. Heartbeat data related to the perceived most pleasant (silk) and unpleasant (burlap) fabrics were used as an input to an automatic pattern recognition procedure. Accordingly, considering gender differences, support vector machines using features extracted from linear and nonlinear heartbeat dynamics showed a recognition accuracy of 84.38% (men) and 78.13% (women) while discerning between burlap and silk elicitations at the higher velocity. Results suggest that the fabrics used for the caress-like stimulation significantly affect the nonlinear cardiovascular dynamics, also showing differences according to gender.

  3. High-Frequency Electroencephalographic Activity in Left Temporal Area Is Associated with Pleasant Emotion Induced by Video Clips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Kortelainen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings suggest that specific neural correlates for the key elements of basic emotions do exist and can be identified by neuroimaging techniques. In this paper, electroencephalogram (EEG is used to explore the markers for video-induced emotions. The problem is approached from a classifier perspective: the features that perform best in classifying person’s valence and arousal while watching video clips with audiovisual emotional content are searched from a large feature set constructed from the EEG spectral powers of single channels as well as power differences between specific channel pairs. The feature selection is carried out using a sequential forward floating search method and is done separately for the classification of valence and arousal, both derived from the emotional keyword that the subject had chosen after seeing the clips. The proposed classifier-based approach reveals a clear association between the increased high-frequency (15–32 Hz activity in the left temporal area and the clips described as “pleasant” in the valence and “medium arousal” in the arousal scale. These clips represent the emotional keywords amusement and joy/happiness. The finding suggests the occurrence of a specific neural activation during video-induced pleasant emotion and the possibility to detect this from the left temporal area using EEG.

  4. Background music genre can modulate flavor pleasantness and overall impression of food stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiegel, Alexandra; Meullenet, Jean-François; Harrington, Robert J; Humble, Rachel; Seo, Han-Seok

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to determine whether background music genre can alter food perception and acceptance, but also to determine how the effect of background music can vary as a function of type of food (emotional versus non-emotional foods) and source of music performer (single versus multiple performers). The music piece was edited into four genres: classical, jazz, hip-hop, and rock, by either a single or multiple performers. Following consumption of emotional (milk chocolate) or non-emotional food (bell peppers) with the four musical stimuli, participants were asked to rate sensory perception and impression of food stimuli. Participants liked food stimuli significantly more while listening to the jazz stimulus than the hip-hop stimulus. Further, the influence of background music on overall impression was present in the emotional food, but not in the non-emotional food. In addition, flavor pleasantness and overall impression of food stimuli differed between music genres arranged by a single performer, but not between those by multiple performers. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that music genre can alter flavor pleasantness and overall impression of food stimuli. Furthermore, the influence of music genre on food acceptance varies as a function of the type of served food and the source of music performer. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The Influence of Olfactory Contexts on the Sequential Rating of Odor Pleasantness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Shiori; Ayabe-Kanamura, Saho

    2017-01-01

    When we sequentially evaluate the characteristics of sensory stimuli, our evaluation of a current stimulus is influenced by those preceding it. One such effect is called hedonic contrast, whereby stimuli are rated more negatively (negative contrast) or positively (positive contrast) if they are preceded by more or less pleasant stimuli. The present study investigated the characteristics of hedonic contrast for olfaction and compared these characteristics with those of a more oft-studied modality, vision. The results from two experiments indicated that both positive and negative contrasts occurred in the sequential rating of picture pleasantness, whereas only negative contrast occurred for olfactory ratings. Notably, overrating of hedonically negative odors following a positive olfactory context was observed even when participants had already rated these same negative odors beforehand; conversely, this did not occur for positive contrast for either sense. These findings indicate that negative odors are more strongly influenced than positive ones, and the rating of positive stimuli may be adjusted to the preceding rating independent of stimulus context. The findings of this study revealed the unique characteristics of hedonic contrast for the olfactory senses.

  6. Pleasant music overcomes the loss of awareness in patients with visual neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, David; Funes, María J; Guzmán-García, Azucena; Warbrick, Tracy; Rotshtein, Pia; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2009-04-07

    During the past 20 years there has been much research into the factors that modulate awareness of contralesional information in neurological patients with visual neglect or extinction. However, the potential role of the individual's emotional state in modulating awareness has been largely overlooked. In the current study, we induced a pleasant and positive affective response in patients with chronic visual neglect by allowing them to listen to their pleasant preferred music. We report that the patients showed enhanced visual awareness when tasks were performed under preferred music conditions relative to when tasks were performed either with unpreferred music or in silence. These results were also replicated when positive affect was induced before neglect was tested. Functional MRI data showed enhanced activity in the orbitofrontal cortex and the cingulate gyrus associated with emotional responses when tasks were performed with preferred music relative to unpreferred music. Improved awareness of contralesional (left) targets with preferred music was also associated with a strong functional coupling between emotional areas and attentional brain regions in spared areas of the parietal cortex and early visual areas of the right hemisphere. These findings suggest that positive affect, generated by preferred music, can decrease visual neglect by increasing attentional resources. We discuss the possible roles of arousal and mood in generating these effects.

  7. Posterior superior temporal sulcus responses predict perceived pleasantness of skin stroking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Davidovic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Love and affection is expressed through a range of physically intimate gestures, including caresses. Recent studies suggest that posterior temporal lobe areas typically associated with visual processing of social cues also respond to interpersonal touch. Here, we asked whether these areas are selective to caress-like skin stroking. We collected functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data from 23 healthy participants and compared brain responses to skin stroking and vibration. We did not find any significant differences between stroking and vibration in the posterior temporal lobe; however, right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS responses predicted healthy participant's perceived pleasantness of skin stroking, but not vibration. These findings link right pSTS responses to individual variability in perceived pleasantness of caress-like tactile stimuli. We speculate that the right pSTS may play a role in the translation of tactile stimuli into positively valenced, socially relevant interpersonal touch and that this system may be affected in disorders associated with impaired attachment.

  8. Affective mediators of the association between pleasant events and global sleep quality in community-dwelling adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Caitlan A; Shoji, Kristy D; Dautovich, Natalie D; Lichstein, Kenneth L; Scogin, Forrest

    2016-02-01

    This study explored the association of engagement in pleasant events and global sleep quality, as well as examined the intermediary roles of positive affect and depressive symptoms in this association. Data were derived from the Midlife in the United States-II study. The sample consisted of 1054 community-dwelling adults. Participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and indicated the frequency and enjoyableness of experiences on a positive events scale. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Positive affect was measured using the Mood and Symptoms Questionnaire. Regression analyses indicated more frequent engagement in pleasant events was associated with better global sleep quality. Depressive symptoms, but not positive affect, partially mediated the association between pleasant events and global sleep quality. The findings suggest that behavioral engagement in pleasant events may be related to global sleep quality via depressive symptoms, but not positive affect. These findings highlight the potential for engagement in pleasant activities to influence both mood and sleep.

  9. What makes for a pleasant social interaction? Motivational dynamics of interpersonal relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, Michelle; Mageau, Genevieve A; Koestner, Richard

    2008-10-01

    The authors used an event-contingent daily recording strategy, the Rochester Interaction Record (RIR), to examine the motivational dynamics of interpersonal relations. Using hierarchical linear modeling, the authors demonstrated that social interactions were more pleasant when participants felt autonomous, competent, and related. Autonomy, competence, and relatedness consistently predicted interaction quality, regardless of (a) the length of the interaction; (b) whether it was dyadic or in a group; and (c) whether it was an interaction with family, friends, or acquaintances. However, participants were more likely to report feeling autonomous and related when they were interacting either with family members and friends or in a dyadic situation. These results suggest that experiences of autonomy, competence, and relatedness may make a good day partly because they produce satisfying interpersonal experiences.

  10. Geothermal Energy Geopressure Subprogram, GCO-DOE, Pleasant Bayou No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1978-03-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared to assess the environmental implications of the Department of Energy's proposal to drill, complete, and test one geopressure well located in Brazoria County on a 2 hectares (five acre) test site 64 km (40 mi) south of Houston, Abstract 107, Perry and Austin Survey, Brazoria County, TX. The test well is herein referred to as GCO-DOE Pleasant Bayou No. 1. A maximum of four disposal wells will be located within .8 km (1/2 mi) of the proposed well. The DOE and the University of Texas Center for Energy Studies propose to operate the test facility for three years to evaluate the geopressure potential of the subsurface. Tests to be conducted include flow rates, fluid composition, temperature, gas content, geologic characteristics, and the land subsidence potential for subsequent production.

  11. Implicit emotion regulation in the context of viewing artworks : ERP evidence in response to pleasant and unpleasant pictures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.N.N. van Dongen (Noah); J.W. van Strien (Jan); K. Dijkstra (Katinka)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPresenting affective pictures as a work of art could change perceivers’ judgment and strength in emotional reactions. Aesthetic theory states that perceivers of art emotionally distance themselves, allowing them to appreciate works of art depicting gruesome events. To examine whether

  12. Taste perception with age: pleasantness and its relationships with threshold sensitivity and supra-threshold intensity of five taste qualities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, J.; Christ-Hazelhof, E.; Heidema, J.

    2005-01-01

    The relationships between threshold sensitivity, supra-threshold intensity of NaCl, KCl, sucrose, aspartame, acetic acid, citric acid, caffeine, quinine HCl, monosodium glutamate (MSG) and inosine 5¿-monophosphate (IMP), and the pleasantness of these stimuli in products, were studied in 21 young

  13. Sweets, sex, or self-esteem? Comparing the value of self-esteem boosts with other pleasant rewards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bushman, B.J.; Moeller, S.J.; Crocker, J.

    2011-01-01

    Many people ascribe great value to self-esteem, but how much value? Do people value self-esteem more than other pleasant activities, such as eating sweets and having sex? Two studies of college students (Study 1: N=130; Study 2: N=152) showed that people valued boosts to their self-esteem more than

  14. Human Amygdala Represents the Complete Spectrum of Subjective Valence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jingwen; Zelano, Christina; Gottfried, Jay A.

    2015-01-01

    Although the amygdala is a major locus for hedonic processing, how it encodes valence information is poorly understood. Given the hedonic potency of odor stimuli and the amygdala's anatomical proximity to the peripheral olfactory system, we combined high-resolution fMRI with pattern-based multivariate techniques to examine how valence information is encoded in the amygdala. Ten human subjects underwent fMRI scanning while smelling 9 odorants that systematically varied in perceived valence. Representational similarity analyses showed that amygdala codes the entire dimension of valence, ranging from pleasantness to unpleasantness. This unidimensional representation significantly correlated with self-reported valence ratings but not with intensity ratings. Furthermore, within-trial valence representations evolved over time, prioritizing earlier differentiation of unpleasant stimuli. Together, these findings underscore the idea that both spatial and temporal features uniquely encode pleasant and unpleasant odor valence in the amygdala. The availability of a unidimensional valence code in the amygdala, distributed in both space and time, would create greater flexibility in determining the pleasantness or unpleasantness of stimuli, providing a mechanism by which expectation, context, attention, and learning could influence affective boundaries for guiding behavior. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Our findings elucidate the mechanisms of affective processing in the amygdala by demonstrating that this brain region represents the entire valence dimension from pleasant to unpleasant. An important implication of this unidimensional valence code is that pleasant and unpleasant valence cannot coexist in the amygdale because overlap of fMRI ensemble patterns for these two valence extremes obscures their unique content. This functional architecture, whereby subjective valence maps onto a pattern continuum between pleasant and unpleasant poles, offers a robust mechanism by which context

  15. Simulation of groundwater flow and pumping scenarios for 1900–2050 near Mount Pleasant, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Jason M.; Petkewich, Matthew D.; Campbell, Bruce G.

    2017-10-31

    Groundwater withdrawals from the Upper Cretaceous-age Middendorf aquifer in South Carolina have created a large, regional cone of depression in the potentiometric surface of the Middendorf aquifer in Charleston and Berkeley Counties, South Carolina. Groundwater-level declines of as much as 249 feet have been observed in wells over the past 125 years and are a result of groundwater use for public water supply, irrigation, and private industry. To address the concerns of users of the Middendorf aquifer, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Mount Pleasant Waterworks (MPW), recalibrated an existing groundwater-flow model to incorporate additional groundwater-use and water-level data since 2008. This recalibration process consisted of a technique of parameter estimation that uses regularized inversion and employs “pilot points” for spatial hydraulic property characterization. The groundwater-flow system of the Coastal Plain physiographic province of South Carolina and parts of Georgia and North Carolina was simulated using the U.S. Geological Survey finite-difference computer code MODFLOW-2000.After the model recalibration, the following six predictive water-management scenarios were created to simulate potential changes in groundwater flow and groundwater-level conditions in the Mount Pleasant, South Carolina, area: Scenario 1—maximize MPW reverse-osmosis plant capacity by increasing groundwater withdrawals from the Middendorf aquifer from 3.9 million gallons per day (Mgal/d), which was the amount withdrawn in 2015, to 8.58 Mgal/d; Scenario 2—same as Scenario 1, but with the addition of a 0.5 Mgal/d supply well in the Middendorf aquifer near Moncks Corner, South Carolina; Scenario 3—same as Scenario 1, but with the addition of a 1.5 Mgal/d supply well in the Middendorf aquifer near Moncks Corner, South Carolina; Scenario 4—maximize MPW well capacity by increasing withdrawals from the Middendorf aquifer from 3.9 Mgal/d (in 2015) to 10.16 Mgal

  16. Too much small talk? Medical students' pelvic examination skills falter with pleasant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Glenn D; Hamstra, Stanley J

    2013-12-01

    The competent performance of a female pelvic examination requires both technical proficiency and superlative communication skills. However, the ideal medium with which to assess these skills remains to be elucidated. Part-task trainers (PTTs) offer an effective and affordable means of testing technical skills, but may not allow students to demonstrate their communication skills. Hybrids involving standardised patients (SPs) (SP-PTT) offer a more realistic assessment of communication, but students may feel awkward when examining the female genitalia. The objective of this study was to compare the use of PTTs with that of SP-PTT hybrids in the assessment of technical and communication skills in the female pelvic examination. A total of 145 medical students were randomised to one of three conditions during their summative objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) at the completion of clerkship. Students performed the female pelvic examination on: (i) a PTT alone ('plastic' condition); (ii) an SP-PTT hybrid with an SP who did not engage in any superfluous conversation ('perfunctory' condition), or (iii) an SP-PTT hybrid with an SP who was trained to offer small talk and banter, which was judged to better reflect the typical doctor-patient interaction ('pleasant' condition). Communication skills did not differ significantly among the three groups (p = 0.354). There was a significant difference among groups in technical skills scores (p = 0.0018). Students in the 'plastic' condition performed best, followed by those in the 'perfunctory' and 'pleasant' conditions, respectively. Medical students demonstrate equivalent communication skills whether they work with a PTT or an SP-PTT hybrid, but their technical skills suffer in the presence of an SP. Working with the PTT alone does not appear to disadvantage students in terms of communication skills, but may offer better conditions for performing technical aspects of the procedure. Whether the 'plastic patient' is

  17. The relevance of low-frequency sound properties for performance and pleasantness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson Waye, Kerstin; Bengtsson, Johanna

    2004-05-01

    The sound environment in the workplace has been found to influence performance, stress, mood, and well-being after work. However few studies can provide dose-response relationships and little is known of the importance of sound-quality aspects for adverse effects on critical tasks or task requirements. We have, during the last 8 years, been engaged in studies investigating the critical performance effects due to the presence of low frequencies (20-200 Hz) in sounds. The main hypotheses on critical effects derived from studies in the general environment were that low-frequency noise induced great annoyance, concentration difficulties, and was difficult to filter out or habituate to. On the other hand, results from truck drivers indicated that low-frequency sounds may lead to reduced alertness and increased sleepiness. In total, three studies were designed with regard to these hypotheses, all of them with the intention to be applicable to office and control room environment, using equivalent A-weighted sound-pressure levels of 40 and 45 dB. The fourth study investigated the importance of sound properties in low-frequency sounds for the perception of pleasantness. The results will be presented and discussed in relation to noise assessment aspects. [Work supported by Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research.

  18. Pleasant Bayou geopressured/geothermal testing project, Brazoria County, Texas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortego, P.K.

    1985-07-01

    Phase II-B production testing of the Pleasant Bayou No. 2 well began September 22, 1982. The test plan was designed to evaluate the capabilities of the geopressured-geothermal reservoir during an extended flow period. Tests were conducted to determine reservoir areal extent; aquifer fluid properties; fluid property change with production; information on reservoir production drive mechanism; long-term scale and corrosion control methods; and disposal well operations. Operatinal aspects of geopressured-geothermal production were also evaluated. The test was discontinued prematurely in May 1983 because of a production tubing failure. Most of the production tubing was recovered from the well and cause of the failure was determined. Plans for recompletion of the well were prepared. However, the well was not recompleted because of funding constraints and/or program rescheduling. In March 1984, the Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) directed that the site be placed in a standby-secured condition. In August 1984, the site was secured. Routine site maintenance and security was provided during the secured period.

  19. A pleasant familiar odor influences perceived stress and peripheral nervous system activity during normal aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline eJoussain

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Effects of smells on stress have been demonstrated in animals and humans, suggesting that inhaling certain odorants may counteract the negative effects of stress. Because stress plays a key role in cerebral aging, the present study set out to examine whether positive odor effects on perceived stress can be achieved in elderly individuals. To this end, two groups of aged individuals (n=36 women, aged from 55 to 65 years, were tested. The first group was exposed for 5 days to a pleasant and, by end of exposure, familiar odor (exposure odor, whereas the other was exposed to a non-scented control stimulus. Stress and mood states were assessed before and after the 5-day odor exposure period. Psychophysiological markers were also assessed at the end of exposure, in response to the exposure odor and to a new odor. Results revealed that stress on this second exposure was decreased and zygomatic EMG activity was increased specifically in the group previously exposed to the odor (p< 0.05. Taken as a whole, these findings offer a new look at the relationship between perceived stress, olfaction and normal aging, opening up new research perspectives on the effect of olfaction on quality of life and well-being in aged individuals.

  20. Automatic evaluation stimuli – The most frequently used words to describe physical activity and the pleasantness of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Lea Rebar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is partially regulated by non-conscious processes including automatic evaluations – the spontaneous affective reactions we have to physical activity that lead us to approach or avoid physical activity opportunities. A sound understanding of which words best represent the concepts of physical activity and pleasantness (as associated with physical activity is needed to improve the measurement of automatic evaluations and related constructs (e.g., automatic self-schemas, attentional biases. The first aim of this study was to establish population-level evidence of the most common word stimuli for physical activity and pleasantness. Given that response latency measures have been applied to assess automatic evaluations of physical activity and exercise, the second aim was to determine whether people use the same behavior and pleasant descriptors for physical activity and exercise. Australian adults (N = 1,318; 54.3% women; 48.9% aged 55 years or older were randomly assigned to one of two groups, through a computer-generated 1:1 ratio allocation, to be asked to list either five behaviors and pleasant descriptors of physical activity (n = 686 or of exercise (n = 632. The words were independently coded twice as to whether they were novel words or the same as another (i.e., same stem or same meaning. Intercoder reliability varied between moderate and strong (agreement = 50.1% to 97.8%; κ = 0.48 to 0.82. A list of the 20 most common behavior and pleasantness words were established based on how many people reported them, weighted by the ranking (1-5 people gave them. The words people described as physical activity were mostly the same as those people used to describe exercise. The most common behavior words were ‘walking,’ ‘running,’ ‘swimming,’ ‘bike riding,’ and ‘gardening’; and the most common pleasant descriptor words were ‘relaxing,’ ‘happiness,’ ‘enjoyment,’ ‘exhilarating,’ ‘exhausting,’ and

  1. How context alters value: The brain's valuation and affective regulation system link price cues to experienced taste pleasantness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Liane; Skvortsova, Vasilisa; Kullen, Claus; Weber, Bernd; Plassmann, Hilke

    2017-08-14

    Informational cues such as the price of a wine can trigger expectations about its taste quality and thereby modulate the sensory experience on a reported and neural level. Yet it is unclear how the brain translates such expectations into sensory pleasantness. We used a whole-brain multilevel mediation approach with healthy participants who tasted identical wines cued with different prices while their brains were scanned using fMRI. We found that the brain's valuation system (BVS) in concert with the anterior prefrontal cortex played a key role in implementing the effect of price cues on taste pleasantness ratings. The sensitivity of the BVS to monetary rewards outside the taste domain moderated the strength of these effects. These findings provide novel evidence for the fundamental role that neural pathways linked to motivation and affective regulation play for the effect of informational cues on sensory experiences.

  2. From sweeping to the caress: similarities and discrepancies between human and non-human primates' pleasant touch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Clara Grandi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Affective touch plays a key role in affiliative behavior, offering a mechanism for the formation and maintenance of social bonds among conspecifics, both in humans and non-human primates. Furthermore, it has been speculated that the CT fiber system is a specific coding channel for affiliative touch that occurs during skin-to-skin interactions with conspecifics. In humans, this touch is commonly referred to as the caress, and its correlation with the CT fiber system has been widely demonstrated. It has been hypothesized that the sweeping touch that occurs during grooming in non-human primates may modulate the CT fibers, with recent preliminary studies on rhesus monkeys supporting this hypothesis. The present mini-review proposes a comparison between the pleasant touch, caress and sweeping of humans and non-human primates, respectively. The currently available data was therefore reviewed regarding i the correlation between pleasant touch and CT fibers both in humans and non-human primates, ii the autonomic effects, iii the encoding at the central nervous system, iv the development from early life to adulthood, and v the potential applications of pleasant touch in the daily lives of both humans and non-human primates. Moreover, by considering both the similarities and discrepancies between the human caress and non-human primate sweeping, a possible evolutionary mechanism can be proposed that has developed from sweeping as a utilitarian action with affiliative meaning among monkeys, to the caress as a purely affective gesture associated with humans.

  3. The construction of women's subjectivity. Blog analysis of El País.com and El Mundo.es from a gender point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena BANDRÉS GOLDÁRAZ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a quantitative study based on a random strategic selection of blogs sample written by women in two reference newspapers (El Mundo.es & El País.com in Spain to find out the issues dealt and concerning, women as they enable the construction of women's subjectivity and their social visibility. This agenda-setting analysis visibilizes these female blog whose subject's choice discovers the existing inequality, both in number (women and men writers, as well as selection of the major issues: politics and economy, where women's presence nearly does not exist.

  4. A neuroimaging study of pleasant and unpleasant olfactory perceptions of virgin olive oil; Estudio mediante neuroimagen de percepciones olfativas agradables y desagradables de aceites de oliva virgen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivancos, J.; Tena, N.; Morales, M.T.; Aparicio, R.; Garcia-Gonzalez, D.L.

    2016-07-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to collect information from neurons that receive direct input from olfactory bulbs when subjects smell virgin olive oil. The pleasant aroma of three extra virgin olive oils (var. Royal, Arbequina and Picual) and three virgin olive oils with sensory defects (rancid, fusty and winey/vinegary) were presented to 14 subjects while a fMRI scan acquired data from the brain activity. Data were subjected to a two-sample t test analysis, which allows a better interpretation of results particularly when data are studied across different subjects. Most of the activations, which were located in the frontal lobe, are related to the olfactory task regardless of the hedonic component of perception (e.g. Brodmann areas 10, 11). Comparing the samples with pleasant and unpleasant aromas, differences were found at the anterior cingulate gyrus (Brodmann area 32), at the temporal lobe (Brodmann area 38), and inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 47), while intense aromas activated Brodmann area 6. The actual perceptions described by the subjects and the concentration of the odorant compounds in the samples were considered in the interpretation of the results. [Spanish] La imagen por resonancia magnética funcional (fMRI) ha sido empleada para estudiar la información de la respuesta cerebral producida al estimular las neuronas que participan en el proceso olfatorio tras percibir el aroma del aceite de oliva virgen (AOV). Se utilizó fMRI para la adquisición de los datos de la actividad cerebral de 14 sujetos a los que se presentaron tres aceites de oliva vírgenes de aroma agradable (var. Royal, Arbequina and Picual) y tres aceites de oliva vírgenes con defectos sensoriales (rancio, atrojado, avinado/avinagrado). Los datos se sometieron a una prueba t para observar diferencias entre dos grupos, la cual permite una mejor interpretación de los resultados, particularmente cuando los datos se estudian a través de diferentes

  5. Sweets, Sex, or Self-Esteem? Comparing the Value of Self-Esteem Boosts with Other Pleasant Rewards

    OpenAIRE

    Bushman, Brad J.; Moeller, Scott J.; Crocker, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Many people ascribe great value to self-esteem, but how much value? Do people value self-esteem more than other pleasant activities, such as eating sweets and having sex? Two studies of college students (Study 1: N=130; Study 2: N=152) showed that people valued boosts to their self-esteem more than they valued eating a favorite food and engaging in a favorite sexual activity. Study 2 also showed that people valued self-esteem more than they valued drinking alcohol, receiving a paycheck, and s...

  6. Sweets, sex, or self-esteem? Comparing the value of self-esteem boosts with other pleasant rewards

    OpenAIRE

    Bushman, B.J.; Moeller, S J; Crocker, J.

    2011-01-01

    Many people ascribe great value to self-esteem, but how much value? Do people value self-esteem more than other pleasant activities, such as eating sweets and having sex? Two studies of college students (Study 1: N=130; Study 2: N=152) showed that people valued boosts to their self-esteem more than they valued eating a favorite food and engaging in a favorite sexual activity. Study 2 also showed that people valued self-esteem more than they valued drinking alcohol, receiving a paycheck, and s...

  7. Refining the multisystem view of the stress response: coordination among cortisol, alpha-amylase, and subjective stress in response to relationship conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Powers, Sally I; Granger, Douglas A

    2013-07-02

    This study investigated associations among young adults' hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, autonomic nervous system activity, and subjective stress in response to interpersonal conflict to better characterize coordination across stress systems. Seven saliva samples were collected from 199 young adult opposite-sex couples before, during, and after they discussed an unresolved relationship conflict. Samples were later assayed for cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA). Couples rated anticipatory stress prior to the conflict and perceived stress immediately following the task. Growth curve modeling was used to examine two possible levels of within-person coordination across physiological systems: alignment between cortisol and sAA responses throughout the sampling period ("matched phase coordination"), and association between overall levels of cortisol and sAA in response to conflict ("average level coordination"). Whereas both partners showed the former type of coordination, only women showed the latter type. Positive anticipation of the stressor predicted stronger cortisol-sAA matched phase coordination for women. Pre-task ratings related to women's sAA, and post-task ratings related to both partners' cortisol responses. Implications for a multisystem interpretation of normal and pathological responses to daily stress are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Subject (of documents)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    such as concepts, aboutness, topic, isness and ofness are also briefly presented. The conclusion is that the most fruitful way of defining “subject” (of a document) is the documents informative or epistemological potentials, that is, the documents potentials of informing users and advance the development......This article presents and discuss the concept “subject” or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document......-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts...

  9. Sweets, Sex, or Self-Esteem? Comparing the Value of Self-Esteem Boosts with Other Pleasant Rewards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, Brad J.; Moeller, Scott J.; Crocker, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Many people ascribe great value to self-esteem, but how much value? Do people value self-esteem more than other pleasant activities, such as eating sweets and having sex? Two studies of college students (Study 1: N=130; Study 2: N=152) showed that people valued boosts to their self-esteem more than they valued eating a favorite food and engaging in a favorite sexual activity. Study 2 also showed that people valued self-esteem more than they valued drinking alcohol, receiving a paycheck, and seeing a best friend. Both studies found that people who highly valued self-esteem engaged in laboratory tasks to boost their self-esteem. Finally, personality variables interacted with these value ratings. Entitled people thought they were more deserving of all pleasant rewards, even though they did not like them all that much (both studies); and people who highly value self-esteem pursue potentially maladaptive self-image goals, presumably to elevate their self-esteem (Study 2). PMID:21950264

  10. Sweets, sex, or self-esteem? Comparing the value of self-esteem boosts with other pleasant rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, Brad J; Moeller, Scott J; Crocker, Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    Many people ascribe great value to self-esteem, but how much value? Do people value self-esteem more than other pleasant activities, such as eating sweets and having sex? Two studies of college students (Study 1: N=130; Study 2: N=152) showed that people valued boosts to their self-esteem more than they valued eating a favorite food and engaging in a favorite sexual activity. Study 2 also showed that people valued self-esteem more than they valued drinking alcohol, receiving a paycheck, and seeing a best friend. Both studies found that people who highly valued self-esteem engaged in laboratory tasks to boost their self-esteem. Finally, personality variables interacted with these value ratings. Entitled people thought they were more deserving of all pleasant rewards, even though they did not like them all that much (both studies), and people who highly value self-esteem pursued potentially maladaptive self-image goals, presumably to elevate their self-esteem (Study 2). © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Semantic contribution to verbal short-term memory: are pleasant words easier to remember than neutral words in serial recall and serial recognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, Catherine; Syssau, Arielle

    2008-01-01

    In the four experiments reported here, we examined the role of word pleasantness on immediate serial recall and immediate serial recognition. In Experiment 1, we compared verbal serial recall of pleasant and neutral words, using a limited set of items. In Experiment 2, we replicated Experiment 1 with an open set of words (i.e., new items were used on every trial). In Experiments 3 and 4, we assessed immediate serial recognition of pleasant and neutral words, using item sets from Experiments 1 and 2. Pleasantness was found to have a facilitation effect on both immediate serial recall and immediate serial recognition. This study supplies some new supporting arguments in favor of a semantic contribution to verbal short-term memory performance. The pleasantness effect observed in immediate serial recognition showed that, contrary to a number of earlier findings, performance on this task can also turn out to be dependent on semantic factors. The results are discussed in relation to nonlinguistic and psycholinguistic models of short-term memory.

  12. Subject Sensitive Invariantism: In Memoriam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Subject sensitive invariantism is the view that whether a subject knows depends on what is at stake for that subject: the truth-value of a knowledge-attribution is sensitive to the subject's practical interests. I argue that subject sensitive invariantism cannot accept a very plausible principle for

  13. Examining complexity across domains: relating subjective and objective measures of affective environmental scenes, paintings and music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Manuela M; Leder, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Subjective complexity has been found to be related to hedonic measures of preference, pleasantness and beauty, but there is no consensus about the nature of this relationship in the visual and musical domains. Moreover, the affective content of stimuli has been largely neglected so far in the study of complexity but is crucial in many everyday contexts and in aesthetic experiences. We thus propose a cross-domain approach that acknowledges the multidimensional nature of complexity and that uses a wide range of objective complexity measures combined with subjective ratings. In four experiments, we employed pictures of affective environmental scenes, representational paintings, and Romantic solo and chamber music excerpts. Stimuli were pre-selected to vary in emotional content (pleasantness and arousal) and complexity (low versus high number of elements). For each set of stimuli, in a between-subjects design, ratings of familiarity, complexity, pleasantness and arousal were obtained for a presentation time of 25 s from 152 participants. In line with Berlyne's collative-motivation model, statistical analyses controlling for familiarity revealed a positive relationship between subjective complexity and arousal, and the highest correlations were observed for musical stimuli. Evidence for a mediating role of arousal in the complexity-pleasantness relationship was demonstrated in all experiments, but was only significant for females with regard to music. The direction and strength of the linear relationship between complexity and pleasantness depended on the stimulus type and gender. For environmental scenes, the root mean square contrast measures and measures of compressed file size correlated best with subjective complexity, whereas only edge detection based on phase congruency yielded equivalent results for representational paintings. Measures of compressed file size and event density also showed positive correlations with complexity and arousal in music, which is

  14. Significant Differences in Perceived Odor Pleasantness Found in Children with ASD

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrdlička, M.; Vodička, J.; Havlovičová, M.; Urbánek, Tomáš; Blatný, Marek; Dudová, I.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 4 (2011), s. 524-527 ISSN 0162-3257 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : autism * Asperger’s syndrome * sensory abnormalities Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines Impact factor: 3.341, year: 2011

  15. Hyaluronic acid improves "pleasantness" and tolerability of nebulized hypertonic saline in a cohort of patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonpensiero, Paolo; De Gregorio, Fabiola; Sepe, Angela; Di Pasqua, Antonio; Ferri, Pasqualina; Siano, Maria; Terlizzi, Vito; Raia, Valeria

    2010-11-01

    Inhaled hypertonic saline improves lung function and decreases pulmonary exacerbations in people with cystic fibrosis. However, side effects such as cough, narrowing of airways and saltiness cause intolerance of the therapy in 8% of patients. The aim of our study was to compare the effect of an inhaled solution of hyaluronic acid and hypertonic saline with hypertonic solution alone on safety and tolerability. A total of 20 patients with cystic fibrosis aged 6 years and over received a single treatment regimen of 7% hypertonic saline solution or hypertonic solution with 0.1% hyaluronate for 2 days nonconsecutively after a washout period in an open crossover study. Cough, throat irritation, and salty taste were evaluated by a modified ordinal score for assessing tolerability; "pleasantness" was evaluated by a five-level, Likert-type scale. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second was registered before and after the end of the saline inhalations. All 20 patients (nine males, 11 females, mean age 13 years, range 8.9-17.7) completed the study. The inhaled solution of 0.1% hyaluronic acid and hypertonic saline significantly improved tolerability and pleasantness compared to hypertonic saline alone. No major adverse effects were observed. No difference was documented in pulmonary function tests between the two treatments. Hyaluronic acid combined with hypertonic saline solution may contribute to improved adherence to hypertonic saline therapy. Further clinical trials are needed to confirm our findings. Considering the extraordinary versatility of hyaluronic acid in biological reactions, perspective studies could define its applicability to halting progression of lung disease in cystic fibrosis.

  16. An analysis of potential water availability from the Charles Mill, Clendening, Piedmont, Pleasant Hill, Senecaville, and Wills Creek Lakes in the Muskingum River Watershed, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltun, G.F.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to assess potential water availability from the Charles Mill, Clendening, Piedmont, Pleasant Hill, Senecaville, and Wills Creek Lakes, located within the Muskingum River Watershed, Ohio. The assessment was based on the criterion that water withdrawals should not appreciably affect maintenance of recreation-season pool levels in current use. To facilitate and simplify the assessment, it was assumed that historical lake operations were successful in maintaining seasonal pool levels, and that any discharges from lakes constituted either water that was discharged to prevent exceeding seasonal pool levels or discharges intended to meet minimum in-stream flow targets downstream from the lakes. It further was assumed that the volume of water discharged in excess of the minimum in-stream flow target is available for use without negatively impacting seasonal pool levels or downstream water uses and that all or part of it is subject to withdrawal. Historical daily outflow data for the lakes were used to determine the quantity of water that potentially could be withdrawn and the resulting quantity of water that would flow downstream (referred to as “flow-by”) on a daily basis as a function of all combinations of three hypothetical target minimum flow-by amounts (1, 2, and 3 times current minimum in-stream flow targets) and three pumping capacities (1, 2, and 3 million gallons per day). Using both U.S. Geological Survey streamgage data (where available) and lake-outflow data provided by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers resulted in analytical periods ranging from 51 calendar years for Charles Mill, Clendening, and Piedmont Lakes to 74 calendar years for Pleasant Hill, Senecaville, and Wills Creek Lakes. The observed outflow time series and the computed time series of daily flow-by amounts and potential withdrawals were analyzed to compute and report order statistics (95th, 75th, 50th, 25th, 10th, and 5th percentiles) and means for

  17. Effect of emotional picture viewing on voluntary eyeblinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karla, Suvi; Ruusuvirta, Timo; Wikgren, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Eyeblinks, whether reflexive or voluntary, play an important role in protecting our vision. When viewing pictures, reflexive eyeblinks are known to be modulated by the emotional state induced thereby. More specifically, the hedonic valence (unpleasantness-pleasantness) induced by the picture has been shown to have a linear relationship with the amplitude of a startle blink elicited during picture viewing. This effect has been attributed to congruence between an ongoing state and task demands: an unpleasant emotional state is assumed to bias our attention towards potentially harmful stimuli, such as startle tones. However, recent research suggests that the valence-specific modulation may not be limited to the sensory parts of the reflexive pathway related to startle responses. Here, we examined the effect of emotional picture viewing on voluntary (in response to a written command) eyeblinks in adult humans. Emotional modulation of startle blinks was also evaluated. We found that when viewing unpleasant pictures, the amplitude of reflexive eyeblinks was augmented, but the amplitude of voluntary eyeblinks was unaffected. Nevertheless, the response latencies of voluntary eyeblinks were found to be delayed during the viewing of pleasant and unpleasant relative to neutral pictures. We conclude that these results support the theory that emotional experience augments sensory processing specific to potentially harmful stimuli. Further, the emotional state seems not to exert an effect on voluntarily elicited motor activity.

  18. Effect of emotional picture viewing on voluntary eyeblinks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Karla

    Full Text Available Eyeblinks, whether reflexive or voluntary, play an important role in protecting our vision. When viewing pictures, reflexive eyeblinks are known to be modulated by the emotional state induced thereby. More specifically, the hedonic valence (unpleasantness-pleasantness induced by the picture has been shown to have a linear relationship with the amplitude of a startle blink elicited during picture viewing. This effect has been attributed to congruence between an ongoing state and task demands: an unpleasant emotional state is assumed to bias our attention towards potentially harmful stimuli, such as startle tones. However, recent research suggests that the valence-specific modulation may not be limited to the sensory parts of the reflexive pathway related to startle responses. Here, we examined the effect of emotional picture viewing on voluntary (in response to a written command eyeblinks in adult humans. Emotional modulation of startle blinks was also evaluated. We found that when viewing unpleasant pictures, the amplitude of reflexive eyeblinks was augmented, but the amplitude of voluntary eyeblinks was unaffected. Nevertheless, the response latencies of voluntary eyeblinks were found to be delayed during the viewing of pleasant and unpleasant relative to neutral pictures. We conclude that these results support the theory that emotional experience augments sensory processing specific to potentially harmful stimuli. Further, the emotional state seems not to exert an effect on voluntarily elicited motor activity.

  19. Sexualidade e corpo: o olhar do sujeito através das imagens em vídeo Sexuality and the human body: the subject's view through video images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Portes Vargas

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Delimitado em torno de questões que mantém relações com práticas educativas em saúde, este estudo tem como perspectiva de análise as imagens do corpo vinculadas ao comportamento sexual e reprodutivo nos processos de comunicação mediados pelos chamados vídeos educativos. Busca-se caracterizar, na relação do sujeito com a tecnologia, os discursos e a direção do olhar que conformam na atualidade tais práticas. Com especial interesse nas possibilidades de relações que o vídeo apresenta entre sujeitos enunciador e representado que compõem o texto e profissionais de saúde nas interações com as mensagens, procura-se caracterizar os discursos e questões que conformam a base de uma determinada visão do corpo e da sexualidade. O desenho do estudo teve como sujeito profissionais de saúde da rede pública do Rio de Janeiro no período de 1996-1997. Os resultados mostram uma concepção de sexualidade que tende a generalizar o significado da experiência sexual, ignorando as variações entre diferentes grupos, culturalmente definidos, na atribuição de significados ao corpo.This study analyzes images of the body linked to sexual and reproductive behavior found in the communication processes mediated by so-called educational videos. In the relationship between subject and technology, the paper is intended to characterize the discourses and the view or perspective currently shaping health education practices. Focusing on the potential in the relationship between the enunciator and subjects represented in the text and the interaction between health professionals and messages, the study attempts to characterize the discourses and questions providing the basis for a given view of the body and sexuality. The study was conducted in the years 1996-1997 and focused on health professionals from the public health system. The results show a concept of sexuality that tends to generalize the meaning ascribed to sexual experience, ignoring the

  20. Nitrogen loading to Pleasant Bay, Cape Cod: application of models and stable isotopes to detect incipient nutrient enrichment of estuaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, Ruth H.; Annett, Brendan; Valiela, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    To test and refine methods to detect nutrient enrichment and resulting eutrophication, we applied the Waquoit Bay nitrogen loading model (NLM) and Estuarine loading model (ELM) to estuaries of Pleasant Bay that receive increasing but low N loads (25-199 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) from land. Contributions of wastewater to these estuaries increased from 7% to 63% as N loads increased, and modeled estimates of dissolved inorganic nitrogen in the water were within {approx}27% of measured values. N isotopic signatures in suspended and benthic organic matter and in tissue of quahogs increased as wastewater contributions to N loads increased, with clams {approx}4%o heavier than organic matter, indicating that even at these low N loads, N from land-derived sources moved detectably up the food web. These results extend the application of NLM and ELM to detect incipient levels of N enrichment and demonstrate that these models can be used in conjunction with isotope measurements as the basis for food web analyses in a system exposed to relatively lower N loads than previously studied.

  1. How good is this food? A study on dogs' emotional responses to a potentially pleasant event using infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travain, Tiziano; Colombo, Elisa Silvia; Grandi, Laura Clara; Heinzl, Eugenio; Pelosi, Annalisa; Prato Previde, Emanuela; Valsecchi, Paola

    2016-05-15

    Understanding how animals express positive emotions is becoming an interesting and promising area of research in the study of animal emotions and affective experiences. In the present study, we used infrared thermography in combination with behavioral measures, heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV), to investigate dogs' emotional responses to a potentially pleasant event: receiving palatable food from the owner. Nineteen adult pet dogs, 8 females and 11 males, were tested and their eye temperature, HR, HRV and behavior were recorded during a 30-minutestestconsisting of three 10-minute consecutive phases: Baseline (Phase 1), positive stimulation through the administration of palatable treats (Feeding, Phase 2) and Post-feeding condition following the positive stimulation (Phase 3). Dogs' eye temperature and mean HR significantly increased during the positive stimulation phase compared with both Baseline and Post-feeding phases. During the positive stimulation with food (Phase 2), dogs engaged in behaviors indicating a positive emotional state and a high arousal, being focused on food treats and increasing tail wagging. However, there was no evidence of an increase in HRV during Phase 2 compared to the Phase 1, with SDNN significantly increasing only in Phase 3, after the positive stimulation occurred. Overall results point out that IRT may be a useful tool in assessing emotional states in dogs in terms of arousal but fails to discriminate emotional valence, whose interpretation cannot disregard behavioral indexes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pedestrian and bicyclist motivation: an assessment of influences on pedestrians’ and bicyclists’ mode choice in Mt. Pleasant, Vancouver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery M. Guinn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of short distance travel in North America is completed by single occupancy vehicles. Substituting walking and bicycling for these trips would reduce energy use and environmental pollution, while improving quality of life. Therefore, understanding influences on non-automotive travel behavior is crucial. Researchers and planners have touted specific factors for encouraging walking and biking, but the body of work remains fragmented. Previous studies have focused on a smaller number of factors and most of them relate to physical design. This study tests the relative importance of a range of factors, both physical and perceptual that could influence one’s choice to walk or bike. The Mt. Pleasant neighborhood in Vancouver, B.C., Canada was chosen as the location for this study as all of the pedestrian-motivating factors identified in a literature review were present. A questionnaire-based survey addressing distance, sidewalks/bike lanes, pedestrian/bicycle traffic signals, buffering from auto traffic, sense of security, cleanliness, opportunities to talk with others, enforcement of traffic laws, concern for the environment, weather, terrain, saving money, opportunities for exercise, and a visually appealing environment as influential factors was administered in person and online yielding 774 responses. All factors were shown to influence the decision to walk or bike, but some proved more significant than others, especially opportunities for exercise.

  3. The emotional symbolism of two English e-sounds: /i/ as in "cheap" is pleasant and /I/ as in "chip" active.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whissell, Cynthia

    2003-02-01

    This article aligns the symbolism of the long (/i/) and short (/I/) e sounds in English with the two dimensions of emotional space-Pleasantness and Activation. On the basis of this alignment, the four quadrants of emotional space are labelled Cheerful (high /i/, high /I/), Cheerless (low /i/, low /I/), Tough (low /i/, high /I/), and Tender (high /i/, low /I/). In four phases, data from over 50 samples (mainly, poetry, song lyrics, and names) were plotted and compared in terms of their use of the two e sounds. Significant and meaningful differences among samples were discovered in all phases. The placement of samples in quadrants was additionally informative. Data samples including many long e sounds (/i/) tended to be more Pleasant and those including many short e sounds (/I/) tended to be more Active.

  4. It is pleasant and heavy: convergence of visual contents in tobacco, alcohol and food marketing in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viacava, Keitiline R; Weydmann, Gibson J; de Vasconcelos, Mailton F; Jaboinski, Juliana; Batista, Graziele D; de Almeida, Rosa Maria M; Bizarro, Lisiane

    2016-09-01

    The tactical use of visuoperceptual content in marketing may encourage impulsive consumption of unhealthy products. In this study, the application of visuoperceptual content was compared in advertisements used by industries of tobacco, alcohol and food. The aim was to ascertain whether similarities exist in the strategies used as variables for the selection of commercial stimuli, such as color, position and size. Scion Image and Corel Draw Graphics Suite software were used to analyze the content of a non-probabilistic sample of advertising images (N = 150). Differences were identified in the use of the colors green (p = 0.04) and red (p = 0.01), but not in the use of the color blue (p = 0.64), suggesting that induction of feelings of pleasantness resulting from the use of the color blue may be associated with the advertising in the alcohol and tobacco industries. Regarding the position of the commercial stimuli, a predominance of the use of quadrants 'C' (p = 0.00) and 'D' (p = 0.01) was found in all three industries, indicating a similar use of areas perceived as being 'heavier'. As to the size, 78% of advertisements placed the commercial stimuli within a range of 0-25% of the total image. The results showed some similarities in the use of visuoperceptual content in advertisements for tobacco, alcohol and food, especially between tobacco and alcohol. The article offers a convergence analysis of these three industries altogether, providing additional subsidies for the formulation of protection policies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. View relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Søren; Carpendale, Sheelagh

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the potential of using visual representations to support people in managing, organizing, and understanding relations between multiple visualization views. Multiple views can help people understand different facets of data and data processing, and are a crucial part of data...... analysis particularly when it is done collaboratively. Both the growing use of multiple views and the increasing display sizes have amplified the need to explore how to better help people to understand the relations between many views. To improve our understanding of how to visualize view relations, we...... invited visualization and interaction designers to critique and sketch representations of view relations. The participants provided design critiques, and sketched their own relation representations. Our findings expand the range and palette of ways of visually linking visualization views and suggest new...

  6. Unifying Subjectivity and Objectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Chandrasekaran

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of modern science to the progress of civilization is immeasurable. Even its tendency toward exclusive concentration on the objective world has had salutary effects of great value. Modern science has wiped away much that was merely superstitious or speculative. Its rejection of unfounded opinions and prejudices has helped the thinking mind question conventional beliefs, shed preferences and prejudices, and challenge established authority. But modern systems thinking inherited from natural science is the suppression of the subjective dimension of reality. Many complex systems are an attempt to define and represent all subjective experience in physical terms. The modern man has a bias towards objectivity. The powerful influence of sense impressions on his mind and thinking makes him ignore the subjective experience and consider only objective facts as a valid, legitimate and representation of reality. Observing objective factors that are physical is easier than observing subjective factors that are subtle. The mechanistic view of reality has led to the rejection of the role of the individual in social development as insignificant. The individuals determine the development of society. Their social power has its roots both in subjective factors and objective factors. Economy, politics, society, and culture are inseparable dimensions of a single integrated reality. Subject and object constitute an integrated whole. The mind sees them as separate and independent. Or it views one as completely subordinate to the other. Unbiased approach to the study of all human experiences may prove that subject and object are interdependent dimensions or elements of reality.

  7. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  8. Effects of Canon chord progression on brain activity and motivation are dependent on subjective feelings, not the chord progression per se

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayashima Y

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Yoshinori Kayashima,1,2,* Kazuhiko Yamamuro,1,* Manabu Makinodan,1 Yoko Nakanishi,1 Akio Wanaka,2 Toshifumi Kishimoto1 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara, Japan *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: A number of studies have indicated that relaxing and pleasant melodies are useful for the treatment of patients with psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, depression, and dementia. However, few studies have investigated what constitutive elements of the music had an effect on brain activity. As Canon chord progression is one of critical elements for pleasant melodies, we sought to examine the effects of Canon chord progression and pitch-shifted Canon chord progression on brain activity using performance on the auditory oddball task during event-related potentials (ERPs in 30 healthy subjects. Unexpectedly, we found no differences in ERP components between subjects listening to Canon chord progression (n=15 or pitch-shifted Canon chord progression (n=15. Next, we divided participants into two groups: those who found the melody pleasant (n=17 and those who did not (n=13, for both Canon chord progression and pitch-shifted Canon chord progression. The average of P300 amplitude was higher at Fz in subjects found the music pleasant versus those finding it unpleasant. Moreover, subjects who found it pleasant exhibited higher motivation scores than those who felt it was unpleasant, whereas listening to Canon chord progression did not matter. These findings suggest that the effects of Canon chord progression on brain activity and motivation depend on subjective feelings, not the chord progression per se. Keywords: music, Canon chord progression, motivation, event-related potential, subjective feelings 

  9. Subject Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Photometric Variability of Four Coronally Active Stars (J. C. Pandey, K. P. Singh,. R. Sagar & S. A. Drake), 9. The Investigation of Nova-like Variable MV Lyr during the 1999–2001 Years. (N. A. Katysheva, S. Yu. Shugarov, E. P. Pavlenko & P. V. Abolmasov), 15. Sun, interior. Seismic View of the Solar Interior (H. M. Antia), 3.

  10. Avaliação comparativa entre agradabilidade facial e análise subjetiva do Padrão Facial Comparative evaluation among facial attractiveness and subjective analysis of Facial Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olívia Morihisa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estudar duas análises subjetivas faciais utilizadas para o diagnóstico ortodôntico, avaliação da agradabilidade facial e definição de Padrão Facial, e verificar a associação existente entre elas. MÉTODOS: utilizou-se 208 fotografias faciais padronizadas (104 laterais e 104 frontais de 104 indivíduos escolhidos aleatoriamente, as quais foram submetidas à avaliação da agradabilidade por dois grupos distintos (Grupo " Ortodontia" e Grupo " Leigos" , que classificaram os indivíduos em " agradável" , " aceitável" ou " desagradável" . Os indivíduos também foram classificados quanto ao Padrão Facial por três examinadores calibrados, utilizando-se apenas a vista lateral. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: após a análise estatística, verificou-se que houve associação fortemente positiva entre a agradabilidade facial e o Padrão Facial para a norma lateral, porém não para a frontal, em que os indivíduos tenderam a ser bem classificados mesmo no Padrão II.AIM: To study two subjective facial analysis commonly used on orthodontic diagnosis and to verify the association between the evaluation of facial attractiveness and Facial Pattern definition. METHODS: Two hundred and eight standardized face photographs (104 in lateral view and 104 in frontal view of 104 randomly chosen individuals were used in the present study. They were classified as " pleasant" , " acceptable" and " not pleasant" by two distinct groups: " Lay people" and " Orthodontists" . The individuals were either classified according to their Facial Pattern using lateral view images. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After statistical analysis, it was noted a strong positive concordance between facial attractiveness in lateral view and Facial Pattern, however, frontal view attractiveness classification did not have good concordance with Facial Pattern, tending to have good attractiveness classification even in Facial Pattern II.

  11. Viewing the inter-subjective connections of nursing care Vislumbrando las conexiones intersubjetivas del cuidado de enfermería Vislumbrando as conexões intersubjetivas do cuidado de enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LORENZINI ERDMANN ALACOQUE

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This research article had a qualitative character, and its objective was to understand the meaning of nursing care as a product of multiple human interactions in the light of complex thinking. The Grounded Theory was used as methodological referential. The data was collected by means of a structured interview carried out with twenty informers: seven nurses, six nursing technicians and seven health system users, divided in three sample groups. During the coding and analysis of data, the central subject emerged viewing the intersubjective connections of nursing care and the relevant reference model. Such process was formed by the phenomena establishing intersubjective links and making the difference in the care, that show the importance of the intersubjective dynamics and the interactivity made possible by the relations of trust and empathybetween thosewho supplycareand thosewho arethe object of the care.Este artículo de investigación es de carácter cualitativo, y tuvo como objetivo comprender el significado del cuidado de enfermería como producto de múltiples interacciones humanas a la luz del pensamiento complejo. Fue utilizado como referencial metodológico la teoría fundamentada en los datos (Grounded Theory. Los datos fueron recolectados por medio de entrevista estructurada realizada con veinte informantes: siete enfermeros, seis técnicos de enfermería y siete usuarios de la salud, divididos en tres grupos de muestras. Durante la codificación y el análisis de los datos, surgió el tema central Vislumbrando las conexiones intersubjetivas del cuidado de enfermería y el respectivo modelo de referencia. Tal proceso fue constituido por los fenómenos Estableciendo vínculos intersubjetivos y Haciendo la diferencia en el cuidado, que muestran la importancia de la dinámica intersubjetiva y de la interactividad posibilitada por las relaciones de confianza y empatía entre los que cuidan y los que son objeto de cuidado.Este artigo de

  12. Vislumbrando las conexiones intersubjetivas del cuidado de enfermería Vislumbrando as conexões intersubjetivas do cuidado de enfermagem Viewing the inter-subjective connections of nursing care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIA KLOCK

    2008-07-01

    aqueles que estão sob o cuidado.This research article had a qualitative character, and its objective was to understand the meaning of nursing care as a product of multiple human interactions in the light of complex thinking. The Grounded Theory was used as methodological referential. The data was collected by means of a structured interview carried out with twenty informers: seven nurses, six nursing technicians and seven health system users, divided in three sample groups. During the coding and analysis of data, the central subject emerged viewing the intersubjective connections of nursing care and the relevant reference model. Such process was formed by the phenomena establishing intersubjective links and making the difference in the care, that show the importance of the intersubjective dynamics and the interactivity made possible by the relations of trust and empathybetween thosewho supplycareand thosewho arethe object of the care.

  13. Music, emotion, and time perception: the influence of subjective emotional valence and arousal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Ramos, Danilo; Bueno, José L O; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The present study used a temporal bisection task with short (2 s) stimulus durations to investigate the effect on time estimation of several musical parameters associated with emotional changes in affective valence and arousal. In order to manipulate the positive and negative valence of music, Experiments 1 and 2 contrasted the effect of musical structure with pieces played normally and backwards, which were judged to be pleasant and unpleasant, respectively. This effect of valence was combined with a subjective arousal effect by changing the tempo of the musical pieces (fast vs. slow) (Experiment 1) or their instrumentation (orchestral vs. piano pieces). The musical pieces were indeed judged more arousing with a fast than with a slow tempo and with an orchestral than with a piano timbre. In Experiment 3, affective valence was also tested by contrasting the effect of tonal (pleasant) vs. atonal (unpleasant) versions of the same musical pieces. The results showed that the effect of tempo in music, associated with a subjective arousal effect, was the major factor that produced time distortions with time being judged longer for fast than for slow tempi. When the tempo was held constant, no significant effect of timbre on the time judgment was found although the orchestral music was judged to be more arousing than the piano music. Nevertheless, emotional valence did modulate the tempo effect on time perception, the pleasant music being judged shorter than the unpleasant music.

  14. Music, Emotion and Time Perception: The influence of subjective emotional valence and arousal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYLVIE eDROIT-VOLET

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study used a temporal bisection task with short (< 2 s and long (> 2 s stimulus durations to investigate the effect on time estimation of several musical parameters associated with emotional changes in affective valence and arousal. In order to manipulate the positive and negative valence of music, Experiments 1 and 2 contrasted the effect of musical structure with pieces played normally and backwards, which were judged to be pleasant and unpleasant, respectively. This effect of valence was combined with a subjective arousal effect by changing the tempo of the musical pieces (fast vs. slow (Experiment 1 or their instrumentation (orchestral vs. piano pieces. The musical pieces were indeed judged more arousing with a fast than with a slow tempo and with an orchestral than with a piano timbre. In Experiment 3, affective valence was also tested by contrasting the effect of tonal (pleasant versus atonal (unpleasant versions of the same musical pieces. The results showed that the effect of tempo in music, associated with a subjective arousal effect, was the major factor that produced time distortions with time being judged longer for fast than for slow tempi. When the tempo was held constant, no significant effect of timbre on the time judgment was found although the orchestral music was judged to be more arousing than the piano music. Nevertheless, emotional valence did modulate the tempo effect on time perception, the pleasant music being judged shorter than the unpleasant music.

  15. Music, emotion, and time perception: the influence of subjective emotional valence and arousal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Ramos, Danilo; Bueno, José L. O.; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The present study used a temporal bisection task with short (2 s) stimulus durations to investigate the effect on time estimation of several musical parameters associated with emotional changes in affective valence and arousal. In order to manipulate the positive and negative valence of music, Experiments 1 and 2 contrasted the effect of musical structure with pieces played normally and backwards, which were judged to be pleasant and unpleasant, respectively. This effect of valence was combined with a subjective arousal effect by changing the tempo of the musical pieces (fast vs. slow) (Experiment 1) or their instrumentation (orchestral vs. piano pieces). The musical pieces were indeed judged more arousing with a fast than with a slow tempo and with an orchestral than with a piano timbre. In Experiment 3, affective valence was also tested by contrasting the effect of tonal (pleasant) vs. atonal (unpleasant) versions of the same musical pieces. The results showed that the effect of tempo in music, associated with a subjective arousal effect, was the major factor that produced time distortions with time being judged longer for fast than for slow tempi. When the tempo was held constant, no significant effect of timbre on the time judgment was found although the orchestral music was judged to be more arousing than the piano music. Nevertheless, emotional valence did modulate the tempo effect on time perception, the pleasant music being judged shorter than the unpleasant music. PMID:23882233

  16. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  17. Zograscopic viewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, J.; Wijntjes, M.; Van Doorn, A.

    2013-01-01

    The “zograscope” is a “visual aid” (commonly known as “optical machine” in the 18th century) invented in the mid-18th century, and in general use until the early 20th century. It was intended to view single pictures (thus not stereographic pairs) with both eyes. The optics approximately eliminates

  18. Frazeologie a idiomatika: Jejich podstata a proměnlivost názorů na ně : Phraseology and Idiomatics: Their Essence and the Changing Views on the Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Čermák

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses most of the current problems in phraseology. General observations on the universal character of idioms and the major aspects of the topic are followed by critical analysis of a prototypical statement about the essential nature of idioms. Much of the analysis centres around the notions of analogy and anomaly. The paper considers the form of the idiom, its analysability, modifiability and metaphoric character, and then challenges the current views on these. Next, the discussion of the idiom and its meaning returns to metaphor and hypothetical decomposition and briefly summarises some of the semantic features of idioms. It suggests that the function of idioms, and the issues of their form and meaning, are best revealed through the character and type of their textual anomalies. The author then presents his views on idioms and their study, referring to analogy and anomaly, regular and irregular language and especially language combinatorics. His approach was tested on data collected for a comprehensive four-volume dictionary of Czech idioms. The paper describes types of combinations and the crucial notions of collocational and virtual paradigms. It offers and exemplifies definitions of idioms and a test for the identification of idioms in text, and a desideratum for further testing of the proposed theory.

  19. A Psychophysiological Comparison of the Effects of Three Relaxation Techniques: Respiratory Manipulation Training, Progressive Muscle Relaxation, and Pleasant Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, David J.

    A within-subjects, three condition design was employed to examine the effects of three relaxation techniques on blood pressures, pulse rates, and self-report measures of relaxation for 12 college students. Respiratory Manipulation Training incorporated instructions to exhale and not to inhale for as long as possible. When breathing could no longer…

  20. DOE/Industrial Technologies Program DOE Award Number DE-FG36-05GO15099 Plant Wide Energy Efficiency Assessment Pilgrims Pride Corporation – Mt Pleasant Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paper, Riyaz; Dooley, Bill; Turpish, William J; Symonds, Mark; Carswell, Needham

    2007-04-13

    The U. S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Industrial Technologies Program (ITP), through Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is supporting plant wide energy efficiency assessments that will lead to substantial improvements in industrial efficiency, waste reduction, productivity, and global competitiveness in industries identified in ITP’s Industries of the Future. The stated goal of the assessments is to develop a comprehensive strategy at manufacturing locations that will significantly increase plant productivity, profitability, and energy efficiency, and reduce environmental emissions. ITP awarded a contract to Pilgrim’s Pride Corporation to conduct a plant wide energy efficiency assessment for their Mt Pleasant Facility in Mt Pleasant, Texas. Pilgrim’s Pride Corporation is the largest poultry company in the U.S. and Mexico producing nearly 9 billion pounds of poultry per year. Pilgrim's Pride products are sold to foodservice, retail and frozen entrée customers. Pilgrim's Pride owns and operates 37 chicken processing plants (34 in the U.S. and three in Mexico), 12 prepared foods plants and one turkey processing plant. Thirty-five feed mills and 49 hatcheries support these plants. Pilgrim's Pride is ranked number 382 on 2006's FORTUNE 500 list and net sales were $7.4 billion. In Mt. Pleasant, Texas, Pilgrim's Pride operates one of the largest prepared foods plants in the United States, with the capability of producing 2,000 different products and the capacity to turn out more than 7 million pounds of finished goods per week. The facility is divided into distinct departments: East Kill, West Kill, Prepared Foods, Protein Conversion, Wastewater Treatment, and Truck Shop. Facility processes include killing, eviscerating, refrigeration, baking, frying, and protein conversion. Pilgrim’s Pride formed a team to complete the plant wide energy efficiency assessment. The scope of work for this project was to: provide the analysis of departmental

  1. Final report for the geothermal well site restoration and plug and abandonment of wells: DOE Pleasant Bayou test site, Brazoria County, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinehart, Ben N.; Seigel, Ben H.

    1994-03-13

    For a variety of reasons, thousands of oil and gas wells have been abandoned in the Gulf Coast Region of the United States. Many of these wells penetrated geopressured zones whose resource potential for power generation was undervalued or ignored. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Geopressured-Geothermal Research Program was chartered to improve geothermal technology to the point where electricity could be commercially produced from a substantial number of geopressured resource sites. This research program focused on relatively narrow technical issues that are unique to geopressured resources such as the ability to predict reservoir production capacity based on preliminary flow tests. Three well sites were selected for the research program. These are the Willis Hulin and Gladys McCall sites in Louisiana, and the Pleasant Bayou site in Texas. The final phase of this research project consists of plug and abandonment (P&A) of the wells and site restoration.

  2. PPI in the PLEASANT trial: involving children with asthma and their parents in designing an intervention for a randomised controlled trial based within primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boote, Jonathan; Julious, Steven; Horspool, Michelle; Elphick, Heather; Smithson, W Henry; Norman, Paul

    2016-11-01

    Aims We describe how patient and public involvement (PPI) was integrated into the design of an intervention for a randomised controlled trial (RCT) based within primary care. The RCT, known as the PLEASANT trial, aimed to reduce unscheduled medical contacts in children with asthma associated with start of the new school year in September with a simple postal intervention, highlighting the importance of maintaining asthma medication for helping to prevent increased asthma exacerbations. PPI is a key feature of UK health research policy, and is often a requirement of funding from the National Institute for Health Research. There are few detailed accounts of PPI in the design and conduct of clinical trials in the PPI literature for researchers to learn from. We held PPI consultation events to determine whether the proposed intervention for the trial was acceptable to children with asthma and their parents, and to ascertain whether enhancements should be made. Two PPI consultation events were held with children with asthma and their parents, prior to the research commencing. Detailed field notes were taken by the research team at each consultation event. Findings At the first consultation event, parents and children endorsed the trial's rationale, made suggestions to the wording of the trial intervention letter, and made recommendations about to whom the letter should be sent out. At the second consultation event, parents discussed the timing of the intervention, commented on the lay summary of the Research Ethics Application, and were invited to join the trial's steering committee, while the children selected a logo for the study. PPI has resulted in enhancements to the PLEASANT study's intervention. A further PPI consultation event is scheduled for the end of the trial, in order for children with asthma and their parents to contribute to the trial's dissemination strategy.

  3. Happiness is pleasant, or is it? Implicit representations of affect valence are associated with contrahedonic motivation and mixed affect in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riediger, Michaela; Wrzus, Cornelia; Wagner, Gert G

    2014-10-01

    People typically want to feel good. At times, however, they seek to maintain or enhance negative affect or to dampen positive affect. The prevalence of such contrahedonic motivation has been related to simultaneous experiences of positive and negative (i.e., mixed) affect. We investigated the role that implicit mental representations of affect valence may play in this regard in a study with N = 400 participants aged 11-88 years. Results demonstrated the age-fairness and reliability of the affect-valence Implicit Association Test, a newly developed implicit measure of interindividual differences in mental representations of affect valence. The older participants were, the more distinctively they implicitly associated happiness with pleasantness and/or unhappiness with unpleasantness. Participants furthermore carried mobile phones as assessment instruments with them for 3 weeks while pursuing their daily routines. The phones prompted participants on average 54 times to report their momentary affective experience and affect-regulation motivation. Contrahedonic motivation and mixed affect were most prevalent among adolescents and least prevalent among older adults, and thus showed a similar pattern of age differences as the affect-valence Implicit Association Test. Furthermore, the more distinctive participants' implicit associations of happiness with pleasantness, and/or unhappiness with unpleasantness, the less likely participants were to report contrahedonic motivation and mixed affect in their daily lives. These findings contribute to a refined understanding of the mixed-affect perspective on contrahedonic motivation by demonstrating the respective role of implicit affect-valence representations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Subjective Illness theory and coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessmann H.-W.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a view of a problem of subjective illness theory in context of coping behavior. The article compiles the results of the latest studies of coping; discloses the way subjective illness theory affects the illness coping and patient's health; presents the study of differences in coping behaviour of patients at risk of heart attack and oncology. The article is recommended for specialists, concerned with psychological reasons of pathogenic processes and coping strategies of patients.

  5. Zograscopic Viewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Koenderink

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The “zograscope” is a “visual aid” (commonly known as “optical machine” in the 18th century invented in the mid-18th century, and in general use until the early 20th century. It was intended to view single pictures (thus not stereographic pairs with both eyes. The optics approximately eliminates the physiological cues (binocular disparity, vergence, accommodation, movement parallax, and image blur that might indicate the flatness of the picture surface. The spatial structure of pictorial space is due to the remaining pictorial cues. As a consequence, many (or perhaps most observers are aware of a heightened “plasticity” of the pictorial content for zograscopic as compared with natural viewing. We discuss the optics of the zograscope in some detail. Such an analysis is not available in the literature, whereas common “explanations” of the apparatus are evidently nonsensical. We constructed a zograscope, using modern parts, and present psychophysical data on its performance.

  6. Subjective well-being and Citizenship dimensions according to individualism and collectivism beliefs among Polish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Zalewska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of the research is to analyse pleasant (subjective well-being – SWB and meaningful life (Citizenship dimensions in the context of Horizontal and Vertical Individualism (HI, VI or Collectivism (HC, VC values (individual beliefs among adolescents living in the culture “in between individualism and collectivism”. Participants and procedure Second-year high (111 and secondary (98 school students filled in the Horizontal and Vertical Individualism and Collectivism Questionnaire, the Citizenship Behaviour Questionnaire, and SWB (Subjective Happiness Scale, Satisfaction with the Life Scale, Mood Questionnaire, Ladder of Need Scales. Participants were recruited in schools. Results Subjective well-being positively correlated with all Citizenship dimensions except Political Activity. All values predicted SWB, but higher VI predicted lower SWB and was not linked to Citizenship. Citizenship dimensions oriented to general good were predicted by Collectivism values, and those including personal benefits were predicted by HI and Collectivism values. Subjective well-being mediated relations between HC and Social Activity, and between HC, HI and Personal Activity. VC moderated relations between SWB and Passive as well as Semi-active Citizenship. Conclusions Among young Poles, pleasant life is linked with meaningful life. Individualism and Collectivism values are relatively independent, and their relations with SWB and Citizenship are complex. Higher Horizontal values facilitate the achievement of both pleasant and meaningful life, but higher VC can hinder the coherence between them. High SWB, engagement in Citizenship and links between them are required for attaining “authentic happiness” and living a truly full life; thus it is important to study variables that may influence them.

  7. Cross-regional cortical synchronization during affective image viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskovic, Vladimir; Schmidt, Louis A

    2010-11-29

    Affective perception has been suggested to involve the coordinated activation of widely distributed cortical networks, including those involved in sensory storage/analysis and higher-order structures, such as the prefrontal cortex that regulate these processes. We measured regional electroencephalogram (EEG) activity while young adult participants viewed images varying in arousal and valence (pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant). Viewing highly arousing images led to a significant enhancement of EEG coherence between prefrontal and posterior electrodes in both cerebral hemispheres. Long distance interhemispheric coherence also increased during affective image viewing, but only among females. Increases in coherent brain electrical activity were specific to oscillations in the beta (14 to 30Hz) bandwidth, while right hemispheric networks oscillating in the theta (4 to 7Hz) range tended to de-synchronize during viewing of affective images. Although directionality could not be inferred, analyses of lead-lag relations showed the prefrontal electrodes leading the posterior clusters, consistent with top-down modulation. Our results suggest large-scale synchronization of cortical cells during affective viewing and emphasize the role of beta oscillations in mediating such binding. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Transient or permanent fisheye views

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mikkel Rønne; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    programming environment. Fourteen participants performed varied tasks involving navigation and understanding of source code. Participants used the three interfaces for between four and six hours in all. Time and accuracy measures were inconclusive, but subjective data showed a preference for the permanent......, about the benefits and limitations of transient visualizations. We describe an experiment that compares the usability of a fisheye view that participants could call up temporarily, a permanent fisheye view, and a linear view: all interfaces gave access to source code in the editor of a widespread...

  9. Does laryngoscopic view after intubation predict laryngoscopic view before intubation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglia, Julena; Archer, David; Pytka, Saul; Baghirzada, Leyla; Duttchen, Kaylene

    2016-09-01

    To determine if an endotracheal (ET) tube will distort the laryngeal view obtained with direct laryngoscopy measuring with the modified Cormack-Lehane scale (MCL). Observational single-arm study. The University of Calgary teaching hospitals. Patients between 18 and 86 years of age undergoing elective surgical procedures. A total of 173 patients were enrolled and analyzed. Direct laryngoscopy view obtained before ET intubation and directly after intubation. The MCL scales were described for each view obtained and compared to each other with each patient serving as their own control. The primary objective was a change in the best obtainable view by direct laryngoscopy from an acceptable view (MCLS 1 or 2a) to an unacceptable view (MCLS 2b, 3, or 4) or changing from an unacceptable view (MCLS 2b, 3, or 4) to an acceptable view (MCLS 1 or 2a). The main finding of this study was that the ET tube altered the MCL in 58 (33%) of 173 patients, "worsening" the grade in 30 patients (17.34%) and "improving" the grade in 28 patients (16.18%). We performed a prospective observational study to address the predictive value of postintubation laryngoscopy grade in adults. The presence of the ET tube both increased visualization of the glottis and worsened the view in different subjects. The important outcome was that the presence of the ET tube did in fact change the view obtained of the larynx during direct laryngoscopy. In conclusion, postintubation MCL grades may not be reliable to predict laryngeal grade and should be used with caution in the right clinical context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Subjective evaluation to thermal environment. Onnetsu kankyo no shukanteki hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taya, H. (Human Factors Reserach Department, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1991-11-10

    This paper introduces a subjective evaluation on a thermal environment. Providing human being with an appropriate and pleasant environment requires considerations from three aspects of economy, health, and comfort. Related with these are the productively optimal temperature, the physiologically optimal temperature, and the subjectively optimal temperature. While a human being makes subjective judgments on his or her environment through physiological reactions, the kinds of these subjective judgments include those on perception, evaluation, preference, receptivity, and permissibility. The subjective evaluation is measured by declaration of subjects. An evaluation method using a category scale or an SD scale is used for the measurement. The evaluation on cold-hot feeling and comfort using the category scale and that using the SD scale are explained, whereas the evaluation on preference relative to environmental temperatures is carried out by rating that the present environment should be made warmer'', can remain unchanged'' or should be made cooler''. 22 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Viewing distance and eyestrain symptoms with prolonged viewing of smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jennifer; Cheung, Rene; Duong, Simon; Paynter, Rosemary; Asper, Lisa

    2017-03-01

    This paper investigates viewing distances and eyestrain symptoms in young adults reading from a smartphone for 60 minutes. A survey related to common asthenopic (eyestrain) symptoms was administered to subjects before and after they read an extract from a novel on a smartphone for 60 minutes. Subjects rated their symptoms on a scale from zero (not at all) to four (extremely). The viewing distance to the smartphone was measured on a photograph taken of the subject every minute. Each subject used the same smartphone and read the same text. Subjects were 18 young adults (mean age: 21.5 ± 3.3 years) with self-reported good health, normal visual acuity and no accommodative or binocular vision disorders. The mean viewing distance while using a smartphone over 60 minutes was 29.2 ± 7.3 cm. The viewing distance was significantly greater during the first, second and fifth 10-minute time periods (30.6 ± 7.2 cm, 29.7 ± 7.3 cm and 28.9 ± 8.5 cm, respectively) than during the final 10-minute time period (27.8 ± 7.7 cm) (Wilcoxon, p = 0.023, 0.02 and 0.04, respectively). The total symptom score was significantly greater post-experiment (score = 8.06) than pre-experiment (score = 3.56) (Wilcoxon, p smartphone use (Wilcoxon, p smartphone for 60 minutes. The viewing distances measured were closer than those previously reported in the literature. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  12. Teachers' views of student achievement standards

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maksimovic, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    .... The paper reports about a research of the views of class- and subject elementary-school teachers of the importance of defining, and the role of defined achievement standards, as well as their limitations...

  13. Subject in Tractatus according to David Pears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hoseinzadeh Yazdi

    2013-03-01

    Considering the centrality of subjectivism in modern philosophy, this article attempts to explain subject in Tractatus according to David Pears. A review of Wittgenstein’s earlier teachings reveals that he considers a fundamental limitation for language. The subject serves as a point of view from which the language can be understood. The subject is the presupposition of understanding. Another way of putting this would be to say that any experience is understood from a point of view which is not represented in that experience. Regarding this, it seems that earlier Wittgenstein is somehow subjectivist. This specific form of subjectivism is different from Kantian subjectivism.

  14. Sad music induces pleasant emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Ai; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Katahira, Kentaro; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    In general, sad music is thought to cause us to experience sadness, which is considered an unpleasant emotion. As a result, the question arises as to why we listen to sad music if it evokes sadness. One possible answer to this question is that we may actually feel positive emotions when we listen to sad music. This suggestion may appear to be counterintuitive; however, in this study, by dividing musical emotion into perceived emotion and felt emotion, we investigated this potential emotional response to music. We hypothesized that felt and perceived emotion may not actually coincide in this respect: sad music would be perceived as sad, but the experience of listening to sad music would evoke positive emotions. A total of 44 participants listened to musical excerpts and provided data on perceived and felt emotions by rating 62 descriptive words or phrases related to emotions on a scale that ranged from 0 (not at all) to 4 (very much). The results revealed that the sad music was perceived to be more tragic, whereas the actual experiences of the participants listening to the sad music induced them to feel more romantic, more blithe, and less tragic emotions than they actually perceived with respect to the same music. Thus, the participants experienced ambivalent emotions when they listened to the sad music. After considering the possible reasons that listeners were induced to experience emotional ambivalence by the sad music, we concluded that the formulation of a new model would be essential for examining the emotions induced by music and that this new model must entertain the possibility that what we experience when listening to music is vicarious emotion. PMID:23785342

  15. Sad music induces pleasant emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Ai; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Katahira, Kentaro; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    In general, sad music is thought to cause us to experience sadness, which is considered an unpleasant emotion. As a result, the question arises as to why we listen to sad music if it evokes sadness. One possible answer to this question is that we may actually feel positive emotions when we listen to sad music. This suggestion may appear to be counterintuitive; however, in this study, by dividing musical emotion into perceived emotion and felt emotion, we investigated this potential emotional response to music. We hypothesized that felt and perceived emotion may not actually coincide in this respect: sad music would be perceived as sad, but the experience of listening to sad music would evoke positive emotions. A total of 44 participants listened to musical excerpts and provided data on perceived and felt emotions by rating 62 descriptive words or phrases related to emotions on a scale that ranged from 0 (not at all) to 4 (very much). The results revealed that the sad music was perceived to be more tragic, whereas the actual experiences of the participants listening to the sad music induced them to feel more romantic, more blithe, and less tragic emotions than they actually perceived with respect to the same music. Thus, the participants experienced ambivalent emotions when they listened to the sad music. After considering the possible reasons that listeners were induced to experience emotional ambivalence by the sad music, we concluded that the formulation of a new model would be essential for examining the emotions induced by music and that this new model must entertain the possibility that what we experience when listening to music is vicarious emotion.

  16. Subjective experience of architectural objects: A cross-cultural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Slobodan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to compare Serbian and Japanese participants in their subjective experience of Serbian and Japanese architectural objects. Subjective experience was operationalized through the ratings on the bipolar scales (e.g. pleasant-unpleasant. In the Preliminary study 1, a set of twelve rating scales was generated. In the Preliminary study 2 twelve Serbian and twelve Japanese architectural objects were specified. In the main experiment two groups of participants, twenty-one Serbian and twenty Japanese, rated twelve Serbian and twelve Japanese objects. A factor analysis extracted three dimensions of subjective experience: Beauty, Firmness and Fullness. Analysis of variance have shown that both Serbian and Japanese participants agreed that Japanese architectural objects looked more beautiful and firmer than Serbian objects. These finding is generally in line with perceptualist hypothesis that stimulus constraints are more effective than culture. However, interactions revealed some cultural differences that are consistent with culturalist hypothesis: compared to Serbian participants, Japanese participants rated Japanese architectural objects as more beautiful, whereas, compared to Japanese, Serbian participants rated Serbian objects as less fragile and emptier than Japanese objects. Generaly, our study have shown that Serbian (Western and Japanese (Eastern participants show general similarity in their subjective experience of architectural objects. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179033

  17. Psychoanalysis And Politics: Historicising Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I compare three different views of the relation between subjectivity and modernity: one proposed by Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, a second by theorists of institutionalised individualisation, and a third by writers in the Foucaultian tradition of studies of the history of governmentalities. The theorists were chosen because they represent very different understandings of the relation between contemporary history and subjectivity. My purpose is to ground psychoanalytic theory about what humans need in history and so to question what it means to talk ahistorically about what humans need in order to thrive psychologically. Only in so doing can one assess the relation between psychoanalysis and progressive politics. I conclude that while psychoanalysis is a discourse of its time, it can also function as a counter-discourse and can help us understand the effects on subjectivity of a more than thirty year history in the West of repudiating dependency needs and denying interdependence. PMID:23678239

  18. Visual perception of spatial subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterloh, K.R.S.; Ewert, U. [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Principally, any imaging technology consists of two consecutive, though strictly separated processes: data acquisition and subsequent processing to generate an image that can be looked at, either on a monitor screen or printed on paper. Likewise, the physiological process of viewing can be separated into vision and perception, though these processes are much more overlapping. Understanding the appearance of a subject requires the entire sequence from receiving the information carried e.g. by photons up to an appropriate processing leading to the perception of the subject shown. As a consequence, the imagination of a subject is a result of both, technological and physiological processes. Whenever an evaluation of an image is critical, also the physiological part of the processing should be considered. However, an image has two dimensions in the first place and reality is spatial, it has three dimensions. This problem has been tackled on a philosophical level at least since Platon's famous discussion on the shadow image in a dark cave. The mere practical point is which structural details can be perceived and what may remain undetected depending on the mode of presentation. This problem cannot be resolved without considering each single step of visual perception. Physiologically, there are three 'tools' available to understanding the spatial structure of a subject: binocular viewing, following the course of perspective projection and motion to collect multiple aspects. Artificially, an object may be cut in various ways to display the interior or covering parts could be made transparent within a model. Samples will be shown how certain details of a subject can be emphasised or hidden depending on the way of presentation. It needs to be discussed what might help to perceive the true spatial structure of a subject with all relevant details and what could be misleading. (authors)

  19. Advanced LabVIEW Labs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Eric D.

    1999-06-17

    computer-based research skills. With this goal in mind, he has succeeded admirably. Advanced LabVIEW Labs presents a series of chapters devoted to not only introducing the reader to LabVIEW, but also to the concepts necessary for writing a successful computer pro- gram. Each chapter is an assignment for the student and is suitable for a ten week course. The first topic introduces the while loop and waveform chart VI'S. After learning how to launch LabVIEW, the student then leans how to use LabVIEW functions such as sine and cosine. The beauty of thk and subsequent chapters, the student is introduced immediately to computer-based instruction by learning how to display the results in graph form on the screen. At each point along the way, the student is not only introduced to another LabVIEW operation, but also to such subjects as spread sheets for data storage, numerical integration, Fourier transformations', curve fitting algorithms, etc. The last few chapters conclude with the purpose of the learning module, and that is, com- puter-based instrumentation. Computer-based laboratory projects such as analog-to-digital con- version, digitizing oscilloscopes treated. Advanced Lab VIEW Labs finishes with a treatment on GPIB interfacing and finally, the student is asked to create an operating VI for temperature con- trol. This is an excellent text, not only as an treatise on LabVIEW but also as an introduction to computer programming logic. All programmers, who are struggling to not only learning how interface computers to instruments, but also trying understand top down programming and other programming language techniques, should add Advanced Lab-VIEW Labs to their computer library.

  20. Advanced LabVIEW Labs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Eric D.

    1999-06-17

    computer-based research skills." With this goal in mind, he has succeeded admirably. Advanced LabVIEW Labs presents a series of chapters devoted to not only introducing the reader to LabVIEW, but also to the concepts necessary for writing a successful computer pro- gram. Each chapter is an assignment for the student and is suitable for a ten week course. The first topic introduces the while loop and waveform chart VI'S. After learning how to launch LabVIEW, the student then leans how to use LabVIEW functions such as sine and cosine. The beauty of thk and subsequent chapters, the student is introduced immediately to computer-based instruction by learning how to display the results in graph form on the screen. At each point along the way, the student is not only introduced to another LabVIEW operation, but also to such subjects as spread sheets for data storage, numerical integration, Fourier transformations', curve fitting algorithms, etc. The last few chapters conclude with the purpose of the learning module, and that is, com- puter-based instrumentation. Computer-based laboratory projects such as analog-to-digital con- version, digitizing oscilloscopes treated. Advanced Lab VIEW Labs finishes with a treatment on GPIB interfacing and finally, the student is asked to create an operating VI for temperature con- trol. This is an excellent text, not only as an treatise on LabVIEW but also as an introduction to computer programming logic. All programmers, who are struggling to not only learning how interface computers to instruments, but also trying understand top down programming and other programming language techniques, should add Advanced Lab-VIEW Labs to their computer library.

  1. [Subjective and objective effects of music use during mental effort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liptak, V; Egger, J

    1981-05-15

    The subjective and objective effects of music consumption during intellectual work were assessed by a special questionnaire and the concentration paper-pencil-test (Brickencamp). Three different styles of music (pop-music, classical music and folk-music) were presented in a standardized way. It appeared that pop-music was experienced to be less conscious, less irritable and more pleasant than classical music. Although there was a subjective preference for pop- and folk-music an adequate increase of the concentration-test-scores could not be ascertained. On the contrary a significant discrepancy was found between subjective recorded music-effect and objective measured task-performance. Under the condition of classical music which was least preferred there was a significant greater variance of false responses than under the condition of no music. Nevertheless the total output of the discrimination-task was relatively the highest during classical music. The results are interpreted primarily as an enhanced psycho-physiological activation and a different selective concentration on music-presentation and task-demands. In accordance with empirical findings on psychological and physiological effects of music the results of this study reinforce the statement that also i mental activities music per se does not principally increase or lower the task output.

  2. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  3. Normal movement reading in Asperger subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avikainen, S; Kulomäki, T; Hari, R

    1999-11-26

    Patients with autism and Asperger syndrome (AS) are impaired in mindreading and imitation skills. One possibility would be that their 'mirror neuron' system, which matches action execution and observation, does not function properly. To test this hypothesis we compared action-viewing related motor cortex functions in an AS group (one autistic and four AS subjects) and eight control subjects. In both groups viewing hand actions modified the neuromagnetic approximately 20 Hz oscillatory activity in the primary motor cortex to the same extent. Thus impaired mindreading and imitation skills found in AS and autism do not seem to result from dysfunction of the motor cortex part of the action execution/observation system.

  4. 由宏觀鑑定觀點檢視1949-2000年都市建設類國家檔案之主題分類 Subject Categorization for the National Archives in Urban Development (1949-2000- A Macro-Appraisal View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko-Chiu Wu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available 「見證國家發展,創造國家智慧資產」是台灣因重視本土歷史文化,希冀促發社會大眾利用檔案之興趣,從而整理國家檔案之核心理念。本研究以著重呈現社會價值的宏觀鑑定觀點,在配合台灣暨有機關檔案來源及建構檔案資訊檢索系統前提下,以案例分析檢視英國、紐西蘭、中國大陸三個不同國家檔案系統中,有關都市建設類檔案分類架構及檔案主題內涵,並利用台灣重要事件記略與層面索引典概念,整合出台灣1949 - 2000年都市建設類國家檔案主題分類架構。研究結果可供國家檔案徵集、鑑定、移轉及管理機制與檔案資訊系統建構運用。‘To witness national prides and to create intelligence national assets’ is the core concept for application of the National Archive. This research explores the subject indexing frame for the National Archives in urban development through Macro-appraisal view. The subject categorization and the indexing thesauri are integrated to a proposed frame in order to be incorporated with the documentation resources in Taiwan government and set for the information retrieval system of archives. Three different country’s archives systems, Great Britain, New Zealand, and China Mainland are studied and referenced for their index frame of archive and theme contents. The Subject Indexing Frame for the National Archives in Urban Development (1949-2000 is set with the Taiwan historical events and the concepts of facet index thesauri, and is suitable for the national archives collecting, appraisal, transferring, archive management mechanism and further application of the information retrieval system.

  5. Does Viewing Documentary Films Affect Environmental Perceptions and Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janpol, Henry L.; Dilts, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This research explored whether viewing documentary films about the natural or built environment can exert a measurable influence on behaviors and perceptions. Different documentary films were viewed by subjects. One film emphasized the natural environment, while the other focused on the built environment. After viewing a film, a computer game…

  6. Meaning in Life: in Defense of the Hybrid View

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Hendrik; van Smeden, Gerlinde

    2016-01-01

    According to Susan Wolf's hybrid view about meaning in life, a life is meaningful in virtue of subjective attraction to objectively valuable pursuits. Recently, several philosophers have presented counterexamples to the subjective element in Wolf's view. We argue that these examples are not clearly

  7. The power of Kawaii: viewing cute images promotes a careful behavior and narrows attentional focus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Nittono

    Full Text Available Kawaii (a Japanese word meaning "cute" things are popular because they produce positive feelings. However, their effect on behavior remains unclear. In this study, three experiments were conducted to examine the effects of viewing cute images on subsequent task performance. In the first experiment, university students performed a fine motor dexterity task before and after viewing images of baby or adult animals. Performance indexed by the number of successful trials increased after viewing cute images (puppies and kittens; M ± SE=43.9 ± 10.3% improvement more than after viewing images that were less cute (dogs and cats; 11.9 ± 5.5% improvement. In the second experiment, this finding was replicated by using a non-motor visual search task. Performance improved more after viewing cute images (15.7 ± 2.2% improvement than after viewing less cute images (1.4 ± 2.1% improvement. Viewing images of pleasant foods was ineffective in improving performance (1.2 ± 2.1%. In the third experiment, participants performed a global-local letter task after viewing images of baby animals, adult animals, and neutral objects. In general, global features were processed faster than local features. However, this global precedence effect was reduced after viewing cute images. Results show that participants performed tasks requiring focused attention more carefully after viewing cute images. This is interpreted as the result of a narrowed attentional focus induced by the cuteness-triggered positive emotion that is associated with approach motivation and the tendency toward systematic processing. For future applications, cute objects may be used as an emotion elicitor to induce careful behavioral tendencies in specific situations, such as driving and office work.

  8. The Power of Kawaii: Viewing Cute Images Promotes a Careful Behavior and Narrows Attentional Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittono, Hiroshi; Fukushima, Michiko; Yano, Akihiro; Moriya, Hiroki

    2012-01-01

    Kawaii (a Japanese word meaning “cute”) things are popular because they produce positive feelings. However, their effect on behavior remains unclear. In this study, three experiments were conducted to examine the effects of viewing cute images on subsequent task performance. In the first experiment, university students performed a fine motor dexterity task before and after viewing images of baby or adult animals. Performance indexed by the number of successful trials increased after viewing cute images (puppies and kittens; M ± SE = 43.9±10.3% improvement) more than after viewing images that were less cute (dogs and cats; 11.9±5.5% improvement). In the second experiment, this finding was replicated by using a non-motor visual search task. Performance improved more after viewing cute images (15.7±2.2% improvement) than after viewing less cute images (1.4±2.1% improvement). Viewing images of pleasant foods was ineffective in improving performance (1.2±2.1%). In the third experiment, participants performed a global–local letter task after viewing images of baby animals, adult animals, and neutral objects. In general, global features were processed faster than local features. However, this global precedence effect was reduced after viewing cute images. Results show that participants performed tasks requiring focused attention more carefully after viewing cute images. This is interpreted as the result of a narrowed attentional focus induced by the cuteness-triggered positive emotion that is associated with approach motivation and the tendency toward systematic processing. For future applications, cute objects may be used as an emotion elicitor to induce careful behavioral tendencies in specific situations, such as driving and office work. PMID:23050022

  9. Compensation for age-associated chemosensory losses and its effect on the pleasantness of a custard dessert and a tomato drink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, S.; Bult, J.H.F.; Mojet, J.; Kroeze, J.H.A.

    2007-01-01

    Differences between elderly subjects (n=52, 60¿85 years) and young subjects (n=55, 18¿35) in their food liking and their olfactory capability were investigated. Two food systems were used: custard desserts and tomato drinks. Flavor enhancement/enrichment, textural change, and/or irritant addition

  10. QlikView scripting

    CERN Document Server

    Floyd, Matt

    2013-01-01

    This mini book offers information about QlikView scripting written in an easy-to-understand manner, and covers QlikView scripting from basic to advanced features in a compact format.If you are a basic orintermediate developer with some knowledge of QlikView applications and a basic understanding of QlikView scripting and data extraction and manipulation, this book will be great for you. If you are an advanced user, you can also use this book as a reference guide and teaching aid. If you are a QlikView project team member such as a business user, data/ETL professional, project manager, orsystem

  11. What is the impact of subject benchmarking?

    OpenAIRE

    Pidcock, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The introduction of subject benchmarking led to fears of increased external intervention in the activities of universities and a more restrictive view of institutional autonomy, accompanied by an undermining of the academic profession, particularly through the perceived threat of the introduction of a national curriculum for higher education. For this study, semi-structured interviews were ...

  12. What Is the Impact of Subject Benchmarking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidcock, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of subject benchmarking led to fears of increased external intervention in the activities of universities and a more restrictive view of institutional autonomy, accompanied by an undermining of the academic profession, particularly through the perceived threat of the introduction of a national curriculum for higher education. For…

  13. Disability, participation, and subjective wellbeing among older couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Vicki A; Stafford, Frank; Schwarz, Norbert; Conrad, Frederick; Cornman, Jennifer C

    2012-02-01

    This paper investigates the link between disability and subjective wellbeing, using data from the 2009 Disability and Use of Time supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, the longest running national panel study in the United States. Disability is construed broadly to include both the presence of any physical, cognitive, or sensory impairment or activity limitation and also the severity of underlying impairments. Subjective wellbeing is measured using two distinct approaches: reports of life satisfaction and of moment-to-moment wellbeing-both positive and negative-on the previous day. The latter, collected through 24-h time diaries, also offers for the first time the ability to explore the role of participation in particular kinds of activities linking disability to subjective wellbeing. The analytic sample included married persons ages 60 and older and their spouses (n = 751 married individuals) who completed 1498 diaries. Several new findings emerged: no matter what the measure of wellbeing, older married adults with disability report worse subjective wellbeing than those without, and neither different demographic and socioeconomic profiles nor differences in participation fully account for these disparities. Influences of disability on global life satisfaction and episodic reports of happiness were relatively small and of comparable size. However, notably sizeable differences were identified in the cumulative number of pleasant minutes experienced yesterday by disability status - on the order of 71 fewer minutes on average for those with a disability of average severity. Differences appear to be more strongly linked to somatic symptoms of pain and feeling tired than to differential intensity of experiencing happiness, sadness, frustration, or worry. We also found limited support for the notion that participation partially mediates the relationship between disability and global, but not episodic, subjective wellbeing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All

  14. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  15. Language, Subject, Ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German A. Ivanov

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of interdependence between power and language is viewed. The authors point out that the problem may be investigated in two aspects: from the point of view of a conscious use of language as a political instrument and from the point of view of an unconscious dependence of an individual on language and ideology. In this context, the authors investigate the ideas expressed by Louis Althusser and Michel Pźcheux. The theory of Ideological State Apparatuses by Althusser is represented here as one of possible conceptual bases for defining gender distribution of power. In this paper the specificity of the Pźcheux’s  discourse analysis is revealed: discourse is viewed by Pźcheux as a sphere of intersection of language and extra-linguistic restrictions created by ideology. 

  16. Learning to Discriminate Face Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Fang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Although visual feature leaning has been well studied, we still know little about the mechanisms of perceptual learning of complex object. Here, human perceptual learning in discrimination of in-depth orientation of face view was studied using psychophysics, EEG and fMRI. We trained subjects to discriminate face orientations around a face view (i.e. 30° over eight daily sessions, which resulted in a significant improvement in sensitivity to the face view orientation. This improved sensitivity was highly specific to the trained orientation and persisted up to six months. Different from perceptual learning of simple visual features, this orientation-specific learning effect could completely transfer across changes in face size, visual field and face identity. A complete transfer also occurred between two partial face images that were mutually exclusive but constituted a complete face. However, the transfer of the learning effect between upright and inverted faces and between a face and a paperclip object was very weak. Before and after training, we measured EEG and fMRI BOLD signals responding to both the trained and the untrained face views. Analyses of ERPs and induced gamma activity showed that face view discrimination training led to a larger reduction of N170 latency at the left occipital-temporal area and a concurrent larger decrease of induced gamma activity at the left frontal area with the trained face view, compared with the untrained ones. BOLD signal amplitude and MVPA analyses showed that, in face-selective cortical areas, training did not lead to a significant amplitude change, but induced a more reliable spatial pattern of neural activity in the left FFA. These results suggest that the visual system had learned how to compute face orientation from face configural information more accurately and that a large amount of plastic changes took place at a level of higher visual processing where size-, location-, and identity

  17. Multiple Image Arrangement for Subjective Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Zhai, Guangtao

    2017-12-01

    Subjective quality assessment serves as the foundation for almost all visual quality related researches. Size of the image quality databases has expanded from dozens to thousands in the last decades. Since each subjective rating therein has to be averaged over quite a few participants, the ever-increasing overall size of those databases calls for an evolution of existing subjective test methods. Traditional single/double stimulus based approaches are being replaced by multiple image tests, where several distorted versions of the original one are displayed and rated at once. And this naturally brings upon the question of how to arrange those multiple images on screen during the test. In this paper, we answer this question by performing subjective viewing test with eye tracker for different types arrangements. Our research indicates that isometric arrangement imposes less duress on participants and has more uniform distribution of eye fixations and movements and therefore is expected to generate more reliable subjective ratings.

  18. Promoting mental health in Swedish preschool-teacher views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Pernilla; Marklund, Bertil; Haraldsson, Katarina

    2017-02-01

    The promotion of childhood mental health is an important investment for the future. Many young children spend a large amount of time in preschool, which have unique opportunities to promote mental health at an early stage. The aim of this study was to illuminate teachers’ views of what they do in ordinary work to promote mental health among preschool children. This qualitative study had a descriptive and exploratory design and qualitative content analysis was utilized. Six focus group interviews with preschool teachers, concerning families from different cultural, geographical and socioeconomic backgrounds, were conducted in a county in the southwest of Sweden. Both manifest and latent content appeared. Three categories, ‘structured world’, ‘pleasant climate’ and ‘affirming the child’ and 10 subcategories emerged. The latent content of these categories is described under the theme ‘creating an atmosphere where each child can flourish in harmony with their environment’. The results show teachers different working approaches with mental health in preschool and together with previous research these results can provide a basis of knowledge for preschool teachers and inspire them to develop and maintain their health-promoting work. In future studies it should be particularly interesting to investigate how the promotive way to work can be transferred to strengthen mental health throughout the school years.

  19. Consistency of Likability to Objects across Views and Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Niimi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Human object recognition is largely independent of conditions in which objects are viewed, although affective impressions to the objects may be influenced by viewing conditions. To what degree does viewing condition alter our subjective likability to objects? We tested the effects of viewpoint (frontal view and three-quarter view and viewing durations (100, 500, and 1000 msec on the subjective likability to 32 common objects (e.g., vehicles, furniture, stationery. Participants observed the object images on the computer display and rated their likability of the objects by 7-point Likert scale. The viewing conditions affected the likability; the mean rated likability was higher for three-quarter view than for frontal view, and higher for longer duration. However, the object-wise correlations of rated likability were fairly high and significant between the object orientations and among the durations, indicating that the rank order of the objects were largely consistent across the viewing conditions. Our findings suggest that the mechanism for determining likability to visual objects may be composed of two components; one is sensitive to viewing condition and another is robust against viewing condition.

  20. Exploring the Motives for Viewing Televised Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantz, Walter

    A total of 286 subjects was presented with a series of motivations and asked to evaluate the relative importance of each in their exposure/avoidance decisions about watching sports programs on television. The 188 sports viewers assessed the importance of each motivation for their viewing of baseball, hockey, football, and tennis. The 98…

  1. Bevarage consumption during television viewing and tooth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The study assessed the television (TV) viewing habits, preferred energy and acidic drinks consumed when watching television and the history of tooth sensitivity among adolescents who watched television >2 hours daily (HTV) and <2 hour daily. (LTV). Subjects and Methods: This is a descriptive study conducted in Ife ...

  2. Mastering QlikView

    CERN Document Server

    Redmond, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    If you are a business application developer or a system analyst who has learned QlikView and Qlik Sense and now want to take your learning to a higher level, then this book is for you.It is assumed that you are aware of the fundamentals of QlikView and have working knowledge of development and in-memory analytics.

  3. VMware horizon view essentials

    CERN Document Server

    von Oven, Peter

    2014-01-01

    If you are a desktop administrator or an end user of a computing project team looking to speed up to the latest VMware Horizon View solution, then this book is perfect for you. It is your ideal companion to deploy a solution to centrally manage and virtualize your desktop estate using Horizon View 6.0.

  4. Synchronizing XPath Views

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Dennis; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2004-01-01

    synchronization. XPath is the most commonly used language for retrieving parts of XML documents, and is thus an important cornerstone for XML view definitions. This paper presents techniques for discovering schema changes in XML data sources and synchronizing XPath-based views to reflect these schema changes...

  5. Drupal 7 Views Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Green, J Ayen

    2012-01-01

    This is a cookbook containing plenty of easy-to-follow practical recipes with screenshots that will help you in mastering the Drupal Views module. Drupal 7 Views Cookbook is for developers or technically proficient users who are fairly comfortable with the concepts behind websites and the Drupal environment.

  6. Point of View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jonathan; Davis, Lisa

    1999-01-01

    Presents a learning activity plan for teachers or librarians that helps students comprehend the author's craft element of "point of view." Focus is on first and third person point of view. Outlines student motivation methods, the procedure, extension/application activities, and assessment. Includes an activity worksheet. (AEF)

  7. Authentic subjectivity and social transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O'Sullivan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Holiness in the Christian tradition has often been understood in a way that devalues embodiment and practical engagement with the world of one’s time. The latter understanding, for example, led to Marx’s critique and repudiation of Christianity. Both interpretations of holiness can be understood as mistaken efforts to express the dynamism for authenticity in contextualised human subjectivity. Vatican 2 opposed both views by addressing itself to all people of good will, declaring that everyone was called to holiness, and that authentic Christian identity involved solidarity with the world of one’s time, especially those who are poor. Vatican 2, therefore, provided an authoritative faith foundation for holiness expressed through social commitment and for viewing social commitment on the part of people of good will in whatever state of life as a form of holiness. This vision was also the conviction of leading spirituality writers of the period, like Thomas Merton, and inspired liberation theologians and the Latin American Catholic bishops at their conference in Medellín a few years after the Council. The argument of this article is that the emergence and development of a non-dualist Christian spirituality is grounded methodologically in the correct appropriation of the common innate dynamism for authenticity in concrete human persons and lived spiritual experiences consistent with and capable of enhancing this dynamism.

  8. The workplace window view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lottrup, Lene Birgitte Poulsen; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.; Meilby, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Office workers’ job satisfaction and ability to work are two important factors for the viability and competitiveness of most companies, and existing studies in contexts other than workplaces show relationships between a view of natural elements and, for example, student performance and neighbourh......Office workers’ job satisfaction and ability to work are two important factors for the viability and competitiveness of most companies, and existing studies in contexts other than workplaces show relationships between a view of natural elements and, for example, student performance...... satisfaction, and that high view satisfaction was related to high work ability and high job satisfaction. Furthermore, the results indicated that job satisfaction mediated the effect of view satisfaction on work ability. These findings show that a view of a green outdoor environment at the workplace can...... be an important asset in workforce work ability and job satisfaction....

  9. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions, and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must...

  10. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2014-01-01

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must ...

  11. Subjective meaning: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen-Huitink, Janneke; van Wijbergen-Huitink, Janneke; Meier, Cécile

    This introductory chapter traces some of the considerations on the basis of which relativistic approaches to subjective meaning became en vogue. In doing so, the chapter provides an overview of the relevant linguistic and philosophical issues when developing a treatment of subjectivity. In addition,

  12. Subjective safety in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The term ‘subjective safety in traffic’ refers to people feeling unsafe in traffic or, more generally, to anxiety regarding being unsafe in traffic for oneself and/or others. Subjective safety in traffic can lead to road users limiting their mobility and social activities, which is one of the

  13. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  14. Examination of the Effects of Dohsa-Method Induced Positive Mind-Body Experience on Nostalgic Affects Using a EEG Pleasantness Scale and an Affective Imagery Scale

    OpenAIRE

    今野, 義孝; 上杉, 喬

    2003-01-01

    Authors examined the effects of the positive mind-body experiences through Dohsa-method on enhancing nostalgic affects elicited by sound stimuli in undergraduate students. Nostalgia is a universal affect that results in a heightened mental state, an enhancing, uplifting mood related to particular memories of the past. Nostalgia is also entails the recognition and acceptance of past experiences, and may facilitate the positive reevaluation of life, strengthen subjective well-being and happines...

  15. Anhedonia in schizophrenia: The role of subjective experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunati, Renata; Ossola, Paolo; Camerlengo, Annalisa; Bettini, Elena; De Panfilis, Chiara; Tonna, Matteo; Maggini, Carlo; Marchesi, Carlo

    2015-10-01

    High levels of anhedonia have been found in patients with schizophrenia; specifically they report higher levels of social anhedonia rather than physical anhedonia, and further, in the anticipatory rather than consummatory facets of pleasure. Nonetheless, contrasting results emerged regarding the underlying mechanisms of this deficit. Basic Symptoms (BS) disturb subjective experiences present for most of the illness' course; this impacts patients' daily lives leading to a loss of the ability to organize the experience of the self and the world in a fluid and automatic way. Considering the role played by negative emotions in the subjective evaluation of anhedonia, the aim of the study is to clarify the role of BS in the assessment of anhedonia in a sample of patients with schizophrenia (n=53) compared with healthy controls (n=46). Participants completed a self-administered trait questionnaire evaluating social anhedonia (Revised-Social Anhedonia Scale), physical anhedonia (Physical Anhedonia Scale), and the consummatory and anticipatory pleasure experiences (Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale). BS were evaluated with the Frankfurter Beschwerde-Frageboden (FBF) whereas psychopathology was assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndromes Scale. Patients scored higher than healthy controls in social, physical and anticipatory anhedonia, but not in consummatory anhedonia and these relationships were mediated by the FBF. Basic Symptoms of Memory, Overstimulation and Lack of Automatism were related to some facets of anhedonia, independently from depressive symptoms. We hypothesize that a subjective cognitive deficit and a reduced ability in information processing, could prevent patients from retaining a positive experience from past pleasant activities. Therefore the lack of pleasure would be, at least in part, related to an avoidance of potentially stressful new scenarios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Subjects taught in VR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, Frans; van den Broek, Egon; Stam, Liesbeth M.; Abrahamse, E.L.; Luursema, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    This deliverable serves to reinstate a broad view on Virtual Reality (VR), capturing all its constituting disciplines. The core target of this report is to establish a foundation for an educational program where all disciplines subordinate to VR technology will converge. Over the past decade(s) the

  17. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  18. Text and Subject Position after Althusser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony Easthope

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Althusser's achievement is that he redefined Marxism. He reconceptualizes history and totality in terms of different times, construes knowledge as the outcome of a process of construction, and interprets subjectivity as an effect of ideology and unconscious processes. Unfortunately, Althusser's functionalist view of ideology claims that the subject recognizes itself as a subject because it duplicates— reflects—an absolute subject. However, Lacan's notion of the mirror stage remedies this fault. Lacan's subject always misrecognizes itself in a process of contradiction that threatens the stability of any given social order. Moreover, unlike Foucault's subject, which is limited in that subjectivity is folded back into a vaguely expanded notion of "power," this revised Althusserian subject allows careful reading of texts. The critic does not simply read against the grain; he or she exposes the multiple points of identification offered the reader. For example, Wordsworth's "The Solitary Reaper" installs the reader in multiple positions: a devotee of high culture and the national canon, a lover of the verbal signifier and its play, a consumer of confessional discourse, and a masculine "I" desiring a laboring, singing woman.

  19. Earth view: A business guide to orbital remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Peter C.

    1990-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: Earth view - a guide to orbital remote sensing; current orbital remote sensing systems (LANDSAT, SPOT image, MOS-1, Soviet remote sensing systems); remote sensing satellite; and remote sensing organizations.

  20. Combining electroencephalographic activity and instantaneous heart rate for assessing brain-heart dynamics during visual emotional elicitation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, G; Greco, A; Gentili, C; Lanata, A; Sebastiani, L; Menicucci, D; Gemignani, A; Scilingo, E P

    2016-05-13

    Emotion perception, occurring in brain areas such as the prefrontal cortex and amygdala, involves autonomic responses affecting cardiovascular dynamics. However, how such brain-heart dynamics is further modulated by emotional valence (pleasantness/unpleasantness), also considering different arousing levels (the intensity of the emotional stimuli), is still unknown. To this extent, we combined electroencephalographic (EEG) dynamics and instantaneous heart rate estimates to study emotional processing in healthy subjects. Twenty-two healthy volunteers were elicited through affective pictures gathered from the International Affective Picture System. The experimental protocol foresaw 110 pictures, each of which lasted 10 s, associated to 25 different combinations of arousal and valence levels, including neutral elicitations. EEG data were processed using short-time Fourier transforms to obtain time-varying maps of cortical activation, whereas the associated instantaneous cardiovascular dynamics was estimated in the time and frequency domains through inhomogeneous point-process models. Brain-heart linear and nonlinear coupling was estimated through the maximal information coefficient (MIC). Considering EEG oscillations in theθband (4-8 Hz), MIC highlighted significant arousal-dependent changes between positive and negative stimuli, especially occurring at intermediate arousing levels through the prefrontal cortex interplay. Moreover, high arousing elicitations seem to mitigate changes in brain-heart dynamics in response to pleasant/unpleasant visual elicitation. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. AWARE Wide Field View

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-29

    RGB colors to the standard sRGB to allow spectrally consistent colors on monitors for viewing . Finally, the images from each sensor are corrected based ...on the exposure time used and the calibrated sensitivity of each image sensor, again based on the flat field calibration, to allow viewing of imagery...prediction is scaled based on available bandwidth and the computational resources of the cluster. In addition to the interface described in the

  2. The Data Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article considers whether it is fortunate that data protection rules, as a starting point, apply to all physical persons as data subjects, or whether it would be better to differentiate between kinds of persons on grounds of their ability to act as a data subject. In order to protect all...... persons, it is argued that a principle of care should be part of data protection law....

  3. Neural mechanisms underlying contextual dependency of subjective values: converging evidence from monkeys and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abitbol, Raphaëlle; Lebreton, Maël; Hollard, Guillaume; Richmond, Barry J; Bouret, Sébastien; Pessiglione, Mathias

    2015-02-04

    A major challenge for decision theory is to account for the instability of expressed preferences across time and context. Such variability could arise from specific properties of the brain system used to assign subjective values. Growing evidence has identified the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) as a key node of the human brain valuation system. Here, we first replicate this observation with an fMRI study in humans showing that subjective values of painting pictures, as expressed in explicit pleasantness ratings, are specifically encoded in the VMPFC. We then establish a bridge with monkey electrophysiology, by comparing single-unit activity evoked by visual cues between the VMPFC and the orbitofrontal cortex. At the neural population level, expected reward magnitude was only encoded in the VMPFC, which also reflected subjective cue values, as expressed in Pavlovian appetitive responses. In addition, we demonstrate in both species that the additive effect of prestimulus activity on evoked activity has a significant impact on subjective values. In monkeys, the factor dominating prestimulus VMPFC activity was trial number, which likely indexed variations in internal dispositions related to fatigue or satiety. In humans, prestimulus VMPFC activity was externally manipulated through changes in the musical context, which induced a systematic bias in subjective values. Thus, the apparent stochasticity of preferences might relate to the VMPFC automatically aggregating the values of contextual features, which would bias subsequent valuation because of temporal autocorrelation in neural activity. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/352308-13$15.00/0.

  4. What Software to Use in the Teaching of Mathematical Subjects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berežný, Štefan

    2015-01-01

    We can consider two basic views, when using mathematical software in the teaching of mathematical subjects. First: How to learn to use specific software for the specific tasks, e. g., software Statistica for the subjects of Applied statistics, probability and mathematical statistics, or financial mathematics. Second: How to learn to use the…

  5. Theoretical and Applied Foundations of the Subject of Ethnic Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnaz K. Tleuzhanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problem of the relevance of forming the subject of ethnic culture in the educational system on the basis of socio-cultural situation both in Kazakhstan and in the global community, presents views of leading scholars in the field of personality theory, theory of knowledge, gives author's definition of "the subject of ethnic culture"

  6. Science of the subjective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, R G; Dunne, B J

    2007-01-01

    Over the greater portion of its long scholarly history, the particular form of human observation, reasoning, and technical deployment we properly term "science" has relied at least as much on subjective experience and inspiration as it has on objective experiments and theories. Only over the past few centuries has subjectivity been progressively excluded from the practice of science, leaving an essentially secular analytical paradigm. Quite recently, however, a compounding constellation of newly inexplicable physical evidence, coupled with a growing scholarly interest in the nature and capability of human consciousness, are beginning to suggest that this sterilization of science may have been excessive and could ultimately limit its epistemological reach and cultural relevance. In particular, an array of demonstrable consciousness-related anomalous physical phenomena, a persistent pattern of biological and medical anomalies, systematic studies of mind/brain relationships and the mechanics of human creativity, and a burgeoning catalogue of human factors effects within contemporary information processing technologies, all display empirical correlations with subjective aspects that greatly complicate, and in many cases preclude, their comprehension on strictly objective grounds. However, any disciplined re-admission of subjective elements into rigorous scientific methodology will hinge on the precision with which they can be defined, measured, and represented, and on the resilience of established scientific techniques to their inclusion. For example, any neo-subjective science, while retaining the logical rigor, empirical/theoretical dialogue, and cultural purpose of its rigidly objective predecessor, would have the following requirements: acknowledgment of a proactive role for human consciousness; more explicit and profound use of interdisciplinary metaphors; more generous interpretations of measurability, replicability, and resonance; a reduction of ontological

  7. The Subjectivity of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    What is a 'we' – a collective – and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity – and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas...... practices. Through this dialogue, it develops an original trans-disciplinary critical theory and practice of collective subjectivity for which the ongoing construction and overcoming of common sense, or ideology, is central. It also points to ways of relating discourse with agency, and fertilizing insights...... from interactionism and ideology theories in a cultural-historical framework....

  8. Viewing Teaching Techniques in Enhancing Viewing Comprehension Skills of Undergraduate Students in Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s generation of digital natives, students find it unexciting to sit down and read literary texts in its entirety. Thus, students nowadays hardly understand and appreciate literature as a subject. This calls for additional challenge to teachers who had been used to deliver their lessons or any subject matter in traditional ways. This study used descriptive-correlational research design to unveil the most effective viewing teaching techniques that will help develop the viewing comprehension skills of literature students in a tertiary level. Findings reveal how literature students perceive the use of movies or videos as a powerful viewing teaching technique. Result of chi-square test of independence indicates the viewing teaching techniques are not significantly related to students’ viewing comprehension. This suggests that no single teaching technique suits the learners’ interest and ability to learn. Therefore, teachers can make use of technology combined with other viewing techniques to ensure that students will find a love for literature that will help establish their academic success in the future.

  9. User experience while viewing stereoscopic 3D television

    OpenAIRE

    Read, Jenny C. A.; Bohr, Iwo

    2014-01-01

    3D display technologies have been linked to visual discomfort and fatigue. In a lab-based study with a between-subjects design, 433 viewers aged from 4 to 82 years watched the same movie in either 2D or stereo 3D (S3D), and subjectively reported on a range of aspects of their viewing experience. Our results suggest that a minority of viewers, around 14%, experience adverse effects due to viewing S3D, mainly headache and eyestrain. A control experiment where participants viewed 2D content thro...

  10. Paying Hypertension Research Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarett, David; Karlawish, Jason; Asch, David A

    2002-01-01

    CONTEXT Cash payments are often used to compensate subjects who participate in research. However, ethicists have argued that these payments might constitute an undue inducement. OBJECTIVES To determine whether potential subjects agree with theoretical arguments that a payment could be an undue inducement. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS Survey of 350 prospective jurors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Belief that a $500 payment for research participation would impair their own, and others' ability to think carefully about the risks and benefits of a clinical trial. RESULTS Two hundred sixty-one jurors (74.6%) believed that a $500 payment would impair subjects' ability to think carefully about the risks and benefits of research. Ninety-six of 120 (80%) expressed this concern about subjects with a low income ($50,000). In contrast, only 69 (19.7%) of jurors believed that a $500 payment would influence them. Jurors who believed that this payment would influence them reported lower incomes and less education. CONCLUSION Members of the general public share ethical concerns about the influence of payments for research, although they believe that these concerns are more applicable to others than to themselves.

  11. Subjects, Models, Languages, Transformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Bézivin, J.; Heckel, R.

    2005-01-01

    Discussions about model-driven approaches tend to be hampered by terminological confusion. This is at least partially caused by a lack of formal precision in defining the basic concepts, including that of "model" and "thing being modelled" - which we call subject in this paper. We propose a minimal

  12. Subjective Duration and Psychophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, Hannes

    1975-01-01

    Three models are proposed to describe the strategy applied by a subject when he is confronted with two successive time intervals and is required to deal with some relation between them, for example, by telling which was the longer by adjusting the second to match the first. (Author)

  13. Barron's SAT subject test

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, MA, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Includes one diagnostic test and three complete tests, all questions answered and explained, self-assessment guides, and subject reviews. Also features test strategies, QR codes to short instructional videos, and a detailed appendix with equations, physical constants, and a basic math review.

  14. I Me Mine: on a Confusion Concerning the Subjective Character of Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, Marie

    2017-01-01

    In recent debates on phenomenal consciousness, a distinction is sometimes made, after Levine (2001) and Kriegel (2009), between the "qualitative character" of an experience, i.e. the specific way it feels to the subject (e.g. blueish or sweetish or pleasant), and its "subjective character", i.e. the fact that there is anything at all that it feels like to her. I argue that much discussion of subjective character is affected by a conflation between three different notions. I start by disentangling the three notions in question, under the labels of "for-me-ness", "me-ness" and "mineness". Next, I argue that these notions are not equivalent; in particular, there is no conceptual implication from for-me-ness to me-ness or mineness. Empirical considerations based on clinical cases additionally suggest that the three notions may also correspond to different properties (although the claim of conceptual non-equivalence does not depend on this further point). The aim is clarificatory, cautionary but also critical: I examine four existing arguments from subjective character that are fuelled by an undifferentiated use of the three notions, and find them to be flawed for this reason.

  15. Palatability, digestibility and emotional pattern in 60 healthy volunteers after ingestion of an iced dessert presented in four different flavours: a subjective evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzaro, M; Raimondo, L; Pecorari, G; Riva, G; Sensini, M; Naqe, N; Giordano, C

    2012-01-01

    Several variables lead to changes in human and animal eating behaviour and food choices. A pivotal role is played by food palatability, represented by food, smell, taste, texture, appearance and temperature. The aim of our study is to assess the potential differences in palatability and digestibility of four different flavoured iced desserts, consumed at the end of a standardized meal, and their impact on the emotional status of 60 healthy volunteers. Sixty healthy volunteers, after ENT and psychological assessment, were asked to fill out a Psycho-Emotional Questionnaire (PEQ) to assess their basal emotional pattern before the consumption of an iced dessert at the end of a standard meal, after which they completed an Organoleptic-Sensory Questionnaire (OSQ), a Dynamic Digestibility Questionnaire (DDQ) and again the PEQ. Four different flavors (lemon, tangerine, pineapple and chocolate) were tested on 4 consecutive days on the same subjects. Most of the 60 subjects, by means of OSQ, found taste, aspect, texture and smell of the 4 flavours pleasant, lemon and tangerine were the freshest and lightest. The DDQ identified pineapple and chocolate dessert as those less digestible. By means of PEQ we recorded an improvement in joy, mood and activation, associated with good data of digestibility and palatability after the consumption of all flavors. Our data showed that all flavors improve joy, mood and activation, after their consumption, without statistically significant differences. However, among the tested flavours, lemon and tangerine appear to be the most pleasant and those which facilitate the digestive process.

  16. Reliability of Students' Views of an "Ideal" Student Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzella, Bernadette M.; And Others

    The reliability of the Students' Views of an Ideal Student Questionnaire was studied. The questionnaire consists of 26 characteristics of a quality student. The subjects were 88 volunteers (33 males and 55 females), enrolled in various classes at a state university, who responded to the questionnaire twice within 10 days. Subjects included 35…

  17. VMware view security essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Langenhan, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    A practical and fast-paced guide that gives you all the information you need to secure your virtual environment.This book is a ""how-to"" for the novice, a ""reference guide"" for the advanced user, and a ""go to"" for the experienced user in all the aspects of VMware View desktop virtualization security.

  18. to view fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    copy to view ultrastructural details of a cell and 2) fractionation methods to separate in- tracellular organelles. Using these approaches. George Palade and coworkers followed the route to protein secretion outside the cell. Palade's work highlighted the central role played by endoplasmic reticulum in secre- tion of proteins.

  19. Children's Views on Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Ronald; Newman, Sally

    One hundred-seventy elementary school children in Western Pennsylvania were involved in a pilot study to examine young children's views on aging and the elderly. Approximately half of these children were involved in the Senior Citizen School Volunteer Program which provided consistent classroom contact with a senior citizen resource person. The…

  20. Aerial view of CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    1987-01-01

    Aerial view of the CERN site just outside Geneva, with the Jura mountains in the background. The large circle shows the line of the LEP tunnel, 27 km in circumference, the small circle shows the SPS tunnel, 7 km in circumference. The crossed line indicates the the border between France and Switzerland.

  1. Gorbachev's New World View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazier, William F.; Hellman, Joel S.

    1987-01-01

    The following two themes form the foundation of Mikhail Gorbachev's world view: (1) nuclear arms have reached a new complexity in technical development and numbers, and in ability to control the weapons; and (2) a new trend in international relations is moving away from competition and rivalry and towards "interdependence" and…

  2. [Subjective cognition in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, S; Aubin, G; Stip, E

    2017-02-01

    Given the extent, magnitude and functional significance of the neurocognitive deficits of schizophrenia, growing attention has been paid recently to patients' self-awareness of their own deficits. Thus far, the literature has shown either that patients fail to recognize their cognitive deficits or that the association between subjective and objective cognition is weak in schizophrenia. The reasons for this lack of consistency remain unexplained but may have to do, among others, with the influence of potential confounding clinical variables and the choice of the scale used to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits. In the current study, we sought to examine the relationships between subjective and objective cognitive performance in schizophrenia, while controlling for the influence of sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Eighty-two patients with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (DSM-IV criteria) were recruited. Patients' subjective cognitive complaints were evaluated with the Subjective Scale to Investigate Cognition in Schizophrenia (SSTICS), the most frequently used scale to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Neurocognition was evaluated with working memory, planning and visual learning tasks taken from Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery. The Stroop Color-Word test was also administered. Psychiatric symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. The relationships between subjective and objective cognition were evaluated with multivariate hierarchic linear regression analyses, taking into consideration potential confounders such as sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Finally, a factor analysis of the SSTICS was performed. For the SSTICS total score, the regression analysis produced a model including two predictors, namely visual learning and Stoop interference performance, explaining a moderate portion of the variance

  3. Interaction, transference, and subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Fieldwork is one of the important methods in educational, social, and organisational research. In fieldwork, the researcher takes residence for a shorter or longer period amongst the subjects and settings to be studied. The aim of this is to study the culture of people: how people seem to make...... sense of their lives and which moral, professional, and ethical values seem to guide their behaviour and attitudes. In fieldwork, the researcher has to balance participation and observation in her attempts at representation. Consequently, the researcher’s academic and life-historical subjectivity...... are important filters for fieldwork. In general, fieldwork can be understood as processes where field reports and field analysis are determined by how the researcher interacts with and experiences the field, the events and informants in it, and how she subsequently develops an ethnography. However, fieldwork...

  4. Writing and the 'Subject'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Charlotte

    /reading subject) manifests itself in the material mark on the page. The study shows how this indexical reference to a ‘subject’ is manipulated and used as a mask through which a writer/painter can perform a certain ‘subject’. Through analyses of the various levels on which the ‘subject’ is represented...... in the early as well as the contemporary avant-garde, it becomes clear that the ‘subject’ is an unstable category that can be exposed to manipulation and play. Handwriting is performing as a signature (as an index), but is at the same time similar to the signature of a subject (an icon) and a verbal construct...

  5. Pharmacy students' perceptions of natural science and mathematics subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Julie; Wilson, Sarah Ellen; Wan, Kai-Wai

    2014-08-15

    To determine the level of importance pharmacy students placed on science and mathematics subjects for pursuing a career in pharmacy. Two hundred fifty-four students completed a survey instrument developed to investigate students' perceptions of the relevance of science and mathematics subjects to a career in pharmacy. Pharmacy students in all 4 years of a master of pharmacy (MPharm) degree program were invited to complete the survey instrument. Students viewed chemistry-based and biology-based subjects as relevant to a pharmacy career, whereas mathematics subjects such as physics, logarithms, statistics, and algebra were not viewed important to a career in pharmacy. Students' experience in pharmacy and year of study influenced their perceptions of subjects relevant to a pharmacy career. Pharmacy educators need to consider how they can help students recognize the importance of scientific knowledge earlier in the pharmacy curriculum.

  6. Studio with a view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Anthony K.

    2003-04-01

    Berklee College of Music (in Boston) needed a new studio in which to teach stereo mixing and critical listening. A small synthesis lab (adjacent to the main lobby, directly over the cafeteria kitchen, penetrated by exhaust ducts, and next to a bathroom) was chosen for renovation. The primary requirements were for maximum visibility to assure hopeful future engineers a full view of all the cool gear, and comfortable seating for fifteen students. The challenges, to be discussed, included isolation with a view, quiet HVAC, and great sound, in a space that was acoustically too small and in the wrong place. The best verification of success is its popularity, which has prevented the author from booking time for listening or testing.

  7. Stereoscopic optical viewing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallman, C.S.

    1986-05-02

    An improved optical system which provides the operator with a stereoscopic viewing field and depth of vision, particularly suitable for use in various machines such as electron or laser beam welding and drilling machines. The system features two separate but independently controlled optical viewing assemblies from the eyepiece to a spot directly above the working surface. Each optical assembly comprises a combination of eye pieces, turning prisms, telephoto lenses for providing magnification, achromatic imaging relay lenses and final stage pentagonal turning prisms. Adjustment for variations in distance from the turning prisms to the workpiece, necessitated by varying part sizes and configurations and by the operator's visual accuity, is provided separately for each optical assembly by means of separate manual controls at the operator console or within easy reach of the operator.

  8. Concert Viewing Headphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Atsuta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An audiovisual interface equipped with a projector, an inclina-tion sensor, and a distance sensor for zoom control has been developed that enables a user to selectively view and listen to specific performers in a video-taped group performance. Dubbed Concert Viewing Headphones, it has both image and sound processing functions. The image processing extracts the portion of the image indicated by the user and projects it free of distortion on the front and side walls. The sound processing creates imaginary microphones for those performers without one so that the user can hear the sound from any performer. Testing using images and sounds captured using a fisheye-lens camera and 37 lavalier microphones showed that sound locali-zation was fastest when an inverse square function was used for the sound mixing and that the zoom function was useful for locating the desired sound performance.

  9. Post-human Viewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between theories of photography and mobile phone footage. In doing so, it asks if theories of photography still apply in a technologically saturated world of imagery. Technology is an increasingly important part of viewing imagery today and enables imagery ...... implications. The author takes photojournalism and, in particular, mobile phone footage as a starting point for an exploration of the (post-human) body as evidence and sign of authenticity in the modern age of digital communications and journalism....

  10. Contralateral oblique view is superior to lateral view for interlaminar cervical and cervicothoracic epidural access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Jatinder S; Aner, Moris; Nagda, Jyotsna V; Jyotsna, Nagda; Keel, John C; Simopoulos, Thomas T

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the reliability of the lateral fluoroscopic view and several contralateral oblique (CLO) views at different angles in visualizing and accurately predicting the position of the needle tip at the point of access in the posterior cervical and cervicothoracic epidural space. After the epidural space was accessed but before confirmation with contrast fluoroscopy, we prospectively obtained fluoroscopic images at eight different angles. Subsequent contrast injection confirmed epidural spread. Needle tip visualization and location of needle relative to bony landmarks were analyzed. The needle tip was clearly visualized in all CLO projections in all 24 subjects. CLO view at 50 degrees and at obliquity measured on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images provided the most consistent needle tip location. In these views, the epidural space was accessed at or just beyond the ventral laminar margin at the ventral interlaminar line or within the proximal half of the predefined CLO area in all patients. The needle tip was poorly visualized in the lateral view and the location of the needle tip was less well defined and independent of the needle location in the anteroposterior (AP) view. This study provides evidence that during cervical and cervicothoracic epidural access, the CLO view at 50 degrees and at MRI-measured obliquity is superior to the lateral view for the purpose of needle tip visualization and in providing a consistent landmark for accessing the epidural space. This article also introduces the concept of zones to describe needle position in the cervical and cervicothoracic spine in AP, lateral, and oblique views. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Increased Subjective Distaste and Altered Insula Activity to Umami Tastant in Patients with Bulimia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setsu, Rikukage; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Tokunaga, Miki; Takahashi, Toru; Numata, Noriko; Matsumoto, Koji; Masuda, Yoshitada; Matsuzawa, Daisuke; Iyo, Masaomi; Shimizu, Eiji; Nakazato, Michiko

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in brain neural activation in response to monosodium glutamate (MSG), the representative component of umami, between patients with bulimia nervosa (BN) and healthy women (HW) controls. We analyzed brain activity after ingestion of an MSG solution using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a group of women with BN ( n  = 18) and a group of HW participants ( n  = 18). Both groups also provided a subjective assessment of the MSG solution via a numerical rating scale. The BN group subjectively rated the MSG solution lower in pleasantness and liking than the control group, although no difference in subjective intensity was noted. The fMRI results demonstrated greater activation of the right insula in the BN group versus the control group. Compared with the HW controls, the BN patients demonstrated both altered taste perception-related brain activity and more negative hedonic scores in response to MSG stimuli. Different hedonic evaluation, expressed as the relative low pleasing taste of umami tastant and associated with altered insula function, may explain disturbed eating behaviors, including the imbalance in food choices, in BN patients.

  12. Increased Subjective Distaste and Altered Insula Activity to Umami Tastant in Patients with Bulimia Nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikukage Setsu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine differences in brain neural activation in response to monosodium glutamate (MSG, the representative component of umami, between patients with bulimia nervosa (BN and healthy women (HW controls. We analyzed brain activity after ingestion of an MSG solution using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in a group of women with BN (n = 18 and a group of HW participants (n = 18. Both groups also provided a subjective assessment of the MSG solution via a numerical rating scale. The BN group subjectively rated the MSG solution lower in pleasantness and liking than the control group, although no difference in subjective intensity was noted. The fMRI results demonstrated greater activation of the right insula in the BN group versus the control group. Compared with the HW controls, the BN patients demonstrated both altered taste perception-related brain activity and more negative hedonic scores in response to MSG stimuli. Different hedonic evaluation, expressed as the relative low pleasing taste of umami tastant and associated with altered insula function, may explain disturbed eating behaviors, including the imbalance in food choices, in BN patients.

  13. The Impact of TV Viewing Motivations on Psychological and Sociocultural Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guo-Ming

    A study examined the impact of TV viewing motivations on 126 Asian students' psychological and sociocultural adjustment. Subjects were enrolled in a midsize university in the New England area. TV viewing motivation was measured by A. M. Rubin's TV Viewing Motivations Scale. Psychological adjustment was measured by W. Zung's Self Rating Depression…

  14. Eye Movement Control during Scene Viewing: Immediate Effects of Scene Luminance on Fixation Durations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, John M.; Nuthmann, Antje; Luke, Steven G.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research on eye movements during scene viewing has primarily focused on where the eyes fixate. But eye fixations also differ in their durations. Here we investigated whether fixation durations in scene viewing are under the direct and immediate control of the current visual input. Subjects freely viewed photographs of scenes in preparation…

  15. Turkish Chemistry Teachers' Views about Secondary School Chemistry Curriculum: A Perspective from Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icoz, Omer Faruk

    2015-01-01

    Teachers' views about environmental education (EE) have been regarded as one of the most important concerns in education for sustainability. In secondary school chemistry curriculum, there are several subjects about EE embedded in the chemistry subjects in Turkey. This study explores three chemistry teachers' views about to what extent the…

  16. Abortion - a subject that keeps coming back!

    OpenAIRE

    Łakomski, Mateusz; Dudzik, Katarzyna; Badiuk, Nataliia

    2017-01-01

    Łakomski Mateusz, Dudzik Katarzyna, Badiuk Nataliia. Abortion - a subject that keeps coming back! Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(7):1017-1026. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.999877 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/4914 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 1223 (26.01.2017). 1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306...

  17. Praxis, subjectivity and sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Gómez-Muller

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A primordial aspect of the Sartrian critique of alienation concerns understanding the analytic ideology as the domination of materiality over the symbolic, in other words as the reification of the human, and therefore as anticulture. In the context of contemporary nihilism, the decoding of the mechanisms which consign praxis to the practico-inert requires a critique of the relations between the social sciences and philosophy, which in its turn implies a new theory of the relation between what Sartre calls the "notion" (the area of subjectivity and the "concept" (objectivity, From this perspective, the deconstruction of the established frontiers between the social sciences and philosophy, and between the conceptual and the narrative, is corelative to a redefinition of the relation between theory and practice.

  18. XML views. Part II. Modeling conceptual views using XSemantic nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajugan, R.; Chang, E.; Feng, L.; Dillon, T.

    2004-01-01

    For complex industrial informatics applications, there exists a requirement to model and design views at a higher level of abstraction. Since the classical view definitions are only available at the data, query or instance level, modelling and maintaining views for such complex systems is an

  19. Taking a Long View

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ougaard, Morten

    to elaborate an argument about capitalism’s long term devel-opmental potential. On some points the argument resembles recent gloomy diagnoses for-warded by Wolfgang Streeck (Streeck, 2014a; Streeck, 2014b) and Andrew Gamble (Gamble, 2014), but is also offers an alternative to their interpretations by taking...... a global perspective which leads to a more positive assessment. I will do this from a historical materialist perspective and therefore I begin with a discussion of the long view in Marx. This leads on to a discussion of Marx’s law of the long term declining rate of profit (LTFRP) and its counteracting...

  20. to view fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Magnetic resonance imaging, medical diagnostics, image pro- cessing. It allows the generation of images by subjecting them to a static magnetic field and understanding their en- vironment through the phenomenon of resonance. The human body is composed of approximately 70% of wa- ter molecules. Protons in these ...

  1. A Polarizing View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Rachel; Henegan, Colleen

    2018-01-01

    For many students, the first--and sometimes only--chance to look through a microscope is in high school biology class, where they observe plant and animal cells up close. Even in college, few students use a microscope for a subject other than biology. Thus, it can be a surprise to learn that microscopes are a primary tool used to understand the…

  2. to view fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    is concerned with the theoretical and quantitative basis of chemistry, the prac- titioner of every discipline of chemistry must be familiar with physical chemistry in order to understand his own subject. Similarly physical chemistry is necessary for a geologist, metallurgist, biologist and an engineer. Thus a text book in physical.

  3. Impact of viewing vs. not viewing a real forest on physiological and psychological responses in the same setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Masahiro; Endo, Junko; Takayama, Norimasa; Murase, Kazutaka; Nishiyama, Norio; Saito, Haruo; Fujiwara, Akio

    2014-10-20

    We investigated the impact of viewing versus not viewing a real forest on human subjects' physiological and psychological responses in the same setting. Fifteen healthy volunteers (11 males, four females, mean age 36 years) participated. Each participant was asked to view a forest while seated in a comfortable chair for 15 min (Forest condition) vs. sitting the same length of time with a curtain obscuring the forest view (Enclosed condition). Both conditions significantly decreased blood pressure (BP) variables, i.e., systolic BP, diastolic BP, and mean arterial pressure between pre and post experimental stimuli, but these reductions showed no difference between conditions. Interestingly, the Forest viewing reduced cerebral oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2) assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and improved the subjects' Profile of Mood States (POMS) scores, whereas the Enclosed condition increased the HbO2 and did not affect the POMS scores. There were no significant differences in saliva amylase or heart rate variability (HRV) between the two conditions. Collectively, these results suggest that viewing a real forest may have a positive effect on cerebral activity and psychological responses. However, both viewing and not viewing the forest had similar effects on cardiovascular responses such as BP variables and HRV.

  4. Side-View Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santemiz, P.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2010-01-01

    Side-view face recognition is a challenging problem with many applications. Especially in real-life scenarios where the environment is uncontrolled, coping with pose variations up to side-view positions is an important task for face recognition. In this paper we discuss the use of side view face

  5. International Energy: Subject Thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raridon, M.H. (ed.)

    1990-01-01

    The International Energy Subject Thesaurus contains the standard vocabulary to indexing terms (descriptors) developed and structured to build and maintain energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and (2) the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) staff representing the more than ninety countries and organizations recording and indexing information for the international nuclear information community. ETDE member countries are also members of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). Nuclear information indexed and recorded for INIS by these ETDE member countries is also included in the ETDE Energy Data Base, and indexing terminology is therefore cooperatively standardized for use in both information systems. This structured vocabulary reflects the scope of international energy research, development, and technological programs and encompasses terminology derived not only from the basic sciences but also from the areas of energy resources, conservation, safety, environmental impact, and regulation.

  6. Naming the Ethological Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Etienne S

    2016-03-01

    Argument In recent decades, through the work of Jane Goodall and other ethologists, the practice of giving personal names to nonhuman animals who are the subjects of scientific research has become associated with claims about animal personhood and scientific objectivity. While critics argue that such naming practices predispose the researcher toward anthropomorphism, supporters suggest that it sensitizes the researcher to individual differences and social relations. Both critics and supporters agree that naming tends to be associated with the recognition of individual animal rights. The history of the naming of research animals since the late nineteenth century shows, however, that the practice has served a variety of purposes, most of which have raised few ethical or epistemological concerns. Names have been used to identify research animals who play dual roles as pets, workers, or patients, to enhance their market value, and to facilitate their identification in the field. The multifaceted history of naming suggests both that the use of personal names by Goodall and others is less of a radical break with previous practices than it might first appear to be and that the use of personal names to recognize the individuality, sentience, or rights of nonhuman animals faces inherent limits and contradictions.

  7. A Subjective Rational Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, G. P.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of constructing a choice model of an agent with endogenous purposes of evolution is under debate. It is demonstrated that its solution requires the development of well-known methods of decision-making while taking into account the relation of action mode motivation to an agent’s ambition to implement subjectively understood interests and the environment state. The latter is submitted for consideration as a purposeful state situation model that exists only in the mind of an agent. It is the situation that is a basis for getting an insight into the agent’s ideas on the possible selected action mode results. The agent’s ambition to build his confidence in the feasibility of the action mode and the possibility of achieving the desired state requires him to use the procedures of forming an idea model based on the measured values of environment state. This leads to the gaming approach for the choice problem and its solution can be obtained on a set of trade-off alternatives.

  8. Laboratory instruction and subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Barolli

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific aspects which determined the way some groups of students conducted their work in a university laboratory, made us understand the articulation of these groups´s dynamics, from elements that were beyond the reach of cognition. In more specific terms the conduction and the maintenance of the groups student´s dynamics were explicited based on a intergame between the non conscious strategies, shared anonymously, and the efforts of the individuals in working based on their most objective task. The results and issues we have reached so far, using a reference the work developed by W.R.Bion, with therapeutical groups, gave us the possibility for understanding the dynamics of the student´s experimental work through a new approach that approximates the fields of cognition and subjectivity. This approximation led us to a deeper reflection about the issues which may be involved in the teaching process, particularly in situations which the teacher deals with the class, organised in groups.

  9. HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS’ VIEWS ON BLENDED LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Umit YAPICI,

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed to determine the high school students’ views on blended learning. The study was carried out in biology course for the lesson unit of “Classification of Living Things and Biodiversity” with 47 9th grade students attending Nevzat Ayaz Anatolian High School in the second term of the academic year of 2009-2010. The lessons were taught in a way appropriate to the blended learning model both via the Internet and on face-to-face basis. As the online dimension of the blended learning model, Moodle, a Learning Management System (LMS, was used. The application lasted 10 weeks. The scale of learners’ views on blended learning was applied and interviews were held to determine the views. As a result of the analysis of the scale, it was seen that their views were “highly” positive. The interviews held with the students revealed that the blended learning model provided students with various opportunities such as getting prepared for the lessons, reviewing the lessons as many times as wanted, reaching the subject-related materials without being dependent on time and place, testing oneself and communicating with the teacher and other students out of the school. The interviews also revealed that there were various problems though such as lack of Internet connection at home and problems experienced while playing the videos.

  10. Product Sound: Acoustically pleasant motor drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo

    is also presented here. The second chapter starts with an overview of the most widely used two level inverters and presentation of the basic modulation principles. A theoretical elaboration of the line-to-line voltage and vibration spectrum is presented in the next chapter, where a new unified analytical...

  11. Active and pleasant ageing : supported by technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meireles Ferreira Cabrita, Ana Miriam

    2017-01-01

    The proportion of the global population aged above 60 years old is growing more rapidly than any other age group creating several socio-economic challenges. Finding strategies to preserve functional independence for as long as possible is a priority to reduce the burden on the healthcare sector and

  12. ORTHOIMAGERY, Pleasants COUNTY,WV, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — An orthoimage is remotely sensed image data in which displacement of features in the image caused by terrain relief and sensor orientation has been mathematically...

  13. A Study of the Effects of First Person versus Third Person View in Educational Animation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. N. Dib

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports a study that investigated the effect of egocentric versus exocentric view in an educational animation whose goal was to teach undergraduate students the various tasks that a construction manager performs in the field. Specifically, the study aimed to determine the effect of perspective view on students’ subject learning and preference. Findings show that while students have a preference on perspective view, the perspective view does not have a significant effect on students’ learning outcomes.

  14. Patterns of brain activation when mothers view their own child and dog: an fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke E Stoeckel

    Full Text Available Neural substrates underlying the human-pet relationship are largely unknown. We examined fMRI brain activation patterns as mothers viewed images of their own child and dog and an unfamiliar child and dog. There was a common network of brain regions involved in emotion, reward, affiliation, visual processing and social cognition when mothers viewed images of both their child and dog. Viewing images of their child resulted in brain activity in the midbrain (ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra involved in reward/affiliation, while a more posterior cortical brain activation pattern involving fusiform gyrus (visual processing of faces and social cognition characterized a mother's response to her dog. Mothers also rated images of their child and dog as eliciting similar levels of excitement (arousal and pleasantness (valence, although the difference in the own vs. unfamiliar child comparison was larger than the own vs. unfamiliar dog comparison for arousal. Valence ratings of their dog were also positively correlated with ratings of the attachment to their dog. Although there are similarities in the perceived emotional experience and brain function associated with the mother-child and mother-dog bond, there are also key differences that may reflect variance in the evolutionary course and function of these relationships.

  15. Power. Conflicting views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineken, J

    1985-11-01

    This study on power is the first of its kind reported in the nursing literature. We now know that the term "power" has significantly different meanings for nurses. The basic differences found between nurse executives and head and charge nurses with respect to their views on power is a timely finding. Before generalizations and interventions can be definitively suggested, more studies must be done. Nurses interested in participating in this effort should contact the author. The issue of unification of nurses is important. More exploration in the area of power will bring us closer to mobilizing our potential and strength. Nurse executives will be more successful in accomplishing their organizational goals with a united personnel group. The discrepancy in power beliefs identified in this article will create the stimulus for further discussion and reflection.

  16. Towards a definition of SUBJECT in binding domains and subject ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards a definition of SUBJECT in binding domains and subject-oriented anaphors 27 and it holds little explanatory value. At best, EPP ensures that the highest argument will move to subject position. The final property I will discuss here is the fact that, in some languages (e.g. Icelandic and. Dutch), there is a subset of ...

  17. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 1

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1EPA, 1Agrotourism, 148AHP, 148balance scorecard, 63batik tulis Rolla Junior, 23Broiler, 90business model canvas, 137business performance,32capital structure, 81cashew industry,158CHAID,106CLI,42coal transportation service,63company’s characteristics, 81competitive advantage, 12competitive strategy, 127consumer satisfaction, 51CSI, 42customer loyalty, 42customer satisfaction,42decision of visitors, 72development strategy, 23development,158entrepreneurship, 32Feasibility studies, 90FEM, 81gap analysis, 1Indonesia Stock Exchange, 177Indosat, 137investor,177Kawah Putih, 72kedai sop durian lodaya (KSDL,51klassen typology, 96leading sector, 96less cash society, 137liquidity ratio, 165location quotient, 96logistic regression, 115market, 177marketing development strategy, 148Marketing mix, 72mobile payment, 137modern and Traditional cage, 90multiple regression analyse,165multiple regression, 177net working capital, 165organic tofu product, 115Padang, 106paired comparison, 63partnership, 1, 32Pecking Order Theory, 81PLS, 81Portfolio, 96power, 32product quality, 51profitability ratio, 165Prol Tape Primadona, 127purchase decision, 115purchase intention, 51purchasing interest,115QSPM, 23, 127refilled drinking water, 106seed,1segmentation, 106SEM, 42, 51service quality, 51SMEs, 96specialty coffee, 12stock,177strategic diagnosis,137strategy, 158Sukorambi Botanic Garden, 148SWOT, 23, 127, 148, 158SWOT-AHP, 12tourists,72UD. Primadona, 127value chain, 12VRIO,12 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1Adiningsih, Kartika Puspitasari,42Aknesia, Vharessa,12Amalia, Firda Rachma,90Andati, Trias, 177Anggraeni, Lukytawati,23Asriani,158Daryanto, Arief,12, 90Djamaludin, MD., 42Djohar, Setiadi,96Fachrodji, Achmad,72Fahmi, Idqan,1, 63, 127Fasyni, Awisal,106Hubeis, Musa,148Iskandar, Dodi,51Juanda, Bambang, 165Kirbrandoko, 12, 106, 115Lumbantoruan, Dewi Margareth,96Maulana, TB Nur Ahmad,81Muksin, 148Mukti Soleh, Cecep,63Najib, Mukhamad,106Noor, Tajudin,81

  18. A Web Survey Analysis of Subjective Well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guzi, M.; de Pedraza García, P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - This paper explores the role of work conditions and job characteristics with respect to three subjective well-being indicators: life satisfaction, job satisfaction and satisfaction with work-life balance. From a methodological point of view, the paper shows how social sciences can benefit

  19. Factors influencing the enrolment of students for science subjects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at identifying the factors that influence the enrolment of students for science subjects and strategies that can be used to improve the enrolment with the view of improving the population of science students in Oluyole Local Government Area, Ibadan. Descriptive survey research design was employed in the ...

  20. The Intonation of Noun Phrase Subjects and Clause- Modifying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In view of the emerging peculiarity of Nigerian English as one of the nonnative. Englishes, especially at the level of phonology, this study investigates the English intonation tunes employed by Nigerian speakers of English for Noun Phrase Subjects and Clause-Modifying Adverbials. Forty television reporters in Nigeria were ...

  1. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 2

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2access credit, 93acquisition, 177AHP, 61, 82, 165arena simulation,43BMC, 69Bojonegoro, 69brand choice, 208brand image, 208brand positioning, 208bullwhip effect, 43burger buns, 1business synergy and financial reports, 177capital structure, 130cluster, 151coal reserves, 130coffee plantation, 93competitiveness, 82consumer behaviour, 33consumer complaint behavior, 101cooking spices, 1crackers, 1cross sectional analytical, 139crosstab, 101CSI, 12direct selling, 122discriminant analysis, 33economic value added, 130, 187employee motivation, 112employee performance, 112employees, 139EOQ, 23farmer decisions, 93farmer group, 52financial performance evaluation, 187financial performance, 52, 177financial ratio, 187financial report, 187fiva food, 23food crops, 151horticulture, 151imports, 151improved capital structure, 177IPA, 12leading sector, 151life insurance, 165LotteMart, 43main product, 61marketing mix, 33, 165matrix SWOT, 69MPE, 61multiple linear regression, 122muslim clothing, 197Ogun, 139Pangasius fillet, 82Pati, 93pearson correlation, 101perceived value, 208performance suppy chain, 23PLS, 208POQ, 23portfolio analyzing, 1product, 101PT SKP, 122pulp and papers, 187purchase decision, 165purchase intention, 33remuneration, 112re-purchasing decisions, 197sales performance, 122sawmill, 52SCOR, 23sekolah peternakan rakyat, 69SEM, 112SERVQUAL, 12Sido Makmur farmer groups, 93SI-PUHH Online, 12small and medium industries (IKM, 61socio-demographic, 139sport drink, 208stress, 139supply chain, 43SWOT, 82the mix marketing, 197Tobin’s Q, 130trade partnership, 52uleg chili sauce, 1 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2Achsani, Noer Azam, 177Andati, Trias, 52, 177Andihka, Galih, 208Arkeman, Yandra, 43Baga, Lukman M, 69Cahyanugroho, Aldi, 112Daryanto, Arief, 12David, Ajibade, 139Djoni, 122Fahmi, Idqan, 1Fattah, Muhammad Unggul Abdul, 61Hakim, Dedi Budiman, 187Harianto, 93Hartoyo, 101Homisah, 1Hubeis, Musa, 112Hutagaol, M. Parulian, 93Jaya, Stevana

  2. Perspective View, Garlock Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    California's Garlock Fault, marking the northwestern boundary of the Mojave Desert, lies at the foot of the mountains, running from the lower right to the top center of this image, which was created with data from NASA's shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), flown in February 2000. The data will be used by geologists studying fault dynamics and landforms resulting from active tectonics. These mountains are the southern end of the Sierra Nevada and the prominent canyon emerging at the lower right is Lone Tree canyon. In the distance, the San Gabriel Mountains cut across from the leftside of the image. At their base lies the San Andreas Fault which meets the Garlock Fault near the left edge at Tejon Pass. The dark linear feature running from lower right to upper left is State Highway 14 leading from the town of Mojave in the distance to Inyokern and the Owens Valley in the north. The lighter parallel lines are dirt roads related to power lines and the Los Angeles Aqueduct which run along the base of the mountains.This type of display adds the important dimension of elevation to the study of land use and environmental processes as observed in satellite images. The perspective view was created by draping a Landsat satellite image over an SRTM elevation model. Topography is exaggerated 1.5 times vertically. The Landsat image was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed

  3. Font size and viewing distance of handheld smart phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bababekova, Yuliya; Rosenfield, Mark; Hue, Jennifer E; Huang, Rae R

    2011-07-01

    The use of handheld smart phones for written communication is becoming ubiquitous in modern society. The relatively small screens found in these devices may necessitate close working distances and small text sizes, which can increase the demands placed on accommodation and vergence. Font size and viewing distance were measured while subjects used handheld electronic devices in two separate trials. In the first study (n=129), subjects were asked to show a typical text message on their own personal phone and to hold the device "as if they were about to read a text message." A second trial was conducted in a similar manner except subjects (n=100) were asked to view a specific web page from the internet. For text messages and internet viewing, the mean font size was 1.1 M (range, 0.7 to 2.1 M) and 0.8 M (range, 0.3 to 1.4 M), respectively. The mean working distance for text messages and internet viewing was 36.2 cm (range, 17.5 to 58.0 cm) and 32.2 cm (range, 19 to 60 cm), respectively. The mean font size for both conditions was comparable with newspaper print, although some subjects viewed text that was considerably smaller. However, the mean working distances were closer than the typical near working distance of 40 cm for adults when viewing hardcopy text. These close distances place increased demands on both accommodation and vergence, which could exacerbate symptoms. Practitioners need to consider the closer distances adopted while viewing material on smart phones when examining patients and prescribing refractive corrections for use at near, as well as when treating patients presenting with asthenopia associated with nearwork. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Optometry

  4. New Paranal Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Last year saw very good progress at ESO's Paranal Observatory , the site of the Very Large Telescope (VLT). The third and fourth 8.2-m Unit Telescopes, MELIPAL and YEPUN had "First Light" (cf. PR 01/00 and PR 18/00 ), while the first two, ANTU and KUEYEN , were busy collecting first-class data for hundreds of astronomers. Meanwhile, work continued towards the next phase of the VLT project, the combination of the telescopes into the VLT Interferometer. The test instrument, VINCI (cf. PR 22/00 ) is now being installed in the VLTI Laboratory at the centre of the observing platform on the top of Paranal. Below is a new collection of video sequences and photos that illustrate the latest developments at the Paranal Observatory. The were obtained by the EPR Video Team in December 2000. The photos are available in different formats, including "high-resolution" that is suitable for reproduction purposes. A related ESO Video News Reel for professional broadcasters will soon become available and will be announced via the usual channels. Overview Paranal Observatory (Dec. 2000) Video Clip 02a/01 [MPEG - 4.5Mb] ESO PR Video Clip 02a/01 "Paranal Observatory (December 2000)" (4875 frames/3:15 min) [MPEG Video+Audio; 160x120 pix; 4.5Mb] [MPEG Video+Audio; 320x240 pix; 13.5 Mb] [RealMedia; streaming; 34kps] [RealMedia; streaming; 200kps] ESO Video Clip 02a/01 shows some of the construction activities at the Paranal Observatory in December 2000, beginning with a general view of the site. Then follow views of the Residencia , a building that has been designed by Architects Auer and Weber in Munich - it integrates very well into the desert, creating a welcome recreational site for staff and visitors in this harsh environment. The next scenes focus on the "stations" for the auxiliary telescopes for the VLTI and the installation of two delay lines in the 140-m long underground tunnel. The following part of the video clip shows the start-up of the excavation work for the 2.6-m VLT Survey

  5. Eye movements when viewing advertisements

    OpenAIRE

    Emily eHiggins; Mallorie eLeinenger; Keith eRayner

    2014-01-01

    In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind ...

  6. Children's violent television viewing: are parents monitoring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tina L; Brenner, Ruth A; Wright, Joseph L; Sachs, Hari Cheryl; Moyer, Patricia; Rao, Malla R

    2004-07-01

    Violent media exposure has been associated with aggressive behavior, and it has been suggested that child health professionals counsel families on limiting exposure. Effective violence prevention counseling requires an understanding of norms regarding parental attitudes, practices, and influencing factors. Both theories of reasoned action and planned behavior emphasize that subjective norms and attitudes affect people's perceptions and intended behavior. Few data exist on violent television viewing and monitoring from a cross-section of families. By understanding the spectrum of parental attitudes, community-sensitive interventions for violence prevention can be developed. The objective of this study was to assess attitudes about and monitoring of violent television viewing from the perspective of parents. An anonymous self-report assisted survey was administered to a convenience sample of parents/guardians who visited child health providers at 3 sites: an urban children's hospital clinic, an urban managed care clinic, and a suburban private practice. The parent questionnaire included questions on child-rearing attitudes and practices and sociodemographic information. A total of 1004 adults who accompanied children for health visits were recruited for the study; 922 surveys were completed (participation rate: 92%). A total of 830 (90%) respondents were parents and had complete child data. Of the 830 respondents, 677 had questions on television viewing included in the survey and were the focus of this analysis. Seventy-five percent of families reported that their youngest child watched television. Of these, 53% reported always limiting violent television viewing, although 73% believed that their children viewed television violence at least 1 time a week. Among television viewers, 81% reported usually or always limiting viewing of sexual content on television and 45% reported usually or always watching television with their youngest child. Among children who watched

  7. Witkacy’s Attempt at a Subject – a Subject for a Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Górska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article Witkacego próba podmiotu – podmiot na próbę [Witkacy’s Attempt at a Subject – a Subject for a Test] the subjective identity of S.I. Witkiewicz is characterised by means of the widely understood category of a trial. This latter is interpreted from the view of theatrical aesthetics, but also philosophy, enables to show the biography and oeuvre of the artist from Zakopane as a continuous game between constructing and deconstructing of the subjective identity. The category of subjectivity becomes here a tool of revealing of the mechanisms, making it possible to remove boundaries between art and life, reality and fiction, literature and theory. Whereas in the interpretation proposed this attempt appears as a very literally understood experiencing of oneself, “putting oneself to the test”, but also as an attempt at literature (in the area of theory and an attempt at theory (in the area of literature.

  8. Tree View control makes ProtoView's suite stand out

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mark Joseph Edwards

    1998-01-01

    ... of a scripting language. ACS has 3 basic parts: Data Explorer, Data Table, and WinX. Data Explorer combines a TreeView with a feature-rich ListView to create a standard, Explorer-style user interface...

  9. Different views of distance education and how these views affect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study used Statistical Package for Social Sciences to produce frequency distribution tables and Chi-square statistical tool to test whether there were significant differences among stakeholders' views of distance education. The study found out that stakeholders had different views of distance education, and that these ...

  10. Individual Objective and Subjective Fixation Disparity in Near Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaschinski, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Binocular vision refers to the integration of images in the two eyes for improved visual performance and depth perception. One aspect of binocular vision is the fixation disparity, which is a suboptimal condition in individuals with respect to binocular eye movement control and subsequent neural processing. The objective fixation disparity refers to the vergence angle between the visual axes, which is measured with eye trackers. Subjective fixation disparity is tested with two monocular nonius lines which indicate the physical nonius separation required for perceived alignment. Subjective and objective fixation disparity represent the different physiological mechanisms of motor and sensory fusion, but the precise relation between these two is still unclear. This study measures both types of fixation disparity at viewing distances of 40, 30, and 24 cm while observers fixated a central stationary fusion target. 20 young adult subjects with normal binocular vision were tested repeatedly to investigate individual differences. For heterophoria and subjective fixation disparity, this study replicated that the binocular system does not properly adjust to near targets: outward (exo) deviations typically increase as the viewing distance is shortened. This exo proximity effect—however—was not found for objective fixation disparity, which–on the average–was zero. But individuals can have reliable outward (exo) or inward (eso) vergence errors. Cases with eso objective fixation disparity tend to have less exo states of subjective fixation disparity and heterophoria. In summary, the two types of fixation disparity seem to respond in a different way when the viewing distance is shortened. Motor and sensory fusion–as reflected by objective and subjective fixation disparity–exhibit complex interactions that may differ between individuals (eso versus exo) and vary with viewing distance (far versus near vision). PMID:28135308

  11. Individual Objective and Subjective Fixation Disparity in Near Vision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Jaschinski

    Full Text Available Binocular vision refers to the integration of images in the two eyes for improved visual performance and depth perception. One aspect of binocular vision is the fixation disparity, which is a suboptimal condition in individuals with respect to binocular eye movement control and subsequent neural processing. The objective fixation disparity refers to the vergence angle between the visual axes, which is measured with eye trackers. Subjective fixation disparity is tested with two monocular nonius lines which indicate the physical nonius separation required for perceived alignment. Subjective and objective fixation disparity represent the different physiological mechanisms of motor and sensory fusion, but the precise relation between these two is still unclear. This study measures both types of fixation disparity at viewing distances of 40, 30, and 24 cm while observers fixated a central stationary fusion target. 20 young adult subjects with normal binocular vision were tested repeatedly to investigate individual differences. For heterophoria and subjective fixation disparity, this study replicated that the binocular system does not properly adjust to near targets: outward (exo deviations typically increase as the viewing distance is shortened. This exo proximity effect-however-was not found for objective fixation disparity, which-on the average-was zero. But individuals can have reliable outward (exo or inward (eso vergence errors. Cases with eso objective fixation disparity tend to have less exo states of subjective fixation disparity and heterophoria. In summary, the two types of fixation disparity seem to respond in a different way when the viewing distance is shortened. Motor and sensory fusion-as reflected by objective and subjective fixation disparity-exhibit complex interactions that may differ between individuals (eso versus exo and vary with viewing distance (far versus near vision.

  12. Human subjects research handbook: Protecting human research subjects. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-30

    This handbook serves as a guide to understanding and implementing the Federal regulations and US DOE Orders established to protect human research subjects. Material in this handbook is directed towards new and continuing institutional review board (IRB) members, researchers, institutional administrators, DOE officials, and others who may be involved or interested in human subjects research. It offers comprehensive overview of the various requirements, procedures, and issues relating to human subject research today.

  13. Langley's views on NEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    The views of the Langley Research Center regarding the NASA Equipment Management System (EMS) are discussed. One of Langley's greatest concerns is with the reconciliation between NEMS and the General Ledger. Langley's accounting system tracks cost data to the penny level. NEMS deals in whole dollar amounts. Therefore, Langley has no way of reconciling the two. The only approach that is acceptable to Langley, unless requirements for reconciliation are changed, is for the NEMS files and the reports involved in the process be at the penny level. All other NEMS reports can remain whole dollars. Also to reconcile, Langley needs data to show the difference between the previous cost and the new cost for the month. On an input record, the adjustment amount is added to the cost and recorded as total amount. The adjusted cost is not captured. In order to establish a control between the prior months and the current month, a new field needs to be added to capture the adjusted cost (debits And credits). Langley has not reconciled the Equipment account with the General Ledger since February 1984. Problems with NEMS regular production runs cause concern. Production at Langley is run on the second and/or third shift. If a run(s) terminates and/or abends in a particular module, Langley must wait until the next day to resolve NEMS problems after consultation with Headquarters personnel. For a successful installation, Langley must have a good data base to convert to NEMS and users and the data processing staff must work together.

  14. Farmers and Extension Personnel View of Constraints to Effective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined farmers' and extension personnel's View of constraints to effectiveness of agricultural extension services in Oyo State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 100 farmers and 20 extension personnel. Data subjected to descriptive and correlation analyses were collected using ...

  15. Secular Stagnation: The Long View

    OpenAIRE

    Barry Eichengreen

    2015-01-01

    Four explanations for secular stagnation are distinguished: a rise in global saving, slow population growth that makes investment less attractive, adverse trends in technology and productivity growth, and a decline in the relative price of investment goods. A long view from economic history is most supportive of the last of these four views.

  16. View-Based Process Visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobrik, Ralph; Reichert, M.U.; Bauer, Thomas

    In large organizations different users or user roles have distinguished perspectives over business processes and related data. Personalized views of the managed processes are needed. Existing BPM tools, however, do not provide adequate mechanisms for building and visualizing such views. Very often

  17. MolView users guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walenz, B.P.

    1996-06-01

    A system for viewing molecular data in a CAVE virtual reality environment is presented. The system, called MolView, consists of a frontend driver program that prepares the data and a backend CAVE program that displays the data. Both are written so that modifications and extensions are relatively easy to accomplish.

  18. Behavioural View of Language Acquisition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 5. Behavioural View of Language Acquisition. Rajeev Sangal. Book Review Volume 13 Issue 5 May 2008 pp 487-489. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/013/05/0487-0489 ...

  19. CERN: an aerial view

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On 30th January, when CERN still resembled a winter wonderland, a helicopter with a photographer on board took off on an aerial tour. One sunny morning at the end of January, when the area was waking up to an overnight snowfall, a helicopter took off from the Meyrin site with a CERN photographer on board. CERN has been the subject of aerial photographs ever since its creation. Although its appearance has changed over the years, the Laboratory has aged well. The aerial photographs taken during its fifty-year history bear witness to its expansion, showing how a handful of buildings and a first accelerator have blossomed into an entire machine complex. Let's take to the skies and have a look at some of the photos taken on this crisp January morning: a sight for sore eyes! In the foreground, Building 40 on the Meyrin site is recognisable from its magnet shape.On the right of the Route de Meyrin (crossing the photo diagonally), next to Point 1, the work on the Globe of Innovation, which got underway at the beg...

  20. Subjective memory complaints and personality traits in normal elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänninen, T; Reinikainen, K J; Helkala, E L; Koivisto, K; Mykkänen, L; Laakso, M; Pyörälä, K; Riekkinen, P J

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between objectively measured memory functions and subjective complaints of memory disturbance and whether subjective complaints are affected by some personality traits or affective states. Cross-sectional two-group comparison. The city of Kuopio in Eastern Finland, considered representative of the urban elderly population of Finland. Originally 403 subjects aged 67-78 years from the random sample and then two matched study groups initially including eighteen subjects but only ten in the final analysis. Screening and follow-up examinations of subjects with and without subjective memory complaints: (1) Memory functions: Benton's visual retention test and the paired-associated learning subtest of Wechsler Memory Scale. (2) Memory complaints: Memory Complaint Questionnaire. (3) Personality traits and affective state: Two subscales from Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and Geriatric Depression Scale. Complaints of memory loss did not correlate with the actual memory performance in the tests. However, those subjects who most emphatically complained of memory disturbance had greater tendencies toward somatic complaining, higher feelings of anxiety about their physical health, and more negative feelings of their own competence and capabilities than those who did not complain of memory deterioration associated with aging. The study suggests that subjective feelings of memory impairment are more closely associated with personality traits than with actual memory performance in normal elderly people.

  1. Subjectivity and professional vocational counselling

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Marina

    2004-01-01

    In this work, I shall deal with the psychodynamic approach to subjectivity in P.V.C. To this effect, I want to develop the concept of subject and subjectivity, its variation and historical-social construction and its approach in counselling, from a psychodynamic conceptual framework in P.V.C. with a short reference to the theoretical sources on which this approach is founded. Departamento de Psicología

  2. The Subject in Cognitive Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Caro-Gabalda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the various subjects embedded in cognitive psychotherapy. The cognitive model developed by Beck, considered as a rationalist and modernist model, will exemplify these subjects. Cognitive therapy should be placed in the modernist historical context and related to a subject characterized as having rationality and the ability to observe and detect cognitions, emotions and behaviors. The paper develops this background introducing three main subject types. The first is the introspective and conscious subject, who is able to observe what is within oneself, has free access, and is conscious of one's cognitive world. The second is the cognitive miser that describes the subject who enters into therapy. The final subject identified, is the trained scientist who is able to develop a more objective knowledge, changing faulty schemas and cognitive distortions. This subject is the one most looked for in cognitive therapy. We could connect these subjects to some of the main elements of cognitive therapy such as the concept of ABC, assessment procedures, cognitive techniques or the relevance of schemas. Finally, the paper suggests some issues for study that could contribute to the theoretical and clinical evolution of cognitive psychotherapy.

  3. Questionnaire on Corporate Income Tax Subjects - Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Hansen, Søren; Nielsen, Jacob Graff

    In terms of tax policy, tax harmonization or coordination of corporate taxation in the EU is usually considered from two complementary points of view: tax base and tax rate. These two perspectives structure the debate whether EU Member States, and more broadly States belonging to the same economic...... area, should harmonize or coordinate their policies in tax matters. However, little attention has been paid so far to a more basic question: who are corporate taxpayers? Are they defined in the same way over Europe? This may be explained by the fact that the vast majority of tax systems accept the same...... fundamental idea: while companies limited by shares and limited liability companies should be subject to corporate income tax (CIT), partnerships should be considered fully or partly transparent for tax purposes. This general statement is nevertheless an oversimplification of reality. Comparative law indeed...

  4. Reliability of Human Subject - Artificial System Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Novák

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Main problems related to reliability of interaction between human subject and artificial system (namely of the transportation character are discussed. The paper consists of three mayor parts:The first one is devoted to the theoretical backgrounds of the problem from the both theory of system reliability and neurology/psychology views.Second part presents the discussion of relevant methodologies of the classification and prediction of the reliability decline. The methodology based on EEG pattern analysis is chosen as the appropriate one for the presented task. The key phenomenon of "micro-sleep" is discussed in detail.The last part presents some latest experimental results in context of presented knowledge. Proposals for the future studies are presented at the end of the presented article. The special interest should be devoted to the analysis and in-time prediction of fatal attention decreases and to the design and construction of the respective on-board applicable warning system.

  5. Communication, Technology and Subjectivity: Strategic Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilton Garcia

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This text presents a critical reflection of communication and technology as production of knowledge and subjectivity, considering the sociopolitical aspects. How to attribute new dimensions from ideological to technological values? In this context, an emergent situation about the implantation of the Brazilian system of digital TV (SBTVD is analyzed. Body, experience and image are putted as critical categories that were introduced during this research, from the language – stratified between culture and representation. The article analyzes the contemporary studies from the cultural researches to the new technologies (analysis about body, culture, language and new technologies. Thus, contemporary studies (BHABHA, 1998; CANCLINI, 1998; COSTA, 2004; EAGLETON, 2005; GUMBRECHT, 1998; HALL, 2003; HUTCHEON, 2000; LÉVY, 1999; MATURANA, 1997; YÚDICE, 2004 strategically contextualize a theoretical-methodological point of view to demonstrate concepts of upgrading and innovation. The methodology is established by description of objects and their contexts to be investigated in a multidisciplinary way.

  6. A View from within: Revisiting Harry Judge's "American Graduate Schools of Education"--A View from Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Patricia Albjerg

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-five years ago when Harry Judge published "American Graduate Schools of Education: a view from abroad", he referred to his subject as a "puzzle". These institutions were in the midst of a transition from a focus upon the education of academically talented children mostly from affluent backgrounds to the schooling of children of disparate…

  7. Elementary Teachers’ Views about School Administrators’ Technology Leadership Roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Sincar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to reveal the elementary school administrators’ technology leadership roles, according to elementary classroom and subject teachers’ perception, and to evaluate these roles. In this mixed method research both qualitative and quantitative methods were used. In order to determine whether elementary school principals’ technology leadership role differentiate in respect of the independent variables such as subjects, gender, experience years in teaching, and number of student, the parametric analyze technique was used. Qualitative data was analyzed with the content analysis technique. According to the opinion of classroom and subject teachers, the technology leadership roles of the elementary school administrators such as human-centered, vision, communication and cooperation were performed partially support role were determined to be performed enough. It was assured that findings obtained from quantitative research techniques were also supported by findings obtained from interviews which were the techniques of qualitative part. No significant differences between the views of subject teachers and classroom teachers were found about elementary school administrators’ technology leadership roles. The results revealed that there were statistically significant differences in terms of gender variable among the views of the classroom teachers, related to the role of the vision of the elementary school administrators; among the views of the branch teacher, on the role of communication and cooperation. In terms of student number of schools, no significant differences were found between the views of teachers about elementary school administrators’ role of technology leadership. However, there were significant differences among subject teachers’ views about elementary school administrators’ technology leadership roles considering roles in vision and humancentered components

  8. Does green tea affect postprandial glucose, insulin and satiety in healthy subjects: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindstedt Sandra

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results of epidemiological studies have suggested that consumption of green tea could lower the risk of type 2 diabetes. Intervention studies show that green tea may decrease blood glucose levels, and also increase satiety. This study was conducted to examine the postprandial effects of green tea on glucose levels, glycemic index, insulin levels and satiety in healthy individuals after the consumption of a meal including green tea. Methods The study was conducted on 14 healthy volunteers, with a crossover design. Participants were randomized to either 300 ml of green tea or water. This was consumed together with a breakfast consisting of white bread and sliced turkey. Blood samples were drawn at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. Participants completed several different satiety score scales at the same times. Results Plasma glucose levels were higher 120 min after ingestion of the meal with green tea than after the ingestion of the meal with water. No significant differences were found in serum insulin levels, or the area under the curve for glucose or insulin. Subjects reported significantly higher satiety, having a less strong desire to eat their favorite food and finding it less pleasant to eat another mouthful of the same food after drinking green tea compared to water. Conclusions Green tea showed no glucose or insulin-lowering effect. However, increased satiety and fullness were reported by the participants after the consumption of green tea. Trial registration number NCT01086189

  9. The Relationship between Active Viewing of Different Television Content Types and Individual Perception of a Mean World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouner, Donna

    A study tested the validity of two active TV viewing constructs that predicted the effects of content and degree of active viewing on a television viewer's perception of a mean world. Random digit dialing produced interviews with 163 subjects who were asked separate questions about their prime time and daytime viewing to determine their level of…

  10. The disease-subject as a subject of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kottow Andrea R

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Based on the distinction between living body and lived body, we describe the disease-subject as representing the impact of disease on the existential life-project of the subject. Traditionally, an individual's subjectivity experiences disorders of the body and describes ensuing pain, discomfort and unpleasantness. The idea of a disease-subject goes further, representing the lived body suffering existential disruption and the possible limitations that disease most probably will impose. In this limit situation, the disease-subject will have to elaborate a new life-story, a new character or way-of-being-in-the-world, it will become a different subject. Health care professionals need to realize that patients are not mere observers of their body, for they are immersed in a reassesment of values, relationships, priorities, perhaps even life-plans. Becoming acquainted with literature's capacity to create characters, modify narratives and depict life-stories in crisis, might sharpen physicians' hermeneutic acumen and make them more receptive to the quandaries of disease-subjects facing major medical and existential decisions in the wake of disruptive disease.

  11. Atopic asthmatic subjects but not atopic subjects without ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Asthma is a known risk factor for acute ozone-associated respiratory disease. Ozone causes an immediate decrease in lung function and increased airway inflammation. The role of atopy and asthma in modulation of ozone-induced inflammation has not been determined. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether atopic status modulates ozone response phenotypes in human subjects. METHODS: Fifty volunteers (25 healthy volunteers, 14 atopic nonasthmatic subjects, and 11 atopic asthmatic subjects not requiring maintenance therapy) underwent a 0.4-ppm ozone exposure protocol. Ozone response was determined based on changes in lung function and induced sputum composition, including airway inflammatory cell concentration, cell-surface markers, and cytokine and hyaluronic acid concentrations. RESULTS: All cohorts experienced similar decreases in lung function after ozone. Atopic and atopic asthmatic subjects had increased sputum neutrophil numbers and IL-8 levels after ozone exposure; values did not significantly change in healthy volunteers. After ozone exposure, atopic asthmatic subjects had significantly increased sputum IL-6 and IL-1beta levels and airway macrophage Toll-like receptor 4, Fc(epsilon)RI, and CD23 expression; values in healthy volunteers and atopic nonasthmatic subjects showed no significant change. Atopic asthmatic subjects had significantly decreased IL-10 levels at baseline compared with healthy volunteers; IL-10 levels did not significa

  12. The STAPL pView

    KAUST Repository

    Buss, Antal

    2011-01-01

    The Standard Template Adaptive Parallel Library (STAPL) is a C++ parallel programming library that provides a collection of distributed data structures (pContainers) and parallel algorithms (pAlgorithms) and a generic methodology for extending them to provide customized functionality. STAPL algorithms are written in terms of pViews, which provide a generic access interface to pContainer data by abstracting common data structure concepts. Briefly, pViews allow the same pContainer to present multiple interfaces, e.g., enabling the same pMatrix to be \\'viewed\\' (or used) as a row-major or column-major matrix, or even as a vector. In this paper, we describe the stapl pView concept and its properties. pViews generalize the iterator concept and enable parallelism by providing random access to, and an ADT for, collections of elements. We illustrate how pViews provide support for managing the tradeoff between expressivity and performance and examine the performance overhead incurred when using pViews. © 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  13. The Object of the Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The article presents a theory of the subject, based on the work of Jacques Lacan, using the concepts of alienation, separation and liberation.......The article presents a theory of the subject, based on the work of Jacques Lacan, using the concepts of alienation, separation and liberation....

  14. Electromyographic and neuromuscular variables in unstable postpolio subjects, stable postpolio subjects, and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, A A; Agre, J C; Franke, T M

    1997-09-01

    To compare strength and endurance variables obtained in the quadriceps muscles of postpolio and control subjects over a 7-year interval with macro and single fiber electromyography (EMG) variables. A controlled inception cohort study. Neuromuscular research laboratory of a university hospital. A cohort of 23 postpolio and 14 control subjects. All postpolio subjects had a history, physical examination, and EMG consistent with previous poliomyelitis, and had greater than antigravity strength in the quadriceps muscle tested. Unstable postpolio subjects acknowledged new quadriceps weakness over the 7-year period of the study (n = 11), and stable postpolio subjects denied new weakness of the quadriceps over the same period (n = 12). All subjects had tests of neuromuscular function of the quadriceps muscles at the onset of this study and yearly over a 7-year period. EMG variables were determined on a separate day after the seventh year of neuromuscular measurements. Neuromuscular variables measured were isometric knee extension peak torque, isometric endurance (time to inability to maintain knee extensor contraction at 40% of maximal torque), tension time index (TTI) (product of isometric endurance time and 40% of maximal torque), and recovery of torque at 10 minutes after the endurance test. EMG variables were macro EMG and single fiber EMG (jitter, fiber density, and percent blocking). Unstable postpolio subjects did not lose strength more rapidly than stable postpolio subjects or control subjects. Unstable postpolio subjects were significantly weaker, had decreased TTI, larger macro EMG amplitude, greater jitter, blocking, and fiber density in comparison with stable postpolio subjects (all p postpolio group (p .05) with neuromuscular or EMG variables in control, stable, or unstable postpolio subjects.

  15. Subjective vs Objective Accommodative Amplitude: Preschool to Presbyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Heather A.; Stuebing, Karla K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study compared subjective and objective accommodative amplitudes to characterize changes from preschool to presbyopia. Methods Monocular accommodative amplitude was measured with three techniques in random order (subjective push-up, objective minus lens stimulated, and objective proximal stimulated) on 236 subjects 3–64 years using a 1.5mm letter. Subjective push-up amplitudes were the dioptric distance at which the target first blurred along a near-point rod. Objective minus lens stimulated amplitudes were the greatest accommodative response obtained by Grand Seiko autorefraction as subjects viewed the stimulus at 33cm through increasing minus lens powers. Objective proximal stimulated amplitudes were the greatest accommodative response obtained by Grand Seiko autorefraction as subjects viewed the stimulus at increasing proximity from 40cm up to 3.33cm. Results In comparison with subjective push-up amplitudes, objective amplitudes were lower at all ages, with the most dramatic difference occurring in the 3–5 year group (subjective push-up = 16.00 ± 4.98D versus objective proximal stimulated = 7.94 ± 2.37D and objective lens stimulated = 6.20 ± 1.99D). Objective proximal and lens stimulated amplitudes were largest in the 6–10 year group (8.81 ± 1.24D and 8.05 ± 1.82D, respectively) and gradually decreased until the fourth decade of life when a rapid decline to presbyopia occurred. There was a significant linear relationship between objective techniques (y = 0.74 + 0.96x, R2 = 0.85, p<0.001) with greater amplitudes measured for the proximal stimulated technique (mean difference = 0.55D). Conclusions Objective measurements of accommodation demonstrate that accommodative amplitude is substantially less than that measured by the subjective push-up technique, particularly in young children. These findings have important clinical implications for the management of uncorrected hyperopia. PMID:25602235

  16. Subjective versus objective accommodative amplitude: preschool to presbyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Heather A; Stuebing, Karla K

    2014-11-01

    This study compared subjective and objective accommodative amplitudes to characterize changes from preschool to presbyopia. Monocular accommodative amplitude was measured with three techniques in random order (subjective push-up, objective minus lens stimulated, and objective proximal stimulated) on 236 subjects aged 3 to 64 years using a 1.5-mm letter. Subjective push-up amplitudes were the dioptric distance at which the target first blurred along a near-point rod. Objective minus lens stimulated amplitudes were the greatest accommodative response obtained by Grand Seiko autorefraction as subjects viewed the stimulus at 33 cm through increasing minus lens powers. Objective proximal stimulated amplitudes were the greatest accommodative response obtained by Grand Seiko autorefraction as subjects viewed the stimulus at increasing proximity from 40 cm up to 3.33 cm. In comparison with subjective push-up amplitudes, objective amplitudes were lower at all ages, with the most dramatic difference occurring in the 3- to 5-year group (subjective push-up, 16.00 ± 4.98 diopters [D] vs. objective proximal stimulated, 7.94 ± 2.37 D, and objective lens stimulated, 6.20 ± 1.99 D). Objective proximal and lens stimulated amplitudes were largest in the 6- to 10-year group (8.81 ± 1.24 D and 8.05 ± 1.82 D, respectively) and gradually decreased until the fourth decade of life when a rapid decline to presbyopia occurred. There was a significant linear relationship between objective techniques (y = 0.74 + 0.96x, R2 = 0.85, p < 0.001) with greater amplitudes measured for the proximal stimulated technique (mean difference, 0.55 D). Objective measurements of accommodation demonstrate that accommodative amplitude is substantially less than that measured by the subjective push-up technique, particularly in young children. These findings have important clinical implications for the management of uncorrected hyperopia.

  17. Urban and Spatial Opposition by the Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, Gizem; Kırcı, Nazan

    2017-10-01

    In the production of spaces, an important aspect, that is ‘the subject’ was neglected with the influence of the industrial revolution, modernisation, capitalism and neo-liberalism. While the rationalist reason was standardising and extending production, the relationship between space and its user was broken-off. It initiated a tremendous change when the subject as the user of the spaces, singled out his own existence and needs from the whole and comprehended his self-distinctiveness. Such a split up indicating the act of critical thinking and liberation of the subject also created a demand for diversity. The demands of the subject being the user of the space was not met at the architectural and urban levels for several reasons. The subject feeling the discomfort of such a situation brings into view his criticisms first in his own individual space and then in public space for the purposes of expressing his right to live and his locus standi. Such acts being classified as adversary are being realised in order to provide the adaptability of the subject and the space to changing living conditions using different means. Such adversary touches being provided partly by the urbanites and partly by the professionals draw attention to the issue through by-pass interventions to the architecturally choked urban areas. By taking a stance against the existing situation, the intention is to treat space in a different way than what has been produced by the system, to re-produce it and to render it more democratic. All such alternative spatial situations show us that other production methods and lines of thought, other than what has been defined by the dominant market conditions are also possible. It has been asserted through these adversary instigations that there is a requirement for micro designs towards the daily and changing needs of the subject as a user during the act of design by architects and planners. For this reason, the part played by the designer should be

  18. A view invariant gait cycle segmentation for ambient monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao Wu; Beilei Xu; Madhu, Himanshu; Jing Zhou

    2016-08-01

    Gait analysis has many clinical applications in disease detection and treatment evaluation. Gait cycle segmentation is a critical component in gait analysis for timing the gait phases in evaluating many movement disorders. Computer vision techniques have been widely used in surveillance for security monitoring. They are nonintrusive and do not require cooperation from subjects. In this paper, we propose to leverage the videos from existing surveillance monitoring systems to provide long-term and ambient assessments of gait patterns from subjects' daily activity without the requirement of wearing a device. Our proposed method is a novel view-independent method for gait cycle segmentation. We use the temporal duration of spatial features to achieve fast, robust and accurate gait cycle segmentation. The method take videos from a single non-calibrated camera and is not limited by specific viewing angles of the subject.

  19. The patient's view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachagan, S S; Sharon, K

    2003-03-01

    The medical practitioner has always had to juggle several roles. First and foremost, the doctor is a healer, a provider of curative services. Second, he is an examiner, an assessor of the patient's health status. Third, he is a researcher, always trying to push the boundaries of medical knowledge. Fourth, he is a rationer of services, he decides how best to apportion the limited resources at his disposal. Traditionally, the patient-doctor relationship has been largely exclusive in nature and the doctor would quite comfortably slip in and out of these roles, his focus centred on his patient's interests. In this era of large corporate health care providers, multi-billion-biotechnology industry, mammoth pharmaceutical companies, medical insurance schemes and international trade instruments, it has become increasingly difficult for the doctor to juggle these four roles. He is constantly subjected to conflicting demands. Patients' interests do not always come first anymore and patients are beginning to realise this. They no longer trust the medical profession unreservedly. There has been steady erosion of the patient-doctor relationship most clearly evidenced by the rising tide of litigation against doctors. There needs to be a reappraisal of these roles that the doctor plays. The conflicts must be recognised and addressed. Patients need to be informed and their interests must be protected if the doctor-patient relationship is to be restored. Medical malpractice suits are on the increase. The tort system as it exists is failing both doctors and patients. The question we must ask is what are patients looking for when they sue doctors? Most of the time they need compensation for the injuries suffered. Sometimes they are looking for accountability, they want the doctor to be punished in some way. Sometimes they merely want to air their grievances and know that they are heard. The current system more often than not takes too long to compensate, the process is a gamble and

  20. The forgotten view: Chest X-ray - Lateral view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham M. Ittyachen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With CT (computed tomography chest gaining more importance as a diagnostic tool, chest X-ray especially the lateral view is taken less commonly nowadays. Besides CT chest is also proven to be superior to chest X-ray in patients with major blunt trauma. We are presenting a 68-year old male who was partially treated from outside for a left sided pneumonia. He came to our hospital because of persisting chest pain. Chest X-ray, frontal view (postero-anterior was almost normal except for a mild opacity in the left lower zone. CT scan of the chest revealed a fluid collection posteriorly enclosed within enhancing pleura. Chest X-ray, left lateral view showed a corresponding posterior pleural based opacity. We are presenting this case to highlight the importance of the lateral view of the chest X-ray. In selected cases there is still a role for the lateral view. With the three dimensional visualization provided by the CT, the lateral view of the chest may be easier to understand. Consequent to the initial diagnosis by CT further follow up can be done with the chest X-ray. In a limited way this mitigates unnecessary expenditure and more importantly prevents the patient from exposure to harmful radiation in the form of repeated CT.

  1. Pursuing the Emancipatory Purport of Subjectivity from Frankfurt to Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mesbahian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to investigating the philosophical place of Subjectivity in the contemporary thought. My justification for engaging in further study on this much-discussed concept is that three significant questions concerning subjectivity have remained insufficiently examined: What is the problem of philosophical foundation of modernity from Cartesian Cogito to the Kantian autonomous will and to the Hegelian subjectivity? Is there any possibility to overcome the proposed problem from an internal point of view and from the perspective of Jürgen Habermas? Whether the radical criticism of the Enlightenment idea of an autonomous subject by thinkers like Foucault and Derrida leads to loss of freedom or to the robust notion of freedom being deeply improved? This paper, accordingly, will examine the three above mentioned questions regarding subjectivity across three sections. I have argued, in the first section that the Enlightenment’s her¬itage is contradictory. On the one hand, the notion of subjectivity has generated a kind of emancipation. On the other hand, the subjectivity has enthroned a conception of reason and of method that can be interpreted as a new form of domination. In the second section, I have argued that Habermas’s answer to the philosophical dilemma of subjectivity is to accept the criticism of subject-centered reason but to find a basis for reason in communicative action. Habermas’s conception of subjectivity has been criticized by the help of some contemporary thinkers, in the third section of this paper, and it has been argued that based on his notions of modernity and subjectivity the marginalized populations of the World- namely the Other- can no longer expect intellectual and ethical support for their plight from Frankfurt and should immigrate to Paris in order to purse the emancipatory aspect of subjectivity.

  2. Pursuing the Emancipatory Purport of Subjectivity from Frankfurt to Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mesbahian

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to investigating the philosophical place of Subjectivity in the contemporary thought. My justification for engaging in further study on this much-discussed concept is that three significant questions concerning subjectivity have remained insufficiently examined: What is the problem of philosophical foundation of modernity from Cartesian Cogito to the Kantian autonomous will and to the Hegelian subjectivity? Is there any possibility to overcome the proposed problem from an internal point of view and from the perspective of Jürgen Habermas? Whether the radical criticism of the Enlightenment idea of an autonomous subject by thinkers like Foucault and Derrida leads to loss of freedom or to the robust notion of freedom being deeply improved? This paper, accordingly, will examine the three above mentioned questions regarding subjectivity across three sections. I have argued, in the first section that the Enlightenment’s heritage is contradictory. On the one hand, the notion of subjectivity has generated a kind of emancipation. On the other hand, the subjectivity has enthroned a conception of reason and of method that can be interpreted as a new form of domination. In the second section, I have argued that Habermas’s answer to the philosophical dilemma of subjectivity is to accept the criticism of subject-centered reason but to find a basis for reason in communicative action. Habermas’s conception of subjectivity has been criticized by the help of some contemporary thinkers, in the third section of this paper, and it has been argued that based on his notions of modernity and subjectivity the marginalized populations of the World- namely the Other- can no longer expect intellectual and ethical support for their plight from Frankfurt and should immigrate to Paris in order to purse the emancipatory aspect of subjectivity.

  3. IMMIGRANT WOMEN: BODY AND SUBJECTIVITY IN MOTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Lázaro-Castellanos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The visibility of women in contemporary migration has broken with the course and social representation of the organization and implementation of international migration projects are predominantly male (Pedone, 2008. The growing presence of women has inspired a large number of studies have focused on immigrant women and their relationship to the labor market, changes in social structure and family and gender systems in both societies of origin and the destination. However, the literature takes as a center for immigrant women and their relationship to emotions and body are relatively recent, the most important contributions are found in disciplines such as anthropology or psychology. The transnational perspective little has reflected on the physical and mental health, emotions and subjectivities of women, resulting from their migration experience. From a socio-anthropological point of view of immigrants and bring their own notions of subjectivity related to gender, race or social class, do not always coincide with those in the host country. We suspect that the same applies to perception, practices and experiences on the body and emotions of women.

  4. Including subjectivity in the teaching of Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Domont de Serpa Junior

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Current psychopathology studies have often been presented in their descriptive dimension. This perspective is important for teaching because it helps the students to recognize and identify the symptomatology of each psychopathology case. However, subjectivity, the experience of suffering and interpersonal aspects are all lost in this perspective. Coming from another psychopathology tradition - existential anthropology - this paper presents practical psychopathology teaching experience which considers such dimensions as being relevant to the understanding of mental suffering. The features and limitations of such traditions are briefly reviewed to support this teaching experience. Two new modalities of practical teaching, used in the discipline of "Special Psychopathology I" offered by the Department of Psychiatry and Forensic Medicine at the medical school of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro for students of psychology, will be presented according to descriptive case study methodology. With these activities we also expect to change the practice of teaching. Traditionally, interviewing of in-patients by a large group of students who observe passively what is happening is the center of this kind of education. We intend to develop a model of teaching which is closer to the proposal of the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform which views mental illness as a complex phenomenon, always involving the relationship that the subject establishes with the world.

  5. "Private Views" Ungaris / Katrin Kivimaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivimaa, Katrin, 1969-

    1999-01-01

    Inglise ja eesti kunstnike ühisprojekt 8. augustini Dunaujvarosi Kaasaegse Kunsti Instituudis Ungaris. Kuraatorid Pam Skelton, Mare Tralla. "Private Views" ülesandeks on keskenduda ruumi mõistele naiskunstniku pilgu läbi

  6. 'Private Views' Ungaris / Katrin Kivimaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivimaa, Katrin, 1969-

    1999-01-01

    Inglise js eesti kunstnike ühisprojekt 8. augustini Dunaujvarosi Kaasaegse Kunsti Instituudis Ungaris. Kuraatorid Pam Skelton, Mare Tralla. 'Private Views' ülesandeks on keskenduda ruumi mõistele naiskunstniku pilgu läbi.

  7. Experts views' on Digital Competence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, José; Stoyanov, Slavi

    2013-01-01

    Janssen, J., & Stoyanov, S. (2012, 20 November). Online Consultation for a Digital Competence Framework: Experts' views on Digital Competence. Workshop presentation at the Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, Seville, Spain.

  8. Exploratory Subject Searching in Library Catalogs: Reclaiming the Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Bauder

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Librarians have had innovative ideas for ways to use subject and classification data to provide an improved online search experience for decades, and yet, after thirty-plus years of improvements in online catalogs, users continue to struggle with narrowing down their subject searches to produce manageable lists containing only relevant results. This article reports on one attempt to rectify that situation by radically re-envisioning the library catalog interface, enabling users to interact with and explore their search results in a profoundly different way. This new interface gives users the option of viewing a graphical overview of their results, grouped by discipline and subject. Results are depicted as a two-level treemap, which gives users a visual representation of the disciplinary perspectives (as represented by the main classes of the Library of Congress Classification and topics (as represented by elements of the Library of Congress Subject Headings included in the results.

  9. Artifact & artifice: views on life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorin, Alan

    2003-01-01

    The views of some artists on what constitutes life are explored, with the aim of challenging those within the artificial life research community to rethink and perhaps expand their own views about the term and its meaningful application. The focus is on the musical works of Steve Reich and the paintings of Wassily Kandinsky. The role of the observer in determining when it is appropriate to label a thing as living is also discussed.

  10. Is Piaget's epistemic subject dead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    Niaz (1990) presents arguments in favor of the retention of Piaget's epistemic subject as a theoretical construct to guide research and practice in science education and psychology. The intent of this article is to point out the weaknesses of those arguments and to suggest that the weight of evidence argues against the existence of the logical thinker postulated by Piaget. Therefore, contrary to Niaz's conclusion that the acceptance of Piaget's epistemic subject will facilitate the development of cognitive theories with greater explanatory power, the conclusion is reached that Piaget's epistemic subject is dead and that continued acceptance of this aspect of Piagetian theory would be counterproductive.

  11. International energy: Subject thesaurus supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This is a supplement to International Energy: Subject Thesaurus (ETDE/PUB--2(Rev.1)), which replaced DOE/TIC-7000--the EDB Subject Thesaurus. This supplement is provided periodically to keep International Energy: Subject Thesaurus recipients up-to-date on valid vocabulary terms (descriptors) used in building and maintaining several international energy information databases. Each issue contains all new terms added since the publication of the Thesaurus. Each supplement is a cumulative listing of the new terms, so that each issue replaces the previous one.

  12. Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor

    2006-03-03

    Forty-three subjects worked in a private office with switchable electrochromic windows, manually-operated Venetian blinds, and dimmable fluorescent lights. The electrochromic window had a visible transmittance range of approximately 3-60%. Analysis of subject responses and physical data collected during the work sessions showed that the electrochromic windows reduced the incidence of glare compared to working under a fixed transmittance (60%) condition. Subjects used the Venetian blinds less often and preferred the variable transmittance condition, but used slightly more electric lighting with it than they did when window transmittance was fixed.

  13. The Romantic subject as an absolutely autonomous individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljana Cunta

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay deals with the Romantic subject as a philosophical and literary category. Recog­ nizing the diversity and complexity of literary production in the Romantic period, this study does not attempt to treat all the many aspects of this subject, but it instead focuses upan a few: the role of nature, the status of imagination, and the subject's relation to the transcendental reality. In its rela­ tion to these issues, the Romantic subject appears as an absolutely autonomous individual, one who finds no satisfaction in claims to transcendental certainty made by any source outside the self, but relies on his immanent powers to achieve the self-awareness that is the only sure access to truth. Special attention is given to the Romantic mystical experience, whereby the subject eames into relation with the transcendental reality. Here what are termed mystical feelings are contrasted with religious feelings proper so as to stress the peculiarities of the Romantic religious experience. In providing a theoretical framewok for the religious experience, we have recourse to Rudolf Otto's definition of the "numinous," which denotes the feeling response of the subject to the divine aspect of reality. In comparison with the true religious experience, the Romantic type is seen as pseudo­- religious, thus confirming the proposed definition of the Romantic subject as a truly autonomous individual. The essay's second part contains an interpretation of selected poems by Samuel Taylor Coleridge with a view of extrapolating from them some aspects of the Romantic subject.

  14. Determining Faculty and Student Views: Applications of Q Methodology in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramlo, Susan

    2012-01-01

    William Stephenson specifically developed Q methodology, or Q, as a means of measuring subjectivity. Q has been used to determine perspectives/views in a wide variety of fields from marketing research to political science but less frequently in education. In higher education, the author has used Q methodology to determine views about a variety of…

  15. An Investigation of Students' Views about Enzymes by Fortune Lines Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özarslan, Murat; Çetin, Gülcan

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate ninth grade students' views about enzymes using fortune lines technique and to obtain the students' views about fortune lines technique. Participants were 38 ninth grade students in a Technique Vocational Girls High School in the city of Kocaeli, Turkey. After instruction of subject of enzymes, the participants were…

  16. Trashing the millenium: Subjectivity and technology in cyberpunk science fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Sey

    1992-05-01

    Full Text Available 'Cyberpunk’ science fiction is a self-proclaimed movement within the genre which began in the 1980s. As the name suggests, it is an extrapolative form of science fiction which combines an almost obsessional interest in machines (particularly information machines with an anarchic, amoral, streetwise sensibility This paper sketches the development of the movement and seeks to make qualified claims for the radical. potential of its fiction. Of crucial importance are the ways in which human subjectivity (viewed in psychoanalytic terms interacts with 'technological subjectivity' in cyberpunk, particularly with regard to implications of these interactions for oedipalization.

  17. The subjectivity of scientists and the Bayesian approach

    CERN Document Server

    Press, James S

    2001-01-01

    Comparing and contrasting the reality of subjectivity in the work of history's great scientists and the modern Bayesian approach to statistical analysisScientists and researchers are taught to analyze their data from an objective point of view, allowing the data to speak for themselves rather than assigning them meaning based on expectations or opinions. But scientists have never behaved fully objectively. Throughout history, some of our greatest scientific minds have relied on intuition, hunches, and personal beliefs to make sense of empirical data-and these subjective influences have often a

  18. The subjective importance of noise spectral content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Donald; Phillips, Jonathan; Denman, Hugh

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents secondary Standard Quality Scale (SQS2) rankings in overall quality JNDs for a subjective analysis of the 3 axes of noise, amplitude, spectral content, and noise type, based on the ISO 20462 softcopy ruler protocol. For the initial pilot study, a Python noise simulation model was created to generate the matrix of noise masks for the softcopy ruler base images with different levels of noise, different low pass filter noise bandwidths and different band pass filter center frequencies, and 3 different types of noise: luma only, chroma only, and luma and chroma combined. Based on the lessons learned, the full subjective experiment, involving 27 observers from Google, NVIDIA and STMicroelectronics was modified to incorporate a wider set of base image scenes, and the removal of band pass filtered noise masks to ease observer fatigue. Good correlation was observed with the Aptina subjective noise study. The absence of tone mapping in the noise simulation model visibly reduced the contrast at high levels of noise, due to the clipping of the high levels of noise near black and white. Under the 34-inch viewing distance, no significant difference was found between the luma only noise masks and the combined luma and chroma noise masks. This was not the intuitive expectation. Two of the base images with large uniform areas, `restaurant' and `no parking', were found to be consistently more sensitive to noise than the texture rich scenes. Two key conclusions are (1) there are fundamentally different sensitivities to noise on a flat patch versus noise in real images and (2) magnification of an image accentuates visual noise in a way that is non-representative of typical noise reduction algorithms generating the same output frequency. Analysis of our experimental noise masks applied to a synthetic Macbeth ColorChecker Chart confirmed the color-dependent nature of the visibility of luma and chroma noise.

  19. Politics of modern muslim subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Dietrich; Petersen, Marie Juul; Sparre, Sara Lei

    Examining modern Muslim identity constructions, the authors introduce a novel analytical framework to Islamic Studies, drawing on theories of successive modernities, sociology of religion, and poststructuralist approaches to modern subjectivity, as well as the results of extensive fieldwork in th...

  20. Politics of modern muslim subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Dietrich; Petersen, Marie Juul; Sparre, Sara Lei

    Examining modern Muslim identity constructions, the authors introduce a novel analytical framework to Islamic Studies, drawing on theories of successive modernities, sociology of religion, and poststructuralist approaches to modern subjectivity, as well as the results of extensive fieldwork...

  1. The Subjective Experience of Punishment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adam J. Kolber

    2009-01-01

    ... laws pay little attention to such differences. I make two central claims: First, a successful justification of punishment must take account of offenders' subjective experiences when assessing punishment severity...

  2. Subjectivity of Time Perception: A Visual Emotional Orchestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eLambrechts

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine how visual emotional content could orchestrate time perception. The experimental design allowed us to single out the share of emotion in the specific processing of content-bearing pictures, i.e. real-life scenes. Two groups of participants had to reproduce the duration (2, 4 or 6s of content-deprived stimuli (grey squares or differentially valenced content-bearing stimuli, which included neutral, pleasant and unpleasant pictures (IAPS. Results showed that the effect of content differed according to duration: for 2s, the reproduced duration was longer for content-bearing than content-deprived stimuli, but the difference between the two types of stimuli decreased as duration increased and was not significant for the longest duration (6s. For 4s, emotional (pleasant and unpleasant stimuli were judged longer than neutral pictures. Furthermore, whatever the duration, the precision of the reproduction was greater for non-emotional than emotional stimuli (pleasant and unpleasant. These results suggest a dissociation within content effect on timing: relative overestimation of all content-bearing pictures limited to short durations (2s, and delayed overestimation of emotional relative to neutral pictures at 4s, as well as a lesser precision in the temporal judgment of emotional pictures whatever the duration. The angle of emotion processing in time perception allows us to discuss a few theoretical models proposed in the timing literature.

  3. Reduction of Subjective and Objective System Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Occam's razor is often used in science to define the minimum criteria to establish a physical or philosophical idea or relationship. Albert Einstein is attributed the saying "everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler". These heuristic ideas are based on a belief that there is a minimum state or set of states for a given system or phenomena. In looking at system complexity, these heuristics point us to an idea that complexity can be reduced to a minimum. How then, do we approach a reduction in complexity? Complexity has been described as a subjective concept and an objective measure of a system. Subjective complexity is based on human cognitive comprehension of the functions and inter relationships of a system. Subjective complexity is defined by the ability to fully comprehend the system. Simplifying complexity, in a subjective sense, is thus gaining a deeper understanding of the system. As Apple's Jonathon Ive has stated," It's not just minimalism or the absence of clutter. It involves digging through the depth of complexity. To be truly simple, you have to go really deep". Simplicity is not the absence of complexity but a deeper understanding of complexity. Subjective complexity, based on this human comprehension, cannot then be discerned from the sociological concept of ignorance. The inability to comprehend a system can be either a lack of knowledge, an inability to understand the intricacies of a system, or both. Reduction in this sense is based purely on a cognitive ability to understand the system and no system then may be truly complex. From this view, education and experience seem to be the keys to reduction or eliminating complexity. Objective complexity, is the measure of the systems functions and interrelationships which exist independent of human comprehension. Jonathon Ive's statement does not say that complexity is removed, only that the complexity is understood. From this standpoint, reduction of complexity can be approached

  4. Habitual emotion regulation strategies and depressive symptoms in healthy subjects predict fMRI brain activation patterns related to major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abler, Birgit; Hofer, Christian; Walter, Henrik; Erk, Susanne; Hoffmann, Holger; Traue, Harald C; Kessler, Henrik

    2010-08-30

    The response-focused emotion regulation style 'Expressive suppression' has been associated with symptoms of lower psychological well-being and increased function magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation of the sublenticular extended amygdala (SLEA) in patients with major depression. Extending prior studies on active emotion regulation, we were interested in effects of habitual emotion regulation on neurobiology. Thirty subjects with either relatively high or low suppression scores as assessed with the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire without symptoms of clinical depression participated in the study. They were instructed to expect and then perceive emotionally unpleasant, pleasant or neutral stimuli selected from the International Affective Picture System that were announced by a congruent cue during fMRI. In the subjects with high suppression scores, decreased activation of the orbital medial prefrontal cortex (oMFC) when expecting negative pictures and increased activation of the SLEA upon presentation of neutral stimuli were found. Subclinical depression ratings independently of suppression scores in the healthy subjects were positively correlated with brain activation in the SLEA when expecting negative pictures. SLEA hyperactivity may represent an emotional responsivity that involves less successful habitual emotion regulation and a tendency to depressed mood in healthy subjects, as shown in patients with major depression. Decreased anticipatory oMFC activation may parallel a lack of antecedent emotion regulation in subjects with high suppression scores, representing another neurobiological predictor of lower mental well-being. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. perception to cadaver dissection and views on anatomy as a subject

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inculcate into students carefulness and empathy, which is important in the subsequent medical practice. Regarding the opinion of respondents on cadaver dissection and human anatomy, we found overwhelmingly favourable opinions, with majority disagreeing to the statement that they dislike anatomy, while 62.7% and ...

  6. Subjective contrast sensitivity function assessment in stereoscopic viewing of Gabor patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousson, Johanna; Haar, Jérémy; Platiša, Ljiljana; Piepers, Bastian; Kimpe, Tom R.; Philips, Wilfried

    2015-03-01

    While 3D displays are entering hospitals, no study to-date has explored the impact of binocular disparity and 3D inclination on contrast sensitivity function (CSF) of humans. However, knowledge of the CSF is crucial to properly calibrate medical, especially diagnostic, displays. This study examined the impact of two parameters on the CSF: (1) the depth plane position (0 mm or 171 mm behind the display plane, respectively DP:0 or DP:171), and (2) the 3D inclination (0° or 45° around the horizontal axis of the considered DP), each of these for seven spatial frequencies ranging from 0.4 to 10 cycles per degree (cpd). The stimuli were computer-generated stereoscopic images of a vertically oriented 2D Gabor patch with a given frequency. They were displayed on a 24" full HD stereoscopic display using a patterned retarder. Nine human observers assessed the CSF in a 3-down 1-up staircase experiment. Medians of the measured contrast sensitivities and results of Friedman tests suggest that the 2D CSF as modeled by Barten1 still holds when a 3D display is used as a 2D visualization system (DP:0). However, the 3D CSF measured at DP:171 was found different from the 2D CSF at frequencies below 1 cpd and above 10 cpd.

  7. The quantitative/qualitative debate and feminist research : a subjective view of objectivity.

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole Westmarland

    2001-01-01

    Forschungsmethoden sind "Verfahren der ... Datenerhebung" (HARDING 1986) und werden in der Regel in entweder qualitative oder quantitative dichotomisiert. Einige Autor(inn)en vertreten die Position, dass Methodologien grundsätzlich geschlechtsspezifisch geprägt sind (OAKLEY 1997; 1998). Dabei sind quantitative Methoden traditionell mit Begriffen wie Positivismus, wissenschaftlich, Statistik und Maskulinität assoziiert, während qualitative Methoden mit Begriffen wie Interpretation, unwissensch...

  8. EXPERIMENTING DIFFERENT WAYS OF BEING IN VIRTUAL REALITY: A POSITIVE VIEW OF CONTEMPORARY SUBJECTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    DANIELA ROMAO BARBUTO DIAS

    2007-01-01

    Desde o fim do século XX, um grande número de publicações vem tratando das mudanças políticas, econômicas, tecnológicas e sociais que estão ocorrendo no mundo. Todas essas macro-mudanças têm gerado também transformações no plano micro (ou subjetivo), o que não passou despercebido por vários autores. A maioria destes, todavia, lança sobre o sujeito contemporâneo um olhar bastante crítico e negativo. Discordando desta postura, neste trabalho procuro ref...

  9. Aging in HIV-Infected Subjects: A New Scenario and a New View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Negredo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of HIV-infected people aged 50 years or older is increasing rapidly; the proportion will increase from 28% to 73% in 2030. In addition, HIV-infected individuals may be more vulnerable to age-related condition. There is growing evidence that the prevalence of comorbidities and other age-related conditions (geriatric syndromes, functional or neurocognitive/mental problems, polypharmacy, and social difficulties is higher in the HIV-infected population than in their uninfected counterparts. However, despite the potential impact of this situation on health care, little information exists about the optimal clinical management of older HIV-infected people. Here we examine the age-related conditions in older HIV-infected persons and address clinical management according to author expertise and published literature. Our aim is to advance the debate about the most appropriate management of this population, including less well-studied aspects, such as frequency of screening for psychological/mental and social and functional capabilities.

  10. Can population topics form the subject of educational action? The politician's point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahran, M

    1993-03-01

    Political action should encompass paying attention to the changing conditions of society and to the improvement of socio economic conditions. Development plans and population programs must be integrated in order for both to achieve their objectives. National population policies linked with socioeconomic development can modify population situations. Population education is a means of dealing with rapid population growth. Cultural, religious, and ideological differences contribute to the variation in the concepts and objectives of population education in developing countries. Egypt has been aware of the population problem since 1952. There have been several stages in the evolution of social changes that have upgraded the status of women, mandated compulsory education, advanced socioeconomic development, and improved demographic conditions. Although population growth puts pressure on educational resources, the better educated person has a greater sense of responsibility for his children. These educated families tend to have fever children and adopt family planning without the need for external motivation. Egypt was one of the first countries to ensure the right to free education at the primary level; currently, basic education is required for 8 years. The national population policy has guaranteed since 1973, in addition to the Constitutional provision, that five-year plans include a national program for education. The objectives were to strengthen democracy, to provide comprehensive development, to become a continuous process, and to be compatible with Arab culture. Specific objectives were to reduce the population growth rate, to achieve a better geographic distribution of population and to improve the quality of life. Educational services are to be upgraded;l and illiteracy eradication is targeted for those aged 15-35 years. The Ministry of Education has a role in providing for the inculcation in the minds of young people that social and economic conditions are related to population issues. The National Population Council with the Ministry of Education develops curriculum; the Ministry also trains teachers for population education and develops home economics curricula on the family, motherhood, and child rearing. The population component for the 1992-97 five-year plan is directed to programs for the promotion of population education both inside and outside schools and to illiteracy.

  11. Ribcage compressibility in living subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M; Hill, S; Scullin, J

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the responses of normal living subjects to the application of anteroposterior forces to the ribcage. Seventeen subjects aged between 25 and 37 years were tested during slow oscillatory loading while breath-holding at the end of a normal expiration. The mean stiffness coefficient was found to be 9.4 N mm(-1) (SD 2.9) and the mean gradient of the force-strain relation was 1888 N (SD 646). Comparison with previously published cadaver data indicates that the embalmed cadaver ribcage stiffness is in the order of three times stiffer than living subjects, while fresh cadavers showed comparable stiffness to living subjects. A number of studies have used models to predict and understand the behaviour of the thoracic spine. Validation of the behaviour of models which include the thoracic spine and ribcage depends on comparison of model response predictions with observed responses of human subjects. The present study provides data on the anteroposterior compressibility of the ribcage of living subjects which may be suitable for use in model validation studies. Copyright © 1994. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Preverbal subjects in null subject languages are not necessarily dislocated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Costa

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent work on null subject languages it has been claimed that preverbal subjects are always (clitic-left dislocated. In this paper, we argue against this claim, on the grounds of empirical evidence from European Portuguese concerning agreement facts, asymmetries between preverbal subjects and clitic-left dislocated XPs with respect to minimality effects, the existence of languages with a mixed system (null expletive subjects and full referential ones, language acquisition data, the behavior of negative QPs and interpretation facts, and propose a non-uniform analysis of preverbal subjects and clitic-left dislocated XPs that derives their topic interpretation from a predication rule stated configurationally (section 2. Our account of the SVO and VSO orders displayed in European Portuguese relies on a specific formulation of the EPP parameter, on the locality constraint Attract Closest X and on the independently motivated claim that V-movement targets T in European Portuguese (section 3. Under our analysis, the computational system generates equally economical SVO and VSO derivations and discourse considerations, at the appropriate interface, rule out the unfelicitous ones.

  13. The Discursive Construction of Power in Teacher Partnerships: Language and Subject Specialists in Mainstream Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creese, Angela

    2002-01-01

    Shows how language and subject teachers in London secondary schools are positioned differently through their discursive performance of pedagogues and knowledge and how members of classroom communities view language and subject teachers as unequal. Data analysis dew on ethnography of communication and semiotic functional approaches to explain the…

  14. Extent of the availability of Africana resources in subject areas in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the extent of the availability of Africana resources in various subject areas in thirteen first and second generation federal university libraries in Nigeria with the view of suggesting ways to improve the development of the collection in the university libraries that are deficient in the subject areas of any of ...

  15. An evolving view of Saturn's dynamic rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzi, J N; Burns, J A; Charnoz, S; Clark, R N; Colwell, J E; Dones, L; Esposito, L W; Filacchione, G; French, R G; Hedman, M M; Kempf, S; Marouf, E A; Murray, C D; Nicholson, P D; Porco, C C; Schmidt, J; Showalter, M R; Spilker, L J; Spitale, J N; Srama, R; Sremcević, M; Tiscareno, M S; Weiss, J

    2010-03-19

    We review our understanding of Saturn's rings after nearly 6 years of observations by the Cassini spacecraft. Saturn's rings are composed mostly of water ice but also contain an undetermined reddish contaminant. The rings exhibit a range of structure across many spatial scales; some of this involves the interplay of the fluid nature and the self-gravity of innumerable orbiting centimeter- to meter-sized particles, and the effects of several peripheral and embedded moonlets, but much remains unexplained. A few aspects of ring structure change on time scales as short as days. It remains unclear whether the vigorous evolutionary processes to which the rings are subject imply a much younger age than that of the solar system. Processes on view at Saturn have parallels in circumstellar disks.

  16. Evaluation of a Passive Nature Viewing Program Set to Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadman, Sally J

    2014-09-01

    Research has revealed that passive nature viewing (viewing nature scenes without actually being in nature) has many health benefits but little is known about the best method of offering this complementary modality. The purpose of this pilot program was to evaluate the impact of a passive nature viewing program set to music on stress reduction in adults living in the community. A pre- and postsurvey design along with weekly recordings of stress and relaxation levels were used to evaluate the effect of this passive nature viewing program on stress reduction. Participants watched one of three preselected nature scenes for 5 minutes a day over 1 month and rated their stress and relaxation levels weekly on a 100-mm Visual Analogue Scale before and after viewing the nature DVD. Quantitative analysis were not performed because of the less number of subjects (n = 10) completing the study. Qualitative analysis found five key categories that have an impact on program use: (a) technology, (b) personal preferences, (c) time, (d) immersion, and (e) use of the program. Holistic nurses may consider integrating patient preferences and immersion strategies in the design of future passive nature viewing programs to reduce attrition and improve success. © The Author(s) 2013.

  17. Exploded views for volume data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Stefan; Gröiller, M Eduard

    2006-01-01

    Exploded views are an illustration technique where an object is partitioned into several segments. These segments are displaced to reveal otherwise hidden detail. In this paper we apply the concept of exploded views to volumetric data in order to solve the general problem of occlusion. In many cases an object of interest is occluded by other structures. While transparency or cutaways can be used to reveal a focus object, these techniques remove parts of the context information. Exploded views, on the other hand, do not suffer from this drawback. Our approach employs a force-based model: the volume is divided into a part configuration controlled by a number of forces and constraints. The focus object exerts an explosion force causing the parts to arrange according to the given constraints. We show that this novel and flexible approach allows for a wide variety of explosion-based visualizations including view-dependent explosions. Furthermore, we present a high-quality GPU-based volume ray casting algorithm for exploded views which allows rendering and interaction at several frames per second.

  18. Occlusion-Aware View Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Konrad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available View interpolation is an essential step in content preparation for multiview 3D displays, free-viewpoint video, and multiview image/video compression. It is performed by establishing a correspondence among views, followed by interpolation using the corresponding intensities. However, occlusions pose a significant challenge, especially if few input images are available. In this paper, we identify challenges related to disparity estimation and view interpolation in presence of occlusions. We then propose an occlusion-aware intermediate view interpolation algorithm that uses four input images to handle the disappearing areas. The algorithm consists of three steps. First, all pixels in view to be computed are classified in terms of their visibility in the input images. Then, disparity for each pixel is estimated from different image pairs depending on the computed visibility map. Finally, luminance/color of each pixel is adaptively interpolated from an image pair selected by its visibility label. Extensive experimental results show striking improvements in interpolated image quality over occlusion-unaware interpolation from two images and very significant gains over occlusion-aware spline-based reconstruction from four images, both on synthetic and real images. Although improvements are obvious only in the vicinity of object boundaries, this should be useful in high-quality 3D applications, such as digital 3D cinema and ultra-high resolution multiview autostereoscopic displays, where distortions at depth discontinuities are highly objectionable, especially if they vary with viewpoint change.

  19. Occlusion-Aware View Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ince Serdar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract View interpolation is an essential step in content preparation for multiview 3D displays, free-viewpoint video, and multiview image/video compression. It is performed by establishing a correspondence among views, followed by interpolation using the corresponding intensities. However, occlusions pose a significant challenge, especially if few input images are available. In this paper, we identify challenges related to disparity estimation and view interpolation in presence of occlusions. We then propose an occlusion-aware intermediate view interpolation algorithm that uses four input images to handle the disappearing areas. The algorithm consists of three steps. First, all pixels in view to be computed are classified in terms of their visibility in the input images. Then, disparity for each pixel is estimated from different image pairs depending on the computed visibility map. Finally, luminance/color of each pixel is adaptively interpolated from an image pair selected by its visibility label. Extensive experimental results show striking improvements in interpolated image quality over occlusion-unaware interpolation from two images and very significant gains over occlusion-aware spline-based reconstruction from four images, both on synthetic and real images. Although improvements are obvious only in the vicinity of object boundaries, this should be useful in high-quality 3D applications, such as digital 3D cinema and ultra-high resolution multiview autostereoscopic displays, where distortions at depth discontinuities are highly objectionable, especially if they vary with viewpoint change.

  20. Subjectivity and severe psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, John

    2011-01-01

    To have a complete human science in the mental health field it is essential to give adequate attention to both the objective and the subjective data related to people with psychiatric disorders. The tendency in the past has been to ignore or discount one or the other of these data sources. Subjective data are particularly neglected, sometimes considered (only) part of the "art" of medicine since the usual methodologies of the physical sciences in themselves are not adequate to reflect the nature, elusiveness, and complexity of human subjective experience. The complete experience of hallucinated voices, for instance, often includes not only the voices themselves but also terrible anguish and terrifying inability to concentrate. But even such descriptors fall unnecessarily short of reflecting the data of the experience, thus leaving research, theory, and treatment with incomplete information. To represent adequately the subjective data it is essential to recognize that besides the usual discursive knowledge and methods of traditional physical science, a second kind of knowledge and method is required to reflect the depth of human experience. To accomplish this, we must employ approaches to narrative and the arts that are uniquely capable of capturing the nature of these experiences. Only by attending seriously in our research, training, theory, and practice to the unique nature of subjective data is it possible to have a true human science for our field.

  1. [Reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grein, H-J; Schmidt, O; Ritsche, A

    2014-11-01

    Reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement is limited by various factors. The main factors affecting reproducibility include the characteristics of the measurement method and of the subject and the examiner. This article presents the results of a study on this topic, focusing on the reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement in healthy eyes. The results of previous studies are not all presented in the same way by the respective authors and cannot be fully standardized without consulting the original scientific data. To the extent that they are comparable, the results of our study largely correspond largely with those of previous investigations: During repeated subjective refraction measurement, 95% of the deviation from the mean value was approximately ±0.2 D to ±0.65 D for the spherical equivalent and cylindrical power. The reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement in healthy eyes is limited, even under ideal conditions. Correct assessment of refraction results is only feasible after identifying individual variability. Several measurements are required. Refraction cannot be measured without a tolerance range. The English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink (under supplemental).

  2. subjective approach to subjective approach to human physiological

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    This study was based on the subjective responses of the masons that are performing physical activity of blocklaying in the outdoor condition in outdoor condition in outdoor condition in Ogun State Nigeria. A total of 204 masons were investigated on the average of seventeen. Ogun State Nigeria. A total of 204 masons were ...

  3. Subject to Form: Research Interviews, Performative Subjectivity, Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigianides, Sophia Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, I analyze teacher, literacy coach and researcher subjectivities in a five-year study of on-site professional development with middle-grade Language Arts teachers in a school designated by its district and state as severely underperforming. Interested in the role of research interviews as both research method and cultural…

  4. Subjective quality of life and emotional pain among subjects with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Heart failure (HF) is a common pathology worldwide. Associated emotional pain is an important risk factor of increased morbidity and secondary psychopathology. Methods: Subjects in stable state of HF attending the cardiology clinic of Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH) were recruited into the study.

  5. Neural correlates of viewing paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vartanian, Oshin; Skov, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Many studies involving functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have exposed participants to paintings under varying task demands. To isolate neural systems that are activated reliably across fMRI studies in response to viewing paintings regardless of variation in task demands, a quantitative...... meta-analysis of fifteen experiments using the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) method was conducted. As predicted, viewing paintings was correlated with activation in a distributed system including the occipital lobes, temporal lobe structures in the ventral stream involved in object (fusiform...... gyrus) and scene (parahippocampal gyrus) perception, and the anterior insula-a key structure in experience of emotion. In addition, we also observed activation in the posterior cingulate cortex bilaterally-part of the brain's default network. These results suggest that viewing paintings engages not only...

  6. Eye movements when viewing advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Emily; Leinenger, Mallorie; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads), before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet). Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research. PMID:24672500

  7. Eye movements when viewing advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Emily; Leinenger, Mallorie; Rayner, Keith

    2014-01-01

    In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads), before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet). Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research.

  8. Eye Movements When Viewing Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily eHiggins

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads, before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet. Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research.

  9. In search of the true amok: amok as viewed with the Malay culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, J E; Tan, E K

    1976-11-01

    In an attempt to discover how the phenomenon of amok is viewed within its indigenous culture, the authors studied and interviewed 21 subjects in West Malaysia who were labeled as amok. This investigation showed that both the subjects and the Malay culture view amok as psychopathology, that amok cases are disposed of in line with this view, and that the behavior of the amok person conforms to social expectations of the phenomenon. Despite cultural proscriptions, however, the act is purposive and motivated and is subtly sanctioned by Malay society.

  10. Energy data base: subject thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redford, J.S. (ed.)

    1981-10-01

    The technical staff of the DOE Technical Information Center, during its subject indexing activities, develops and structures a vocabulary that allows consistent machine storage and retrieval of information necessary to the accomplishment of the DOE mission. This thesaurus incorporates that structured vocabulary. The terminology of this thesaurus is used for the subject control of information announced in DOE Energy Research Abstracts, Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis, and various update journals and bulletins in specialized areas. This terminology also facilitates subject searching of the DOE Energy Data Base on the DOE/RECON on-line retrieval system and on other commercial retrieval systems. The rapid expansion of the DOE's activities will result in a commitant thesaurus expansion as information relating to new activities is indexed. Only the terms used in the indexing of documents at the Technical Information Center to date are included. (JSR)

  11. Students' Views on Contextual Vocabulary Teaching: A Constructivist View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Bahadir Cahit

    2016-01-01

    The current study is a quantitative research that aims to throw light on the place of students' views on contextual vocabulary teaching in conformity with Constructivism (CVTC) in the field of foreign language teaching. Hence, the study investigates whether any significant correlation exists between the fourth year university students' attitudes…

  12. Sublime Views and Beautiful Explanations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barry, Daved; Meisiek, Stefan; Hatch, Mary Jo

    To create a generative theory that provides beautiful explanations and sublime views requires both a crafts and an art approach to scientific theorizing. The search for generativity leads scholars to perform various theorizing moves between the confines of simple, yet eloquent beauty, and the ran......To create a generative theory that provides beautiful explanations and sublime views requires both a crafts and an art approach to scientific theorizing. The search for generativity leads scholars to perform various theorizing moves between the confines of simple, yet eloquent beauty...

  13. Student feedback on a pioneer subject on leadership and intrapersonal development in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Yu, Lu; Xie, Qiu Zhi

    2017-02-01

    To promote leadership and intrapersonal development in university students, a subject entitled "Tomorrow's Leaders" was developed and offered at The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. To assess the perceived effectiveness of this subject, 647 students completed the student feedback questionnaire (SFQ). Results showed that the feedback questionnaire had very good psychometric properties, including internal consistency reliability and construct validity. Regarding students' views of the subject, results showed that students generally had good evaluation of the content of the subject, teaching quality, and perceived benefits of the subject. The present findings have implications for the teaching of general education regarding leadership development.

  14. Difficulties in learning and teaching statistics: teacher views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koparan, Timur

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to define teacher views about the difficulties in learning and teaching middle school statistics subjects. To serve this aim, a number of interviews were conducted with 10 middle school maths teachers in 2011-2012 school year in the province of Trabzon. Of the qualitative descriptive research methods, the semi-structured interview technique was applied in the research. In accordance with the aim, teacher opinions about the statistics subjects were examined and analysed. Similar responses from the teachers were grouped and evaluated. The teachers stated that it was positive that middle school statistics subjects were taught gradually in every grade but some difficulties were experienced in the teaching of this subject. The findings are presented in eight themes which are context, sample, data representation, central tendency and dispersion measure, probability, variance, and other difficulties.

  15. View

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof.Thoithi

    Trends of Acute Poisoning Cases Occurring at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya .... 0-5 6-13 14-20 21-30 31-40 41-50 > 50 Unspecified Total. %. Kerosene. 64. 1. 1. 6. 0. 0. 0. 0. 72. 66.0. Corrosives: acids and alkalis. 4. 0. 1. 2. 2. 0. 0. 2. 11. 10.1. Carbon monoxide. 0. 0 ... The higher incidence may be because.

  16. Anglo-American views of Gavrilo Princip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovich Slobodan G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with Western (Anglo-American views on the Sarajevo assassination/attentat and Gavrilo Princip. Articles on the assassination and Princip in two leading quality dailies (The Times and The New York Times have particularly been analysed as well as the views of leading historians and journalists who covered the subject including: R. G. D. Laffan, R. W. Seton-Watson, Winston Churchill, Sidney Fay, Bernadotte Schmitt, Rebecca West, A. J. P. Taylor, Vladimir Dedijer, Christopher Clark and Tim Butcher. In the West, the original general condemnation of the assassination and its main culprits was challenged when Rebecca West published her famous travelogue on Yugoslavia in 1941. Another Brit, the remarkable historian A. J. P. Taylor, had a much more positive view on the Sarajevo conspirators and blamed Germany and Austria-Hungary for the outbreak of the Great War. A turning point in Anglo-American perceptions was the publication of Vladimir Dedijer’s monumental book The Road to Sarajevo (1966, which humanised the main conspirators, a process initiated by R. West. Dedijer’s book was translated from English into all major Western languages and had an immediate impact on the understanding of the Sarajevo assassination. The rise of national antagonisms in Bosnia gradually alienated Princip from Bosnian Muslims and Croats, a process that began in the 1980s and was completed during the wars of the Yugoslav succession. Although all available sources clearly show that Princip, an ethnic Serb, gradually developed a broader Serbo-Croat and Yugoslav identity, he was ethnified and seen exclusively as a Serb by Bosnian Croats and Bosniaks and Western journalists in the 1990s. In the past century imagining Princip in Serbia and the West involved a whole spectrum of views. In interwar Anglo-American perceptions he was a fanatic and lunatic. He became humanised by Rebecca West (1941, A. J. P. Taylor showed understanding for his act (1956, he was fully

  17. Youth Homelessness and Individualised Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, David

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to understandings of youth homelessness and subjectivity by analysing identity construction in terms of young people's negotiation of the structural and institutional environment of youth homelessness. I suggest that while existing literature on this topic concentrates mainly on micro-social encounters, the…

  18. The Societal Nature of Subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2013-01-01

    The HSR Focus presents a psycho-societal approach to qualitative empirical research in several areas of everyday social life. It is an approach which integrates a theory of subjectivity and an interpretation methodology which integrates hermeneutic experiences from text analysis and psychoanalysis...

  19. Student Pressure Subject of Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses student pressure as a subject of debate. The latest debate about schoolwork is being fueled by three recent books: "The Homework Myth" by Alfie Kohn, "The Case Against Homework" by Sara Bennett and Nancy Kalish, and "The Overachievers", by Alexandra Robbins, which depicts overextended high…

  20. Sexuality: Still a Taboo Subject?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguay, Lucille

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the fact that we are all bombarded with sexual messages every day, the subject of relationship and sexuality education for students with intellectual and developmental disabilities continues to be a taboo one. Generally speaking, the author has found it is not the parents of those young people who are reluctant to have the discussion,…

  1. Changes in Dictionary Subject Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2003-01-01

    The general content of the three editions of the Duden dictionary has undergone few changes. The most substantial changes are the addition of syllabification and the deletion of antonomy in respect of lemmata in the second and third editions. The concept of dictionary subject matter is questioned...

  2. The Subjective Dimension of Nazism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Föllmer, M.

    2013-01-01

    The present historiographical review discusses the subjective dimension of Nazism, an ideology and regime that needed translation into self-definitions, gender roles, and bodily practices to implant itself in German society and mobilize it for racial war. These studies include biographies of some of

  3. Russia needs the Subjective Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Z. Gontcharov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the comparative analysis of different kinds of philosophic thinking, the paper reveals the advantages of subjective philosophy – the most adequate universal essentiality of socialized human being, opening the prospects for Russia as the creative society of cultural spontaneous activity. Objective principle of thinking is limited by the logic of outward definition. According to the above logic, people are regarded as tiny parts of social mechanism, the objects of manipulation. Separating action from spontaneous activity, object changes from self-alteration of human subject, executive functions from norm-creating ones brings about alienated practices and such social situation that makes individuals perceive their own existence as alien non- existence, or opposing existence.Subjectivity is a form of social activity regarding individuals and groups according to their ability in self-definition, self-organizing, self-control, norm-creating, as well as their actual rights and duties in social spheres of needs and objectives, and their feasible power over forces of nature and society. Subjective philosophy perceives the material production as the means for cultivating wholesome and spontaneously active individuals due to educational fundamentality and cultural prosperity. Accordingly, accumulation of capital turns into accumulation of culture and personal creativity growth. The results of the undertaken analysis and its conclusions can be implemented in developing creative anthropological bases for philosophy, pedagogy, psychology, economics, political science, as well as the relating discipline teaching. 

  4. Subjectivity, individuality and singularity in children: a socially constituted subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Del Ré

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Considering the hypothesis that Bakhtin and his Circle‟s reflections can help us think about issues involving the field of Language Acquisition, in addition to the fact that there are only a few works developed within this perspective in Brazil, in this article, we intend to discuss the notions of “subject”, “subjectivity”,“individuality” and “singularity”, drawing on Bakhtin‟s theory. Thus, in order to make this discussion clearer, we bring data from the speech of young children, from 1.8 to 3 years old, who were filmed in natural contexts interacting with their parents and relatives. From these data, we could verify, among other things, that children, as individuals who constitute themselves as subjects in and throughlanguage, bring marks to their discourse, revealing their subjectivity (through lexical, morphological, syntactic or genre choices.

  5. Viewing Pornography and Sex Guilt: The Priggish, the Prudent, and the Profligate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Robert E.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Male undergraduates (N=35) were divided into three groups on the basis of scores on Mosher's Forced-Choice Guilt Inventory. The amount of time subjects spent viewing and rating photographic slides of varying erotic content was unobtrusively recorded. Results are consistent with a predicted defensive response for high sex guilt subjects. (Author)

  6. Chemistry Teachers' Views of Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkanat, Çigdem; Gökdere, Murat

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine chemistry teachers' views of creativity. In this study, phenomenology method, one of the qualitative research patterns, was used. The participants of this study were 13 chemistry teachers working in Amasya. A semi-structured interview form was used for data collection. By using NVivo 9 qualitative…

  7. Digital Television: A Personal View

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Frank

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the author's personal view of interactive digital television and describes how he used digital television to learn. The author describes how he was simulating digital TV while watching analogue TV. The author stresses that interactive digital television has great potential for education and training in the twenty first…

  8. Ways of Viewing Pictorial Plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijntjes, M.W.A.

    2017-01-01

    The plastic effect is historically used to denote various forms of stereopsis. The vivid impression of depth often associated with binocular stereopsis can also be achieved in other ways, for example, using a synopter. Accounts of this go back over a hundred years. These ways of viewing all aim

  9. Hitler's Reich Viewed from 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, James E.

    1971-01-01

    Viewed within a context of Orwell's 1984," the author's visit to East Germany, and particularly to the Museum for German History, revealed the efforts of an authoritarian regime to manipulate the thoughts and directions of that society to its own advantage. (JB)

  10. Side-View Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santemiz, P.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; van den Biggelaar, Olivier

    As a widely used biometrics, face recognition has many advantages such as being non-intrusive, natural and passive. On the other hand, in real-life scenarios with uncontrolled environment, pose variation up to side-view positions makes face recognition a challenging work. In this paper we discuss

  11. Students' Views on the Riots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Tom; Stevenson, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Reflecting two students views on this summers riots, Tom Young locates the riots as a symptom of 20th century consumerism. Tracing the historical development of public relations and advertising with the rise of one of the 20th century's least known and most influential figures "Eddy Bernays", he asks the question--who's really to blame…

  12. COMPETITION: CLASSICAL VERSUS NEOCLASSICAL VIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Cornelia Sandu

    2013-01-01

    Competition is an important element from economical theory. Over time it has experienced several definitions and classifications much of them being contradictory. In this paper I will make a parallel between classical and neoclassical point of view according to competition. Keywords. Competition; neoclassical theory; classical theory; monopolistic; perfect competition.

  13. Subjective duration distortions mirror neural repetition suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani Pariyadath

    Full Text Available Subjective duration is strongly influenced by repetition and novelty, such that an oddball stimulus in a stream of repeated stimuli appears to last longer in duration in comparison. We hypothesize that this duration illusion, called the temporal oddball effect, is a result of the difference in expectation between the oddball and the repeated stimuli. Specifically, we conjecture that the repeated stimuli contract in duration as a result of increased predictability; these duration contractions, we suggest, result from decreased neural response amplitude with repetition, known as repetition suppression.Participants viewed trials consisting of lines presented at a particular orientation (standard stimuli followed by a line presented at a different orientation (oddball stimulus. We found that the size of the oddball effect correlates with the number of repetitions of the standard stimulus as well as the amount of deviance from the oddball stimulus; both of these results are consistent with a repetition suppression hypothesis. Further, we find that the temporal oddball effect is sensitive to experimental context--that is, the size of the oddball effect for a particular experimental trial is influenced by the range of duration distortions seen in preceding trials.Our data suggest that the repetition-related duration contractions causing the oddball effect are a result of neural repetition suppression. More generally, subjective duration may reflect the prediction error associated with a stimulus and, consequently, the efficiency of encoding that stimulus. Additionally, we emphasize that experimental context effects need to be taken into consideration when designing duration-related tasks.

  14. Working Memory Processing In Normal Subjects and Subjects with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, S. M.; Lajiness-O'Neill, R.; Weiland, B. J.; Mason, K.; Tepley, N.

    2004-10-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to determine the neuroanatomical location of working memory (WM) processes. Differences between subjects with dyslexia (SD; n=5) and normal readers (NR; n=5) were studied during two WM tasks. A spatial WM task (SMW) consisted of blocks visually presented in one of 12 positions for 2 s each. Subjects were to determine if the current position matched the position presented 2 slides earlier (N-Back Test). The verbal task (VMW) consisted of presentation of a single letter. The location of cortical activity during SWM in NR (determined with MR-FOCUSS analysis) was in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) and right angular gyrus (AG). Similar activation was seen in SD with a slight delay of approximately 20 ms. During VWM activity was seen in LEFT STG and LEFT AG in NR. In contrast for SD, activation was in the RIGHT STG and RIGHT AG. This study demonstrates the possibility to differentiate WM processing in subjects with and without learning disorders.

  15. User experience while viewing stereoscopic 3D television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Jenny C A; Bohr, Iwo

    2014-01-01

    3D display technologies have been linked to visual discomfort and fatigue. In a lab-based study with a between-subjects design, 433 viewers aged from 4 to 82 years watched the same movie in either 2D or stereo 3D (S3D), and subjectively reported on a range of aspects of their viewing experience. Our results suggest that a minority of viewers, around 14%, experience adverse effects due to viewing S3D, mainly headache and eyestrain. A control experiment where participants viewed 2D content through 3D glasses suggests that around 8% may report adverse effects which are not due directly to viewing S3D, but instead are due to the glasses or to negative preconceptions about S3D (the 'nocebo effect'). Women were slightly more likely than men to report adverse effects with S3D. We could not detect any link between pre-existing eye conditions or low stereoacuity and the likelihood of experiencing adverse effects with S3D.

  16. Entrepreneurship, Subjectivism, and the Resource-based View

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.; Kor, Yasemin Y.

    This paper maintains that the consistent application of subjectivism helps to reconcile contemporary entrepreneurship theory with strategic management research in general, and the resource−based view in particular. The paper synthesizes theoretical insights from Austrian economics and Penrose......'s (1959) resources approach, arguing that entrepreneurship is inherently subjective and firm specific. This new synthesis describes how entrepreneurship is manifested in teams, and is driven by both heterogeneity of managerial mental models and shared team experiences....

  17. Questionnaire Survey of Physical Therapy Students' View of General Education

    OpenAIRE

    日高, 正巳; 嶋田, 智明; 武政, 誠一; 篠原, 英記; 米田, 稔彦; 講武, 芳英; 松尾, 智; 松原, 貴子; 三木, 明徳; 平田, 総一郎; 石川, 斉

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze students' view of the relationship between general education and physical therapy education in the university. Fifty-six physical therapy students administered the questionnaire in this survey and completed it on their own. Nineteen subjects selected in general education were categorized into seven grades, indicating Grade 0 (no relation to physical therapy education) to Grade 6 (closest relation). It was characteristic that the students looked on the ...

  18. Predicting User Views in Online News

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardt, Daniel; Rambow, Owen

    2017-01-01

    We analyze user viewing behavior on anonline news site. We collect data from64,000 news articles, and use text featuresto predict frequency of user views.We compare predictiveness of the headlineand “teaser” (viewed before clicking) andthe body (viewed after clicking). Both arepredictive of click...

  19. Thyroid function and bone mineral density among Indian subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman K Marwaha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Thyroid hormones affect bone remodeling in patients with thyroid disease by acting directly or indirectly on bone cells. In view of limited information on correlation of thyroid function with bone mineral density (BMD in euthyroid subjects, we undertook this study to evaluate the correlation between thyroid function with BMD in subjects with normal thyroid function and subclinical hypothyroidism. Material and Methods : A total of 1290 subjects included in this cross sectional study, were divided in Group-1 with normal thyroid function and Group-2 with subclinical hypothyroidism. Fasting blood samples were drawn for the estimation of serum 25(OHD, intact parathyroid hormone, total and ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase. BMD at lumbar spine, femur, and forearm was measured. Results : BMD at all sites (radius, femur, and spine were comparable in both groups. There was no difference in BMD when subjects were divided in tertiles of TSH in either group. In group-1, FT4 and TSH were positively associated with BMD at 33% radius whereas FT3 was negatively associated with BMD at femoral neck in multiple regression analysis after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, 25(OHD and PTH levels. In group-2, there was no association observed between TSH and BMD at any site. Amongst all study subjects FT4 and FT3 were positively correlated with BMD at lumbar spine and radius respectively among all subjects. Conclusion: TSH does not affect BMD in euthyroid subjects and subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism. Thyroid hormones appear to have more pronounced positive effect on cortical than trabecular bone in euthyroid subjects.

  20. Patterns of pulmonary perfusion scans in normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, J.M.; Moser, K.M.; Hartman, M.T.; Ashburn, W.L.

    1981-01-01

    A vital factor conditioning the usage of the pulmonary perfusion (Q) scan in the evaluation of patients suspected of pulmonary embolism is the prevalence of abnormal Q scans in subjects free of cardiopulmonary disease. Because this prevalence has not been well defined, we performed Q scans in 80 nonsmoking subjects 18 to 29 yr of age having no known active cardiopulmonary disease. Each subject underwent a history, physical examination, electrocardiogram, spirometry, and PA chest roentgenogram, followed by a 6-view Q scan. Two subjects in whom a Q defect was suspected underwent a /sup 133/Xe equilibrium-washout ventilation (V) scan. All Q scans were interpreted blindly and independently by 2 experienced readers. Seventy-nine of the 80 Q scans were read as normal. No subject demonstrated a lobar or segmental defect. One of the 80 subjects, who had a mild pectus excavatum, had a left upper lobe subsegmental defect, which was not seen on the V scan. Based on the statistical analysis of these data, no more than 3.68% of normal nonsmoking persons in this age group may have a lobar or segmental Q scan defect and no more than 6.77% may have a subsegmental defect (with 95% confidence). Therefore, our study indicated that Q scan defects, particularly lobar or segmental, are rarely present among normal nonsmokers in this age group.

  1. Updating Recursive XML Views of Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Byron; Cong, Gao; Fan, Wenfei

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the view update problem for XML views published from relational data. We consider XML views defined in terms of mappings directed by possibly recursive DTDs compressed into DAGs and stored in relations. We provide new techniques to efficiently support XML view updates...... specified in terms of XPath expressions with recursion and complex filters. The interaction between XPath recursion and DAG compression of XML views makes the analysis of the XML view update problem rather intriguing. Furthermore, many issues are still open even for relational view updates, and need...... to be explored. In response to these, on the XML side, we revise the notion of side effects and update semantics based on the semantics of XML views, and present effecient algorithms to translate XML updates to relational view updates. On the relational side, we propose a mild condition on SPJ views, and show...

  2. Subject-verb number (disagreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Isac

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses cases of number mismatches between subjects and verbs. The main proposal is that subject-verb agreement is not in number but in a different feature, that we call Cardinality. Cardinality is a feature of DPs that is computed on the basis of number features and collectivity features carried by various heads in the DP. The “computation” of the Cardinality feature proceeds internal to the feature matrix of one lexical item - the D. The values of the number and collectivity features carried by various heads in the DP are transferred to the D by means of a feature checking mechanism and the value of the Cardinality feature is then derived from these.

  3. Objective and subjective sleep quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Jennum, Poul Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    and subjective sleep quality during benzodiazepine discontinuation and whether sleep variables were associated with benzodiazepine withdrawal. Eligible patients included adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder and long-term use of benzodiazepines in combination...... with antipsychotics. All participants gradually tapered the use of benzodiazepines after randomization to add-on treatment with melatonin versus placebo. Here we report a subsample of 23 patients undergoing sleep recordings (one-night polysomnography) and 55 patients participating in subjective sleep quality ratings....... Melatonin had no effect on objective sleep efficiency, but significantly improved self-reported sleep quality. Reduced benzodiazepine dosage at the 24-week follow-up was associated with a significantly decreased proportion of stage 2 sleep. These results indicate that prolonged-release melatonin has some...

  4. Energy Data Base: Subject Thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raridon, M.H. (ed.)

    1987-09-01

    This seventh edition of the subject thesaurus contains the standard vocabulary of indexing terms (descriptors) developed and structured by the technical staff of the Office of Scientific and Technical Information as part of its subject indexing activities for building and maintaining the Energy Data Base (EDB) and other energy information data bases for the Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this thesaurus is to enhance the efficiency of information retrieval from these data bases. This structured vocabulary reflects the scope of DOE's research, development, and technological programs and encompasses terminology derived not only from the basic sciences for also from areas of energy resources, conservation, safety, environmental impact, and regulation. There are 21,080 valid descriptors and 5683 forbidden terms in this edition of the Thesaurus. These descriptors are listed alphabetically.

  5. QlikView Server and Publisher

    CERN Document Server

    Redmond, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This is a comprehensive guide with a step-by-step approach that enables you to host and manage servers using QlikView Server and QlikView Publisher.If you are a server administrator wanting to learn about how to deploy QlikView Server for server management,analysis and testing, and QlikView Publisher for publishing of business content then this is the perfect book for you. No prior experience with QlikView is expected.

  6. Yoruba world view and the nature of psychotic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olugbile, O; Zachariah, M P; Kuyinu, A; Coker, A; Ojo, O; Isichei, B

    2009-05-01

    The Yoruba are an ethnic group in southern Nigeria. It is said that their world view centers around a continuous battle between forces of good and evil. Adverse events such as illness are due to the malevolence of enemies, using metaphysical means. Remedy often involves corrective metaphysical intervention, either exclusively or in addition to other methods, such as 'western Medicine'. This 'rule' is said to fit mental illness more than any other type of illness, although there is a lack of empirical data on the subject. This study is aimed at identifying elements of a Yoruba world view, and factors relevant to the perception and treatment of psychotic illness. 500 Yorubas in Lagos were randomly sampled (with a questionnaire), and 100 'home video' films were analyzed. Data were analyzed for: elements of world view; elements that pertain to illness in general; elements that pertain to psychotic illness; how such illness is to be treated. The world view has a significant influence on perception of psychotic illness. It is necessary to understand a people's world view in order to understand (and influence) attitudes towards psychotic illness in themselves and other people.

  7. Objective and subjective personality characteristics of medical students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meit, Heather Anderson

    The present study viewed personality characteristics of medical students using both objective (i.e., a valid and reliable psychological instrument) and subjective methods (i.e., medical students' self-ratings of how they viewed themselves and how they believed others viewed them). The 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF, 5th Edition) and a researcher developed instrument, the Subjective Rating Form (SRF), were utilized in this study. Significant differences were found in 16PF scores from entry to medical school (Time 1) to exit from medical school (Time 2). Significant differences were also observed when SRF scores were compared between Self at Time 1 (retrospectively), Self at Time 2, and self-ratings made from the perspective of Other. Most striking were differences between 16PF and SRF scores when compared with each other, at both Time 1 and Time 2. This last group of findings translated into differences between the actual and perceived self (i.e., real vs. ideal). The implications of such differences are discussed.

  8. Backward disequilibrium in elderly subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Manckoundia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Manckoundia1,2, France Mourey1,2, Dominic Pérennou2,3, Pierre Pfitzenmeyer1,21Department of Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, University Hospital, Dijon, France; 2INSERM/ERIT-M 0207 Motricity-Plasticity University of Burgundy, Dijon, France; 3Department of Neurological Rehabilitation, University Hospital, Dijon, FranceAbstract: Backward disequilibrium is observed frequently in daily clinical practice. However, there are no epidemiological data concerning this postural disorder. Defined by a posterior position of the centre of mass with respect to the base of support, backward disequilibrium is abnormal postural behavior, usually characterized by a posterior trunk tilt in standing and sitting positions, which predisposes subjects to backward falls. Many afflictions whether they are somatic (degenerative, ischemic and traumatic brain lesions, psychosomatic (psychomotor disadaptation syndrome, confinement to bed, nonuse situations or psychological (depression can cause backward disequilibrium. A vicious circle of falls, and loss of autonomy can arise and this is the main consequence of backward disequilibrium. Thus, in this paper, we review backward disequilibrium in elderly subjects with regard to the causes, consequences, assessment, and management.Keywords: backward disequilibrium, balance, elderly subject, falls, posture

  9. Views of wireless network systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, William Frederick; Duggan, David Patrick

    2003-10-01

    Wireless networking is becoming a common element of industrial, corporate, and home networks. Commercial wireless network systems have become reliable, while the cost of these solutions has become more affordable than equivalent wired network solutions. The security risks of wireless systems are higher than wired and have not been studied in depth. This report starts to bring together information on wireless architectures and their connection to wired networks. We detail information contained on the many different views of a wireless network system. The method of using multiple views of a system to assist in the determination of vulnerabilities comes from the Information Design Assurance Red Team (IDART{trademark}) Methodology of system analysis developed at Sandia National Laboratories.

  10. Views of the solar system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, C.

    1995-02-01

    Views of the Solar System has been created as an educational tour of the solar system. It contains images and information about the Sun, planets, moons, asteroids and comets found within the solar system. The image processing for many of the images was done by the author. This tour uses hypertext to allow space travel by simply clicking on a desired planet. This causes information and images about the planet to appear on screen. While on a planet page, hyperlinks travel to pages about the moons and other relevant available resources. Unusual terms are linked to and defined in the Glossary page. Statistical information of the planets and satellites can be browsed through lists sorted by name, radius and distance. History of Space Exploration contains information about rocket history, early astronauts, space missions, spacecraft and detailed chronology tables of space exploration. The Table of Contents page has links to all of the various pages within Views Of the Solar System.

  11. Plotinus’ views on soul, suicide, and incarnation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalogiratou, Androniki

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a question to be answered if one is to grasp the function of suicide in the Plotinian universe and its connection to the subject matters of soul, incarnation, murder and killing living beings. How far does the body exist as a degenerative trait? Could the purpose of embodying a soul purify it and to what extent does the particular use of it by an individual soul point towards its ability to uncover hidden potentiality or simply makes it an instrument of self-destruction and self-alienation? Our view of Plotinus’ philosophy and its significance depends upon how we chose to solve this puzzle. Although Plotinus ultimately changed his attitude on suicide in Ennead 1.4.46 as compared to Ennead 1.9.16, the concept appears under three basic guises in his philosophy. One is the more traditional notion that we have today, whether given a choice to remain or to leave the body, the soul should remain? Beyond that, Plotinus enriches our view of suicide with two further notions: One is the idea of soul’s incarnation as an involuntary suicide, committed in the rush to attain matter. Finally there is the notion of suicide in the form of murder or killing a living being or plant. Killing another living being would be like attempting suicide: killing a part of the one unified, single soul to which we also partake. The difference between Plotinus and later Neoplatonists, of which Damascius was one, is that the latter won’t allow for the absolute detachment of the soul from the body, while the body is still alive. It thus becomes impossible for the soul of the prospective wise man, to venture completely into the positive nothingness of the Ineffable, because the soul is always bound to the body, and that results in its inability to escort its own self, so as to say, into that which is total nothingness and alien to the soul.

  12. How perception of ultra-high definition is modified by viewing distance and screen size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachat, Amélie; Gicquel, Jean-Charles; Fournier, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Ultra High Definition (UHD) is a new technology, which main idea is to improve user's perception of details and sensation of immersion in comparison with High Definition systems (HD). However, it is important to understand the influence of the new UHD technical parameters on user's perception. Hence, to investigate the influence of the viewing distance, screen size and scene content on perceived video quality and feelings of users, a series of subjective experiments with four different contents (3 documentaries and 1 sport content) shooted by UHD camera were performed. These contents were displayed using three different image resolutions (SD, HD, UHD) and two UHD displays (55-inch and 84-inch). Each subject had to assess content for three different viewing distances (1.5, 3, 4.5 times of the screen height corresponding to optimal viewing distances of respectively UHD, HD, and close to SD optimal distance). Finally, 72 test conditions were evaluated. For each scene, observers reported their opinion on the perceived video quality using a 5-grade subjective scale. Results have shown that viewing distance has a significant influence on perceived quality. Moreover the highest MOS was obtained at optimal viewing for UHD, with a small difference between HD an UHD. At 3H and 4.5H, there is no difference from a statistical point of view. Screen size influences the perception of quality but not in the same way for the three image resolution and three viewing distances.

  13. [Explaining symptoms: body-object and body-subject].

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter, Meulen B C; Van Woerkom, T C A M

    2009-01-01

    Medically unexplained somatic symptoms present a real challenge to modem medicine. They occur frequently and are often chronic. To discuss the physician's approach to these symptoms. We focus on the views of the human body put forward by the French philosopher Merleau-Ponty. His view is illustrated with the help of a case study concerning a patient suffering from borderline personality disorder and complex regional pain syndrome. Merleau-Ponty draws a distinction between body-subject and body-object. By body-object he means the body as determined and predicted by medical science. By body-subject he means the body as we experience it, even before we are aware of it. It is our pre-reflexive body that gives meaning to the world around us. We argue that the physician should regard the body not only as an object, but also as a subject, thereby giving renewed attention to the significance of symptoms as an expression of inner experience. In this way symptoms that cannot be explained on a purely physico-chemical level will become more meaningful.

  14. Edge-aided virtual view rendering for multiview video plus depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muddala, Suryanarayana M.; Sjöström, Mârten; Olsson, Roger; Tourancheau, Sylvain

    2013-03-01

    Depth-Image-Based Rendering (DIBR) of virtual views is a fundamental method in three dimensional 3-D video applications to produce different perspectives from texture and depth information, in particular the multi-view-plus-depth (MVD) format. Artifacts are still present in virtual views as a consequence of imperfect rendering using existing DIBR methods. In this paper, we propose an alternative DIBR method for MVD. In the proposed method we introduce an edge pixel and interpolate pixel values in the virtual view using the actual projected coordinates from two adjacent views, by which cracks and disocclusions are automatically filled. In particular, we propose a method to merge pixel information from two adjacent views in the virtual view before the interpolation; we apply a weighted averaging of projected pixels within the range of one pixel in the virtual view. We compared virtual view images rendered by the proposed method to the corresponding view images rendered by state-of-theart methods. Objective metrics demonstrated an advantage of the proposed method for most investigated media contents. Subjective test results showed preference to different methods depending on media content, and the test could not demonstrate a significant difference between the proposed method and state-of-the-art methods.

  15. Factors Associated with the Anxiety, Subjective Psychological Well-Being and Self-Esteem of Parents of Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola-Carmona, Juan Jesús; López-Liria, Remedios; Padilla-Góngora, David; Daza, María Teresa; Aguilar-Parra, José Manuel; Salido-Campos, María Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to examine the connection of the personal, social and family context, educational variables with the levels of anxiety, subjective psychological well-being and self-esteem in a sample of 61 parents of blind children. Results suggest that parents present less anxiety when they have only one child, possess a technical degree, receive remuneration for their work, their child's visual impairment is not progressive, their knowledge about their child's disability is appropriate, and their leisure and labour possibilities have not been affected. Their psychological well-being is higher when they are married in first nuptials and perceive that their health is good. Their well-being is negatively related to reduced leisure, and self-esteem is lower when labour possibilities have been affected. In order for these families to achieve a more pleasant life, with greater psychological well-being, lower anxiety and higher self-esteem, professionals should be aware of the aspects with a negative impact.

  16. Subjective and objective characteristics of altered consciousness during epileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campora, Nuria; Kochen, Silvia

    2016-02-01

    Conscious states are inner states and processes of awareness. These states are by definition subjective. We analyzed subjective and objective characteristics of alteration of consciousness (AOC) during epileptic seizures, including its involvement in both the level of awareness and subjective content of consciousness. We evaluated AOC using the Consciousness Seizure Scale, the Ictal Consciousness Inventory, and a new structured survey developed by our group: the Seizure Perception Survey, which incorporates patients' subjective experiences before and after they watch a video-electroencephalographic recording of their own seizure. We included 35 patients (105 seizures) with drug-resistant epilepsy. Most seizures caused profound AOC. The content of consciousness was lower during temporal seizures with profound AOC. We uncovered a correlation between the subjective perception and objective duration of a seizure using the Seizure Perception Survey regarding memory; the patients had a better recall of ictal onset during wakefulness regardless of the epileptogenic zone, laterality, or magnitude of AOC. Nonetheless, the recovery of memory at the end of a seizure took more time in patients who showed greater AOC, less vivid content of consciousness, or a longer seizure. For 85% of the patients, this was the first time they were able to view their own seizures. The majority of the patients requested to view them again because this procedure allowed them to compare the recordings with their own memories and emotions during a seizure and to verify the real duration of the seizure. Alteration of consciousness is one of the most dramatic clinical manifestations of epilepsy. Usually, practitioners or relatives assume that the patients with AOC may not have any knowledge on their seizures. In this study, however, we found that most patients with AOC had a fairly accurate perception of the duration of a seizure and retained their memory of ictal onset. In contrast, for the

  17. The Subject of Ezdad (Antonyms i n Arabic Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmuttalip I ŞIDAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As in other languages there ar e many issues which cause debate among linguists in Arabis Language. One of the issues that is constantly the subject of debate among linguists in the Arabic language is the Ezdad topic. Ezdad is to use the two words interchangeably for the same word. Ezda d in other words antonyms available in all languages but it varies in Arabic Language. Ezdad subject is discussed in studies related to Quran studies, fiqh studies and worship studies and also tafseer area benefited from this subject. The importance of Ezd ad is hidden in the implementation of Holy Quran words. The linguists fell into disagreement on Ezdad subject. Some linguists think that Ezdad is the beauty of Arabic Language while the other think it moves away from Fusha Language. The concept of Ezdad an d the şmportance of Arabic Language will be discussed in the introduction of this study. And then definition of Ezdad and differences between old and new definition of Ezdad. After that the views of the linguists who accepts and who rejects the concept of Ezdad. Then the requirements of a word to be Ezdad will be discussed. Then the reasons of occurence Ezdad will be discussed. And at the end the opinions about Ezdad subject will be presented.

  18. Utility of infrared thermography for screening febrile subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, L S; Lo, Jessica L F; Kumana, Cyrus R; Cheung, Bernard M Y

    2013-04-01

    To assess the utility of remote-sensing infrared thermography as a screening tool for fever. Cross-sectional study comparing body temperatures measured by remote-sensing infrared thermography (maximum for frontal, forehead, or lateral views) with core temperatures measured by aural or oral methods. Accident and Emergency Department, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong. A total of 1517 patients (747 men, 770 women) with or without fever; 34 of whom entered a substudy to measure the effects of distance on recorded temperature. The proportions of subjects with fever (core temperature of 38°C or above) detected by remote-sensing infrared thermography compared with the proportion detected by conventional thermometry. The correlations between infrared thermography temperatures and core temperature were only moderate (r=0.36-0.44), albeit statistically significant. The temperature recorded by infrared thermography was inversely proportional to the distance from the camera. There were 113 (7.4%) subjects with a core temperature of 38°C or above. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for the three infrared thermography measurements were around 0.8. However, the maximum sensitivity achieved at a low cut-off temperature of 35°C was only 0.87 (for frontal and lateral infrared thermography views), resulting in 13% of febrile subjects being missed. The maximum forehead temperature in general had the poorest performance among the three infrared thermography views. Forehead infrared thermography readings from a distance should be abandoned for fever screening. Although maximum lateral or frontal infrared thermography temperatures have reasonable correlations with core temperatures and areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves, the sensitivity-specificity combination might still not be high enough for screening febrile conditions, especially at border crossings with huge numbers of passengers.

  19. Salivary alpha amylase activity in human beings of different age groups subjected to psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Gopal K; Upadhyay, Seema; Panna, Shradha M

    2014-10-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been proposed as a sensitive non-invasive biomarker for stress-induced changes in the body that reflect the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Though several experiments have been conducted to determine the validity of this salivary component as a reliable stress marker in human subjects, the effect of stress induced changes on sAA level in different age groups is least studied. This article reports the activity of sAA in human subjects of different age groups subjected to psychological stress induced through stressful video clip. Differences in sAA level based on sex of different age groups under stress have also been studied. A total of 112 subjects consisting of both the male and female subjects, divided into two groups on basis of age were viewed a video clip of corneal transplant surgery as stressor. Activity of sAA from saliva samples of the stressed subjects were measured and compared with the activity of the samples collected from the subjects before viewing the clip. The age ranges of subjects were 18-25 and 40-60 years. The sAA level increased significantly in both the groups after viewing the stressful video. The increase was more pronounced in the younger subjects. The level of sAA was comparatively more in males than females in the respective groups. No significant change in sAA activity was observed after viewing the soothed video clip. Significant increase of sAA level in response to psychological stress suggests that it might act as a reliable sympathetic activity biochemical marker in different stages of human beings.

  20. About two views on sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Pisk

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at different understandings of human being and their implications for the understanding of sport. One of the fundamental shifts in the understanding of human being occurs in the transition from the ancient to modern times. The main characteristic of the ‘classical’ view of the human being is its teleological character: we know fully what something is only when we know what it is like in its final perfection. This is diametrically opposed to the axiom which dominates our modern scientific culture: we understand what something is when we know what it is made of and how it came to be. Therefore, the final aim of the ‘classical’ view is perfection of human being, and final aim of the ‘modern’ view is preservation of oneself. This distinction can be used to differentiate two different understandings of contemporary sport. ‘Classical’ sport may be estimated as idealistic and the ‘modern’ as realistic or even pragmatic. The first is based on a teleological understanding of the human being and accordingly sport is also understood as a means to fulfill human being and help him to attain perfection. The basic idea is the same as idea in theories which see sport as an important mean for human education. On the other hand the modern understanding of sport does not see the final aim of sport in perfection of human being, but in self-preservation. This can be recognized in those sport activities which see the aim of sport in the preservation of health, regulation of body weight or anti stress re-creation.

  1. Subjective wellbeing, health, and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Andrew; Deaton, Angus; Stone, Arthur A

    2015-02-14

    Subjective wellbeing and health are closely linked to age. Three aspects of subjective wellbeing can be distinguished-evaluative wellbeing (or life satisfaction), hedonic wellbeing (feelings of happiness, sadness, anger, stress, and pain), and eudemonic wellbeing (sense of purpose and meaning in life). We review recent advances in the specialty of psychological wellbeing, and present new analyses about the pattern of wellbeing across ages and the association between wellbeing and survival at older ages. The Gallup World Poll, a continuing survey in more than 160 countries, shows a U-shaped relation between evaluative wellbeing and age in high-income, English speaking countries, with the lowest levels of wellbeing in ages 45-54 years. But this pattern is not universal. For example, respondents from the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe show a large progressive reduction in wellbeing with age, respondents from Latin America also shows decreased wellbeing with age, whereas wellbeing in sub-Saharan Africa shows little change with age. The relation between physical health and subjective wellbeing is bidirectional. Older people with illnesses such as coronary heart disease, arthritis, and chronic lung disease show both increased levels of depressed mood and impaired hedonic and eudemonic wellbeing. Wellbeing might also have a protective role in health maintenance. In an analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, we identify that eudemonic wellbeing is associated with increased survival; 29·3% of people in the lowest wellbeing quartile died during the average follow-up period of 8·5 years compared with 9·3% of those in the highest quartile. Associations were independent of age, sex, demographic factors, and baseline mental and physical health. We conclude that the wellbeing of elderly people is an important objective for both economic and health policy. Present psychological and economic theories do not adequately account for the variations in patterns

  2. The experimentation of learning models viewed from interpersonal intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhana, M. T. C.; Mardiyana; Pramudya, I.

    2017-11-01

    This research aimed to know experimentation Project Based Learning (PjBL) and Problem Based Learning (PBL) with scientific approach viewed from interpersonal intelligence. The subjects of this research were grade X MIPA students in SMA N 1 Minggir. This research instruments used were test and questionnaire. The result of the research showed that: (1) Students subjected PjBL with scientific approach had a better learning achievement than PBL with scientific approach; (2) students with high interpersonal intelligence had a better learning achievement than low and medium interpersonal intelligence, students with low and medium interpersonal intelligence gave the same learning achievement; (3) In PjBL, students with high interpersonal intelligence had a better learning achievement than low and medium interpersonal intelligence, students with low and medium interpersonal intelligence gave the same learning achievement. In PBL, students with high and medium interpersonal intelligence had a better learning achievement than low interpersonal intelligence, students with high and medium interpersonal intelligence gave the same learning achievement; (4) In high interpersonal intelligence, students subjected PjBL had a better learning achievement than students subjected PBL. In medium and low interpersonal intelligence, students subjected PjBL gave same learning achievement than students subjected PBL.

  3. A local view on hyperconjugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagomez, Carlos Javier; Zambelli, Tomaso; Gauthier, Sébastien; Gourdon, André; Barthes, Cécile; Stojkovic, Sladjana; Joachim, Christian

    2007-12-01

    Two isomers of the methylterrylene molecule were adsorbed on a NaCl bilayer deposited on Cu(1 1 1) and imaged by ultra high vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy at low temperature (5 K). The images acquired for specific bias voltages show a striking similarity with the spatial distribution of the electronic probability density in the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and in the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of free methylterrylene. They are well reproduced by elastic scattering quantum chemistry calculations. These data provide a direct view of the hyperconjugative interaction between the methyl group and the frontier orbitals of terrylene.

  4. A Practical View on Renaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Kulaš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We revisit variable renaming from a practitioner's point of view, presenting concepts we found useful in dealing with operational semantics of pure Prolog. A concept of relaxed core representation is introduced, upon which a concept of prenaming is built. Prenaming formalizes the intuitive practice of renaming terms by just considering the necessary bindings, where now some passive "bindings" x/x may be necessary as well. As an application, a constructive version of variant lemma for implemented Horn clause logic has been obtained. There, prenamings made it possible to incrementally handle new (local variables.

  5. Document delivery services contrasting views

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    Design and maintain document delivery services that are ideal for academic patrons! In Document Delivery Services: Contrasting Views, you'll visit four university library systems to discover the considerations and challenges each library faced in bringing document delivery to its clientele. This book examines the questions about document delivery that are most pressing in the profession of library science. Despite their own unique experiences, you'll find common practices among all four?including planning, implementation of service, and evaluation of either user satisfaction and/or vendor per

  6. Helpful self-management strategies to cope with enduring depression from the patients' point of view: a concept map study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    van Grieken, Rosa A; Kirkenier, Anneloes C. E; Koeter, Maarten W. J; Schene, Aart H

    2014-01-01

    ... as being most helpful to cope with their MDD. We used concept mapping, a method specifically designed for the conceptualisation of a specific subject, in this case patients' point of view (n = 25...

  7. Brain correlates of craving for online gaming under cue exposure in subjects with Internet gaming addiction and in remitted subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Gin-Chung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Chen, Chiao-Yun; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate brain correlates of cue-induced craving to play online games in subjects with Internet gaming addiction (IGA), subjects in remission from IGA and controls. The craving response was assessed by event-related design of functional magnetic resonance images (fMRIs). Fifteen subjects with IGA, 15 in remission from IGA and 15 controls were recruited in this study. The subjects were arranged to view the gaming screenshots and neutral images under investigation of fMRIs. The results showed that bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), precuneus, left parahippocampus, posterior cingulate and right anterior cingulate were activated in response to gaming cues in the IGA group and their activation was stronger in the IGA group than those in the control group. Their region-of-interest was also positively correlated with subjective gaming urge under cue exposure. These activated brain areas represent the brain circuit corresponding to the mechanism of substance use disorder. Thus, it would suggest that the mechanism of IGA is similar to substance use disorder. Furthermore, the IGA group had stronger activation over right DLPFC and left parahippocampus than did the remission group. The two areas would be candidate markers for current addiction to online gaming and should be investigated in future studies. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. OrbView-3 Level 1B

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — GeoEye's OrbView-3 satellite was among the world's first commercial satellites to provide high-resolution imagery from space. OrbView-3 collected one meter...

  9. Young people’s own museum views

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drotner, Kirsten; Knudsen, Line Vestergaard; Mortensen, Christian Hviid

    2017-01-01

    Taking a mixed-methods, visitor-focused approach to views on museums, this article examines what views young Danes aged 13–23 years (n = 2,350) hold on museums and how these views can be categorized and articulated. Arguing that studying views of museums as socially situated meaning-making practi......Taking a mixed-methods, visitor-focused approach to views on museums, this article examines what views young Danes aged 13–23 years (n = 2,350) hold on museums and how these views can be categorized and articulated. Arguing that studying views of museums as socially situated meaning......-making practices adds theoretical and empirical depth to existing research and practice, we apply semantic categorization, speech-act theory, and cognitive linguistics as analytical tools. Our results demonstrate that respondents’ most prevalent semantic categories are ‘exciting,’ ‘educative,’ and ‘boring...

  10. An Examination of Television Viewing Motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Alan M.

    1981-01-01

    Identifies nine motivations for television viewing and relates these to age, viewing levels, television attitudes of attachment and reality, and program preferences. Implications of the results are discussed in terms of uses and gratifications research perspectives. (JMF)

  11. Postural control in blind subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vinicius Soares

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. Methods: A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. Results: On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Conclusion: Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.

  12. Pastoral evaluation on the Basotho’s view of sexuality: Revisiting the views on sexuality of Augustine, Thomas Aquinas, Martin Luther and John Calvin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K. Semenya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the Basotho’s views on sexuality within a theological context as wellas the conflict between Christianity and cultural beliefs. Most Basotho have strong opinions on the subject of sexuality and those views undoubtedly emanate from the Basotho culture,which makes it necessary to evaluate them. The issue of sexuality is always a topic of discussion amongst people and did not go unnoticed by church fathers, like Augustine. Thomas Aquinas also expressed an interest in the topic in the Middle-Ages. Likewise, reformers of the calibre of Martin Luther and John Calvin espoused views on sexuality. Itis clear that the aforementioned theologians made a marked contribution toward shapingthe current views on sexuality, especially amongst theologians of this age and this is thereason for revisiting their views in this article examining the Basotho view on sexuality.In examining Basotho views on sexuality, the writer of this article will then discuss andevaluate the views of Augustine, Aquinas, Luther and Calvin with special reference tosexual intercourse, sexual intercourse within matrimony, extramarital sexual intercourseand also the unmarried state.

  13. The effect of 5E-SWH learning model on students' view of nature of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinthuwa, Waralee; Sangpradit, Theerapong

    2018-01-01

    View of Nature of Science (NOS) is one of key factors to support students' scientific literacy. So, it includes in scientific learning goals internationally. As in the literature, the many potential benefits associated with appropriate view of NOS. For instance, it influences students' learning achievement in science and lets students see how science connected to their real world. The aim of this study was to develop the 5E-SWH learning model to enhance 12th grade students' view of NOS. Eighty-eight students participated in this study. They were separated into two groups. Forty-four students had learnt biology by using 5E-SWH learning unit, but another group had learnt by using traditional 5E. View of NOS questionnaire that was adapted from the Views of NOS Questionnaire (VNOS-C) was applied with the both groups as pretest and posttest. The questionnaire consisted of ten open-ended items. The semi-structured interview protocol was also used with thirty students and feedback on the lesson record was provided in order to triangulate students' view of NOS. The analyzed results were approved by peer review. In addition, the during the implementation, data from voice recorder was transcribed and used discourse analysis to show students' NOS views. There were three aspects that relate to genetics technology content. These aspects included the subjective, empirical, and social and culture. Students' responses were categorized into 3 groups including informed, adequate and inadequate view. The results showed that the majority of participants held inadequate views of the subjective and empirical aspect at the beginning of the study. In addition, almost student as well as held adequate view of the social and culture aspect and they had misconception in some target NOS aspects. After that, they had learnt genetics technology content by using 5E-SWH learning model for 15 periods (50 min/ period). Both student groups' view of NOS was compared with each other. The study showed

  14. [Health care professional view on biomedical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, N; Jodar, E; Torres, M; Dalmau, D

    2009-01-01

    Biomedical research is a necessary subject and enjoys social prestige. To ascertain the views and expectations of health care professionals on research, analysing the influence of their academic training and professional level. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to physicians and qualified nurses working in a, tertiary hospital, seven primary care centres and two nursing homes (health care centres for the elderly). Cronbach's coefficient alpha=0.817. Response rate: 64% (432 out of 682 questionnaires distributed). Women: 71%. Mean age: 37 years. Mean years involved in health care: 14 years. 79% of people considered research as a part of their job, although in practice only 43% were doing it. Overall participation in activities was: Conferences (71%), education (42%), publications (34%) and ongoing projects (17%). Physicians dedicated more off duty time (37%) to research than qualified nurses (CI95%: 28 to 46%). The majority of physicians having their doctoral thesis would like to carry out research activities, and 84% did so in their free time and 74% had active research projects in progress. They identified physician workload as the main factor that impedes performing research. Proposals to increase research activities were focused on improving resources. The majority of health care professionals expressed a great motivation. The perception of research varies depending upon professional qualification. Physicians having their doctoral thesis were more involved and had a different perception of research, being more critical about available resources. Overall research perception was more positive among those with less academic training, as well as among those centres with less research activities.

  15. Family relationships with pediatricians: the maternal views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone de Carvalho

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To analyze the perception of pediatric guidelines by mothers at the time of consultation in private offices, in order to know how they assimilate, process and use the information received from the pediatricians. Methods: Data collection was carried out by a questionnaire sent to participants by a total of 200 mothers from a virtual community in social networks participated in the research. The answers were transcribed using the Discourse of the Collective Subject method. The analyses were supported by the research qualitative perspective, from the viewpoint of the social representation theory. Results: Three categories were obtained through data analysis: (1 assessing the pediatric guidelines, (2 confronting theory and practice and (3 developing a critical view of the pediatric guidelines. These categories have elucidated that the level of knowledge of pediatric issues by mothers and their ability to use them when making decisions about the care of their babies, have a direct association between following or not the pediatric guidelines. Conclusions: The mother's decision on following the pediatrician's recommendations depends on two main factors: (a certification of the updated and proven recommendations, according to the official health agencies; (b support and recognition by the pediatrician of the maternal empowerment during the follow-up process. The mothers' practice of accessing knowledge through social networks hinders the pediatric monitoring.

  16. Effects of Viewing a Pro-Ana Website: An Experimental Study on Body Satisfaction, Affect, and Appearance Self-Efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delforterie, M.J.; Larsen, J.K.; Bardone-Cone, A.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Pro-anorexia websites portray an extreme form of thin-ideal. This between-subjects experiment examined the effects of viewing such a website on body satisfaction, affect, and appearance self-efficacy compared to viewing control websites (fashion, home decoration, automutilation). The sample

  17. Incremental computation of set difference views

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars; Mark, Leo

    1997-01-01

    Et database view identificerer en delmængde af en database, der er relevant i en given sammenhæng. Et sådant view kan beregnes på to forskellige måder. Ved genberegning beregnes alt forfra, når et view anvendes. Ved inkrementel beregning opdateres gamle beregningsresultater i forhold til mellemli...

  18. Dual-view flow channel visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hibara, A.; Kaxama, Y; Carlen, Edwin; van den Berg, Albert

    2014-01-01

    The concept of dual-view flow-channel visualization is proposed, where ordinary (top) and lateral images are available in a single view field. In order to obtain the top and lateral fluidic-channel images in a single view of the microscope observation, optical path lengths of these images were

  19. View based approach to forensic face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, A.; van Rootseler, R.T.A.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    Face recognition is a challenging problem for surveillance view images commonly encountered in a forensic face recognition case. One approach to deal with a non-frontal test image is to synthesize the corresponding frontal view image and compare it with frontal view reference images. However, it is

  20. Learning QlikView data visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Pover, Karl

    2013-01-01

    A practical and fast-paced guide that gives you all the information you need to start developing charts from your data.Learning QlikView Data Visualization is for anybody interested in performing powerful data analysis and crafting insightful data visualization, independent of any previous knowledge of QlikView. Experience with spreadsheet software will help you understand QlikView functions.

  1. The Promise of Telemaco: Archaeology of the Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Restrepo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Initiating from a crucial concept of recognition (German: Anerkennung formulated 200 years ago by Hegel, the author explores the complexity of the concept of subject, initiated by the references of Freud and Heidegger; structuralism; poststructuralisms; and new, more complex perspectives such as the one presented by Peter Sloterdijk. Based on an intense exploration of the topic (psychoanalysis, journals, references from various points of view, the author ties the reflection on the subject with the figure of Telemaco as an archetype of the promise of reconciling the village with the world, patriarchal with matriarchal myths beyond the empires, and the personal and collective efforts in pursuit of “homing” as a room with a sense of justice in the world house

  2. Initial subjective reward to alcohol in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nentwig, Todd B; Myers, Kevin P; Grisel, Judith E

    2017-02-01

    Initial subjective response to the rewarding properties of alcohol predicts voluntary consumption and the risk for alcohol use disorders. We assessed the initial subjective reward to alcohol in rats using a single exposure conditioned place preference (SE-CPP) paradigm. Sprague-Dawley rats demonstrate preference for a context paired with a single systemic injection of ethanol (1.0 g/kg, delivered intraperitoneally). However, expression of SE-CPP in males depended on pairing ethanol with the first exposure of two (ethanol; saline) to the conditioning apparatus and procedures, while conditioning day did not appreciably affect SE-CPP in females, consistent with the view that females experience heightened addiction vulnerability. This model offers researchers a high throughput assay for investigating factors that influence alcohol reward and may point the way toward more effective prevention and treatment efforts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Performatising the knower: On semiotic analysis of subject and knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artuković Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers epistemological implications of the concept of performative, starting from the elaborate conception provided by Judith Butler’s theories. The primary postulate of this work is that various interpretations of the performative, with their semiotic shifting from the notions of truth-evaluability and the descriptive nature of meaning, form a line of aban­doning traditional epistemological distinction between subject and object. Through other semiotic concepts which will be presented and analysed, this line reveals the key epistemological issues in the light of semiology, while Judith Butler’s concept of performativity is viewed as a possible outcome of this course of semiology of knowledge, resulting in final transcending of the category of subject.

  4. CURRICULUM POLICIES AND GEOGRAPHY TEACHING: perspectives ond discourse, subjectivity and subject community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Heleno Camilo Costa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper I discuss, in the context of research in curriculum policy for the teaching of Geography, the processes of constitution of the subjects involved in policy. Present initially snippets of the course of research development, drawing attention to possibilities of understanding about the processes that lead to the production of curriculum policies for Geography. I call attention to the subjectivity involved in the production of such policies, questioning the category subject community in reflection on the constitution of political subjects that operate in the discursive field of Geography. I discuss, from the Discourse Theory of Ernesto Laclau and also the works of Lopes and Macedo, the importance of the curriculum policy is conceived as a process by mobilizing articulations that aim to hegemony and unleash political subjectivities. I conclude criticizing Goodson's formulations on political subjects considering the theoretical contributions of Laclau, through which I propose the incorporation the idea of povo as element capable of assisting in critique to readings about the disciplines and curriculum in structural view, and resize reflection on the demands articulated in the production of curriculum policies and the processes of constitution of subjects.RESUMO: Neste trabalho discuto, com foco no contexto da pesquisa em políticas de currículo para o ensino de Geografia, os processos de constituição dos sujeitos envolvidos nas políticas. Apresento, inicialmente, trechos do percurso da pesquisa que desenvolvo, ponderando possibilidades de compreensão sobre os processos que levam à produção da política de currículo para Geografia. Chamo a atenção para as subjetividades envolvidas na produção de tais políticas, problematizando a categoria comunidade disciplinar na reflexão sobre a constituição dos sujeitos políticos atuantes no campo discursivo da Geografia. Discuto, a partir da Teoria do Discurso de Ernesto Laclau e dos

  5. Scoring Rules for Subjective Probability Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    report the true subjective probability of a binary event, even under Subjective Expected Utility. To address this one can “calibrate” inferences about true subjective probabilities from elicited subjective probabilities over binary events, recognizing the incentives that risk averse agents have...

  6. Behaviorism, private events, and the molar view of behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, William M

    2011-01-01

    Viewing the science of behavior (behavior analysis) to be a natural science, radical behaviorism rejects any form of dualism, including subjective-objective or inner-outer dualism. Yet radical behaviorists often claim that treating private events as covert behavior and internal stimuli is necessary and important to behavior analysis. To the contrary, this paper argues that, compared with the rejection of dualism, private events constitute a trivial idea and are irrelevant to accounts of behavior. Viewed in the framework of evolutionary theory or for any practical purpose, behavior is commerce with the environment. By its very nature, behavior is extended in time. The temptation to posit private events arises when an activity is viewed in too small a time frame, obscuring what the activity does. When activities are viewed in an appropriately extended time frame, private events become irrelevant to the account. This insight provides the answer to many philosophical questions about thinking, sensing, and feeling. Confusion about private events arises in large part from failure to appreciate fully the radical implications of replacing mentalistic ideas about language with the concept of verbal behavior. Like other operant behavior, verbal behavior involves no agent and no hidden causes; like all natural events, it is caused by other natural events. In a science of behavior grounded in evolutionary theory, the same set of principles applies to verbal and nonverbal behavior and to human and nonhuman organisms.

  7. Brain hemodynamic activity during viewing and re-viewing of comedy movies explained by experienced humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Pajula, Juha; Tohka, Jussi; Lee, Hsin-Ju; Kuo, Wen-Jui; Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2016-06-21

    Humor is crucial in human social interactions. To study the underlying neural processes, three comedy clips were shown twice to 20 volunteers during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Inter-subject similarities in humor ratings, obtained immediately after fMRI, explained inter-subject correlation of hemodynamic activity in right frontal pole and in a number of other brain regions. General linear model analysis also indicated activity in right frontal pole, as well as in additional cortical areas and subcortically in striatum, explained by humorousness. The association of the right frontal pole with experienced humorousness is a novel finding, which might be related to humor unfolding over longer time scales in the movie clips. Specifically, frontal pole has been shown to exhibit longer temporal receptive windows than, e.g., sensory areas, which might have enabled processing of humor in the clips based on holding information and reinterpreting that in light of new information several (even tens of) seconds later. As another novel finding, medial and lateral prefrontal areas, frontal pole, posterior-inferior temporal areas, posterior parietal areas, posterior cingulate, striatal structures and amygdala showed reduced activity upon re-viewing of the clips, suggesting involvement in processing of humor related to novelty of the comedic events.

  8. Subjective trust, perceived risk and exchange performance in buyer-supplier relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Emanuela Delbufalo

    2012-01-01

    This article offers some theoretical and empirical contributions to the literature on relational exchange by examining the nature of subjective trust and perceived risk in buyer-supplier relationships. The relational view represents the theoretical framework for the research. The study explores the theoretical proposition that subjective trust and perceived risk in buyer-supplier relationships impact on exchange performance through the mediating effects of four sources of relational rents: as...

  9. Clinical management of transsexual subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Elaine Maria Frade; Mendonca, Berenice Bilharinho

    2014-03-01

    Transsexual subjects are individuals who have a desire to live and be accepted as a member of the opposite sex, usually accompanied by a sense of discomfort with, or inappropriateness of, one's anatomic sex, and a wish to have surgery and hormonal treatment to make one's body as congruent as possible with one's preferred sex. They seek to develop the physical characteristics of the desired gender, and should undergo an effective and safe treatment regimen. The goal of treatment is to rehabilitate the individual as a member of society in the gender he or she identifies with. Sex reassignment procedures necessary for the treatment of transsexual patients are allowed in our country, at Medical Services that have a multidisciplinary team composed of a psychologist, a social worker, a psychiatrist, an endocrinologist and surgeons (gynecologists, plastic surgeons, and urologists). Patients must be between 21 to 75 years old and in psychological and hormonal treatment for at least 2 years. Testosterone is the principal agent used to induce male characteristics in female transsexual patients, and the estrogen is the chosen hormone used to induce the female sexual characteristics in male transsexual patients. Based on our 15 years of experience, we can conclude that testosterone and estradiol treatment in physiological doses are effective and safe in female and male transsexual patients, respectively.

  10. Researching Risk: Narrative, Biography, Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Henwood

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to the development of methodological practices promoting greater epistemic reflexivity in risk research and in social science generally. Knowledge of the specific practices researchers will find useful cannot exist separately from any particular empirical project. Accordingly, we report on, and provide a reflective account of, the "nuclear risk" project that was part of the Social Contexts and Responses to Risk (SCARR network in the UK (2003-2008. A key focus is exploring the value of narrative methods—especially narrative elicitation methods—for understanding people's perceptions of, and ways of living with, risk. We credit our deployment of a narrative method with producing a rich form of data on risk-biography intersections, which have carried great significance in our analytical work on the way biographical experiences, dynamically unfolding through space and time, can be interrupted by risk events. Arguments from the literature on reflexive modernity are deployed to make the case for: researching risk in everyday life as a problematic in and of itself; placing concepts of risk-biography, risk-reflexivity and risk-subjectivity at centre stage; and finding ways to inquire into the social and psychic complexities involved in the dynamic construction and reconstruction of risk phenomena. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1001201

  11. The interblink interval in normal and dry eye subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston PR

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Patrick R Johnston,1 John Rodriguez,1 Keith J Lane,1 George Ousler,1 Mark B Abelson1,21Ora, Inc, Andover, MA, USA; 2Schepens Eye Research Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USAPurpose: Our aim was to extend the concept of blink patterns from average interblink interval (IBI to other aspects of the distribution of IBI. We hypothesized that this more comprehensive approach would better discriminate between normal and dry eye subjects.Methods: Blinks were captured over 10 minutes for ten normal and ten dry eye subjects while viewing a standardized televised documentary. Fifty-five blinks were analyzed for each of the 20 subjects. Means, standard deviations, and autocorrelation coefficients were calculated utilizing a single random effects model fit to all data points and a diagnostic model was subsequently fit to predict probability of a subject having dry eye based on these parameters.Results: Mean IBI was 5.97 seconds for normal versus 2.56 seconds for dry eye subjects (ratio: 2.33, P = 0.004. IBI variability was 1.56 times higher in normal subjects (P < 0.001, and the autocorrelation was 1.79 times higher in normal subjects (P = 0.044. With regard to the diagnostic power of these measures, mean IBI was the best dry eye versus normal classifier using receiver operating characteristics (0.85 area under curve (AUC, followed by the standard deviation (0.75 AUC, and lastly, the autocorrelation (0.63 AUC. All three predictors combined had an AUC of 0.89. Based on this analysis, cutoffs of ≤3.05 seconds for median IBI, and ≤0.73 for the coefficient of variation were chosen to classify dry eye subjects.Conclusion: (1 IBI was significantly shorter for dry eye patients performing a visual task compared to normals; (2 there was a greater variability of interblink intervals in normal subjects; and (3 these parameters were useful as diagnostic predictors of dry eye disease. The results of this pilot study merit investigation of IBI

  12. [Education of nurses under the social enterprising view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Dirce Stein; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study is to discuss the education of nurses under the social enterprising view. The Grounded Theory was used as a methodological reference and interviews to collect data. The sample was composed of 35 subjects that were interviewed in different states of Brazil, which were distributed in different sample groups. Among the interviewed, there were: 20 nurses, 4 doctors, 1 dentist, 1 nutritionist, 1 pharmacist, 2 psychologists, 1 theologian, 2 teachers, 1 administrative manager and 2 young participants of the social project. Data codification led to the category: Incrementing the professional education of the nurse which will be discussed under the social enterprising view. To consider the social enterprising education of nursing, recognized as a new paradigm of social intervention, capable of potentiating the social actions through the interactive nets, it means to carry out new possibilities, for the creativity and innovation, without getting unconsidered the emerging social contradictions and without the pretension of arriving at definitive syntheses.

  13. Electron Cloud: an Analytic View

    CERN Document Server

    Vos, L

    1998-01-01

    Electron cloud activity has been observed in some positron storage rings but not in others. It is a major concern for the LHC. In this paper the electron cloud problematics is treated purely analytica lly. The equilibrium electron cloud density is derived from the standard photon production rate, taking into account the photo-electric yield and the process of secondary emission. A fundamental ingre dient in the derivation is the Kollath{2] energy spectrum of the secondary emission. The phenomenon of space charge is discussed as well. The transverse acceleration of the electrons by the bunches is used to introduce the concept of closely and sparsely bunched beams. There is a fundamental difference between them, especially from the point of view of power deposition. Expressions for an equivalen t transverse impedance and imaginary tune shift are derived. Finally the analysis is confronted with electron cloud observations in existing positron machines (DAPHINE, PF, BEPC) before it is applied to the LHC. It comes...

  14. Scientists' views about communication objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besley, John C; Dudo, Anthony; Yuan, Shupei

    2017-08-01

    This study looks at how United States-based academic scientists from five professional scientific societies think about eight different communication objectives. The degree to which scientists say they would prioritize these objectives in the context of face-to-face public engagement is statistically predicted using the scientists' attitudes, normative beliefs, and efficacy beliefs, as well as demographics and past communication activity, training, and past thinking about the objectives. The data allow for questions about the degree to which such variables consistently predict views about objectives. The research is placed in the context of assessing factors that communication trainers might seek to reshape if they wanted get scientists to consider choosing specific communication objectives.

  15. Comparing perceptual judgment and subjective measures of spatial awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Matthew L; Bass, Ellen J

    2009-07-01

    Spatial awareness is important in domains where safety hinges on human operators keeping track of the relative locations of objects in the environment. While a variety of subjective and judgment-based measures have been used to evaluate spatial awareness, none have probed all three of its levels: (1) identification of environmental objects, (2) their current locations relative to the operator, and (3) their relative positions over time. This work compares new judgment-based measures of spatial awareness that probe all three levels of spatial awareness to conventional subjective measures. In the evaluation of 14 configurations of Synthetic Vision Systems head down displays (seven terrain textures and two Geometric Fields of View (GFOVs)), 18 pilots made four types of judgments (relative angle, distance, height, and abeam time) regarding the location of terrain points displayed in 112 5-s, non-interactive simulations. They also provided subjective demand, awareness, clutter, SA-SWORD, and preferred GFOV measures. Correlation analyses revealed that displays that received higher awareness and SA-SWORD subjective ratings were associated with smaller errors in abeam time judgments and, for SA-SWORD, smaller errors in relative distance judgments. Thus SA-SWORD provides insight into level 2 spatial awareness and both SA-SWORD and awareness provide insight into level 3 spatial awareness. ANOVA and chi(2) analyses revealed comparable results between display configurations that produced the minimum error in judgments and those recommended by the awareness, SA-SWORD, and preferred GFOV measures.

  16. Geophysicists' views about public engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besley, J. C.; Dudo, A.; Yuan, S.

    2016-12-01

    The proposed talk would present the results of 2016 survey of American Geophysical Union members (n = 2040) about public engagement. This survey took place as part of a broader, NSF funded, study of engagement views across eight different U.S.-based scientific societies. The presentation would include data about geophysicists' past engagement behavior and willingness to engage alongside data about engagement attitudes, perceived norms (i.e. beliefs about whether peers engage and value engagement), and perceived efficacy (i.e., scientists' beliefs about their own communication skills and the impact of engagement). The presentation would also include results that describe scientists' overall goals for engagement (e.g., increasing support for specific policy positions, changing citizen behavior, etc.), as well as their communication-specific objectives (e.g., increasing knowledge, increase excitement, etc.). All of the results would be put in the context of equivalent results from scientists from seven other societies across a variety of fields, including chemistry, biology, and the social sciences. Three themes that would be emphasized in the presentation include (1) the fact that there are substantial commonalities in engagement views across scientific fields, (2) the important role that perceived engagement skill (efficacy) appears to play in predicting engagement willingness, and (3) a lack of evidence that scientists are thinking about engagement in strategic ways. Strategic engagement, in this regard, would involve setting clear goals and then choosing activities that the social science of science communication suggests might allow one to achieve those goals. The presentation would conclude with thoughts about what might be done to improve the effectiveness of science communication training.

  17. Comparison of nasalance scores obtained from the Nasometer and the NasalView.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kerry E; Watterson, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Nasalance scores obtained from the Nasometer and the NasalView were compared for five different sentences. Vowel content was controlled in the design of the five stimulus sentences. One sentence was loaded with high-front vowels, one with high-back vowels, one with low-front vowels, one with low-back vowels, and one contained a mixture of vowel types. The subjects were 50 elementary school children ranging from kindergarten to sixth grade. Each subject was a native speaker of English, had no history of adenoidectomy, and was not currently enrolled in speech therapy services. The main outcome measures were the nasalance scores obtained from the Nasometer and the NasalView for each of the five sentences. There was a significant difference in the nasalance scores between the Nasometer and the NasalView for four of the five stimuli, but not all differences were in the same direction. For two stimuli, the Nasometer scores were significantly higher, and for two stimuli the NasalView scores were higher. Bivariate correlations between nasalance scores for individual stimuli were in the good range for the Nasometer but poor for the NasalView. Speech stimuli weighted with different vowel types are differentially affected by the different acoustical filtering used in the Nasometer versus the NasalView. Nasalance scores obtained with the NasalView were qualitatively and quantitatively different from those obtained with the Nasometer. This suggests that the two machines provide different information, and the scores are not interchangeable.

  18. Differences in perception of sweet and savoury waffles between elderly and young subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, S.; Mojet, J.; Kroeze, J.H.A.

    2007-01-01

    Differences between two age groups in texture and flavour perception, in food appreciation and in texture and olfactory sensitivity were investigated. Three experiments were conducted: ratings of texture and flavour attributes, ratings of pleasantness of (1) sweet vanilla waffles, (2) savoury cheese

  19. Teaching More than the Facts of Menstruation: Exercises to Stimulate Dialogue about a Taboo Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Christina J.

    1981-01-01

    Presents nine exercises designed to help students and teachers become more aware of their attitudes about menstruation and to move beyond the realms of mystery, ignorance, and taboos. Participants list and analyze expressions used to refer to menstruation, discuss pleasant and unpleasant experiences, and recall feelings on first learning of…

  20. Perceptual Dialectology: Northerners and Southerners’ View of Different American Dialects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurenzia Yannuar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available American English, also known as US English, is a set of dialects in the English language mostly used in the United States. It has considerable variations in terminology, phrasing and syntax. The differences are mostly on regional basis. The three major regional dialects are: Northern, Midland, and Southern. Generally, dialect varieties are acceptable in society; however, some of them are more stigmatized than others. The present study has been done to examine American English speakers’ perceptions towards regional American varieties in terms of correctness, pleasantness, and difference from their own speech

  1. PREFACE: Viewing the World through Spin Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolen, Ton; Nishimori, Hidetoshi; Sourlas, Nicolas; Wong, Michael

    2008-08-01

    This special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical collects papers by speakers and participants of the conference `Viewing the World through Spin Glasses', held in Oxford (UK) on 31 August and 1 September 2007 in honour of Professor David Sherrington. It also includes contributions by many other active researchers in the field of spin glasses and related problems. The theory of spin glasses has a history of more than 30 years and continues to develop within itself as well as into an unexpectedly vast range of interdisciplinary subjects, including neural networks, error-correcting codes, optimization problems and social problems. Most of these amazing developments have their formal basis in the ground-breaking work of David Sherrington with Scott Kirkpatrick, centred on the SK model and the techniques devised to analyse it via the replica method. In this 'classic-of-classics' paper, a theoretical paradigm was suddenly established which became the common tool of analysis for thousands of papers in the following decades. It also led to deep developments in probability theory, through the efforts to understand the enigmatic Parisi solution of the SK model. The work of Professor Sherrington will continue to be an infinite source of our inspiration in many years to come. The purpose of the conference `Viewing the World through Spin Glasses' was to provide an overview of the present status of the fields which Professor Sherrington initiated, on the occasion of his 65th birthday, organized by John Cardy, Juan P Garrahan and the present Guest Editors. The first contribution in this special issue, by Professor Paul Goldbart, reflects his salute delivered at the conference dinner, and conveys its atmosphere very well. The papers that follow, ordered by the date of acceptance, represent the current activities of leading researchers in spin glasses and related fields, and we expect these to serve as milestones for future developments. We thank all the

  2. Affective Norms for 718 Polish Short Texts (ANPST): Dataset with Affective Ratings for Valence, Arousal, Dominance, Origin, Subjective Significance and Source Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbir, Kamil K

    2016-01-01

    Affective sciences are of burgeoning interest and are attracting more and more research attention. Three components of stimuli meaning have traditionally been distinguished: valence (degree of pleasantness), arousal (degree of intensity of sensations), and dominance (degree of control over sensations). Recently, another three dimensions have been introduced to measure qualities connected to the emotion-duality model: origin (the main component originating in the heart or in the mind), subjective significance (the degree of the subjective goal's relevance), and source (the location of the stimuli evoking the state). All six affective dimensions were assessed in our study of 718 Polish short texts (sentences of 5-23 words and 36-133 characters in length) describing situations or states in a way that can be referenced to an individual's experience. Assessments were carried out by 148 psychology students (all women for 108 sentences) and 2,091 students of different faculties (social science, engineering, life science, and science) from Warsaw colleges and universities (1,061 women and 1,030 men for all 718 sentences). Assessing sets of sentences for emotional response is especially useful for researchers interested in emotion elicitation through the use of a phrase such as "imagine that …" or by simply reading emotionally charged material that is more complex and that provides better context than single pictures or words.

  3. The influence of non-linear frequency compression on the perception of music by adults with a moderate to sever hearing loss: subjective impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uys, Marinda; Pottas, Lidia; Vinck, Bart; van Dijk, Catherine

    2012-12-01

    To date, the main direction in frequency-lowering hearing aid studies has been in relation to speech perception abilities. With improvements in hearing aid technology, interest in musical perception as a dimension that could improve hearing aid users' quality of life has grown. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of non-linear frequency compression (NFC) on hearing aid users' subjective impressions of listening to music. DESIGN & SAMPLE: A survey research design was implemented to elicit participants' (N=40) subjective impressions of musical stimuli with and without NFC. The use of NFC significantly improved hearing aid users' perception of the musical qualities of overall fidelity, tinniness and reverberance. Although participants preferred to listen to the loudness, fullness, crispness, naturalness and pleasantness of music with the use of NFC, these benefits were not significant. The use of NFC can increase hearing aid users' enjoyment and appreciation of music. Given that a relatively large percentage of hearing aid users express a loss of enjoyment of music, audiologists should not ignore the possible benefits of NFC, especially if one takes into account that previous research indicates speech perception benefits with this technology.

  4. The influence of non-linear frequency compression on the perception of music by adults with a moderate to severe hearing loss: Subjective impressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinda Uys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To date, the main direction in frequency-lowering hearing aid studies has been in relation to speech perception abilities. With improvements in hearing aid technology, interest in musical perception as a dimension that could improve hearing aid users’ quality of life has grown. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of non-linear frequency compression (NFC on hearing aid users’ subjective impressions of listening to music. Design & sample: A survey research design was implemented to elicit participants’ (N=40 subjective impressions of musical stimuli with and without NFC. Results: The use of NFC significantly improved hearing aid users’ perception of the musical qualities of overall fidelity, tinniness and reverberance. Although participants preferred to listen to the loudness, fullness, crispness, naturalness and pleasantness of music with the use of NFC, these benefits were not significant. Conclusion: The use of NFC can increase hearing aid users’ enjoyment and appreciation of music. Given that a relatively large percentage of hearing aid users express a loss of enjoyment of music, audiologists should not ignore the possible benefits of NFC, especially if one takes into account that previous research indicates speech perception benefits with this technology.

  5. As disciplinas pedagógicas na formação e na construção de representações sobre o trabalho docente: visões de alunos de licenciatura em Química e Física Pedagogy subjects in the formation and in the construction of representations about teachers' work: views of preservice Chemistry and Physics teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro da Cunha Pinto Neto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo analisar as concepções de licenciandos em Química e em Física sobre a prática profissional e as marcas deixadas pelas disciplinas pedagógicas na sua formação, assim como identificar sinais de mudanças em suas concepções durante a realização do curso de Licenciatura. Para tanto, textos foram produzidos por 54 alunos matriculados em cursos de Licenciatura de duas universidades públicas do estado de São Paulo, nos quais os licenciandos expressaram suas experiências de formação e apontaram elementos que consideram que terão alguma influência em sua atuação profissional. Os textos revelaram que as ideias que os licenciandos carregam são consistentes com muitas das visões e objetivos apresentados em cursos de formação de professores. Nas produções dos estudantes faz-se presente o desejo de compartilhar e promover em seus futuros alunos o interesse pela Química e a Física. Os seus comentários refletiram visões de professores que tiveram no passado, os quais gostariam de imitar, e de outros que não gostariam de ser. Os comentários também tornaram evidente a vontade dos licenciandos em se estabelecerem como professores que se preocupam com seus alunos. Os textos foram analisados segundo a Análise do Discurso de linha francesa, como tem sido divulgada por Eni Orlandi, especialmente a noção de formação discursiva.The objective of this study is to analyze the views of preservice chemistry and physics teachers about the professional practice and the influence of pedagogic disciplines on their formation. Furthermore, it aims at identifying changes in preservice teachers' opinions and beliefs throughout their education. Hence, texts were produced by 54 undergraduate students who were undertaking preservice courses in two public universities in the state of São Paulo, in which they expressed their experiences throughout the course and mentioned relevant aspects about their professional

  6. Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a binary lottery procedure for inducing risk neutral behavior in a subjective belief elicitation task. Prior research has shown this procedure to robustly induce risk neutrality when subjects are given a single risk task defined over objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from...... the same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure also induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation of subjective probabilities in subjects...

  7. The landing obligation in view of different management regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Hans Staby; Hoff, Ayoe

    2017-01-01

    The European Union adopted a landing obligation in 2015 implying that all catches of fish subject to quota management must be landed. We compare and contrast the economic consequences for fisheries of the landing obligation in view of the management system on which it is super-imposed. Four types...... of management are assessed: open access, shared quota, individual transferable quotas and economically optimal fishery. A standard non-linear programming bio-economic model is applied, providing illustrative numerical examples based on hypothetical parameter values. It is shown that the landing obligation has....... It is concluded that the effects of introducing the landing obligation in ITQ management systems are complex, but small....

  8. Distress vs. Non-Distress Approach and the Personal Space of Masculine, Feminine, and Androgynous Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisson, Pamela A.; Thomas, Georgelle

    Examined was the relationship between personal space and sex roles. Feminine females (N=25), androgynous females (N=25) and masculine males (N=25) viewed a film of male and female approaching stimulus persons in distress and non-distress conditions. Subjects marked the Comfortable Interpersonal Distance Scale at the point where they would prefer…

  9. The relationship between negative emotions and acute subjective and objective symptoms of childhood asthma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, S.; Prins, P.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Examined whether negative emotions influence subjective rather than objective symptoms of asthma, breathlessness, and airways obstruction in 40 asthmatic children (aged 7-18 yrs). The Ss were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental conditions: (1) viewing an emotional film of 10 min; (2) performing

  10. Influence of Austrian subjective-psychological school towards Ukrainian economic thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesterenko О.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Сore ideas of M.Тugan-Baranovsky and Е.Slutsky have been analyzed in the context of marginal ideas expansion in Ukraine. Significant influence of Austrian subjective-psychological variant of marginal utility theory on forming the views of above mentioned scientists and overcoming the specific elements of Austrian economic doctrine limitations has been revealed.

  11. Deformation response of gellan gum based bone scaffold subjected to uniaxial quasi-static loading

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kytýř, Daniel; Krčmářová, Nela; Šleichrt, Jan; Fíla, Tomáš; Koudelka_ml., Petr; Gantar, A.; Novak, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 1 (2017), s. 14-21 ISSN 1210-2709 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) ATCZ38 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : gellan gum scaffold * reinforcement * uni-axial loading Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials https://ojs.cvut.cz/ojs/index.php/ap/article/view/3885

  12. Hans Jonas' thought on the ethics of research on human subjects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    The thinking and teachings of Hans Jonas was on the need for medical research to advance beyond the use animals for research and experimentations to research on human subjects. Jonas upholds the established view that medicine is an experimental science and that most medical advances are product of trial and error ...

  13. Hans Jonas' thought on the ethics of research on human subjects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thinking and teachings of Hans Jonas was on the need for medical research to advance beyond the use animals for research and experimentations to research on human subjects. Jonas upholds the established view that medicine is an experimental science and that most medical advances are product of trial and error ...

  14. Learning and the development of social identities in the subjects Care and Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volman, M.L.L.; ten Dam, G.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the way in which social identities structure the learning processes of students in two subjects in the Dutch secondary school curriculum - Care and Technology. It analyses interviews with 23 students and their teachers with a view to explaining the disappointing results in

  15. Learning and the development of social identities in the subjects: Care and Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volman, M.L.L.; ten Dam, G.T.M.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the way in which social identities structure the learning processes of students in two subjects in the Dutch secondary school curriculum - Care and Technology. It analyzes interviews with 23 students and their teachers with a view to explaining the disappointing results in

  16. Beer, wine, spirits and subjective health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbaek, M; Mortensen, E L; Mygind, K

    1999-01-01

    To examine the association between intake of different types of alcoholic beverages and self reported subjective health.......To examine the association between intake of different types of alcoholic beverages and self reported subjective health....

  17. Is viewing ostracism on television distressing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Robinson, Simon L; Gundersen, Nicola C

    2011-01-01

    Being ostracized can be a painful and distressing experience and can lead to subsequent aggression by the victim. However, it is unknown whether watching someone else be ostracized either in real life or on television is similarly distressing. The purpose of the current study was to examine what type of distress (if any) is induced after viewing ostracism on television. The study consisted of 50 participants, half who viewed a movie clip containing ostracism and half who viewed a control clip. Physiological and self-report data revealed that viewing ostracism was distressing to participants. In particular, participants who viewed the ostracism clip reported a lower sense of belonging, self esteem, and mood, and a greater increase in heart rate and skin conductivity than those who viewed the control clip.

  18. Career development: graduate nurse views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Michelle; Horsfall, Jan; Muthulakshmi, Paulpandi; Happell, Brenda; Hunt, Glenn E

    2013-09-01

    To explore recent Singapore nursing graduates' experience of and views about their career development and progress. The recruitment and retention of an adequate number of registered nurses is a continuing workforce issue in Singapore and other major cities. Survey of recent nursing graduates. Recent nursing graduates from the Bachelor programme (n = 147) were sent an individual survey; a response rate of 54% was achieved. Findings show that nurses rated their self-concept in a positive manner and were most satisfied (moderately to very) with helping patients and providing effective care, and the level of patient involvement. They were least satisfied (moderately to only a little) with prestige among the general medical community and the general public, hours of work, lifestyle factors and research opportunities. The following four factors were identified as significant impediments to career development; lack of support in the work place; perceived insufficient clinical career development opportunities; excessive work hours; and limited access to merit-based places in further education. Suggestions made to overcome perceived career development barriers are as follows: broad multifactorial healthcare system changes; decreased and more flexible working hours; and fairer access to further clinical and higher education. Results highlight the value clinical nurses place on having access to career development opportunities, merit-based further education and work place supports. These factors also have the potential to influence patient care and impact on the retention of nurses in their present job and satisfaction with their nursing career. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Contemporary views on selective mutism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimoski Sanja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review contemporary literature on selective mutism (SM, available in our language. The paper includes a contemporary definition of the disorder, previous studies of selective mutism, theories about its origin, and treatment. SM is a disorder that occurs in childhood, when a child's speech is selectively lacking in certain social situations. School is the context in which the disorder is typically manifested, which is why SM is often diagnosed only after children start school. The paper gives a historical account of changes in views on this disorder. Modern conceptions emphasize selective inability of children to spontaneously and successfully express themselves verbally. In researching SM, case studies on children who have selective mutism are most commonly published. Etiological factors are not precisely defined, and different conceptions give their interpretations depending on various theoretical frameworks. Some studies consistently indicate a relation between SM and social anxiety, and some with opposing behavior and delays in language development. Based on theoretical explanations of SM, psychological interventions (behavioral and cognitive-behavioral, psychodynamic and projective techniques, counseling and family therapy are created. Modern treatment of selective mutism includes an eclectic approach and emphasizes the role of teachers and school in general. Future studies should deepen the knowledge about selective mutism, specify the methodological procedure and stimulate the individualized treatment of children with SM.

  20. School violence: an insider view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Shelley A; Fisher, Kathleen

    2003-01-01

    To discover what teachers perceive to be contributing factors to violence in schools. Open-ended questions were asked of a convenience sample of teachers ( = 396) during an in-service education program on school violence. The teachers were in a semi-rural school district in a Mid-Atlantic state. Answers were analyzed using content analysis; all responses were reviewed and important themes were extracted. Identified themes were then placed into suitable categories and studied to determine relationships. Of the surveys analyzed ( = 239), 13 themes were identified. The three categories which then identified probable causes of school violence were (1) lack of knowledge, (2) lack of support, and (3) inadequate safety measures. Nurses can use the results of this study in multiple ways. One is to help parents understand their role in preventing school violence. Because violence in the home and violence in the media seem to foster violent acting-out behavior, nurses can teach parents about these correlations and seek solutions such as the elimination of family violence, and monitoring television viewing and video games. Nursing assessments of school-aged children and their families can include these elements. School nurses in particular can use these study results as an opportunity to develop interventions for students, teachers, and families that stress knowledge building about impulse control, anger management, appropriate parenting, and early intervention for at-risk children.

  1. Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

    2012-07-01

    The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

  2. Beyond Objectivity and Subjectivity: The Intersubjective Foundations of Psychological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascolo, Michael F

    2016-12-01

    The question of whether psychology can properly be regarded as a science has long been debated (Smedslund in Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 50, 185-195, 2016). Science is typically understood as a method for producing reliable knowledge by testing falsifiable claims against objective evidence. Psychological phenomena, however, are traditionally taken to be "subjective" and hidden from view. To the extent that science relies upon objective observation, is a scientific psychology possible? In this paper, I argue that scientific psychology does not much fail to meet the requirements of objectivity as much as the concept of objectivity fails as a methodological principle for psychological science. The traditional notion of objectivity relies upon the distinction between a public, observable exterior and a private, subjective interior. There are good reasons, however, to reject this dichotomy. Scholarship suggests that psychological knowledge arises neither from the "inside out" (subjectively) nor from the outside-in (objectively), but instead intersubjective processes that occur between people. If this is so, then objectivist methodology may do more to obscure than illuminate our understanding of psychological functioning. From this view, we face a dilemma: Do we, in the name of science, cling to an objective epistemology that cuts us off from the richness of psychological activity? Or do we seek to develop a rigorous intersubjective psychology that exploits the processes through which we gain psychological knowledge in the first place? If such a psychology can produce systematic, reliable and useful knowledge, then the question of whether its practices are "scientific" in the traditional sense would become irrelevant.

  3. The Psychometry of Colour Quality: a Three-Chamber Viewing Booth Method

    OpenAIRE

    Bodrogi, P.; Krause, N; Brückner, S.; Khanh, T. Q.; Winkler, H

    2012-01-01

    To alleviate the subject's visual assessment task, a three-chamber viewing booth has been set up with three copies of the same arrangement of multi-coloured test objects. In this experiment, subjects compare the reference appearance in the middle with two test appearances left and right at the same time, allowing for the psychometric method of pair comparisons in addition to interval scaling and ordinal scaling. This new comprehensive method of colour quality assessment is intended to she...

  4. The Need for the Dualist View to Combat Extremism How the Dualist View Can Combat Extremis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair J. Sinclair

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available his paper argues that we will never get rid of the extremist mentality unless the dualist view prevails and is taught as part of the educational system. The dualist view takes account of both sides of an argument whereas the extremist view promotes one side unequivocally without considering the merits of the opposing view. The merits of the dualist view can be taught in schools so that everyone learns to recognise that mentality when it is evident not only in other people’s behaviour but also in their own thinking about things. The dualist view is a flexible one involving trial-and-error processes as we work our way through life. That view is contrasted with the monist view that focuses on one point of view to the exclusion of all others. The extremist’s view is usually monistic and is intolerable of views that contradict or dispute their dogmatic view of things. This paper therefore examines these two contrasting views. It outlines the spectrum between monist and dualist ways of thinking, and it concludes that systematic form of dualism is possible that takes the middle way between the extremes of dogmatic and sceptical thinking. Only through dualist studies will the dualist view be more thoroughly developed, as is outlined here.

  5. Single Subject Research: Applications to Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakiroglu, Orhan

    2012-01-01

    Single subject research is a scientific research methodology that is increasingly used in the field of special education. Therefore, understanding the unique characteristics of single subject research methodology is critical both for educators and practitioners. Certain characteristics make single subject research one of the most preferred…

  6. Subject Choice and Earnings of UK Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Using a survey of a cohort of UK graduates, linked to administrative data on higher education participation, this paper investigates the labour market attainment of recent graduates by subject of study. We document a large heterogeneity in the mean wages of graduates from different subjects and a considerably larger one within subject with…

  7. The changing role of the subject specialist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cotta-Schønberg

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available As we all know, libraries are these years rapidly undergoing change on unparalleled scale. Evidently, this applies to librarians, too, and not the least to that important category of library staff, the subject specialist. As recruiting and education of library workers differ from country to country it is difficult to give a detailed, generally valid description of the subject librarian in libraries, but I believe that you can describe an ideal model of subject librarianship as follows: Within each of the major subject disciplines covered by the library, the library should have a subject specialist preferably with a master degree or at least a bachelor degree in the particular subject discipline. The role of the subject specialist is to perform four basic functions where extensive subject knowledge is considered to be necessary: selecting and classifying books, assisting users with advanced subject inquiries, giving subject-specific courses in information retrieval, and maintaining liaison with relevant academic departments and centres. Personally, I know this system very well since I got employment in the Royal Library in Copenhagen as a subject specialist in psychology in the very month I finished my degree in psychology from the University of Copenhagen, back in 1973. The subject librarian system at the Royal Library in Copenhagen was patterned on the ideal model, as I just described it, and it was closely paralleled in the other academic libraries in Denmark, also the new university libraries which were founded in the seventies.

  8. Sex Education as a Transversal Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Amanda Oliveira; Pereira, Graziela Raupp; Reis, Maria Amélia; Ferreira, António G.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, sex education is in many countries a transversal subject, in which the school becomes a privileged place for the implementation of policies that aim at promoting "public health." Its design as a cross-cutting subject envisages fostering the dissemination of these subjects in all pedagogical and curricular fields; however, we…

  9. Improved LabVIEW Code Generation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evita Vavilina; Gatis Gaigals

    2016-01-01

    .... LabVIEW provides highly convenient environment for simulation development and also tools for generation of simulation environment that can include simulation itself and collection of simulation data...

  10. Instant QlikView 11 application development

    CERN Document Server

    Blackwood, B Diane

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. This book follows a recipe-based approach. Tasks are split up as short recipes to guide the readers in their app development journey with QlikView 11.The book is ideal for developers who are interested in learning QlikView. It is also meant for those who are interested in developing applications with QlikView. Developers just need to have an idea about the functions of QlikView and how they can be put to maximum use for developing the application.

  11. An Infrared View of Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    In honor of NASA Hubble Space Telescope's eighth anniversary, we have gift wrapped Saturn in vivid colors. Actually, this image is courtesy of the new Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS), which has taken its first peek at Saturn. The false-color image - taken Jan. 4, 1998 - shows the planet's reflected infrared light. This view provides detailed information on the clouds and hazes in Saturn's atmosphere.The blue colors indicate a clear atmosphere down to a main cloud layer. Different shadings of blue indicate variations in the cloud particles, in size or chemical composition. The cloud particles are believed to be ammonia ice crystals. Most of the northern hemisphere that is visible above the rings is relatively clear. The dark region around the south pole at the bottom indicates a big hole in the main cloud layer.The green and yellow colors indicate a haze above the main cloud layer. The haze is thin where the colors are green but thick where they are yellow. Most of the southern hemisphere (the lower part of Saturn) is quite hazy. These layers are aligned with latitude lines, due to Saturn's east-west winds.The red and orange colors indicate clouds reaching up high into the atmosphere. Red clouds are even higher than orange clouds. The densest regions of two storms near Saturn's equator appear white. On Earth, the storms with the highest clouds are also found in tropical latitudes. The smaller storm on the left is about as large as the Earth, and larger storms have been recorded on Saturn in 1990 and 1994.The rings, made up of chunks of ice, are as white as images of ice taken in visible light. However, in the infrared, water absorption causes various colorations. The most obvious is the brown color of the innermost ring. The rings cast their shadow onto Saturn. The bright line seen within this shadow is sunlight shining through the Cassini Division, the separation between the two bright rings. It is best observed on the left side, just

  12. Materiality, Language and the Production of Knowledge: Art, Subjectivity and Indigenous Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelle Barrett

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Since all theories of knowing deal with the being of subjects, objects, instruments and environments, they can be viewed as onto-epistemological.  This chapter examines key ideas that emerge from the work of Julia Kristeva – 'the speaking subject', 'materiality of language' and 'heterogeneity' – to demonstrate how ontology and epistemology are inextricably entwined in knowledge production. Kristeva also affirms both the agency of matter and  the dimension of human/subjective agency implicated in cultural production. This is contrasted with Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari’s account creative practice. The article also draws on the artistic work of researcher-practitioner Brian Martin, and his account of the relationship between Indigenous Australian art and culture to demonstrate that in an Indigenous world view, the real, the immaterial, the imaginary and the representational occur concurrently.

  13. Four Galileo Views of Amalthea

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    These four images of Jupiter's moon, Amalthea, were taken by Galileo's solid state imaging system at various times between February and June 1997. North is approximately up in all cases. Amalthea, whose longest dimension is approximately 247 kilometers (154 miles) across, is tidally locked so that the same side of the satellite always points towards Jupiter, similar to how the nearside of our own Moon always points toward Earth. In such a tidally locked state, one side of Amalthea always points in the direction in which Amalthea moves as it orbits about Jupiter. This is called the 'leading side' of the moon and is shown in the top two images. The opposite side of Amalthea, the 'trailing side,' is shown in the bottom pair of images. The Sun illuminates the surface from the left in the top left image and from the right in the bottom left image. Such lighting geometries, similar to taking a picture from a high altitude at sunrise or sunset, are excellent for viewing the topography of the satellite's surface such as impact craters and hills. In the two images on the right, however, the Sun is almost directly behind the spacecraft. This latter geometry, similar to taking a picture from a high altitude at noon, washes out topographic features and emphasizes Amalthea's albedo (light/dark) patterns. It emphasizes the presence of surface materials that are intrinsically brighter or darker than their surroundings. The bright albedo spot that dominates the top right image is located inside a large south polar crater named Gaea.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  14. Symbol in View of Ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad reza Yousefi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Symbol from the perspective of rhetorical word, is phrase or sentence that apparent meaning, also inspires to reader a wide range of semantic.Since exploring the complex social and political ideas in the most mysticalway and indirectreflectionsocial and political thoughts symbolically is easier, so the symbol and symbolism especially in Persian literatureespeciallyin the realm of Persian poetry, has a special appearance.In addition to the factors mentioned in the contemporary literature, according familiar in literature and the emergence of particular schools interest toambiguoussymbolization has spreadfurther, especially the symbol has all the features of art ambiguity in the poem and it isone the major factors causing uncertainty.Thus, the precise definitions and symbols of contemporary poetry could be dominant in the unwinding ambiguous symbol detection of cryptic allusions and metaphors that matches the cursor symbol to help readers.  In the literature, especially language poetry, the inability of language toreflecting obscure mystical ideas, avoid to directexpression of political and social concerns of the reader in the course of participate to creation ambiguous literary works is the main motivation towards symbol and symbolization.According widespread use of symbol and its different of species can be viewed from different perspectives.The creation of ambiguity is the main purposes of using symbols (especially in poetry, so many poets have tried to achieve this goal have to formation of similar symbols and the explanation and resolution of this issue can open new window for understanding the poetry in front of an audience.  In this paper examines the ambiguity of symbols in terms of its precise boundaries are reviewed. Ambiguity is one of the important processes and also is the key Iranian poetry its means is today poetry. In such poetry ambiguity is a need to explore the new world from a different perspective, or explore this

  15. Symbol in View of Ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Rassoulian

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available  Abstract Symbol from the perspective of rhetorical word, is phrase or sentence that apparent meaning, also inspires to reader a wide range of semantic.Since exploring the complex social and political ideas in the most mysticalway and indirectreflectionsocial and political thoughts symbolically is easier, so the symbol and symbolism especially in Persian literatureespeciallyin the realm of Persian poetry, has a special appearance.In addition to the factors mentioned in the contemporary literature, according familiar in literature and the emergence of particular schools interest toambiguoussymbolization has spreadfurther, especially the symbol has all the features of art ambiguity in the poem and it isone the major factors causing uncertainty.Thus, the precise definitions and symbols of contemporary poetry could be dominant in the unwinding ambiguous symbol detection of cryptic allusions and metaphors that matches the cursor symbol to help readers.  In the literature, especially language poetry, the inability of language toreflecting obscure mystical ideas, avoid to directexpression of political and social concerns of the reader in the course of participate to creation ambiguous literary works is the main motivation towards symbol and symbolization.According widespread use of symbol and its different of species can be viewed from different perspectives.The creation of ambiguity is the main purposes of using symbols (especially in poetry, so many poets have tried to achieve this goal have to formation of similar symbols and the explanation and resolution of this issue can open new window for understanding the poetry in front of an audience.  In this paper examines the ambiguity of symbols in terms of its precise boundaries are reviewed. Ambiguity is one of the important processes and also is the key Iranian poetry its means is today poetry. In such poetry ambiguity is a need to explore the new world from a different perspective, or

  16. Mediating effect of Facebook addiction on the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Recep; Satici, Seydi Ahmet; Akin, Ahmet

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the mediating effects of Facebook addiction on the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness. 297 university students (157 women, 140 men; M age = 20.1 yr., SD = 1.3) were administered the Facebook Addiction Scale, the Subjective Vitality Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that Facebook addiction partially mediated the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness.

  17. Patients' Evaluation of Intervention by a Medical Clown Visit or by Viewing a Humorous Film Following In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedler, Shevach; Glasser, Saralee; Levitan, Gila; Hadar, Dana; Sasi, Bat-El; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2017-01-01

    This study compared responses to an in-person clown visit and a humorous film following in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Intervention was a 10-minute clown visit (n = 101) or 10-minute humorous video clip (n = 99). Demographic and fertility-related data and preintervention anxiety scores were collected. Participants completed an Evaluation of Intervention form postintervention. There were no group differences on demographic or fertility-related data or anxiety scores. Findings indicate while participants viewed the intervention positively, the clown visit offered a higher degree of satisfaction in more patients than did the film. Median evaluation scores were significantly higher for the clown visit, specifically reducing anxiety level and being more distracting. Both groups reported that the exposure made the clinic experience more pleasant and did not bother them, and most would recommend incorporating the intervention in routine treatment. However, free-text comments clearly expressed greater enthusiasm to the in-person clown intervention than to the film. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Adaptive display luminance for viewing smartphones under low illuminance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Nooree; Suk, Hyeon-Jeong

    2015-06-29

    The study investigates the optimal display luminance for viewing smartphones in conditions of low illuminance. This proposes a model of adaptive display in that display luminance changes gradually with the passage of watching time. It starts at a fairly low display luminance of 10 cd/m2, and after 10 seconds, the luminance increases slowly until it reaches 40 cd/m2 for 20 seconds and maintains the luminance. For the development of the model, an experiment was conducted to identify the optimal luminance for initial viewing and that for continuous viewing, as well as the change speed of display luminance. In order to validate the model, users' subjective judgments and activation of alpha rhythm were observed, and the result confirmed the superiority of the adaptive display luminance compared to the current display luminance in terms of physiological comfort and psychological satisfaction. It is expected that this study contributes to the pleasing use of displays at night under low illuminance by applying to diverse types of display devices.

  19. The Resource-Based View: A Review and Assessment of Its Critiques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijenbrink, Jeroen; Spender, J.C.; Groen, Arend J.

    2010-01-01

    The resource-based view (RBV) of the firm has been around for over 20 years—during which time it has been both widely taken up and subjected to considerable criticism. The authors review and assess the principal critiques evident in the literature, arguing they fall into eight categories. They

  20. The Psychophysiological Reactions of Film Viewers While Viewing Selected Cinemagraphic Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, Dennis K.

    This study focused on the psychophysiological reactions of viewers seeing such selected cinemagraphic elements as varying camera distances, tracking shots, panning shots, and zooming shots. Subjects (N=29), randomly selected from introductory speech courses, viewed five films that varied in the presence or absence of the selected filmic elements.…