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Sample records for subjects subsequently developed

  1. Vagotomy and subsequent development of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starup-Linde, Jakob; Gejl, Michael; Borghammer, Per

    2016-01-01

    registration of vagotomy and/or upper gastrointestinal disease in the period 1977-2011. Controls had no subsequent diagnosis of diabetes and were matched by incidence density sampling, age and gender. Logistic regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS: 501,724 diabetes patients and 1,375,567 matched controls......BACKGROUND: Vagal signaling is involved in gastric emptying and the secretion and effect of a number of hormones regulating gluco-metabolic processes and, thus, crucial for metabolic homeostasis. PURPOSE: We hypothesized that vagotomy would increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes...... and examined the association between vagotomy and subsequent development of diabetes. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted with information on cases and controls from the Danish National Patient Registry. Cases included individuals with a diabetes diagnosis subsequent (>12months) to the first...

  2. The Differential Effect of Attentional Condition on Subsequent Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Halah Abdulelah; Majid, Norazman Abdul; Abdullah, Tina

    2016-01-01

    This study addressed the potential methodological issues effect of attentional condition on subsequent vocabulary development from a different perspective, which addressed several potential methodological issues of previous research that have been based on psycholinguistic notion of second language learner as a limited capacity processor. The…

  3. Safety analysis of nuclear containment vessels subjected to strong earthquakes and subsequent tsunamis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Feng; Li, Hong Zhi [Dept. Structural Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai (China)

    2017-08-15

    Nuclear power plants under expansion and under construction in China are mostly located in coastal areas, which means they are at risk of suffering strong earthquakes and subsequent tsunamis. This paper presents a safety analysis for a new reinforced concrete containment vessel in such events. A finite element method-based model was built, verified, and first used to understand the seismic performance of the containment vessel under earthquakes with increased intensities. Then, the model was used to assess the safety performance of the containment vessel subject to an earthquake with peak ground acceleration (PGA) of 0.56g and subsequent tsunamis with increased inundation depths, similar to the 2011 Great East earthquake and tsunami in Japan. Results indicated that the containment vessel reached Limit State I (concrete cracking) and Limit State II (concrete crushing) when the PGAs were in a range of 0.8–1.1g and 1.2–1.7g, respectively. The containment vessel reached Limit State I with a tsunami inundation depth of 10 m after suffering an earthquake with a PGA of 0.56g. A site-specific hazard assessment was conducted to consider the likelihood of tsunami sources.

  4. Addition of ascorbate during cryopreservation stimulates subsequent embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Michelle; Maybach, Jeffery M; Gardner, David K

    2002-10-01

    Embryo development following cryopreservation is reduced compared with fresh embryos. One of the traumas that cryopreservation imparts on embryos is an increase in oxidative stress. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of the addition of the antioxidant ascorbate to the cryopreservation solutions on subsequent embryo development. Mouse embryos at the 2-cell and blastocyst stages were either slow-frozen or vitrified in solutions containing either no ascorbate or 0.1 or 0.5 mmol/l ascorbate. The effects on the levels of hydrogen peroxide and subsequent embryo development and physiology were assessed. Addition of ascorbate to the cryopreservation solutions reduced the levels of hydrogen peroxide in embryos. Furthermore, addition of 0.1 mmol/l ascorbate significantly enhanced inner cell mass development in blastocysts. Embryos cryopreserved with ascorbate had significantly lower levels of lactate dehydrogenase leakage, and increased rates of metabolism compared with those cryopreserved in the absence of ascorbate. The benefits of ascorbate were significantly greater in embryos that were slow-frozen compared with those that were vitrified. These data indicate that the addition of 0.1 mmol/l ascorbate to the cryopreservation solutions for the mammalian embryo would be of significant value.

  5. Subjective truths: participatory development assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, T.; Obeng, F.; Obure, J.; Zaal, F.

    2009-01-01

    The starting point for development evaluations should be how the recipients of development assistance experience change, rather than the set perspectives of the evaluators. The participatory development assessment (PDA) methodology is designed to involve recipients in evaluations.

  6. The subjective experience of trauma and subsequent PTSD in a sample of undocumented immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Andrew; Rosenfeld, Barry; Reeves, Kim; Keller, Allen S

    2007-02-01

    Although a subjective component of trauma is commonly recognized in diagnosing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there are few studies that specifically address Criterion A2, and none addressing this issue among undocumented immigrants. We assessed 212 arriving undocumented immigrants with diverse trauma histories to investigate concordance between objective and subjective factors of trauma (Criteria A1 and A2) and across different types of trauma and PTSD. Concordance between Criteria A1 and A2 varied, with highest rates found for political violence. Interpersonal violence in general was associated with higher rates of PTSD. We identified a dose-response effect for PTSD, but this was not dependent on other events (i.e., other doses) meeting Criterion A2. Discussion focuses on Criterion A within the phenomenology of PTSD and the need to gauge subjective interpretations of trauma events among this population.

  7. The Effects of Objective Career Success on Subsequent Subjective Career Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, Stephen A.; Tymon, Walter G., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    We use a sample of working adults (N = 638) to explore the effects of past objective career success (mobility, promotions, and salary change) on current subjective success (human capital assessments by one's managers, core self evaluations, satisfaction with one's career) by gender, across an economic cycle (2004-2011), controlling for career…

  8. Subject to Form: Research Interviews, Performative Subjectivity, Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigianides, Sophia Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, I analyze teacher, literacy coach and researcher subjectivities in a five-year study of on-site professional development with middle-grade Language Arts teachers in a school designated by its district and state as severely underperforming. Interested in the role of research interviews as both research method and cultural…

  9. A case study of high genetic loading and subsequent development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    became depressed and her school functioning declined even more. A child psychiatrist diagnosed a major depressive disorder and ADHD. She was prescribed citalopram 10 mg daily and methylphenidate. She became hyperactive on the antidepressant, which was subsequently discontinued. The methylphenidate was ...

  10. Chronic genital ulcer disease with subsequent development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV-seropositive persons are at increased risk of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Genital ulcerative disease and sexually transmitted infection with subsequent MRSA infection in HIV-seropositive persons have been documented only once. We report a case of a 44-year-old man who presented to the ...

  11. Screening for elevated albuminuria and subsequently hypertension identifies subjects in which treatment may be warranted to prevent renal function decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyilmaz, Akin; de Jong, Paul E; Bakker, Stephan J L; Visser, Sipke T; Thio, Chris; Gansevoort, Ron T

    2017-04-01

    We investigated whether initial population screening for elevated albuminuria with subsequent screening for hypertension in case albuminuria is elevated may be of help to identify subjects at risk for accelerated decline in kidney function. We included subjects who participate in the PREVEND observational, general population-based cohort study and had two or more glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) measurements available during follow-up. Elevated albuminuria was defined as an albumin concentration ≥20 mg/L in a first morning urine sample confirmed by an albumin excretion ≥30 mg/day in two 24-h urines. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg or use of blood pressure-lowering drugs. eGFR was estimated with the CKD-EPI creatinine-cystatin C equation. Overall, 6471 subjects were included with a median of 4 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2-5] eGFR measurements during a follow-up of 11.3 (95% CI 4.0-13.7) years. Decline in eGFR was greater in the subgroups with elevated albuminuria. This held true, not only in subjects with known hypertension (-1.84 ± 2.27 versus -1.16 ± 1.45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 per year, P albuminuria had higher blood pressure than subjects with normoalbuminuria, and in subjects with elevated albuminuria as yet undiagnosed hypertension was twice as prevalent as diagnosed hypertension. Initial screening for elevated albuminuria followed by screening for hypertension may help to detect subjects with increased risk for a steeper decline in kidney function.

  12. Gestational diabetes mellitus and subsequent development of overt diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P

    1998-01-01

    of women with GDM. However, previous studies, in populations quite different from a Danish population, have shown that women with previous GDM have a high risk of developing overt diabetes mellitus later in life. Hence, we aimed to investigate the prognosis of women with previous GDM with respect...... population) 2-11 years after pregnancy. Abnormal glucose tolerance was found in 34.4% of the women (3.7% IDDM, 13.7% NIDDM, 17% IGT) in contrast to a control group where none had diabetes and 5.3% had IGT. Logistic regression analysis identified the following independent risk factors for later development...... of diabetes: a high fasting glucose level at diagnosis of GDM, a delivery more than 3 weeks before term, and an abnormal OGTT 2 months postpartum. Low insulin secretion at diagnosis of GDM was also an independent risk factor. The presence of ICA and GAD-autoantibodies in pregnancy was associated with later...

  13. Local Development of Subject Area Item Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Annie W.; Barlow, Gene

    1984-01-01

    It is feasible for school districts to develop and use subject area tests as reliable as those previously available only from commercial publishers. Three projects in local item development in a large school district are described. The first involved only Algebra 1. The second involved life science and career education at the elementary level; and…

  14. The impact of nutrition of the cumulus oocyte complex and embryo on subsequent development in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jeremy G

    2006-02-01

    Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) and early embryos rely on a histotrophic nutrition source for energy production and the synthesis of macromolecules. There is accumulating evidence suggesting that the balance of supply and demand for energy and other anabolic substrates during oocyte maturation and very early stages of development programmes subsequent developmental potential, and this may include subsequent fetal growth trajectory. One example is the role of glucose (Glc) during cumulus-oocyte complex maturation. Glucose is an essential nutrient for maturation, especially its role during cumulus expansion. Our laboratory has shown that during in vitro culture, too little glucose during cumulus-oocyte complex maturation affects meiotic competence. We have focussed on glucose (Glc) metabolism through the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) during COC maturation in vitro. The HBP in somatic cells is regarded as a "fuel-sensing" pathway and its interaction with cell signalling systems and transcriptional regulation is increasingly apparent. Up-regulation of the HBP during oocyte maturation in vitro has negative consequences for subsequent development. Another example is the role of hypoxia (low O2) during peri-compaction development. My laboratory believes that ruminant embryos during compaction, blastulation and subsequent development in the uterine cavity lack a key hypoxia responsive element. Because of this, hypoxia is important for normal development in ruminants but perturbs further development in rodents. The implication of these examples to the fundamental concept of peri-conception nutritional programming of development are discussed.

  15. Discovery of serum biomarkers predicting development of a subsequent depressive episode in social anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gottschalk, M.G.; Cooper, J.D.; Chan, M.K.; Bot, M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Bann, S.

    2015-01-01

    Although social anxiety disorder (SAD) is strongly associated with the subsequent development of a depressive disorder (major depressive disorder or dysthymia), no underlying biological risk factors are known. We aimed to identify biomarkers which predict depressive episodes in SAD patients over a

  16. Morphological features of the neonatal brain support development of subsequent cognitive, language, and motor abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Marisa N; Bansal, Ravi; Rosen, Tove S; Peterson, Bradley S

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of the role of brain maturation in the development of cognitive abilities derives primarily from studies of school-age children to adults. Little is known about the morphological features of the neonatal brain that support the subsequent development of abilities in early childhood, when maturation of the brain and these abilities are the most dynamic. The goal of our study was to determine whether brain morphology during the neonatal period supports early cognitive development through 2 years of age. We correlated morphological features of the cerebral surface assessed using deformation-based measures (surface distances) of high-resolution MRI scans for 33 healthy neonates, scanned between the first to sixth week of postmenstrual life, with subsequent measures of their motor, language, and cognitive abilities at ages 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. We found that morphological features of the cerebral surface of the frontal, mesial prefrontal, temporal, and occipital regions correlated with subsequent motor scores, posterior parietal regions correlated with subsequent language scores, and temporal and occipital regions correlated with subsequent cognitive scores. Measures of the anterior and middle portions of the cingulate gyrus correlated with scores across all three domains of ability. Most of the significant findings were inverse correlations located bilaterally in the brain. The inverse correlations may suggest either that a more protracted morphological maturation or smaller local volumes of neonatal brain tissue supports better performance on measures of subsequent motor, language, and cognitive abilities throughout the first 2 years of postnatal life. The correlations of morphological measures of the cingulate with measures of performance across all domains of ability suggest that the cingulate supports a broad range of skills in infancy and early childhood, similar to its functions in older children and adults. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Early gross motor skills predict the subsequent development of language in children with autism spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, Andrew; Lord, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Background: Motor milestones such as the onset of walking are important developmental markers, not only for later motor skills but also for more widespread social‐cognitive development. The aim of the current study was to test whether gross motor abilities, specifically the onset of walking, predicted the subsequent rate of language development in a large cohort of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods: We ran growth curve models for expressive and receptive language measured at 2, 3, 5 and 9 years in 209 autistic children. Measures of gross motor, visual reception and autism symptoms were collected at the 2 year visit. In Model 1, walking onset was included as a predictor of the slope of language development. Model 2 included a measure of non‐verbal IQ and autism symptom severity as covariates. The final model, Model 3, additionally covaried for gross motor ability. Results: In the first model, parent‐reported age of walking onset significantly predicted the subsequent rate of language development although the relationship became non‐significant when gross motor skill, non‐verbal ability and autism severity scores were included (Models 2 & 3). Gross motor score, however, did remain a significant predictor of both expressive and receptive language development. Conclusions: Taken together, the model results provide some evidence that early motor abilities in young children with ASD can have longitudinal cross‐domain influences, potentially contributing, in part, to the linguistic difficulties that characterise ASD. Autism Res 2016, 9: 993–1001. © 2015 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research PMID:26692550

  18. Early gross motor skills predict the subsequent development of language in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Rachael; Pickles, Andrew; Lord, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    Motor milestones such as the onset of walking are important developmental markers, not only for later motor skills but also for more widespread social-cognitive development. The aim of the current study was to test whether gross motor abilities, specifically the onset of walking, predicted the subsequent rate of language development in a large cohort of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We ran growth curve models for expressive and receptive language measured at 2, 3, 5 and 9 years in 209 autistic children. Measures of gross motor, visual reception and autism symptoms were collected at the 2 year visit. In Model 1, walking onset was included as a predictor of the slope of language development. Model 2 included a measure of non-verbal IQ and autism symptom severity as covariates. The final model, Model 3, additionally covaried for gross motor ability. In the first model, parent-reported age of walking onset significantly predicted the subsequent rate of language development although the relationship became non-significant when gross motor skill, non-verbal ability and autism severity scores were included (Models 2 & 3). Gross motor score, however, did remain a significant predictor of both expressive and receptive language development. Taken together, the model results provide some evidence that early motor abilities in young children with ASD can have longitudinal cross-domain influences, potentially contributing, in part, to the linguistic difficulties that characterise ASD. Autism Res 2016, 9: 993-1001. © 2015 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research. © 2015 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research.

  19. Effects of the in vitro chemical environment during early embryogenesis on subsequent development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieger, D. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). Animal Biotechnology Embryo Lab.

    1998-12-31

    The development of the preimplantation embryo seems morphologically very simple, and embryologists previously assumed that an embryo that developed to the blastocyst stage was fully capable of normal development after transfer to the uterus of a recipient female. This complacency was disturbed by reports that exposure of early embryos to mutagens such as methylnitrosourea led to fetal abnormalities, decreased birth rates, and decreased life-span. Even more disturbing are recent reports that culture of early embryos in supposedly benign conditions can adversely affect their subsequent development. Techniques have been developed for the production of cattle and sheep embryos by in-vitro fertilization and by cloning. Such embryos must be cultured for several days before they can be transferred, and, in some cases, this has been related to abortion, very high birthweight, physical abnormalities and peri-natal mortality of the calves and lambs. This syndrome may result from an unbalanced development of the trophoblast relative to the inner-cell mass, possibly related to the presence of serum, glucose, or ammonium in the culture medium. An analogous phenomenon has been observed in human in-vitro fertilization where babies from single pregnancies have below-normal birth-weight. There is also evidence to suggest that the in-vitro environment of the gametes before fertilization can affect subsequent embryonal and fetal development. Exposure of mouse oocytes to vitrification solutions has been shown to lead to fetal malformations, and treatment of bull sperm with glutathione improves early embryo development. The common thread in these diverse observations is that development can be affected by events that occur long before any defect is apparent. Consequently, the production of a morphologically normal embryo is no guarantee that fetal development and post-natal life will be normal. This is of immediate concern in human reproductive medicine due to the increasing use of

  20. Discovery of serum biomarkers predicting development of a subsequent depressive episode in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, M G; Cooper, J D; Chan, M K; Bot, M; Penninx, B W J H; Bahn, S

    2015-08-01

    Although social anxiety disorder (SAD) is strongly associated with the subsequent development of a depressive disorder (major depressive disorder or dysthymia), no underlying biological risk factors are known. We aimed to identify biomarkers which predict depressive episodes in SAD patients over a 2-year follow-up period. One hundred sixty-five multiplexed immunoassay analytes were investigated in blood serum of 143 SAD patients without co-morbid depressive disorders, recruited within the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). Predictive performance of identified biomarkers, clinical variables and self-report inventories was assessed using receiver operating characteristics curves (ROC) and represented by the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Stepwise logistic regression resulted in the selection of four serum analytes (AXL receptor tyrosine kinase, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, vitronectin, collagen IV) and four additional variables (Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Beck Anxiety Inventory somatic subscale, depressive disorder lifetime diagnosis, BMI) as optimal set of patient parameters. When combined, an AUC of 0.86 was achieved for the identification of SAD individuals who later developed a depressive disorder. Throughout our analyses, biomarkers yielded superior discriminative performance compared to clinical variables and self-report inventories alone. We report the discovery of a serum marker panel with good predictive performance to identify SAD individuals prone to develop subsequent depressive episodes in a naturalistic cohort design. Furthermore, we emphasise the importance to combine biological markers, clinical variables and self-report inventories for disease course predictions in psychiatry. Following replication in independent cohorts, validated biomarkers could help to identify SAD patients at risk of developing a depressive disorder, thus facilitating early intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Including indigestible carbohydrates in the evening meal of healthy subjects improves glucose tolerance, lowers inflammatory markers, and increases satiety after a subsequent standardized breakfast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Anne C; Ostman, Elin M; Holst, Jens Juul

    2008-01-01

    tolerance and related variables after a subsequent standardized breakfast in healthy subjects (n = 15). At breakfast, blood was sampled for 3 h for analysis of blood glucose, serum insulin, serum FFA, serum triacylglycerides, plasma glucagon, plasma gastric-inhibitory peptide, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1...... (GLP-1), serum interleukin (IL)-6, serum IL-8, and plasma adiponectin. Satiety was subjectively rated after breakfast and the gastric emptying rate (GER) was determined using paracetamol as a marker. Breath hydrogen was measured as an indicator of colonic fermentation. Evening meals with barley kernel......-kernel bread compared with WWB. Breath hydrogen correlated positively with satiety (r = 0.27; P metabolic risk variables at breakfast...

  2. Subjective dimension in the analysis of human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÓPEZ NOVAL, Borja

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years subjective evaluations about own quality of life, resumed in levels of life satisfactionor happiness, are gaining importance as indicators of development. Some authors state that subjectivewell-being is a necessary and sufficient condition for human development. In this work the arguments ofthese authors are explained and it is discussed the role subjective evaluations must play on developmentstudies. The main conclusion is that although it is necessary to integrate subjective well-being into humandevelopment studies we cannot identify subjective well-being and development.

  3. Consequences of different dietary energy sources during follicular development on subsequent fertility of cyclic gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, F R C L; Machado, G S; Borges, A L C C; Rosa, B O; Fontes, D O

    2014-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary-induced insulin enhancement during the late luteal phase on subsequent fertility of gilts. Fifty-two littermate cyclic gilts were subjected to dietary treatments where two energy sources were tested: corn starch (T1) and soybean oil (T2). The experimental diets were supposed to provide similar amounts of dietary energy, but from different sources. Gilts were fed ad libitum, starting day 8 of the estrous cycle, until the next standing heat. Blood sampling was performed in a subgroup of 20 gilts on days 14 and 21 of the cycle for analyses of glucose and insulin, and after ovulation detection until 18 h after ovulation for progesterone. All gilts were slaughtered on day 28 of pregnancy and the reproductive tracts recovered for further analysis. T1 gilts showed higher postprandial insulin peak on days 14 and 21 and lower glucose levels 4 h after feeding on day 14 (Pgilts showed higher ovulation rates, number of embryos, embryo weight and placental weight (Pgilts and, thus, improve reproductive efficiency when feeding starch as the main energy source during the late luteal and follicular phases of the cycle.

  4. Including indigestible carbohydrates in the evening meal of healthy subjects improves glucose tolerance, lowers inflammatory markers, and increases satiety after a subsequent standardized breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Anne C; Ostman, Elin M; Holst, Jens J; Björck, Inger M E

    2008-04-01

    Low-glycemic index (GI) foods and foods rich in whole grain are associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We studied the effect of cereal-based bread evening meals (50 g available starch), varying in GI and content of indigestible carbohydrates, on glucose tolerance and related variables after a subsequent standardized breakfast in healthy subjects (n = 15). At breakfast, blood was sampled for 3 h for analysis of blood glucose, serum insulin, serum FFA, serum triacylglycerides, plasma glucagon, plasma gastric-inhibitory peptide, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), serum interleukin (IL)-6, serum IL-8, and plasma adiponectin. Satiety was subjectively rated after breakfast and the gastric emptying rate (GER) was determined using paracetamol as a marker. Breath hydrogen was measured as an indicator of colonic fermentation. Evening meals with barley kernel based bread (ordinary, high-amylose- or beta-glucan-rich genotypes) or an evening meal with white wheat flour bread (WWB) enriched with a mixture of barley fiber and resistant starch improved glucose tolerance at the subsequent breakfast compared with unsupplemented WWB (P carbohydrates of the evening meal may affect glycemic excursions and related metabolic risk variables at breakfast through a mechanism involving colonic fermentation. The results provide evidence for a link between gut microbial metabolism and key factors associated with insulin resistance.

  5. Becoming disabled: The association between disability onset in younger adults and subsequent changes in productive engagement, social support, financial hardship and subjective wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Eric; Kariuki, Maina; Honey, Anne; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth

    2014-10-01

    Very few population-based studies have investigated the association between the onset of health conditions/impairments associated with disability and subsequent well-being. To examine the association between the onset of disability and four indicators of well-being (full-time engagement in employment or education, financial hardship, social support, subjective well-being) among a nationally representative sample of Australian adolescents and young adults. Secondary analysis of the first eight waves (2001-2008) of the survey of Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia. For financial hardship and subjective well-being, the majority of participants belonged to trajectory classes for which there was no evidence that the onset of disability was associated with a subsequent lowering of well-being. For participation in employment and education, the majority of participants belonged to trajectory classes for which there was evidence of a modest immediate reduction in participation rates followed by subsequent stability. For social support, the majority of participants belonged to trajectory classes for which there was evidence of a modest temporary reduction in support followed by rebound back to initial levels. Membership of classes associated with poorer outcomes was associated with a number of covariates including: male gender; younger age of disability onset; being born overseas; not living with both parents at age 14; lower proficiency in the English language; and parental education being year 12 or below. The results of our analyses illustrate the existence of clear empirically defined trajectory classes following the onset of disability across a range of indicators of well-being. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Using Satellite Observations to Infer the Relationship Between Cold Pools and Subsequent Convection Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaesser, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Cold pools are increasingly being recognized as important players in the evolution of both shallow and deep convection; hence, the incorporation of cold pool processes into a number of recently developed convective parameterizations. Unfortunately, observations serving to inform cold pool parameterization development are limited to select field programs and limited radar domains. However, a number of recent studies have noted that cold pools are often associated with arcs-lines of shallow clouds traversing 10 100 km in visible satellite imagery. Boundary layer thermodynamic perturbations are plausible at such scales, coincident with such mesoscale features. Atmospheric signatures of features at these spatial scales are potentially observable from satellites. In this presentation, we discuss recent work that uses multi-sensor, high-resolution satellite products for observing mesoscale wind vector fluctuations and boundary layer temperature depressions attributed to cold pools produced by antecedent convection. The relationship to subsequent convection as well as convective system longevity is discussed. As improvements in satellite technology occur and efforts to reduce noise in high-resolution orbital products progress, satellite pixel level (10 km) thermodynamic and dynamic (e.g. mesoscale convergence) parameters can increasingly serve as useful benchmarks for constraining convective parameterization development, including for regimes where organized convection contributes substantially to the cloud and rainfall climatology.

  7. Zebrafish Noxa promotes mitosis in early embryonic development and regulates apoptosis in subsequent embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, J-X; Zhou, L; Li, Z; Wang, Y; Gui, J-F

    2014-06-01

    Noxa functions in apoptosis and immune system of vertebrates, but its activities in embryo development remain unclear. In this study, we have studied the role of zebrafish Noxa (zNoxa) by using zNoxa-specifc morpholino knockdown and overexpression approaches in developing zebrafish embryos. Expression pattern analysis indicates that zNoxa transcript is of maternal origin, which displays a uniform distribution in early embryonic development until shield stage, and the zygote zNoxa transcription is initiated from this stage and mainly localized in YSL of the embryos. The zNoxa expression alterations result in strong embryonic development defects, demonstrating that zNoxa regulates apoptosis from 75% epiboly stage of development onward, in which zNoxa firstly induces the expression of zBik, and then cooperates with zBik to regulate apoptosis. Moreover, zNoxa knockdown also causes a reduction in number of mitotic cells before 8 h.p.f., suggesting that zNoxa also promotes mitosis before 75% epiboly stage. The effect of zNoxa on mitosis is mediated by zWnt4b in early embryos, whereas zMcl1a and zMcl1b suppress the ability of zNoxa to regulate mitosis and apoptosis at different developmental stages. In addition, mammalian mouse Noxa (mNoxa) mRNA was demonstrated to rescue the arrest of mitosis when zNoxa was knocked down, suggesting that mouse and zebrafish Noxa might have similar dual functions. Therefore, the current findings indicate that Noxa is a novel regulator of early mitosis before 75% epiboly stage when it translates into a key mediator of apoptosis in subsequent embryogenesis.

  8. Poor self-rated health associated with an increased risk of subsequent development of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riise, Hilde Kristin Refvik; Riise, Trond; Natvig, Gerd Karin; Daltveit, Anne Kjersti

    2014-02-01

    Self-rated health has shown to be a strong predictor of mortality and some major chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether poor self-rated health also was related to an increased risk of subsequent development of cancer. Information on self-rated health, life-style factors, and other health-related risk factors was ascertained in a cohort of 25,532 persons participating in the Hordaland Health Study in 1997-1999. Information on development of cancer during 10 years of follow-up was obtained from the Norwegian Cancer Registry. The relationship between self-rated health and development of cancer was examined using Cox regression analysis adjusting for smoking and other life-style factors. Respondents reporting a poor health showed a non-significant increased risk of overall cancer. Sub-analysis of the four most common types of cancer showed a statistically significant association between self-rated health and lung cancer. The adjusted hazard ratio was 3.88 (95% CI; 0.99, 15.8) for those rating their health as poor compared to very good (p for trend = 0.038). For the other types of cancer, we found a non-significant elevated risk associated with poor self-rated health. Respondents who perceive their health as poor had an increased risk of developing lung cancer also after adjusting for smoking. This suggests that self-rated health reflects a broad range of factors important for development of this cancer type. Nevertheless, due to the explorative analysis of the specific cancer types, these findings need to be repeated before elaborate interpretations can be made.

  9. Antioxidants improve IVF outcome and subsequent embryo development in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, T; Gardner, D K

    2017-12-01

    What is the effect of a combination of three antioxidants (Acetyl-L-Carnitine, N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine and α-Lipoic Acid), present in IVF medium during mouse oocyte and sperm collection, on fertilization and subsequent IVF embryo development? A combination of antioxidants resulted in faster developmental times from the 2-cell stage through to expanded blastocyst stage, accompanied by a significant increase in blastocyst cell number and a reduction of intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels. The antioxidant combination Acetyl-L-Carnitine, N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine and α-Lipoic Acid, when present in embryo culture media, has a significant beneficial effect on in vitro fertilized mouse pronucleate oocyte development, especially under oxidative stress. IVF was conducted with combined antioxidants supplemented in IVF medium that was used for mouse oocyte collection and fertilization (oocyte IVF medium, 4 h exposure) and sperm collection and preparation (sperm IVF medium, 1 h exposure). IVF was conducted under 20% oxygen, in the presence or absence of a combination of antioxidants (10 μM Acetyl-L-Carnitine, 10 μM N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine, 5 μM α-Lipoic Acid) and resultant embryos cultured with and without antioxidants under 20% oxygen. Subsequently, the effects of antioxidants on either oocytes or sperm was evaluated. Embryo development was analysed through time-lapse microscopy followed by differential nuclear staining to determine cell allocation in the blastocyst. Intracellular levels of H2O2 were assessed using an aryl boronate probe after 4 h of incubation with antioxidants. Controls were gametes and embryos that had no antioxidants in the medium. In a separate series of experiments, pronucleate oocytes were collected in handling medium with and without antioxidants for 20 min and subsequent cell numbers analysed. Antioxidant treatment during both IVF and culture resulted in significantly faster development times to two cell cleavage (P IVF medium or embryo culture

  10. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  11. Developing a biomedical expert finding system using medical subject headings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harpreet; Singh, Reema; Malhotra, Arjun; Kaur, Manjit

    2013-12-01

    Efficient identification of subject experts or expert communities is vital for the growth of any organization. Most of the available expert finding systems are based on self-nomination, which can be biased, and are unable to rank experts. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a robust and unbiased expert finding system which can quantitatively measure expertise. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a controlled vocabulary developed by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) for indexing research publications, articles and books. Using the MeSH terms associated with peer-reviewed articles published from India and indexed in PubMed, we developed a Web-based program which can be used to identify subject experts and subjects associated with an expert. We have extensively tested our system to identify experts from India in various subjects. The system provides a ranked list of experts where known experts rank at the top of the list. The system is general; since it uses information available with the PubMed, it can be implemented for any country. The expert finding system is able to successfully identify subject experts in India. Our system is unique because it allows the quantification of subject expertise, thus enabling the ranking of experts. Our system is based on peer-reviewed information. Use of MeSH terms as subjects has standardized the subject terminology. The system matches requirements of an ideal expert finding system.

  12. Subjective age in the academic development of Algerian students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. MERABET

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Subjective age has been studied in various domains (health, consumption, work, but the works which investigated the subjective age that the students give themselves during their academic development are rare (Pavalache & Rioux, 2014. One-hundred-and-twenty-two Algerian students answered a questionnaire comprising (a an identification part (b the subjective age questionnaire by Gana, Alaphilippe and Bailly, (2002 and (c the questionnaire of subjective age in academic development (Pavalache & Rioux, 2014. The results show that the Algerian students have a tendency to rejuvenate themselves, all the more so if they are of male gender. They show the impact of the societal and cultural factors on subjective age in academic development of university students.

  13. Low concentrations of MEM vitamins during in vitro maturation of porcine oocytes improves subsequent parthenogenetic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, Kenji; Kim, Hong Rye; Shin, Young Min; Chang, Suk Min; Lee, Hye Ran; Park, Chang Sik; Jin, Dong Il

    2007-01-15

    To investigate the effects of water-soluble vitamin supplementation for IVM/IVC of porcine oocytes and evaluate maturation and developmental capacity in vitro, porcine cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) was matured in NCSU-23-based medium with water-soluble vitamins for 44 h and then cultured in PZM-3 for 7 days following activation. The COCs were allocated into five treatment groups and matured in various concentrations of MEM vitamins (control, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 1x). Metaphase II plates of the cumulus-free oocytes were observed following Hoechest 33258 staining. The COCs were allocated into four treatment groups, matured in various concentrations of MEM vitamins (control, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4x) and cultured in PZM-3 following activation. Also, COCS were matured without MEM vitamins and cultured in PZM-3 with various concentrations (control, 0.1, 0.4, 1.0, and 2.0 x) of MEM vitamins. Furthermore, 2 x 2 factorial (IVM/IVC) experiments were performed in IVM medium with or without 0.05 x MEM vitamins and IVC medium with or without 0.4x MEM vitamins to examine the in vitro development of parthenogenetic embryos. Maturation rates of COCs treated with MEM vitamins did not differ significantly among groups. However, compared to the control group, oocytes matured with the addition of 0.05 x MEM vitamins developed to blastocysts at a higher percentage (PMEM vitamins. Total cell number of blastocysts was significantly higher in the 0.05 x group. Addition of 0.4x MEM vitamins decreased (PMEM vitamins-treated group. In contrast, addition of vitamins to PZM-3 medium for in vitro culture of activated porcine oocytes did not affect development. In conclusion, addition of a low concentration of MEM vitamins to IVM medium for porcine oocytes enhanced subsequent development and improved embryo quality.

  14. Associations of objectively and subjectively measured sleep quality with subsequent cognitive decline in older community-dwelling men: the MrOS sleep study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Terri; Yaffe, Kristine; Laffan, Alison; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Redline, Susan; Ensrud, Kristine E; Song, Yeonsu; Stone, Katie L

    2014-04-01

    To examine associations of objectively and subjectively measured sleep with subsequent cognitive decline. A population-based longitudinal study. Six centers in the United States. Participants were 2,822 cognitively intact community-dwelling older men (mean age 76.0 ± 5.3 y) followed over 3.4 ± 0.5 y. None. OBJECTIVELY MEASURED SLEEP PREDICTORS FROM WRIST ACTIGRAPHY: total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency (SE), wake after sleep onset (WASO), number of long wake episodes (LWEP). Self-reported sleep predictors: sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]), daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS]), TST. Clinically significant cognitive decline: five-point decline on the Modified Mini-Mental State examination (3MS), change score for the Trails B test time in the worse decile. Associations of sleep predictors and cognitive decline were examined with logistic regression and linear mixed models. After multivariable adjustment, higher levels of WASO and LWEP and lower SE were associated with an 1.4 to 1.5-fold increase in odds of clinically significant decline (odds ratio 95% confidence interval) Trails B test: SE sleep efficiency, greater nighttime wakefulness, greater number of long wake episodes, and poor self-reported sleep quality were associated with subsequent cognitive decline.

  15. Effect of feeding bioactive forages on infection and subsequent development of Haemonchus contortus in lamb faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrábano, J; Calvete, C; Uriarte, J

    2010-08-27

    Contrasting dried herbage diets were offered to lambs to evaluate their effects on Haemonchus contortus infection and on subsequent development of larvae in faeces. Artificially infected lambs (n=24, 4 months old) were allocated to one of four treatment groups (n=6) and fed on hay of lucerne (Medicago sativa; Lu), sulla (Hedysarum coronarium; Su), sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia; Sa) or wormwood (Artemisia absinthium; Wo) included as 20% in ground lucerne pellets. While voluntary intake was similar, lamb growth rates were notably affected by diet. Additionally, necropsies carried out 30 days post-infection showed that worm burden was reduced by 8 (Su), 13 (Sa) and 49% (Wo) with respect to that found in lambs fed on lucerne, though only the difference with wormwood was significant. Faecal egg excretion expressed on a dry matter basis was also reduced by 22 (Su), 54 (Sa) and 73% (Wo), but differences were significant only for wormwood and sainfoin, which was associated with a decrease in female fecundity. Sulla and sainfoin diets significantly reduced egg hatching rates but increased the percentage of L(3) in the faeces of the host animal, particularly in the case of sulla hay compared to other forages. Consequently, the potential risk of infection derived from faecal excretion could be notably altered. Further work is needed to validate these findings and their implications in an applied farming system. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Lung function and breathing pattern in subjects developing high altitude pulmonary edema.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian F Clarenbach

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the study was to comprehensively evaluate physiologic changes associated with development of high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. We tested whether changes in pulmonary function and breathing pattern would herald clinically overt HAPE at an early stage. METHODS: In 18 mountaineers, spirometry, diffusing capacity, nitrogen washout, nocturnal ventilation and pulse oximetry were recorded at 490 m and during 3 days after rapid ascent to 4559 m. Findings were compared among subjects developing HAPE and those remaining well (controls. RESULTS: In 8 subjects subsequently developing radiographically documented HAPE at 4559 m, median FVC declined to 82% of low altitude baseline while closing volume increased to 164% of baseline (P<0.05, both instances. In 10 controls, FVC decreased slightly (to 93% baseline, P<0.05 but significantly less than in subjects with HAPE and closing volume remained unchanged. Sniff nasal pressure was reduced in both subjects with and without subsequent HAPE. During nights at 4559 m, mean nocturnal oxygen saturation dropped to lower values while minute ventilation, the number of periodic breathing cycles and heart rate were higher (60%; 8.6 L/min; 97 cycles/h; 94 beats/min, respectively in subjects subsequently developing HAPE than in controls (73%; 5.1 L/min; 48 cycles/h; 79 beats/min; P<0.05 vs. HAPE, all instances. CONCLUSION: The results comprehensively represent the pattern of physiologic alterations that precede overt HAPE. The changes in lung function are consistent with reduced lung compliance and impaired gas exchange. Pronounced nocturnal hypoxemia, ventilatory control instability and sympathetic stimulation are further signs of subsequent overt HAPE.

  17. Modeling of Microstructure Development during Hot Deformation and Subsequent Annealing of Precipitates Containing AA6016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiao, F.; Mohles, V.; Miroux, A.G.; Bollmann, C.

    2014-01-01

    Microstructure and microchemistry evolution during hot deformation and subsequent annealing of a commercial Al-Mg-Si alloy were experimentally investigated using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and SEM. Meanwhile, a through-process model framework consisting of the deformation model

  18. Variation in the effects of three different breakfast meals on subjective satiety and subsequent intake of energy at lunch and evening meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallaize, Rosalind; Wilson, Louise; Gray, Juliet; Morgan, Linda M; Griffin, Bruce A

    2013-06-01

    To determine the relative impact of three iso-caloric breakfast meals, of variable composition, on satiety, hunger and subsequent intake of energy. In a three-way, crossover design, 30 healthy men (age of 21.7 ± 1.2 years; BMI, 23.1 ± 2.7 kg/m²) were randomised to one of three test breakfasts, on three separate occasions, separated by 1 week. The breakfasts consisted of eggs on toast, cereal (cornflakes) with milk and toast, or a croissant and orange juice. Subjective ratings of satiety, hunger, fullness and desire to eat were recorded at 30-min intervals by electronic visual analogue scales (VAS). Energy intake was assessed by weighed food intake at an ad libitum lunch and evening meal. Participants showed increased satiety, less hunger and a lower desire to eat after the breakfast containing eggs relative to the cereal (p breakfast was also accompanied by a significantly lower intake of energy relative to the croissant- and cereal-based breakfasts at the buffet lunch and evening meal, respectively, 1,284 ± 464 (egg) versus 1,442 ± 426 kcal (croissant), p = 0.03, 1,407 ± 379 (cereal) at lunch and 1,899 ± 729 (egg) versus 2,214 ± 620 kcal (cereal), p = 0.02, 2,047 ± 712 (croissant) at evening meal. The breakfast meal with the greatest effect on satiety and subsequent intake of energy was distinct in having the highest protein and lowest carbohydrate content relative to the other two breakfasts. These findings provide evidence to support the importance of food choice at breakfast as a means of increasing satiety in the morning and reducing energy intake at lunch.

  19. Co-Ingestion of Whey Protein with a Carbohydrate-Rich Breakfast Does Not Affect Glycemia, Insulinemia or Subjective Appetite Following a Subsequent Meal in Healthy Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean M. Allerton

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to assess postprandial metabolic and appetite responses to a mixed-macronutrient lunch following prior addition of whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast. Ten healthy males (age: 24 ± 1 years; body mass index (BMI: 24.5 ± 0.7 kg/m2 completed three trials in a non-isocaloric, crossover design. A carbohydrate-rich breakfast (93 g carbohydrate; 1799 kJ was consumed with (CHO + WP or without (CHO 20 g whey protein isolate (373 kJ, or breakfast was omitted (NB. At 180 min, participants consumed a mixed-macronutrient lunch meal. Venous blood was sampled at 15 min intervals following each meal and every 30 min thereafter, while subjective appetite sensations were collected every 30 min throughout. Post-breakfast insulinemia was greater after CHO + WP (time-averaged area under the curve (AUC0––180 min: 193.1 ± 26.3 pmol/L, compared to CHO (154.7 ± 18.5 pmol/L and NB (46.1 ± 8.0 pmol/L; p < 0.05, with no difference in post-breakfast (0–180 min glycemia (CHO + WP, 3.8 ± 0.2 mmol/L; CHO, 4.2 ± 0.2 mmol/L; NB, 4.2 ± 0.1 mmol/L; p = 0.247. There were no post-lunch (0–180 min effects of condition on glycemia (p = 0.492, insulinemia (p = 0.338 or subjective appetite (p > 0.05. Adding whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast enhanced the acute postprandial insulin response, without influencing metabolic or appetite responses following a subsequent mixed-macronutrient meal.

  20. EFFECTS OF PRIMARY IMPRINTING ON THE SUBSEQUENT DEVELOPMENT OF SECONDARY FILIAL ATTACHMENTS IN THE CHICK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEVOS, GJ; VANKAMPEN, HS

    This study reinvestigates the effects of primary imprinting of chicks with either a naturalistic stimulus or an artificial object on subsequent imprinting with artificial objects. Initial experience with a live chick (group C) or a yellow cylinder (group Y) had differential effects on the

  1. The Diagnostic Method Features of Communication Subject Development (ORSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lioznova E.V.,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is familiarization with the development of questionnaire "Features of communication subject development" (ORSO. This new psychodiagnostic tool assesses communicative personality traits, its characteristics as the subject of communication. We present the theoretical foundation of the approach to the personality as a subject of communication, propose a structure of such subject, including two levels of properties: generic and specific. The latter include the responsibility in communication, unconditional acceptance of self, attitude to the partner as an absolute value. The questionnaire comprises five scales and measures the level of these features, as well as integrated communication success rate. The accuracy of responses is controlled by the scale of the adequacy of self-esteem. We describe communication styles, revealed by the ratio of the generic properties. The test is intended for men and women older than 12 years and allows to predict the success of communication with different partners in different situations and features of communicative behavior, attitudes, experiences of the respondent. We presented satisfactory performance criteria of test quality: reliability, validity and representativeness of the ORSO technique, provide examples of its application in scientific and applied purposes and prospects for future work.

  2. Severity of acute pain after breast surgery is associated with the likelihood of subsequently developing persistent pain.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hickey, Oonagh T

    2010-09-01

    Persistent postsurgical pain (PPSP) after surgery for breast cancer has a prevalence of 20% to 52%. Neuroplastic changes may play a role in the aetiology of this pain. The principal objective of this study was to examine the relationship between acute pain after surgery for breast cancer and the likelihood of subsequently developing PPSP.

  3. Autologous HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies: emergence of neutralization-resistant escape virus and subsequent development of escape virus neutralizing antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Nielsen, C; Hansen, J E

    1992-01-01

    of neutralizing antibodies to the primary virus isolates was detected 13-45 weeks after seroconversion. Emergence of escape virus with reduced sensitivity to neutralization by autologous sera was demonstrated. The patients subsequently developed neutralizing antibodies against the escape virus but after a delay...... escape virus may be part of the explanation of the apparent failure of the immune system to control HIV infection....

  4. Screening for albuminuria with subsequent screening for hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia identifies subjects in whom treatment is warranted to prevent cardiovascular events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozyilmaz, Akin; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; de Zeeuw, Dick; de Jong, Paul E.; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    2013-01-01

    Background. In the general population, many subjects have yet unrecognized hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia, and are thus not treated. We investigated whether population screening for elevated albuminuria can identify subjects with previously unrecognized hypertension and/or

  5. Clinical peer review in the United States: history, legal development and subsequent abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Dinesh; Hozain, Ahmed E

    2014-06-07

    The Joint Commission on Accreditation requires hospitals to conduct peer review to retain accreditation. Despite the intended purpose of improving quality medical care, the peer review process has suffered several setbacks throughout its tenure. In the 1980s, abuse of peer review for personal economic interest led to a highly publicized multimillion-dollar verdict by the United States Supreme Court against the perpetrating physicians and hospital. The verdict led to decreased physician participation for fear of possible litigation. Believing that peer review was critical to quality medical care, Congress subsequently enacted the Health Care Quality Improvement Act (HCQIA) granting comprehensive legal immunity for peer reviewers to increase participation. While serving its intended goal, HCQIA has also granted peer reviewers significant immunity likely emboldening abuses resulting in Sham Peer Reviews. While legal reform of HCQIA is necessary to reduce sham peer reviews, further measures including the need for standardization of the peer review process alongside external organizational monitoring are critical to improving peer review and reducing the prevalence of sham peer reviews.

  6. Fetal, neonatal, and infant microbiome: Perturbations and subsequent effects on brain development and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Heijtz, Rochellys

    2016-12-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract harbors a diverse and complex community of microbes, termed gut microbiota, that normally assemble during the first postnatal years of life. This evolution-driven process has been shown to contribute to the developmental programming of epithelial barrier function, gut homeostasis, and angiogenesis, as well as the development and function of the immune system. Research over the last few years has revealed that the actions of the gut microbiota have much wider effects on host physiology and development than originally believed, including the modulation of brain development and behavior. This article briefly reviews recent findings on the impact of the gut microbiota on brain development, and how disturbances in the assembly and maturation of the gut microbiota may impact development of motor, social, and cognitive functions. The potential link between microbiota and metabolic requirements of the developing brain is also considered. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Developing the Immunology Book for Animal and Human Physiology Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuni Mitasari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available he objective of the study was to develop an immunology book for Animal and Human Physiology subject. This book was developed based on the Thiagarajan development model which was modified of: Define, Design, Develop, dan Disseminate (4D. The data expert validation instrument was questionnaire using Likert scales, comments, and recommendation sheets. Expert appraisal was done by material expert and media and design learning expert. The developmental testing was conducted using questionnaire to test the readibility. The expert validation was conducted by material expert as well as design and media learning expert validator; meanwhile, the field test was done to measure the readability. The validity test results were: the material expert state that the material is valid (97.14%, as well as the design and learning media expert (84.88% and field test by students (88.17%.

  8. Diet during adolescence is a trigger for subsequent development of dysmenorrhea in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Tomoko

    2007-09-01

    Recently many young women in Japan have been restricting their dietary intake for cosmetic purposes. In this study, the relation between diet and menstrual disorders was investigated by responses to a questionnaire. Subjects ranging from 18 to 20 years old were recruited from 716 female students at Ashiya College. Dietary habits were classified into group I (having no experience with dieting), group II (those currently on a diet) and group III (those with a history of dieting). The intensity of dysmenorrhea was classified into three grades. All participants were divided into two groups as having regular or irregular menstruation. The frequency of irregular menstruation in group II was higher than that in the other groups, while group III had higher intensity of dysmenorrhea than the other groups. These findings suggest that diet during adolescence has long-lasting adverse effects on reproductive function in young women.

  9. Development of EKC after eximer laser photorefractive surgery and subsequent recurrence of EKC-like keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Joon; Jang, Yoon Soo; Koh, Tae Hyuk; Kwon, Young A; Song, Sang Wroul

    2011-12-01

    This research focuses on four cases of patients having undergone eximer laser photorefractive surgery who were diagnosed with adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis during the postoperative period and who later developed epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC)-like keratitis. Two of the patients had undergone laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy (LASEK), one had undergone laser in situ keratomileusis and one had photorefractive keratectomy. After the surgery adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis and recurrent late-developing EKC-like keratitis were observed in the patients. Recurrent late-developing EKC-like keratitis occurred in one of the patients, who had received LASEK as many as three times. The others had only one or two episodes.The corneal infiltrates of keratitis mainly occurred in the central cornea. Successful resolution of recurrent late-developing EKC-like keratitis was achieved through the use of topical steroids without sequelae and the final best-corrected visual acuity was as good as the base line. These keratitis infiltrates have been presumed to represent an immune response to the suspected adenoviral antigens deposited in corneal stroma during the primary adenoviral infection. Previous reports argued that patients with a history of adenoviral ketatoconjunctivitis were succeptible to adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis becoming reactivated; however, in our research, our patients had their first adenoviral infections after the eximer laser photorefractive surgery and reactivation was confirmed. We recommend that attention be paid to adenoviral infection after laser refractive operations, because these patients seem to have more frequent recurrences.

  10. Methamphetamine treatment during development attenuates the dopaminergic deficits caused by subsequent high-dose methamphetamine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Lisa M; Hoonakker, Amanda J; Vieira-Brock, Paula L; Stout, Kristen A; Sawada, Nicole M; Ellis, Jonathan D; Allen, Scott C; Walters, Elliot T; Nielsen, Shannon M; Gibb, James W; Alburges, Mario E; Wilkins, Diana G; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E

    2011-08-01

    Administration of high doses of methamphetamine (METH) causes persistent dopaminergic deficits in both nonhuman preclinical models and METH-dependent persons. Noteworthy, adolescent [i.e., postnatal day (PND) 40] rats are less susceptible to this damage than young adult (PND90) rats. In addition, biweekly treatment with METH, beginning at PND40 and continuing throughout development, prevents the persistent dopaminergic deficits caused by a "challenge" high-dose METH regimen when administered at PND90. Mechanisms underlying this "resistance" were thus investigated. Results revealed that biweekly METH treatment throughout development attenuated both the acute and persistent deficits in VMAT2 function, as well as the acute hyperthermia, caused by a challenge METH treatment. Pharmacokinetic alterations did not appear to contribute to the protection afforded by the biweekly treatment. Maintenance of METH-induced hyperthermia abolished the protection against both the acute and persistent VMAT2-associated deficits suggesting that alterations in thermoregulation were caused by exposure of rats to METH during development. These findings suggest METH during development prevents METH-induced hyperthermia and the consequent METH-related neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Habitat quality affects early physiology and subsequent neuromotor development of juvenile black-capped chickadees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault Grava

    Full Text Available In songbirds, the ability to learn and render the species-specific song is influenced by the development of both the song nuclei in the brain and the syrinx (bird's vocal apparatus early in the bird's life. In black-capped chickadees (Poecille atricapillus, habitat quality is known to affect song structure, with birds in high-quality habitat (mature forest having a higher song consistency than birds in low-quality habitat (young forest. Although this difference is suspected to stem from differences in development, the developmental status of juvenile birds in either habitat remains unexplored. In this study, we used ptilochronology and feather corticosterone to compare the conditional state of juvenile chickadees in young and mature forest during two distinct periods of song learning - the sensory phase, which occurs prior to settlement, and the sensorimotor phase, which occurs post-settlement. A sample of juvenile males was captured and euthanized several weeks prior to their first breeding season to compare the development of song center nuclei and syrinx in both habitats. The corticosterone levels of natally-grown feathers were greater among birds that settled in mature than young forests - as these feathers were grown pre-settlement, they reflect differences in physiology during the sensory phase. This difference in conditional state is reflected by differences in syrinx and song center nuclei development later during the sensorimotor phase - birds in young forest have smaller syrinx, and moderately-larger RA, than birds in mature forest. Those differences could be responsible for the difference in consistency in song structure observed across habitats. The difference in physiological state across habitats, combined with potential compounding effect of differences in winter resources between habitats, could influence the difference in syrinx and neural development seen in juvenile males during the early spring, and influence the male

  12. Effects of latent fingerprint development reagents on subsequent forensic DNA typing: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Parveen; Gupta, Ritika; Singh, Rajinder; Jasuja, Om Prakash

    2015-05-01

    Successful development of latent fingerprints can be helpful in solving the case but in case where fingerprints are smudged, distorted or overlapped, the question arises whether it is still possible to identify the person apart from dermatoglyphic features. Sweat residue present in the latent prints is supposed to have quite good quantity of cellular material which if analyzed properly can be used to generate forensic DNA profile of the individual and may answer the queries related to the effect of reagents used to develop the prints, as they may have a significant effect on the process of examination of this evidentiary material. In the present work an effort has been made to summarize the published review of literature on this aspect of personal identification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  13. Mobile Phones in the Bedroom: Trajectories of Sleep Habits and Subsequent Adolescent Psychosocial Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Lynette; Modecki, Kathryn L; Barber, Bonnie L

    2017-05-29

    Mobile phones are an essential part of an adolescent's life, leading them to text, phone, or message into the night. Longitudinal latent growth models were used to examine relations between changes in adolescent night-time mobile phone use, changes in sleep behavior, and changes in well-being (depressed mood, externalizing behavior, self-esteem, and coping) for 1,101 students (43% male) between 13 and 16 years old. Both night-time mobile phone use and poor sleep behavior underwent positive linear growth over time. Increased night-time mobile phone use was directly associated with increased externalizing behavior and decreased self-esteem and coping. Changes in sleep behavior mediated the relation between early changes in night-time mobile phone use and later increases in depressed mood and externalizing behavior and later declines in self-esteem and coping. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  14. Development of EKC after Eximer Laser Photorefractive Surgery and Subsequent Recurrence of EKC-like Keratitis

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sung Joon; Jang, Yoon Soo; Koh, Tae Hyuk; Kwon, Young A; Song, Sang Wroul

    2011-01-01

    This research focuses on four cases of patients having undergone eximer laser photorefractive surgery who were diagnosed with adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis during the postoperative period and who later developed epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC)-like keratitis. Two of the patients had undergone laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy (LASEK), one had undergone laser in situ keratomileusis and one had photorefractive keratectomy. After the surgery adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis and recur...

  15. Methamphetamine treatment during development attenuates the dopaminergic deficits caused by subsequent high-dose methamphetamine administration

    OpenAIRE

    McFadden, Lisa M.; Hoonakker, Amanda J.; Vieira-Brock, Paula L.; Stout, Kristen A.; Sawada, Nicole M; Ellis, Jonathan D; Allen, Scott C.; Walters, Elliot T.; Nielsen, Shannon M.; Gibb, James W.; Alburges, Mario E.; Wilkins, Diana G.; Hanson, Glen R.; Fleckenstein, Annette E.

    2011-01-01

    Administration of high doses of methamphetamine (METH) causes persistent dopaminergic deficits in both nonhuman preclinical models and METH-dependent persons. Noteworthy, adolescent (i.e., postnatal day (PND) 40) rats are less susceptible to this damage than young adult (PND90) rats. In addition, biweekly treatment with METH, beginning at PND40 and continuing throughout development, prevents the persistent dopaminergic deficits caused by a “challenge” high-dose METH regimen when administered ...

  16. Effect of Dipeptides on In vitro Maturation, Fertilization and Subsequent Embryonic Development of Porcine Oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareq, K. M. A.; Akter, Quzi Sharmin; Tsujii, Hirotada; Khandoker, M. A. M. Yahia; Choi, Inho

    2013-01-01

    The effects of amino acids and dipeptides on in vitro production of porcine embryos and accumulation of ammonia in culture medium during developmental stages were examined in this study. The maturation, fertilization and development of embryonic cultures were performed in modified Tissue culture medium (mTCM)-199 supplemented with 10% (v/v) porcine follicular fluid, modified Tyrode’s albumin lactate pyruvate (mTALP) medium, and modified North Carolina State University (mNCSU)-23 medium, respectively. In addition, amino acids and dipeptides of different concentrations and combinations were used to treat the embryos. The addition of L-alanyl-L-glutamine (AlnGln)+L-glycyl-L-glutamine (GlyGln) significantly (p<0.05) improved oocyte maturation, fertilization and the incorporation and oxidation of 14C(U)-glucose when compared to the control group and other treatment groups. Additionally, 2–4 cell, 8–16 cell, morula and blastocyst development increased significantly (p<0.05) following treatment with AlnGln+GlyGln when compared to the control group and other treatment groups, while this treatment reduced the accumulation of ammonia. Taken together, these findings suggest that treatment with AlnGln+GlyGln may play an important role in increasing the rate of porcine oocyte maturation, fertilization and embryonic development by reducing the level of accumulated ammonia measured in the culture media. PMID:25049815

  17. Effect of Dipeptides on Maturation, Fertilization and Subsequent Embryonic Development of Porcine Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. A. Tareq

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of amino acids and dipeptides on in vitro production of porcine embryos and accumulation of ammonia in culture medium during developmental stages were examined in this study. The maturation, fertilization and development of embryonic cultures were performed in modified Tissue culture medium (mTCM-199 supplemented with 10% (v/v porcine follicular fluid, modified Tyrode’s albumin lactate pyruvate (mTALP medium, and modified North Carolina State University (mNCSU-23 medium, respectively. In addition, amino acids and dipeptides of different concentrations and combinations were used to treat the embryos. The addition of L-alanyl-L-glutamine (AlnGln+L-glycyl-L-glutamine (GlyGln significantly (p<0.05 improved oocyte maturation, fertilization and the incorporation and oxidation of 14C(U-glucose when compared to the control group and other treatment groups. Additionally, 2–4 cell, 8–16 cell, morula and blastocyst development increased significantly (p<0.05 following treatment with AlnGln+GlyGln when compared to the control group and other treatment groups, while this treatment reduced the accumulation of ammonia. Taken together, these findings suggest that treatment with AlnGln+GlyGln may play an important role in increasing the rate of porcine oocyte maturation, fertilization and embryonic development by reducing the level of accumulated ammonia measured in the culture media.

  18. Effects of feeding a soft diet and subsequent rehabilitation on the development of the masticatory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishita, A; Koga, Y; Utsumi, D; Nakamura, A; Yoshimi, T; Yoshida, N

    2015-04-01

    It has been suggested that feeding a soft diet could possibly inhibit normal development of the masticatory function. However, the consequences of such changes in the alimentary habits have yet to be fully clarified. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether a soft diet prevents the development of masticatory function and whether a critical period for programming the masticatory system exists. To examine these hypotheses, we used a three-dimensional jaw-movement tracking device and jaw muscle electromyography (EMG) to analyse masticatory function changes in mice. Jcl:ICR mice were divided into three groups, with the normal group fed a hard diet, the hypofunctional group fed a soft diet, and the rehabilitation group first fed a soft diet that was then changed to a hard diet. Our results showed that the excursion and duration of late-closing phase (occlusal phase) of the chewing cycle and EMG activity in the masseter muscle were not only reduced in the hypofunctional but also in the rehabilitation group as compared with the normal group. These results suggest that optimisation of the chewing pattern and acquisition of appropriate masticatory function are impeded by feeding a soft diet during the animal's growth period and that no catch-up effect of the masticatory function is observed when there is a prolonged period of time prior to changing the diet from soft to hard. In conclusion, masticatory function can only be fully developed through a learning process such as exposure to chewing various kinds of foods with different food textures. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. DEVELOPING STUDENTS’ ENTREPRENEURIAL SPIRIT THROUGH THE SUBJECT ILMU HITUNG KEUANGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Subekti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article was written to share the experiences of teaching 'trading or doing business' in the subject of Ilmu Hitung Keuangan in 2010. This Article also share about the phenomenon of appeared ‘kantin kejujuran’ or the honesty canteen in Mathematics and Natural Sciences Faculty of Yogyakarta State University in early 2011. Based on the syllabus of the subject, there is a topic of trading that makes lecturer is motivated to participate in developing the entrepreneurial spirit of students. The way taken by the lecturer was giving big trust to the students to manage funds for trading. Before trading begins, students should discuss about what are the things that can be bought cheaply and then sold with ease so that will give them the advantage. The result is that all groups got benefit. 4 groups formed are the group of ‘donuts’, ‘accessories’, ‘snacks’, and ‘stickers’. Then groups of food division that are donuts group and snack’s one were part of the pioneers of honesty canteen. This method is in line with lecturers expectancy to participate and develop entrepreneurship on campus.

  20. Recurrent CSF Rhinorrhea Misdiagnosed as Chronic Allergic Rhinitis with Subsequent Development of Bacterial Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF rhinorrhea results from an abnormal communication of the dura mater to the nasal mucosa. The majority of cases of CSF rhinorrhea are the result of trauma or surgery involving the skull base. Spontaneous CSF rhinorrhea is a rare clinical entity with increased risk of ascending infection. Delay in diagnosis places the patient at risk of developing meningitis. Case Presentation. A 36-year-old African American female with significant medical history of obesity and hypertension presented to the emergency department with headache, altered level of consciousness, fever, and neck stiffness. Previously, the patient was diagnosed with chronic allergic sinusitis by multiple providers. Physical exam findings and laboratory tests were consistent with bacterial meningitis. The patient was admitted and started on appropriate antibiotic therapy. The patient continued to complain of persistent unilateral clear nasal drainage. The initial report from the computerized tomography scan of the sinuses indicated findings consistent with chronic sinusitis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the orbits revealed findings consistent with CSF rhinorrhea. Otolaryngology was consulted for surgical intervention. Conclusion. Suspected CSF rhinorrhea should prompt immediate biochemical and radiologic evaluation and surgical consultation. CSF rhinorrhea places patients at risk of developing bacterial meningitis.

  1. Medication Exposures and Subsequent Development of Ewing Sarcoma: A Review of FDA Adverse Event Reports

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    Judith U. Cope

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT are rare but deadly cancers of unknown etiology. Few risk factors have been identified. This study was undertaken to ascertain any possible association between exposure to therapeutic drugs and ESFT. Methods. This is a retrospective, descriptive study. A query of the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS was conducted for all reports of ESFT, January 1, 1998, through December 31, 2013. Report narratives were individually reviewed for patient characteristics, underlying conditions and drug exposures. Results. Over 16 years, 134 ESFT reports were identified, including 25 cases of ESFT following therapeutic drugs and biologics including immunosuppressive agents and hormones. Many cases were confounded by concomitant medications and other therapies. Conclusions. This study provides a closer look at medication use and underlying disorders in patients who later developed ESFT. While this study was not designed to demonstrate any clear causative association between ESFT and prior use of a single product or drug class, many drugs were used to treat immune-related disease and growth or hormonal disturbances. Further studies may be warranted to better understand possible immune or neuroendocrine abnormalities or exposure to specific classes of drugs that may predispose to the later development of ESFT.

  2. [Primary myelofibrosis complicated by acquired hemophilia A and subsequent development of acute myeloid leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Kazuma; Jomen, Wataru; Yoshida, Masahiro; Yamada, Michiko; Abe, Tomoyuki; Sakurai, Tamaki; Fujii, Shigeyuki; Maeda, Masahiro; Matsuno, Teppei; Sato, Masanori; Fujita, Miri; Nagashima, Kazuo; Ieko, Masahiro; Kato, Junji

    2013-12-01

    A 77-year-old man diagnosed with primary myelofibrosis (PMF), successfully controlled by thalidomide and prednisolone, was referred to us for massive subcutaneous bleeding involving the face, body, and all four limbs. Hemostatic studies showed prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time, decreased factor VIII coagulation, and a high factor VIII inhibitor titer, resulting in a diagnosis of acquired hemophilia A (AHA) for which he was treated with prednisolone and cyclophosphamide on admission. He developed right femoral intramuscular hemorrhage soon after immunosuppressive therapy and was treated with rituximab combined with activated prothrombin complex concentrates. Furthermore, he suffered complications of respiratory failure with increasing throat hemorrhaging. Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) was administered combined with methylprednisolone pulse therapy. Bleeding, including respiratory failure, was ameliorated with rFVIIa. Immunosuppressive rituximab therapy resolved AHA with marked efficacy. He died of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonitis. Autopsy showed transformation from PMF to acute myeloid leukemia.

  3. Development of BCG Scar and Subsequent Morbidity and Mortality in Rural Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storgaard, Line; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Martins, Cesario; Nielsen, Bibi Uhre; Ravn, Henrik; Benn, Christine Stabell; Aaby, Peter; Fisker, Ane Bærent

    2015-09-15

    Previous studies have found that BCG vaccination has nonspecific beneficial effects on child survival, especially among children who developed a BCG scar. These studies have mostly been done in settings with a high scar frequency. In rural Guinea-Bissau, many children do not develop a scar; we tested the hypothesis that among BCG-vaccinated children, a vaccination scar was associated with lower mortality and fewer hospital admissions. During 2009-2011, children scar status assessed at semiannual visits. We compared mortality and hospital admission rates of scar-positive and scar-negative BCG-vaccinated children during 6 months of follow-up in Cox proportional hazards models. Among 15 911 BCG-vaccinated children, only 52% had a scar. There were 106 non-injury-related deaths among scar-positive children and 137 among scar-negative children. The mortality rate ratio (MRR) was 0.74 (95% confidence interval [CI], .56-.96) overall; 0.48 (95% CI, .26-.90) in infancy, 0.69 (95% CI, .45-1.05) in the second year of life, and 0.89 (95% CI, .61-1.31) in the third-fifth year of life. The association between scar positivity and lower mortality differed significantly by cause of death and was strongest for respiratory infections (MRR, 0.20 [95% CI, .07-.55]). There were 99 hospital admissions among scar-positive children and 125 admissions among scar-negative children, resulting in an incidence rate ratio of 0.74 (95% CI, .60-.92). Among BCG-vaccinated children in a setting with low scar prevalence, having a scar is associated with lower mortality and morbidity. BCG scar prevalence may be an important marker of vaccination program quality. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Midtrimester serum B-subunit human chorionic gonadotropin levels and the subsequent development of preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghaddami Tabrizi N

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The pre-eclampsia/eclampsia is one of the commonest conditions peculiar to pregnancy, to describe the occurrence of hypertension, proteinuria and edema in pregnancy. It is about seven times more frequent in first gestation and uncommon before 20 week's gestation. Serum BhCG levels were prospectively determined in 260 midtrimester singleton pregnancies where admitted from October 1999 until September 2000 at Mirza Kouchak Khan hospital, prenatal clinic. Obstetric chart review was undertaken after delivery to identify cases in which pre eclampsia developed. The median maternal age was 26.0 years, and the median gestational age at the time of blood collection was 19.0 weeks. Of these, 17 cases (6.5 percent had pre eclampsia. The median level of the BhCG was 35060.5 mlu/ml in those with pre eclampsia, whereas that in those without pre eclampsia was 33755.1 mlu/ml. The difference was not significant (P=0.28. Although elevated midtrimester serum BhCG levels in clinically normal patients was reported in severaly pre eclampsia women, this is not a good test for early detection of mild pre eclampsia.

  5. Prior appendectomy does not protect against subsequent development of malignant or borderline mucinous ovarian neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Kevin M.; Labidi-Galy, S. Intidhar; Vitonis, Allison F.; Hornick, Jason L.; Doyle, Leona A.; Hirsch, Michelle S.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Drapkin, Ronny

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to concern that mucinous malignant or borderline ovarian neoplasms (MON) may represent metastatic deposits from appendiceal primaries, gynecologic oncologists routinely perform appendectomy in these cases. However, a multidisciplinary critique of this practice is lacking. Methods The New England Case-Control study database was utilized to compare the effect of prior appendectomy against known risk factors for MON. Pathology and operative reports of local cases of MON were reviewed to estimate the frequency of microscopic mucinous lesions in the appendix. Protein expression patterns among mucinous ovarian, colorectal, and appendiceal cancers were compared by immunohistochemistry. Results From the New England Case-Control study, 287 cases of MON were compared against 2,339 age-matched controls. Prior appendectomy did not reduce the risk of MON (OR 1.28, 95% CI 0.83–1.92, p=0.23), while prior tubal ligation, parity, and breastfeeding were each protective against MON. Active smoking (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.48–2.80, p<0.001) was associated with an increased risk of MON. Among 196 mucinous adnexal tumors, appendectomy did not reclassify any MON as appendiceal in origin. By immunohistochemistry, mucinous ovarian carcinomas tended to be CK7+/CK20-/MUC2-/CDX2-, whereas mucinous colorectal and appendiceal adenocarcinomas were typically CK7-/CK20+/MUC2+/CDX2+, although with some overlap in immunophenotype. Additionally, PAX8 was positive in a subset of MOC and negative in all appendiceal carcinomas. Conclusion Prior appendectomy is not protective against development of malignant or borderline MON. Routine appendectomy during surgery for MON seldom reveals an unsuspected GI primary in early stage tumors but may aid in final diagnosis in advanced stage cases. PMID:24342438

  6. Prior appendectomy does not protect against subsequent development of malignant or borderline mucinous ovarian neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Kevin M; Labidi-Galy, S Intidhar; Vitonis, Allison F; Hornick, Jason L; Doyle, Leona A; Hirsch, Michelle S; Cramer, Daniel W; Drapkin, Ronny

    2014-02-01

    Due to concern that mucinous malignant or borderline ovarian neoplasms (MON) may represent metastatic deposits from appendiceal primaries, gynecologic oncologists routinely perform appendectomy in these cases. However, a multidisciplinary critique of this practice is lacking. The New England Case-Control study database was utilized to compare the effect of prior appendectomy against known risk factors for MON. Pathology and operative reports of local cases of MON were reviewed to estimate the frequency of microscopic mucinous lesions in the appendix. Protein expression patterns among mucinous ovarian, colorectal, and appendiceal cancers were compared by immunohistochemistry. From the New England Case-Control study, 287 cases of MON were compared against 2339 age-matched controls. Prior appendectomy did not reduce the risk of MON (OR 1.28, 95% CI 0.83-1.92, p = 0.23), while prior tubal ligation, parity, and breastfeeding were each protective against MON. Active smoking (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.48-2.80, p < 0.001) was associated with an increased risk of MON. Among 196 mucinous adnexal tumors, appendectomy did not reclassify any MON as appendiceal in origin. By immunohistochemistry, mucinous ovarian carcinomas tended to be CK7+/CK20-/MUC2-/CDX2-, whereas mucinous colorectal and appendiceal adenocarcinomas were typically CK7-/CK20+/MUC2+/CDX2+, although with some overlap in immunophenotype. Additionally, PAX8 was positive in a subset of MOC and negative in all appendiceal carcinomas. Prior appendectomy is not protective against development of malignant or borderline MON. Routine appendectomy during surgery for MON seldom reveals an unsuspected GI primary in early stage tumors but may aid in final diagnosis in advanced stage cases. National Cancer Institute grants P50-CA105009 and R21 CA-156021; The Honorable Tina Brozman 'Tina's Wish' Foundation; the Dr. Miriam and Sheldon G. Adelson Medical Research Foundation (AMRF); Dana-Farber Cancer Institute - Susan Smith Center for

  7. Autologous HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies: emergence of neutralization-resistant escape virus and subsequent development of escape virus neutralizing antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Nielsen, C; Hansen, J E

    1992-01-01

    The capacity of consecutive human sera to neutralize sequentially obtained autologous virus isolates was studied. HIV-1 was isolated three times over a 48-164-week period from three individuals immediately after seroconversion and from two individuals in later stages of infection. Development...... escape virus may be part of the explanation of the apparent failure of the immune system to control HIV infection....... of neutralizing antibodies to the primary virus isolates was detected 13-45 weeks after seroconversion. Emergence of escape virus with reduced sensitivity to neutralization by autologous sera was demonstrated. The patients subsequently developed neutralizing antibodies against the escape virus but after a delay...

  8. Cell-Free Total and Fetal DNA in First Trimester Maternal Serum and Subsequent Development of Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Robert M; Myatt, Leslie; Hauth, John C; Leveno, Kenneth J; Peaceman, Alan M; Ramin, Susan M; Samuels, Philip; Saade, George; Sorokin, Yoram; Clifton, Rebecca G; Reddy, Uma M

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between first trimester cell-free total and fetal DNA in maternal plasma and the subsequent development of preeclampsia. Study Design Nested case-control study of patients enrolled in the Combined Antioxidant and Preeclampsia Prediction Studies prediction study of 175 women who did and 175 women who did not develop preeclampsia. The predictive values of cell-free total and fetal DNA and the subsequent development of preeclampsia were measured using receiver operating characteristic curves. Results Cell-free total DNA was higher in African American (median; 25-75%; 6.15; 0.14-28.73; p = 0.02) and Hispanic (4.95; 0.20-26.82; p = 0.037) compared with white women (2.33; 0.03-13.10). Levels of cell-free total DNA were also associated with maternal body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.02). Cell-free total DNA levels were similar between women who later developed preeclampsia (3.52; 0.11-25.3) and controls (3.74; 0.12-21.14, p = 0.96). Conclusion There is no significant difference in levels of cell-free total DNA in the first trimester in women who subsequently develop preeclampsia. Levels of cell-free total DNA in the first trimester are increased in African American and Hispanic compared with white women, and levels increase with increasing BMI. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Is the spatial distribution of brain lesions associated with closed-head injury in children predictive of subsequent development of posttraumatic stress disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovits, Edward H.; Gerring, Joan P.; Davatzikos, Christos; Bryan, R. Nick

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine whether there is an association between the spatial distributions of lesions detected at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain in children, adolescents, and young adults after closed-head injury (CHI) and development of the reexperiencing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data obtained in 94 subjects without a history of PTSD as determined by parental interview were analyzed. MR images were obtained 3 months after CHI. Lesions were manually delineated and registered to the Talairach coordinate system. Mann-Whitney analysis of lesion distribution and PTSD status at 1 year (again, as determined by parental interview) was performed, consisting of an analysis of lesion distribution versus the major symptoms of PTSD: reexperiencing, hyperarousal, and avoidance. RESULTS: Of the 94 subjects, 41 met the PTSD reexperiencing criterion and nine met all three PTSD criteria. Subjects who met the reexperiencing criterion had fewer lesions in limbic system structures (eg, the cingulum) on the right than did subjects who did not meet this criterion (Mann-Whitney, P =.003). CONCLUSION: Lesions induced by CHI in the limbic system on the right may inhibit subsequent manifestation of PTSD reexperiencing symptoms in children, adolescents, and young adults. Copyright RSNA, 2002.

  10. Treatment of porcine oocytes with MEM vitamins during in vitro maturation improves subsequent blastocyst development following nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, Kenji; Quan, Yan-Shi; Choi, Su-Min; Park, Chang-Sik; Jin, Dong-Il

    2007-06-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of minimum essential medium (MEM) vitamins during in vitro maturation (IVM)/in vitro culture (IVC) of porcine nuclear transfer (NT) embryos on subsequent developmental capacity in vitro. Porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were divided into five groups, matured for 44 h in maturation medium with various concentrations of MEM vitamins (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4%), and observed for maturation rate. Also, COCs were matured in NUSU-23 media without MEM vitamins for 44 h and cultured in PZM-3 media with various concentrations of MEM vitamins (0, 0.05, 0.4 and 1.0%) for 6 days following nuclear transfer. Factorial (IVM/IVC) experiments were also performed in NCSU-23 medium with or without 0.05% MEM vitamins and PZM-3 medium with or without 0.4% MEM vitamins. They were then tested by examining in vitro development of the porcine reconstructed embryos. The maturation rates of the COCs treated with the MEM vitamins did not differ significantly among the MEM vitamin-treated groups. Addition of vitamins to culture medium did not affect development of porcine reconstructed embryos in vitro. However, addition of low concentrations of MEM vitamins only to maturation medium increased (PMEM vitamins to IVC medium did not enhance the developmental rate compared with the control group. Thus, addition of MEM vitamins to IVM medium could improve subsequent blastocyst development of porcine NT embryos.

  11. The effect of minimal concentration of ethylene glycol (EG) combined with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) on mouse oocyte survival and subsequent embryonic development following vitrification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Yao; Okitsu, Osamu; Zhao, Xiao-Ming; Sun, Yun; Di, Wen; Chian, Ri-Cheng

    ... actions.The minimal concentration of ethylene glycol (EG) on mouse oocyte survival and subsequent embryonic development was evaluated following vitrification-warming and parthenogenetic activation...

  12. Measuring Subjective Happiness by Newly Developed Scale in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Abachizadeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Happiness as one of the main positive health indicators has drawn more attention in recent years among policy makers and health system managers. There are few studies performed to measure happiness in population-based settings in Iran. In response to this need, our study tends to assess Iranians subjective happiness in Tehran, Capital city of Iran.Materials and Methods: Present study was conducted in Tehran, Capital of Iran, with more than 7 Million populations in January 2013, using a two-step approach. In first step c conceptual framework of Iranians’ happiness was developed. In the second phase of study, a survey recruiting 700 participants was conducted. Stratified cluster sampling method was employed. Participants were recruited from all the 22 municipal divisions of Tehran as strata, proportional to the population size and its gender and age distribution. Happiness was measure by a 40-item questionnaire with scores ranged among 40 to 200.Results: Conceptual framework of Iranians’ happiness based on reviewed documents and consensus building process was the product of first step. At second step, from a pool of 700 persons, 696 (97% agreed to participate and filled out the questionnaire completely.  The mean of happiness score was 143.9 (95% confidence interval, 142.5 to 145.4. The results show that the happiness score of jobless people (135.1, 95%CI: 128.1-142.0 and widowed singles (126.6, 95%CI: 113.0-140.2 were significantly lower than other corresponding groups. There was no significant association between gender, age group, educational level as determinants and happiness.Conclusion: Happiness level of Tehranians is somewhat higher than the moderate level. This finding is consistent with findings of other conducted studies in country. However, it is not consistent with some of international reports of happiness, For instance, Happy Planet Index. Due to inadequate information, it is necessary to conduct more research to

  13. Pediatric short bowel syndrome and subsequent development of inflammatory bowel disease: an illustrative case and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Katherine J; Srinivasan, Jahnavi K; Ziegler, Thomas R; Dhere, Tanvi; Ricketts, Richard R; Durham, Megan M

    2017-06-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) in neonates is an uncommon but highly morbid condition. As SBS survival increases, physiologic complications become more apparent. Few reports in the literature elucidate outcomes for adults with a pediatric history of SBS. We present a case report of a patient, born with complicated gastroschisis resulting in SBS at birth, who subsequently developed symptoms and pathologic changes of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) as an adult. The patient lived from age 7, after a Bianchi intestinal lengthening procedure, to age 34 independent of parenteral nutrition (PN), but requiring hydration fluid via G-tube. He was then diagnosed with IBD, after presenting with weight loss, diarrhea, and malabsorption, which required resumption of PN and infliximab treatment. This report adds to a small body of the literature which points to a connection between SBS in neonates and subsequent diagnosis of IBD. Recent evidence suggests that SBS and IBD have shared features of mucosal immune dysfunction and altered intestinal microbiota. We review current treatment options for pediatric SBS as well as multidisciplinary and coordinated transition strategies. We conclude that there may be an etiologic connection between SBS and IBD and that this knowledge may impact outcomes and approaches to care.

  14. Recipient Outcomes Following Transplantation of Allografts From Live Kidney Donors Who Subsequently Developed End-Stage Renal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaale, A D; Massie, A B; Anjum, S; Liao, C; Garg, A X; Lentine, K L; Segev, D L

    2016-12-01

    Live kidney donors have an increased risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) compared with nondonors; however, it is unknown whether undetected, subclinical kidney disease exists at donation that subsequently contributes to this risk. To indirectly test this hypothesis, the authors followed the donated kidneys, by comparing the outcomes of 257 recipients whose donors subsequently developed ESRD with a matched cohort whose donors remained ESRD free. The compared recipients were matched on donor (age, sex, race/ethnicity, donor-recipient relationship), transplant (HLA mismatch, peak panel-reactive antibody, previous transplantation, year of transplantation), and recipient (age, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, cause of ESRD, and time on dialysis) risk factors. Median recipient follow-up was 12.5 years (interquartile range 7.4-17.9, maximum 20 years). Recipients of allografts from donors who developed ESRD had increased death-censored graft loss (74% versus 56% at 20 years; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-2.0; p < 0.001) and mortality (61% versus 46% at 20 years; aHR 1.5; 95% CI 1.2-1.8; p < 0.001) compared with matched recipients of allografts from donors who did not develop ESRD. This association was similar among related, spousal, and unrelated nonspousal donors. These findings support a novel view of the mechanisms underlying donor ESRD: that of pre-donation kidney disease. However, biopsy data may be required to confirm this hypothesis. © Copyright 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  15. The effect of vitrification of immature bovine oocytes to the subsequent in vitro development and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faheem, Marwa S; Baron, E; Carvalhais, I; Chaveiro, A; Pavani, K; da Silva, F Moreira

    2015-12-01

    Immature bovine oocytes were vitrified using the cryotop method and their post-warming survivability and capability to undergo in vitro maturation, fertilization and subsequent embryonic development were evaluated. In addition throughout the embryonic 2-cell, 4-cell, morula and blastocyst stages, the expression of four developmentally important genes (Cx43, CDH1, DNMT1 and HSPA14) was analysed using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Immature oocytes (n = 550) were randomly assigned to non-vitrified (fresh) or cryotop vitrification groups using ethylene glycol (EG) with 1,2 propanediol (PROH) or dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO). After warming, oocytes survivability, embryo cleavage and embryonic developmental rates were not statistically different between the two cryoprotectants groups. However, the DMSO group had a lower (P vitrification of immature bovine oocytes, both for embryonic developmental competence and at the molecular level. Moreover, PROH showed some advantage over DMSO as a cryoprotectant.

  16. Roles of dental pulp fibroblasts in the recognition of bacterium-related factors and subsequent development of pulpitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Nakanishi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available As caries-related bacteria invade deeply into dentin and come into close proximity to the pulp, inflammatory cells (such as lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils infiltrate into the bacterium-invaded area and consequently pulpitis develops. Many types of cytokines and adhesion molecules are responsible for the initiation and progression of pulpitis. Dental pulp fibroblasts, a major cell type in the dental pulp, also have capacity to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines and express adhesion molecules in response to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs, including lipopolysaccharide. The innate immune system senses microbial infection using pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD, for PAMPs. In this review, we summarize the roles of dental pulp fibroblasts in the recognition of invaded bacterium-related factors via TLR and NOD pathways, and the subsequent pulpal immune responses, leading to progressive pulpitis.

  17. No cytotoxic effects from application of pentoxifylline to spermatozoa on subsequent pre-implantation embryo development in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Khalili

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to assess the effect of spermatozoa exposed to PTX on the rates of fertilization and embryo development and apoptotic cells within blastocysts in an animal model. Mice Oocytes were inseminated with spermatozoa exposed to 3.6 mmol PTX for 30 min, or with neat spermatozoa. Then fertilization and embryo development rate, blastocyst formation and quality, as well as total cell number of blastocyst, and DNA fragmentation index (DFI in blastocysts were surveyed in both groups. Fertilization and embryo development rate were similar between the groups. The rates of blastocyst formation did not differ significantly between control and PTX groups (52.4% vs. 51.8%. The average of total cell count in blastocysts and DFI in control and PTX groups were also insignificant (31.08 ± 1.5 vs. 34.14 ± 1.5 and 9.76 ± 5.0 vs. 11.77 ± 5.4. Application of PTX for enhancing sperm motility does not cause a cytotoxic effect on subsequent embryo development and embryo genome integrity.

  18. Beyond human subjects: risk, ethics, and clinical development of nanomedicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmelman, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Clinical testing of nanomedicines presents two challenges to prevailing, human subject-centered frameworks governing research ethics. First, some nanomedical applications may present risk to persons other than research subjects. Second, pressures encountered in testing nanomedicines may present threats to the kinds of collaborations and collective activities needed for supporting clinical translation and redeeming research risk. In this article, I describe how similar challenges were encountered and addressed in gene transfer, and sketch policy options that might be explored in the nanomedicine translation arena. © 2012 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  19. Relationship between pickiness and subsequent development in body mass index and diet intake in obesity prone normal weight preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Jeanett Friis; Händel, Mina Nicole; Stougaard, Maria; Olsen, Nanna Julie; Trærup, Maria; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2017-01-01

    Most children have periods in their life where they reject familiar as well as non-familiar food items and this is often referred to as pickiness. The consequences of pickiness may be malnutrition and, if prolonged, potentially lower body weight. However, studies investigating the consequence of pickiness on subsequent changes in diet intake and weight are limited. To examine whether pickiness influences body mass index as well as diet intake over subsequent 15 months among obesity prone normal weight children aged 2-6 years. Data was obtained from the "Healthy Start" intervention study which included 271 children aged 2-6 years susceptible to overweight later in life. Information on pickiness was obtained from a parental questionnaire. Dietary habits were collected by 4-day dietary records filled in by the parents and height and weight were measured by trained health professionals and both measured twice over a 15 month period. Linear regression models were performed to assess the influence of pickiness on body mass index and diet with adjustments for possible confounders. No differences in mean BMI Z-score were seen between picky/non-picky (P = 0.68) and little picky/non-picky (P = 0.68) children at 15 month follow-up. Picky children had a lower intake of protein (P = 0.01) than non-picky children despite no differences in total energy intake (P = 0.74), or in the other macronutrients, or the intake of fruit and vegetables, though children being a little picky had a lower intake of starch compared to non-picky children (P = 0.05). Results were essentially similar before and after adjustment for key covariates. Our study showed that BMI Z-score after 15 months follow-up was similar for picky and non-picky children. Picky children seemed to develop a lower protein intake despite similar total energy intake and diet composition.

  20. Relationship between pickiness and subsequent development in body mass index and diet intake in obesity prone normal weight preschool children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanett Friis Rohde

    Full Text Available Most children have periods in their life where they reject familiar as well as non-familiar food items and this is often referred to as pickiness. The consequences of pickiness may be malnutrition and, if prolonged, potentially lower body weight. However, studies investigating the consequence of pickiness on subsequent changes in diet intake and weight are limited.To examine whether pickiness influences body mass index as well as diet intake over subsequent 15 months among obesity prone normal weight children aged 2-6 years.Data was obtained from the "Healthy Start" intervention study which included 271 children aged 2-6 years susceptible to overweight later in life. Information on pickiness was obtained from a parental questionnaire. Dietary habits were collected by 4-day dietary records filled in by the parents and height and weight were measured by trained health professionals and both measured twice over a 15 month period. Linear regression models were performed to assess the influence of pickiness on body mass index and diet with adjustments for possible confounders.No differences in mean BMI Z-score were seen between picky/non-picky (P = 0.68 and little picky/non-picky (P = 0.68 children at 15 month follow-up. Picky children had a lower intake of protein (P = 0.01 than non-picky children despite no differences in total energy intake (P = 0.74, or in the other macronutrients, or the intake of fruit and vegetables, though children being a little picky had a lower intake of starch compared to non-picky children (P = 0.05. Results were essentially similar before and after adjustment for key covariates.Our study showed that BMI Z-score after 15 months follow-up was similar for picky and non-picky children. Picky children seemed to develop a lower protein intake despite similar total energy intake and diet composition.

  1. Breast arterial calcifications are correlated with subsequent development of coronary artery calcifications, but their aetiology is predominantly different

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    Maas, Angela H.E.M. [Department of Cardiology, Isala Klinieken, Groot Wezenland 20, 8011 JW Zwolle (Netherlands)], E-mail: a.maas@diagram-zwolle.nl; Schouw, Yvonne T. van der; Atsma, Femke [Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Beijerinck, David; Deurenberg, Jan J.M. [Preventicon Breast Cancer Screening Center, Stationsplein 91, 3511ED Utrecht (Netherlands); Mali, Willem P.Th.M. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Graaf, Y. van der [Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584CX Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2007-09-15

    Objective: To study whether calcifications in breast arteries, as seen on mammograms, predict future development of coronary artery calcifications. Methods: We studied 499 women, aged 49-70 years, participating in a breast cancer screening program and investigated whether arterial calcifications in the breast (BAC) are associated with coronary arterial calcifications (CAC) after 9 years follow-up. Mammograms were reviewed for the presence of BAC. CAC was assessed by multi slice computed tomography (MSCT). With logistic regression analysis the independent effect of various risk factors on BAC and CAC was measured. Results: BAC was present in 58 of 499 women (12%) and CAC score > 0 was present in 262 of 499 women (53%). BAC was strongly associated with CAC (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.71-6.04) and this remained significant after adjustment for age at baseline and the duration of follow-up (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.10-4.23). Most CV risk factors were associated with CAC but not with BAC. Only parity was significantly associated with both increased CAC (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.21-3.60) and increased BAC (OR 5.3, 95% CI 1.23-22.43). Breastfeeding was associated with BAC (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.40-8.23) but not with CAC (OR 1.3, 95% CI 0.84-1.93). Conclusion: Breast arterial calcifications are predictive of subsequent development of calcifications in the coronary arteries.

  2. The association between childhood environmental exposures and the subsequent development of Crohn's disease in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Basson

    Full Text Available Environmental factors during childhood are thought to play a role in the aetiolgy of Crohn's Disease (CD. However the association between age at time of exposure and the subsequent development of CD in South Africa is unknown.A case control study of all consecutive CD patients seen at 2 large inflammatory bowel disease (IBD referral centers in the Western Cape, South Africa between September 2011 and January 2013 was performed. Numerous environmental exposures during 3 age intervals; 0-5, 6-10 and 11-18 years were extracted using an investigator administered questionnaire. An agreement analysis was performed to determine the reliability of questionnaire data for all the relevant variables.This study included 194 CD patients and 213 controls. On multiple logistic regression analysis, a number of childhood environmental exposures during the 3 age interval were significantly associated with the risk of developing CD. During the age interval 6-10 years, never having had consumed unpasteurized milk (OR = 5.84; 95% CI, 2.73-13.53 and never having a donkey, horse, sheep or cow on the property (OR = 2.48; 95% CI, 1.09-5.98 significantly increased the risk of developing future CD. During the age interval 11-18 years, an independent risk-association was identified for; never having consumed unpasteurized milk (OR = 2.60; 95% CI, 1.17-6.10 and second-hand cigarette smoke exposure (OR = 1.93; 95% CI, 1.13-3.35.This study demonstrates that both limited microbial exposures and exposure to second-hand cigarette smoke during childhood is associated with future development of CD.

  3. Effects of melatonin during IVM in defined medium on oocyte meiosis, oxidative stress, and subsequent embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Cunha, Maria Carolina; Mesquita, Lígia G; Bressan, Fabiana; Collado, Maite Del; Balieiro, Júlio C C; Schwarz, Kátia R L; de Castro, Fernanda C; Watanabe, Osnir Y; Watanabe, Yeda F; de Alencar Coelho, Lia; Leal, Cláudia L V

    2016-10-15

    Melatonin may have beneficial effects when used in oocyte maturation and embryo development culture. The effect of melatonin during IVM on meiosis resumption and progression in bovine oocytes and on expression of antioxidant enzymes, nuclear fragmentation and free radicals, as well as on embryo development were assessed. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were matured in vitro with melatonin (10(-9) and 10(-6) M), FSH (positive control), or without hormones (negative control) in defined medium. Maturation rates were evaluated at 6, 12, 18, and 24 hours. Transcripts for antioxidant enzymes (CuZnSOD, MnSOD, and glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4)) in oocytes and cumulus cells, nuclear fragmentation in cumulus cells (TUNEL) and reactive oxygen species levels in oocytes (carboxy-H2 difluorofluorescein diacetate) were determined at 24 hours IVM. Effect of treatments on embryo development was determined after in vitro fertilization and culture. At 12 hours, meiosis resumption rates in FSH and melatonin-treated groups were similar (69.6%-81.8%, P > 0.05). At 24 hours, most oocytes were in metaphase II, with FSH showing highest rates (90.0%, P  0.05). In cumulus cells, MnSOD expression was higher in FSH group (P  0.05). In conclusion, although melatonin during IVM in a defined medium does not stimulate nuclear maturation progression it does stimulate meiosis resumption and such treated oocytes support subsequent embryo development. Melatonin also shows cytoprotective effects on cumulus-oocyte complexes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Bovine oocyte vitrification using the Cryotop method: effect of cumulus cells and vitrification protocol on survival and subsequent development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X L; Al Naib, A; Sun, Da-Wen; Sun, D W; Lonergan, P

    2010-08-01

    The ability to successfully cryopreserve mammalian oocytes has numerous practical, economical and ethical benefits, which may positively impact animal breeding programs and assisted conception in humans. However, oocyte survival and development following vitrification remains poor. The aim of the present study was (1) to evaluate the effect of the presence of cumulus cells on the outcome of vitrification of immature (GV) or mature (MII) bovine oocytes, (2) to compare empirical and theoretical vitrification protocols, and (3) to assess the effect of adding ice blockers to vitrification media on survival and development competence of bovine oocytes following vitrification using the Cryotop method. In Experiment 1, cumulus-enclosed and partially-denuded GV and MII oocytes were vitrified in 15% EG+15% Me(2)SO+0.5M sucrose in two steps. In Experiment 2, GV oocytes were vitrified either as above or using theoretical modeling based on permeability and osmotic tolerance characteristics in 30% EG+11.4% trehalose in three steps or 40% EG+11.4% trehalose in four steps. In Experiment 3, GV oocytes were vitrified in media supplemented or not with 1 of 2 ice blockers (21st Century Medicine, Fontana, CA) 1% X-1000, 1% Z-1000 or both in three steps. In Experiment 1, the survival, cleavage and blastocyst rate of cumulus-enclosed oocytes was significantly higher than those of partially-denuded oocytes when vitrified at the GV stage (93.8% vs. 81.3%, 65.8% vs. 47.3%, 11.3% vs. 4.0%, respectively, P0.05). In conclusion, cumulus-enclosed GV bovine oocytes survived vitrification and subsequently developed at higher rates than MII oocytes using Cryotop method and conventional IVF procedure. Theoretical analysis of permeability characteristics and tolerance limits could not explain the low developmental competence of vitrified oocytes. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Subject Knowledge Development by Science Student Teachers: The Role of University Tutors and School-Based Subject Mentors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youens, Bernadette; McCarthy, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Following the introduction of a National Curriculum for Science, all secondary science teachers in England need to be prepared to teach all aspects of a broad and balanced science curriculum. This is the second paper in which we explore science student teachers' subject knowledge development during a one-year postgraduate teacher preparation…

  6. How Achieving the Millennium Development Goals Increases Subjective Well-Being in Developing Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shizuki Fukuda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The target date in 2015 for the United Nation’s Millennium Development Goals (MDGs was reached, and a new period of global goals for the post-2015 is dawning. To assess whether and how regional progress towards achieving the MDGs has contributed to better quality of life in developing nations, we formulated a correlation between various aspects of human development, indicated by MDG indicators, and subjective well-being (SWB, a response to the question of how much people feel happy or satisfied. We demonstrated that national levels of SWB can be explained by the degree of development; poverty reduction is the strongest determinant, and achieving the MDGs is associated with higher SWB levels. Scenario assessment of SWB allowed which domain of development should be improved preferentially in each region to be determined, hence the SWB approach is expected to offer an innovative proxy of human development for the assessment of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs.

  7. Impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy on human milk and subsequent infant metabolic development: methodology and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Jill K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is on the rise and is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes later in life. Recent evidence indicates that abnormalities that increase risk for diabetes may be initiated early in infancy. Since the offspring of women with diabetes have an increased long-term risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes, the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities on early nutrition and infant metabolic trajectories is of considerable interest. Human breast milk, the preferred food during infancy, contains not only nutrients but also an array of bioactive substances including metabolic hormones. Nonetheless, only a few studies have reported concentrations of metabolic hormones in human milk specifically from women with metabolic abnormalities. We aim to investigate the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy on human milk hormones and subsequently on infant development over the first year of life. The objective of this report is to present the methodology and design of this study. Methods/Design The current investigation is a prospective study conducted within ongoing cohort studies of women and their offspring. Pregnant women attending outpatient obstetrics clinics in Toronto, Canada were recruited. Between April 2009 and July 2010, a total of 216 pregnant women underwent a baseline oral glucose tolerance test and provided medical and lifestyle history. Follow-up visits and telephone interviews are conducted and expected to be completed in October 2011. Upon delivery, infant birth anthropometry measurements and human breast milk samples are collected. At 3 and 12 months postpartum, mothers and infants are invited for follow-up assessments. Interim telephone interviews are conducted during the first year of offspring life to characterize infant feeding and supplementation behaviors. Discussion An improved understanding of the link between maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy and early infant nutrition may

  8. Impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy on human milk and subsequent infant metabolic development: methodology and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Sylvia H; O'Connor, Deborah L; Retnakaran, Ravi; Hamilton, Jill K; Sermer, Mathew; Zinman, Bernard; Hanley, Anthony J

    2010-10-06

    Childhood obesity is on the rise and is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes later in life. Recent evidence indicates that abnormalities that increase risk for diabetes may be initiated early in infancy. Since the offspring of women with diabetes have an increased long-term risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes, the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities on early nutrition and infant metabolic trajectories is of considerable interest. Human breast milk, the preferred food during infancy, contains not only nutrients but also an array of bioactive substances including metabolic hormones. Nonetheless, only a few studies have reported concentrations of metabolic hormones in human milk specifically from women with metabolic abnormalities. We aim to investigate the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy on human milk hormones and subsequently on infant development over the first year of life. The objective of this report is to present the methodology and design of this study. The current investigation is a prospective study conducted within ongoing cohort studies of women and their offspring. Pregnant women attending outpatient obstetrics clinics in Toronto, Canada were recruited. Between April 2009 and July 2010, a total of 216 pregnant women underwent a baseline oral glucose tolerance test and provided medical and lifestyle history. Follow-up visits and telephone interviews are conducted and expected to be completed in October 2011. Upon delivery, infant birth anthropometry measurements and human breast milk samples are collected. At 3 and 12 months postpartum, mothers and infants are invited for follow-up assessments. Interim telephone interviews are conducted during the first year of offspring life to characterize infant feeding and supplementation behaviors. An improved understanding of the link between maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy and early infant nutrition may assist in the development of optimal prevention and intervention

  9. Age affects the expression of maternal care and subsequent behavioural development of offspring in a precocial bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Pittet

    Full Text Available Variations of breeding success with age have been studied largely in iteroparous species and particularly in birds: survival of offspring increases with parental age until senescence. Nevertheless, these results are from observations of free-living individuals and therefore, it remains impossible to determine whether these variations result from parental investment or efficiency or both, and whether these variations occur during the prenatal or the postnatal stage or during both. Our study aimed first, to determine whether age had an impact on the expression of maternal breeding care by comparing inexperienced female birds of two different ages, and second, to define how these potential differences impact chicks' growth and behavioural development. We made 22 2-month-old and 22 8-month-old female Japanese quail foster 1-day-old chicks. We observed their maternal behaviour until the chicks were 11 days old and then tested these chicks after separation from their mothers. Several behavioural tests estimated their fearfulness and their sociality. We observed first that a longer induction was required for young females to express maternal behaviour. Subsequently as many young females as elder females expressed maternal behaviour, but young females warmed chicks less, expressed less covering postures and rejected their chicks more. Chicks brooded by elder females presented higher growth rates and more fearfulness and sociality. Our results reveal that maternal investment increased with age independently of maternal experience, suggesting modification of hormone levels implied in maternal behaviour. Isolated effects of maternal experience should now be assessed in females of the same age. In addition, our results show, for first time in birds, that variations in maternal care directly induce important differences in the behavioural development of chicks. Finally, our results confirm that Japanese quail remains a great laboratory model of avian

  10. Subject of research on effects of tourism on population development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devedžić Mirjana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of tourism in the context of economic and demographic recovery of certain regions has created an image of tourism as a development catalyst. Thus strategies of revitalization in depopulated and passive regions often consider tourism as an activity that can speed up the development and successfully valorize existing natural, cultural and demographic potentials. This "key" is used mainly in the absence of other development resources since tourism valorizes issues that other industries ignore (landscape features, ethnical heritage, authentic folk architecture, etc. In addition it is more difficult to recommend the right forms of tourism to be developed in depopulated regions, as well as to estimate the resulting economic and demographic effects. To this end, there are success stories, but there is also evidence of non-rational initiatives and projects that were never completed. This paper attempts to discover the most logical links between population development and tourism development, based on some important characteristics of population development. The characteristics used are overall population increase, population migrations, population structures and changes in households. They were selected because they best reflect not only direct, but also indirect multiplicative effects of tourism. Along with the theoretical and methodological background, the research is also supported by selected examples, interviews, and demographic analyzes. The effects are not universal. They depend on the region, the kind of tourism and the degree of its development, the demographic situation as it is, and the research approach, since global and local effects need not necessarily be unidirectional. Population increase initiated by tourism development is achieved due to the migration component, but the effects are most obvious at the level of tourist regions and their tourist centers. One can also note counter processes in some places that have tourist

  11. Student feedback on a pioneer subject on leadership and intrapersonal development in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Yu, Lu; Xie, Qiu Zhi

    2017-02-01

    To promote leadership and intrapersonal development in university students, a subject entitled "Tomorrow's Leaders" was developed and offered at The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. To assess the perceived effectiveness of this subject, 647 students completed the student feedback questionnaire (SFQ). Results showed that the feedback questionnaire had very good psychometric properties, including internal consistency reliability and construct validity. Regarding students' views of the subject, results showed that students generally had good evaluation of the content of the subject, teaching quality, and perceived benefits of the subject. The present findings have implications for the teaching of general education regarding leadership development.

  12. Pre-onset auroral signatures and subsequent development of substorm auroras: a development of ionospheric loop currents at the onset latitudes

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    O. Saka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Substorm auroras observed on 17 January 1994 were localized within the field of view of an all-sky imager installed at Dawson City (DWS, 65.7° ILAT. In association with the enhancement of the anti-sunward convection in the polar cap and the ion flux enhancement in 1–6 keV at geosynchronous altitudes, a wave-like structure propagating equatorward to the onset latitudes with a high wave number in azimuth (m ~ 76, T ~ 120 s was observed 30 min prior to the activation in the equatorward latitudes. The activation of the auroras in the equatorward latitudes and the subsequent poleward expansion lasted for approximately 6 min until a diffuse aurora formed. The auroras in the last 6 min were isolated and localized within the field of view of DWS, from 400 km west to 400 km east, and accompanied the magnetic pulse at the optical station. The magnetic pulse is interpreted by the propagating ionospheric current loop with a size comparable to the isolated auroras (~ 1000 km. We conclude that the wave-like structures in the pre-onset interval relate to the intrusion of the plasma-sheet plasmas from the tail by the convection. The plasmas from the tail eventually developed the ionospheric loop currents at the onset latitudes, in association with the triggering of the bead-like rippling of auroras and subsequent breaking out from the onset latitudes.

  13. Early life exposure to antibiotics and the subsequent development of eczema, wheeze, and allergic sensitization in the first 2 years of life: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kummeling, Ischa; Stelma, Foekje F.; Dagnelie, Pieter C.; Snijders, Bianca E. P.; Penders, John; Huber, Machteld; van Ree, Ronald; van den Brandt, Piet A.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Antibiotic exposure in early life may be associated with atopic disease development either by interfering with bacterial commensal flora or by modifying the course of bacterial infections. We evaluated early life exposure to antibiotics and the subsequent development of eczema, wheeze,

  14. How Does That Work? Developing Pedagogical Content Knowledge from Subject Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The development of subject knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge has been the focus of much educational research and debate in recent years. Of particular interest is the process by which preservice science teachers develop pedagogical content knowledge from their subject knowledge. In the study presented here, a process of writing narrative…

  15. Predictors of the Development of Elementary-School Children=s Intentions to Smoke Cigarettes: Hostility, Prototypes, and Subjective Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Sarah E.; Andrews, Judy A.; Barckley, Maureen

    2008-01-01

    Children’s intentions to smoke are reliable predictors of subsequent smoking and precede smoking initiation, so identifying predictors of intentions is important for preventing or delaying smoking initiation. Children’s hostility and sociability, mediated by the development of prototypes (i.e., social images of children who smoke cigarettes) and subjective norms regarding smoking among peers, were expected to predict the development of their intentions to smoke cigarettes in the future. Children in 2nd through 5th grades (N = 809) from a Western Oregon community participated in a longitudinal study. Hostility and sociability were assessed by teachers = ratings, and prototypes, subjective norms, and intentions were assessed by self-report at each of the first four annual assessments. Children’s intentions to smoke predicted whether they had tried cigarettes by the fifth assessment. For both genders, latent growth modeling demonstrated that hostility, but not sociability, predicted the development of smoking intentions. More hostile children were more likely to have higher initial levels of intentions to smoke and, for boys, this effect was mediated by their higher initial levels of subjective norms about smoking. Sociability was not related to the development of smoking cognitions for boys or girls. These results were discussed in terms of opportunities to intervene on early influences on smoking intentions. PMID:17577804

  16. Predictors of the development of elementary-school children's intentions to smoke cigarettes: hostility, prototypes, and subjective norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Sarah E; Andrews, Judy A; Barckley, Maureen

    2007-07-01

    Children's intentions to smoke are reliable predictors of subsequent smoking and precede smoking initiation; thus identifying predictors of intentions is important for preventing or delaying smoking initiation. Children's hostility and sociability, mediated by the development of prototypes (i.e., social images of children who smoke cigarettes) and subjective norms regarding smoking among peers, were expected to predict the development of their intentions to smoke cigarettes in the future. Children in 2nd through 5th grades (N = 809) from a western Oregon community participated in a longitudinal study. Hostility and sociability were assessed by teachers' ratings, and prototypes, subjective norms, and intentions were assessed by self-report at each of the first four annual assessments. Children's intentions to smoke predicted whether they had tried cigarettes by the fifth assessment. For both genders, latent growth modeling demonstrated that hostility, but not sociability, predicted the development of smoking intentions. Children who were more hostile were more likely to have higher initial levels of intentions to smoke, and for boys this effect was mediated by their higher initial levels of subjective norms about smoking. Sociability was not related to the development of smoking cognitions for boys or girls. These results are discussed in terms of opportunities to intervene in early influences on smoking intentions.

  17. Development of Subjective Recollection: Understanding of and Introspection on Memory States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghetti, Simona; Mirandola, Chiara; Angelini, Laura; Cornoldi, Cesare; Ciaramelli, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    The development of subjective recollection was investigated in participants aged 6-18 years. In Experiment 1 (N = 90), age-related improvements were found in understanding of the subjective experience of recollection, although robust levels of understanding were observed even in the youngest group. In Experiment 2 (N = 100), age-related…

  18. Assessing Adolescents' Positive Psychological Functioning at School: Development and Validation of the Student Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Tyler L.; Long, Anna C. J.; Cook, Clayton R.

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on the initial development and validation of the Student Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire (SSWQ) with a sample of 1,002 students in Grades 6-8. The SSWQ is a 16-item self-report instrument for assessing youths' subjective wellbeing at school, which is operationalized via 4 subscales measuring school connectedness, academic…

  19. Decoding development in the XXI century: subjectivity, complexity, sinapsis, sinergy, recursivity, lidership and territorial dependency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sergio Boisier

    2010-01-01

      BOISIER, Sergio. Decoding development in the XXI century: subjectivity, complexity, sinapsis, sinergy, recursivity, lidership and territorial dependency. Semest. Econ. [online]. 2010, vol.13, n.27, pp. 11-37. ISSN 0120-6346...

  20. THE DEVELOPMENT OF PROFESSIONAL SUBJECTIVE POSITION OF MANAGEMENT HUMAN RESOURCES FOR HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ol'ga L. Zadvornaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of development of professional-subjective position of managerial staff of health care in the system of continuous professional education in the conditions of optimization of activities of the health system. Professional and subject position reflects the position of individual managers in a professional environment, its relationship to the quality of professional activity, to himself, to patients and colleagues to level their skills.Purpose/objectives: analysis of core competencies, forming the professional and subject position of heads of medical organizations; identify possible ways of development of professional-subjective position of managerial staff of the public health based on the use of modern technologies and active methods of training in system of continuous professional education. Methodology. In conducting the present study used data from official sources, literature review, scientific methods of analysis and synthesis, comparative analysis and modeling. The results of the study indicate the necessity of actualization of the subject position of heads of medical organizations. Conclusions /Significance. The necessity of formation and development of professional subjective position of the heads due to the needs of society and the health care system with modern requirements for quality management training of health. Professional and subject position is a characteristic feature of a highly qualified specialist in the area of governance, reflecting its active attitude toward self and professional activity, factor of efficiency of activity of medical organizations. The real practice of activity of medical organizations requires improved approaches in the preparation of healthcare managers. Most of the leaders are having difficulties, associated not only with necessity of development of universal and professional competences, but also the necessity of development of professional-subjective position

  1. The effect of hepatocyte growth factor on mouse oocyte in vitro maturation and subsequent fertilization and embryo development

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    Mohammad H. Bahadori

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oocyte invitro maturation is an enormously promising technology for the treatment of infertility, yet its clinical application remains limited owing to poor success rates. Therefore, this study was devised to evaluate the effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF on in vitro maturation of immature mouse oocytes and resulting embryos development. Materials and Method: Cumulus – oocyte complex and germinal vesicle were obtained from eighteen 6-8 weeks-old female NMRI mice 46-48 hours after administration of an injection of 5 IU PMSG (Pregnant Mares’ Serum Gonadotrophin. Oocytes were culture in TCM199 (Tissue culture medium-199 supplemented with dosages of 0, 10, 20, 50 and 100 ng/ml of HGF. After 24 hours, metaphase ІІ oocytes were co-incubated with sperms for 4-6 hours in T6 medium. Following isolation of two pronucleus embryos, cleavage of embryos was assessed in the same medium till blastocyst stage. The number of oocytes and embryos was recorded under an invert microscope and the rate of oocyte maturation, fertilization and embryos cleavage until blastocyst stage compared using of student χ2 test. Results: In all compared groups, oocytes growth and embryos development rate in the 20 ng/ml of HGF treatment group was significantly higher (p<0.05 than the control group (p<0.05.Conclusion: 20 ng/ml of HGF improved the nuclear maturation and embryo development up to blastocyst stage during culture condition

  2. High levels of C-reactive protein in the peripheral blood during visceral leishmaniasis predict subsequent development of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasim, S; Theander, T G; ElHassan, A M

    2000-01-01

    Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a known sequel to visceral leishmaniasis in India and East Africa, and in Sudan about 50% of the kala-azar patients develop PKDL. In this study we followed kala-azar patients from diagnosis and up to 2 years after initiation of treatment. During...... and in keratinocytes during visceral leishmaniasis predict subsequent development of PKDL. The method however requires expensive equipment and reagents. The results of the present study indicate that kala-azar patients, who have a high risk of developing PKDL after treatment can be identified by measuring plasma CRP....

  3. Towards Development of Robotic Aid for Rehabilitation of Locomotion-Impaired Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejczy, Antal K.

    2000-01-01

    Manual assistance of therapists to help movement of legs of spinal cord injured (SCI) subjects during stepping on a treadmill for locomotion rehabilitation has severe economic and technical limitations. Scientists at the Department of Physiological Science at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) and roboticists at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) initiated a joint effort to develop a robotic mechanism capable of performing controlled motions equivalent to the arm and hand motions of therapists assisting the stepping of locomotion impaired subjects on a treadmill, while the subjects' body weight is partially supported by an overhead harness. A first necessary technical step towards this development is to measure and understand the kinematics and dynamics of the therapists' arm and hand motions as they are reflected on the subjects' leg movement. This paper describes an initial measurement system developed for this purpose together with the related measurement results, and outlines the planned future technical work.

  4. Treatment of textile effluent in a developed phytoreactor with immobilized bacterial augmentation and subsequent toxicity studies on Etheostoma olmstedi fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watharkar, Anuprita D. [Department of Biotechnology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur (India); Khandare, Rahul V. [School of Life Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon (India); Waghmare, Pankajkumar R.; Jagadale, Ashwini D.; Govindwar, Sanjay P. [Department of Biochemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur (India); Jadhav, Jyoti P., E-mail: jpj_biochem@unishivaji.ac.in [Department of Biotechnology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur (India); Department of Biochemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur (India)

    2015-02-11

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A phytoreactor was developed and augmented with immobilized bacteria. • This consortium showed enhanced treatment than the individual species. • Oxido-reductases from P. crinitum and B. pumilus could decolorize the effluent. • Characterization of effluent samples endorsed the efficacy of consortial strategy. • Toxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of the consortium treated effluent. - Abstract: A static hydroponic bioreactor using nursery grown plants of Pogonatherum crinitum along with immobilized Bacillus pumilus cells was developed for the treatment of textile wastewater. Independent reactors with plants and immobilized cells were also kept for performance and efficacy evaluation. The effluent samples characterized before and after their treatment showed that the plant–bacterial consortium reactor was more efficient than those of individual plant and bacterium reactors. COD, BOD, ADMI, conductivity, turbidity, TDS and TSS of the textile effluent was found to be reduced by 78, 70, 93, 4, 90, 13 and 70% respectively within 12 d by the consortial set. HPTLC analysis revealed the transformation of the textile effluent to new products. The phytotoxicity study on Phaeseolus mungo and Sorghum vulgare seeds showed reduced toxicity of treated effluents. The animal toxicity study performed on Etheostoma olmstedi fishes showed the toxic nature of untreated effluent giving extreme stress to fishes leading to death. Histology of fish gills exposed to treated effluent was found to be less affected. The oxidative stress related enzymes like superoxide dismutase and catalase were found to show decreased activities and less lipid peroxidation in fishes exposed to treated effluent.

  5. Development of realistic physical breast phantoms matched to virtual breast phantoms based on human subject data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiarashi, Nooshin; Nolte, Adam C; Sturgeon, Gregory M; Segars, William P; Ghate, Sujata V; Nolte, Loren W; Samei, Ehsan; Lo, Joseph Y

    2015-07-01

    Physical phantoms are essential for the development, optimization, and evaluation of x-ray breast imaging systems. Recognizing the major effect of anatomy on image quality and clinical performance, such phantoms should ideally reflect the three-dimensional structure of the human breast. Currently, there is no commercially available three-dimensional physical breast phantom that is anthropomorphic. The authors present the development of a new suite of physical breast phantoms based on human data. The phantoms were designed to match the extended cardiac-torso virtual breast phantoms that were based on dedicated breast computed tomography images of human subjects. The phantoms were fabricated by high-resolution multimaterial additive manufacturing (3D printing) technology. The glandular equivalency of the photopolymer materials was measured relative to breast tissue-equivalent plastic materials. Based on the current state-of-the-art in the technology and available materials, two variations were fabricated. The first was a dual-material phantom, the Doublet. Fibroglandular tissue and skin were represented by the most radiographically dense material available; adipose tissue was represented by the least radiographically dense material. The second variation, the Singlet, was fabricated with a single material to represent fibroglandular tissue and skin. It was subsequently filled with adipose-equivalent materials including oil, beeswax, and permanent urethane-based polymer. Simulated microcalcification clusters were further included in the phantoms via crushed eggshells. The phantoms were imaged and characterized visually and quantitatively. The mammographic projections and tomosynthesis reconstructed images of the fabricated phantoms yielded realistic breast background. The mammograms of the phantoms demonstrated close correlation with simulated mammographic projection images of the corresponding virtual phantoms. Furthermore, power-law descriptions of the phantom images

  6. Development of realistic physical breast phantoms matched to virtual breast phantoms based on human subject data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiarashi, Nooshin [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Nolte, Adam C. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Sturgeon, Gregory M.; Ghate, Sujata V. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Segars, William P. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Nolte, Loren W. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Samei, Ehsan [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); and others

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Physical phantoms are essential for the development, optimization, and evaluation of x-ray breast imaging systems. Recognizing the major effect of anatomy on image quality and clinical performance, such phantoms should ideally reflect the three-dimensional structure of the human breast. Currently, there is no commercially available three-dimensional physical breast phantom that is anthropomorphic. The authors present the development of a new suite of physical breast phantoms based on human data. Methods: The phantoms were designed to match the extended cardiac-torso virtual breast phantoms that were based on dedicated breast computed tomography images of human subjects. The phantoms were fabricated by high-resolution multimaterial additive manufacturing (3D printing) technology. The glandular equivalency of the photopolymer materials was measured relative to breast tissue-equivalent plastic materials. Based on the current state-of-the-art in the technology and available materials, two variations were fabricated. The first was a dual-material phantom, the Doublet. Fibroglandular tissue and skin were represented by the most radiographically dense material available; adipose tissue was represented by the least radiographically dense material. The second variation, the Singlet, was fabricated with a single material to represent fibroglandular tissue and skin. It was subsequently filled with adipose-equivalent materials including oil, beeswax, and permanent urethane-based polymer. Simulated microcalcification clusters were further included in the phantoms via crushed eggshells. The phantoms were imaged and characterized visually and quantitatively. Results: The mammographic projections and tomosynthesis reconstructed images of the fabricated phantoms yielded realistic breast background. The mammograms of the phantoms demonstrated close correlation with simulated mammographic projection images of the corresponding virtual phantoms. Furthermore, power

  7. The association between Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination (1331 SSI) skin reaction and subsequent scar development in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birk, Nina Marie; Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Ladekarl, Monica; Zingmark, Vera; Kjærgaard, Jesper; Jensen, Trine Mølbæk; Jensen, Signe Kjeldgaard; Thøstesen, Lisbeth Marianne; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Stensballe, Lone Graff; Andersen, Andreas; Pryds, Ole; Nielsen, Susanne Dam; Benn, Christine Stabell; Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth

    2017-08-03

    The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine (BCG) against tuberculosis is administered intradermally, and vaccination is often followed by a scar at the injection site. Among BCG-vaccinated individuals, having a scar has been associated with lower mortality. We aimed to examine the impact of vaccination technique for scarring in a high income setting, by assessing the associations between the post injection reaction, the wheal size, and the probability of developing a scar, and scar size. This study was nested within a clinical multicenter study randomizing 4262 infants to either BCG vaccination (BCG 1331 SSI) or no intervention. In this substudy, including 492 vaccinated infants, the immediate post BCG vaccination reaction was registered as either wheal (a raised, blanched papule at the injection site), bulge (a palpable element at the injection site), or no reaction. The presence or absence of a BCG scar and the size the scar was measured at 13 months of age. Of 492 infants included, 87% had a wheal after vaccination, 11% had a bulge, and 2% had no reaction. The mean wheal size was 3.8 mm (95% confidence interval 3.7-3.9). Overall, 95% (442/466, 26 lost to follow-up) of BCG-vaccinated infants had a scar at 13 months of age. In infants with a wheal, the probability of developing a scar was 96%, declining to 87% in the case of a bulge, and to 56% in the case of no reaction (p for same probability = 0.03). Wheal size was positively correlated with the probability of getting a scar and scar size. Scarring after BCG vaccination has been associated with lower infant mortality. In a high-income setting, we found that correct injection technique is highly important for the development of a BCG scar and that registration of the category of BCG skin reaction (as wheal, bulge, or no reaction) may be used to identify infants at risk of scar failure. Finally, the wheal size was positively associated with both the probability of getting a scar and scar size. The study was

  8. The association between Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination (1331 SSI) skin reaction and subsequent scar development in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Nina Marie; Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Ladekarl, Monica

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine (BCG) against tuberculosis is administered intradermally, and vaccination is often followed by a scar at the injection site. Among BCG-vaccinated individuals, having a scar has been associated with lower mortality. We aimed to examine the impact...... of vaccination technique for scarring in a high income setting, by assessing the associations between the post injection reaction, the wheal size, and the probability of developing a scar, and scar size. Methods: This study was nested within a clinical multicenter study randomizing 4262 infants to either BCG...... vaccination (BCG 1331 SSI) or no intervention. In this substudy, including 492 vaccinated infants, the immediate post BCG vaccination reaction was registered as either wheal (a raised, blanched papule at the injection site), bulge (a palpable element at the injection site), or no reaction. The presence...

  9. The association between Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination (1331 SSI) skin reaction and subsequent scar development in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Nina Marie; Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Ladekarl, Monica

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine (BCG) against tuberculosis is administered intradermally, and vaccination is often followed by a scar at the injection site. Among BCG-vaccinated individuals, having a scar has been associated with lower mortality. We aimed to examine the impact...... of vaccination technique for scarring in a high income setting, by assessing the associations between the post injection reaction, the wheal size, and the probability of developing a scar, and scar size. METHODS: This study was nested within a clinical multicenter study randomizing 4262 infants to either BCG...... vaccination (BCG 1331 SSI) or no intervention. In this substudy, including 492 vaccinated infants, the immediate post BCG vaccination reaction was registered as either wheal (a raised, blanched papule at the injection site), bulge (a palpable element at the injection site), or no reaction. The presence...

  10. Effect of co-culture canine cumulus and oviduct cells with porcine oocytes during maturation and subsequent embryo development of parthenotes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seok Hee; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Geon A; Choi, Yoo Bin; Jo, Young Kwang; Setyawan, Erif Maha Nugraha; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2018-01-15

    In the estrus stage, canine oocytes are surrounded by cumulus cells and undergo maturation in the oviduct for 2-3 days after ovulation. We hypothesized that canine oviduct cells (cOC) and canine cumulus cells (cCC) during this stage might affect the maturation of oocytes and thereby improve subsequent embryo development. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the effects of a cOC and cCC co-culture on oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) and subsequent embryo development, and to analyze the gene expressions in a molecular fashion what co-culture actually gives the specific pathways in which the co-culture cells act to improve maturation and embryo development. The effect of co-culture using cOC and cCC on porcine oocyte IVM was investigated. Thereafter, oocytes were activated using electrical stimulation and embryo developmental competence was estimated. The expression of the genes related to oocyte maturation, embryo development and apoptosis were analyzed. Also, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels after IVM was analyzed. The IVM rate and embryo development including cleavage, blastocyst formation rates, and total blastocyst cell numbers from cOC group were significantly higher than other groups (P culture with cOC improved in vitro porcine oocyte maturation and subsequent embryo development competence. Also, co-culture with cOC during IVM induces a suitable environment for oocyte maturation by enhancing the mRNA level of SMAD2/3 and GDF9, and for embryo development by elevating the expression level of PTGS2, WNT3A and MMP2. In addition, the decreased ROS level in cOC co-culture could have a beneficial influence on oocyte maturation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Infant communication and subsequent language development in children from low-income families: the role of early cognitive stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Carolyn Brockmeyer; Dreyer, Benard P; Berkule, Samantha B; White, Lisa J; Arevalo, Jenny A; Mendelsohn, Alan L

    2012-09-01

    To explore the relationship between early cognitive stimulation in the home, 6-month infant communication, and 24-month toddler language in a low-socioeconomic status sample. Longitudinal analyses of mother-child dyads participating in larger study of early child development were performed. Dyads enrolled postpartum in an urban public hospital. Cognitive stimulation in the home at 6 months was assessed using StimQ-lnfant, including provision of toys, shared reading, teaching, and verbal responsivity. Early infant communication was assessed at 6 months including the following: (1) Emotion and eye gaze (Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scale DP-CSBS DP), (2) Communicative bids (CSBS DP), and (3) Expression of emotion (Short Temperament Scale for Infants). Toddler language was assessed at 24 months using the Preschool Language Scale-4, including the following: (1) expressive language and (2) auditory comprehension. Three hundred twenty families were assessed. In structural equation models, cognitive stimulation in the home was strongly associated with early infant communication (β = 0.63, p language (β = 0.20, p language was mediated through early impacts on infant communication (Indirect β = 0.28, p =.001). Reading, teaching, availability of learning materials, and other reciprocal verbal interactions were all related directly to infant communication and indirectly to language outcomes. The impact of early cognitive stimulation on toddler language is manifested through early associations with infant communication. Pediatric primary care providers should promote cognitive stimulation beginning in early infancy and support the expansion and dissemination of intervention programs such as Reach Out and Read and the Video Interaction Project.

  12. Tectonomagmatic evolution of the terrestrial planets: importance for understanding of processes of their formation and subsequent development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkov, E.; Bogatikov, O.

    2009-04-01

    Mars also two main types of morphostructures, which are vast fields of basalts, and older lightweight uplifted segments with a complicated topography (tesseras on the Venus and terras on the Mars) occur. So, it possible suggest two-stage evolution of these planets. During the first stage the primordial lithospheres formed due to solidification of global magmatic oceans. During the second stage the secondary basaltic crust formed due to ascent of thermochemical plumes from the their CMBs. Smaller Mercury is less studied, however, its relief also contains morhostructures resembling lunar highlands and maria. The established succession of events on the Earth was not link with external actions and could be provided by combination of two independent factors: (1) Earth originally was heterogeneous and (2) the downward heating of Earth was followed by cooling of its outer shells. As a result, the primary core material was long time remained untouched. The most probable cause of the centripetal heating of the Earth was a zone/wave of heat-generating deformation directed inside them. We suggest, that those zone of deformation appeared after the planet's was formed (accretion finished) and its rotation around axis accelerated due to law of conservation of momentum as a result of materials compaction and shortening their radii. That wave could reach the Earth's interiors thus heating deep mantle material and generating first superplumes. Finally, it reached the metallic core, melted it and produced secondary thermochemical plumes, which are still active. Because tectonomagmatic evolution of other terrestrial planets (Moon, Venus, Mars, and Mercury) developed at the close scenario, it suggests that the same progression of events occurred in other solid planets. Available data suggest that terrestrial planets are self-developed systems, whose evolution was associated with irreversible changes in tectonomagmatic processes. The development of all of them, except the Earth, is

  13. Subjective wellbeing and income: Empirical patterns in the rural developing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-García, Victoria; Babigumira, Ronnie; Pyhälä, Aili; Wunder, Sven; Zorondo-Rodríguez, Francisco; Angelsen, Arild

    2016-01-01

    A commonality in the economics of happiness literature is that absolute income matters more for the subjective wellbeing of people at low income levels. In this article, we use a large sample of people in rural areas of developing countries with relatively low income levels to test whether subjective wellbeing an increasing function of absolute income in our sample, and to analyze the existence of adaptation and social comparison effects on subjective wellbeing. Our sample includes 6973 rural households in 23 countries throughout Asia, Africa, and Latin America. The average total income per adult equivalent in our sample was US$1555, whereas levels of subjective wellbeing resembled levels found in previous research using cross-country data. We find that, despite low levels of absolute income, levels of subjective wellbeing of our respondents resemble levels found in previous research using cross-country data. We also find remarkable similarities in many of the determinants of subjective wellbeing previously tested. Our data show that absolute income covariates with subjective wellbeing, but -as for richer samples- the magnitude of the association is lower once we control for adaptation and social comparison. Finally, our results suggest that social comparison has a stronger effect than adaptation in explaining the subjective wellbeing of our sample. Our findings highlight the importance of adaptation and social comparison even at low levels of absolute income. PMID:27642259

  14. Social existence: between subjective and objective conditions. Impact on the theoretical discussion on development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura González Serna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to instill reflections on the theoretical debate around the development. The premise for fixing the analysis is to consider the impact of modes of apprehending social existence, since it is demarcated between subjectivities and objective conditions. Different conceptions appear to interpret and represent the individual and collective imagination. Fragmentation between subjectivity and objectivity, constitute an impediment to understanding the generic nature of being that builds and permanently transformed the social existence.

  15. Effect of co-culture human endothelial progenitor cells with porcine oocytes during maturation subsequent embryo development of parthenotes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seok Hee; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Min Jung; Setyawan, Erif Maha Nugraha; Choi, Yoo Bin; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2018-02-14

    Human endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been applied to regenerative medicine for their roles in angiogenesis as well as neovascularization, and these angiogenetic functions have beneficial effects on maturation of ovarian follicles. However, little information is available on whether EPCs on culture systems affect oocyte maturation and subsequent embryo development. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of EPC co-culture on porcine oocytes during in vitro maturation (IVM) and subsequent embryo development, and to examine gene expression in cumulus cells, oocytes and blastocysts. The effect of co-culture using EPC on porcine oocyte IVM was investigated. Oocytes were activated using electrical stimulation and embryo developmental competence was estimated. The expression of the genes related to cumulus expansion, oocyte maturation, embryo development and apoptosis were analyzed. In result, there was a significantly increased maturation rate in EPC group compared with control (p cultured with EPCs exhibited significantly improved blastocyst formation rates (p culture group showed significantly higher SOX2, OCT4 and NANOG levels. In conclusion, co-culturing porcine oocytes with EPCs improves their maturation by regulating genes involved in cumulus cell expansion, oocyte maturation and apoptosis. Moreover, EPC co-culture during IVM enhanced embryo development as shown by increased blastocyst formation rate and pluripotency-related gene expression. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. The role of ain precipitates in the development of a strong (111 texture on subsequent cold rolling and annealing of Al-stabilized steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visešlava Rajković

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermomechanical treatment consisting of either static (SSA or dynamic strain aging (DSA followed by cold rolling and annealing was applied to develop a strong texture in Al-stabilized steel. The effectiveness of SSA and DSA treatments in developing a high average plastic strain ratio and a high (222/(200 intensity ratio is related to the size and distribution of AlN precipitates. It is assumed that a fine distribution of AlN particles, capable of pinning effectively subgrain boundaries produced on subsequent cold rolling and annealing, is essential for developing of a high proportion of recrystallized grains with the (222 orientation at the expense of grains with the (200 orientation.

  17. Historical analysis in pediatric psychology: the influence of societal and professional conditions on two early pediatric psychology articles and the field's subsequent development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genik, Lara M; Yen, Jeffery; McMurtry, C Meghan

    2015-03-01

    The field of pediatric psychology arose in the 1960s in response to a variety of societal and professional needs. 2 seminal articles written during this time, by Jerome Kagan (1965) and Logan Wright (1967), played key roles in the field's development. However, their efficacy in galvanizing a response from medical professionals and psychologists had much to do with broad-ranging developments in pediatric public health, intraprofessional changes among medical specialties, and a growing preoccupation with "psychosocial" and parenting issues. The purpose of this paper is to situate Kagan's (1965) and Wright's (1967) contributions within their social and historical contexts, and thereby to elicit reflection on the field's subsequent and continued development. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Subject- and Experience-Bound Differences in Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, C.; Gericke, N.; Höglund, H.-O.; Bergman, E.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the results of a nationwide questionnaire study of 3229 Swedish upper secondary school teachers' conceptual understanding of sustainable development in relation to their subject discipline and teaching experience. Previous research has shown that teachers have difficulties understanding the complex concept of sustainable…

  19. "Biosphere Reserve"--The Actual Research Subject of the Sustainable Development Process"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasaev, Gabibulla R.; Sadovenko, Marina Yu.; Isaev, Roman O.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the analyzed issue is caused by the growing slippage of research funds of sustainable development in its practice. The purpose of the article is the theoretical basis of the biosphere reserve as a scientific research subject that is relevant to rules of the scientific activity. The leading approach to the study of this issue is…

  20. Satisfaction with travel and subjective well-being: development and test of a measurement tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettema, D.F.; Gärling, T.; Eriksson, L.; Friman, M.; Olsson, L.E.; Fujii, S.

    2011-01-01

    Subjective well-being (SWB) that includes individuals’ cognitive and affective evaluations of life in general is proposed to be a more appropriate measure capturing the benefits individuals derive from travel improvements. We develop and testa measure of travel-related SWB, the nine item self-report

  1. 86Rubidium uptake in mononuclear leucocytes from young subjects at increased risk of developing essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J R; Johansen, Torben; Pedersen, K E

    1988-01-01

    parents. 86Rubidium uptake was significantly increased in the borderline hypertensive subjects, especially in the borderline hypertensive offspring of hypertensive patients. Our results indicate that the sodium-potassium pump is activated in mononuclear leucocytes from borderline hypertensives......, and especially in those borderline hypertensives with at least one hypertensive parent. The latter group was also the group at greatest risk of developing essential hypertension....

  2. The effect of minimal concentration of ethylene glycol (EG) combined with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) on mouse oocyte survival and subsequent embryonic development following vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Okitsu, Osamu; Zhao, Xiao-Ming; Sun, Yun; Di, Wen; Chian, Ri-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Vitrification techniques employ a relatively high concentration of cryoprotectant in vitrification solutions. Exposure of oocytes to high concentrations of cryoprotectant is known to damage the oocytes via both cytotoxic and osmotic effects. Therefore, the key to successful vitrification of oocytes is to strike a balance between the usage of minimal concentration of cryoprotectant without compromising their cryoprotective actions. The minimal concentration of ethylene glycol (EG) on mouse oocyte survival and subsequent embryonic development was evaluated following vitrification-warming and parthenogenetic activation. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) combined with EG on mouse oocyte survival and subsequent embryonic development as well as morphology of the spindle and chromosome alignment were also evaluated. Vitrification system was adapted with JY Straw and the cooling rate was approximately 442-500 °C/min. In contrast, the warming rate was approximately 2,210-2,652 °C/min. Survival rate of oocytes increased significantly when 15 % EG was combined with 2 % PVP in vitrification solution (VS). The effect of combination of EG and PVP was not significant when the concentration of EG was 20 % and higher. Although there were no significant differences in embryonic development, the percentage of abnormal spindle and chromosome alignment was significantly higher in the oocytes without 2 % PVP in VS. Our data provide a proof of principle for oocyte vitrification that may not require a high concentration of cryoprotectant. There are synergic effects of EG combined with PVP for oocyte vitrification, which may provide important information to the field in developing less cytotoxic VS.

  3. Development of Web Based Learning Material in Physics Subject for Kalor and Temperature Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatwa Aji Kurniawan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been done, the research which aims to develop a web-based teaching materials on the subjects of physics subject with subject mater of temperature and heat. This study using a modified model of the 4D development by eliminating the deployment phase. The validation of product development conducted by validator media experts and experts matter of physics, whereas small-scale trials conducted by physics teacher and 10 students. Validator review results stating that the quality of the product development were included in the category very well with the average percentage rating of 83.93%. The percentage value assigned by media expert by 75% in the good category and the percentage of the value provided by a matter expert 92.85% were in the very good category. Experiments by physics teacher to obtain result of equal to 94.44% were in the very good category and the average percentage of the test results by the students of 90.5% were in the very good category. The characteristics of the products developed include material composition using the curriculum in 2013, there was a recording facility and the results of evaluation of students' activities, there were feedback evaluation results were immediately known by the students and there were some links related to the material either youtube or other learning website.

  4. Training-related brain plasticity in subjects at risk of developing Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belleville, Sylvie; Clément, Francis; Mellah, Samira; Gilbert, Brigitte; Fontaine, Francine; Gauthier, Serge

    2011-06-01

    Subjects with mild cognitive impairment are at risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. Cognitive stimulation is an emerging intervention in the field of neurology and allied sciences, having already been shown to improve cognition in subjects with mild cognitive impairment. Yet no studies have attempted to unravel the brain mechanisms that support such improvement. This study uses functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure the effect of memory training on brain activation in older adults with mild cognitive impairment and to assess whether it can reverse the brain changes associated with mild cognitive impairment. Brain activation associated with verbal encoding and retrieval was recorded twice prior to training and once after training. In subjects with mild cognitive impairment, increased activation was found after training within a large network that included the frontal, temporal and parietal areas. Healthy controls showed mostly areas of decreased activation following training. Comparison with pre-training indicated that subjects with mild cognitive impairment used a combination of specialized areas; that is, areas activated prior to training and new alternative areas activated following training. However, only activation of the right inferior parietal lobule, a new area of activation, correlated with performance. Furthermore, the differences between the brain activation patterns of subjects with mild cognitive impairment and those of healthy controls were attenuated by training in a number of brain regions. These results indicate that memory training can result in significant neural changes that are measurable with brain imaging. They also show that the brains of people with mild cognitive impairment remain highly plastic.

  5. Association between maternal micronutrient status, oxidative stress, and common genetic variants in antioxidant enzymes at 15 weeks׳ gestation in nulliparous women who subsequently develop preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Hiten D; Gill, Carolyn A; Kurlak, Lesia O; Seed, Paul T; Hesketh, John E; Méplan, Catherine; Schomburg, Lutz; Chappell, Lucy C; Morgan, Linda; Poston, Lucilla

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific condition affecting 2-7% of women and a leading cause of perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Deficiencies of specific micronutrient antioxidant activities associated with copper, selenium, zinc, and manganese have previously been linked to preeclampsia at the time of disease. Our aims were to investigate whether maternal plasma micronutrient concentrations and related antioxidant enzyme activities are altered before preeclampsia onset and to examine the dependence on genetic variations in these antioxidant enzymes. Predisease plasma samples (15±1 weeks׳ gestation) were obtained from women enrolled in the international Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study who subsequently developed preeclampsia (n=244) and from age- and BMI-matched normotensive controls (n=472). Micronutrient concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; associated antioxidant enzyme activities, selenoprotein-P, ceruloplasmin concentration and activity, antioxidant capacity, and markers of oxidative stress were measured by colorimetric assays. Sixty-four tag-single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes encoding the antioxidant enzymes and selenoprotein-P were genotyped using allele-specific competitive PCR. Plasma copper and ceruloplasmin concentrations were modestly but significantly elevated in women who subsequently developed preeclampsia (both Ppreeclampsia. The modest elevation in copper may contribute to oxidative stress, later in pregnancy, in those women that go on to develop preeclampsia. The lack of evidence to support the hypothesis that functional SNPs influence antioxidant enzyme activity in pregnant women argues against a role for these genes in the etiology of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Matching Subsequences in Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2009-01-01

    Given two rooted, labeled trees P and T the tree path subsequence problem is to determine which paths in P are subsequences of which paths in T. Here a path begins at the root and ends at a leaf. In this paper we propose this problem as a useful query primitive for XML data, and provide new...

  7. Development of a credit-bearing service leadership subject for university students in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Yu, Lu; Ma, Cecilia M S; Sun, Rachel C F; Liu, Ting Ting

    2013-01-01

    Given that service industries contribute to 93% of Hong Kong's GDP, an important question that should be asked is whether the education system can promote the development of service leadership among young people in Hong Kong. Unfortunately, service leadership programs specifically designed for university students are lacking in Hong Kong. In this paper, the basic tenets of the Service Leadership and Management framework are presented. Based on the fundamental postulation that effective service leadership is a function of moral character, competence and care (E=MC(2)), a subject called "Service Leadership" has recently been developed at The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. This paper outlines the objectives, intended learning outcomes, syllabus, assessment, and references of the subject. The proposed evaluation strategies are also described.

  8. Recognition and development of "educational technology" as a scientific field and school subject

    OpenAIRE

    Danilović Mirčeta S.

    2004-01-01

    The paper explores the process of development, establishment and recognition of "educational technology" as an independent scientific field and a separate teaching subject at universities. The paper points to: (a) the problems that this field deals with or should deal with, (b) knowledge needed for the profession of "educational technologist", (c) various scientific institutions across the world involved in educational technology, (d) scientific journals treating issues of modern educational ...

  9. Impact of diet deprivation and subsequent over-allowance during prepuberty. Part 1. Effects on growth performance, metabolite status, and mammary gland development in gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C; Palin, M F; Martel-Kennes, Y

    2012-03-01

    The impact of diet deprivation and subsequent over-allowance on the metabolite status, mammary development, and mammary gene expression in prepubertal gilts was determined. Forty-seven gilts were reared under a conventional (control, CTL; n = 23) or an experimental (treatment, TRT; n = 24) dietary regimen. The later regimen (consisting of diet deprivation and subsequent over-allowance) provided 70 (restriction diet, RES) and 115% (over-allowance diet, OVER) of the protein and DE contents provided by the CTL diet. Experimental diets were fed ad libitum starting at 27.7 ± 3.4 kg of BW as follows: 3 wk RES, 3 wk OVER, 4 wk RES, and 4 wk OVER. At each diet change, BW and individual feed intakes were measured, and blood samples for metabolite and IGF-I assays were obtained. Some gilts (11 CTL and 12 TRT) were slaughtered on d 235 (after reaching puberty) to collect mammary tissue for compositional analyses and measures of gene expression. Body weight gain (P gilts were reduced during each period with the RES diet; however, there was no compensatory growth during the periods when the OVER diet was fed. Feeding the RES diet reduced concentrations of urea and IGF-I (P gilts compared with CTL gilts. The TRT gilts had less parenchymal tissue (P gilts. The mammary mRNA relative abundance of the signal transducers and activators of transduction 5B was decreased in TRT compared with CTL gilts (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the diet deprivation and over-allowance regimen used in the growing-finishing period did not have beneficial effects on mammary development after puberty. In fact, a detrimental effect was observed.

  10. Is the spatial distribution of brain lesions associated with closed-head injury predictive of subsequent development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? Analysis with brain-image database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovits, E. H.; Megalooikonomou, V.; Davatzikos, C.; Chen, A.; Bryan, R. N.; Gerring, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine whether there is an association between the spatial distribution of lesions detected at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain in children after closed-head injury and the development of secondary attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data obtained from 76 children without prior history of ADHD were analyzed. MR images were obtained 3 months after closed-head injury. After manual delineation of lesions, images were registered to the Talairach coordinate system. For each subject, registered images and secondary ADHD status were integrated into a brain-image database, which contains depiction (visualization) and statistical analysis software. Using this database, we assessed visually the spatial distributions of lesions and performed statistical analysis of image and clinical variables. RESULTS: Of the 76 children, 15 developed secondary ADHD. Depiction of the data suggested that children who developed secondary ADHD had more lesions in the right putamen than children who did not develop secondary ADHD; this impression was confirmed statistically. After Bonferroni correction, we could not demonstrate significant differences between secondary ADHD status and lesion burdens for the right caudate nucleus or the right globus pallidus. CONCLUSION: Closed-head injury-induced lesions in the right putamen in children are associated with subsequent development of secondary ADHD. Depiction software is useful in guiding statistical analysis of image data.

  11. Response of winter root starch concentration to severe water stress and fruit load and its subsequent effects on early peach fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Gerardo; Girona, Joan; Marsal, Jordi

    2007-11-01

    Effect of water stress during stage III of peach fruit development on winter root starch concentration (RSC) and subsequent reproductive development was studied. Two irrigation treatments were applied in two consecutive seasons (2003-2004): full irrigation (FI) and no irrigation during stage III of fruit development until visible leaf wilting (LWI), which occurred when midday stem water potential reached -1.80 MPa. Three fruit thinning intensities were applied within each irrigation treatment. The year 2005 was a recovery year in which all trees received full irrigation and commercial fruit thinning. Water deficit and high fruit loads in the previous season significantly reduced the concentration of winter RSC. Fruit set and fruit growth from full bloom to 30 days after full bloom (30 DAFB) increased with increasing winter RSC before other factors, such as inter-fruit competition and availability of carbon from current photosynthesis, came into play. Consequently, severe water stress reduced the total number of fruits and fruit dry mass growth 30 DAFB. However, during the recovery year and after fruit thinning, fruit loads were similar between irrigation treatments and yield capacity remained unaffected. Peach fruit production recovered quickly from the deleterious effects of two consecutive years of water stress because of a combination of two factors: (1) reduced initial fruit set that was still adequate to achieve a commercial crop; and (2) the low sensitivity of fruit growth 30 DAFB to winter RSC.

  12. Therapeutic misconception in research subjects: development and validation of a measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Paul S; Anatchkova, Milena; Albert, Karen; Dunn, Laura B; Lidz, Charles W

    2012-12-01

    Therapeutic misconception (TM), which occurs when research subjects fail to appreciate the distinction between the imperatives of clinical research and ordinary treatment, may undercut the process of obtaining meaningful consent to clinical research participation. Previous studies have found that TM is widespread, but progress in addressing TM has been stymied by the absence of a validated method for assessing its presence. The goal of this study was to develop and validate a theoretically grounded measure of TM, assess its diagnostic accuracy, and test previous findings regarding TM's prevalence. A total of 220 participants were recruited from clinical trials at four academic medical centers in the United States. Participants completed a 28-item Likert-type questionnaire to assess the presence of beliefs associated with TM, and a semistructured TM interview designed to elicit their perceptions of the nature of the clinical trial in which they were participating. Data from the questionnaires were subjected to factor analysis, and items with poor factor loadings were excluded. This resulted in a 10-item scale, with three strongly correlated factors and excellent internal consistency; the fit indices of the model across 10 training sets were consistent with the original results, suggesting a stable factor solution. The scale was validated against the TM interview, with significantly higher scores among subjects coded as displaying evidence of TM. Receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis based on a 10-fold internal cross-validation yielded area under the ROC (AUC) = 0.682 for any evidence of TM. When sensitivity (0.72) and specificity (0.61) were both optimized, positive predictive value was 0.65 and negative predictive value was 0.68, with a positive likelihood ratio of 1.89 and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.47. In all, 50.5% (n = 101) of the participants manifested evidence of TM on the TM interview, a somewhat lower rate than in most previous studies. The

  13. Recognition and development of "educational technology" as a scientific field and school subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilović Mirčeta S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the process of development, establishment and recognition of "educational technology" as an independent scientific field and a separate teaching subject at universities. The paper points to: (a the problems that this field deals with or should deal with, (b knowledge needed for the profession of "educational technologist", (c various scientific institutions across the world involved in educational technology, (d scientific journals treating issues of modern educational technology, (e the authors i.e. psychologists and educators who developed and formulated the basic principles of this scientific field, (f educational features and potentials of educational technologies. Emphasis is placed on the role and importance of AV technology in developing, establishing and recognition of educational technology, and it is also pointed out that AV technology i.e. AV teaching aids and a movement for visualization of teaching were its forerunners and crucial factors for its establishing and developing into an independent area of teaching i.e. school subject. In summary it is stressed that educational technology provides for the execution of instruction through emission transmission, selection, coding, decoding, reception, memorization transformation of all types of pieces of information in teaching.

  14. The Subject and the Setting: Re-Imagining Opportunities for Primary Teachers' Subject Knowledge Development on School-Based Teacher Education Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Rupert

    2017-01-01

    The landscape of teacher education is undergoing significant change in many countries and this is often associated with a move towards greater school involvement in the preparation of teachers. One aspect of teaching expertise that is particularly challenging for primary student-teachers is the development of subject knowledge across a wide range…

  15. Effects of extracellular potassium concentrations on acrosome reaction and polyspermy during in vitro fertilization and subsequent development in vitro in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J G; Kim, N H; Lee, H T; Chung, K S

    1997-10-01

    Potassium (K(+)) concentration in the mammalian oviduct and uterus is particularly interesting due to its unusually high concentration (12 to 25 mM) compared with that in the blood stream (3 to 6 mM). In this study we examined the effects of various K(+) concentrations in the fertilization medium on polyspermy and subsequent in vitro development of porcine oocytes. In the absence of K(+) in the fertilization medium, sperm penetration was not observed. The incidence of polyspermy was significantly higher in the fertilization medium that contained 6 or 12 mM K(+) as compared with 3 mM K(+). The mean number of sperm penetrated in oocytes in medium with 6 and 12 mM K(+) was higher than in medium with 3 mM K(+). The addition of 3, 6 or 12 mM K(+) to the fertilization medium did not significantly affect the proportion of zygotes that developed to the blastocyst stage (14.1, 12.4 and 15.0%, respectively). Chlorotetracycline (CTC) analysis was used to determine the capacitation and acrosome reaction of spermatozoa incubated for 3 h with various concentrations of K(+). The number of acrosome reacted spermatozoa decreased with increasing K(+) concentration. These results suggest that extracellular K(+) in the fertilization medium affects sperm acrosome reaction which may be related to the sperm penetration.

  16. Maintenance of meiotic arrest in bovine oocytes using the S-enantiomer of roscovitine: effects on maturation, fertilization and subsequent embryo development in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Pilar; Romar, Raquel; Payton, Rebecca R; McCann, Lisa; Saxton, Arnold M; Edwards, J Lannett

    2005-01-01

    The overall objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of the S-enantiomer of roscovitine (inhibitor of p34cdc2/cyclin B kinase) to maintain bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage for extended times after removal from antral follicles without compromising subsequent maturation, fertilization and embryo development. Oocytes were cultured in 0, 12.5, 25 or 50 micromol/l S-roscovitine for 24 h. Hoechst staining showed that 50 micromol/l S-roscovitine maintained >90% of oocytes at the GV stage and inhibited gonadotropin-induced cumulus expansion. Fewer oocytes underwent nuclear maturation after in vitro maturation (Hoechst staining) when cultured in 50 micromol/l S-roscovitine for 66 versus 21 or 42 h. Zona pellucida (ZP) hardening (pronase resistance), cortical granule types (lens culinaris agglutinin-fluorescein isothiocyanate), nuclear maturation and fertilization with frozen-thawed spermatozoa (Hoechst staining) were assessed after culture of oocytes in 50 micromol/l S-roscovitine for 0, 24 or 48 h. Neither ZP hardening, nor nuclear maturation nor fertilization were altered by roscovitine culture for 48 h. A higher proportion of oocytes had a type III cortical granule pattern (premature translocation to the oolemma) after roscovitine culture for 48 h. However, embryo development was not compromised as cleavage, development to 8-16 cell and blastocyst stages were at least comparable in control and roscovitine-treated oocytes. In conclusion, the studies have shown that S-roscovitine reversibly maintained bovine oocytes at the GV stage for 48 h. However, maintenance of oocytes in static culture for 48 h was not sufficient to improve development above non-treated controls.

  17. Training-induced changes in muscle CSA, muscle strength, EMG, and rate of force development in elderly subjects after long-term unilateral disuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetta, Charlotte; Aagaard, Per; Rosted, Anna

    2004-01-01

    The ability to develop muscle force rapidly may be a very important factor to prevent a fall and to perform other tasks of daily life. However, information is still lacking on the range of training-induced neuromuscular adaptations in elderly humans recovering from a period of disuse. Therefore......, the present study examined the effect of three types of training regimes after unilateral prolonged disuse and subsequent hip-replacement surgery on maximal muscle strength, rapid muscle force [rate of force development (RFD)], muscle activation, and muscle size. Thirty-six subjects (60-86 yr) were randomized...... to a 12-wk rehabilitation program consisting of either 1) strength training (3 times/wk for 12 wk), 2) electrical muscle stimulation (1 h/day for 12 wk), or 3) standard rehabilitation (1 h/day for 12 wk). The nonoperated side did not receive any intervention and thereby served as a within-subject control...

  18. Development of ICT competences in the environmental studies subject in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Husa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital literacy is one of eight key competences that were defined by the European Parliament and Council as those that member states should develop as a part of their strategies for lifelong learning (Official Journal of the European Union, 2006, p.11. It would contribute to a more successful life in a knowledge society. The purpose of this paper is to Npresent the results of empirical research on the use of ICT in the lessons of the environmental studies subject in the first triennium of primary schools in the Republic of Slovenia. Data were collected through a questionnaire and according to the protocol. We found that among all of the ICT tools, teachers mostly use the computer. The majority of the teachers use the computer once a week, most often in mathematics and environmental studies subject. In the observed lessons of the environmental studies subject, less than half of teachers use the computer in the lessons. This was followed by the use of computer and the LCD projector, and the interactive whiteboard. Among the obstacles that teachers indicate when they try to include ICT in the learning process are insufficient, out of date equipment, lack of time and lack of their own competence.

  19. Empirical Model Development for Predicting Shock Response on Composite Materials Subjected to Pyroshock Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentz, Steven J.; Ordway, David O; Parsons, David S.; Garrison, Craig M.; Rodgers, C. Steven; Collins, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) received a request to develop an analysis model based on both frequency response and wave propagation analyses for predicting shock response spectrum (SRS) on composite materials subjected to pyroshock loading. The model would account for near-field environment (approx. 9 inches from the source) dominated by direct wave propagation, mid-field environment (approx. 2 feet from the source) characterized by wave propagation and structural resonances, and far-field environment dominated by lower frequency bending waves in the structure. This report documents the outcome of the assessment.

  20. Empirical Model Development for Predicting Shock Response on Composite Materials Subjected to Pyroshock Loading: Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentz, Steven J.; Ordway, David O.; Parsons, David S.; Garrison, Craig M.; Rodgers, C. Steven; Collins, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) received a request to develop an analysis model based on both frequency response and wave propagation analyses for predicting shock response spectrum (SRS) on composite materials subjected to pyroshock loading. The model would account for near-field environment (approx. 9 inches from the source) dominated by direct wave propagation, mid-field environment (approx. 2 feet from the source) characterized by wave propagation and structural resonances, and far-field environment dominated by lower frequency bending waves in the structure. This document contains appendices to the Volume I report.

  1. Empirical Model Development for Predicting Shock Response on Composite Materials Subjected to Pyroshock Loading. [Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentz, Steven J.; Ordway, David O.; Parsons, David S.; Garrison, Craig M.; Rodgers, C. Steven; Collins, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) received a request to develop an analysis model based on both frequency response and wave propagation analyses for predicting shock response spectrum (SRS) on composite materials subjected to pyroshock loading. The model would account for near-field environment (9 inches from the source) dominated by direct wave propagation, mid-field environment (approximately 2 feet from the source) characterized by wave propagation and structural resonances, and far-field environment dominated by lower frequency bending waves in the structure. This document contains appendices to the Volume I report.

  2. Development, Validity and Reliability of the Londrina Activities of Daily Living Protocol for Subjects With COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Anna, Thaís; Donária, Leila; Furlanetto, Karina C; Morakami, Fernanda; Rodrigues, Antenor; Grosskreutz, Talita; Hernandes, Nidia A; Gosselink, Rik; Pitta, Fabio

    2017-03-01

    To avoid symptoms, patients with COPD may reduce the amount of activities of daily living (ADL). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to develop a standardized protocol to evaluate ADL performance in subjects with COPD (Londrina ADL protocol) and to assess the validity and reliability of the protocol in this population. The Londrina ADL protocol was created based on activities included in previous studies aimed at investigating outcomes from ADL. Activities were included in the protocol because they could represent other activities of similar patterns and because they could be actually performed, not simulated. Twenty subjects with COPD (12 men, 70 ± 7 y old, FEV1 = 54 ± 15% predicted) wore 2 motion sensors while performing the protocol 4 times, 2 of them wearing a portable gas analyzer. Subjects were also submitted to assessments of lung function, functional exercise capacity, functional status, impact on health status, and physical activity in daily life. The Londrina ADL protocol comprised of 5 activities representing ADL, involving upper limbs, lower limbs, and trunk movements. Londrina ADL protocol duration presented high values of intraclass correlation coefficient, even using a mask for gas analysis (intraclass correlation coefficient >0.90, P < .001). Intensity of movement during the protocol performance was highly correlated to intensity of movement in daily life (r = 0.71). The protocol duration was correlated with functional status and impact on health status variables from questionnaires (0.36 ≤ r ≤ 0.59). There was also correlation between functional exercise capacity and the protocol duration (r = -0.64). The Londrina ADL protocol was a valid and reliable protocol to evaluate ADL performance in subjects with COPD. It is a protocol that can be used in clinical practice and in future studies to investigate ADL outcomes, including those studies that require gas analysis and the wearing of a mask. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  3. The Effects of Pre-Existing Hyponatremia and Subsequent-Developing Acute Kidney Injury on In-Hospital Mortality: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Woo Lee

    Full Text Available Both hyponatremia and acute kidney injury (AKI are common and harmful in hospitalized patients. However, their combined effects on patient mortality have been little studied.We retrospectively enrolled 19191 adult patients who were admitted for 1 year. Pre-existing hyponatremia was defined as a serum sodium level < 135 mmol/L on the first measurement of their admission. AKI was defined as a rise in serum creatinine by ≥ 26.5 μmol/L or ≥ 1.5 times of the baseline value of creatinine during the hospital stay.The prevalence of pre-existing hyponatremia was 8.2%. During a median 6.0 days of hospital stay, the incidence rates of AKI and in-hospital patient mortality were 5.1% and 0.9%, respectively. Pre-existing hyponatremia independently predicted AKI development and in-hospital mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.300, P = 0.004; HR 2.481, P = 0.002, respectively. Pre-existing hyponatremia and subsequent development of AKI increased in-hospital mortality by 85 times, compared to the patients with normonatremia and no AKI. In subgroup analysis, the AKI group showed higher rates of de novo hypernatremia than the non-AKI group during the admission. De novo hypernatremia, which might be associated with over-correction of hyponatremia, increased in-hospital mortality (HR 3.297, P <0.001, and patients with AKI showed significantly higher rates of de novo hypernatremia than patients without AKI (16.2% vs. 1.4%, P < 0.001, respectively.Pre-existing hyponatremia may be associated with the development of AKI in hospitalized patients, and both hyponatremia and hospital-acquired AKI could have a detrimental effect on short term patient mortality, which might be related to the inappropriate correction of hyponatremia in AKI patients.

  4. Toxicity evaluation of ethanol treatment during in vitro maturation of porcine oocytes and subsequent embryonic development following parthenogenetic activation and in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sanghoon; Kim, Eunhye; Hyun, Sang-Hwan

    2014-11-01

    Ethanol is frequently used as a solvent in several techniques for in vitro production (IVP). It is also used for the parthenogenetic activation (PA) of oocytes. Although a number of studies have suggested that ethanol has detrimental effects on fibroblasts and neuronal cells, little attention has been paid to the effects of ethanol on porcine oocytes. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the addition of ethanol to in vitro maturation (IVM) medium. We investigated the effects of ethanol (0, 1 and 3%) on the following parameters: nuclear maturation, intracellular glutathione (GSH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and subsequent embryonic development following PA and in vitro fertilization (IVF). After 44 h of IVM, the 3% group showed a significant (Pethanol group showed significantly (Pethanol group had significantly (P1% ethanol during IVM exerts a toxic effect on the developmental potential of PA and IVF porcine embryos by decreasing the intracellular GSH level, thereby increasing the intracellular ROS level and upregulating the expression of apoptosis‑related genes.

  5. Development and optimization of a noncontact optical device for online monitoring of jaundice in human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polley, Nabarun; Saha, Srimoyee; Singh, Soumendra; Adhikari, Aniruddha; Das, Sukhen; Choudhury, Bhaskar Roy; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Jaundice is one of the notable markers of liver malfunction in our body, revealing a significant rise in the concentration of an endogenous yellow pigment bilirubin. We have described a method for measuring the optical spectrum of our conjunctiva and derived pigment concentration by using diffused reflection measurement. The method uses no prior model and is expected to work across the races (skin color) encompassing a wide range of age groups. An optical fiber-based setup capable of measuring the conjunctival absorption spectrum from 400 to 800 nm is used to monitor the level of bilirubin and is calibrated with the value measured from blood serum of the same human subject. We have also developed software in the LabVIEW platform for use in online monitoring of bilirubin levels in human subjects by nonexperts. The results demonstrate that relative absorption at 460 and 600 nm has a distinct correlation with that of the bilirubin concentration measured from blood serum. Statistical analysis revealed that our proposed method is in agreement with the conventional biochemical method. The innovative noncontact, low-cost technique is expected to have importance in monitoring jaundice in developing/underdeveloped countries, where the inexpensive diagnosis of jaundice with minimally trained manpower is obligatory.

  6. The pharmaceutical industry's responsibility for protecting human subjects of clinical trials in developing nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Finnuala

    2004-01-01

    Pharmaceutical companies increasingly perform clinical trials in developing nations. Governments of host nations see the trials as a way to provide otherwise unaffordable medical care, while trial sponsors are drawn to those countries by lower costs, the prevalence of diseases rare in developed nations, and large numbers of impoverished patients. Local governments, however, fail to police trials, and the FDA does not monitor trials in foreign countries, resulting in the routine violation of international standards for the protection of human subjects. This Note proposes independent accreditation of those institutions involved in clinical trials--the institutional review boards which oversee trial protocol; the organizations, such as pharmaceutical companies, which sponsor the trials; and the research organizations that conduct the trials. Accreditation, similar to that used in the footwear and apparel industries, would increase the transparency of pharmaceutical trials and would enable the United States government and consumers to hold trial sponsors accountable for their actions.

  7. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) with high-grade dysplasia is a risk factor for the subsequent development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Neda; Barbon, Carlotta; Zaki, Ahmed; He, Jin; Salman, Bulent; Hruban, Ralph H; Cameron, John L; Herman, Joseph M; Ahuja, Nita; Lennon, Anne Marie; Weiss, Matthew J; Wood, Laura D; Wolfgang, Christopher L

    2016-03-01

    Non-invasive intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) with high-grade dysplasia and IPMN-associated invasive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are frequently included under the term "malignancy". The goal of this study is to clarify the difference between these two entities. From 1996 to 2013, data of 616 patients who underwent pancreatic resection for an IPMN were reviewed. The median overall survival for patients with IPMN with high-grade dysplasia (92 months) was similar to survival for patients with IPMN with low/intermediate-grade dysplasia (118 months, p = 0.081), and superior to that of patients with IPMN-associated PDAC (29 months, p < 0.001). IPMN-associated PDAC had lymph node metastasis in 53%, perineural invasion in 58%, and vascular invasion in 33%. In contrast, no lymph node metastasis, perineural or vascular invasion was observed with high-grade dysplasia. None of the patients with IPMN with high-grade dysplasia developed recurrence outside the remnant pancreas. In stark contrast 58% of patients with IPMN-associated PDAC recurred outside the remnant pancreas. The rate of progression within the remnant pancreas was significant in patients with IPMN with high-grade (24%) and with low/intermediate dysplasia (22%, p = 0.816). Non-invasive IPMN with high-grade dysplasia should not be considered a malignant entity. Compared to patients with IPMN with low/intermediate-grade dysplasia, those with high-grade dysplasia have an increased risk of subsequent development of PDAC in the remnant pancreas. Copyright © 2015 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Academic Performance in Children of Mothers With Schizophrenia and Other Severe Mental Illness, and Risk for Subsequent Development of Psychosis: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ashleigh; Di Prinzio, Patsy; Young, Deidra; Jacoby, Peter; Whitehouse, Andrew; Waters, Flavie; Jablensky, Assen; Morgan, Vera A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: We examined the academic performance at age 12 years of children of mothers diagnosed with schizophrenia or other severe mental illness using a large whole-population birth cohort born in Western Australia. We investigated the association between academic performance and the subsequent development of psychotic illness. Method: The sample comprised 3169 children of mothers with severe mental illness (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, unipolar major depression, delusional disorder or other psychoses; ICD-9 codes 295–298), and 88 353 children of comparison mothers without known psychiatric morbidity. Academic performance of children was indexed on a mandatory state-wide test of reading, spelling, writing and numeracy. Results: A larger proportion of children (43.1%) of mothers with severe mental illness performed below the acceptable standard than the reference group (30.3%; children of mothers with no known severe mental illness). After adjusting for covariates, children of mothers with any severe mental illness were more likely than the reference group to perform below-benchmark on all domains except reading. For all children, poor spelling was associated with the later development of psychosis, but particularly for those at familial risk for severe mental illness (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.81; 95% CI for HR = 1.21, 2.72). Conclusions: Children of mothers with a severe mental illness are at increased risk for sub-standard academic achievement at age 12 years, placing these children at disadvantage for the transition to secondary school. For children with familial risk for severe mental illness, very poor spelling skills at age 12 years may be an indicator of risk for later psychotic disorder. PMID:27131155

  9. Academic Performance in Children of Mothers With Schizophrenia and Other Severe Mental Illness, and Risk for Subsequent Development of Psychosis: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ashleigh; Di Prinzio, Patsy; Young, Deidra; Jacoby, Peter; Whitehouse, Andrew; Waters, Flavie; Jablensky, Assen; Morgan, Vera A

    2017-01-01

    We examined the academic performance at age 12 years of children of mothers diagnosed with schizophrenia or other severe mental illness using a large whole-population birth cohort born in Western Australia. We investigated the association between academic performance and the subsequent development of psychotic illness. The sample comprised 3169 children of mothers with severe mental illness (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, unipolar major depression, delusional disorder or other psychoses; ICD-9 codes 295-298), and 88 353 children of comparison mothers without known psychiatric morbidity. Academic performance of children was indexed on a mandatory state-wide test of reading, spelling, writing and numeracy. A larger proportion of children (43.1%) of mothers with severe mental illness performed below the acceptable standard than the reference group (30.3%; children of mothers with no known severe mental illness). After adjusting for covariates, children of mothers with any severe mental illness were more likely than the reference group to perform below-benchmark on all domains except reading. For all children, poor spelling was associated with the later development of psychosis, but particularly for those at familial risk for severe mental illness (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.81; 95% CI for HR = 1.21, 2.72). Children of mothers with a severe mental illness are at increased risk for sub-standard academic achievement at age 12 years, placing these children at disadvantage for the transition to secondary school. For children with familial risk for severe mental illness, very poor spelling skills at age 12 years may be an indicator of risk for later psychotic disorder. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Early life exposure to antibiotics and the subsequent development of eczema, wheeze, and allergic sensitization in the first 2 years of life: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummeling, Ischa; Stelma, Foekje F; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Snijders, Bianca E P; Penders, John; Huber, Machteld; van Ree, Ronald; van den Brandt, Piet A; Thijs, Carel

    2007-01-01

    Antibiotic exposure in early life may be associated with atopic disease development either by interfering with bacterial commensal flora or by modifying the course of bacterial infections. We evaluated early life exposure to antibiotics and the subsequent development of eczema, wheeze, and allergic sensitization in infancy. Information on antibiotic use in the first 6 months and eczema and wheeze until age 2 was collected by repeated questionnaires in 2764 families participating in the KOALA (Child, Parent and Health: Lifestyle and Genetic Constitution [in Dutch]) Birth Cohort Study in The Netherlands. Antibiotic intake was evaluated both as maternal antibiotic use during breastfeeding and infant oral medication. Venous blood samples taken from 815 infants at 2 years of age were analyzed for total and specific immunoglobulin E against common food and inhalant allergens using a radioallergosorbent test. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for confounding factors. During the first 2 years, eczema was present in 32% of all infants, recurrent wheeze in 11%, and prolonged wheezing in 5%. At 2 years old, 27% of children were sensitized against > or = 1 allergen. At 6 months old, 11% had been exposed to antibiotics through breast milk and 20% directly through medication. The risk for recurrent wheeze, and prolonged wheeze was higher in infants directly exposed to antibiotics through medication, also after excluding from the analyses children who wheezed in the same period as an antibiotic had been used (avoiding reverse causation). Antibiotic use through breastfeeding was associated with recurrent wheeze, but prolonged wheeze was not. Eczema and sensitization were not associated with antibiotic exposure. We demonstrated that early antibiotic use preceded the manifestation of wheeze but not eczema or allergic sensitization during the first 2 years of life. Different biological mechanisms may underlie the etiology of wheeze compared with eczema or

  11. Evaluation of the Predictive Value of Umbilical Cord Serum Bilirubin Level for the Development of Subsequent Hyperbilirubinemia in Term and Late-Preterm Neonates

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    Fariba Hemmati

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Based on the findings, UCS bilirubin level could not predict subsequent hyperbilirubinemia. Therefore, the best predictive marker for neonatal jaundice is the assessment of clinical risk factors and predischarge bilirubin level.

  12. Development of a new connection for precast concrete walls subjected to cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaghei, Ramin; Hejazi, Farzad; Taheri, Hafez; Jaafar, Mohd Saleh; Aziz, Farah Nora Aznieta Abdul

    2017-01-01

    The Industrialized Building System (IBS) was recently introduced to minimize the time and cost of project construction. Accordingly, ensuring the integration of the connection of precast components in IBS structures is an important factor that ensures stability of buildings subjected to dynamic loads from earthquakes, vehicles, and machineries. However, structural engineers still lack knowledge on the proper connection and detailed joints of IBS structure construction. Therefore, this study proposes a special precast concrete wall-to-wall connection system for dynamic loads that resists multidirectional imposed loads and reduces vibration effects (PI2014701723). This system is designed to connect two adjacent precast wall panels by using two steel U-shaped channels (i.e., male and female joints). During casting, each joint is adapted for incorporation into a respective wall panel after considering the following conditions: one side of the steel channel opens into the thickness face of the panel; a U-shaped rubber is implemented between the two channels to dissipate the vibration effect; and bolts and nuts are used to create an extension between the two U-shaped male and female steel channels. The developed finite element model of the precast wall is subjected to cyclic loads to evaluate the performance of the proposed connection during an imposed dynamic load. Connection performance is then compared with conventional connections based on the energy dissipation, stress, deformation, and concrete damage in the plastic range. The proposed precast connection is capable of exceeding the energy absorption of precast walls subjected to dynamic load, thereby improving its resistance behavior in all principal directions.

  13. Positive youth development programs for adolescents with greater psychosocial needs: subjective outcome evaluation over 3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Sun, Rachel C F

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the views of 153,761 students participating in a positive youth development program designed for participants with greater psychosocial needs (the Tier 2 Program) in the context of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong. The program was implemented in the extension phase of the project from 2009/10 to 2011/12 school years. A validated subjective outcome evaluation scale was used to assess the views of the program participants toward the program qualities, implementer qualities, and program effectiveness after completion of the program. Nine datasets were used which were derived from the aggregated reports submitted by social service providers designing the Tier 2 Program. Participants generally held favorable views of program qualities, implementer qualities, as well as program effectiveness of the Tier 2 Program. Some small grade and program differences on subjective outcome evaluation were also found. Both program qualities and implementer qualities were significant predictors of program effectiveness in different grades. Consistent with the findings of the initial phase of the Project P.A.T.H.S., the present study suggests that the Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong is perceived favorably by program participants and its perceived effectiveness was high. Significant but small grade and program approach differences on subjective outcome evaluation were found. Both program and implementer qualities were predictive of perceived program effectiveness in different grades. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Informed consent for inclusion into clinical trials: a serious subject to note in the developing world.

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    Izadi, Morteza; Fazel, Mozhgan; Nasiri-Vanashi, Taha; Saadat, Seyed Hasan; Taheri, Saeed

    2012-05-01

    Informed consent is a critical issue especially in conducting clinical trials that expose human life to medical or surgical interventions. It necessitates a long and complex process through which the participant is presented with all potential favorable and non-favorable consequences upon getting enrolled in the study. The process of taking informed consent is well-understood in developed countries, with every effort taken to enhance and maintain the autonomy of patients and their right to make an informed choice of whether to participate or not. This may not be the case in the developing world.The information given to patients before the trial might not be properly developed and presented, an issue that can result in serious threat to the decision-making process. On the other hand, investigators should remember that enrolling people into a trial with no potential benefit for themselves cannot be considered ethical. In the current debate, we aim to address the issue of how respectfully and ethically clinical research trials can be done on human subjects and what we can do to enhance the practice in an ethical context. Development of a system through which we could warrant all rights of study participants in all cases around the world seems far from view. However, if we are in doubt about the ethics of a clinical trial, we can ask ourselves: "what would we do, if we were in the same position our patients are in now?"

  15. The effect of low-volume sprint interval training on the development and subsequent maintenance of aerobic fitness in soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Tom W; Weston, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    To examine the effect of low-volume sprint interval training (SIT) on the development (part 1) and subsequent maintenance (part 2) of aerobic fitness in soccer players. In part 1, 23 players from the same semiprofessional team participated in a 2-wk SIT intervention (SIT, n = 14, age 25 ± 4 y, weight 77 ± 8 kg; control, n = 9, age 27 ± 6 y, weight 72 ± 10 kg). The SIT group performed 6 training sessions of 4-6 maximal 30-s sprints, in replacement of regular aerobic training. The control group continued with their regular training. After this 2-wk intervention, the SIT group was allocated to either intervention (n = 7, 1 SIT session/wk as replacement of regular aerobic training) or control (n = 7, regular aerobic training with no SIT sessions) for a 5-wk period (part 2). Pre and post measures were the YoYo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (YYIRL1) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). In part 1, the 2-week SIT intervention had a small beneficial effect on YYIRL1 (17%; 90% confidence limits ±11%), and VO2max (3.1%; ±5.0%) compared with control. In part 2, 1 SIT session/wk for 5 wk had a small beneficial effect on VO2max (4.2%; ±3.0%), with an unclear effect on YYIRL1 (8%; ±16%). Two weeks of SIT elicits small improvements in soccer players' high-intensity intermittent-running performance and VO2max, therefore representing a worthwhile replacement of regular aerobic training. The effectiveness of SIT for maintaining SIT-induced improvements in high-intensity intermittent running requires further research.

  16. Impact of diet deprivation and subsequent over-allowance during prepuberty. Part 2. Effects on mammary gland development and lactation performance of sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C; Palin, M-F; Martel-Kennes, Y

    2012-03-01

    The impact of diet deprivation and subsequent over-allowance in prepubertal gilts on their mammary development and mammary gene expression at the end of gestation and their lactation performance over 2 parities was determined. Seventy-seven gilts were reared under a conventional (control, CTL; n = 41) or an experimental (treatment, TRT; n = 36) dietary regimen. The experimental regimen provided 70 (restriction diet, RES) and 115% (over-allowance diet, OVER) of the protein and DE contents provided by the CTL diet. Experimental diets were fed ad libitum starting at 27.7 ± 3.4 kg of BW as follows: 3 wk RES, 3 wk OVER, 4 wk RES, and 4 wk OVER. All gilts were bred, and 34 were slaughtered on d 110 of gestation (18 CTL and 16 TRT) to collect mammary tissue for compositional analyses and gene expression measurements. Remaining gilts (23 CTL and 20 TRT) were maintained for 2 parities, and litter performance data were obtained. Blood samples for hormonal and metabolite assays were obtained on d 110 of gestation from all sows slaughtered at that time and from 14 sows per treatment on d 2 and 17 of lactation in the first parity. Milk samples were obtained from these same sows on d 17 of lactation in both parities. There was a tendency for mammary parenchymal tissue to contain less protein in TRT than CTL sows (P allowance regimen in the growing-finishing period did not have beneficial effects on mammary gene expression or on sow and piglet performance.

  17. Developing Buoyancy Driven Flow of a Nanofluid in a Vertical Channel Subject to Heat Flux

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    Nirmal C. Sacheti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The developing natural convective flow of a nanofluid in an infinite vertical channel with impermeable bounding walls has been investigated. It is assumed that the nanofluid is dominated by two specific slip mechanisms and that the channel walls are subject to constant heat flux and isothermal temperature, respectively. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations coupling different transport processes have been solved numerically. The variations of velocity, temperature, and nanoparticles concentration have been discussed in relation to a number of physical parameters. It is seen that the approach to the steady-state profiles of velocity and temperature in the present work is different from the ones reported in a previous study corresponding to isothermal wall conditions.

  18. Some recent developments in the international guidelines on the ethics of research involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, R J

    2000-11-01

    We are in a period of reconsideration and revision of international ethical guidelines for the conduct of biomedical research involving human subjects. The proximate cause of much of this activity is the recent controversy over the ethics of the use of a placebo control in the clinical trials of the short-duration regimen of zidovudine for prevention of perinatal transmission of HIV infection, trials that were carried out in several so-called technologically developing countries. Critics of these trials claimed that they were in violation of Article II.3 of the Declaration of Helsinki, which states: "In any medical study, every patient--including those of a control group, if any--should be assured of the best proven diagnostic and therapeutic method. This does not exclude the use of inert placebo in studies where no proven diagnostic or therapeutic method exists." The critics claimed that since the "best proven ... method" is the 076 regimen, this is what must be provided to members of the control groups. Failure to do so, they asserted, was a serious breach of ethics. In response to this allegation, several major international and national agencies convened multidisciplinary groups to consider the ethics of multinational clinical research. The first thing they realized was that Article II.3 was in error in that it did not reflect contemporary ethical thinking. Moreover, it was routinely violated in research conducted in developed as well as in developing countries. What replaces this standard? The 1993 CIOMS International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects include several criteria for justification of research carried out in developing countries. Most importantly, the research must be responsive to the health needs and priorities of the host country. They also require that any therapeutic products developed in such research must be made "reasonably available" to residents of the host country. A new standard is emerging for

  19. Mechanical Anisotropy Development of a Two-Phase Composite Subject to Large Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowski, M.; Schmid, D. W.; Yu, Podladchikov, Yu,

    2009-04-01

    Evolution of overall mechanical properties has been demonstrated in large strain deformation experiments. Strain softening is frequently employed in geodynamic simulations. In this paper, we quantify the structural and mechanical evolution of a two-phase composite rock subject to pure and simple shear. An inclusion-host type of geometry is assumed, we focus on the weak inclusion scenario and both materials obey a linear viscous behavior. Finite deformation leads to a shape preferred orientation development that results in an overall mechanical anisotropy. We derive the shape evolution model based on an analytical solution for an isolated elliptical inclusion embedded in an anisotropic host and subject to a uniform far field load. The presence of a strong anisotropy in the host leads to an enhanced inclusion stretching. A differential effective medium type of scheme predicting an overall anisotropic viscosity of a composite consisting of aligned elliptical inclusions is proposed and validated by finite element modeling. A comparison with an existing self-consistent averaging scheme is given and the new scheme is shown to provide an improved estimate of the effective normal and shear viscosity for high inclusion concentrations. The two models are combined into a final set of equations describing evolution of a two-phase rock under a shear. Hardening is predicted in pure shear. In simple shear, the hardening phase is followed by a pronounced softening after a shear strain of one, irrespective of inclusion concentration. Numerical simulations resolving evolution of inclusion-host systems under pure and simple shear demonstrate the high accuracy of our model prediction. The shape evolution model provides a sufficient approximation to the shape preferred orientation developing in an aggregate of interacting inclusions. Both in pure and simple shear, deformation localizes into conjugate trails of inclusions leading to formation of complex sigmoidal inclusion shapes.

  20. Evaluation of Sustainable Development Indicators With Fuzzy TOPSIS Based on Subjective and Objective Weights

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    Nang Idayu Nik Zahari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Sustainable development aims at improving and maintaining the well-being of people and the ecology. However, this paper focuses only on the ecological aspects. The selection of the proper ecological protection determinant plays a very important role in improving the environment of Malaysia. This paper will propose a method from Wang and Lee (2009, and Yong (2006 which applies a fuzzy TOPSIS method -- based on subjective and objective weights – to make the required selection. Four alternatives will be tested which are: prevent pollution (A1, conservation (A2, well-manage (A3, and public awareness (A4. Along with these, four criteria need to be considered: water quality factor (C1, land integrity factor (C2, air quality factor (C3, and biodiversity factor (C4. Finally, a numerical example of ecological protection determinant selection is used to illustrate the proposed method. ABSTRAK: Pembangunan lestari bermatlamat memperbaiki dan mengekalkan kesejahteraan rakyat serta ekologi. Walau bagaimanapun, kertas kajian ini hanya memberi tumpuan kepada aspek-aspek ekologi. Pemilihan penentu perlindungan serta keselamatan bagi aspek ekologi memainkan peranan yang amat penting dalam meningkatkan kualiti alam sekitar di Malaysia. Kertas kajian ini telah menggunakan kaedah Wang dan Lee (2009 dan Yong (2006 yang mengaplikasikan kaedah TOPSIS kabur berdasarkan pemberat subjektif dan objektif. Terdapat empat alternatif yang akan diuji iaitu: pencegahan pencemaran (A1, pemuliharaan (A2, pengurusan yang baik (A3, kesedaran orang awam (A4. Selain itu, terdapat empat kriteria yang perlu dipertimbangkan: faktor kualiti air (C1, faktor kualiti tanah (C2, faktor kualiti udara (C3, faktor kepelbagaian biologi (C4. Kesimpulannya, contoh pengiraan untuk memperoleh penentu pemilihan perlindungan ekologi telah digunakan bagi menunjukkan kaedah yang dicadangkan.KEYWORDS: sustainable development; ecological factors; subjective and objective weight; fuzzy TOPSIS

  1. Breast cancer development in transsexual subjects receiving cross-sex hormone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooren, Louis J; van Trotsenburg, Michael A A; Giltay, Erik J; van Diest, Paul J

    2013-12-01

    Transsexual people receive cross-sex hormones as part of their treatment, potentially inducing hormone-sensitive malignancies. To examine the occurrence of breast cancer in a large cohort of Dutch male and female transsexual persons, also evaluating whether the epidemiology accords with the natal sex or the new sex. Number of people with breast cancer between 1975 and 2011. We researched the occurrence of breast cancer among transsexual persons 18-80 years with an exposure to cross-sex hormones between 5 to >30 years. Our study included 2,307 male-to-female (MtF) transsexual persons undergoing androgen deprivation and estrogen administration (52,370 person-years of exposure), and 795 female-to-male (FtM) subjects receiving testosterone (15,974 total years of exposure). Among MtF individuals one case was encountered, as well as a probable but not proven second case. The estimated rate of 4.1 per 100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.8-13.0) was lower than expected if these two cases are regarded as female breast cancer, but within expectations if viewed as male breast cancer. In FtM subjects, who were younger and had shorter exposure to cross-sex hormones compared with the MtF group, one breast cancer case occurred. This translated into a rate of 5.9 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI: 0.5-27.4), again lower than expected for female breast cancer but within expected norms for male breast cancer. The number of people studied and duration of hormone exposure are limited but it would appear that cross-sex hormone administration does not increase the risk of breast cancer development, in either MtF or FtM transsexual individuals. Breast carcinoma incidences in both groups are comparable to male breast cancers. Cross-sex hormone treatment of transsexual subjects does not seem to be associated with an increased risk of malignant breast development. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  2. Agreement and Null Subjects in German L2 Development: New Evidence from Reaction-Time Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clahsen, Harald; Hong, Upyong

    1995-01-01

    Reports on reaction time experiments investigating subject-verb agreement and null subjects in 33 Korean learners of German and a control group of 20 German native speakers. Results found that the two phenomena do not covary in the Korean learners, indicating that properties of agreement and null subjects are acquired separately from one another.…

  3. The development of multiple drug use among anabolic-androgenic steroid users: six subjective case reports

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    Nyberg Fred

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inappropriate use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS was originally a problem among athletes but AAS are now often used in nonsport situations and by patients attending regular addiction clinics. The aim of this study was to improve understanding of the development of multiple drug use in patients seeking treatment at an addiction clinic for AAS-related problems. Methods We interviewed six patients (four men and two women with experience of AAS use who were attending an addiction clinic for what they believed were AAS-related problems. The patients were interviewed in-depth about their life stories, with special emphasis on social background, substance use, the development of total drug use and subjective experienced psychological and physical side effects. Results There was significant variation in the development of drug use in relation to social background, onset of drug use, relationship to AAS use and experience of AAS effects. All patients had initially experienced positive effects from AAS but, over time, the negative experiences had outweighed the positive effects. All patients were dedicated to excess training and took AAS in combination with gym training, indicating that the use of these drugs is closely related to this form of training. Use of multiple drugs was common either in parallel with AAS use or serially. Conclusion The study shows the importance of understanding how AAS use can develop either with or without the concomitant use of other drugs of abuse. The use of AAS can, however, progress to the use of other drugs. The study also indicates the importance of obtaining accurate, comprehensive information about the development of AAS use in designing treatment programmes and prevention strategies in this area.

  4. DEVELOPING OF ELECTRONIC TEACHING MATERIAL BASED ON MOBILE LEARNING IN THE WAVE SUBJECTS

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    D. H. Rif’ati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the advanced and modern era, technological sophistication led to learning which initially runs, in which teachers and students meet each other and communicate in the classroom, can be implemented through of information technology. Along with the development of information, where books and teachers who initially as a primary source of learning, are now beginning to experience growth from the internet. Mobile learning defined as mobile devices that are used in the learning process. The wave course is one of subject that must be taken by students of physics education in the third semester. This course emphasizes the concepts of wave were reviewed mathematically and the phenomenon that occurs in everyday life. Mobile learning developed in this study in the form of electronic teaching materials on subjects of waves. The aim of this study was to develop electronic teaching material in the form of mobile learning. The sample of this study is 80 students in the third semester students who are taking waves courses. The results show that mobile learning that has been developed has score 3.8 and included valid criteria. Pada era yang serba maju dan modern, kecanggihan teknologi menyebabkan pembelajaran yang awalnya berjalan satu arah, dimana guru dan siswa saling bertemu dan berkomunikasi di dalam kelas, dapat dilaksanakan melalui bantuan teknologi.informasi. Seiring dengan perkembangan informasi, buku dan guru yang awalnya sebagai sumber belajar utama, saat ini sudah mulai mengalami perkembangan dimana sumber belajar yang berasal dari internet sudah mulai sering dimanfaatkan dalam proses pembelajaran. Mobile larning didefinisikan sebagai perangkat mobile yang dipergunakan dalam proses belajar mengajar. Mata kuliah gelombang sendiri merupakan salah satu mata kuliah yang wajib ditempuh oleh mahasiswa program studi pendidikan fisika semester 3. Mata kuliah ini menekankan pada konsep gelombang yang ditinjau secara matematis dan fenomenanya yang terjadi

  5. E-MODULE DEVELOPMENT FOR THE SUBJECT OF MEASURING INSTRUMENTS AND MEASUREMENT IN ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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    Nuryake Fajaryati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop an e-module as a medium of learning for the practice course of Measuring Instruments and Measurement in the Department of Electronics Engineering Education of Yogyakarta State University and to determine the feasibility of the e-module. This study employed a method of research and development. The development process was conducted through four phases by using the model of Lee and Owens which consisted of analysis phase, design phase, developing and implementation phase, as well as evaluation phase.The evaluation was conducted in several stages. Firstly, an alpha test for product validation was conducted by the experts on material and media. After that, a beta test was conducted by testing the product in small group users. The subjects of this study were the students of Electronics Engineering. The instruments used to collect the data were a validation sheet and questionnaires. The results of qualitative data were then modified into quantitative data with a range of 1 to 5, then they were converted with a rating scale to determine the feasibility of the medium. The results showed that based on the alpha test, the medium was in a very high quality. Meanwhile, in the beta test of the instructional aspect, in terms of material and evaluation and the multimedia aspect the e-module was respectively considered feasible and quite feasible. The four indicators namely text, image, animation and video were all generally considered feasible. In terms of usage aspect, the e-module was considered feasible where its two indicators, namely instructions and navigation, were generally regarded as very feasible by all respondents.

  6. Seventy Years of Biochemical Subjects' Development in Pharmacy Curricula: Experience from Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Andrijana Milošević; Krajnović, Dušanka; Manojlović, Jelena; Ignjatović, Svetlana; Majkić Singh, Nada

    2016-01-01

    The pharmacists played an important role in the development of biochemistry as applied chemistry in Serbia. What is more, the first seven state chemists in Serbia were pharmacists. State chemists performed the chemical-toxicological analysis as well as some medical and biochemical ones. When it comes to the education of medical biochemists as health workers, the period after the beginning of the second half of the twentieth century should be taken into account because that is when the training of pharmaceutical staff of the Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade, begins on the territory of Serbia. This paper presents the development of medical biochemistry through the development of curriculum, personnel and literature since the foundation of the Faculty of Pharmacy in Serbia until today. The aim of this paper is to present the historical development of biochemistry at the Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade, through analysis of three indicators: undergraduate and postgraduate education of medical biochemists, teaching literature and professional associations and trade associations. The method of direct data was applied in this paper. Also, desktop analysis was used for analyzing of secondary data, regulations, curricula, documents and bibliographic material. Desktop research was conducted and based on the following sources: Archives of the University of Belgrade-Faculty of Pharmacy, Museum of the History of Pharmacy at the University of Belgrade-Faculty of Pharmacy, the Society of Medical Biochemists of Serbia and the Serbian Chamber of Biochemists. The curricula, the Bologna process of improving education, the expansion of the range of subjects, the number of students, professional literature for teaching biochemistry, as well as professional associations and trade associations are presented through the results.

  7. Insulin resistance is associated with the development of albuminuria in Korean subjects without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Cheol Min; Hyun, Young Youl; Lee, Kyu Beck; Kim, Hyang

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that insulin resistance is associated with the development of albuminuria. However, most studies are done on a background of diabetes or metabolic syndrome and there is little data from general population. The aim of this study is to define the effect of insulin resistance on the development of albuminuria in healthy individuals without diabetes. We analyzed 60,047 participants without baseline diabetes or chronic kidney disease, who underwent at least two health maintenance visits at a 2-year interval between 2002 and 2009 at a tertiary hospital in Korea. We measured the incidence of albuminuria at the second examination and calculated the odds ratio for the development of albuminuria according to the quintile of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). After 2 years, 880 cases of incident albuminuria were observed. The cumulative incidences of albuminuria were 1.08, 1.50, 1.35, 1.47, and 1.92% for the 1st to 5th quintiles of HOMA-IR. On multivariate logistic analysis, the odds ratios for incident albuminuria compared to those in the 1st quintile were 1.38 (95% CI 1.10-1.73; P=0.006), 1.23 (95% CI 0.97-1.55; P=0.087), 1.32 (95% CI 1.04-1.67; P=0.020), and 1.66 (95% CI 1.31-2.09; Palbuminuria in relatively healthy subjects without diabetes. Further research is needed to verify the role of insulin resistance in the development of albuminuria and renal injury.

  8. Research Project "Subject Developing Environment of Preschool Education" for Russian Preschool Bilinguals (By the Example of Textile Educational Materials)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latipova, Liliya A.; Krapotkina, Irene E.; Koudrjavtseva, Ekaterina L.

    2016-01-01

    The problem's relevance stated in the article is determined by the following: forming preschool bilinguals' subject developing environment is connected with their active education and development, as well as with flexible preparation for studying at school. The purpose of this article is to develop methodology of textile developing materials' use…

  9. Quadrantal macular retinal thickness changes in strabismus subjects with abnormal binocular vision development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Mayumi; Yamashita, Tsutomu; Ono, Shizuka; Kubo, Ikumi; Tabuchi, Akio

    2013-03-01

    To investigate retinal morphological changes in strabismus patients with abnormal binocular vision development by comparing differences in quadrantal macular retinal thickness. Six strabismus patients (6 dominant and 5 non-dominant eyes) with abnormal binocular vision (mean age 22 years), and 11 control subjects (11 dominant and 11 non-dominant eyes) (mean age 21 years) were enrolled. Macular retinal thickness measurements were performed by optical coherence tomography, with total macular retinal (TMR) and ganglion cell complex (GCC) thicknesses measured in 3- and 6-mm regions in each quadrant. Measurement values were then used to determine quadrant ratios. Compared to the dominant eyes of the controls, the superior/inferior (S/I) ratio of the TMR thickness and GCC thickness in the 3-mm region was significantly lower in the dominant eyes of the strabismus group (P binocular vision development exhibited thinner superior temporal GCC thicknesses in the 3-mm region. Retinal ganglion cells in this region might be affected by efferent neural degeneration that originates in the visual pathway responsible for adaptations to the visual experience.

  10. Research and Development on Automatic Information Organization and Subject Analysis in Recent Decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen-Hsien Tseng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Information organization and subject analysis (IOSA is an important issue in the field of library and information science(LIS.As the fast advance in information technology, more and more digital documents are emerging in a pace such that automated IOSA become inevitable. This article firstly introduces the development of related automatic techniques in recent decades and promotes a tranditional viewpoint based on the workflow of:(1 data collection and aggregation, (2 cataloguing, (3 regulation, (4 archving, and (5 usage,to regulate the whole process when applying automated techniques to any IOSA task.Some application examples are then described to let the readers have a feel of the feasibility of these techniques; specifically the applications of keyword extraction, association analysis, document clustering, and topic categorization are mentioned.We conclude that the related techniques and applications are still developing in a quick pace such that only a few percentages of them can be mentioned.This article is intended to promote the mutual cooperation among the LIS and other fields.

  11. In vitro oocyte fertilization and subsequent embryonic development after cryopreservation of bovine ovarian tissue, using an effective approach for oocyte collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faheem, Marwa S; Carvalhais, I; Chaveiro, A; Moreira da Silva, F

    2011-05-01

    This study was undertaken to assess dissection/puncture combined technique for collecting large number of oocytes from bovine ovaries and to determine the effect of ovarian tissue cryopreservation on the oocytes capability to undergo in vitro maturation, fertilization and subsequent embryonic development. Ovaries (n=31) of slaughtered cows were cut into small fragments using a scalpel blade and the ovarian tissues were randomly assigned to cryopreserved by slow freezing and vitrification and non cryopreserved (fresh) groups. Oocytes were collected from non-atretic follicles from fresh and post-thawing ovarian tissue by the puncture method. The advantage of this technique appeared through morphologically good quality cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) recovery rate from fresh tissue (31.7±2.0 oocytes/ovary). However, the cryopreservation affected the post thawing total and good quality COC recovery rates from slow freezing (26.6±2.0 and 23.5±2.3 oocytes/ovary, respectively) and vitrification groups (21.7±1.1 and 17.6±1.8 oocyte/ovary, respectively). The maturation rate resulted in significant differences between the fresh tissue (94.1±1.1%) and the two cryopreservation groups. Moreover, this rate was significantly higher in the slow freezing group (80.1±1.3%) than in the vitrification group (73.0±1.9%). No statistical differences were observed in the cleavage and the embryonic developmental rates between fresh tissue group and cryopreservation groups. Furthermore the number of embryos produced per animal was statistically higher for fresh tissues than for slow freezing and the vitrification groups (34.4±1.4, 27.8±3.1 and 22.0±0.7, respectively). In conclusion, dissection method followed by puncture of bovine ovaries greatly maximizes the number of good quality oocytes recovered, as well as the number of embryos obtained per animal. Ovarian tissue can be successfully cryopreserved by slow freezing and vitrification. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  12. The Predictors of Subjective Career Success: An Empirical Study of Employee Development in a Korean Financial Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yongho

    2010-01-01

    Subjective career success has recently been discussed widely in the academic field of career development. The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictors of subjective career success. It examined the effects of the calling work orientation, the individual's career-enhancing strategy and the organizational learning climate on the…

  13. Factors associated with developing a fear of falling in subjects with primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Sayaka; Yuki, Kenya; Awano-Tanabe, Sachiko; Ono, Takeshi; Shiba, Daisuke; Murata, Hiroshi; Asaoka, Ryo; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2018-02-13

    To investigate the relationship between clinical risk factors, including visual field (VF) defects and visual acuity, and a fear of falling, among patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). All participants answered the following question at a baseline ophthalmic examination: Are you afraid of falling? The same question was then answered every 12 months for 3 years. A binocular integrated visual field was calculated by merging a patient's monocular Humphrey field analyzer VFs, using the 'best sensitivity' method. The means of total deviation values in the whole, superior peripheral, superior central, inferior central, and inferior peripheral VFs were calculated. The relationship between these mean VF measurements, and various clinical factors, against patients' baseline fear of falling and future fear of falling was analyzed using multiple logistic regression. Among 392 POAG subjects, 342 patients (87.2%) responded to the fear of falling question at least twice in the 3 years study period. The optimal regression model for patients' baseline fear of falling included age, gender, mean of total deviation values in the inferior peripheral VF and number of previous falls. The optimal regression equation for future fear of falling included age, gender, mean of total deviation values in the inferior peripheral VF and number of previous falls. Defects in the inferior peripheral VF area are significantly related to the development of a fear of falling.

  14. Library Subject Guides: A Case Study of Evidence-Informed Library Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeham, Maurice; Roberts, Angharad; Shelley, Jane; Wells, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the process whereby a university library investigated the value of its subject guides to its users. A literature review and surveys of library staff, library users and other libraries were carried out. Existing library subject guides and those of other higher education libraries were evaluated. The project team reported…

  15. Brief assessment of subjective health complaints: Development, validation and population norms of a brief form of the Giessen Subjective Complaints List (GBB-8).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliem, Sören; Lohmann, Anna; Klatt, Thimna; Mößle, Thomas; Rehbein, Florian; Hinz, Andreas; Beutel, Manfred; Brähler, Elmar

    2017-04-01

    Although there is no causal relationship to medical morbidity, routine clinical assessment of somatic symptoms aids medical diagnosis and assessment of treatment effectiveness. Regardless of their causes, somatic symptoms indicate suffering, distress, and help-seeking behavior. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a brief self-report questionnaire to assess somatic symptom strain. A brief form of the Giessen Subjective Complaints List (GBB-8) was developed and validated in a large population sample representative of the Federal Republic of Germany (N=2008). Psychometric analyses included confirmation of factor structure, classical item analysis, and measurement invariance tests. The sample furthermore served as a norm group. As indicators of construct validity, correlations with measures of anxiety, depression, alexithymia, and primary care contact were computed. Psychometric analyses yielded excellent scale properties regarding item characteristics, factor structure, and measurement invariance tests (Cronbach's alpha=0.88; CFI=0.980, TLI=0.965, RMSEA=0.049) for the second-order four-factor model; strict invariance was confirmed for gender, depression status, and physician contacts; strong invariance was confirmed regarding age and age×gender. The GBB-8 with its four subscales exhaustion, gastrointestinal complaints, musculoskeletal complaints, and cardiovascular complaints proves to be an economic measure of subjective symptom strain. Psychometric analyses deem it suitable for epidemiological research. The availability of norms makes it a potential everyday tool for general practitioners and psychosomatic clinics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  17. Rhetorical meta-language to promote the development of students' writing skills and subject matter understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelger, Susanne; Sigrell, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background: Feedback is one of the most significant factors for students' development of writing skills. For feedback to be successful, however, students and teachers need a common language - a meta-language - for discussing texts. Not least because in science education such a meta-language might contribute to improve writing training and feedback-giving. Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore students' perception of teachers' feedback given on their texts in two genres, and to suggest how writing training and feedback-giving could become more efficient. Sample: In this study were included 44 degree project students in biology and molecular biology, and 21 supervising teachers at a Swedish university. Design and methods: The study concerned students' writing about their degree projects in two genres: scientific writing and popular science writing. The data consisted of documented teacher feedback on the students' popular science texts. It also included students' and teachers' answers to questionnaires about writing and feedback. All data were collected during the spring of 2012. Teachers' feedback, actual and recalled - by students and teachers, respectively - was analysed and compared using the so-called Canons of rhetoric. Results: While the teachers recalled the given feedback as mainly positive, most students recalled only negative feedback. According to the teachers, suggested improvements concerned firstly the content, and secondly the structure of the text. In contrast, the students mentioned language style first, followed by content. Conclusions: The disagreement between students and teachers regarding how and what feedback was given on the students texts confirm the need of improved strategies for writing training and feedback-giving in science education. We suggest that the rhetorical meta-language might play a crucial role in overcoming the difficulties observed in this study. We also discuss how training of writing skills may contribute to

  18. DESIGNING CROSS SUBJECT COMMUNICATIONS AS THE CONDITION FOR DEVELOPING SOCIAL SKILLS IN TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ivanovna Lygina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will present the results of a pedagogical experiment aimed at studying the level of social skills in university professors. Planning cross subject communications in an academic subject with consideration of the previous and associated knowledge and skills of students in the educational programme formed the basis of the pedagogical experiment. Problems have occurred when university professors are faced with elaborating cross subject communications. It was discovered that the problems professors had were connected to their responsiveness and to the various strategies they applied while working within small groups. We will analyze the results, provide recommendations and show the change in the level of the professors’ social skills during elaboration of  cross subject communications.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-21

  19. Development and validation of a biomarker for diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome in human subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Pimentel

    Full Text Available Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is diagnosed through clinical criteria after excluding "organic" conditions, and can be precipitated by acute gastroenteritis. Cytolethal distending toxin B (CdtB is produced by bacteria that cause acute gastroenteritis, and a post-infectious animal model demonstrates that host antibodies to CdtB cross-react with vinculin in the host gut, producing an IBS-like phenotype. Therefore, we assessed circulating anti-CdtB and anti-vinculin antibodies as biomarkers for D-IBS in human subjects. Subjects with D-IBS based on Rome criteria (n=2375 were recruited from a large-scale multicenter clinical trial for D-IBS (TARGET 3. Subjects with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD (n=142, subjects with celiac disease (n=121, and healthy controls (n=43 were obtained for comparison. Subjects with IBD and celiac disease were recruited based on the presence of intestinal complaints and histologic confirmation of chronic inflammatory changes in the colon or small intestine. Subjects with celiac disease were also required to have an elevated tTG and biopsy. All subjects were aged between 18 and 65 years. Plasma levels of anti-CdtB and anti-vinculin antibodies were determined by ELISA, and compared between groups. Anti-CdtB titers were significantly higher in D-IBS subjects compared to IBD, healthy controls and celiac disease (P<0.001. Anti-vinculin titers were also significantly higher in IBS (P<0.001 compared to the other groups. The area-under-the-receiver operating curves (AUCs were 0.81 and 0.62 for diagnosis of D-IBS against IBD for anti-CdtB and anti-vinculin, respectively. Both tests were less specific in differentiating IBS from celiac disease. Optimization demonstrated that for anti-CdtB (optical density≥2.80 the specificity, sensitivity and likelihood ratio were 91.6%, 43.7 and 5.2, respectively, and for anti-vinculin (OD≥1.68 were 83.8%, 32.6 and 2.0, respectively. These results confirm that anti-CdtB and

  20. Development and validation of a biomarker for diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Mark; Morales, Walter; Rezaie, Ali; Marsh, Emily; Lembo, Anthony; Mirocha, James; Leffler, Daniel A; Marsh, Zachary; Weitsman, Stacy; Chua, Kathleen S; Barlow, Gillian M; Bortey, Enoch; Forbes, William; Yu, Allen; Chang, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is diagnosed through clinical criteria after excluding "organic" conditions, and can be precipitated by acute gastroenteritis. Cytolethal distending toxin B (CdtB) is produced by bacteria that cause acute gastroenteritis, and a post-infectious animal model demonstrates that host antibodies to CdtB cross-react with vinculin in the host gut, producing an IBS-like phenotype. Therefore, we assessed circulating anti-CdtB and anti-vinculin antibodies as biomarkers for D-IBS in human subjects. Subjects with D-IBS based on Rome criteria (n=2375) were recruited from a large-scale multicenter clinical trial for D-IBS (TARGET 3). Subjects with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (n=142), subjects with celiac disease (n=121), and healthy controls (n=43) were obtained for comparison. Subjects with IBD and celiac disease were recruited based on the presence of intestinal complaints and histologic confirmation of chronic inflammatory changes in the colon or small intestine. Subjects with celiac disease were also required to have an elevated tTG and biopsy. All subjects were aged between 18 and 65 years. Plasma levels of anti-CdtB and anti-vinculin antibodies were determined by ELISA, and compared between groups. Anti-CdtB titers were significantly higher in D-IBS subjects compared to IBD, healthy controls and celiac disease (PIBS (PIBS against IBD for anti-CdtB and anti-vinculin, respectively. Both tests were less specific in differentiating IBS from celiac disease. Optimization demonstrated that for anti-CdtB (optical density≥2.80) the specificity, sensitivity and likelihood ratio were 91.6%, 43.7 and 5.2, respectively, and for anti-vinculin (OD≥1.68) were 83.8%, 32.6 and 2.0, respectively. These results confirm that anti-CdtB and anti-vinculin antibodies are elevated in D-IBS compared to non-IBS subjects. These biomarkers may be especially helpful in distinguishing D-IBS from IBD in the workup of chronic diarrhea.

  1. Recent developments in single-subject methodology: methods for analyzing generalization, maintenance, and multicomponent treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, B A; Hartmann, D P

    1988-01-01

    At the outset of this chapter we asked whether or not single-subject methodology has outlived its usefulness to behavior therapy. We did so because serious doubts have been expressed about the ability of single-subject methodology to address the salient issues of the day. This chapter allays many of these doubts. This chapter reveals that single-subject researchers are far from helpless when investigating generalization and maintenance and identifying the active (and inactive) components in their compound treatments. In fact, a number of powerful strategies are at their disposal--strategies that are not strangers to the armamentarium of single-case researchers. These strategies are in essence nothing more than extensions of the reversal, multiple baseline, and simultaneous and alternating-treatments designs. In the case of the assessment of generalization, these extensions involve little more than the inclusion of continuous measures (or regular probes) of untrained responses throughout the investigation. In the case of the assessment of maintenance, they involve the replacement of a comparison of two or more acquisition procedures with a comparison of two or more maintenance procedures. And in the case of the identification of active (and inactive) components of compound treatments, they involve the aggregation of the findings from a series of single-subject investigations. When the requirements of single-subject designs and their extensions cannot be met, investigators still have available a set of traditional group designs (e.g., factorial and additive designs) for attacking these same issues. Assessment of generalization, maintenance, and the components of compound treatments are not the only salient issues facing behavior therapy today. Another is the widening gap between the researcher and the practitioner (e.g., Barlow, 1980; Wilson, 1981). It is thought by some that single-subject methodology may be the means of bridging this gap; that through single-subject

  2. Using Portfolios to Engage Introductory Geoscience Students in Their Subject and to Develop Learning Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, A. P.; Prior, D. J.

    2008-12-01

    It is often difficult to deal with wide-ranging, exciting geoscience topics at introductory level when the background geoscience knowledge of the incoming students is limited. This means that new students can often be confronted by self-contained, subject-based topics (e.g. introductory mineralogy) and fail to see where the bigger pictures may be. Another issue, partly arising from massification and thus increasing diversity of student cohorts but also to changes in UK school education goals, is the realisation that incoming students have difficulties combining lecture note taking, reading and general organisation of paper-based materials into a learning package that can help them write structured essays. They need help with the transfer from school to university education. Two years ago, a curriculum review provided the opportunity to develop a new module that could address these issues. The module deals with current topics. Students attend a series of 8 lectures given by 8 different faculty staff covering topics like The Origin of the Moon, Earthquake Prediction, Mass Extinctions, Snowball Earth, and Geohazards spread over the introductory year. Each lecturer uses whatever delivery style they want (PowerPoint, chalk and talk), but the lecture must be an illustration of the scientific method dealing with evidence, models and uncertainty, and must direct students towards a range of associated reading. The students develop a portfolio with a section for each lecture topic. Each section contains their notes, annotated copies of the reading and a one page (A4) summary of the main points of the topic, derived from both the notes and reading. The students also develop a glossary of geological terms. In addition, the students must attend 6 extra talks given by guest speakers at either the student society meetings or the departmental seminar series. Assessment is by the portfolio (40%) and a final essay paper (60%). The portfolio is collected in at the end of the first

  3. Imbalances of innovative industrial development of subjects of Federation, members of the Russian Arctic zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zharov V. S.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of testing the previously developed methodological approach and methods of assessing the innovativeness level of the industrial development of the regions – subjects of the Federation (members of the Russian Arctic zone – on the basis of the calculation and analysis of scorecard values have been presented. It has been shown that during the years 2005–2013, the highest level of technological innovation of industrial development had been achieved in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia. Представлены результаты апробации разработанных ранее методологического подхода и методики оценки уровня инновационности промышленного развития регионов – субъектов Федерации, входящих в Арктическую зону РФ, – на основе расчета и анализа значений системы показателей. Показано, что в течение 2005–2013 гг. наиболее высокий уровень технологической инновационности промышленного развития достигнут в Республике Саха (Якутия

  4. Subjective and objective peer approval evaluations and self-esteem development: A test of reciprocal, prospective, and long-term effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenenfelder-Steiger, Andrea E; Harris, Michelle A; Fend, Helmut A

    2016-10-01

    A large body of literature suggests a clear, concurrent association between peer approval and self-esteem in adolescence. However, little empirical work exists on either the prospective or reciprocal relation between peer approval and self-esteem during this age period. Moreover, it is unclear from past research whether both subjectively perceived peer approval and objectively measured peer approval are related to subsequent self-esteem over time (and vice versa) and whether these paths have long-term associations into adulthood. Using data from a large longitudinal study that covers a time span of 2 decades, we examined reciprocal, prospective relations between self-esteem and peer approval during ages 12-16 in addition to long-term relations between these variables and later social constructs at age 35. Cross-lagged regression analyses revealed small but persistent effect sizes from both types of peer approval to subsequent self-esteem in adolescence, controlling for prior self-esteem. However, effects in the reverse direction were not confirmed. These findings support the notion that peer relationships serve an important function for later self-esteem, consistent with many theoretical tenets of the importance of peers for building a strong identity. Finally, we found long-term relations between adult social constructs and adolescent objective and subjective peer approval as well as self-esteem. Therefore, not only do peer relationships play a role in self-esteem development across adolescence, but they remain impactful throughout adulthood. In sum, the current findings highlight the lasting, yet small link between peer relationships and self-esteem development and call for investigations of further influential factors for self-esteem over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Subsequent Reproductive Performance in Survivors of Complicated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were 2 cases of postpartum hemorrhage. 103 (44%) of the subjects who still desired pregnancy were yet unable to conceive. Conclusions The subsequent reproductive performance in survivors of complicated abortion appears to be largely characterized by a high rate of sub-fertility, fetal wastage and preterm ...

  6. Learning and the development of social identities in the subjects Care and Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volman, M.L.L.; ten Dam, G.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the way in which social identities structure the learning processes of students in two subjects in the Dutch secondary school curriculum - Care and Technology. It analyses interviews with 23 students and their teachers with a view to explaining the disappointing results in

  7. Learning and the development of social identities in the subjects: Care and Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volman, M.L.L.; ten Dam, G.T.M.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the way in which social identities structure the learning processes of students in two subjects in the Dutch secondary school curriculum - Care and Technology. It analyzes interviews with 23 students and their teachers with a view to explaining the disappointing results in

  8. Developing Multimedia Enhanced Content to Upgrade Subject Content Knowledge of Secondary School Teachers in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtebe, Joel S.; Kibga, Elia Y.; Mwambela, Alfred A.; Kissaka, Mussa M.

    2015-01-01

    The failure rates and lack of interest amongst students in science and mathematics in secondary schools in Tanzania is a serious problem. The Ministry of Education and Vocational Training (MoEVT) implemented a project to enhance and upgrade the pedagogical knowledge and subject content knowledge of teachers in selected difficult topics in science…

  9. The Role of Subjectivity in Teacher Expertise Development: Mindfully Embracing the "Black Sheep" of Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Noriyuki

    2016-01-01

    In Western cultures, subjectivity has often been seen as the "black sheep" of educational research because of its heavy emphasis on objectivity. Consequently many research initiatives in education share the assumption that objective reasoning should play a central role. However, mentoring teachers' practice improvement research often…

  10. Designing a Staff Development Program and Subsequent Handbook for Use at Woburn Nursing Center: A Long-Term Care Facility of Salter Healthcare Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Cole; Capone, Martha

    Woburn Nursing Center (WNC), a private nursing home owned and operated by Salter Healthcare Services (SHS), developed an integrated, comprehensive staff development program and handbook. A literature review focused on staff needs, responsible agent, and handbook development. The following activities were undertaken: a review of ERIC documents,…

  11. Consolidation of the subjects of the Russian Federation as an element of economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev Aleksandrovich Korshunov

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The discussion on the optimality of the currently existing structure of the subjects of the Russian Federation is illustrating the contradictions that have been accumulated in the dominion form of government of our country in recent years. In this paper, we attempt to assess the impact of past enlargements, which are considered as a part of the process called modernization of the country as a whole. A system of criteria for the process of consolidating and enlarging the regions was elaborated. The main criterion proposed is the quality of life in the enlarged regions. Diagnostics of the state, as well as the estimated dynamics of the socio-demographic security of the individual subjects of the Russian Federation, members of the Siberian Federal District in the period 2000-2009, was done. An integrated assessment of the socio-demographic security in the discussed subjects on the basis of estimates was obtained for the six indicative blocks: reproduction of the population, health status, level of life and material well-being of the population, quality of life, migration flows and indicators of age-sex and marriage-family structure.

  12. Development of a rapid method for the sequential extraction and subsequent quantification of fatty acids and sugars from avocado mesocarp tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Marjolaine D; Terry, Leon A

    2008-08-27

    Methods devised for oil extraction from avocado (Persea americana Mill.) mesocarp (e.g., Soxhlet) are usually lengthy and require operation at high temperature. Moreover, methods for extracting sugars from avocado tissue (e.g., 80% ethanol, v/v) do not allow for lipids to be easily measured from the same sample. This study describes a new simple method that enabled sequential extraction and subsequent quantification of both fatty acids and sugars from the same avocado mesocarp tissue sample. Freeze-dried mesocarp samples of avocado cv. Hass fruit of different ripening stages were extracted by homogenization with hexane and the oil extracts quantified for fatty acid composition by GC. The resulting filter residues were readily usable for sugar extraction with methanol (62.5%, v/v). For comparison, oil was also extracted using the standard Soxhlet technique and the resulting thimble residue extracted for sugars as before. An additional experiment was carried out whereby filter residues were also extracted using ethanol. Average oil yield using the Soxhlet technique was significantly (P oil extracts following both methods were very similar. Oil recovery improved with increasing ripeness of the fruit with minor differences observed in the fatty acid composition during postharvest ripening. After lipid removal, methanolic extraction was superior in recovering sucrose and perseitol as compared to 80% ethanol (v/v), whereas mannoheptulose recovery was not affected by solvent used. The method presented has the benefits of shorter extraction time, lower extraction temperature, and reduced amount of solvent and can be used for sequential extraction of fatty acids and sugars from the same sample.

  13. Population Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Modeling of Lusutrombopag, a Newly Developed Oral Thrombopoietin Receptor Agonist, in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsube, Takayuki; Ishibashi, Toru; Kano, Takeshi; Wajima, Toshihiro

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) model for describing plasma lusutrombopag concentrations and platelet response following oral lusutrombopag dosing and for evaluating covariates in the PK/PD profiles. A population PK/PD model was developed using a total of 2539 plasma lusutrombopag concentration data and 1408 platelet count data from 78 healthy adult subjects following oral single and multiple (14-day once-daily) dosing. Covariates in PK and PK/PD models were explored for subject age, body weight, sex, and ethnicity. A three-compartment model with first-order rate and lag time for absorption was selected as a PK model. A three-transit and one-platelet compartment model with a sigmoid E max model for drug effect and feedback of platelet production was selected as the PD model. The PK and PK/PD models well described the plasma lusutrombopag concentrations and the platelet response, respectively. Body weight was a significant covariate in PK. The bioavailability of non-Japanese subjects (White and Black/African American subjects) was 13 % lower than that of Japanese subjects, while the simulated platelet response profiles using the PK/PD model were similar between Japanese and non-Japanese subjects. There were no significant covariates of the tested background data including age, sex, and ethnicity (Japanese or non-Japanese) for the PD sensitivity. A population PK/PD model was developed for lusutrombopag and shown to provide good prediction for the PK/PD profiles. The model could be used as a basic PK/PD model in the drug development of lusutrombopag.

  14. Is the Non-unitary Subject a Plausible and Productive Way to Understand Development Bureaucrats?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamas, P.A.; Sato, C.

    2012-01-01

    Development bureaucrats are the human instruments of the policies that mobilise funds, create organisations and underwrite interventions. For their home audiences development organisations need to present bureaucrats who are reliable instruments. In the field these same organisations need staff who

  15. Interaction, transference, and subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Fieldwork is one of the important methods in educational, social, and organisational research. In fieldwork, the researcher takes residence for a shorter or longer period amongst the subjects and settings to be studied. The aim of this is to study the culture of people: how people seem to make...... sense of their lives and which moral, professional, and ethical values seem to guide their behaviour and attitudes. In fieldwork, the researcher has to balance participation and observation in her attempts at representation. Consequently, the researcher’s academic and life-historical subjectivity...... are important filters for fieldwork. In general, fieldwork can be understood as processes where field reports and field analysis are determined by how the researcher interacts with and experiences the field, the events and informants in it, and how she subsequently develops an ethnography. However, fieldwork...

  16. Emotions over time: synchronicity and development of subjective, physiological, and facial affective reactions to music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, Oliver; Nagel, Frederik; Kopiez, Reinhard; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2007-11-01

    Most people are able to identify basic emotions expressed in music and experience affective reactions to music. But does music generally induce emotion? Does it elicit subjective feelings, physiological arousal, and motor reactions reliably in different individuals? In this interdisciplinary study, measurement of skin conductance, facial muscle activity, and self-monitoring were synchronized with musical stimuli. A group of 38 participants listened to classical, rock, and pop music and reported their feelings in a two-dimensional emotion space during listening. The first entrance of a solo voice or choir and the beginning of new sections were found to elicit interindividual changes in subjective feelings and physiological arousal. Quincy Jones' "Bossa Nova" motivated movement and laughing in more than half of the participants. Bodily reactions such as "goose bumps" and "shivers" could be stimulated by the "Tuba Mirum" from Mozart's Requiem in 7 of 38 participants. In addition, the authors repeated the experiment seven times with one participant to examine intraindividual stability of effects. This exploratory combination of approaches throws a new light on the astonishing complexity of affective music listening.

  17. High levels of plasma IL-10 and expression of IL-10 by keratinocytes during visceral leishmaniasis predict subsequent development of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasim, S; Elhassan, A M; Khalil, E A

    1998-01-01

    Some patients develop post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) after they have been treated for the systemic infection kala-azar (visceral leishmaniasis). It has been an enigma why the parasites cause skin symptoms after the patients have been successfully treated for the systemic disease. We...... report here that PKDL development can be predicted before treatment of visceral leishmaniasis, and that IL-10 is involved in the pathogenesis. Before treatment of visceral leishmaniasis, Leishmania parasites were present in skin which appeared normal on all patients. However, IL-10 was detected...

  18. Hard Times in Higher Education: The Closure of Subject Centres and the Implications for Education for Sustainable Development (ESD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Chalkley

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Within many British Universities and, indeed, across higher education internationally, how best to provide education for sustainable development (ESD has become an increasingly important issue. There is now a widespread view that higher education sectors have a key part to play in preparing societies for the transition to a low carbon economy and the shift towards more sustainable ways of living and working. In the UK, a leading role in this field has been played by the Higher Education Academy and especially its network of 24 Subject Centres, each of which promotes curriculum enhancement in a particular discipline area. The mission of the Higher Education Academy has been to help raise the overall quality of the student learning experience across all disciplines and all Higher Education institutions (HEIs. As part of promoting and supporting many kinds of curriculum innovation and staff development, the HE Academy has championed the cause of ESD. Now, however, as a result of government spending cuts, the Academy is facing severe budget reductions and all its Subject Centres are soon to close. At this pivotal moment, the purpose of this paper is, therefore, to review the HE Academy’s past contribution to ESD and to explore the likely future implications of the demise of its Subject Centres. The paper ends by outlining some ideas as to how the ESD agenda might be advanced in the post-Subject Centre era, in the light of the Academy’s intention to support subject communities under its new structure. The paper has been developed through participation in key committees, engagement with Academy and Subject Centre staff, as well as through a literature review.

  19. Evaluating a Professional Development Programme for Implementation of a Multidisciplinary Science Subject

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Visser, Talitha Christine; Coenders, Ferdinand G.M; Terlouw, C; Pieters, Julius Marie

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate a professional development programme that prepares and assists teachers with the implementation of a multidisciplinary science module, basing the evaluation on participants...

  20. The Attitude of the College Students to Entrepreneurial Skills Development in the Subject E-Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beránek, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    One of the main goals of many educational courses at various colleges, especially those which focus on applied economics and management, is the development of students' entrepreneurship skills. It is usually accomplished through various project-oriented tasks. The development of the students' entrepreneurship skills is also the primary objective…

  1. Model of the Students' Key Competences Development through Interactive Whiteboard in the Subject of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecka, Peter; Valentová, Monika

    2017-01-01

    The basis of the submitted study are the continuously rising demands to alter the curricula with the aim to develop students' key competences in order to increase their professional versatility. The lack of scientific research and discussions show that little investigation has been done on the issue of development of key competences. Therefore,…

  2. Comparative Analysis of Participation of Teachers of STEM and Non-STEM Subjects in Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiyaka, Edward T.; Kibirige, Joachim; Sithole, Alec; McCarthy, Peter; Mupinga, Davison M.

    2017-01-01

    School administrators continuously consider teacher professional development (PD) as one of the key strategies to improving teachers' pedagogical skills. Modern proposals for advancing education by improving student learning outcomes are centered on high quality professional development for teachers. However, teachers face a number of barriers…

  3. Plague history: Yersin's discovery of the causative bacterium in 1894 enabled, in the subsequent century, scientific progress in understanding the disease and the development of treatments and vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, T

    2014-03-01

    The causative bacterium of plague was described and cultured by Alexandre Yersin in Hong Kong in 1894, after which transmission of bacteria from rodents by flea bites was discovered by Jean-Paul Simond in 1898. Effective treatment with antiserum was initiated in 1896, but this therapy was supplanted by sulphonamides in the 1930s and by streptomycin starting in 1947. India suffered an estimated 6 million deaths in 1900-1909, and Vietnam, during its war in 1965-1975, accounted for approximately 80% of the world's cases; since then, African countries have dominated, with >90% of the world's cases in the 1990s and early 21st century. Serological diagnosis with fraction 1 antigen to detect anti-plague antibodies was developed in the 1950s. Vaccine development started in 1897 with killed whole bacterial cells, and this was followed by a live attenuated bacterial vaccine, leading to millions of persons receiving injections, but the benefits of these vaccines remain clouded by controversy. Plasmid-mediated virulence was established in 1981, and this was followed by specific DNA methods that have allowed detection of plague genes in skeletal specimens from European graves of the sixth to 17th centuries. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  4. Short communication: Development of a novel method for the extraction of norbixin from whey and its subsequent quantification via high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R E; Boogers, I A L A; Drake, M A

    2014-03-01

    Norbixin is the primary carotenoid in annatto coloring, which imparts the desired orange color in Cheddar cheese. However, a portion of the colorant remains in the cheese whey and is undesirable; therefore, a bleaching step is often applied. Restrictions exist for norbixin concentrations in products destined for infant formula. As such, evaluation of norbixin concentrations in whey and whey ingredients is desirable. Current extraction methods are laborious and require solvents that are banned in many countries. The objective of this study was to develop a fast and inexpensive norbixin extraction and quantitation technique using approved solvents with similar sensitivity to current established methods. Instead of solvent extraction and column purification, acetonitrile was added directly to fluid wheys, retentates, and rehydrated whey protein concentrates. An isocratic mobile phase [70% acetonitrile and 30% water with 0.1% (wt/vol) formic acid] was used and, to increase sensitivity, a large volume (50 μL) was injected onto the column. The column used was a C18 column with a particle size of 2.6 μm and column length of 10 cm. The column inner diameter was 4.6mm and the pore size was 100 Ǻ. All of the previously described conditions allowed the run time to be only 4 min. The sample was sent through a photodiode array detector and quantified at 482 nm. Norbixin was quantified using external standard curves. The developed method had a >90% norbixin recovery in both milk and whey (9.39 μg/L-2.35 mg/L). The limit of detection of norbixin in fluid whey was 2.7 μg/kg and the limit of quantitation was 3.5 μg/kg, both of which are significantly lower than in previously described methods. The extracts were stable over 30 min at 21°C and stable over 24h at 4°C. Repeatability and precision of the method had relative standard deviations of less than 13%. The developed method provides time and cost savings for evaluation of norbixin concentration in whey and whey products

  5. Increased Interleukin-4 production by CD8 and gammadelta T cells in health-care workers is associated with the subsequent development of active tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, Diane J; Costa, Leonor; Martins, Marta; Silveira, Henrique; Amaral, Leonard; Arroz, Maria J; Ventura, Fernando A; Dockrell, Hazel M

    2004-08-15

    We evaluated immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 10 health-care workers (HCWs) and 10 non-HCWs and correlated their immune status with the development of active tuberculosis (TB). Twenty individuals were randomly recruited, tested, and monitored longitudinally for TB presentation. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from donors were stimulated with M. tuberculosis and tested for cell proliferation and the production of interferon (IFN)- gamma, interleukin (IL)-5, and IL-4, by use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent or flow-cytometric assays. HCWs had higher levels of cell proliferation (24,258 cpm) and IFN- gamma (6373 pg/mL) to M. tuberculosis than did non-HCWs (cell proliferation, 11,462 cpm; IFN- gamma, 3228 pg/mL). Six of 10 HCWs showed increased median percentages of CD8+IL-4+ (4.7%) and gammadelta +IL-4+ (2.3%) T cells and progressed to active TB. HCWs who remained healthy showed increased median percentages of CD8+IFN- gamma+ (25.0%) and gammadelta +IFN- gamma+ (8.0%) and lower percentages of CD8+IL-4+ (0.05%) and gammadelta +IL-4+ (0.03%) T cells.

  6. Evaluating a Professional Development Programme for Implementation of a Multidisciplinary Science Subject

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Talitha Christine; Coenders, Ferdinand G.M.; Terlouw, C.; Pieters, Julius Marie

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate a professional development programme that prepares and assists teachers with the implementation of a multidisciplinary science module, basing the evaluation on participants’ reactions, the first level of Guskey’s five-level model for evaluation (2002). Positive

  7. Academic Developers as Change Agents Improving Quality in a Large Interprofessional Undergraduate Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordiner, Moira

    2014-01-01

    Much has been written about academic developers as change agents but not in an interprofessional education (IPE) context. IPE involves teaching students in different health professions how to work effectively in teams across professional boundaries to improve the quality of patient care. Extensive evidence reveals that implementing sustainable IPE…

  8. Thyroid peroxidase antibodies, levels of thyroid stimulating hormone and development of hypothyroidism in euthyroid subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, A.; Links, T.P.; de Jong-van den Berg, L.T.; Gans, R.O.; Wolffenbuttel, B.H.; Bakker, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs) have been found to be related to the levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and to predict future development of thyroid failure in selected populations. We investigated these relations in a euthyroid general population. Design: Cross-sectional

  9. Creative Workshop as a Form of Contemporary Art and a Space for Subjective Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefowski, Eugeniusz

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the original concept of the author's creative workshop which is treated as an art form and the method of education. It contains a presentation of the structure of the original workshop developed by the author in the context of multi-layered relations occurring in the interconnected areas of art and education leading to…

  10. Why do certain consumers avoid new media developments? : An investigation of three prudent users’ subjectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gauttier, Stéphanie; Gauzente, Claire

    2015-01-01

    New media development constantly challenges consumer’s habits. While innovations are supposed to bring new facilities to users, a certain number of them still remain reluctant in accepting, adopting and using new media offers. The aim of this research is to review the theoretical frameworks that are

  11. It Takes Two to Tango: Studying How Students Constitute Political Subjects in Discourses on Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundegard, Iann; Wickman, Per-Olof

    2012-01-01

    A great deal of the ongoing discussion about environmental education and education for sustainable development has to do with democracy and deliberation. Here, for example, the normative approach has been challenged. As an alternative, there is sometimes a call for a curriculum and education that is characterized by democracy, participation, and…

  12. Developing, Using, and Interacting in the Flipped Learning Movement: Gaps among Subject Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-liang; Summers, Kevin L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the current video collection of an open-access video website (TED-Ed). The research questions focus on its content as evidence of development, its viewership as evidence of use, and flipping as evidence of interaction in informal learning. In late September 2013, 686 video lessons were posted on the…

  13. Rhetorical Meta-Language to Promote the Development of Students' Writing Skills and Subject Matter Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelger, Susanne; Sigrell, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background: Feedback is one of the most significant factors for students' development of writing skills. For feedback to be successful, however, students and teachers need a common language--a meta-language--for discussing texts. Not least because in science education such a meta-language might contribute to improve writing training and…

  14. Infant developmental milestones and subsequent cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Graham K; Jones, Peter B; Kuh, Diana; Richards, Marcus

    2007-08-01

    Developmental delay is associated with a subsequent diagnosis of learning disability. However, the relationship between the age of reaching infant developmental milestones and later intellectual function within the general population remains unresolved. We hypothesized that earlier attainment of developmental milestones would be associated with better subsequent intellectual performance throughout the range of abilities, rather than confined to extremes. Developmental data were obtained at age 2 years in the National Survey of Health and Development, a representative sample of 5,362 children born in the United Kingdom in 1946. Data on intellectual function and educational attainment at ages 8, 26, and 53 years were also obtained. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression were used to analyze the effect of age of reaching developmental milestones on subsequent cognition and educational attainment. The age of reaching developmental milestones was associated with intellectual performance at ages 8, 26, and 53 years; for every month earlier a child learned to stand, there was, on average, a gain of one half of one intelligence quotient point at age 8. Speech development had a small but statistically significant effect on subsequent educational attainment (later developers were less likely to progress beyond basic education); this effect was not apparent for motor development. Effect sizes were reduced when the slowest developers were excluded, but many effects remained significant. The association between later development and poorer subsequent intellectual function is small, but it does have theoretical implications; we suggest it is secondary to suboptimal cortical-subcortical connectivity.

  15. [Early mother-infant separation and psychosocial development. II. Longitudinal study on 42 subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenici, R; Papini, M A

    1988-01-01

    It is the purpose of the present investigation to obtain some information as they can be drown from the activity of our follow-up for premature babies and infants at higher risk. The main objectives of the study were: - to evaluate the aspects of parent's emotional status and parent-infant interaction in the first year of life; - to evaluate possible effects of the early separation on later development of the children. We have observed 42 LBW infants (hospitalized at birth for a period of one-three months) and their parents for 7-8 years. Our study has included: interviews with parents, observation of interaction, clinical examinations, designs. Recurrent interactive patterns have been defined in their peculiarities in the first year of life. Patterns of later psychosocial development are also exposed: they are strictly related to the kind of the precocious interaction.

  16. MATHEMATICS TOOLS DEVELOPMENT BASED ON WEB WITH MOODLE APPLICATIONS IN BASED STATISTICS SUBJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rina dwi s, febrian dewanto, bagus ardi s

    2016-02-01

    The results the influence of motivation and activity of learning achievement of 89.7% d and the average of  learning achievement experimental class achieve exhaustiveness 74.25 e Average learning achievement of  experimental class 74.25, better than average learning achievement for control class 64.57. Based on the research results obtained are valid learning tools and effective learning that show the development of learning tools goals achieved.

  17. The Development of Molecular Gastronomy as a Subject Discipline at the Dublin Institute of Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Roisin; Danaher, Pauline; Traynor, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Molecular gastronomy is the study of the physical and chemical culinary transformations that occur during preparation, cooking and consumption. Molecular gastronomy differs from food science as the social, artistic and technical components of culinary and gastronomic phenomena are explored. At the Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT) the aim of developing molecular gastronomy modules is to use them as a tool to teach scientific principles to those who work in the Culinary Arts. Students and g...

  18. Development of a Medical Care Terminal for Efficient Monitoring of Bedridden Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is developed in the context of Ambient Assisted Living (AAL and has as main objective the development of a mechatronic system that allows the care of bedridden patients with ongoing medical care handled by a single person. The developed Medical Care Terminal (MCT improves autonomy in home care, safety, comfort, and hygiene of bedridden patients. The MCT has six biomedical sensors and four environmental sensors. Data acquisition and processing is performed using Arduino and LabVIEW platforms, respectively. The proposed solution has, as main feature, its adaptability to the patient needs. One of the MCT functionalities is the remote access to the patient data through the web. The caregiver may request help from a specialist who sends back information in real time to perform first aid assistance. This device has a flexible configuration allowing a fast and cheap reconfiguration according the specific needs of the patient. The proposed mechatronic system intends to meet the needs of bedridden patients improving their quality of life, health, safety, and comfort, while enabling the remote monitoring of the patients.

  19. Application of Fuzzy Borda Combination Evaluation in Subjective and Objective Evaluation Methods in Comprehensive Evaluation of Population Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jiajia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper constructs the comprehensive index evaluation of population development from the three aspects of human development, population and economic society and population, resources and environment, according to the movement course and changing trend of population development at home and abroad, and the guiding ideology of national population development strategy system. The index system consists of 3 first level indexes, 8 Secondary indexes, 22 tertiary level indexes and 42 fourth level indexes. And on the basis of commonly used comprehensive evaluation methods. The comprehensive evaluation of the population development in China in 2013 was made by using the combined evaluation method, which effectively overcomes the shortcomings of the objective evaluation method and the subjective evaluation method, and obtains a more credible comprehensive evaluation value.

  20. Application of the biospeckle method for monitoring bull's eye rot development and quality changes of apples subjected to various storage methods-preliminary studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adamiak, Anna; Zdunek, Artur; Kurenda, Andrzej; Rutkowski, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the biospeckle technique was evaluated for monitoring of apple bull's eye rot development and product quality in general, during storage under various conditions and during subsequent shelf life...

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF A CREDIT POLICY FOR MARKETS SUBJECT TO CREDIT RATIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobov A. A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Effective credit policy is an essential condition for bank’s successful operation. In this article methods of developing a credit policy that accounts for information asymmetry and «reverse selection» effect in the credit market are considered. In the course of research, relationships between interest rates, “pass” credit score, total bank’s income, average profitability of a credit product and the amount of capital required to be allocated to a new product, were revealed. Noting these relationships, bank’s credit department is able to set optimal interest rates, credit score and capital, as well as to apply credit rationing, if necessary.

  2. Persistent depression is a significant risk factor for the development of arteriosclerosis in middle-aged Japanese male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hiroki; Fujii, Satoshi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Depression often coexists with hypertension and various cardiovascular diseases. However, the relationship between depression and the development of arteriosclerosis has not been fully established. We assessed depression and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in 828 middle-aged Japanese male subjects at baseline and during 3 years of follow-up. Depression was assessed using Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression questionnaires, and the study subjects were divided into the following three groups: persistent depression, transient depression and no depression. The number (%) of subjects with persistent, transient and no depression were 104 (12.6), 76 (9.2) and 648 (78.2), respectively. Blood pressure and baPWV did not differ among the three groups at baseline. The changes in the baPWV values (⊿baPWV) correlated significantly and positively with age, body mass index, baseline systolic blood pressure and persistent depression (r = 0.32, P arteriosclerosis in middle-aged Japanese male subjects.

  3. Sexuality in subjects with intellectual disability: an educational intervention proposal for parents and counselors in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Gregorio; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    In developing countries, the study of intellectual disability has enormous knowledge gaps, especially in the areas of intervention, utilization of services and legislation. This article provides information not only for aiding in the potential development of sexuality in individuals with intellectual disability, but also for fostering their social integration. In Mexico and the region, in order to develop educational interventions for promoting sexual health, it is necessary to consider the following priorities: a) mental health professionals should have the knowledge or receive training for carrying out a sexual education and counseling program; b) educational interventions for subjects with intellectual disability should be adapted for the different stages of life (childhood, adolescence and adulthood); c) during childhood, educational intervention should emphasize the concept of public and private conducts; d) in adolescence, intervention should consider the actual mental age and not the chronological age of the subjects receiving intervention; e) the expression of sexuality in the adult with intellectual disability depends on the early incorporation of factors for promoting social inclusion; f) for educational interventions to be successful, it is fundamental that sexual educators and counselors, in addition to working with the clients, also work with their parents and other close family members; g) intervention programs should establish development objectives for developing in persons with intellectual disability a positive attitude towards sexuality and the improvement in self-esteem; h) in subjects with intellectual disability, their linguistic comprehension level should be taken into consideration and techniques for open discussion and non-inductive education should be used; i) social integration programs should address the needs of developing countries and their individuals, since it is not feasible to import external programs due to differences in

  4. Development of a mnemonic screening tool for identifying subjects with Hunter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Gabriel M; Morin, Isabelle; Whiteman, David A H

    2013-07-01

    The Hunter Outcome Survey (HOS), an international, long-term observational registry of patients with Hunter syndrome, was used to develop a simple mnemonic screening tool (HUNTER) to aid in the diagnosis of Hunter syndrome. Data regarding the prediagnosis prevalence of ten specific signs and symptoms present in individual patients enrolled in the HOS were used to develop the HUNTER mnemonic screening tool. A total score of 6 or greater using a weighting scheme in which certain manifestations were assigned a weight of 2 (facial dysmorphism, nasal obstruction or rhinorrhea, enlarged tongue, enlarged liver, enlarged spleen, joint stiffness) and others assigned a weight of 1 (hernia, hearing impairment, enlarged tonsils, airway obstruction or sleep apnea) correctly identified 95 % of patients who had no family history of Hunter syndrome or who were not diagnosed prenatally. No association between age at diagnosis and HUNTER score was found. The HUNTER mnemonic appears to be a useful screening tool. Further validation in the clinical setting will be necessary to confirm its utility.

  5. EFFICIENCY OF SIMPLE SUPER PHOSPHATE IN THE VETIVER GRASS DEVELOPMENT SUBJECTED TO SOIL BIOENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENISSON NEPONUCENO DE ARAÚJO FILHO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides L. has been evaluated under differ-ent levels of phosphorus on slopes of the right-side bank of the San Francisco River, in the municipality of Am-paro do São Francisco, SE. Techniques of soil bioengineering were used, characterized by the combination of vegetated riprap with stakes, seedlings of vetiver grass and sediment retainers. The experimental design was randomized blocks with five doses (0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 g pit-1 of simple superphosphate and five replicates. The growth of vetiver seedlings were observed in periods of 30, 60, 90, e 180 days, carrying out the following pa-rameters: number of roots, external root surface, root density, root length, root length density, root and shoot dry weight, root and shoot fresh weight, and shoot length, at each evaluation period. The phosphorus doses and periods of morphological development interacted in all variables of plant biomass mentioned above. Higher superphosphate doses than 9.0 g pit-1 did not offer advantages in terms of cost-benefit for the production of vetiver seedings.

  6. Development of a questionnaire to assess the relative subjective benefits of presbyopia correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckhurst, Phillip J; Wolffsohn, James S; Gupta, Navneet; Naroo, Shehzad A; Davies, Leon N; Shah, Sunil

    2012-01-01

    To develop a standardized questionnaire of near visual function and satisfaction to complement visual function evaluations of presbyopic corrections. Eye Clinic, School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Midland Eye Institute and Solihull Hospital, Birmingham, United Kingdom. Questionnaire development. A preliminary 26-item questionnaire of previously used near visual function items was completed by patients with monofocal intraocular lenses (IOLs), multifocal IOLs, accommodating IOLs, multifocal contact lenses, or varifocal spectacles. Rasch analysis was used for item reduction, after which internal and test-retest reliabilities were determined. Construct validity was determined by correlating the resulting Near Activity Visual Questionnaire (NAVQ) scores with near visual acuity and critical print size (CPS), which was measured using the Minnesota Low Vision Reading Test chart. Discrimination ability was assessed through receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. One hundred fifty patients completed the questionnaire. Item reduction resulted in a 10-item NAVQ with excellent separation (2.92), internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.95), and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.72). Correlations of questionnaire scores with near visual acuity (r = 0.32) and CPS (r = 0.27) provided evidence of validity, and discrimination ability was excellent (area under ROC curve = 0.91). Results show the NAVQ is a reliable, valid instrument that can be incorporated into the evaluation of presbyopic corrections. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationship between mathematics teacher subject matter knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge and professional development needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajudin, Nor'ain Mohd; Chinnappan, Mohan; Saad, Noor Shah

    2017-05-01

    Two key variables emerged from the literature review is that Specific Matter Knowledge [SMK] and Pedagogical Content Knowledge [PCK] can influence the mathematics teachers' Professional Development [PD] needs. However, the key variables of SMK and PCK that were being investigated were not defined clearly. Empirical evidence that support relationship between SMK and PD and PCK and PD were not verified. In addition, how does PCK mediate SMK and PD is not clear and somewhat lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to examine the relationship between primary mathematics teacher's SMK, PCK and PD needs. Results of path analysis with SmartPLS indicated that the direct effect of SMK on PD was mediated via PCK. This data provide support for the claim that PD programs for future teachers of primary mathematics should be driven by a more nuanced understanding of the link between SMK and PCK.

  8. Black and Korean: Racialized Development and the Korean American Subject in Korean/American Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeehyun Lim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the representation of the encounters and exchanges between Asian and black Americans in Sŏk-kyŏng Kang’s “Days and Dreams,” Heinz Insu Fenkl’s Memories of My Ghost Brother, and Chang-rae Lee’s A Gesture Life. While one popular mode of looking at Asian and black Americans relationally in the postwar era is to compare the success of Asian American assimilation to the failure of black Americans, Lim argues that such a mode of comparison cannot account for the ways in which Asian American racialization takes places within the global currents of militarism and migration. Against the popular view that attributes Asian American success to cultural difference, Lim relies on political scientist Claire Kim’s understanding of culture as something that is constructed in the process of racialization to explore how the above texts imagine the terms of comparative racialization between black and Asian Americans. The black-Korean encounters in these texts demand a heuristic of comparative racialization that goes beyond the discussion of the black-white binary as a national construct and seeks the reification and modification of this racial frame as it travels along the routes of US military and economic incursions in the Pacific. Lim suggests that the literary imagining of black-Korean encounters across the Pacific illustrates race and racialization as effects of a regime of economic development that is supported by military aggression.

  9. Development of “OQALE” Based Reference Module for School Geometry Subject and Analysis of Mathematical Creative Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulandari, N. A. D.; Sukestiyarno, Y. L.

    2017-04-01

    This research aims to develop an OQALE based reference module for school geometry subject that meets the criteria of a valid and practical. OQALE approach is learning by of O = observation, Q = question, A = Analyze, L = Logic, E = Express. Geometry subject presented in the module are a triangle, the Pythagorean theorem, and rectangular. Mathematical skills of creative thinking shown from four aspects: fluency, flexibility, originality and elaboration. Research procedures in the development of reference module using a strategy of the investigation and development described by [2], which is limited to the sixth stage is leading field testing. The focus of this research is to develop a reference module that is valid, practical and able to increase the mathematical creative thinking skills of students. The testing is limited to three teachers, nine students and two mathematic readers using purposive sampling technique. The data validity, practicality, and creative thinking skills upgrading collected through questionnaires, observations, and interviews and analysed with a valid test, practical test, gain test and qualitative descriptive. The results were obtained (1) the validity of the module = 4.52, which is 4.20 ≤ Vmthinking mathematically nine students through the test of the gain included in the high and medium category. The conclusions of this research are the generated OQALE based reference module for school geometry subjectis valid and practical.

  10. Subsequence Automata with Default Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Skjoldjensen, Frederik Rye

    2016-01-01

    of states and transitions) of the subsequence automaton is O(nσ) and that this bound is asymptotically optimal. In this paper, we consider subsequence automata with default transitions, that is, special transitions to be taken only if none of the regular transitions match the current character, and which do...... not consume the current character. We show that with default transitions, much smaller subsequence automata are possible, and provide a full trade-off between the size of the automaton and the delay, i.e., the maximum number of consecutive default transitions followed before consuming a character......(nσ) and delay O(1), thus matching the bound for the standard subsequence automaton construction. The key component of our result is a novel hierarchical automata construction of independent interest....

  11. Subsequence automata with default transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Skjoldjensen, Frederik Rye

    2017-01-01

    of states and transitions) of the subsequence automaton is O(nσ) and that this bound is asymptotically optimal. In this paper, we consider subsequence automata with default transitions, that is, special transitions to be taken only if none of the regular transitions match the current character, and which do...... not consume the current character. We show that with default transitions, much smaller subsequence automata are possible, and provide a full trade-off between the size of the automaton and the delay, i.e., the maximum number of consecutive default transitions followed before consuming a character......(1), thus matching the bound for the standard subsequence automaton construction. Finally, we generalize the result to multiple strings. The key component of our result is a novel hierarchical automata construction of independent interest....

  12. Development of common metrics for donation attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and intention for the blood donation context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Janis L; Kowalsky, Jennifer M; France, Christopher R; McGlone, Sarah T; Himawan, Lina K; Kessler, Debra A; Shaz, Beth H

    2014-03-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior has been widely used in blood donation research, but the lack of uniform, psychometrically sound measures makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions or compare results across studies. Accordingly, the goal of this study was to develop such measures of donation attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and intention. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were conducted on survey responses collected from college students (n = 1080). The resulting scales were then administered to an independent sample of experienced donors (n = 433) for additional CFAs and to test whether the Theory of Planned Behavior model provided a good fit to the data. CFAs conducted on both samples support the use of six-item scales, with two factors each, to measure donation attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control and a single-factor three-item scale to measure donation intention. Further, structural equation modeling of these measures revealed that the Theory of Planned Behavior provided a strong fit to the data (comparative fit index, 0.976; root mean square error of approximation, 0.041; standardized root mean square residual, 0.055) and accounted for 73.7% of the variance in donation intention. The present findings confirm the applicability of the Theory of Planned Behavior to the blood donation context and more importantly provide psychometric support for the future use of four brief measures of donation attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and intention. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  13. Developing Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Teaching a New Topic: More Than Teaching Experience and Subject Matter Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kennedy Kam Ho; Yung, Benny Hin Wai

    2017-03-01

    Teaching experience has been identified as an important factor in pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) development. However, little is known about how experienced teachers may draw on their previous experience to facilitate their PCK development. This study examined how two experienced high school biology teachers approached the teaching of a newly introduced topic in the curriculum, polymerase chain reaction and their PCK development from the pre-lesson planning phase through the interactive phase to the post-lesson reflection phase. Multiple data sources included classroom observations, field notes, semi-structured interviews and classroom artefacts. It was found that the teachers' previous experience informed their planning for teaching the new topic, but in qualitatively different ways. This, in turn, had a bearing on their new PCK development. Subject matter knowledge (SMK) can not only facilitate but may also hinder this development. Our findings identify two types of experienced teachers: those who can capitalise on their previous teaching experiences and SMK to develop new PCK and those who do not. The critical difference is whether in the lesson planning stage, the teacher shows the disposition to draw on a generalised mental framework that enables the teacher to capitalise on his existing SMK to develop new PCK. Helping teachers to acquire this disposition should be a focus for teacher training in light of continuous curriculum changes.

  14. Empirical Model Development for Predicting Shock Response on Composite Materials Subjected to Pyroshock Loading. Volume 2, Part 1; Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentz, Steven J.; Ordway, David O.; Parsons, David S.; Garrison, Craig M.; Rodgers, C. Steven; Collins, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) received a request to develop an analysis model based on both frequency response and wave propagation analyses for predicting shock response spectrum (SRS) on composite materials subjected to pyroshock loading. The model would account for near-field environment (approximately 9 inches from the source) dominated by direct wave propagation, mid-field environment (approximately 2 feet from the source) characterized by wave propagation and structural resonances, and far-field environment dominated by lower frequency bending waves in the structure. This document contains appendices to the Volume I report.

  15. Entrepreneurs As a Subject of Modern Russian Economy Development: General Characteristics and «Resource Type» Regions Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levin Sergey, N.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, special urgency has the question about the ability of entrepreneurs to act as a subject of the Russian economy development. Analysis of the specificity of targets and resource potential of the modern Russian entrepreneurs is fulfilled in the context of the general features of entrepreneurship development in the countries with "emerging markets". Distinction between "politicized" entrepreneurs, as prevailing type of entrepreneurs in these countries, and "classic" entrepreneurs is shown. Two basic strategies of their behavior in the form of "rent-seeking" and "institutional" entrepreneurship are highlighted. Incentives and constraints of "institutional" entrepreneurship strategies selection made by "politicized" entrepreneurs are considered in the context of assessing the potential of the Russian entrepreneurs as a subject of economic development as well as emerging positive externalities. Analysis is regionalized to consider the specificity of the behavior of entrepreneurs in the economy of the "resource type" regions. Models of "enclave dual economy" and "integrated regional economy" are discrete structural alternatives for "resource type" regions development. "Sectoral" frontiers of net positive externalities that emerge from institutional entrepreneurs’ activity related to the implementation of productive configurations institutions are considered as well as a choice between the "rent-seeking" and "institutional" entrepreneurship. Kemerovo region and Krasnoyarsk region are the basic regions to analyze incentives and constraints of entrepreneurs in the economy of the "resource type" regions. The authors use sociological tools in the form of semi-structured interviews. Initial evaluation of the eight entrepreneurs’ strategies of Kemerovo region and Krasnoyarsk region shows that the most of them used elements of the institutional entrepreneurs’ strategy and focused on the diversification of the regional economy. At the same time

  16. 38 CFR 36.4324 - Guaranty claims; subsequent accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guaranty claims; subsequent accounting. 36.4324 Section 36.4324 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... § 36.4324 Guaranty claims; subsequent accounting. (a) Subject to the limitation that the total amounts...

  17. Oral mucosa: an alternative epidermic cell source to develop autologous dermal-epidermal substitutes from diabetic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela GUZMÁN-URIBE

    Full Text Available Abstract Oral mucosa has been highlighted as a suitable source of epidermal cells due to its intrinsic characteristics such as its higher proliferation rate and its obtainability. Diabetic ulcers have a worldwide prevalence that is variable (1%-11%, meanwhile treatment of this has been proven ineffective. Tissue-engineered skin plays an important role in wound care focusing on strategies such autologous dermal-epidermal substitutes. Objective The aim of this study was to obtain autologous dermal-epidermal skin substitutes from oral mucosa from diabetic subjects as a first step towards a possible clinical application for cases of diabetic foot. Material and Methods Oral mucosa was obtained from diabetic and healthy subjects (n=20 per group. Epidermal cells were isolated and cultured using autologous fibrin to develop dermal-epidermal in vitro substitutes by the air-liquid technique with autologous human serum as a supplement media. Substitutes were immunocharacterized with collagen IV and cytokeratin 5-14 as specific markers. A Student´s t- test was performed to assess the differences between both groups. Results It was possible to isolate epidermal cells from the oral mucosa of diabetic and healthy subjects and develop autologous dermal-epidermal skin substitutes using autologous serum as a supplement. Differences in the expression of specific markers were observed and the cytokeratin 5-14 expression was lower in the diabetic substitutes, and the collagen IV expression was higher in the diabetic substitutes when compared with the healthy group, showing a significant difference. Conclusion Cells from oral mucosa could be an alternative and less invasive source for skin substitutes and wound healing. A difference in collagen production of diabetic cells suggests diabetic substitutes could improve diabetic wound healing. More research is needed to determine the crosstalk between components of these skin substitutes and damaged tissues.

  18. 7 CFR 1781.22 - Subsequent loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subsequent loans. 1781.22 Section 1781.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT (RCD) LOANS AND WATERSHED (WS) LOANS AND ADVANCES § 1781.22...

  19. Differential representation of liver proteins in obese human subjects suggests novel biomarkers and promising targets for drug development in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caira, Simonetta; Iannelli, Antonio; Sciarrillo, Rosaria; Picariello, Gianluca; Renzone, Giovanni; Scaloni, Andrea; Addeo, Pietro

    2017-12-01

    The proteome of liver biopsies from human obese (O) subjects has been compared to those of nonobese (NO) subjects using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Differentially represented proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS)-based peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) and nanoflow-liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-ESI-MS/MS). Overall, 61 gene products common to all of the liver biopsies were identified within 65 spots, among which 25 ones were differently represented between O and NO subjects. In particular, over-representation of short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, Δ(3,5)-Δ(2,4)dienoyl-CoA isomerase, acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, glyoxylate reductase/hydroxypyruvate reductase, fructose-biphosphate aldolase B, peroxiredoxin I, protein DJ-1, catalase, α- and β-hemoglobin subunits, 3-mercaptopyruvate S-transferase, calreticulin, aminoacylase 1, phenazine biosynthesis-like domain-containing protein and a form of fatty acid-binding protein, together with downrepresentation of glutamate dehydrogenase, glutathione S-transferase A1, S-adenosylmethionine synthase 1A and a form of apolipoprotein A-I, was associated with the obesity condition. Some of these metabolic enzymes and antioxidant proteins have already been identified as putative diagnostic markers of liver dysfunction in animal models of steatosis or obesity, suggesting additional investigations on their role in these syndromes. Their differential representation in human liver was suggestive of their consideration as obesity human biomarkers and for the development of novel antiobesity drugs.

  20. Italy-Japan international project-based learning for developing human resources using design of welfare equipment as a subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafusa, A; Komeda, T; Ito, K; Zobel, P Beomonte

    2015-08-01

    Project-based learning (PBL) is effective for developing human resources of young students. The design of welfare equipment, such as wheelchairs and gait assistive devices, is taken as the subject in this study because these devices must be fit to their environment, users, and method of use; students must consider the circumstances of each country concerned. The program commenced in 2012 at L'Aquila, Italy, and the Shibaura Institute of Technology, Japan and has been continuing for three years. Students were divided into four groups and discussions were held on how to adapt the equipment to the user and environment. After discussion, they designed and simulated a model of the equipment using CAD. Finally, they presented their designs to each other. Through the program, students had fruitful discussions, exchanged ideas from different cultures, and learned from each other. Furthermore, friendships among the students were nurtured. It is believed that the objective of the program was satisfactorily accomplished.

  1. Development and validation of a subject-specific finite element model of the functional spinal unit to predict vertebral strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chu-Hee; Landham, Priyan R; Eastell, Richard; Adams, Michael A; Dolan, Patricia; Yang, Lang

    2017-09-01

    Finite element models of an isolated vertebral body cannot accurately predict compressive strength of the spinal column because, in life, compressive load is variably distributed across the vertebral body and neural arch. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a patient-specific finite element model of a functional spinal unit, and then use the model to predict vertebral strength from medical images. A total of 16 cadaveric functional spinal units were scanned and then tested mechanically in bending and compression to generate a vertebral wedge fracture. Before testing, an image processing and finite element analysis framework (SpineVox-Pro), developed previously in MATLAB using ANSYS APDL, was used to generate a subject-specific finite element model with eight-node hexahedral elements. Transversely isotropic linear-elastic material properties were assigned to vertebrae, and simple homogeneous linear-elastic properties were assigned to the intervertebral disc. Forward bending loading conditions were applied to simulate manual handling. Results showed that vertebral strengths measured by experiment were positively correlated with strengths predicted by the functional spinal unit finite element model with von Mises or Drucker-Prager failure criteria ( R 2  = 0.80-0.87), with areal bone mineral density measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry ( R 2  = 0.54) and with volumetric bone mineral density from quantitative computed tomography ( R 2  = 0.79). Large-displacement non-linear analyses on all specimens did not improve predictions. We conclude that subject-specific finite element models of a functional spinal unit have potential to estimate the vertebral strength better than bone mineral density alone.

  2. Leg joint power output during progressive resistance FES-LCE cycling in SCI subjects: developing an index of fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faghri Pouran D

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the biomechanics of the hip, knee and ankle during a progressive resistance cycling protocol in an effort to detect and measure the presence of muscle fatigue. It was hypothesized that knee power output can be used as an indicator of fatigue in order to assess the cycling performance of SCI subjects. Methods Six spinal cord injured subjects (2 incomplete, 4 complete between the ages of twenty and fifty years old and possessing either a complete or incomplete spinal cord injury at or below the fourth cervical vertebra participated in this study. Kinematic data and pedal forces were recorded during cycling at increasing levels of resistance. Ankle, knee and hip power outputs and resultant pedal force were calculated. Ergometer cadence and muscle stimulation intensity were also recorded. Results The main findings of this study were: (a ankle and knee power outputs decreased, whereas hip power output increased with increasing resistance, (b cadence, stimulation intensity and resultant pedal force in that combined order were significant predictors of knee power output and (c knowing the value of these combined predictors at 10 rpm, an index of fatigue can be developed, quantitatively expressing the power capacity of the knee joint with respect to a baseline power level defined as fatigue. Conclusion An index of fatigue was successfully developed, proportionalizing knee power capacity during cycling to a predetermined value of fatigue. The fatigue index value at 0/8th kp, measured 90 seconds into active, unassisted pedaling was 1.6. This indicates initial power capacity at the knee to be 1.6 times greater than fatigue. The fatigue index decreased to 1.1 at 2/8th kp, representing approximately a 30% decrease in the knee's power capacity within a 4 minute timespan. These findings suggest that the present cycling protocol is not sufficient for a rider to gain the benefits of FES and thus

  3. The Subject-Modeling Approach to Developing the Methodol- ogy Competence of the Future Teachers-Psychologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Gilmanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Any practical activity of a modern specialist requires the methodology knowledge – the ability of setting and transforming goals, operating with summarized approaches and plans, creating and reconstructing them, etc. The paper deals with the role of the methodology competence in professional thinking; the subject-modeling approach to developing the professional thinking and methodology competence is considered regarding the future teachers-psychologists.The substantiation of the above approach is given concerning the content and structure of the competence in question, as well as the students’ personal characteristics. The psychological mechanism of gaining the experience and professional thinking ability is described as interaction of two models – the cognitive and dynamic emotional ones – both reflecting the professional activity. The results of experimental work, based on such methods as analysis, theoretical modeling, supervision and polling, demon- strated the main developing factors of methodology competence: the general culture level, interest to the future profession, the professional activity presentation in educational process. The research results imply the conclusion that the purposeful pedagogic activity based on the methodology competence is necessary for developing the future specialists’ professional thinking. 

  4. Early clinical development of artemether-lumefantrine dispersible tablet: palatability of three flavours and bioavailability in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Salim

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts to ease administration and enhance acceptability of the oral anti-malarial artemether-lumefantrine (A-L crushed tablet to infants and children triggered the development of a novel dispersible tablet of A-L. During early development of this new formulation, two studies were performed in healthy subjects, one to evaluate the palatability of three flavours of A-L, and a second one to compare the bioavailability of active principles between the dispersible tablet and the tablet (administered crushed and intact. Methods Study 1 was performed in 48 healthy schoolchildren in Tanzania. Within 1 day, all subjects tasted a strawberry-, orange- and cherry-flavoured oral A-L suspension for 10 seconds (without swallowing in a randomized, single-blind, crossover fashion. The palatability of each formulation was rated using a visual analogue scale (VAS. Study 2 was an open, randomized crossover trial in 48 healthy adults given single doses of A-L (80 mg artemether + 480 mg lumefantrine with food. The objectives were to compare the bioavailability of artemether, dihydroartemisinin (DHA and lumefantrine between the dispersible tablet and the tablet administered crushed (primary objective and intact (secondary objective. Results Study 1 showed no statistically significant difference in VAS scores between the three flavours but cherry had the highest score in several ratings (particularly for overall liking. Study 2 demonstrated that the dispersible and crushed tablets delivered bioequivalent artemether, DHA and lumefantrine systemic exposure (area under the curve [AUC]; mean ± SD AUC0-tlast were 208 ± 113 vs 195 ± 93 h.ng/ml for artemether, 206 ± 81 vs 199 ± 84 h.ng/ml for DHA and 262 ± 107 vs 291 ± 106 h.μg/ml for lumefantrine. Bioequivalence was also shown for peak plasma concentrations (Cmax of DHA and lumefantrine. Compared with the intact tablet, the dispersible tablet resulted in bioequivalent lumefantrine exposure, but

  5. Subjective need for psychological support (PsySupp) in parents of children and adolescents with disorders of sex development (dsd).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennecke, Elena; Werner-Rosen, Knut; Thyen, Ute; Kleinemeier, Eva; Lux, Anke; Jürgensen, Martina; Grüters, Annette; Köhler, Birgit

    2015-10-01

    Disorders/diversity of sex development (dsd) is an umbrella term for congenital conditions often diagnosed within childhood. As most parents are unprepared for this situation, psychological support (PsySupp) is recommended. The aim of this study was to analyse the extent to which parents express a need for PsySupp. Three hundred twenty-nine parents of children with dsd were included; 40.4 % of the parents indicated to have a need for PsySupp, only 50 % of this group received it adequately. The diagnoses partial gonadal dysgenesis, partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (pAIS) and disorders of androgen synthesis are associated with a high need for PsySupp in parents (54, 65, and 50 %). Sex assignment surgery neither reduced nor increased the need for PsySupp. Taking a picture, radiography, laparoscopy, gonadal biopsy, gonadectomy and hormonal puberty induction are associated with a high need for PsySupp. There was no association between the need for PsySupp and the parents' perception of the appearance of the genitalia. Having a child with dsd is associated with a high need for PsySupp in parents. In particular, parents of children with XY-dsd with androgen effects other than hypospadias expressed a high need of PsySupp. PsySupp for parents should be an obligatory part of interdisciplinary care to reduce fears and concerns. What is known • In parents, having a child with dsd provokes insecurities and fears. Hence, psychological support is recommended as part of the interdisciplinary care. What is new • This is the first study investigating the subjective need for psychological support in a large sample of parents of children with dsd in Germany. We present data on the subjective need for psychological support of the parents, related diagnoses and factors, which should be considered in psychological counselling.

  6. [Development and evaluation of ExSel Test to screen for excess salt intake in hypertensive subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girerd, X; Villeneuve, F; Deleste, F; Giral, P; Rosenbaum, D

    2015-06-01

    Development of a test to screen excess salt intake (ESI) in hypertensive patients. Hypertensive subjects living in Paris area have been included. A 24-hour urinary sodium collection has been performed the day before the visit for a day hospital. A food diary was completed on the day of the urine collection and validated after an interview with a dietetician. An ESI was defined by a urinary sodium ≥ 200mmol/d. Clinical or food characteristics associated to an ESI were retained for the ExSel Test variables. A ROC curve was performed to determine the optimal score for the ExSel Test in detection of ESI in hypertensive patients. One hundred and forty-eight hypertensive patients have been included living in the Île-de-France area. ESI was observed in 19% with a higher frequency in men. Seven major determinants of ESI have been identified and are the questions that constitute the ExSel Test. A positive response assigns points: man (1); BMI > 30 (2); bread 4 or 5 pieces per day (1) or more than 6 pieces; cheese at least 1 time per day (2); charcuterie at least 2 times per week (2); use of processed broth or pilaf (1); food rich in hidden salt (pizza, cheeseburger, quiche, shrimp, potato chips, smoked fish, olive) at least 2 times per week (1). The ROC curve analysis shows that a score of 5 or more has the best Youden index with a sensitivity of 0.63, specificity of 0.95, PPV of 0.75, NPV of 0.92. In hypertensive subjects, an excessive salt intake can be detected by the realization of the ExSel Test based only on a simple food-questionnaire and some clinical parameters. For a clinical use of the ExSel Test, an electronic version is available on http://www.comitehta.org. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. [Development of a Japanese version of the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS), and examination of its validity and reliability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimai, Satoshi; Otake, Keiko; Utsuki, Narisuke; Ikemi, Akira; Lyubomirsky, Sonja

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop a Japanese version of the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) and to examine its validity and reliability. The four items of the English SHS were translated into Japanese. These Japanese items were back-translated into English, and verified by one of the developers of the original SHS. The participants were 364 Japanese undergraduate students (158 males and 206 females). They were asked to answer the questionnaire including the Japanese SHS, five items concerning positive health and self-esteem, and the Japanese General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). The stability of the Japanese SHS was examined over a five-week time period. It was shown that the Japanese SHS was highly internal consistent with alphas of .80 for males and .84 for females. As for the test-rest reliability, a high correlation (r = .86) was found after five-week. One factor structure and factor loadings emerged clearly from factor analysis. The scores of the Japanese SHS correlated positively with positive health and self-esteem. Furthermore, they were significantly greater in the healthy group than in the unhealthy one, from the GHQ scores, especially for depression. These findings suggest that the Japanese version of SHS has internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity.

  8. The NeckPix(©): development of an evaluation tool for assessing kinesiophobia in subjects with chronic neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monticone, Marco; Vernon, Howard; Brunati, Roberto; Rocca, Barbara; Ferrante, Simona

    2015-01-01

    To develop and validate NeckPix(©), a multi-image instrument for assessing daily activities in the context of pain-related fear, in order to allow its use in patients with chronic neck pain (NP). The measure was developed by means of item generation followed by reduction/selection. The psychometric testing included exploratory factor analysis; content validity by investigating clarity, specificity, appropriateness for the target population, relevance and completeness; reliability by internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and test-retest stability (intra-class coefficient correlation, ICC); and construct validity by comparing NeckPix with the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK), the Pain Catastrophising Scale (PCS), the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and a Numerical Rating Scale of pain intensity (NRS) (Pearson's correlation). The measure, which includes ten images used to assess everyday activities in the context of pain-related fear, was administered to 118 subjects with chronic non-specific NP, and proved to be acceptable and feasible. Factor analysis revealed a one-factor solution (which explained 71.12 % of variance). The content of the images was considered adequate, appropriate for the target population, comprehensive, and relevant for evaluating activity-related kinesiophobia. The instrument's internal consistency was good (α = 0.954), as was its test-retest stability (ICC 0.979). Construct validity demonstrated a close correlation with the TSK (r = 0.759), and moderate correlations with the PCS (r = 0.583), the NDI (r = 0.520), and a NRS (r = 0.455). NeckPix(©), which was successfully developed following international recommendations, proved to have a good factorial structure and satisfactory psychometric properties. Its use is recommended for research purposes.

  9. Cost overruns and the subsequent performance of developments on the Norwegian Continental Shelf : how have oil and gas field developments with large cost overruns in investments on the Norwegian continental shelf performed over time?

    OpenAIRE

    Ingdal, Sølve; Hauan, Christian Eskeland

    2014-01-01

    This report provides an analysis and evaluation of how oil and gas field developments on the Norwegian continental shelf perform over time, after occurring significant cost overruns in initial investments. The analyses are mainly quantitative, and methods used include calculation of net present values, internal rates of return, and break-even prices of the licences. The report then looks into how these have developed over the lifetime of the developments. Other analyses, such as variance anal...

  10. ACTIVITY APPROACH AND FORMATION OF PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCIES IN SUBJECT TEACHERS IN THE COURSE OF PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S E Mansurova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Activity approach, differently refracted at different levels of education, has put many new challenges for teachers. The competence approach acts as the methodological basis of the state educational standard of higher professional education, additional professional education; the system-activity approach acts as the methodological basis of the standards of General education. With regard to teachers of General education, the main task is to overcome the contradiction between the real level of their qualifications and new high requirements for them. These requirements are outlined in the leading normative documents of the educational standards, Professional standard “Teacher”. For the system of teacher professional development the authors of this article propose an integrated approach that combines competence-based and system-activity approaches. The integrated approach differs substantially for teachers who teach subjects of Humanities and science profiles. The paper presents the examples of tasks for various categories of teachers, the specifics of the project and research activities, as well as the characteristics of the process of problematization in the classroom and in extracurricular activities of the teachers. The universal educational actions are differenciated from the position of the variable component. At the same time the authors understand the necessity of taking into account the invariant component in the teaching of humanitarian and natural science disciplines. This thesis is a reflection of the general trend towards integration and interdisciplinarity.

  11. Pattern of follicular development in sheep subjected to ovarian superstimulation after follicular ablation by laparoscopic ovum pick-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Denadai

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of follicular development in ewes following ablation of all follicles associated with ovarian superstimulatory treatment. After confirmation of reproductive cyclicity using ultrasonography and progesterone levels, five adult ewes of undetermined breed received a vaginal pessary containing 60mg of medroxyprogesterone, maintained for 10 days, with the application of 100μg cloprostenol on the fourth day. On the tenth day, 300UI equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG was applied together with 80mg FSH, and all visible follicles were aspirated by laparoscopic ovum pick-up (LOPU. Following LOPU, ovarian structures were assessed using sonography every 8 hours for a period of 64 hours, and the number and diameter of small (4.5mm follicles were recorded. The average diameter of small follicles reduced from 5.6±1.5mm initially to 0.8±1.3mm by 56 hours. Population size of the medium-sized follicles during the observation period followed a parabolic distribution wherein the theoretical maximum size emerged at 34.6 hours with no difference at (P>0.05 24 (4.6±1.5 and 48 hours (4.8±2.3. It was concluded that in ewes subjected to ovarian superstimulation immediately following LOPU, follicular development is characterized by a new wave of follicle growth with a predominance of medium-sized follicles (2.5-4.5mm between 24 and 48 hours, and a theoretical population maximum occured at 34.6 hours.

  12. Physiological Responses and Ovarian Development of Female Chinese Mitten Crab Eriocheir sinensis Subjected to Different Salinity Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowen Long

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity plays a key role affecting ovarian development, osmoregulation and metabolism of female Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis during reproductive migration. In this study, female E. sinensis after their puberty molt were subjected to four salinities of 0, 6, 12, and 18‰ for 40 days to investigate the salinity effects on their ovarian development as well as a range of important physiological parameters. Elevated salinity accelerated the ovarian development with ovigerous crabs found at salinity treatments of 12 and 18‰ despite no copulation had occurred. Meanwhile the survival rate of female crabs showed a decreasing trend with increasing salinity. Higher salinity also led to increased hemolymph Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl−, and Mg2+ concentrations. The 6‰ treatment had the highest contents of hemolymph total and major free amino acids while the Na+/K+ -ATPase activity in the posterior gills was the lowest among treatments. Total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (∑n-3PUFA and n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio in the anterior gills showed a decreasing trend with salinity while 18‰ had the highest ∑PUFA and ∑n-6PUFA. The ∑n-3PUFA content and n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio of the posterior gills showed a fluctuating pattern and the highest value was detected at 0‰, while an increasing trend was found for the ∑n-6PUFA with increasing salinity. The hemolymph glucose showed a decreasing trend with increasing salinity and the highest total cholesterol in hemolymph was detected at 12‰. The 18‰ treatment had the highest levels of hemolymph γ-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase, as well as glucose, urea and acid phosphatase in hepatopancreas while the highest hemolymph superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde were detected at 0‰. Overall, the results showed that salinity increase from freshwater to brackish conditions led to lower metabolism, accelerated ovarian development, and the appearance of ovigerous crabs without

  13. Effects of glycemic load on metabolic risk markers in subjects at increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrolix, Ruth; Mensink, Ronald P

    2010-08-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that diets with a low glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load (GL) are associated with a decreased risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Intervention studies are inconsistent, however, possibly due to differences in macronutrient and fiber compositions of the experimental diets. We tested side-by-side test foods with similar macronutrient and fiber compositions but with different sucrose-flour ratios or carbohydrate source to determine the effects of different GIs and GLs on metabolic risk markers in overweight subjects. Overweight men (n = 9) and women (n = 6) received in random order for 11 wk 4 test foods with an increased GI or a decreased GI (69 compared with 40, 86 compared with 48, 63 compared with 37, and 51 compared with 20, respectively). There was a GL difference of 32 units between the 2 interventions. At the end of the 11-wk intervention periods, the decreased GL test foods did not change fasting plasma glucose (mean +/- SD: 5.83 +/- 0.6 compared with 5.94 +/- 0.6 mmol/L) or insulin (8.3 +/- 2.8 compared with 9.8 +/- 5.1 mU/L) concentrations compared with increased GL test foods. Serum total cholesterol (5.56 +/- 0.90 compared with 5.76 +/- 1.04 mmol/L), LDL-cholesterol (3.57 +/- 0.72 compared with 3.68 +/- 0.80 mmol/L), HDL-cholesterol (1.21 +/- 0.38 compared with 1.24 +/- 0.37 mmol/L), and triacylglycerol (1.61 +/- 0.77 compared with 1.78 +/- 1.04 mmol/L) concentrations were also not significantly different for decreased and increased GL test foods, respectively. Finally, proinflammatory (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1) and prothrombotic (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1) markers were not affected. Glucose and lipids were also analyzed after 1 and 5 wk of intervention and were not affected by the intervention. When incorporated into a habitual diet, consumption of test foods with a decreased GL does not ameliorate metabolic risk markers

  14. Association of Periodontitis and Subsequent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chih-Chao; Hsu, Yi-Chao; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Lin, Che-Chen; Chang, Kuang-Hsi; Lee, Chang-Yin; Chong, Lee-Won; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Periodontitis is a systemic and chronic inflammatory disease associated with multiple physical conditions. Distress and depression are other problems affecting the progression of periodontitis. However, the causal relationship between depression and periodontitis has not been adequately investigated. This aim of this study was to determine the association between periodontitis and the subsequent development of depression. We identified 12,708 patients with newly diagnosed periodontitis from 2000 to 2005 and 50,832 frequency-matched individuals without periodontitis. Both groups were followed until diagnosed with depression, withdrawal from the National Health Insurance program, or the end of 2011. The association between periodontitis and depressio was analyzed using Cox proportional hazard regression models. The incidence density rate of depression was higher in the periodontitis group than in the nonperiodontitis group, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.73 (95% confidence interval 1.58–1.89) when adjusting for sex, age, and comorbidity. Cox models revealed that periodontitis was an independent risk factor for depression in patients, except for comorbidities of diabetes mellitus (DM), alcohol abuse, and cancer. Periodontitis may increase the risk of subsequent depression and was suggested an independent risk factor regardless of sex, age, and most comorbidities. However, DM, alcohol abuse, and cancer may prevent the development of subsequent depression because of DM treatment, the paradoxical effect of alcohol, and emotional distress to cancer, respectively. Prospective studies on the relationship between periodontitis and depression are warranted. PMID:26705230

  15. Subjective and objective traumatic death: distinct roles in developing complicated grief and depression among older adults in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Suqin; Chow, Amy Y M

    2017-03-01

    Symptoms of complicated grief are associated with a traumatic death. However, the subjective experience of whether or not the death was considered traumatic has not been substantially explored. This study first examined the difference between objective and subjective traumatic death, and then investigated their respective impacts on complicated grief and depressive symptoms following bereavement among older adults in Hong Kong. Participants were 187 Hong Kong adults aged 65 years or above who had lost a family member within the past five years. Demographic information, the Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG), the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and the anxiety subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were utilized. The subjective traumatic level of the death did not differ between the objective traumatic and non-traumatic death as defined by nature of death (t = -1.554, p = 0.122). Higher subjective traumatic levels and younger age of the deceased, were positively related to complicated grief symptoms, F (10, 161) = 14.222, p subjective traumatic levels and older age of the bereaved were positively associated with symptoms of depression, F (10, 160) = 2.855, p = 0.003, R 2 = 0.151. However, objective traumatic death was found to have no relation to either complicated grief or depressive symptoms. Subjective and objective traumatic death may be two distinct concepts, and the subjective experience of the death as a trauma may be a more important factor that contributes to complicated grief and depressive symptoms.

  16. Design of a model for a professional development programme for a multidisciplinary science subject in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Talitha Christine; Coenders, Ferdinand G.M.; Terlouw, C.; Pieters, Julius Marie

    2012-01-01

    Schools are increasingly integrating multidisciplinary education into their programmes. The Minister of Education, Culture and Science has introduced a new, integrated science subject in secondary education in the Netherlands, called Nature, Life and Technology (NLT). This research note describes

  17. Sodium content and sodium efflux of mononuclear leucocytes from young subjects at increased risk of developing essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, K E; Nielsen, J R; Klitgaard, N A

    1990-01-01

    , and to analyze whether any such changes were associated with borderline hypertension and/or heredity. Four groups of subjects were evaluated: 28 normotensive (NTO) and 20 borderline hypertensive (BHO) offspring of hypertensives, 12 borderline hypertensives with normotensive parents (BH) and 28 normotensive...... subjects with normotensive parents (NT). The cellular sodium/potassium contents of the four groups were not discernibly different. Ouabain insensitive sodium efflux rate constant and corresponding absolute efflux were significantly increased in offspring of hypertensives. Ouabain sensitive absolute sodium...

  18. Language experience changes subsequent learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onnis, Luca; Thiessen, Erik

    2013-02-01

    What are the effects of experience on subsequent learning? We explored the effects of language-specific word order knowledge on the acquisition of sequential conditional information. Korean and English adults were engaged in a sequence learning task involving three different sets of stimuli: auditory linguistic (nonsense syllables), visual non-linguistic (nonsense shapes), and auditory non-linguistic (pure tones). The forward and backward probabilities between adjacent elements generated two equally probable and orthogonal perceptual parses of the elements, such that any significant preference at test must be due to either general cognitive biases, or prior language-induced biases. We found that language modulated parsing preferences with the linguistic stimuli only. Intriguingly, these preferences are congruent with the dominant word order patterns of each language, as corroborated by corpus analyses, and are driven by probabilistic preferences. Furthermore, although the Korean individuals had received extensive formal explicit training in English and lived in an English-speaking environment, they exhibited statistical learning biases congruent with their native language. Our findings suggest that mechanisms of statistical sequential learning are implicated in language across the lifespan, and experience with language may affect cognitive processes and later learning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Language experience changes subsequent learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onnis, Luca; Thiessen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    What are the effects of experience on subsequent learning? We explored the effects of language-specific word order knowledge on the acquisition of sequential conditional information. Korean and English adults were engaged in a sequence learning task involving three different sets of stimuli: auditory linguistic (nonsense syllables), visual non-linguistic (nonsense shapes), and auditory non-linguistic (pure tones). The forward and backward probabilities between adjacent elements generated two equally probable and orthogonal perceptual parses of the elements, such that any significant preference at test must be due to either general cognitive biases, or prior language-induced biases. We found that language modulated parsing preferences with the linguistic stimuli only. Intriguingly, these preferences are congruent with the dominant word order patterns of each language, as corroborated by corpus analyses, and are driven by probabilistic preferences. Furthermore, although the Korean individuals had received extensive formal explicit training in English and lived in an English-speaking environment, they exhibited statistical learning biases congruent with their native language. Our findings suggest that mechanisms of statistical sequential learning are implicated in language across the lifespan, and experience with language may affect cognitive processes and later learning. PMID:23200510

  20. So Much to Learn, so Little Time...: Pre-Service Physical Education Teachers' Interpretations and Development of Subject Knowledge as They Learn to Teach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Frank Andreas; Waring, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the development of pre-service teachers during a one-year programme of initial teacher training and education (ITTE) of secondary physical education (PE) in England. It concentrates in particular on the interpretation and development of different dimensions of subject knowledge during different phases of their ITTE programme.…

  1. Chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms and subsequent cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, H.; Farkas, Dora Kormendine; Christiansen, C.F.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms, including essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV), and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), are at increased risk of new hematologic malignancies, but their risk of nonhematologic malignancies remains unknown. In the present study, we...... diagnosed with a chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm during 1977-2008. We compared the incidence of subsequent cancer in this cohort with that expected on the basis of cancer incidence in the general population (standardized incidence ratio). Overall, ET, PV, and CML patients were at increased risk...... conclude that patients with chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms are at increased risk of developing a new malignant disease....

  2. Wild-type Zebrafish subjected to swim-training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiaz, Ansa

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide microarray analysis of the effects of swim-training on zebrafish larval development. Zebrafish were subjected to swim-training from 5 days post fertilization (dpf) until 10 dpf. Subsequently, we performed a genome-wide microarray analysis of trained and control fish at 10 dpf. The goal

  3. High dietary phosphorus density is a risk factor for incident chronic kidney disease development in diabetic subjects: a community-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Chang-Yun; Park, Jung Tak; Jhee, Jong Hyun; Noh, Juhwan; Kee, Youn Kyung; Seo, Changhwan; Lee, Misol; Cha, Min-Uk; Kim, Hyoungnae; Park, Seohyun; Yun, Hae-Ryong; Jung, Su-Young; Han, Seung Hyeok; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2017-07-01

    Background: High serum phosphorus concentrations are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the relation between dietary phosphorus intake and CKD development has not been well evaluated.Objective: In this study, we investigated the impact of dietary phosphorus density on the development of incident CKD in a cohort of subjects with normal renal function.Design: Data were retrieved from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study, a prospective community-based cohort study. The study cohort consisted of subjects aged 40-69 y, who were followed up biennially from 2001 to 2014. A total of 873 subjects with diabetes mellitus (DM) and 5846 subjects without DM (non-DM) were included in the final analysis. The primary endpoint was incident CKD, defined as a composite of estimated glomerular filtration rate phosphorus density, defined as the ratio of a single-day dietary phosphorus amount to the total daily calorie intake, were 0.51 ± 0.08 mg/kcal in the DM group and 0.51 ± 0.07 mg/kcal in the non-DM group. During the follow-up, CKD newly developed in 283 (32.4%) and 792 subjects (13.5%) in the DM and non-DM groups, respectively. When the subjects were divided into quartiles according to the dietary phosphorus density in each group, the highest quartile was significantly associated with the development of incident CKD by multiple Cox proportional hazard analysis in the DM group (P = 0.02) but not in the non-DM group (P = 0.72).Conclusions: High dietary phosphorus density is associated with an increased risk of CKD development in DM patients with normal renal function. The causality in this association needs to be tested in a randomized controlled trial. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Personality predictors of the development of elementary school children's intentions to drink alcohol: the mediating effects of attitudes and subjective norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Sarah E; Andrews, Judy A; Barckley, Maureen; Severson, Herbert H

    2006-09-01

    The authors tested a mediation model in which childhood hostility and sociability were expected to influence the development of intentions to use alcohol in the future through the mediating mechanisms of developing attitudes and norms. Children in 1st through 5th grades (N=1,049) from a western Oregon community participated in a longitudinal study involving 4 annual assessments. Hostility and sociability were assessed by teachers' ratings at the 1st assessment, and attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions were assessed by self-report at all 4 assessments. For both genders, latent growth modeling demonstrated that sociability predicted an increase in intentions to use alcohol over time, whereas hostility predicted initial levels of these intentions. These personality effects were mediated by the development of attitudes and subjective norms, supporting a model wherein childhood personality traits exert their influence on the development of intentions to use alcohol through the development of these more proximal cognitions. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Development of Meta-Subject Competencies of the 7-9 Grades Basic School Students through the Implementation of Interdisciplinary Mathematical Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorev, Pavel M.; Masalimova, Alfiya R.

    2017-01-01

    The article is aimed at describing one of the possible interdisciplinary courses for students of the 7-9 classes of the basic school connecting mathematics with natural sciences and the study of such courses role in the formation and development of meta-subject competencies of students. The leading method for this is the modeling of…

  6. Increased Risk of Diabetes Development in Subjects with the Hypertriglyceridemic Waist Phenotype: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Joong Han

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTGW phenotype is a simple and inexpensive screening parameter to identify people at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We evaluated whether the HTGW phenotype predicts diabetes in urban Korean adults.MethodsA total of 2,900 nondiabetic subjects (mean age 44.3 years, comprising 2,078 males (71.7% and 822 females (28.3% who underwent annual medical check-ups at our center between January 2005 and December 2009, were recruited. The subjects were divided into four groups according to baseline serum triglyceride (TG level and waist circumference (WC: normal WC-normal TG (NWNT level, normal WC-high TG level, enlarged WC-normal TG level, and enlarged WC-high TG (EWHT level. High serum TG level was defined as ≥150 mg/dL and enlarged WC was defined as ≥90 cm for men and ≥85 cm for women. New cases of diabetes were determined according to questionnaires filled in by participants and the diagnostic criteria of the American Diabetes Association. Cox proportional hazards model analysis was used to assess the association of HTGW phenotype with the incidence of diabetes.ResultsA total of 101 (3.5% new diabetes cases were diagnosed during the study period. The EWHT group had a higher incidence of diabetes (8.3% compared with the NWNT group (2.2%. The adjusted hazard ratio for diabetes for subjects with the EWHT phenotype at baseline was 4.113 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.397 to 7.059 after adjustment for age, and 2.429 (95% CI, 1.370 to 4.307 after adjustment for age, sex, total cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, and alcohol drinking history. It was attenuated by inclusion of baseline fasting glucose level in the model.ConclusionSubjects with the HTGW phenotype showed the highest risk of incident diabetes. This tool could be useful for identifying individuals at high risk of diabetes.

  7. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  8. Increased serological cancer-associated biomarker levels at large bowel endoscopy and risk of subsequent primary cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvolris, Martin H; Piper, Thomas B; Hammer, Emilie

    2016-01-01

    biomarkers in subjects diagnosed with diverticula and risk of developing a primary malignant disease. Methods During 2004/2005, about 4509 subjects were included in a multicenter study with collection of blood samples before bowel endoscopy. The aim was to evaluate a relation between the protein biomarkers...... CEA, TIMP-1, CA19-9 and YKL-40 and findings at endoscopy. Diverticula were diagnosed in 1021 subjects. By 31 December 2012, subjects who had developed primary malignancy were identified retrospectively and relation between biomarker levels at endoscopy and risk of developing primary malignancy.......1%/5.5%; group 1: 4.2%/10.1% and group 2: 11.4%/18.8%, respectively. Conclusion Increased levels of CEA, TIMP-1 and CA19-9 at endoscopy with findings of diverticula were associated with a significantly increased risk of being diagnosed with a subsequent primary malignant disease....

  9. The structural changes of upper airway and newly developed sleep breathing disorders after surgical treatment in class III malocclusion subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ui Lyong; Oh, Hoon; Min, Sang Ki; Shin, Ji Ho; Kang, Yong Seok; Lee, Won Wook; Han, Young Eun; Choi, Young Jun; Kim, Hyun Jik

    2017-06-01

    Bimaxillary surgery is the traditional treatment of choice for correcting class III malocclusion which is reported to cause an alteration of oropharyngeal structures and upper airway narrowing that might be a predisposing factor for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This study aimed to analyze sleep parameters in class III malocclusion subjects and ascertain the prevalence of snoring or OSA following bimaxillary surgery.A total of 22 patients with Le Fort I osteotomy and mandibular setback for class III malocclusion were prospectively enrolled. All patients received endoscopic examination, cephalometry, 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT), and sleep study twice at 1 month before and 3 months after surgery.The patient population consisted of 5 males and 17 females with a mean body mass index of 22.5 kg/m and mean age of 22.1 years. No patients complained of sleep-related symptoms, and the results of sleep study showed normal values before surgery. Three patients (13%) were newly diagnosed with mild or moderate OSA and 6 patients (27%) showed increased loudness of snoring (over 40 dB) after bimaxillary surgery. According to cephalometric analysis and 3D-CT results, the retropalatal and retroglossal areas were significantly narrowed in class III malocclusion patients, showing snoring and sleep apnea after surgery. In addition, the total volume of the upper airway was considerably reduced following surgery in the same patients.Postoperative narrowing of the upper airway and a reduction of total upper airway volume can be induced, and causes snoring and OSA in class III malocclusion subjects following bimaxillary surgery.

  10. Finding consistent strain distributions in the glenohumeral capsule between two subjects: implications for development of physical examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Nicholas J; Ellis, Benjamin J; Weiss, Jeffrey A; McMahon, Patrick J; Debski, Richard E

    2011-02-24

    The anterior-inferior glenohumeral capsule is the primary passive stabilizer to the glenohumeral joint during anterior dislocation. Physical examinations following dislocation are crucial for proper diagnosis of capsule pathology; however, they are not standardized for joint position which may lead to misdiagnoses and poor outcomes. To suggest joint positions for physical examinations where the stability provided by the capsule may be consistent among patients, the objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution of maximum principal strain on the anterior-inferior capsule using two validated subject-specific finite element models of the glenohumeral joint at clinically relevant joint positions. The joint positions with 25 N anterior load applied at 60° of glenohumeral abduction and 10°, 20°, 30° and 40° of external rotation resulted in distributions of strain that were similar between shoulders (r² ≥ 0.7). Furthermore, those positions with 20-40° of external rotation resulted in capsule strains on the glenoid side of the anterior band of the inferior glenohumeral ligament that were significantly greater than in all other capsule regions. These findings suggest that anterior stability provided by the anterior-inferior capsule may be consistent among subjects at joint positions with 60° of glenohumeral abduction and a mid-range (20-40°) of external rotation, and that the glenoid side has the greatest contribution to stability at these joint positions. Therefore, it may be possible to establish standard joint positions for physical examinations that clinicians can use to effectively diagnose pathology in the anterior-inferior capsule following dislocation and lead to improved outcomes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of Robust Behaviour Recognition for an at-Home Biomonitoring Robot with Assistance of Subject Localization and Enhanced Visual Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevrez Imamoglu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our research is focused on the development of an at-home health care biomonitoring mobile robot for the people in demand. Main task of the robot is to detect and track a designated subject while recognizing his/her activity for analysis and to provide warning in an emergency. In order to push forward the system towards its real application, in this study, we tested the robustness of the robot system with several major environment changes, control parameter changes, and subject variation. First, an improved color tracker was analyzed to find out the limitations and constraints of the robot visual tracking considering the suitable illumination values and tracking distance intervals. Then, regarding subject safety and continuous robot based subject tracking, various control parameters were tested on different layouts in a room. Finally, the main objective of the system is to find out walking activities for different patterns for further analysis. Therefore, we proposed a fast, simple, and person specific new activity recognition model by making full use of localization information, which is robust to partial occlusion. The proposed activity recognition algorithm was tested on different walking patterns with different subjects, and the results showed high recognition accuracy.

  12. Effects of sugar-sweetened beverage intake on the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance: the Mihama diabetes prevention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshima, Nobuko; Shimo, Miho; Miyazawa, Kae; Konegawa, Sachi; Matsumoto, Aki; Onishi, Yuki; Sasaki, Ryoma; Suzuki, Toshinari; Yano, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Kazutaka; Yamada, Tomomi; Gabazza, Esteban Cesar; Takei, Yoshiyuki; Sumida, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing for several reasons, including increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). However, whether SSBs cause T2DM by excess of energy production resulting in obesity remains unclear. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the effects of SSB intake on the development of T2DM in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Ninety-three subjects (30 males and 63 females) with IGT aged 40-69 y and residing in the Mihama district (southern Mie Prefecture, Japan) were included in the study. The mean observational period was 3.6 y. All subjects underwent the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and completed a lifestyle questionnaire survey related to SSB intake. OGTT results and SSB intake were evaluated before and after the observational period. In addition, the correlation between SSB intake and development of T2DM was investigated. Of the 93 subjects, 20 (21.5%) developed T2DM (T2DM group) and demonstrated a significantly high SSB intake compared with the group that did not develop the disease (non-T2DM group). The odds ratio for the incidence of T2DM based on SSB intake was 3.26 (95% confidence interval, 1.17-9.06). The body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) and the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-R) values was significantly higher in the T2DM group than in the non-T2DM group, while the insulinogenic indices were significantly lower in the former than in the latter group. The sum of insulin secretion levels during OGTT was not significantly different between groups. SSB intake correlated with the predisposition for developing T2DM, possibly by influencing body weight, insulin resistance, and the ability of the pancreatic beta cells to effectively compensate for the insulin resistance.

  13. Subjective meaning: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen-Huitink, Janneke; van Wijbergen-Huitink, Janneke; Meier, Cécile

    This introductory chapter traces some of the considerations on the basis of which relativistic approaches to subjective meaning became en vogue. In doing so, the chapter provides an overview of the relevant linguistic and philosophical issues when developing a treatment of subjectivity. In addition,

  14. Ethics in science education: responsabilities and commitments with the child's moral development in the discussion of controversial subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Castilho Razera

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of recent research outcomes presents in a sample of Science Education journals, shows that ethics and moral development issues have been neglected in the Science Education research. Based in theoretical referential directed toward this theme, and in a research carried out on controversial issues in the Science Teaching, such as those related to the debate creationism versus evolutionism, this paper tries to show the necessity and possibilities to take into consideration questions of this nature in classroom, in order to help developing the moral in students.

  15. Subclinical atherosclerosis and subsequent cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Heidi C; Weiner, Myron; Hynan, Linda S; Cullum, C Munro; Khera, Amit; Lacritz, Laura H

    2015-07-01

    To examine the relationship between measures of subclinical atherosclerosis and subsequent cognitive function. Participants from the Dallas Heart Study (DHS), a population-based multiethnic study of cardiovascular disease pathogenesis, were re-examined 8 years later (DHS-2) with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA); N = 1904, mean age = 42.9, range 8-65. Associations of baseline measures of subclinical atherosclerosis (coronary artery calcium, abdominal aortic plaque, and abdominal aortic wall thickness) with MoCA scores measured at follow-up were examined in the group as a whole and in relation to age and ApoE4 status. A significant linear trend of successively lower MoCA scores with increasing numbers of atherosclerotic indicators was observed (F(3, 1150) = 5.918, p = .001). CAC was weakly correlated with MoCA scores (p = .047) and MoCA scores were significantly different between participants with and without CAC (M = 22.35 vs 23.69, p = 0.038). With the exception of a small association between abdominal AWT and MoCA in subjects over age 50, abdominal AWT and abdominal aortic plaque did not correlate with MoCA total score (p ≥ .052). Cognitive scores and atherosclerosis measures were not impacted by ApoE4 status (p ≥ .455). In this ethnically diverse population-based sample, subclinical atherosclerosis was minimally associated with later cognitive function in middle-aged adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Direct implication of carbon monoxide in the development of heart failure in rats with cardiac hypertrophy subjected to air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Alexandre; Bonnet, Pierre; Eder, Veronique; Antier, Daniel; Obert, Philippe; Fauchier, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    Pollution is known to particularly affect patients with respiratory insufficiency and right ventricle abnormalities. We therefore hypothesized that carbon monoxide (CO) at low dose could be involved in cardiovascular disorders in patients with chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension secondary to chronic hypoxia. Ten-week-old male and female healthy Dark Agouti rats were randomly divided into two series--untrained (U) and trained (T)--of four groups of 18 animals each. Both U and T series were continuously exposed to ambient air (U(AIR), and T(AIR); n = 16) or air plus 50 ppm CO (U(AIR+CO) and T(AIR+CO); n = 18). Similarly, rats initially subjected to right ventricle hypertrophy secondary to chronic hypoxia (H) were continuously exposed to ambient air (TH(AIR), and UH(AIR); n = 18) or air plus 50 ppm CO (UH(AIR+CO), and TH(AIR+CO); n = 18). Doppler-echocardiography and hemodynamic studies performed at rest both indi-cated that CO had no significant effect on cardiac morphology or functions in control rats (U(AIR+CO) vs U(AIR)). In contrast, cardiac dilation and large decreases in left ventricular ejection fraction, mitral early diastolic rapid inflow (E) deceleration, E/atrial contraction filling (A) ratio, +dP/dt, and -dP/dt were found in TH(AIR+CO) compared with TH(AIR). After exposure, heart rate variability was unaffected in U(AIR+CO), whereas total power spectra were markedly decreased and low frequency/high frequency power ratio was increased in TH(AIR+CO) rats. CO pollution could be directly involved in cardiac disorders of patients with pre-existent hypertrophic cardiomyopathies.

  17. The development of subjective quality of life over the first 2 years in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melle, Ingrid; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Joa, Inge

    2010-01-01

    of variance were done to evaluate the development over time, and multiple linear regression analyses to evaluate predictors of change. These patients with a first-episode psychosis showed a significant improvement in general s-QoL during the first 2 years of treatment. Improvements in general s-QoL were...

  18. Cognitive and oculomotor performance in subjects with low and high schizotypy: implications for translational drug development studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koychev, I; Joyce, D; Barkus, E; Ettinger, U; Schmechtig, A; Dourish, C T; Dawson, G R; Craig, K J; Deakin, J F W

    2016-05-17

    The development of drugs to improve cognition in patients with schizophrenia is a major unmet clinical need. A number of promising compounds failed in recent clinical trials, a pattern linked to poor translation between preclinical and clinical stages of drug development. Seeking proof of efficacy in early Phase 1 studies in surrogate patient populations (for example, high schizotypy individuals where subtle cognitive impairment is present) has been suggested as a strategy to reduce attrition in the later stages of drug development. However, there is little agreement regarding the pattern of distribution of schizotypal features in the general population, creating uncertainty regarding the optimal control group that should be included in prospective trials. We aimed to address this question by comparing the performance of groups derived from the general population with low, average and high schizotypy scores over a range of cognitive and oculomotor tasks. We found that tasks dependent on frontal inhibitory mechanisms (N-Back working memory and anti-saccade oculomotor tasks), as well as a smooth-pursuit oculomotor task were sensitive to differences in the schizotypy phenotype. In these tasks the cognitive performance of 'low schizotypes' was significantly different from 'high schizotypes' with 'average schizotypes' having an intermediate performance. These results indicate that for evaluating putative cognition enhancers for treating schizophrenia in early-drug development studies the maximum schizotypy effect would be achieved using a design that compares low and high schizotypes.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF RESEARCH COMPETENCE OF STUDENTS OF HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS ON THE BASIS OF INTER-SUBJECT APPROACH TO TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel E. Shenderey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern researches show that intersubject communications atinitial stages of their inclusion in cognitive activity of studentsplay a role of the situational starting, inducing incentive. The knowledge gained by students as a result of the previousexperience of assimilation of intersubject communicationsbecomes regulators of its informa-tive activity at any stage ofinclusion of intersubject communications in cognitive activityand developments of research competence.

  20. Development of a minimum protocol for assessment in the paediatric voice clinic. Part 2: subjective measurement of symptoms of voice disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Wendy; Wardrop, Amanda; Wynne, David McGregor; Kubba, Haytham; McCartney, Elspeth

    2012-04-01

    The European Laryngological Society (ELS) recommend that functional assessment of voice disorder in adults requires evaluation of a number of different parameters. These include perceptual evaluation of voice, videostroboscopic imaging of vocal fold movement, acoustic analysis of specific voicing aspects, aerodynamic support for voicing, and a subjective rating of voice impact. No specific guidelines are available for children, but a similar range of parameters is needed to guide intervention and measure outcomes. The development of subjective voice measures for adults and their adaptations for the paediatric population are reviewed and compared to the research comparing these to evaluation of vocal function. The need for further refinement of child assessment measures, and a proposal of how these might be developed, is discussed.

  1. Effect of uniaxiai ratcheting on subsequent creep deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Katsuhiko; Ishikawa, Hiromasa

    1998-05-01

    Experimental observation and numerical simulation are conducted to clarify the effect of viscosity on deformation of materials. First, creep tests after the primary uniaxial ratcheting are carded out using Type 304 stainless steel. Specimens are subjected to cyclic tension-unloading with step and triangular waves during 20000 seconds as the primary ratcheting. After the ratcheting the subsequent creep test at the maximum stress is conducted during 20000 seconds. The experimental results show that the values of the subsequent creep strain after the ratcheting depend on the wave type and the time period of the ratcheting. The shorter time period of the ratcheting leads to the larger subsequent creep strain. Numerical simulations are also carried out using the constitutive model based on dislocation density [Estrin et al.]. As a result, the equivalent value of the ratcheting strain to creep strain is found out from the simulations and experiments.

  2. From objects to research subjects: contributions of childhood sociology to the development of an ethnography of indigenous peoples’ children education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Elisa Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An ethnographic research with children requires the precision of the thick description of facts observed, such as those involving other social groups. Researches with children, however, are recent, especially considering the use of the preposition with, which means recognizing them as social actors and including them as active participants in the research process, possibilities opened up by the Childhood Sociology. Adopting this perspective, one seeks to develop a differentiated position in the research area, the atypical adult one (CORSARO, 1990; 2002; 2005; FERREIRA, 2008, in order to deepen the cultures of children, as the meanings closest to their worldview are investigated. The theoretic-methodological concepts developed by the studies on Childhood Sociology, their relations to the studies on Anthropology, and the ethnographic research with indigenous people’s children constitute the basis of this paper, whose aim is to reflect on the entry in the area and the adult’s position in researches with children.

  3. Culture-based Screening of Aerobic Microbiome in Diabetic Foot Subjects and Developing Non-Healing Ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Noor

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried on diabetic foot patients to deduce clinical attributes, the occurrence of the range of aerobic microbial flora and to assess their comparative in vitro susceptibility to the customarily used antimicrobials. We also studied the potential risk factors involved in the development of non-healing ulcers. A total of 87 organisms were isolated from 70 specimens, including Escherichia coli (19.5% among the Gram-negative and Staphylococcus aureus (18.4% among the Gram-positive as the predominant aerobes explored. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli were predominant isolates of non-healing ulcers. The antimicrobial sensitivity pattern revealed that vancomycin (100% and amikacin (90.4% exhibited highest sensitivity to Gram-positive cocci, while all strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were sensitive towards imipenem (100%. The prevalent uncontrolled glycemic status, altered lipid spectra, the existence of neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease, suggested predisposition towards the development of non-healing lesions. The study has underlined the need for continuous surveillance of bacteria and their antimicrobial sensitivity blueprints to provide the basis for empirical therapy and to minimize the risk of complications. Further, stringent clinical evaluation and medical history will help in revealing the risk of developing non-healing status in diabetic foot ulcers.

  4. Culture-Based Screening of Aerobic Microbiome in Diabetic Foot Subjects and Developing Non-healing Ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Saba; Ahmad, Jamal; Parwez, Iqbal; Ozair, Maaz

    2016-01-01

    The study was carried on diabetic foot patients to deduce clinical attributes, the occurrence of the range of aerobic microbial flora and to assess their comparative in vitro susceptibility to the customarily used antimicrobials. We also studied the potential risk factors involved in the development of non-healing ulcers. A total of 87 organisms were isolated from 70 specimens, including Escherichia coli (19.5%) among the Gram-negative and Staphylococcus aureus (18.4%) among the Gram-positive as the predominant aerobes explored. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli were predominant isolates of non-healing ulcers. The antimicrobial sensitivity pattern revealed that vancomycin (100%) and amikacin (90.4%) exhibited highest sensitivity to Gram-positive cocci, while all strains of P. aeruginosa were sensitive toward imipenem (100%). The prevalent uncontrolled glycemic status, altered lipid spectra, the existence of neuropathy, and peripheral vascular disease, suggested predisposition toward the development of non-healing lesions. The study has underlined the need for continuous surveillance of bacteria and their antimicrobial sensitivity blueprints to provide the basis for empirical therapy and to minimize the risk of complications. Further, stringent clinical evaluation, and medical history will help in revealing the risk of developing non-healing status in diabetic foot ulcers.

  5. Developing a Methodology for Eliciting Subjective Probability Estimates During Expert Evaluations of Safety Interventions: Application for Bayesian Belief Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegmann, Douglas A.a

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) has defined several products that will potentially modify airline and/or ATC operations, enhance aircraft systems, and improve the identification of potential hazardous situations within the National Airspace System (NAS). Consequently, there is a need to develop methods for evaluating the potential safety benefit of each of these intervention products so that resources can be effectively invested to produce the judgments to develop Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN's) that model the potential impact that specific interventions may have. Specifically, the present report summarizes methodologies for improving the elicitation of probability estimates during expert evaluations of AvSP products for use in BBN's. The work involved joint efforts between Professor James Luxhoj from Rutgers University and researchers at the University of Illinois. The Rutgers' project to develop BBN's received funding by NASA entitled "Probabilistic Decision Support for Evaluating Technology Insertion and Assessing Aviation Safety System Risk." The proposed project was funded separately but supported the existing Rutgers' program.

  6. The association between underweight and the development of albuminuria is different between sexes in relatively healthy Korean subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Cheol Min; Hyun, Young Youl; Lee, Kyu Beck; Kim, Hyang

    2014-11-01

    There are limited data on the association between underweight and albuminuria. The aim of this study is to verify the effect of underweight on the development of albuminuria. Participants who underwent two health check-ups with a 2-year interval at a tertiary hospital in Korea between 2002 and 2009 were studied. After exclusion of participants with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) albuminuria ≥1+ at the first check-up, 53 876 participants were enrolled. We measured the incidence of albuminuria at the second check-up and calculated the odds ratio (OR) for the development of albuminuria according to body mass index (BMI). After 2 years, 746 cases of incident albuminuria were observed among 53 876 participants. The effect of BMI on the development of albuminuria was modified by sex in a multivariate logistic model with adjustment for age, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, uric acid, eGFR, current smoking status and alcohol intake (P-value for interaction albuminuria were 1.93 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.35-2.76; P ≤ 0.001], 1.19 (0.84-1.67; P = 0.329) and 0.71 (0.43-1.17; P = 0.177) in underweight (BMI, albuminuria after 2 years in relatively healthy Korean females, but this relationship was not significant in males. This study suggests the need for more studies on the role of underweight in renal injury in men and women. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  7. Vascoda and the Subject-based Gateways - the German Answer to Visibility and Accessibility in Collection Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Kempf

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The „classic tasks“ of academic libraries comprise acquisition, cataloguing, reader services and preservation of literature or, more generally speaking, information resources. This has not changed radically in the digital age. What has changed, though, is the way the tasks are related to each other, perhaps also their respective importance (depending on the library type; but particularly the accentuation of certain aspects of the tasks mentioned above. Visibility and accessibility would hardly have been associated with collection development in the past. Holdings were entered in the catalogue and thus made ‘visible’. Accessibility was taken care of in the reader services department. This has changed significantly in the digital age. The reasons for that are manifold: · With the emergence of the so called ‘hybrid library’ the respective tasks of the central library functions have somewhat shifted and the previously rather clear-cut separations between them have become less rigid. · The innate ‘immateriality’ of digital resources requires a different approach to the topic of visibility and accessibility as early as the actual point of acquisition and in the presentation and ‘documentation’ of collection development. · Last but not least digital access points, next to the catalogue or OPAC including a large variety of different options (e.g. websites, have led to a much quicker and easier way of making holdings and particularly new acquisitions visible than would have been possible in the days of paper or card catalogues. But there are more basic reasons for the new way of dealing with visibility and accessibility. This is certainly due to the characteristics of collection development in the digital age which require us ‘acquisitions people’ to look at the question of visibility and accessibility from a different perspective and regard these as key aspects of the work we do.

  8. Repeated abortion affects subsequent pregnancy outcomes in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Fang; Xu, Xiangbo; Zhang, Shucheng; Wang, Lili; Wang, Ning; He, Bin; Wang, Jiedong

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to establish a mouse model of repeated medical termination of pregnancy in order to determine subsequent outcomes. A model of mifepristone (RU 486)-induced medical abortion was established in BALB/c mice to facilitate the investigation of the impact of medical abortion on subsequent pregnancies, including litter sizes and newborn birth weights. Pregnant mice were sacrificed to examine midterm pregnancy status, investigate the frequency of fetal resorption, and measure placental function gene expression by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Offspring liver mRNA was harvested for real-time PCR to determine gene expression and assess the effects of abortion on offspring development. Mice subjected to 2 previous medical abortions experienced spontaneous abortions in subsequent pregnancies. Medical abortion caused reduced reproductive capacity and affected placental dysfunction, with reduced expression of tissue factor (TF) and genes encoding proteins involved in metabolic functions relevant to pregnancy, such as 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1/2 (11β-HSD1/2) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Reduced expression was also observed for platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (CD31) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In offspring from subsequent pregnancies, genes involved in lipid metabolism, which may enhance key lipid transcription factors, such as PPARA and PPARG, as well as GR/11β-HSD1, were downregulated in the liver. In addition, the sperm motility of the F1 males reduced. Repeated medical abortion impaired the reproductive function of female mice, significantly affecting the outcomes of subsequent pregnancies. The impact of repeated abortions on the offspring of subsequent pregnancies was also noteworthy and deserves further exploration. Thus, this model provides a useful means to study the mechanisms underlying the above phenomena, which will ultimately benefit the health of women and their children.

  9. Wildland fire limits subsequent fire occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean A. Parks; Carol Miller; Lisa M. Holsinger; Scott Baggett; Benjamin J. Bird

    2016-01-01

    Several aspects of wildland fire are moderated by site- and landscape-level vegetation changes caused by previous fire, thereby creating a dynamic where one fire exerts a regulatory control on subsequent fire. For example, wildland fire has been shown to regulate the size and severity of subsequent fire. However, wildland fire has the potential to influence...

  10. Subsequent pregnancy outcome after previous foetal death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, J. W.; Korteweg, F. J.; Holm, J. P.; Timmer, A.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; van Pampus, M. G.

    Objective: A history of foetal death is a risk factor for complications and foetal death in subsequent pregnancies as most previous risk factors remain present and an underlying cause of death may recur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcome after foetal death and to

  11. A review of subsequence time series clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolhavarieh, Seyedjamal; Aghabozorgi, Saeed; Teh, Ying Wah

    2014-01-01

    Clustering of subsequence time series remains an open issue in time series clustering. Subsequence time series clustering is used in different fields, such as e-commerce, outlier detection, speech recognition, biological systems, DNA recognition, and text mining. One of the useful fields in the domain of subsequence time series clustering is pattern recognition. To improve this field, a sequence of time series data is used. This paper reviews some definitions and backgrounds related to subsequence time series clustering. The categorization of the literature reviews is divided into three groups: preproof, interproof, and postproof period. Moreover, various state-of-the-art approaches in performing subsequence time series clustering are discussed under each of the following categories. The strengths and weaknesses of the employed methods are evaluated as potential issues for future studies.

  12. A Review of Subsequence Time Series Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Ying Wah

    2014-01-01

    Clustering of subsequence time series remains an open issue in time series clustering. Subsequence time series clustering is used in different fields, such as e-commerce, outlier detection, speech recognition, biological systems, DNA recognition, and text mining. One of the useful fields in the domain of subsequence time series clustering is pattern recognition. To improve this field, a sequence of time series data is used. This paper reviews some definitions and backgrounds related to subsequence time series clustering. The categorization of the literature reviews is divided into three groups: preproof, interproof, and postproof period. Moreover, various state-of-the-art approaches in performing subsequence time series clustering are discussed under each of the following categories. The strengths and weaknesses of the employed methods are evaluated as potential issues for future studies. PMID:25140332

  13. Development and Initial Validation of a Multidimensional Scale Assessing Subjective Well-Being: The Well-Being Scale (WeBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, P Priscilla; Fernando, Gaithri A

    2017-01-01

    Numerous scales currently exist that assess well-being, but research on measures of well-being is still advancing. Conceptualization and measurement of subjective well-being have emphasized intrapsychic over psychosocial domains of optimal functioning, and disparate research on hedonic, eudaimonic, and psychological well-being lacks a unifying theoretical model. Lack of systematic investigations on the impact of culture on subjective well-being has also limited advancement of this field. The goals of this investigation were to (1) develop and validate a self-report measure, the Well-Being Scale (WeBS), that simultaneously assesses overall well-being and physical, financial, social, hedonic, and eudaimonic domains of this construct; (2) evaluate factor structures that underlie subjective well-being; and (3) examine the measure's psychometric properties. Three empirical studies were conducted to develop and validate the 29-item scale. The WeBS demonstrated an adequate five-factor structure in an exploratory structural equation model in Study 1. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that a bifactor structure best fit the WeBS data in Study 2 and Study 3. Overall WeBS scores and five domain-specific subscale scores demonstrated adequate to excellent internal consistency reliability and construct validity. Mean differences in overall well-being and its five subdomains are presented for different ethnic groups. The WeBS is a reliable and valid measure of multiple aspects of well-being that are considered important to different ethnocultural groups.

  14. Development of new diabetes risk scores on the basis of the current definition of diabetes in Japanese subjects [Rapid Communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakoshi, Takahiro; Oka, Rie; Nakasone, Yasuto; Sato, Yuka; Yamauchi, Keishi; Hashikura, Rie; Takayama, Masayuki; Hirayama, Yudai; Hirabayashi, Kazuko; Koike, Hideo; Aizawa, Toru

    2016-09-30

    To develop diabetes risk score (RS) based on the current definition of diabetes, we retrospectively analyzed consecutive 4,159 health examinees who were non-diabetic at baseline. Diabetes, diagnosed by fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥7.0 mmol/L, 2hPG ≥11.1 mmol/L and/or HbA1c ≥6.5% (48 mmol/mol), developed in 279 of them during the mean period of 4.9 years. A full RS (RS Full ), a RS without 2hPG (RS -2hPG ) and a non-invasive RS (RS NI ) were created on the basis of multivariate Cox proportional model by weighted grading based on hazard ratio in half the persons assigned. The RSs were verified in the remaining half of the participants. Positive family history (FH), male sex, smoking and higher age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), FPG, 2hPG and HbA1c were independent predictors for RS Full . For RS -2hPG , 7 independent predictors, exclusive of 2hPG and smoking but inclusive of elevated triglycerides (TG) comparing to RS Full , were selected. FH, male sex, and higher age, SBP and HbA1c were independent predictors in RS NI . In the validation cohort, C-statistic (95%CI) of RS Full , RS -2hPG and RS NI were 0.80 (0.76-0.84), 0.75 (0.70-0.78) and 0.68 (0.63-0.72), respectively, which were significantly different from each other (P <0.01). Absolute percentage difference between predicted probability and observed diabetes were 1.9%, 0.7% and 0.9%, by the three scores, respectively, and not significantly different from each other. In conclusion, diabetes defined by the current criteria was predicted by the new diabetes risk scores with reasonable accuracy. Nonetheless, RS Full with a postchallenge glucose value performed superior to RS -2hPG and RS NI .

  15. Biomonitoring of coastal marine waters subject to anthropogenic use: development and application of the biosensor Mosselmonitor®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barile Nadia B.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The overall objective of this study was to develop a biological early warning system (Mosselmonitor® on offshore platform to detect critical environmental situations. The experiment was conducted on oil off-shore platform called Rospo Mare B. This structure is located in the area in front of Molise coast line (Italy, Adriatic Sea, characterized by a depth of about 77 m and a bathymetry between 65 and 80 m. The Mosselmonitor® works with eight mussels connected via specific sensors to PC for recording opening values of valves. A probe was installed inside the instrument to daily control of water pH, dissolved oxygen, salinity and temperature. Water samples are weekly analyzed for heavy metals, organochlorine pesticide and suspended matter. During the entire observation period, closure alarms were predominantly detected (99.9% and a decrease of 65% in alarms maximum duration was recorded from the fifth week. During the first month, none changes in water physico-chemical parameters were observed so that affect the bivalves behavior. The only chemical parameter steadily detected in water was copper; its average concentrations were of 10 ppb. Detected alarms were not comparable to those recorded in the first month: this observation could be explained considering that mussels will be adapted to copper constant presence.

  16. Development and validation of a numerical model of the swine head subjected to open-field blasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, A.; Zhu, F.; Feng, K.; Saif, T.; Kallakuri, S.; Jin, X.; Yang, K.; King, A.

    2017-11-01

    A finite element model of the head of a 55-kg Yucatan pig was developed to calculate the incident pressure and corresponding intracranial pressure due to the explosion of 8 lb (3.63 kg) of C4 at three different distances. The results from the model were validated by comparing findings with experimentally obtained data from five pigs at three different blast overpressure levels: low (150 kPa), medium (275 kPa), and high (400 kPa). The peak values of intracranial pressures from numerical model at different locations of the brain such as the frontal, central, left temporal, right temporal, parietal, and occipital regions were compared with experimental values. The model was able to predict the peak pressure with reasonable percentage differences. The differences for peak incident and intracranial pressure values between the simulation results and the experimental values were found to be less than 2.2 and 29.3%, respectively, at all locations other than the frontal region. Additionally, a series of parametric studies shows that the intracranial pressure was very sensitive to sensor locations, the presence of air bubbles, and reflections experienced during the experiments. Further efforts will be undertaken to correlate the different biomechanical response parameters, such as the intracranial pressure gradient, stress, and strain results obtained from the validated model with injured brain locations once the histology data become available.

  17. Mental imagery affects subsequent automatic defense responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel A Hagenaars

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Automatic defense responses promote survival and appropriate action under threat. They have also been associated with the development of threat-related psychiatric syndromes. Targeting such automatic responses during threat may be useful in populations with frequent threat exposure. Here, two experiments explored whether mental imagery as a pre-trauma manipulation could influence fear bradycardia (a core characteristic of freezing during subsequent analogue trauma (affective picture viewing. Image-based interventions have proven successful in the treatment of threat-related disorders, and are easily applicable. In Experiment 1 43 healthy participants were randomly assigned to an imagery script condition. Participants executed a passive viewing task with blocks of neutral, pleasant and unpleasant pictures after listening to an auditory script that was either related (with a positive or a negative outcome or unrelated to the unpleasant pictures from the passive viewing task. Heart rate was assessed during script listening and during passive viewing. Imagining negative related scripts resulted in greater bradycardia (neutral-unpleasant contrast than imagining positive scripts, especially unrelated. This effect was replicated in Experiment 2 (N = 51, again in the neutral-unpleasant contrast. An extra no-script condition showed that bradycardia was not induced by the negative related script, but rather that a positive script attenuated bradycardia. These preliminary results might indicate reduced vigilance after unrelated positive events. Future research should replicate these findings using a larger sample. Either way, the findings show that highly automatic defense behavior can be influenced by relatively simple mental imagery manipulations.

  18. Abortions: Does It Affect Subsequent Pregnancies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Getting pregnant Could an abortion increase the risk of problems in a subsequent pregnancy? Answers from Yvonne Butler Tobah, M.D. Generally, elective abortion isn't thought to cause fertility issues or ...

  19. Crohn’s Disease: The Subsequent Visit

    OpenAIRE

    Manolakis, Catherine S.; Farraye, Francis A.; Di Palma, Jack A.

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis and subsequent management of Crohn’s disease are challenging for both the patient and the gastroenterologist. After the initial assessment, subsequent visits should assess the patient’s readiness to begin therapy, monitor progress if therapy has been initiated, assess for complications of the disease or therapy, and ensure that all appropriate health maintenance measures are current. This article is intended to be a companion to our earlier paper “Crohn’s Disease: The First Visi...

  20. Unifying Subjectivity and Objectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Chandrasekaran

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of modern science to the progress of civilization is immeasurable. Even its tendency toward exclusive concentration on the objective world has had salutary effects of great value. Modern science has wiped away much that was merely superstitious or speculative. Its rejection of unfounded opinions and prejudices has helped the thinking mind question conventional beliefs, shed preferences and prejudices, and challenge established authority. But modern systems thinking inherited from natural science is the suppression of the subjective dimension of reality. Many complex systems are an attempt to define and represent all subjective experience in physical terms. The modern man has a bias towards objectivity. The powerful influence of sense impressions on his mind and thinking makes him ignore the subjective experience and consider only objective facts as a valid, legitimate and representation of reality. Observing objective factors that are physical is easier than observing subjective factors that are subtle. The mechanistic view of reality has led to the rejection of the role of the individual in social development as insignificant. The individuals determine the development of society. Their social power has its roots both in subjective factors and objective factors. Economy, politics, society, and culture are inseparable dimensions of a single integrated reality. Subject and object constitute an integrated whole. The mind sees them as separate and independent. Or it views one as completely subordinate to the other. Unbiased approach to the study of all human experiences may prove that subject and object are interdependent dimensions or elements of reality.

  1. The role of professor V. I. Dolotsky in the development of Lliturgics as science and academic subject in Russian higher Church education

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolai Karamyshev

    2017-01-01

    This paper is devoted to one of the key moments in liturgical studies in Russian higher church education. This moment was outwardly marked by the introduction of the new term “liturgics” instead of the old term “church antiquities” in the 1840s. The article shows the role of Professor Dolotsky in the development of liturgics as a science and an academic subject. Based on the analysis of survived manuscript documents, lithoprinted lecture notes and papers, we demonstrate that the introduction ...

  2. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  3. The influence of immediate complete anterior guidance development technique on subjective symptoms in Myofascial pain patients: Verified using digital analysis of occlusion (Tek-scan) for analysing occlusion: A 3 years clinical observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumati, Prafulla

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of occlusal equilibration using immediate complete anterior guidance development (ICAGD) technique by Kerstein and Farrell on the subjective symptoms of myofascial pain. This technique is the most advanced verifiable and measurable way of digitally analyzing the occlusion using T-scan technology. The primary objective is to reduce the anterior disclusion time to myofascial pain. This study is to assess the reducing effects of subjective symptoms of 100 patients diagnosed as myofascial pain patients treated by ICAGD technique as described by Kerstein and Farrell. The common complaints of the patients were a pain in the masseter and temporal muscles, jaw tiredness in the mornings, night bruxing and difficulty in chewing. In this technique occlusal equilibration involves removal of posterior interferences and establish anterior guidance. The patients were treated over three visits 1-week apart and followed for 3 years with an interval of 3 months for the subsequent visits. A visual analog ordinal scale is used to rate the symptoms. The symptoms reduction occurred for all the patients after the first correction in about 5-10 days. In about a period of 3 years review, no recurrence was seen of the chronic myofascial symptoms. In spite of the chronic nature of the patient's symptoms, symptom reduction occurred in a week's time. This was assessed by the results of the ordinal scale values. This agrees with the studies of Kerstein and Farrell. Equilibration of occlusion using digital analysis by T-scan in which force is quantified against time, should be done to establish free functional movements without any interference; otherwise the disturbances in the excursive movements may lead to muscle dysfunction at later years.

  4. Perceived subject outcomes and impact on health-related quality of life associated with diet using the new Food Benefits Assessment (FBA) questionnaire: development and psychometric validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyonnet, Denis; Chassany, Olivier; Picard, Céline; Guillemin, Isabelle; Meunier, Juliette; Seignobos, Eva; Vigneux, Marc; Lassel, Taous; Trudeau, Elyse

    2008-11-01

    To assess the perceived outcomes associated with diet/food intake in the general adult population. The Food Benefits Assessment (FBA) questionnaire was developed from subjects' verbatim transcripts (n 18) and after comprehension tests (n 5). Normal-weight (n 130) and overweight (n 67) subjects then completed the final questionnaire twice, 7 d apart. Psychometric properties were assessed, including construct validity by principal components analysis (PCA), concurrent validity (Spearman coefficient) with the Short Form-36 scale (SF-36), known-group validity by comparing FBA dimension scores according to lifestyle and clinical variables, internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha) and test-retest reproducibility in stable subjects over 1 week (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC). PCA and Multitrait analysis confirmed the final version of the FBA comprising forty-one items split into seven dimensions (vitality; digestive comfort; physical appearance; well-being; snacking; disease prevention; aesthetics). All dimensions displayed good item convergent validity (0.44 to 0.80), good concurrent validity (highest correlation between well-being dimension of FBA and mental health scale of SF-36, r=0.83) and good known-group validity and reproducibility (ICC >or= 0.76); internal consistency reliability was good to excellent (Cronbach's alpha=0.79 to 0.91). The FBA is the first valid and reliable questionnaire that allows the assessment of diet effects and impact as perceived by subjects. It is a good candidate in the nutrition field for further use in specific population settings and with a particular food or daily diet. Linguistically validated English (UK and US) and German versions of the questionnaire are available.

  5. Education, Subject, and Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GLORIA MARCIALES-VIVAS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cambios acelerados en la producción, procesamiento y distribuciónde la información; avances en la ciencia y la tecnología;reconfiguración de las estructuras de poder y de las formas deejercicio de la ciudadanía; así como crisis de diverso orden, sonsolamente algunos de los fenómenos que marcan el mundo dehoy. Este campo de tensiones interpela a la educación, la cual seve puesta en cuestión y es desafiada a transformarse y a agenciarprocesos de formación haciendo frente a criterios eficientistasque intentan imponerse, en no pocas ocasiones, sobreaquellos de tipo pedagógico orientados a la generación de condicionesde desarrollo social.

  6. Infrastructure Development as a Condition for Improving the Mechanism of Innovative Activity Stimulation (on the Example of Southern Federal District Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Nikolaevna Lebedeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the concept of the mechanism of innovative activity stimulation, which represents a system consisting of actors with their goals; formal regulations (legislation; informal regulations and rules (business culture, adopted by the economic community; incentives and constraints (economic and non-economic in nature. The authors specify the understanding of infrastructure as a condition of the mechanism functioning, compare rating assessments (by the NAIDIT technique of innovation activity of subjects of the Southern Federal District (SFD and reveal significant inconsistencies. The comparative analysis of the main existing infrastructure elements of the innovation sphere (Krasnodar, Volgograd and Rostov regions let make conclusions about their sufficiency or insufficiency in different subjects of the macro-region. The negative trends of innovative infrastructure development include: the lack of a unified information and analytical database and system for the promotion and support of innovative projects; the lack of consolidated data to assess the development level of the regional innovative infrastructure in formal source; the failure and the need for development elements, such as clusters and science-technology parks, support funds and the creation of extensive networks of centers for collective use. Directions of improvement of innovation activity are presented on the basis of comparing its peculiar indicators as well as analyzing and identifying missing infrastructure elements of the innovation system (scientific and investment, information and analytical, organizational and communicative with the aim of increasing the efficiency of existing mechanisms of innovation stimulation in the regions. Scientific and practical significance of this work consists in the future use of its provisions and conclusions as additional theoretical and methodological substantiation of scientific developments in research of innovative activity

  7. Impact of Selection Bias on Estimation of Subsequent Event Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi-Juan; Schmidt, Amand F; Dudbridge, Frank; Holmes, Michael V; Brophy, James M; Tragante, Vinicius; Li, Ziyi; Liao, Peizhou; Quyyumi, Arshed A; McCubrey, Raymond O; Horne, Benjamin D; Hingorani, Aroon D; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Patel, Riyaz S; Long, Qi

    2017-10-01

    Studies of recurrent or subsequent disease events may be susceptible to bias caused by selection of subjects who both experience and survive the primary indexing event. Currently, the magnitude of any selection bias, particularly for subsequent time-to-event analysis in genetic association studies, is unknown. We used empirically inspired simulation studies to explore the impact of selection bias on the marginal hazard ratio for risk of subsequent events among those with established coronary heart disease. The extent of selection bias was determined by the magnitudes of genetic and nongenetic effects on the indexing (first) coronary heart disease event. Unless the genetic hazard ratio was unrealistically large (>1.6 per allele) and assuming the sum of all nongenetic hazard ratios was bias was usually bias, the probability that a confidence interval included the true effect decreased (undercoverage) with increasing sample size because of increasing precision. Importantly, false-positive rates were not affected by selection bias. In most empirical settings, selection bias is expected to have a limited impact on genetic effect estimates of subsequent event risk. Nevertheless, because of undercoverage increasing with sample size, most confidence intervals will be over precise (not wide enough). When there is no effect modification by history of coronary heart disease, the false-positive rates of association tests will be close to nominal. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Shortened nighttime sleep duration in early life and subsequent childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Janice F; Zimmerman, Frederick J

    2010-09-01

    To test associations between daytime and nighttime sleep duration and subsequent obesity in children and adolescents. Prospective cohort. Panel Survey of Income Dynamics Child Development Supplements (1997 and 2002) from US children. Subjects aged 0 to 13 years (n = 1930) at baseline (1997). Binary indicators of short daytime and nighttime sleep duration (sleep scores) at baseline. Body mass index at follow-up (2002) was converted to age- and sex-specific z scores and trichotomized (normal weight, overweight, obese) using established cut points. Ordered logistic regression was used to model body mass index classification as a function of short daytime and nighttime sleep at baseline and follow-up, and important covariates included socioeconomic status, parents' body mass index, and, for children older than 4 years, body mass index at baseline. For younger children (aged 0-4 years at baseline), short duration of nighttime sleep at baseline was strongly associated with increased risk of subsequent overweight or obesity (odds ratio = 1.80; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-2.80). For older children (aged 5-13 years), baseline sleep was not associated with subsequent weight status; however, contemporaneous sleep was inversely associated. Daytime sleep had little effect on subsequent obesity in either group. Shortened sleep duration in early life is a modifiable risk factor with important implications for obesity prevention and treatment. Insufficient nighttime sleep among infants and preschool-aged children may be a lasting risk factor for subsequent obesity. Napping does not appear to be a substitute for nighttime sleep in terms of obesity prevention.

  9. Effects of exposure to the xenoestrogen octylphenol and subsequent transfer to clean water on liver and gonad ultrastructure during early development of Zoarces viviparus embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Åse; Rasmussen, Tina H.; Hirche, Majken

    2010-01-01

    of mitochondria increased, and the rER significantly proliferated after exposure as well as after depuration. The gonads of nine of more than 28 embryos in the group treated with OP exhibited a number of abnormalities as compared with the normal gonad development in both sexes. Feminization of the male gonads...

  10. Development of the Complex General Linear Model in the Fourier Domain: Application to fMRI Multiple Input-Output Evoked Responses for Single Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E. Rio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A linear time-invariant model based on statistical time series analysis in the Fourier domain for single subjects is further developed and applied to functional MRI (fMRI blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD multivariate data. This methodology was originally developed to analyze multiple stimulus input evoked response BOLD data. However, to analyze clinical data generated using a repeated measures experimental design, the model has been extended to handle multivariate time series data and demonstrated on control and alcoholic subjects taken from data previously analyzed in the temporal domain. Analysis of BOLD data is typically carried out in the time domain where the data has a high temporal correlation. These analyses generally employ parametric models of the hemodynamic response function (HRF where prewhitening of the data is attempted using autoregressive (AR models for the noise. However, this data can be analyzed in the Fourier domain. Here, assumptions made on the noise structure are less restrictive, and hypothesis tests can be constructed based on voxel-specific nonparametric estimates of the hemodynamic transfer function (HRF in the Fourier domain. This is especially important for experimental designs involving multiple states (either stimulus or drug induced that may alter the form of the response function.

  11. Association Between Serum Relaxin and Subsequent Shoulder Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Brett D; Cameron, Kenneth L; Clifton, Kari B; Svoboda, Steven J; Wolf, Jennifer Moriatis

    2016-07-01

    Ligamentous laxity correlates with shoulder instability. Relaxin is a hormone that has been linked to laxity in the knee and has been shown to be a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. This study prospectively evaluated the association between relaxin and acute shoulder instability. A prospective cohort study of 1050 young athletes was performed between 2006 and 2010. The authors conducted a nested case-control analysis within this cohort to evaluate the association between preinjury serum relaxin concentration and the likelihood of subsequent shoulder instability. The study compared 53 patients who had shoulder instability and 53 control subjects who were matched for sex, age, height, and weight. The serum relaxin concentration in preinjury baseline samples was tested with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis in duplicate. Independent t tests were performed to identify differences in mean serum relaxin concentration between patients with shoulder instability and uninjured control subjects. Logistic regression was used to evaluate whether preinjury baseline serum relaxin concentration was associated with the subsequent likelihood of shoulder instability. Of the 53 patients with instability, 13 (25%) had a detectable serum relaxin concentration compared with 9 (17%) of uninjured control subjects (P=.34). Mean serum relaxin concentration in the injury group was 3.69±1.78 pg/mL and 2.20±0.97 pg/mL in uninjured control subjects (P=.02). Increased serum relaxin concentration was associated with the subsequent likelihood of acute shoulder instability. Subjects were 2.18 times (odds ratio, 2.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-4.76) more likely to have acute shoulder instability during the follow-up period for every 1-pg/mL increase in serum relaxin concentration at baseline. The findings suggest that serum relaxin concentration is associated with a risk of subsequent shoulder instability in young athletes. Further research on the role of relaxin

  12. Application of the Biospeckle Method for Monitoring Bull’s Eye Rot Development and Quality Changes of Apples Subjected to Various Storage Methods—Preliminary Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Rutkowski

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the biospeckle technique was evaluated for monitoring of apple bull’s eye rot development and product quality in general, during storage under various conditions and during subsequent shelf life. This non-destructive optical method is based on the analysis of laser light variations scattered from the sample. Apples of the cultivars ‘Pinova’ and ‘Topaz’, susceptible to bull’s eye rot, were used in two independent experiments. In the first, apples were non-destructively monitored for five months during cold storage. After that time, 34% of ‘Pinova’ and 21% of ‘Topaz’ apples displayed visible surface lesions. The increase of biospeckle activity was observed during the development of fungal disease. In the second experiment various storage conditions were used and apples were tested during their shelf life by non-destructive and destructive methods. This study showed that biospeckle activity decreased during shelf life, irrespective of storage conditions.

  13. Preeclampsia, gestational hypertension and subsequent hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Männistö, Tuija; Karumanchi, S. Ananth; Pouta, Anneli; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Mendola, Pauline; Miettola, Satu; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Bloigu, Aini; Ruokonen, Aimo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Suvanto, Eila

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effect of preeclampsia (PE) and gestational hypertension (GH) on subsequent hypothyroidism. Recent studies suggest that women with PE have increased risk for reduced thyroid function, but the association between PE and GH with overt hypothyroidism has not been examined. Study design Two prospective population-based cohort studies, the Northern Finland Birth Cohorts 1966 and 1986, followed women who had PE (N=955), GH (N=1449) or were normotensive (N=13531) during pregnancy. Finnish national registers were used to confirm subsequent hypothyroidism. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) estimated hypothyroidism risk when comparing women with PE or GH with normotensive women. Main outcome measures Primary hypothyroidism during follow-up of 20–40 years. Results The subsequent prevalence of hypothyroidism was higher among women with PE (4.0%) and GH (4.5%) compared with normotensive women (3.5%), but the risk increase was not significant (aHR for PE 1.13, 95%CI 0.80–1.59 and aHR for GH 1.11, 95%CI 0.85–1.45). Subgroup analysis among nulliparous women revealed a significant association between late PE and subsequent hypothyroidism (aHR 1.82, 95%CI 1.04–3.19). Early or recurrent PE were not associated with hypothyroidism (aHR 0.93, 95%CI 0.46–1.81 and aHR 1.35, 95%CI 0.63–2.88, respectively). Conclusions Overall, PE or GH during pregnancy was not significantly associated with subsequent hypothyroidism in Finnish women after 20–40 years of follow-up. However, late PE in nulliparous women was associated with a 1.8-fold increased risk of subsequent hypothyroidism, a finding that merits further study in other populations. PMID:23439671

  14. A description of a staff development program: Preparing the elementary school classroom teacher to lead environmental field trips and to use an integrated subject approach to environmental education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egana, John Joseph

    This study of the Field Trip Specialist Program (FTS) described how a professional development plan fostered change in the traditional roles of third and fourth grade teachers. Teachers that volunteered were prepared to become interpretive guides for their class on environmental field trips, integrate their basic subject areas lessons into an environmental science context, and develop their self-perception as professional educators. This qualitative study made use of quantitative data and drew on information collected over four years from surveys, interviews, classroom observations, field trip and workshop observations, focus groups, journals and assessments performed in Florida. The FTS Program attracted teachers who thought it was important for all students to understand environmental issues, and these teachers believed in integrated instruction. These beliefs were inconsistent with many aspects of school culture. FTS invited the participation of these teachers and encouraged them to take control of the program by serving as instructors and program developers. Teachers described themselves as prepared to deliver the FTS Program with a high level of motivation and relevance. They also credited the program as beneficial in preparation for the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Tests (FCAT). Teachers reported that their responsibility as field trip leaders was the primary factor motivating them to provide conscientious presentation of pre- and post-field trip lessons and thorough integration of environmental topics in basic subject area instruction. Despite the impact of the field trip leadership factor, I could not find another program in the State of Florida that required teachers to lead their own field trips. Other influential factors specific to this program were: Voluntary participation, on-site field instruction, peer instructors and program developers, high quality and task specific materials, and pre- and post-assessments for students. Factors were identified

  15. Caesarean section and subsequent fertility in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, S M; Marshall, T; Filippi, V

    2006-03-01

    To determine the impact of caesarean section on fertility among women in sub-Saharan Africa. Analysis of standardised cross-sectional surveys (Demographic and Health Surveys). Twenty-two countries in sub-Saharan Africa, 1993-2003. A total of 35 398 women of childbearing age (15-49 years). Time to subsequent pregnancy was compared by mode of delivery using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Natural fertility rates subsequent to delivery by caesarean section compared with natural fertility rates subsequent to vaginal delivery. The natural fertility rate subsequent to delivery by caesarean section was 17% lower than the natural fertility rate subsequent to vaginal delivery (hazard ratio = 0.83, 95% CI 0.73-0.96, P Caesarean section was also associated with prior fertility and desire for further children: among multiparous women, an interval > or =3 versus caesarean section at the index birth (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.7, P= 0.005); among all women, the odds of desiring further children were lower among women who had previously delivered by caesarean section (OR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.54-0.84, P Caesarean section did not appear to increase the risk of a subsequent pregnancy ending in miscarriage, abortion or stillbirth. Among women in sub-Saharan Africa, caesarean section is associated with lower subsequent natural fertility. Although this reflects findings from developed countries, the roles of pathological and psychological factors may be quite different because a much higher proportion of caesarean sections in sub-Saharan Africa are emergency procedures for maternal indication.

  16. 75 FR 82005 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Nonproliferation and International Security, Department of Energy. ACTION: Proposed subsequent arrangement. SUMMARY..., Canada, to Korea Nuclear Fuel Co. Ltd. in Yuson-Gu, Taejon, South Korea. The material, which is currently... Energy. Thomas P. D'Agostino, Administrator, National Nuclear Security Administration. [FR Doc. 2010...

  17. Compressed Subsequence Matching and Packed Tree Coloring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Cording, Patrick Hagge; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2017-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for subsequence matching in grammar compressed strings. Given a grammar of size n compressing a string of size N and a pattern string of size m over an alphabet of size \\(\\sigma \\), our algorithm uses \\(O(n+\\frac{n\\sigma }{w})\\) space and \\(O(n+\\frac{n\\sigma }{w}+m\\log N...

  18. Pregnancy scares and subsequent unintended pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Gatny

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A substantial number of young women experience pregnancy scares - thinking they might be pregnant, and later discovering that they are not. Although pregnancy scares are distressing events, little is known about who experiences them and whether they are important to our understanding of unintended pregnancy. Objective: We describe the young women who experience pregnancy scares, and examine the link between pregnancy scares and subsequent unintended pregnancy. Methods: We used data from the Relationship Dynamics and Social Life Study. T-tests and regression analyses were conducted using baseline and weekly data to estimate relationships between respondent characteristics and subsequent pregnancy scares. Event history methods were used to assess pregnancy scares as a predictor of unintended pregnancy. Results: Nine percent of the young women experienced a pregnancy scare during the study. African-American race, lack of two-parent family structure, lower GPA, cohabitation, and sex without birth control prior to the study are associated with experiencing a pregnancy scare and with experiencing a greater number of pregnancy scares. Further, experiencing a pregnancy scare is strongly associated with subsequent unintended pregnancy, independent of background factors. Forty percent of the women who experienced a pregnancy scare subsequently had an unintended pregnancy during the study period, relative to only 11Š of those who did not experience a pregnancy scare. Conclusions: Young women from less advantaged backgrounds are more likely to experience a pregnancy scare, and pregnancy scares are often followed by an unintended pregnancy.

  19. Weight at birth and subsequent fecundability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildenschild, Cathrine; Riis, Anders H; Ehrenstein, Vera

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between a woman's birth weight and her subsequent fecundability. METHOD: In this prospective cohort study, we included 2,773 Danish pregnancy planners enrolled in the internet-based cohort study "Snart-Gravid", conducted during 2007-2012. Participants were 18...

  20. 7 CFR 3560.73 - Subsequent loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... accordance with 7 CFR part 1940, subpart G. (f) Design requirements. All improvements, repairs, and... applicant must obtain architectural services when any of the following conditions exist: (1) Enclosed space... being proposed requires architectural services. (h) Restrictive-use requirements. Subsequent loans are...

  1. Cortisol awakening response and subsequent depression: prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, Rebecca; Araya, Ricardo; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Glover, Vivette; O'Connor, Thomas G; O'Donnell, Kieran J; Pearson, Rebecca; Lewis, Glyn

    2014-02-01

    Some studies have found an association between elevated cortisol and subsequent depression, but findings are inconsistent. The cortisol awakening response may be a more stable measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function and potentially of stress reactivity. To investigate whether salivary cortisol, particularly the cortisol awakening response, is associated with subsequent depression in a large population cohort. Young people (aged 15 years, n = 841) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) collected salivary cortisol at four time points for 3 school days. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for developing depression meeting ICD-10 criteria at 18 years. We found no evidence for an association between salivary cortisol and subsequent depression. Odds ratios for the cortisol awakening response were 1.24 per standard deviation (95% CI 0.93-1.66, P = 0.14) before and 1.12 (95% CI 0.73-1.72, P = 0.61) after adjustment for confounding factors. There was no evidence that the other cortisol measures, including cortisol at each time point, diurnal drop and area under the curve, were associated with subsequent depression. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that elevated salivary cortisol increases the short-term risk of subsequent depressive illness. The results suggest that if an association does exist, it is small and unlikely to be of clinical significance.

  2. Interaction between hippocampal and striatal systems predicts subsequent consolidation of motor sequence memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Albouy

    Full Text Available The development of fast and reproducible motor behavior is a crucial human capacity. The aim of the present study was to address the relationship between the implementation of consistent behavior during initial training on a sequential motor task (the Finger Tapping Task and subsequent sleep-dependent motor sequence memory consolidation, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and total sleep deprivation protocol. Our behavioral results indicated significant offline gains in performance speed after sleep whereas performance was only stabilized, but not enhanced, after sleep deprivation. At the cerebral level, we previously showed that responses in the caudate nucleus increase, in parallel to a decrease in its functional connectivity with frontal areas, as performance became more consistent. Here, the strength of the competitive interaction, assessed through functional connectivity analyses, between the caudate nucleus and hippocampo-frontal areas during initial training, predicted delayed gains in performance at retest in sleepers but not in sleep-deprived subjects. Moreover, during retest, responses increased in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex in sleepers whereas in sleep-deprived subjects, responses increased in the putamen and cingulate cortex. Our results suggest that the strength of the competitive interplay between the striatum and the hippocampus, participating in the implementation of consistent motor behavior during initial training, conditions subsequent motor sequence memory consolidation. The latter process appears to be supported by a reorganisation of cerebral activity in hippocampo-neocortical networks after sleep.

  3. Factors affecting subjective appearance evaluations among patients with congenital craniofacial conditions: An application of Cash's cognitive-behavioural model of body image development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feragen, Kristin Billaud; Stock, Nicola Marie

    2018-01-30

    Satisfaction with appearance is of central importance for psychological well-being and health. For individuals with an unusual appearance, such as congenital craniofacial anomalies (CFA), appearance evaluations could be especially important. However, few, if any papers have presented a comprehensive synthesis of the factors found to affect subjective satisfaction with appearance among children, adolescents, and adults born with a CFA. Further, only a handful of craniofacial studies have applied psychological theories or models to their findings, resulting in an overall lack of guidance for researchers in the field. This paper summarises the literature pertaining to satisfaction with appearance among those affected by CFAs, and examines the extent to which Cash's cognitive-behavioural model of body image development (2012) fits with this literature. Given the overlap between factors of interest in the field of CFAs, and in the area of body image more broadly, a closer collaboration between the two research fields is suggested. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. SPECIFIC SUBJECTS OF LICENSE ACADEMIC PROGRAM - AN IMPORTANT STAGE OF PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF FUTURE MILITARY LEADERS AT NATIONAL MILITARY UNIVERSITY, BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elitsa Stoyanova PETROVA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of an approved request by the Head of National Military University it is conducting research on motivation in military formations of the example of Vasil Levski National Military University in Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria. Subject of the study is motivation for training and military activities of the cadets and the objects of the study are students in professional military direction in "Organization and management of military units at the tactical level," Land forces faculty at the National Military University of Bulgaria. The article presents results of the study at second item - "Do you agree that the study of specialized topics is an important stage of your professional development of future military leader?". The interviewees were cadets who graduated through the following academic years - 2013/2014, 2014/2015, 2015/2016.

  5. [Current Developments of the Interdisciplinary Subject Rehabilitation, Physical Medicine, Naturopathic Treatment in the German Medical Faculties: Results of the DGRW Faculty Survey in 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, S; Bergelt, C; Deck, R; Krischak, G; Morfeld, M; Michel, M; Schwarzkopf, S R; Spyra, K; Walter, S; Mau, W

    2017-02-01

    To ascertain the current development of the rehabilitation-related medical teaching in the interdisciplinary subject Rehabilitation, Physical Medicine, Naturopathic Treatment (Q12) regarding its execution, content, exams and evaluation of teaching at the Medical Faculties the German Society of Rehabilitation Science conducted another faculty survey in 2015. Representatives of all degree courses of human medicine in German Universities (n=41) received a pseudonymised standardised questionnaire in summer 2015. The response rate was 76% (n=31). Half of the faculties (48%) stated that they had a teaching and research unit for at least 1 of the 3 subjects of the interdisciplinary Q12. The Q12-teaching of faculties including these units partially differed from the other faculties. Model medical education programmes provide on average 2 semesters more for Q12-teaching in comparison to the traditional programmes. More than 3 quarters of the traditional programmes and all other courses include other medical professionals besides physicians as lecturers. Multiple choice questions still constitute the most common examination type (94%). Nearly all Medical Faculties evaluate the rehabilitation-related teaching but only half of all them have implemented a financial gratification based on the evaluation results. Even 10 years after the implementation of Q12, major variations were demonstrated regarding the execution, content and methods of medical education in rehabilitation. In the future the influence of the National Competence Based Catalogues of Learning Objectives for Undergraduate Medical Education on the Q12-development and the Q12-teaching in medical university education in Germany with foreign qualification will be of particular interest. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Accumulation and subsequent utilization of waste heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koloničný, Jan; Richter, Aleš; Pavloková, Petra

    2016-06-01

    This article aims to introduce a special way of heat accumulation and primary operating characteristics. It is the unique way in which the waste heat from flue gas of biogas cogeneration station is stored in the system of storage tanks, into the heat transfer oil. Heat is subsequently transformed into water, from which is generated the low-pressure steam. Steam, at the time of peak electricity needs, spins the special designed turbine generator and produces electrical energy.

  7. The Subjectivity of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    What is a 'we' – a collective – and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity – and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas...... practices. Through this dialogue, it develops an original trans-disciplinary critical theory and practice of collective subjectivity for which the ongoing construction and overcoming of common sense, or ideology, is central. It also points to ways of relating discourse with agency, and fertilizing insights...... from interactionism and ideology theories in a cultural-historical framework....

  8. Induced abortion and subsequent pregnancy duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Wei Jin; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Olsen, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether induced abortion influences subsequent pregnancy duration. METHODS: Women who had their first pregnancies during 1980, 1981, and 1982 were identified in three Danish national registries. A total of 15,727 women whose pregnancies were terminated by first-trimester ind......OBJECTIVE: To examine whether induced abortion influences subsequent pregnancy duration. METHODS: Women who had their first pregnancies during 1980, 1981, and 1982 were identified in three Danish national registries. A total of 15,727 women whose pregnancies were terminated by first......-trimester induced abortions were compared with 46,026 whose pregnancies were not terminated by induced abortions. All subsequent pregnancies until 1994 were identified by register linkage. RESULTS: Preterm and post-term singleton live births were more frequent in women with one, two, or more previous induced...... abortions. After adjusting for potential confounders and stratifying by gravidity, the odds ratios of preterm singleton live births in women with one, two, or more previous induced abortions were 1.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.70, 2.11), 2.66 (95% CI 2.09, 3.37), and 2.03 (95% CI 1.29, 3...

  9. Reactions to abortion and subsequent mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John; Boden, Joseph M

    2009-11-01

    There has been continued interest in the extent to which women have positive and negative reactions to abortion. To document emotional reactions to abortion, and to examine the links between reactions to abortion and subsequent mental health outcomes. Data were gathered on the pregnancy and mental health history of a birth cohort of over 500 women studied to the age of 30. Abortion was associated with high rates of both positive and negative emotional reactions; however, nearly 90% of respondents believed that the abortion was the right decision. Analyses showed that the number of negative responses to the abortion was associated with increased levels of subsequent mental health disorders (Pabortion and reporting negative reactions had rates of mental health disorders that were approximately 1.4-1.8 times higher than those not having an abortion. Abortion was associated with both positive and negative emotional reactions. The extent of negative emotional reactions appeared to modify the links between abortion and subsequent mental health problems.

  10. Development and psychometric testing of the Attitudes, Subjective Norms, Perceived Behavioural Control, and Intention to Pursue a Career in Mental Health Nursing scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbourn, Mark; Salamonson, Yenna; Ramjan, Lucie; Chang, Sungwon

    2017-01-19

    The aim of the present study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of the Attitudes, Subjective Norms, Perceived Behavioural Control, and Intention to Pursue a Career in Mental Health Nursing (ASPIRE) scale, an instrument to assess nursing students' intention to work in mental health nursing. Understanding the factors influencing undergraduate nursing students' career intentions might lead to improved recruitment strategies. However, there are no standardized tools to measure and assess students' intention to pursue a career in mental health nursing. The present study used a cross-sectional survey design undertaken at a large tertiary institution in Western Sydney (Australia) between May and August 2013. It comprised three distinct and sequential phases: (i) items were generated representing the four dimensions of the theory of planned behaviour; (ii) face and content validity were tested by a representative reference group and panel of experts; and (iii) survey data from 1109 first- and second-year and 619 third-year students were used in exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to test the factorial validity of the scale. Internal consistency was measured using Cronbach's alpha. Items generated for the ASPIRE scale were subject to face and content validity testing. Results showed good factorial validity and reliability for the final 14-item scale. Principal axis factoring revealed a one-factor solution, the hypothesized model being supported by confirmatory factor analysis. The ASPIRE scale is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring intention to pursue a career in mental health nursing among Bachelor of Nursing students. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  11. A randomized, controlled study of specific immunotherapy in monosensitized subjects with seasonal rhinitis: effect on bronchial hyperresponsiveness, sputum inflammatory markers and development of asthma symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimi, Nunzio; Li Gotti, Fabrizio; Mangano, Giuseppe; Paolino, Giuseppina; Mastruzzo, Claudio; Vancheri, Carlo; Lisitano, Natalina; Polosa, Riccardo

    2004-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is often associated with bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and airway inflammation, and it seems to be an important risk factor for the development of asthma. Specific immunotherapy (SIT) reduces symptoms and medication requirements in subjects with allergic rhinitis, but the mechanisms by which SIT promotes these beneficial effects are less clear. We have investigated the effects of Parietaria-SIT on rhinitis symptoms, BHR to inhaled methacholine, eosinophilic inflammation and cytokine production (interferon gamma and interleukin-4) in the sputum. The effect on asthma progression was also examined. Thirty non-asthmatic subjects with seasonal rhinitis and monosensitized to Parietaria judaica participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study. Participants were randomly assigned to receive injections of a Parietaria pollen vaccine (n = 15) or matched placebo injections (n = 15) in a rapid updosing cluster regimen for 7 weeks, followed by monthly injections for 34 months. Throughout the 3-year study we collected data on symptoms and medication score, airway responsiveness to methacholine, eosinophilia and soluble cytokines in sputum, followed by a complete evaluation of the clinical course of atopy. Hay fever symptom and medication scores were well controlled by SIT. By the end of the study, in the placebo group, symptom and medication scores significantly increased by a median (interquartile range) of 121% (15-280%) and 263% (0-4400%) respectively (p Parietaria-SIT is effective in controlling hay fever symptoms and rescue medications, but no changes in the BHR to methacholine or sputum eosinophilia were observed. Moreover, Parietaria-SIT appears to prevent the natural progression of allergic rhinitis to asthma, suggesting that SIT should be considered earlier in the management of this condition.

  12. Strain-hardening behavior and microstructure development in polycrystalline as-cast Mg-Zn-Y alloys with LPSO phase subjected to cyclic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiraishi, Kazuma [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1, Kurokami, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Mayama, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: mayama@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Priority Organization for Innovation and Excellence, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1, Kurokami, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Yamasaki, Michiaki [School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Qld 4072 (Australia); Magnesium Research Center/Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1, Kurokami, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Kawamura, Yoshihito [Magnesium Research Center/Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1, Kurokami, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)

    2016-08-30

    The strain-hardening behavior and microstructural development of polycrystalline as-cast Mg-Zn-Y alloys with various volume fractions of the long-period stacking ordered (LPSO) phase subjected to cyclic loading were experimentally evaluated. For all alloys, cyclic loading tests with a constant strain amplitude of 0.5% for up to 100 cycles showed asymmetric cyclic hardening behavior. That is, the absolute value of the compressive peak stress significantly increased during cyclic loading while the tensile peak stress slightly decreased. With increasing volume fraction of the LPSO phase, the stress amplitude significantly increased. Cyclic loading tests after compressive preloading up to 200 or 250 MPa resulted in a significant increase in the stress amplitude, while a number of kink bands developed during preloading. For the cyclic hardening behavior, the contribution of the increase in kinematic hardening was significant in the alloys with a higher volume fraction of the LPSO phase. Transmission electron microscopy observation of the cyclically deformed Mg{sub 85}Zn{sub 6}Y{sub 9} alloy indicated the formation of a deformation-induced band, where the crystal structure was transformed from 18R-LPSO to hcp-Mg with the exclusion of solute elements.

  13. The role of professor V. I. Dolotsky in the development of Lliturgics as science and academic subject in Russian higher Church education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Karamyshev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to one of the key moments in liturgical studies in Russian higher church education. This moment was outwardly marked by the introduction of the new term “liturgics” instead of the old term “church antiquities” in the 1840s. The article shows the role of Professor Dolotsky in the development of liturgics as a science and an academic subject. Based on the analysis of survived manuscript documents, lithoprinted lecture notes and papers, we demonstrate that the introduction of the term “liturgics” at Saint-Petersburg Theological Academy in 1849–1853 and its following adoption in higher church education took place with a direct involvement of V. I. Dolotsky. Employing historical approach, Dolotsky signifi cantly broadened the content of his course of lectures, supplementing it with historical data. Dolotsky’s scholarly interests can be identifi ed on the basis of his articles, academic course programmes and lithoprinted lecture notes. They were related, above all, to text analysis of variable parts of church service, particularly holiday service. Besides, Dolotsky expressed interest in the origin of Holy days and their orders in antiquity. Here, by means of the historical approach, Dolotsky made use of the evidence of ancient Holy Fathers and emphasised the importance of employing liturgical sources of heterodox confessions that had common origins with the Orthodox Church. Thus, Dolotsky came to be the first Russian scholar of liturgics and provided a foundation for the further development of historical liturgics in Russian theological science.

  14. Subject (of documents)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    such as concepts, aboutness, topic, isness and ofness are also briefly presented. The conclusion is that the most fruitful way of defining “subject” (of a document) is the documents informative or epistemological potentials, that is, the documents potentials of informing users and advance the development......This article presents and discuss the concept “subject” or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document......-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts...

  15. Late development of colorectal cancer subsequent to pelvic irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, T.W.; Rombeau, J.L.; Levine, H.S.; Turnbull, R.B. Jr.

    1979-03-01

    Two cases of irradiation-associated carcinoma of the colon are reported and the literature reviewed. The clinical courses and operative difficulties in treating these patients are emphasized. The necessity for life-long follow-up examinations with proctoscopic and barium-enema evaluations in high-risk patients is stressed. Irradiation-associated carcinoma of the colon occurs almost exclusively in women, but should be investigated in patients of either sex who live for long periods after pelvic irradiation.

  16. [Incidence of refractive errors with corrective aids subsequent selection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benes, P; Synek, S; Petrová, S; Sokolová, Sidlová J; Forýtková, L; Holoubková, Z

    2012-02-01

    This study follows the occurrence of refractive errors in population and the possible selection of the appropriate type of corrective aids. Objective measurement and subsequent determination of the subjective refraction of the eye is on essential act in opotmetric practice. The file represented by 615 patients (1230 eyes) is divided according to the refractive error of myopia, hyperopia and as a control group are listed emetropic clients. The results of objective and subjective values of refraction are compared and statistically processed. The study included 615 respondents. To determine the objective refraction the autorefraktokeratometer with Placido disc was used and the values of spherical and astigmatic correction components, including the axis were recorded. These measurements were subsequently verified and tested subjectively using the trial lenses and the projection optotype to the normal investigative distance of 5 meters. After this the appropriate corrective aids were then recommended. Group I consists of 123 men and 195 women with myopia (n = 635) of clients with an average age 39 +/- 18,9 years. Objective refraction - sphere: -2,57 +/- 2,46 D, cylinder: -1,1 +/- 1,01 D, axis of: 100 degrees +/- 53,16 degrees. Subjective results are as follows--the value of sphere: -2,28 +/- 2,33 D, cylinder -0,63 +/- 0,80 D, axis of: 99,8 degrees +/- 56,64 degrees. Group II is represented hyperopic clients and consists of 67 men and 107 women (n = 348). The average age is 58,84 +/- 16,73 years. Objective refraction has values - sphere: +2,81 +/- 2,21 D, cylinder: -1,0 +/- 0,94 D; axis 95 degree +/- 45,4 degrees. Subsequent determination of subjective refraction has the following results - sphere: +2,28 +/- 2,06 D; cylinder: -0,49 +/- 0,85 D, axis of: 95,9 degrees +/- 46,4 degrees. Group III consists from emetropes whose final minimum viasual acuity was Vmin = 1,0 (5/5) or better. Overall, this control group is represented 52 males and 71 females (n = 247). The average

  17. Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Lucan

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In the conception of an architectural project, what architect has not dreamed of a process which would develop in an inexorable fashion from a few rules or a few principles, initially set down, the consequences of which would subsequently link and grow? Such a way of conceiving the development of an architectural project has its roots in the processes by which natural organisms grow, mineral or living, vegetable or animal. In modern, contemporary architecture, there is no lack of organic ...

  18. Perinatal Loss: The Effect on Attachment in Subsequent Pregnancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    association between early separation and subsequent development of failure to thrive and battered -child syndrome cases. The results of these studies may...infant bonding when intensive care nursery nurses observed and reported a trend in the number of failure to thrive and battered children; who had...had a previous perinatal loss and those who have had a positive outcome. V. Operational Definitions: 1) Multiqravida- A woman who has been pregnant

  19. Impact of Interprofessional Education on Subsequent Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Mark H.

    1987-01-01

    A study was made to assess the beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors of practicing professionals regarding interprofessional education and practice. Subjects had completed at least one course of the Ohio State University Commission on Interprofessional Education and Practice while the comparison group had not. Results are discussed. (MT)

  20. Workplace bullying and subsequent health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Magerøy, Nils; Gjerstad, Johannes; Einarsen, Ståle

    2014-07-01

    Cross-sectional studies demonstrate that exposure to bullying in the workplace is positively correlated with self-reported health problems. However, these studies do not provide a basis to draw conclusions on the extent to which bullying leads to increased health problems or whether health problems increase the risk of being bullied. To provide better indications of a causal relationship, knowledge from prospective studies on the association between bullying in the workplace and health outcomes is therefore summarised. We conducted a systematic literature review of original articles from central literature databases on longitudinal associations between bullying in the workplace and health. Average associations between bullying and health outcomes are calculated using meta-analysis. A consistent finding across the studies is that exposure to bullying is significantly positively related to mental health problems (OR =1.68; 95% KI 1.35-2.09) and somatic symptoms (OR = 1.77; 95% KI 1.41-2.22) over time. Mental health problems are also associated with subsequent exposure to bullying (OR = 1.74; 95% KI 1.44-2.12). Bullying is positively related to mental health problems and somatic symptoms. The association between mental health problems and subsequent bullying indicates a self-reinforcing process between mental health and bullying. The methodological quality of the studies that were conducted is relatively sound. However, based on the existing knowledge base there are no grounds for conclusions regarding an unambiguous causal relationship between bullying and health.

  1. Autoimmune disease and subsequent urological cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangdong; Ji, Jianguang; Forsti, Asta; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Hemminki, Kari

    2013-06-01

    We examined the subsequent risk and prognosis of urological cancer in individuals diagnosed with autoimmune disease. We systematically analyzed the risk and prognosis of prostate, kidney and bladder cancers in individuals diagnosed with any of 33 autoimmune diseases based on a national Swedish database for 1964 through 2008. The SIR and HR were calculated for subsequent urological cancers between 1964 and 2008 in individuals hospitalized for autoimmune disease. An increased SIR for urological cancer was recorded after 26 autoimmune diseases. An increased HR for cancer specific survival was noted after 4 autoimmune diseases and for overall survival after 18. The highest SIRs were seen for kidney cancer after polyarteritis nodosa (2.85) and polymyositis/dermatomyositis (2.68), and for bladder cancer after polymyositis/dermatomyositis (2.45). The highest risk of prostate cancer (1.70) was observed after polyarteritis nodosa. SIRs were lower during followup from 1990 to 2008 compared to the previous period. Individuals diagnosed with prostate and kidney cancers showed an improved cancer specific prognosis, in contrast to the poorer overall prognosis for all 3 urological cancers. The risk of urological cancer was increased after all autoimmune diseases. The most significant changes after individual autoimmune diseases were toward higher risk. Survival data were reassuring since autoimmune disease only marginally influences the prognosis of cancer specific mortality. However, overall survival was decreased for the 3 types of cancer. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Research and technological development in the subject of the wind power generation; Investigacion y desarrollo tecnologico en el tema de la generacion eoloelectrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borja Diaz, Marco A.; Gonzalez Galarza, Raul [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The wind power technology has advanced in an important way during the last decade. In the industrialized countries the annual sales of aero generators reach surprising numbers and increase annually at a rate of 30%. But, is this the direct product of the maturity of this technology?, is at the moment the wind power technology economically competitive with the conventional options? Do necessities exist of Research and Technological Development in the subject? This article presents some facts and indicators that will help the reader to deduce his own conclusions. [Spanish] La tecnologia eoloelectrica ha avanzado de manera importante durante la ultima decada. En los paises industrializados las ventas anuales de aerogeneradores alcanzan cifras sorprendentes y se incrementan al 30% anual. Pero, es esto el producto directo de la madurez de esta tecnologia?, actualmente la tecnologia eoloelectrica es economicamente competitiva con las opciones convencionales?, existen necesidades de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en el tema? Este articulo presenta algunos hechos e indicadores que ayudaran al lector a deducir sus propias conclusiones.

  3. Brain development in male rats subjected to early weaning and treated with diet containing flour or flaxseed oil after 21 days until 60 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessanha, C R; da Camara Boueri, B Ferolla; da Costa, L Rodrigues; Ferreira, M Rocha; Melo, H Saldanha; de Abreu, M Duque Coutinho; Pessoa, L Rozeno; da Silva, P C Alves; Pereira, A D'Avila; Ribeiro, D Cavalcante; de Meneses, J Azevedo; da Costa, C A Soares; Boaventura, G T

    2015-08-01

    The precocious interruption of lactation is a prime factor for developmental plasticity. Here we analyzed whether flour or flaxseed oil treatment contributes to body and brain mass in male rats subjected to early weaning. Pups were weaned for separation from their mother at 14 (early weaning, EW) and 21 days (control, C). At 21 days, some of the pups were evaluated (C21 v. EW21). After 21 days, control pups (C60) were fed a control diet. EW pups were divided into those fed a control diet (EWC60), those given flaxseed flour (EWFF60), and those given flaxseed oil (EWFO60) until 60 days. EW21 showed lower body and absolute brain mass and higher relative brain mass. At 60 days, EWC60 and EWFO60 had lower body mass. With regard to relative brain mass, EWC60 was heavier; EWFO60 had lower values compared with EWC60 and higher values compared with C60 and EWFF60. These results indicated that flaxseed flour, in comparison with flaxseed oil, contributes to brain development after EW.

  4. Activity recognition from minimal distinguishing subsequence mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Mohammad; Pao, Hsing-Kuo

    2017-08-01

    Human activity recognition is one of the most important research topics in the era of Internet of Things. To separate different activities given sensory data, we utilize a Minimal Distinguishing Subsequence (MDS) mining approach to efficiently find distinguishing patterns among different activities. We first transform the sensory data into a series of sensor triggering events and operate the MDS mining procedure afterwards. The gap constraints are also considered in the MDS mining. Given the multi-class nature of most activity recognition tasks, we modify the MDS mining approach from a binary case to a multi-class one to fit the need for multiple activity recognition. We also study how to select the best parameter set including the minimal and the maximal support thresholds in finding the MDSs for effective activity recognition. Overall, the prediction accuracy is 86.59% on the van Kasteren dataset which consists of four different activities for recognition.

  5. Cephalosporin Induced Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis and Subsequent Penicillin Drug Exanthem

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Lam; Inderpal Randhawa; William Klaustermeyer

    2008-01-01

    Background: Drug hypersensitivity is classically divided into IgE mediated and non-IgE mediated disease. We report a rare case of consequent IgE mediated and non-IgE mediated reactions within the beta lactam class of antibiotics. Case Summary: An 84-year-old man developed toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) due to ceftriaxone, a third generation cephalosporin, involving 72% of the body surface area. The patient recovered but within weeks subsequently developed an acute IgE mediated allergic r...

  6. Laser Induced Selective Activation For Subsequent Autocatalytic Electroless Plating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yang

    The subject of this PhD thesis is “Laser induced selective activation for subsequent autocatalytic electroless plating.” The objective of the project is to investigate the process chains for micro structuring of polymer surfaces for selective micro metallization. Laser induced selective activation...... that chemical bonds exist. However, it is still not excluded that chemical bonding is part of the mechanism. The second hypothesis is that the laser track has a stronger attraction work to the activation solution. This is proved by a calculation using van Oss et al., theory based on contact angle measurement....... The third hypothesis is that the activation and rinsing process can be described by diffusion. This hypothesis is proved using Fick’s diffusion laws combined with the short-time-plating experiment. The influence of laser parameters on the surface structure is investigated for Nd:YAG, UV, and fiber lasers...

  7. Subjectivity and professional vocational counselling

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Marina

    2004-01-01

    In this work, I shall deal with the psychodynamic approach to subjectivity in P.V.C. To this effect, I want to develop the concept of subject and subjectivity, its variation and historical-social construction and its approach in counselling, from a psychodynamic conceptual framework in P.V.C. with a short reference to the theoretical sources on which this approach is founded. Departamento de Psicología

  8. THE СREATIVE TASKS DURING THE PRACTICAL SESSIONS OF LITERARY SUBJECTS AS THE MEANS OF DEVELOPMENT OF CREATIVITY OF FUTURE LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Shcherbatiuk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article analyzes the methodology of using a number of creative tasks for working with students of Philology Department during the practical sessions of literary subjects. The tasks are focused on designing the creative qualities of future language and literature teachers: imagination, inspiration, initiative, noncommonality, extraordinary nature, his/her own point of view. At present, the students perceive the learning process as something fixed, which necessarily must be studied and passed. They will not think critically, as long as the teacher does not create creative atmosphere to facilitate the active involvement of students into the learning process. And one should allow them to freely speculate, dream up. Each person has the potential of skills, and the tasks of modern teacher are developing these skills and managing the process of the development. Therefore, the main purpose of organization of practical session is to be able to encounter the students’ intellectual forces, to cause them to work, to create a favorable pedagogical environment for their formation and simultaneously to shape the identity of a young person, his/her outlook. Organizing the practical training one should find a way to students’ minds and doesn`t give them ready knowledge but to ensure them to acquire knowledge themselves trying to search, establish dependences, and patterns. They should be engaged in creative dialogue with cultural texts and nourish their own personal position. The problem of creativity is complex and multifaceted. Since ancient times it has been in the scholars’ and philosophers’ field of view (Plato, Aristotle, Hegel, Pestalozzi, etc.. Basic issues of a creative individual are disclosed in the works by A. Luk, Ia. Ponomarev, A. Matiushkin, P. Enhelmeier, V. Moliako, O. Amatev, E. Belkina, A. Bohush, N. Vetluhina, N. Havrish, O. Dronova and others. However, the growing relevance and educational significance of this issue

  9. The Subject in Cognitive Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Caro-Gabalda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the various subjects embedded in cognitive psychotherapy. The cognitive model developed by Beck, considered as a rationalist and modernist model, will exemplify these subjects. Cognitive therapy should be placed in the modernist historical context and related to a subject characterized as having rationality and the ability to observe and detect cognitions, emotions and behaviors. The paper develops this background introducing three main subject types. The first is the introspective and conscious subject, who is able to observe what is within oneself, has free access, and is conscious of one's cognitive world. The second is the cognitive miser that describes the subject who enters into therapy. The final subject identified, is the trained scientist who is able to develop a more objective knowledge, changing faulty schemas and cognitive distortions. This subject is the one most looked for in cognitive therapy. We could connect these subjects to some of the main elements of cognitive therapy such as the concept of ABC, assessment procedures, cognitive techniques or the relevance of schemas. Finally, the paper suggests some issues for study that could contribute to the theoretical and clinical evolution of cognitive psychotherapy.

  10. Early postpartum discharge and subsequent breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, S; Rydberg, B

    1998-12-01

    Early postpartum discharge of babies was gradually introduced in Sweden in the 1980s on ideological grounds, based on the premise that maternity wards were unnatural settings for mothers and babies and hampered breastfeeding. From about 1990, early discharge was used as a means to reduce costs. The purpose of this study was to examine if mandated early discharge at Central Hospital of Karlstad, Sweden, influenced subsequent breastfeeding. Breastfeeding outcomes of infants up to six months of age of all births in 1993 (n = 3231) were compared with the outcome of newborns in 1990 (n = 1462). Breastfeeding at six months postpartum continued to increase during the early 1990s for both healthy and sick infants, irrespective of whether or not they were discharged early. In infants born in 1995 the breastfeeding rate at six months was 64 percent for healthy newborns and 53 percent for sick newborns. Factors other than the time of discharge, most likely a positive change of attitude in society and vigorous introduction of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative, seem to have been more important for successful breastfeeding.

  11. Non Melanoma Skin Cancer and Subsequent Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Judy R.; Zens, M. Scot; Gui, Jiang; Celaya, Maria O.; Riddle, Bruce L.; Karagas, Margaret R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Several studies have shown an increased risk of cancer after non melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) but the individual risk factors underlying this risk have not been elucidated, especially in relation to sun exposure and skin sensitivity to sunlight. Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the individual risk factors associated with the development of subsequent cancers after non melanoma skin cancer. Methods Participants in the population-based New Hampshire Skin Cancer Study provided detailed risk factor data, and subsequent cancers were identified via linkage with the state cancer registry. Deaths were identified via state and national death records. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate risk of subsequent malignancies in NMSC patients versus controls and to assess the potential confounding effects of multiple risk factors on this risk. Results Among 3584 participants, risk of a subsequent cancer (other than NMSC) was higher after basal cell carcinoma (BCC) (adjusted HR 1.40 [95% CI 1.15, 1.71]) than squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (adjusted HR 1.18 [95% CI 0.95, 1.46]) compared to controls (adjusted for age, sex and current cigarette smoking). After SCC, risk was higher among those diagnosed before age 60 (HR 1.96 [95% CI 1.24, 3.12]). An over 3-fold risk of melanoma after SCC (HR 3.62; 95% CI 1.85, 7.11) and BCC (HR 3.28; 95% CI 1.66, 6.51) was observed, even after further adjustment for sun exposure-related factors and family history of skin cancer. In men, prostate cancer incidence was higher after BCC compared to controls (HR 1.64; 95% CI 1.10, 2.46). Conclusions Our population-based study indicates an increased cancer risk after NMSC that cannot be fully explained by known cancer risk factors. PMID:24937304

  12. Non melanoma skin cancer and subsequent cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy R Rees

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown an increased risk of cancer after non melanoma skin cancers (NMSC but the individual risk factors underlying this risk have not been elucidated, especially in relation to sun exposure and skin sensitivity to sunlight.The aim of this study was to examine the individual risk factors associated with the development of subsequent cancers after non melanoma skin cancer.Participants in the population-based New Hampshire Skin Cancer Study provided detailed risk factor data, and subsequent cancers were identified via linkage with the state cancer registry. Deaths were identified via state and national death records. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate risk of subsequent malignancies in NMSC patients versus controls and to assess the potential confounding effects of multiple risk factors on this risk.Among 3584 participants, risk of a subsequent cancer (other than NMSC was higher after basal cell carcinoma (BCC (adjusted HR 1.40 [95% CI 1.15, 1.71] than squamous cell carcinoma (SCC (adjusted HR 1.18 [95% CI 0.95, 1.46] compared to controls (adjusted for age, sex and current cigarette smoking. After SCC, risk was higher among those diagnosed before age 60 (HR 1.96 [95% CI 1.24, 3.12]. An over 3-fold risk of melanoma after SCC (HR 3.62; 95% CI 1.85, 7.11 and BCC (HR 3.28; 95% CI 1.66, 6.51 was observed, even after further adjustment for sun exposure-related factors and family history of skin cancer. In men, prostate cancer incidence was higher after BCC compared to controls (HR 1.64; 95% CI 1.10, 2.46.Our population-based study indicates an increased cancer risk after NMSC that cannot be fully explained by known cancer risk factors.

  13. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  14. Correlation between trainee candidate selection criteria and subsequent performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selber, Jesse C; Tong, Winnie; Koshy, John; Ibrahim, Amir; Liu, Jun; Butler, Charles

    2014-11-01

    The objective of trainee recruitment is to identify candidates likely to perform well as trainees and subsequent faculty. The effectiveness of this process has not been established. The goal of this study was to identify trainee selection criteria predictive of excellent performance. Twenty-nine microsurgery fellows were enrolled from 2008 to 2012. Each candidate was interviewed and rated based on presentation, plastic surgery (PS) training experience, academic potential, personality, social skills, communication skills, and ability to be a team player. An unadjusted rank list was generated based on weighted averages, and an adjusted rank list was then generated at a faculty meeting. At the conclusion of fellowship, each fellow was rated based on the ACGME core competencies. Spearman correlation coefficients (r) were used to measure the correlations between fellow selection criteria and fellow performance. Plastic surgery training and academic potential had, by far, the strongest correlation to overall performance (r: 0.678, p competencies. When reformulated to weight PS training and academic potential more heavily than subjective criteria, the scoring system was significantly more predictive of excellent performance (r: 0.49 vs 0.70). The unadjusted rank list was more predictive of excellent performance than the adjusted rank list (r: 0.45 vs 0.65). Plastic surgery training experience and academic potential were better predictors of performance than any subjective information ascertained during the interview. Adjustments to the rank list based on faculty discussion resulted in lower performance candidates moving up in ranking. Ranking criteria and interview techniques must be refined to improve predictive power. It may be beneficial for semi-objective criteria to carry more weight than subjective criteria and raw scores to remain unadjusted by extraneous information. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Using Academic Journals to Help Students Learn Subject Matter Content, Develop and Practice Critical Reasoning Skills, and Reflect on Personal Values in Food Science and Human Nutrition Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaoka, Wayne T.; Crosetti, Lea M.

    2008-01-01

    It has been reported that students learn best when they use a wide variety of techniques to understand the information of the discipline, be it visual, auditory, discussion with others, metacognition, hands-on activities, or writing about the subject. We report in this article the use of academic journals not only as an aid for students to learn…

  16. Initial results of a study into the estimation of the development of frequency lock-in for offshore structures subjected to ice loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrikse, H.; Seidel, Marc; Metrikine, A.; Loset, Sveinung

    2017-01-01

    Ice-induced vibrations have to be considered in design of vertically sided offshore structures subjected to loading by sea ice, such as offshore wind turbines and oil- and gas platforms. The interaction between ice and structure may result in high global peak loads and the occurring structural

  17. Adding a subjective dimension to an ICF-based disability measure for people with multiple sclerosis : development and use of a measure for perception of disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wynia, K.; Middel, B.; de Ruiter, H.; van Dijk, J.P.; Lok, W.S.; De Keyser, J.H.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. The subjective dimension of disability, the perception of disability, is a dimension missing from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), and from health-related quality of life (HRQOL) instruments. However, it is a highly relevant dimension for

  18. HEPA filter fire (and subsequent unfiltered release)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-12

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: HEPA Filter Failure - Exposure to High Temperature or Pressure. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  19. Mental imagery affects subsequent automatic defense responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, Muriel; Mesbah, Rahele; Cremers, Henk

    Automatic defense responses promote survival and appropriate action under threat. They have also been associated with the development of threat-related psychiatric syndromes. Targeting such automatic responses during threat may be useful in populations with frequent threat exposure. Here, two

  20. Mental Imagery Affects Subsequent Automatic Defense Responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, M.A.; Mesbah, R.; Cremers, H.R.

    2015-01-01

    Automatic defense responses promote survival and appropriate action under threat. They have also been associated with the development of threat-related psychiatric syndromes. Targeting such automatic responses during threat may be useful in populations with frequent threat exposure. Here, two

  1. HEPA filter fire (and subsequent unfiltered release)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, T.B.

    1996-09-27

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: HEPA Filter Failure - Exposure to High Temperature or Pressure. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  2. Risk of subsequent gastrointestinal cancer among childhood cancer survivors : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teepen, Jop C.; de Vroom, Suzanne L.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Tissing, Wim J.; Kremer, Leontien C.; Ronckers, Cecile M.

    Background: Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are at increased risk of developing subsequent malignant neoplasms, including gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. We performed a systematic review to summarize all available literature on the risk of, risk factors for, and outcome after subsequent GI cancer

  3. DEVELOPING ‘STANDARD NOVEL ‘VAD’ TECHNIQUE’ AND ‘NOISE FREE SIGNALS’ FOR SPEECH AUDITORY BRAINSTEM RESPONSES FOR HUMAN SUBJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ranganadh Narayanam

    2016-01-01

    In this research as a first step we have concentrated on collecting non-intra cortical EEG data of Brainstem Speech Evoked Potentials from human subjects in an Audiology Lab in University of Ottawa. The problems we have considered are the most advanced and most essential problems of interest in Auditory Neural Signal Processing area in the world: The first problem is the Voice Activity Detection (VAD) in Speech Auditory Brainstem Responses (ABR); The second problem is to identify the best De-...

  4. How French subjects describe well-being from food and eating habits? Development, item reduction and scoring definition of the Well-Being related to Food Questionnaire (Well-BFQ©).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemin, I; Marrel, A; Arnould, B; Capuron, L; Dupuy, A; Ginon, E; Layé, S; Lecerf, J-M; Prost, M; Rogeaux, M; Urdapilleta, I; Allaert, F-A

    2016-01-01

    Providing well-being and maintaining good health are main objectives subjects seek from diet. This manuscript describes the development and preliminary validation of an instrument assessing well-being associated with food and eating habits in a general healthy population. Qualitative data from 12 groups of discussion (102 subjects) conducted with healthy subjects were used to develop the core of the Well-being related to Food Questionnaire (Well-BFQ). Twelve other groups of discussion with subjects with joint (n = 34), digestive (n = 32) or repetitive infection complaints (n = 30) were performed to develop items specific to these complaints. Five main themes emerged from the discussions and formed the modular backbone of the questionnaire: "Grocery shopping", "Cooking", "Dining places", "Commensality", "Eating and drinking". Each module has a common structure: items about subject's food behavior and items about immediate and short-term benefits. An additional theme - "Eating habits and health" - assesses subjects' beliefs about expected benefits of food and eating habits on health, disease prevention and protection, and quality of ageing. A preliminary validation was conducted with 444 subjects with balanced diet; non-balanced diet; and standard diet. The structure of the questionnaire was further determined using principal component analyses exploratory factor analyses, with confirmation of the sub-sections food behaviors, immediate benefits (pleasure, security, relaxation), direct short-term benefits (digestion and satiety, energy and psychology), and deferred long-term benefits (eating habits and health). Thirty-three subscales and 14 single items were further defined. Confirmatory analyses confirmed the structure, with overall moderate to excellent convergent and divergent validity and internal consistency reliability. The Well-BFQ is a unique, modular tool that comprehensively assesses the full picture of well-being related to food and eating habits in

  5. Effect of salt intensity in soup on ad libitum intake and on subsequent food choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, D.P.; Lakemond, C.M.M.; Wijk, de R.A.; Luning, P.A.; Graaf, de C.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of salt intensity on ad libitum intake of tomato soup was investigated when soup was served as a first course and as a second course. Also the effect of salt intensity in soup on subsequent sweet vs. savory choice of sandwich fillings was investigated. Forty-three healthy subjects

  6. Taste of a 24-h diet and its effect on subsequent food preferences and satiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen-Roose, S.; Hogenkamp, P.S.; Mars, M.; Finlayson, G.; Graaf, de C.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of taste of a 24-h diet on subsequent food preferences (food choice and intake of specific food categories) and satiety. We used a crossover design, consisting of a 24-h fully controlled dietary intervention, during which 39 healthy subjects

  7. Visual perception of spatial subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterloh, K.R.S.; Ewert, U. [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Principally, any imaging technology consists of two consecutive, though strictly separated processes: data acquisition and subsequent processing to generate an image that can be looked at, either on a monitor screen or printed on paper. Likewise, the physiological process of viewing can be separated into vision and perception, though these processes are much more overlapping. Understanding the appearance of a subject requires the entire sequence from receiving the information carried e.g. by photons up to an appropriate processing leading to the perception of the subject shown. As a consequence, the imagination of a subject is a result of both, technological and physiological processes. Whenever an evaluation of an image is critical, also the physiological part of the processing should be considered. However, an image has two dimensions in the first place and reality is spatial, it has three dimensions. This problem has been tackled on a philosophical level at least since Platon's famous discussion on the shadow image in a dark cave. The mere practical point is which structural details can be perceived and what may remain undetected depending on the mode of presentation. This problem cannot be resolved without considering each single step of visual perception. Physiologically, there are three 'tools' available to understanding the spatial structure of a subject: binocular viewing, following the course of perspective projection and motion to collect multiple aspects. Artificially, an object may be cut in various ways to display the interior or covering parts could be made transparent within a model. Samples will be shown how certain details of a subject can be emphasised or hidden depending on the way of presentation. It needs to be discussed what might help to perceive the true spatial structure of a subject with all relevant details and what could be misleading. (authors)

  8. Differential interference effects of negative emotional states on subsequent semantic and perceptual processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlick, Marissa A.; Mather, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Past studies have revealed that encountering negative events interferes with cognitive processing of subsequent stimuli. The present study investigated whether negative events affect semantic and perceptual processing differently. Presentation of negative pictures produced slower reaction times than neutral or positive pictures in tasks that require semantic processing, such as natural/man-made judgments about drawings of objects, commonness judgments about objects, and categorical judgments about pairs of words. In contrast, negative picture presentation did not slow down judgments in subsequent perceptual processing (e.g., color judgments about words, and size judgments about objects). The subjective arousal level of negative pictures did not modulate the interference effects on semantic/perceptual processing. These findings indicate that encountering negative emotional events interferes with semantic processing of subsequent stimuli more strongly than perceptual processing, and that not all types of subsequent cognitive processing are impaired by negative events. PMID:22142207

  9. Lack of association between postactivation potentiation and subsequent jump performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Stephen John; Hussain, Syed Robiul

    2014-01-01

    Postactivation potentiation (PAP) is a strategy that has been used to acutely enhance the performance of explosive activities. Although, isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) have previously been shown to enhance subsequent explosive performance, no information currently exists regarding (1) the optimal variables (intensity/volume) of a MVC that best elicits a PAP response, and (2) the utilisation of evoked isometric twitch contractions in combination with performance measures to directly ascertain the presence of PAP following a MVC, and its relationship to performance. Thus, the purpose of this study was to (1) investigate the influence of isometric contraction duration on the PAP response, and (2) to determine the relationship between PAP, indicated as potentiation of muscle twitch force and subsequent jump performance following different-duration MVCs. Eight males (age: 21 ± 0.99) were assessed using performance measures [countermovement jumps] and evoked twitch contractions, before and 4 minutes after three different conditioning contractions (CCs), (1) a 3-second MVC (MVC3), (2) a 5-second MVC (MVC5) and (3) a 7-second MVC (MVC7). Following all CCs, peak twitch torque of the knee extensor muscles was found to increase (MVC3, + 3.9%; MVC5, + 9.6%; MVC7, + 5.2%), although not significantly (P > 0.05). No significant increases in jump height, jump power, rate of force development or takeoff velocity were observed following any of the CCs (P > 0.05). There was also a lack of association between the changes in PAP (twitch torque) and jump height following all CCs (MVC3, r = 0.25; MVC5, r = 0.28; MVC7, r = -0.47). These data indicate that PAP as assessed via twitch contractions is not associated with performance measures subsequent to single-set isometric CCs of varying durations.

  10. Optimizing nasal potential difference analysis for CFTR modulator development: assessment of ivacaftor in CF subjects with the G551D-CFTR mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M Rowe

    Full Text Available Nasal potential difference (NPD is used as a biomarker of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC activity. We evaluated methods to detect changes in chloride and sodium transport by NPD based on a secondary analysis of a Phase II CFTR-modulator study. Thirty-nine subjects with CF who also had the G551D-CFTR mutation were randomized to receive ivacaftor (Kalydeco™; also known as VX-770 in four doses or placebo twice daily for at least 14 days. All data were analyzed by a single investigator who was blinded to treatment assignment. We compared three analysis methods to determine the best approach to quantify changes in chloride and sodium transport: (1 the average of both nostrils; (2 the most-polarized nostril at each visit; and (3 the most-polarized nostril at screening carried forward. Parameters of ion transport included the PD change with zero chloride plus isoproterenol (CFTR activity, the basal PD, Ringer's PD, and change in PD with amiloride (measurements of ENaC activity, and the delta NPD (measuring CFTR and ENaC activity. The average and most-polarized nostril at each visit were most sensitive to changes in chloride and sodium transport, whereas the most-polarized nostril at screening carried forward was less discriminatory. Based on our findings, NPD studies should assess both nostrils rather than a single nostril. We also found that changes in CFTR activity were more readily detected than changes in ENaC activity, and that rigorous standardization was associated with relatively good within-subject reproducibility in placebo-treated subjects (± 2.8 mV. Therefore, we have confirmed an assay of reasonable reproducibility for detecting chloride-transport improvements in response to CFTR modulation.

  11. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Subsequent Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Feng-You; Chen, Wei-Kung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is considered one of the most crucial health concerns. Few studies have investigated the correlation between CO poisoning and the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Therefore, we conducted a population-based, longitudinal cohort study in Taiwan to determine whether patients with CO poisoning are associated with higher risk of developing subsequent CVDs, including arrhythmia, coronary artery disease (CAD) and congestive heart failure (CHF). This retrospective study used the National Health Insurance Research Database. The study cohort comprised all patients aged ≥20 years with a diagnosis of CO poisoning and hospitalized during 2000 to 2011 (N = 8381), and the comparison cohort comprised randomly selected non-CO-poisoned patients (N = 33,524) frequency-matched with the study cohort by age, sex, and the year of index date. Each patient was individually tracked to identify those who develop CVD events during the follow-up period. Cox proportional hazards regression model was performed to calculate the hazard ratios of CVDs after adjusting for possible confounders. The overall incidences of arrhythmia, CAD, and CHF were higher in the patients with CO poisoning than in the controls (2.57 vs 1.25/1000 person-years, 3.28 vs 2.25/1000 person-years, and 1.32 vs 1.05/1000 person-years, respectively). After adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities, the patients with CO poisoning were associated with a 1.83-fold higher risk of arrhythmia compared with the comparison cohort, and nonsignificantly associated with risk of CAD and CHF. CO-poisoned patients with coexisting comorbidity or in high severity were associated with significantly and substantially increased risk of all 3 CVDs. CO poisoning is associated with increased risk of subsequent development of arrhythmia. Future studies are required to explore the long-term effects of CO poisoning on the cardiovascular system. PMID:25761191

  12. Development and validation of a structured questionnaire for the diagnosis of oral allergy syndrome in subjects with seasonal allergic rhinitis during the UK birch pollen season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skypala, I J; Calderon, M A; Leeds, A R; Emery, P; Till, S J; Durham, S R

    2011-07-01

    Birch pollen-associated oral allergy syndrome, also known as pollen-food syndrome (PFS), is the most common food allergy in adults in the United Kingdom. Because of its characteristic rapid onset of oro-pharyngeal symptoms associated with specific plant foods, it was hypothesized that a history-based questionnaire could accurately diagnose PFS in subjects with rhino-conjunctivitis symptoms in the UK springtime. In this study of diagnostic accuracy, we aimed to validate a simple PFS diagnostic questionnaire and algorithm against a reference diagnostic test method (RTM) comprising diagnosis by expert evaluation of clinical history, skin prick tests and oral food challenge, in subjects reporting allergic rhinitis (AR) in the UK birch pollen season from March to May. Participants were UK adults reporting symptoms of spring time-AR (hayfever). They self-completed a diagnostic questionnaire in addition to undergoing an RTM comprising clinical history, skin prick testing to foods and pollens and oral food challenge. Subjects who reported anaphylaxis were excluded on the basis that they required specialist referral. One hundred and twenty three subjects took part in the study. Data from 110 participants were analysed; of the 13 exclusions, four provided insufficient data and nine reported anaphylaxis such that they warranted specialist assessment. Fifty-two participants (47%) were diagnosed with PFS by the RTM in comparison with 51 (46%) by a diagnostic questionnaire and algorithm (P=1.000, McNemar's test). The diagnostic questionnaire and algorithm had a sensitivity of 0.90 (0.78-0.96), a specificity of 0.93 (0.82-0.97), a positive predictive value of 0.92 (0.80-0.97) and a negative predictive value of 0.91 (0.80-0.96) when measured against the RTM. The diagnostic questionnaire and algorithm is a practical and robust tool, which enables rapid identification, and therefore management, of individuals with PFS who experience rhino-conjunctivitis symptoms in the UK birch

  13. Flows around two airfoils performing fling and subsequent translation and translation and subsequent clap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Sun; Xin, Yu

    2003-04-01

    The aerodynamic forces and flow structures of two airfoils performing “fling and subsequent translation” and “translation and subsequent clap” are studied by numerically solving the Navier-Stokes equations in moving overset grids. These motions are relevant to the flight of very small insects. The Reynolds number, based on the airfoil chord length c and the translation velocity U, is 17. It is shown that: (1) For two airfoils performing fling and subsequent translation, a large lift is generated both in the fling phase and in the early part of the translation phase. During the fling phase, a pair of leading edge vortices of large strength is generated; the generation of the vortex pair in a short period results in a large time rate of change of fluid impulse, which explains the large lift in this period. During the early part of the translation, the two leading edge vortices move with the airfoils; the relative movement of the vortices also results in a large time rate of change of fluid impulse, which explains the large lift in this part of motion. (In the later part of the translation, the vorticity in the vortices is diffused and convected into the wake.) The time averaged lift coefficient is approximately 2.4 times as large as that of a single airfoil performing a similar motion. (2) For two airfoils performing translation and subsequent clap, a large lift is generated in the clap phase. During the clap, a pair of trailing edge vortices of large strength are generated; again, the generation of the vortex pair in a short period (which results in a large time rate of change of fluid impulse) is responsible for the large lift in this period. The time averaged lift coefficient is approximately 1.6 times as large as that of a single airfoil performing a similar motion. (3) When the initial distance between the airfoils (in the case of clap, the final distance between the airfoils) varies from 0.1 to 0.2 c, the lift on an airfoil decreases only slightly but

  14. Is Piaget's epistemic subject dead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    Niaz (1990) presents arguments in favor of the retention of Piaget's epistemic subject as a theoretical construct to guide research and practice in science education and psychology. The intent of this article is to point out the weaknesses of those arguments and to suggest that the weight of evidence argues against the existence of the logical thinker postulated by Piaget. Therefore, contrary to Niaz's conclusion that the acceptance of Piaget's epistemic subject will facilitate the development of cognitive theories with greater explanatory power, the conclusion is reached that Piaget's epistemic subject is dead and that continued acceptance of this aspect of Piagetian theory would be counterproductive.

  15. Splenectomy increases the subsequent risk of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chao-Yu; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Hsu, Chung Y; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-02-01

    Splenectomy may be necessary to treat systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with thrombocytopenia; however, whether performing a splenectomy on patients without SLE increases the subsequent risk of SLE remains unknown. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the association between splenectomy and SLE. We conducted a cohort study by using data from the Taiwan National Health Institute Research Database to identify 10,298 patients with received a splenectomy between 2000 and 2006 and 41,192 participants without received a splenectomy who were selected by frequency matched based on sex, age, and the index year. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of developing SLE associated with splenectomy compared with patients who did not receive a splenectomy. During the study period, the overall incidence density rate of SLE was higher in the splenectomy cohort than in the non-splenectomy cohort (adjusted HR 10.55; 95 % CI 50.55-20.05). The incidence density rates of SLE in women and men who received a splenectomy were higher than those of patients who did not receive a splenectomy. Non-traumatic splenectomy increases the subsequent risk of SLE. The risk of SLE should be considered before performing a splenectomy, particularly in women and younger patients.

  16. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ESTHETIC SENSIBILITY THROUGH THE SUBJECT HISTORY OF CUBA / EL DESARROLLO DE LA SENSIBILIDAD ESTÉTICA DESDE LA ASIGNATURA HISTORIA DE CUBA

    OpenAIRE

    Martha María Casas Rodríguez; Gerardo Quintero Pupo

    2012-01-01

    The work presented herein is a synthesis of an important pedagogical investigation for the aesthetic education of the art student in the elementary level. It was developed and validated in practice at Luis Casas Romero primary school. The objective is to reveal the relationship between the historical contents and aesthetics through a pedagogical model for the development of the aesthetic expression in the learning of Cuban History. It offers a pedagogical alternative for the aesthetic develop...

  17. Effect of recovery interventions on lactate removal and subsequent performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monedero, J; Donne, B

    2000-11-01

    The recovery process in sport plays an essential role in determining subsequent athletic performance. This study investigated the effectiveness of different recovery interventions after maximal exercise. Eighteen trained male cyclists initially undertook an incremental test to determine maximal oxygen consumption. The four recovery interventions tested were: passive, active (50% maximal oxygen uptake), massage, and combined (involving active and massage components). All test sessions were separated by 2 to 3 days. During intervention trials subjects performed two simulated 5 km maximal effort cycling tests (T1 and T2) separated by a 20 min recovery. Performance time for the tests (t1, t2); blood lactate (BLa) during T1, T2, and every 3 min during recovery; and heart rate (HR) during the recovery intervention and T2 were recorded. Combined recovery was found to be better than passive (Pmassage (Pperformance time during T2. Active recovery was the most effective intervention for removing BLa at minutes 9 and 12, BLa removal during combined recovery was significantly better than passive at minute 3, and significantly better than passive, active, and massage at minute 15. In conclusion, combined recovery was the most efficient intervention for maintaining maximal performance time during T2, and active recovery was the best intervention for removing BLa.

  18. Induced abortion and the risk of subsequent ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, V L; Daling, J R; Voigt, L F; McKnight, B; Stergachis, A; Chu, J; Weiss, N S

    1989-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of legal induced abortion on ectopic pregnancy risk by using a comparison group of reproductive-age women who were at risk of becoming pregnant during the same time period the women with ectopic pregnancy conceived. Cases were members of Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound who were hospitalized for ectopic pregnancy from October 1981 through September 1986 (N = 211). Controls were randomly selected members matched to cases on age and county of residence (N = 457). All subjects in this analysis had had one or more prior pregnancies. Eighty-eight cases (41.7 per cent) and 177 controls (38.7 per cent) had a history of one or more induced abortions. The relative risk of ectopic pregnancy associated with one abortion was 0.9 (95 per cent confidence interval 0.6, 1.3), adjusted for age, county, reference date, religion, gravidity, age at first pregnancy, lifetime number of sexual partners, and miscarriage history. Among women with two or more prior pregnancies, the risk associated with two or more abortions was 1.2 (0.6, 2.4). Controlling for pelvic inflammatory disease and use of intrauterine devices did not alter these risks. We conclude that legal abortion as performed in the US since 1970 has little or no influence on a woman's risk of ectopic pregnancy in subsequent pregnancies. PMID:2764199

  19. The control processes and subjective well-being of Chinese teachers: Evidence of convergence with and divergence from the key propositions of the motivational theory of life-span development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Chi eWong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An analytical review of the motivational theory of life-span development reveals that this theory has undergone a series of elegant theoretical integrations. Its claim to universality nonetheless brings forth unresolved controversies. With the purpose of scrutinizing the key propositions of this theory, an empirical study was designed to examine the control processes and subjective well-being of Chinese teachers (N = 637. The OPS-Scales (Optimization in Primary and Secondary Control Scales for the Domain of Teaching were constructed to assess patterns of control processes. Three facets of subjective well-being were investigated with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Life Satisfaction Scale, and the Subjective Vitality Scale. The results revealed certain aspects of alignment with and certain divergences from the key propositions of the motivational theory of life-span development. Neither primacy of primary control nor primacy of secondary control was clearly supported. Notably, using different criteria for subjective well-being yielded different subtypes of primary and secondary control as predictors. The hypothesized life-span trajectories of primary and secondary control received limited support. To advance the theory in this area, we recommend incorporating Lakatos’ ideas about sophisticated falsification by specifying the hard core of the motivational theory of life-span development and articulating new auxiliary hypotheses.

  20. Promoting Self-Directed Learning in Developing or Poorly Defined Subject Areas: A Problem-Based Course in Molecular Biology, Genetics, and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Katherine M.

    A new problem-based course in molecular biology, genetics, and cancer for first-year veterinary students was developed at the College of Veterinary Medicine at Cornell University (New York). The course was developed out of a desire to foster student-centered and lifelong learning and to integrate basic and clinical science knowledge despite a lack…

  1. Is Non-Subject Based Research Training a "Waste of Time," Good Only for the Development of Professional Skills? An Academic Literacies Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastalich, Wendy; Behrend, Monica; Bloomfield, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, contentiously for some, universities have developed generalist skills lists and associated curricula in response to government demand for more "employment-ready" graduates. Such training usually includes writing and communication. In Australia and the UK, guidelines designed to support the development of skills…

  2. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  3. SUBSEQUENT NEOPLASMS OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM AMONG SURVIVORS OF CHILDHOOD CANCER: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Daniel C.; Nathan, Paul C.; Constine, Louis; Woodman, Catherine; Bhatia, Smita; Keller, Karen; Bashore, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Childhood cancer survivors are at risk for development of subsequent neoplasms of the central nervous system (CNS). Better understanding of the rates, risk factors for and outcomes of subsequent neoplasms of the CNS among survivors of childhood cancer may lead to the development of more informed screening guidelines. Two independent investigators independently performed a systematic search of studies from the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases (1966 – 2012) for studies examining subsequent neoplasms of the CNS among childhood cancer survivors. Articles were selected to answer 3 questions: What is the risk of CNS tumors following radiation to the cranium for a pediatric cancer as compared with the general population? What are the outcomes in children with subsequent neoplasms of the CNS who have been treated with CNS directed radiation for a pediatric cancer? Are outcomes of subsequent neoplasms different from primary neoplasms of the same histology? Our search identified 72 reports, of which 18 publications were included in this review. These studies reported that childhood cancer survivors have an 8.1 – 52.3 times higher incidence of subsequent CNS neoplasms compared with the general population. Nearly all cancer survivors who developed a CNS neoplasm had been exposed to cranial radiation; some studies demonstrate a correlation between radiation dose and risk of subsequent CNS tumors. Five year survival rates for subsequent high-grade gliomas and meningiomas range from 0 – 19.5% and 73 – 100%, respectively, which are similar to those observed in patients with primary gliomas or meningiomas. The quality of evidence was limited by variation in study design, heterogeneity of details regarding treatment and outcomes, limited follow-up and relatively small sample sizes. We concluded that survivors of childhood cancer who were treated with cranial radiation therapy have an elevated risk for subsequent CNS neoplasms. The current literature is insufficient to comment

  4. Effects of antibiotics on human microbiota and subsequent disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeney, Kristie M; Yurist-Doutsch, Sophie; Arrieta, Marie-Claire; Finlay, B Brett

    2014-01-01

    Although antibiotics have significantly improved human health and life expectancy, their disruption of the existing microbiota has been linked to significant side effects such as antibiotic-associated diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis, and increased susceptibility to subsequent disease. By using antibiotics to break colonization resistance against Clostridium, Salmonella, and Citrobacter species, researchers are now exploring mechanisms for microbiota-mediated modulation against pathogenic infection, revealing potential roles for different phyla and family members as well as microbiota-liberated sugars, hormones, and short-chain fatty acids in regulating pathogenicity. Furthermore, connections are now being made between microbiota dysbiosis and a variety of different diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, type 1 diabetes, atopy, and obesity. Future advances in the rapidly developing field of microbial bioinformatics will enable researchers to further characterize the mechanisms of microbiota modulation of disease and potentially identify novel therapeutics against disease.

  5. Energy solutions for CO2 emission peak and subsequent decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risø International Energy Conference 2009 took place 14 – 16 September 2009. The conference focused on: • Future global energy development options Scenario and policy issues • Measures to achieve CO2 emission peak in 2015 – 2020 and subsequent decline • Renewable energy supply technologies...... such as bioenergy, wind and solar • Centralized energy technologies such as clean coal technologies • Energy conversion, energy carriers and energy storage, including fuel cells and hydrogen technologies • Providing renewable energy for the transport sector • Systems aspects for the various regions throughout...... the world • End-use technologies, efficiency improvements in supply and end use • Energy savings The proceedings are prepared from papers presented at the conference and received with corrections, if any, until the final deadline on 3 August 2009....

  6. Study on subsequent neurologic complications in children with acute leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Naoaki; Shimazaki, Haruyo; Hoshi, Yasutaka; Akatsuka, Jun-ichi (Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-06-01

    Twenty-seven children with acute leukemia were studied in order to detect the subsequent neurologic complications due to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Twenty-four patients with ALL received central nervous system prophylaxis including cranial irradiation. The methods of evaluation consisted of electroencephalogram (EEG), computed tomography of the head (CT scan), soft neurological sign, intelligence quotient (IQ) and Bender Gestalt test. The patients with relapse showed severe abnormalities in various kinds of examinations. Younger children at diagnosis were associated with a higher abnormality rate of soft neurological signs and Bender Gestalt test. Factors which were found to be closely associated with a lower IQ score included younger children at diagnosis and longer duration of remission time. These results indicate the need for caution for the dosage of cranial irradiation for younger patients in CNS prophylaxis, and improvement of a lower IQ score in long-term survivors requires further investigation as to the appropriate intellectual environment for their development after remission. (author).

  7. Increased risk for diabetes development in subjects with large variation in total cholesterol levels in 2,827,950 Koreans: A nationwide population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jung Rhee

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest a role for hyperlipidemia in the development of diabetes. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between variations of total cholesterol (TC levels and the risk for type 2 diabetes development from a Korean nationwide population-based database.We examined the General Health Check-up sub-dataset of the Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS of 2,827,950 participants who had at least three health check-ups between 2002 and 2007, and were not reported to have diabetes during that time. The variations of TC levels between the examinations were calculated as follows: [Formula: see text]. The examinees were divided into 10 groups according to TC variation, and the hazard ratio for diabetes development from 2007 to 2013, were analyzed.During the follow-up period, 3.4% of the participants had developed diabetes. The hazard ratio (HR for diabetes development relative to the overall risk in the whole study population started to be higher than 1.0 from eighth decile of TC variation. The highest decile group showed an increased HR for diabetes development after adjustment for confounding variables (1.139; 95% confidence interval 1.116~1.163. These results were similar regardless of the use of anti-hyperlipidemic medication and baseline TC levels.The participants with a large variation in TC levels showed an increased risk for diabetes development, independent of the use of anti-hyperlipidemic medications. These results suggest a relationship between fluctuations in lipid levels and the development of type 2 diabetes.

  8. International Energy: Subject Thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raridon, M.H. (ed.)

    1990-01-01

    The International Energy Subject Thesaurus contains the standard vocabulary to indexing terms (descriptors) developed and structured to build and maintain energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and (2) the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) staff representing the more than ninety countries and organizations recording and indexing information for the international nuclear information community. ETDE member countries are also members of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). Nuclear information indexed and recorded for INIS by these ETDE member countries is also included in the ETDE Energy Data Base, and indexing terminology is therefore cooperatively standardized for use in both information systems. This structured vocabulary reflects the scope of international energy research, development, and technological programs and encompasses terminology derived not only from the basic sciences but also from the areas of energy resources, conservation, safety, environmental impact, and regulation.

  9. Fecal pollution in coastal marine sediments from a semi-enclosed deep embayment subjected to anthropogenic activities: an issue to be considered in environmental quality management frameworks development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fernández, D; Garrido-Pérez, M C; Nebot-Sanz, E; Sales-Márquez, D

    2010-12-01

    Sewage discharge is a major source of pollution in marine environments. Urban wastewaters can directly enter marine environments carrying pathogen organisms, organic loads, and nutrients. Because marine sediments can act as the ultimate fate of a wide range of pollutants, environmental quality assessment in this compartment can help to identify pollution problems in coastal areas. In the present study, characterization of surficial marine sediments allowed assessment of fecal pollution in a semi-enclosed deep embayment that is subjected to anthropogenic activities. Physicochemical parameters and fecal indicators presented a great spatial heterogeneity. Fecal coliform and Clostridium perfringens showed accumulation in an extensive area, not only in proximity to sewage discharge points, but also in sediments at 100 meters depth. Results included herein demonstrated that, in coastal areas, urban wastewater discharge can affect the whole ecosystem through accumulation of fecal matter in bottom sediments. Application of multivariate techniques provided useful information with applicability for management of coastal areas in such complex systems. Environmental implications of wastewater discharge in coastal areas indicate the need to implement and include sediment quality control strategies in legislative frameworks.

  10. The Development of Learning Processes by Direct Instruction Model and Peer – Assisted Learning achievement and attitude toward Thai Dancing Subject in Prathomsuksa 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saowari Phubanchuen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study was to.. 1 study the expert’s opinion about teaching technique, teaching processes and the development of instrumental learning process on Dramatic Arts. 2 to develop the instrumental lesson plans using Direct Instruction Model and Peer Tutoring approach 3 to study the students learning outcome after using the developed lesson plans. The sample consists of 35 fifth grade students studying in Mahasarakham University Demonstration School (Elementary in 2016 Academic year using Cluster Random Sampling technique. Research toolsconsisted of 1 8 lesson plans. 2 Practical skills test and 3 chievement test. The collected data was analyzed by percentage Mean standardize score and Dependent Sample t-test The result of the study were as follow: 1. The expert’s opinion toward teaching Dramatic Arts suggest that the learning purposes and the nature of the course is the most important. Learning process has to encourage children to participate, and has served as both the audience and the performers. The good performances have been trained so they have needed skills in order to be confident and assertive plus having ability to criticism the show creatively. 2. The developed instrumental lesson plans using Direct Instruction Model and Peer Tutoring approach are appropriate in the highest level ( = 4.60. 3. The students learning outcome after using the developed lesson plans 3.1 developed instrumental lesson plans using Direct Instruction Model and Peer Tutoring approach had the Efficiency (E1/ E2 of 88.11 / 87.483.2 students’ practical skills after learning are more advanced with an average overall very satisfactory. 3.3 student achievement after learning increased from the previous level of statistical significance at level.05. 3.4 student satisfaction with the learning process using the learning management improved overall in most.

  11. The Bt-DUX: development of a subjective measure of health-related quality of life in patients who underwent surgery for lower extremity malignant bone tumor.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkering, W.P.; Vlieland, T.P.; Koopman, H.M.; Schaap, G.R.; Schreuder, H.W.B.; Beishuizen, A.; Tissing, W.J.; Hoogerbrugge, P.M.; Anninga, J.K.; Taminiau, A.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine the practical applicability, internal consistency, and validity of the Bt-DUX, a disease-specific Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) instrument. The Bt-Dux was developed to examine patients' individual values of their life after a malignant bone tumor of the lower

  12. The Bt-DUX : Development of a Subjective Measure of Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients Who Underwent Surgery for Lower Extremity Malignant Bone Tumor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkering, W. Peter; Vlieland, Theodora P. M. Vliet; Koopman, Hendrik M.; Schaap, Gerard R.; Schreuder, H. W. Bart; Beishuizen, Auke; Tissing, Wim J. E.; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M.; Anninga, Jacob K.; Taminiau, Antonie H. M.

    Background To examine the practical applicability, internal consistency, and validity of the Bt-DUX, a disease-specific Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) instrument. The Bt-Dux was developed to examine patients' individual values of their life after a malignant bone tumor of the lower extremity

  13. Development of Arithmetical Thinking: Evaluation of Subject Matter Knowledge of Pre-Service Teachers in Order to Design the Appropriate Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guberman, Raisa

    2016-01-01

    One of the key courses in the mathematics teacher education program in Israel is arithmetic, which engages in contents which these pre-service mathematics teachers (PMTs) will later teach at school. Teaching arithmetic involves knowledge about the essence of the concept of "number" and the development thereof, calculation methods and…

  14. The Development of Cooperative Learning Model Based on Local Wisdom of Bali for Physical Education, Sport and Health Subject in Junior High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoda, I. K.

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a cooperative learning model based on local wisdom (PKBKL) of Bali (Tri Pramana’s concept), for physical education, sport, and health learning in VII grade of Junior High School in Singaraja-Buleleng Bali. This research is the development research of the development design chosen refers to the development proposed by Dick and Carey. The development of model and learning devices was conducted through four stages, namely: (1) identification and needs analysis stage (2) the development of design and draft of PKBKL and RPP models, (3) testing stage (expert review, try out, and implementation). Small group try out was conducted on VII-3 grade of Undiksha Laboratory Junior High School in the academic year 2013/2014, large group try out was conducted on VIIb of Santo Paulus Junior High School Singaraja in the academic year 2014/2015, and the implementation of the model was conducted on three (3) schools namely SMPN 2 Singaraja, SMPN 3 Singaraja, and Undiksha laboratory Junior High School in the academic year 2014/2015. Data were collected using documentation, testing, non-testing, questionnaire, and observation. The data were analyzed descriptively. The findings of this research indicate that: (1) PKBKL model has met the criteria of the operation of a learning model namely: syntax, social system, principles of reaction, support system, as well as instructional and nurturing effects, (2) PKBKL model is a valid, practical, and effective model, (3) the practicality of the learning devices (RPP), is at the high category. Based on the research results, there are two things recommended: (1) in order that learning stages (syntax) of PKBKL model can be performed well, then teachers need to have an understanding of the cooperative learning model of Student Team Achievement Division (STAD) type and the concepts of scientifically approach well, (2) PKBKL model can be performed well on physical education, sport and health learning, if the

  15. Contextos autoritarios y cooperativos y su repercusión en el desarrollo del sujeto Authoritarian and cooperative contexts and their effect on the subject's development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Parrat-Dayan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Describimos en este artículo el contexto cooperativo y su importancia en el desarrollo del niño. Siguiendo la teoria de Piaget, estos contextos facilitan el desarrollo intelectual y moral de los niños. Trasladado a la escuela esto implica un cambio importante en la función del profesor que es la de formar individuos críticos, cooperativos y creativos.The cooperative context and its importance for the child's development are described in this article. Following the Piagetian theory, these contexts facilitate children's intellectual and moral development. This taken to the school environment implies an important change in the teacher's role that is the one of forming critical, cooperative and creative individuals.

  16. Severe experimental folate deficiency in a human subject - a longitudinal investigation of red-cell folate immunoassay errors as megaloblastic anaemia develops

    OpenAIRE

    Golding, Paul Henry

    2014-01-01

    Background The few published studies comparing results between commercial red-cell folate immunoassays have found significant differences. None have provided longitudinal data during the development of megaloblastic anaemia from severe folate deficiency. The objective was to produce longitudinal data, comparing results between three commercial immunoassays for red-cell folate, generated by means of severe experimental folate deficiency. Methods This 58 year old male, initially replete in fola...

  17. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ESTHETIC SENSIBILITY THROUGH THE SUBJECT HISTORY OF CUBA / EL DESARROLLO DE LA SENSIBILIDAD ESTÉTICA DESDE LA ASIGNATURA HISTORIA DE CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha María Casas Rodríguez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The work presented herein is a synthesis of an important pedagogical investigation for the aesthetic education of the art student in the elementary level. It was developed and validated in practice at Luis Casas Romero primary school. The objective is to reveal the relationship between the historical contents and aesthetics through a pedagogical model for the development of the aesthetic expression in the learning of Cuban History. It offers a pedagogical alternative for the aesthetic development in the teaching learning process of Cuban History. A relationship between intituitive and rational learning associated with affective and volitive processes, for the development of aesthetic expression is established.ResumenEl presente trabajo es la síntesis de una investigación pedagógica, de actualidad e importancia, para la educación estética del estudiante de arte en el Nivel Elemental de la Enseñanza Artística, que se desarrolló y validó en la práctica educativa de la Enseñanza Primaria de la Escuela Vocacional de Arte “Luis Casas Romero”. Tiene como objetivo develar las relaciones entre los contenidos históricos y la estética, a través de un modelo pedagógico para el desarrollo de la expresión estética del aprendizaje de la Historia de Cuba. Su importancia radica en que ofrece una alternativa pedagógica para el desarrollo estético a partir del proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje de la Historia de Cuba, que establece la relación del aprendizaje intuitivo y el racional, en relación con los procesos afectivos y volitivos, para el desarrollo de la expresión estética.

  18. Survey of subjects on the geothermal technology development aiming at marked improvement of economical efficiency; Keizaisei no hiyakuteki kojo to mezashita chinetsu gijutsu kaihatsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing the geothermal development cost and increasing the amount of developable resource, the paper reviewed the geothermal developmental technology. Approximately 30 MW as a scale per unit is economical. The development cost is lowered by 2% if the period for development is shortened by two years, by 11% if the utilization rate is increased by 10%, and by 3% if the success rate is increased by 10%. The cost is reduced by 10% if the steam amount per 1 pit is increased to 1.5 times, and by 4% if the reduction amount is increased to 1.5 times. Improvement of survey/exploration/evaluation technology and improvement of power generation/management technology contribute largely to making the above possible. The drilling depth also corresponds with increases in the amount of steam obtained and the cost. The construction cost including the drilling cost is also an important factor, indicating a cost reduction of 15% if the unit price is reduced by 20%. If a 30% reduction of the power generation cost at a 30MW plant can be made, a 10 yen/kWh is realized, which shows that a geothermal power plant can be competitive with a thermal power plant. When thinking of it without subsidies, the geothermal power generation is most economical of all the renewable energy. In the light of the environment, the CO2 issue, etc., the geothermal power generation is much more advantageous than the thermal power generation. 7 refs., 28 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. A Subjective Rational Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, G. P.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of constructing a choice model of an agent with endogenous purposes of evolution is under debate. It is demonstrated that its solution requires the development of well-known methods of decision-making while taking into account the relation of action mode motivation to an agent’s ambition to implement subjectively understood interests and the environment state. The latter is submitted for consideration as a purposeful state situation model that exists only in the mind of an agent. It is the situation that is a basis for getting an insight into the agent’s ideas on the possible selected action mode results. The agent’s ambition to build his confidence in the feasibility of the action mode and the possibility of achieving the desired state requires him to use the procedures of forming an idea model based on the measured values of environment state. This leads to the gaming approach for the choice problem and its solution can be obtained on a set of trade-off alternatives.

  20. Laboratory instruction and subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Barolli

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific aspects which determined the way some groups of students conducted their work in a university laboratory, made us understand the articulation of these groups´s dynamics, from elements that were beyond the reach of cognition. In more specific terms the conduction and the maintenance of the groups student´s dynamics were explicited based on a intergame between the non conscious strategies, shared anonymously, and the efforts of the individuals in working based on their most objective task. The results and issues we have reached so far, using a reference the work developed by W.R.Bion, with therapeutical groups, gave us the possibility for understanding the dynamics of the student´s experimental work through a new approach that approximates the fields of cognition and subjectivity. This approximation led us to a deeper reflection about the issues which may be involved in the teaching process, particularly in situations which the teacher deals with the class, organised in groups.

  1. Effects of unconditioned stimulus intensity and fear extinction on subsequent sleep architecture in an afternoon nap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Anna; Czisch, Michael; Spoormaker, Victor I

    2013-12-01

    Impaired fear extinction and disturbed sleep coincide in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but the nature of this relationship is unclear. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation impairs fear extinction recall in rodents and young healthy subjects, and animal models have demonstrated both disrupted sleep after fear conditioning and normalized sleep after extinction learning. As a correlation between unconditioned stimulus (US) responding and subsequent sleep architecture has been observed in healthy subjects, the goal of this study was to test whether US intensity would causally affect subsequent sleep. Twenty-four young healthy subjects underwent a fear conditioning session with skin conductance response measurements before an afternoon session of polysomnographically recorded sleep (up to 120 min) in the sleep laboratory. Two factors were manipulated experimentally in a 2 × 2 design: US (electrical shock) was set at high or low intensity, and subjects did or did not receive an extinction session after fear conditioning. We observed that neither factor affected REM sleep amount, that high US intensity nominally increased sleep fragmentation (more Stage 1 sleep, stage shifts and wake after sleep onset), and that extinction increased Stage 4 amount. Moreover, reduced Stage 1 and increased Stage 4 and REM sleep were associated with subjective sleep quality of the afternoon nap. These results provide evidence for the notion that US intensity and extinction affect subsequent sleep architecture in young healthy subjects, which may provide a translational bridge from findings in animal studies to correlations observed in PTSD patients. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  2. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions, and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must...

  3. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2014-01-01

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must ...

  4. Subjective safety in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The term ‘subjective safety in traffic’ refers to people feeling unsafe in traffic or, more generally, to anxiety regarding being unsafe in traffic for oneself and/or others. Subjective safety in traffic can lead to road users limiting their mobility and social activities, which is one of the

  5. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  6. Reevaluating the "subjective weathering" hypothesis: subjective aging, coping resources, and the stress process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Janel E

    2014-03-01

    The subjective weathering model contends that subjective aging is a key component of the stress process. This study reevaluates and extends this model by considering how adaptive capacities influence subjective aging and depressive symptoms in late adolescence and young adulthood. Using longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 7,230), I investigate how earlier stressors and coping resources contribute to older age identities (ages 18-22) and how these self-perceptions influence subsequent depressive symptoms (ages 25-29). The results show that subjective weathering alone does not lead to depressive symptoms; the critical issue is the level of psychosocial maturity that accompanies an older age identity. Those with high levels of psychosocial maturity, regardless of subjective age, were least likely to exhibit depressive symptoms. These results demonstrate that psychosocial maturity is an important adaptive resource that can shield young adults from the negative effects of "subjective weathering" or growing up fast.

  7. 180-day screening study for predicting the risk factors for developing acute oral Graft-versus-Host disease in paediatric patients subjected to allogenic haematopoietic stem cells transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defabianis, P; Braida, S; Guagnano, R

    2010-03-01

    In this study, 58 paediatric patients were prospectively evaluated with a number of screening studies performed between 0 and 180 days after allogenic hematopoietic stem cells transplantation (HSTC) to detect any risk factors for developing oral manifestations of acute Graft-versus-Host Disease (a-GvHD). A total of 58 paediatric allogenic HSTC patients (37 males aged 1 to 15, and 21 females aged 4 to 18), entered the study and were observed by a trained dental team for a period of 6 months following transplantation while assuming cyclosporine, an immunosuppressive agent with a-GvHD prophylactic activity. Mean age at transplantation was 7.2 years old. Screening studies included physical examination, complete blood counts and liver function tests. Complete extraoral and intraoral clinical examinations were performed for all patients to detect oral lesions. Furthermore, some variables (sex, number of HSTC performed in the same patient, degree of HLA disparity and the positive/negative result of cytomegalovirus antigenemia test during the three months after engraftment) were investigated in the attempt to evaluate their predictive and/or diagnostic value in paediatric HSTC recipients. The resulting data were analysed with the Fisher's exact test. Twenty-two percent of the patients developed oral manifestations of a-GvHD. Oral symptoms frequently are the major complaints of the patients during the follow-up period. The oral changes included mucositis, erosions and/or ulcerations; xerostomia, pain and bleeding were also referred. The variables investigated for predictive and/or diagnostic value in paediatric HSTC recipients included: sex (relative risk 0.494, 95% confidence interval 0.119-2.052, P=0.1242); number of HSTC performed in the same patient (relative risk 5.4, 95% confidence interval 0759-3.843; P=0.0714); degree of HLA disparity (relative risk 0.24, 95% confidence interval 0.058-0987, P=0.0428); and the result to cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigenemia test during

  8. Severe experimental folate deficiency in a human subject - a longitudinal investigation of red-cell folate immunoassay errors as megaloblastic anaemia develops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Paul Henry

    2014-01-01

    The few published studies comparing results between commercial red-cell folate immunoassays have found significant differences. None have provided longitudinal data during the development of megaloblastic anaemia from severe folate deficiency. The objective was to produce longitudinal data, comparing results between three commercial immunoassays for red-cell folate, generated by means of severe experimental folate deficiency. This 58 year old male, initially replete in folate, used a folate-deficient diet to severely deplete himself of folate until overt megaloblastic anaemia developed. The Siemens Advia Centaur, Roche Elecsys 2010 and Beckman UniCel DxI 800 Access immunoassay systems were used, by different clinical pathology laboratories, to perform weekly assays for red-cell folate throughout the depletion stage. The results were analysed graphically four ways: comparison with lines of equality; number of standard deviations difference against the means; number of standard deviations difference over time; variation over time. There were very significant differences, varying with time and folate concentration, between the results reported by the three laboratories. The differences were greatest, up to 17 standard deviations, between the Siemens Advia Centaur and each of the other two systems. Of the 85 results comparing the Siemens Advia Centaur and the Roche Elecsys 2010, two were within the 99.9% confidence interval. Of the 91 results comparing the Siemens Advia Centaur and the Beckman UniCel DxI 800 Access, 22 were within the 99.9% confidence interval. Of the 83 results comparing the Beckman UniCel DxI 800 Access and the Roche Elecsys 2010, 37 were within the 99.9% confidence interval. Comparative longitudinal data from clinical pathology laboratories, produced during experimental folate deficiency, have exposed very significant differences in results between commercial red-cell folate immunoassays. One immunoassay, the Roche Elecsys 2010, failed to detect

  9. Impact of seated and standing bicycle riding position on subsequent running performance

    OpenAIRE

    JENSEN, RANDALL L.; Ewers, Brendon J.; Cunniffe, Brian; Phelan, Brian; Harrison, Andrew J; SHAFAT, AMIR

    2008-01-01

    peer-reviewed This study examined the effects of cycling posture on subsequent running performance similar to the transition phase of a triathlon. Experienced, non-elite triathletes completed two trials of a cycle-run transition. During the last three minutes of a 30 minute cycling bout, at power output equal to lactate threshold, subjects either remained seated (SEAT), or alternated seated and standing cycling (30 s at a time; ALT). Heart rate, RPE, minimum and maximum knee angle, stride ...

  10. Tracking maximum ascending subsequences in sequences of partially ordered data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloks, Ton; Tan, Richard B.; van Leeuwen, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068413025

    We consider scenarios in which long sequences of data are analyzed and subsequences must be traced that are monotone and maximum, according to some measure. A classical example is the online Longest Increasing Subsequence Problem for numeric and alphanumeric data. We extend the problem in two ways:

  11. Morbidity and risk of subsequent diagnosis of HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Ole S; Lohse, Nicolai; Østergaard, Lars Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Early identification of persons with undiagnosed HIV infection is an important health care issue. We examined associations between diseases diagnosed in hospitals and risk of subsequent HIV diagnosis.......Early identification of persons with undiagnosed HIV infection is an important health care issue. We examined associations between diseases diagnosed in hospitals and risk of subsequent HIV diagnosis....

  12. Recurrent miscarriage and antiphospholipid antibodies: prognosis of subsequent pregnancy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohn, D.M.; Goddijn, M.; Middeldorp, S.; Korevaar, J.C.; Dawood, F.; Farquharson, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although women with antiphospholipid antibodies (APLAs) are at increased risk of recurrent miscarriage, the outcome of a subsequent pregnancy is not clearly elucidated. Objectives: To assess the pregnancy outcome of a subsequent pregnancy in women with APLAs and compare this outcome with

  13. Development of a Probabilistic Safety Assessment Framework for an Interim Dry Storage Facility Subjected to an Aircraft Crash Using Best-Estimate Structural Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belal Almomani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Using a probabilistic safety assessment, a risk evaluation framework for an aircraft crash into an interim spent fuel storage facility is presented. Damage evaluation of a detailed generic cask model in a simplified building structure under an aircraft impact is discussed through a numerical structural analysis and an analytical fragility assessment. Sequences of the impact scenario are shown in a developed event tree, with uncertainties considered in the impact analysis and failure probabilities calculated. To evaluate the influence of parameters relevant to design safety, risks are estimated for three specification levels of cask and storage facility structures. The proposed assessment procedure includes the determination of the loading parameters, reference impact scenario, structural response analyses of facility walls, cask containment, and fuel assemblies, and a radiological consequence analysis with dose–risk estimation. The risk results for the proposed scenario in this study are expected to be small relative to those of design basis accidents for best-estimated conservative values. The importance of this framework is seen in its flexibility to evaluate the capability of the facility to withstand an aircraft impact and in its ability to anticipate potential realistic risks; the framework also provides insight into epistemic uncertainty in the available data and into the sensitivity of the design parameters for future research.

  14. Political and clinical developments in analytical psychology, 1972-2014: subjectivity, equality and diversity-inside and outside the consulting room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Utilizing Jung's idea of theory as a 'personal confession', the author charts his own development as a theorist, establishing links between his personal history and his ideas. Such links include his relationship with both parents, his sexuality, his cultural heritage, and his fascination with Tricksters and with Hermes. There follows a substantial critical interrogation of what the author discerns as the two main lines of clinical theorizing in contemporary analytical psychotherapy: interpretation of transference-countertransference, and the relational approach. His conclusion is that neither is superior to the other and neither is in fact adequate as a basis for clinical work. The focus then shifts to explore a range of political and social aspects of the clinical project of analytical psychology: economic inequality, diversity within the professional field, and Jung's controversial ideas about Jews and Africans. The author calls for an apology from the 'Jungian community' for remarks about Africans analogous to the apology already issued for remarks about Jews. The paper is dedicated to the author's friend Fred Plaut (1913-2009). © 2014, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  15. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 1

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1EPA, 1Agrotourism, 148AHP, 148balance scorecard, 63batik tulis Rolla Junior, 23Broiler, 90business model canvas, 137business performance,32capital structure, 81cashew industry,158CHAID,106CLI,42coal transportation service,63company’s characteristics, 81competitive advantage, 12competitive strategy, 127consumer satisfaction, 51CSI, 42customer loyalty, 42customer satisfaction,42decision of visitors, 72development strategy, 23development,158entrepreneurship, 32Feasibility studies, 90FEM, 81gap analysis, 1Indonesia Stock Exchange, 177Indosat, 137investor,177Kawah Putih, 72kedai sop durian lodaya (KSDL,51klassen typology, 96leading sector, 96less cash society, 137liquidity ratio, 165location quotient, 96logistic regression, 115market, 177marketing development strategy, 148Marketing mix, 72mobile payment, 137modern and Traditional cage, 90multiple regression analyse,165multiple regression, 177net working capital, 165organic tofu product, 115Padang, 106paired comparison, 63partnership, 1, 32Pecking Order Theory, 81PLS, 81Portfolio, 96power, 32product quality, 51profitability ratio, 165Prol Tape Primadona, 127purchase decision, 115purchase intention, 51purchasing interest,115QSPM, 23, 127refilled drinking water, 106seed,1segmentation, 106SEM, 42, 51service quality, 51SMEs, 96specialty coffee, 12stock,177strategic diagnosis,137strategy, 158Sukorambi Botanic Garden, 148SWOT, 23, 127, 148, 158SWOT-AHP, 12tourists,72UD. Primadona, 127value chain, 12VRIO,12 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1Adiningsih, Kartika Puspitasari,42Aknesia, Vharessa,12Amalia, Firda Rachma,90Andati, Trias, 177Anggraeni, Lukytawati,23Asriani,158Daryanto, Arief,12, 90Djamaludin, MD., 42Djohar, Setiadi,96Fachrodji, Achmad,72Fahmi, Idqan,1, 63, 127Fasyni, Awisal,106Hubeis, Musa,148Iskandar, Dodi,51Juanda, Bambang, 165Kirbrandoko, 12, 106, 115Lumbantoruan, Dewi Margareth,96Maulana, TB Nur Ahmad,81Muksin, 148Mukti Soleh, Cecep,63Najib, Mukhamad,106Noor, Tajudin,81

  16. Early labour market returns to college subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buonanno, Paolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    This paper aims at estimating early labour market outcomes  of Italian university graduates across college subjects. We devote great attention to endogenous selection issues using alternative methods to control for potential self-selection associated with the choice of the degree subject in order...... to unravel the causal link between college major and subsequent outcomes in the labour market.  Our results suggest that "quantitative" fields (i.e. Sciences, Engineering and Economics) increase not only the speed of transition into the first job and employment probability but also early earnings...

  17. Early Labour Market Returns to College Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buonanno, Paolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    2009-01-01

    We estimate early labour market outcomes of Italian university  graduates across college subjects. We devote great attention to endogenous selection issues using alternative methods to control for potential self-selection associated with the choice of the degree subject in order to unravel...... the causal link between college major and subsequent outcomes in the labour market. Our results suggest that 'quantitative' fields (i.e. Sciences, Engineering, and Economics) increase not only the speed of transition into the first job and employment probability but also early earnings, conditional...

  18. Work-Family Life Courses and Subjective Wellbeing in the MRC National Survey of Health and Development (the 1946 British birth cohort study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Rebecca; Stafford, Mai; Sacker, Amanda; McMunn, Anne

    Studies investigating the impact of combining paid work and family life on wellbeing have generally used information at one or a limited number of points in the life course, and have mainly focused on women. This study uses multi-channel sequence analysis to characterise work-family life courses across adulthood (ages 16-60) for more than 1500 men and women in the MRC National Study of Health and Development. Wellbeing at age 60-64 was captured by the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well Being Scale (WEMWBS) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). A typology of 11 work-family groups was derived, across which there was greater variation for women. Adjusted for socioeconomic position, parental separation, adolescent internalising and externalising disorders, and health, men who had strong ties to paid work but no family had lower life satisfaction than those who combined work with parenthood and marriage (regression coefficient -2.89 (95 %CI: -5.04, -0.74); standard deviation for SWLS = 6.01). Women with weaker ties to paid work had lower life satisfaction, as did women who did not have children, compared to those who combined strong ties to paid work with marriage and parenthood. There were no significant associations between work-family life courses and WEMWBS or GHQ. This study shows that the way in which people combine work and family life may impact life satisfaction in early old age and highlights the need for policies that support combining work and family life.

  19. Energy data base: subject thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redford, J.S. (ed.)

    1981-10-01

    The technical staff of the DOE Technical Information Center, during its subject indexing activities, develops and structures a vocabulary that allows consistent machine storage and retrieval of information necessary to the accomplishment of the DOE mission. This thesaurus incorporates that structured vocabulary. The terminology of this thesaurus is used for the subject control of information announced in DOE Energy Research Abstracts, Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis, and various update journals and bulletins in specialized areas. This terminology also facilitates subject searching of the DOE Energy Data Base on the DOE/RECON on-line retrieval system and on other commercial retrieval systems. The rapid expansion of the DOE's activities will result in a commitant thesaurus expansion as information relating to new activities is indexed. Only the terms used in the indexing of documents at the Technical Information Center to date are included. (JSR)

  20. The Data Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article considers whether it is fortunate that data protection rules, as a starting point, apply to all physical persons as data subjects, or whether it would be better to differentiate between kinds of persons on grounds of their ability to act as a data subject. In order to protect all...... persons, it is argued that a principle of care should be part of data protection law....

  1. A Finnic holy word and its subsequent history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauno Koski

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available This article concentrates on a specific ancient holy word in Finnish and its subsequent development, hiisi. In the Finnish language region hiisi appears as an element in place names in over 230 villages established by the end of the thirteenth century, and at least a majority of these must have existed since prehistoric times. In Finland as well as in Estonia it is possible to demonstrate an earlier sacral function in places which contain hiisi as a component of their name, partly with the help of archeological discoveries, and partly with the help of oral folk tradition. It is particularly among the earliest settlement areas of Southwest Finland, Satakunta and Häme that hiisi features in the names of sacrificial sites or trees, in other words in the same areas where it features in the names of burial grounds. Names in which the hiisi element precedes a word meaning a lake, pond, or other water formation, occur particularly in the eastern Finnish dialect regions, as well as in the regions of Karelian, Olonets, Lydian, and Vepsian. In addition to its factual meaning of cult place, the Finnish word hiisi has come to denote a supernatural entity both in terms of its reference to a place and in terms of its reference to a being.

  2. Primary Occipital Ewing’s Sarcoma with Subsequent Spinal Seeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alqahtani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ewing’s sarcoma is a primary bone cancer that mainly affects the long bones. This malignancy is particularly common in pediatric patients. Primary cranial involvement accounts for 1% of cases, with occipital involvement considered extremely rare. In this case study, primary occipital Ewing’s sarcoma with a posterior fossa mass and subsequent relapse resulting in spinal seeding is reported. A 3-year-old patient presented with a 1-year history of left-sided headaches, localized over the occipital bone with progressive torticollis. Computed tomography (CT imaging showed a mass in the left posterior fossa compressing the brainstem. The patient then underwent surgical excision followed by adjuvant chemoradiation therapy. Two years later, the patient presented with severe lower back pain and urinary incontinence. Whole-spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF seeding from the L5 to the S4 vertebrae. Primary cranial Ewing’s sarcoma is considered in the differential diagnosis of children with extra-axial posterior fossa mass associated with destructive permeative bone lesions. Although primary cranial Ewing’s sarcoma typically has good prognosis, our patient developed metastasis in the lower spine. Therefore, with CNS Ewing’s sarcoma, screening of the entire neural axis should be taken into consideration for early detection of CSF seeding metastasis in order to decrease the associated morbidity and mortality.

  3. Expectant adolescent couples' relations and subsequent parenting behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florsheim, Paul; Smith, Allison

    2005-11-01

    The goal of this study was to test the "spill over" hypothesis-that the quality of relations between expectant couples would predict parenting behavior-among a sample of adolescent mothers and fathers. At Time 1, self-reported and observational relationship data were collected from 36 expectant adolescent couples. At follow-up, observational data were collected from both young mothers and fathers who were asked to participate in a structured play activity with their 2-year-old children. Logistic and multiple regression analyses were run to examine the correspondence between couples' relationship quality prior to the childbirth and subsequent relationship status (i.e., paternal disengagement or coparenting) and the quality of parenting behavior. Results generally supported the spill over hypothesis. More specifically, findings indicated that the quality of the expectant mother's behavior toward her partner predicted his (paternal) behavior at follow-up. Couples who reported high positive relations at the prenatal assessment were more likely to remain involved in coparenting. Results underscore the relevance of couples' relations to the development of positive parenting practices among atypical samples of mothers and fathers. Copyright © 2005 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  4. The effect of an intercalated BSc on subsequent academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesan, Nishanthan; Crichton, Siobhan; Sewell, Hannah; Howell, Simon

    2011-10-03

    The choice of whether to undertake an intercalated Bachelor of Science (BSc) degree is one of the most important decisions that students must make during their time at medical school. An effect on exam performance would improve a student's academic ranking, giving them a competitive edge when applying for foundation posts. Retrospective data analysis of anonymised student records. The effects of intercalating on final year exam results, Foundation Programme score, application form score (from white-space questions), quartile rank score, and success with securing Foundation School of choice were assessed using linear and ordered logistic regression models, adjusted for course type, year of graduation, graduate status and baseline (Year 1) performance. The study included 1158 students, with 54% choosing to do an intercalated BSc, and 9.8% opting to do so at an external institution. Doing an intercalated BSc was significantly associated with improved outcome in Year 5 exams (P = 0.004). This was irrespective of the year students chose to intercalate, with no significant difference between those that intercalated after years 2, 3 and 4 (p = 0.3096). There were also higher foundation application scores (P BSc leads to an improvement in subsequent exam results and develops the skills necessary to produce a strong foundation programme application. It also leads to greater success with securing preferred Foundation School posts in students. Differences between internally- and externally-intercalating students may be due to varying course structures or greater challenge in adjusting to a new study environment.

  5. Correlating selection criteria with subsequent performance as residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirschl, Douglas R; Dahners, Laurence E; Adams, George L; Crouch, John H; Wilson, Frank C

    2002-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine which criteria in the residency application had the highest correlation with subsequent performance of orthopaedic residents. Data collected from the application files of 58 residents included scores on standardized tests, number of honors grades in the basic and clinical years of medical school, election to Alpha Omega Alpha, numbers of research projects and publications, and numbers of extracurricular activities. Measures of performance included scores on the Orthopaedic In-Training Examination and American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery Part I Examination, and faculty evaluations of overall, cognitive, affective, and psychomotor performance. The number of honors grades on clinical rotations was the strongest predictor of performance, whereas election to Alpha Omega Alpha was second. The only other significant correlation was between the number of fine motor activities and psychomotor performance. None of the predictor variables had a significant correlation with Orthopaedic In-Training Examination or American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery Examination scores. Consistency between faculty rankings in each of the four categories was supported by regression analysis. From the results of this study, it appears that academic performance in clinical clerkships in medical school is the most predictive of resident performance. Range restriction in the data available for orthopaedic residency applicants, however, likely precludes the development of a reliable model to assist in the selection of orthopaedic residents.

  6. Twin birth changes DNA methylation of subsequent siblings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shuai Li; Eunae Kim; Ee Ming Wong; Ji-Hoon Eric Joo; Tuong L Nguyen; Jennifer Stone; Yun-Mi Song; Louisa B Flander; Richard Saffery; Graham G Giles; Melissa C Southey; Joohon Sung; John L Hopper

    2017-01-01

    We asked if twin birth influences the DNA methylation of subsequent siblings. We measured whole blood methylation using the HumanMethylation450 array for siblings from two twin and family studies in Australia and Korea...

  7. Associations between mental disorders and subsequent onset of hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, Dan J.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Jonge, Peter; Liu, Zharoui; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; O'Neill, Siobhan; Viana, Maria Carmen; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Angermeyer, Mattias C.; Benjet, Corina; de Graaf, Ron; Ferry, Finola; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Florescu, Silvia; Hu, Chiyi; Kawakami, Norito; Haro, Josep Maria; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, Jose; Wojtyniak, Bogdan J.; Xavier, Miguel; Lim, Carmen C. W.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Scott, Kate M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous work has suggested significant associations between various psychological symptoms (e. g., depression, anxiety, anger, alcohol abuse) and hypertension. However, the presence and extent of associations between common mental disorders and subsequent adult onset of hypertension

  8. Theta and Gamma Oscillations during Encoding Predict Subsequent Recall

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sederberg, Per B; Kahana, Michael J; Howard, Marc W; Donner, Elizabeth J; Madsen, Joseph R

    2003-01-01

    ... to 64 Hz as participants studied lists of common nouns. Significant increases in oscillatory power during encoding predicted subsequent recall, with this effect predominantly in the 4-8 Hz (theta) and 28-64 Hz (gamma) frequency bands...

  9. Energy Data Base: Subject Thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raridon, M.H. (ed.)

    1987-09-01

    This seventh edition of the subject thesaurus contains the standard vocabulary of indexing terms (descriptors) developed and structured by the technical staff of the Office of Scientific and Technical Information as part of its subject indexing activities for building and maintaining the Energy Data Base (EDB) and other energy information data bases for the Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this thesaurus is to enhance the efficiency of information retrieval from these data bases. This structured vocabulary reflects the scope of DOE's research, development, and technological programs and encompasses terminology derived not only from the basic sciences for also from areas of energy resources, conservation, safety, environmental impact, and regulation. There are 21,080 valid descriptors and 5683 forbidden terms in this edition of the Thesaurus. These descriptors are listed alphabetically.

  10. Learning increases human electroencephalographic coherence during subsequent slow sleep oscillations

    OpenAIRE

    Mölle, Matthias; Marshall, Lisa; Gais, Steffen; Born, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Learning is assumed to induce specific changes in neuronal activity during sleep that serve the consolidation of newly acquired memories. To specify such changes, we measured electroencephalographic (EEG) coherence during performance on a declarative learning task (word pair associations) and subsequent sleep. Compared with a nonlearning control condition, learning performance was accompanied with a strong increase in coherence in several EEG frequency bands. During subsequent non-rapid eye m...

  11. Cesarean Delivery and Risk for Subsequent Ectopic Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Zachary S; Smith, Ken R; Silver, Robert M

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to examine the risk for subsequent ectopic pregnancy in women with prior cesarean delivery. Women with a history of at least one cesarean delivery in the state of Utah during 1996 to 2011 were identified and compared with women with vaginal delivery only. The primary outcome was subsequent ectopic pregnancy. Data were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression and stratified by first, second, or third live births. Model covariates included maternal age, ethnicity, marital status, education level, gravidity, and prior ectopic pregnancy. Overall, 260,249 women with at least one live birth were identified. After exclusions, 255,082, 154,930, and 70,228 women had at least one, two, and three prior live births that lead to 531, 199, and 62 subsequent ectopic pregnancies, respectively. Women who had one prior cesarean delivery were not at increased risk for subsequent ectopic pregnancy in relation to women with no prior cesarean delivery. However, women with two of two, two of three, or three of three prior cesareans had increased risk for subsequent ectopic pregnancy with odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of 1.54 (1.06-2.22), 3.50 (1.49-8.24), and 1.99 (1.00-3.98), respectively. History of two or three cesarean deliveries is associated with increased risk for subsequent ectopic pregnancy. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. Processing fluency hinders subsequent recollection: An electrophysiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingbing eLi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although many behavioural studies have investigated the effect of processing fluency on subsequent recognition memory, little research has examined the neural mechanism of this phenomenon. The present study aimed to explore the electrophysiological correlates of the effects of processing fluency on subsequent recognition memory by using an event-related potential (ERP approach. The masked repetition priming paradigm was used to manipulate processing fluency in the study phase, and the R/K paradigm was utilised to investigate which recognition memory process (familiarity or recollection was affected by processing fluency in the test phase. Converging behavioural and ERP results indicated that increased processing fluency impaired subsequent recollection. Results from the analysis of ERP priming effects in the study phase indicated that increased perceptual processing fluency of object features, reflected by the N/P 190 priming effect, can hinder encoding activities, reflected by the LPC priming effect, which leads to worse subsequent recollection based recognition memory. These results support the idea that processing fluency can influence subsequent recognition memory and provide a potential neural mechanism underlying this effect. However, further studies are needed to examine whether processing fluency can affect subsequent familiarity.

  13. Processing fluency hinders subsequent recollection: an electrophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingbing; Gao, Chuanji; Wang, Wei; Guo, Chunyan

    2015-01-01

    Although many behavioral studies have investigated the effect of processing fluency on subsequent recognition memory, little research has examined the neural mechanism of this phenomenon. The present study aimed to explore the electrophysiological correlates of the effects of processing fluency on subsequent recognition memory by using an event-related potential (ERP) approach. The masked repetition priming paradigm was used to manipulate processing fluency in the study phase, and the R/K paradigm was utilized to investigate which recognition memory process (familiarity or recollection) was affected by processing fluency in the test phase. Converging behavioral and ERP results indicated that increased processing fluency impaired subsequent recollection. Results from the analysis of ERP priming effects in the study phase indicated that increased perceptual processing fluency of object features, reflected by the N/P 190 priming effect, can hinder encoding activities, reflected by the LPC priming effect, which leads to worse subsequent recollection based recognition memory. These results support the idea that processing fluency can influence subsequent recognition memory and provide a potential neural mechanism underlying this effect. However, further studies are needed to examine whether processing fluency can affect subsequent familiarity.

  14. Science of the subjective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, R G; Dunne, B J

    2007-01-01

    Over the greater portion of its long scholarly history, the particular form of human observation, reasoning, and technical deployment we properly term "science" has relied at least as much on subjective experience and inspiration as it has on objective experiments and theories. Only over the past few centuries has subjectivity been progressively excluded from the practice of science, leaving an essentially secular analytical paradigm. Quite recently, however, a compounding constellation of newly inexplicable physical evidence, coupled with a growing scholarly interest in the nature and capability of human consciousness, are beginning to suggest that this sterilization of science may have been excessive and could ultimately limit its epistemological reach and cultural relevance. In particular, an array of demonstrable consciousness-related anomalous physical phenomena, a persistent pattern of biological and medical anomalies, systematic studies of mind/brain relationships and the mechanics of human creativity, and a burgeoning catalogue of human factors effects within contemporary information processing technologies, all display empirical correlations with subjective aspects that greatly complicate, and in many cases preclude, their comprehension on strictly objective grounds. However, any disciplined re-admission of subjective elements into rigorous scientific methodology will hinge on the precision with which they can be defined, measured, and represented, and on the resilience of established scientific techniques to their inclusion. For example, any neo-subjective science, while retaining the logical rigor, empirical/theoretical dialogue, and cultural purpose of its rigidly objective predecessor, would have the following requirements: acknowledgment of a proactive role for human consciousness; more explicit and profound use of interdisciplinary metaphors; more generous interpretations of measurability, replicability, and resonance; a reduction of ontological

  15. Outcome of mechanically ventilated patients initially denied admission to an intensive care unit and subsequently admitted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Wasim; Schwartz, Naama; Finkelstein, Richard; Bisharat, Naiel

    2016-11-01

    The outcome of mechanically ventilated patients initially denied admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) and subsequently admitted is unclear. We compared outcomes of patients denied ICU admission and subsequently admitted, to those of patients admitted to the ICU and to patients refused ICU admission. The medical records of all the patients who were subjected to mechanical ventilation for at least 24h over a 4year period (2010-2014) were reviewed. Of 707 patients (757 admissions), 124 (18%) were initially denied ICU admission and subsequently admitted. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis showed significant association with death of: age, length of stay, nursing home residency, duration of mechanical ventilation, previous admission with mechanical ventilation, cause for mechanical ventilation, rate of failed extubations, associated morbidity (previous cerebrovascular accident, dementia, chronic renal failure), and occurrence of nosocomial bacteremia. The odds for death among patients denied ICU admission and subsequently transferred to the ICU compared to patients admitted directly to the ICU was 3.6 (95% CI: 1.9-6.7) (P<0.0001). The odds for death among patients refused ICU admission compared to those who were initially denied and subsequently admitted were not statistically significant (OR=1.7, 95% CI: 0.8-3.8). In conclusion, patients denied ICU admission and subsequently admitted face a considerable risk of morbidity and mortality. Their odds of death are nearly three times those admitted directly to the ICU. Late admission to the ICU does not appear to provide benefit compared to patients who remain in general medicine wards. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. General anaesthesia-induced anaphylaxis: impact of allergy testing on subsequent anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, A; Seidl, C; Stoevesandt, J; Seitz, C S

    2016-01-01

    Immunoglobulin E-mediated allergy to drugs and substances used during general anaesthesia as well as non-allergic drug hypersensitivity reactions may account for anaesthesia-induced anaphylaxis. As IgE-mediated anaphylaxis is a potentially life-threatening reaction, identification of the culprit allergen is essential to avoid anaphylaxis recurrence during subsequent general anaesthesia. To study whether preventive recommendations derived from allergy testing after intraoperative anaphylaxis were followed in subsequent general anaesthesia. Results of standardized allergy testing after anaesthesia-induced anaphylaxis and outcome of subsequent general anaesthesia were analysed retrospectively. Fifty-three of 107 patients were diagnosed with IgE-mediated allergy to a drug or substance used during general anaesthesia, and 54 patients were test negative. Twenty-eight of 29 allergy patients tolerated subsequent general anaesthesia uneventfully. One patient with cefazolin allergy suffered from anaphylaxis recurrence due to accidental reapplication of cefazolin. Twenty-two of 24 test-negative patients tolerated subsequent general anaesthesia, whereas two patients again developed anaphylaxis despite pre-medication regimens. Our results confirm the practical impact of allergy testing in general anaesthesia-induced anaphylaxis. By identification of the allergen, it is possible to avoid allergic anaphylaxis during subsequent anaesthesia. In most cases, recommended pre-medication seems to prevent the recurrence of non-allergic drug hypersensitivity reactions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Social support and subsequent disability: it is not the size of your network that counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Deirdre; Leung, Janni; Pachana, Nancy; Flicker, Leon; Hankey, Graeme; Dobson, Annette

    2012-09-01

    high levels of social support and engagement may help sustain good health and functional ability. However, the definition of social support in previous research has been inconsistent and findings are mixed. The aim of this analysis was to explore the effect of two aspects of social support on subsequent disability in a group of community dwelling older women and men. data were drawn from two concurrent prospective observational cohort studies of community-based older Australian women (N = 2,013) and men (N = 680). Baseline and follow-up data were drawn from the second (1999) and fifth (2008) surveys of the women and the second (2001) and third (2008) surveys of the men. At baseline, social support was measured by the two subscales (social network and subjective support) of the Duke Social Support Index (DSSI). The outcome measure was Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs). overall, social network size was not associated with subsequent disability in either women or men. After adjusting for health status at baseline, lack of satisfaction with social support was associated with greater difficulties in ADLs and IADLs for both women and men. our results suggest that the provision of social support is insufficient to limit subsequent disability: support provided must be subjectively perceived to be relevant and adequate.

  18. Interaction, Transference, and Subjectivity: A Psychoanalytic Approach to Fieldwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Lundgaard Andersen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fieldwork is one of the important methods in educational, social, and organisational research. In fieldwork, the researcher takes residence for a shorter or longer period amongst the subjects and settings to be studied. The aim of this is to study the culture of people: how people seem to make sense of their lives and which moral, professional, and ethical values seem to guide their behaviour and attitudes. In fieldwork, the researcher has to balance participation and observation in her attempts at representation. Consequently, the researcher’s academic and life-historical subjectivity are important filters for fieldwork. In general, fieldwork can be understood as processes where field reports and field analysis are determined by how the researcher interacts with and experiences the field, the events and informants in it, and how she subsequently develops an ethnography. However, fieldwork is also subjected to psychodynamic processes. In this article, I draw upon a number of research inquiries to illustrate how psychodynamic processes influence research processes: data production, research questions and methodology, relations to informants, as well as interpretation and analysis. I further investigate through a case study how the psychoanalytical concepts of “transference” and “institutional transference” can provide insight into the dynamics of efficiency and democracy at a number of Danish human service organisations.

  19. Paying Hypertension Research Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarett, David; Karlawish, Jason; Asch, David A

    2002-01-01

    CONTEXT Cash payments are often used to compensate subjects who participate in research. However, ethicists have argued that these payments might constitute an undue inducement. OBJECTIVES To determine whether potential subjects agree with theoretical arguments that a payment could be an undue inducement. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS Survey of 350 prospective jurors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Belief that a $500 payment for research participation would impair their own, and others' ability to think carefully about the risks and benefits of a clinical trial. RESULTS Two hundred sixty-one jurors (74.6%) believed that a $500 payment would impair subjects' ability to think carefully about the risks and benefits of research. Ninety-six of 120 (80%) expressed this concern about subjects with a low income ($50,000). In contrast, only 69 (19.7%) of jurors believed that a $500 payment would influence them. Jurors who believed that this payment would influence them reported lower incomes and less education. CONCLUSION Members of the general public share ethical concerns about the influence of payments for research, although they believe that these concerns are more applicable to others than to themselves.

  20. Subjects, Models, Languages, Transformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Bézivin, J.; Heckel, R.

    2005-01-01

    Discussions about model-driven approaches tend to be hampered by terminological confusion. This is at least partially caused by a lack of formal precision in defining the basic concepts, including that of "model" and "thing being modelled" - which we call subject in this paper. We propose a minimal

  1. Subjective Duration and Psychophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, Hannes

    1975-01-01

    Three models are proposed to describe the strategy applied by a subject when he is confronted with two successive time intervals and is required to deal with some relation between them, for example, by telling which was the longer by adjusting the second to match the first. (Author)

  2. Barron's SAT subject test

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, MA, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Includes one diagnostic test and three complete tests, all questions answered and explained, self-assessment guides, and subject reviews. Also features test strategies, QR codes to short instructional videos, and a detailed appendix with equations, physical constants, and a basic math review.

  3. Russia needs the Subjective Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Z. Gontcharov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the comparative analysis of different kinds of philosophic thinking, the paper reveals the advantages of subjective philosophy – the most adequate universal essentiality of socialized human being, opening the prospects for Russia as the creative society of cultural spontaneous activity. Objective principle of thinking is limited by the logic of outward definition. According to the above logic, people are regarded as tiny parts of social mechanism, the objects of manipulation. Separating action from spontaneous activity, object changes from self-alteration of human subject, executive functions from norm-creating ones brings about alienated practices and such social situation that makes individuals perceive their own existence as alien non- existence, or opposing existence.Subjectivity is a form of social activity regarding individuals and groups according to their ability in self-definition, self-organizing, self-control, norm-creating, as well as their actual rights and duties in social spheres of needs and objectives, and their feasible power over forces of nature and society. Subjective philosophy perceives the material production as the means for cultivating wholesome and spontaneously active individuals due to educational fundamentality and cultural prosperity. Accordingly, accumulation of capital turns into accumulation of culture and personal creativity growth. The results of the undertaken analysis and its conclusions can be implemented in developing creative anthropological bases for philosophy, pedagogy, psychology, economics, political science, as well as the relating discipline teaching. 

  4. Tubulointerstitial fibrosis can sensitize the kidney to subsequent glomerular injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Beom Jin; Yang, Jae Won; Zou, Jun; Zhong, Jianyong; Matsusaka, Taiji; Pastan, Ira; Zhang, Ming-Zhi; Harris, Raymond C; Yang, Hai-Chun; Fogo, Agnes B

    2017-07-12

    Chronic glomerular injury is associated with eventual development of tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Here we aimed to assess whether, and how, mild chronic tubulointerstitial injury affects glomeruli. For this, we generated mice expressing different toxin receptors, one on their proximal tubular epithelial cells (diphtheria toxin receptor [DTR]) and the other only on podocytes (human CD25 [IL-2R] driven by the nephrin promoter [Nep25]), allowing serial induction of tubule-specific and glomerular (podocyte)-specific injury, respectively. Six weeks after diphtheria toxin injection, mild interstitial fibrosis was found in Nep25(+)/DTR(+), but not in Nep25(+)/DTR(-) mice. However, atubular glomeruli and neuronal nitric oxide synthase, a mediator of tubuloglomerular feedback, were higher in Nep25(+)/DTR(+) than in DTR(-) mice and these atubular glomeruli had less podocyte density as assessed by WT-1 biomarker expression. Peritubular capillary density, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 and -2, and cyclooxygenase 2 expression were similar at week six in the two groups. At week seven, all mice were given the immunotoxin LMB-2, which binds to CD25 to induce podocyte injury. Ten days later, proteinuria, podocyte injury, and glomerulosclerosis were more severe in Nep25(+)/DTR(+) than Nep25(+)/DTR(-) mice with more severe sclerosis in the tubule-connected glomeruli. This supports the concept that even mild preexisting tubulointerstitial injury sensitizes glomeruli to subsequent podocyte-specific injury. Thus, increased atubular glomeruli and abnormal tubuloglomerular feedback significantly contribute to the crosstalk between the tubulointerstitium and glomeruli. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Subjectivity, individuality and singularity in children: a socially constituted subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Del Ré

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Considering the hypothesis that Bakhtin and his Circle‟s reflections can help us think about issues involving the field of Language Acquisition, in addition to the fact that there are only a few works developed within this perspective in Brazil, in this article, we intend to discuss the notions of “subject”, “subjectivity”,“individuality” and “singularity”, drawing on Bakhtin‟s theory. Thus, in order to make this discussion clearer, we bring data from the speech of young children, from 1.8 to 3 years old, who were filmed in natural contexts interacting with their parents and relatives. From these data, we could verify, among other things, that children, as individuals who constitute themselves as subjects in and throughlanguage, bring marks to their discourse, revealing their subjectivity (through lexical, morphological, syntactic or genre choices.

  6. Emotion regulation during the encoding of emotional stimuli: Effects on subsequent memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventon, Jacqueline S; Bauer, Patricia J

    2016-02-01

    In the adult literature, emotional arousal is regarded as a source of the enhancing effect of emotion on subsequent memory. Here, we used behavioral and electrophysiological methods to examine the role of emotional arousal on subsequent memory in school-age children. Furthermore, we implemented a reappraisal instruction to manipulate (down-regulate) emotional arousal at encoding to examine the relation between emotional arousal and subsequent memory. Participants (8-year-old girls) viewed emotional scenes as electrophysiological (EEG) data were recorded and participated in a memory task 1 to 5days later where EEG and behavioral responses were recorded; participants provided subjective ratings of the scenes after the memory task. The reappraisal instruction successfully reduced emotional arousal responses to negative stimuli but not positive stimuli. Similarly, recognition performance in both event-related potentials (ERPs) and behavior was impaired for reappraised negative stimuli but not positive stimuli. The findings indicate that ERPs are sensitive to the reappraisal of negative stimuli in children as young as 8years. Furthermore, the findings suggest an interaction of emotion and memory during the school years, implicating the explanatory role of emotional arousal at encoding on subsequent memory performance in female children as young as 8years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Subsequent pregnancy outcomes after obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basham, Elizabeth; Stock, Laura; Lewicky-Gaupp, Christina; Mitchell, Christopher; Gossett, Dana R

    2013-01-01

    To describe obstetric outcomes in women with a prior obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASIS) and to identify risk factors for recurrence. A retrospective chart review of women who sustained an OASIS between November 2005 and March 2010 at a tertiary care hospital was performed to identify risk factors for recurrence. One thousand six hundred twenty-nine patients had an OASIS. Of these, 758 patients (90%) subsequently delivered during the aforementioned timeframe; 685 patients had a subsequent vaginal delivery. Of the women, 3.2% had a recurrent OASIS. Recurrence was associated with larger birth weight (27% ≥4000 g vs 11.6% <4000 g; P = 0.04) and delivery mode (25.0%, 12.5%, and 2.7% for forceps-assisted, vacuum-assisted, and spontaneous deliveries, respectively (P = 0.0001)), whereas a history of fourth-degree laceration, prior wound complication, or episiotomy at subsequent delivery were not (P = 0.5, P = 0.5, and P = 0.4, respectively). Recurrent OASIS occurred in a small percentage of women (3.2%) who subsequently delivered vaginally. Recurrent OASIS was associated with operative vaginal delivery and birth weight 4000 g or greater. Neither episiotomy at first delivery nor at subsequent delivery conferred an increased recurrence risk.

  8. Failure of fertility therapy and subsequent adverse cardiovascular events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udell, Jacob A.; Lu, Hong; Redelmeier, Donald A.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infertility may indicate an underlying predisposition toward premature cardiovascular disease, yet little is known about potential long-term cardiovascular events following fertility therapy. We investigated whether failure of fertility therapy is associated with subsequent adverse cardiovascular events. METHODS: We performed a population-based cohort analysis of women who received gonadotropin-based fertility therapy between Apr. 1, 1993, and Mar. 31, 2011, distinguishing those who subsequently gave birth and those who did not. Using multivariable Poisson regression models, we estimated the relative rate ratio of adverse cardiovascular events associated with fertility therapy failure, accounting for age, year, baseline risk factors, health care history and number of fertility cycles. The primary outcome was subsequent treatment for nonfatal coronary ischemia, stroke, transient ischemic attack, heart failure or thromboembolism. RESULTS: Of 28 442 women who received fertility therapy, 9349 (32.9%) subsequently gave birth and 19 093 (67.1%) did not. The median number of fertility treatments was 3 (interquartile range 1–5). We identified 2686 cardiovascular events over a median 8.4 years of follow-up. The annual rate of cardiovascular events was 19% higher among women who did not give birth after fertility therapy than among those who did (1.08 v. 0.91 per 100 patient-years, p treatment cycles. INTERPRETATION: Fertility therapy failure was associated with an increased risk of long-term adverse cardiovascular events. These women merit surveillance for subsequent cardiovascular events. PMID:28385819

  9. Subsequent pregnancies in women with previous gestational syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebmuller, Marjorie Garlow; Fiori, Humberto Holmer; Lago, Eleonor Gastal

    2015-09-01

    This study included data on syphilis-positive pregnant women seen for delivery or miscarriage, between 1997 and 2004, in Sao Lucas Hospital, Porto Alegre, RS. Their subsequent obstetric outcomes were studied, until December 2011, to see if the disease recurred. From 450 pregnant women with positive syphilis serology, seen from 1997 to 2004, 166 had at least one more obstetric attendance until December 2011, with 266 new obstetric outcomes. Congenital syphilis (CS) was demonstrated in 81.9% of the initial pregnancies and in 68.4% of the subsequent ones. The main causes of CS in subsequent pregnancies were a negative VDRL that turned positive at delivery, and undocumented treatment. VDRL titers were higher than 1:4 in 50.4% of the initial and 13.3% of the subsequent pregnancies (p syphilis in a preceding pregnancy. No or inadequate prenatal care was the main risk factor for CS, both in initial and in subsequent pregnancies. These data suggest that non-infected neonates could have been defined as CS cases because of insufficient information about the mother's history.

  10. [Subjective cognition in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, S; Aubin, G; Stip, E

    2017-02-01

    Given the extent, magnitude and functional significance of the neurocognitive deficits of schizophrenia, growing attention has been paid recently to patients' self-awareness of their own deficits. Thus far, the literature has shown either that patients fail to recognize their cognitive deficits or that the association between subjective and objective cognition is weak in schizophrenia. The reasons for this lack of consistency remain unexplained but may have to do, among others, with the influence of potential confounding clinical variables and the choice of the scale used to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits. In the current study, we sought to examine the relationships between subjective and objective cognitive performance in schizophrenia, while controlling for the influence of sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Eighty-two patients with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (DSM-IV criteria) were recruited. Patients' subjective cognitive complaints were evaluated with the Subjective Scale to Investigate Cognition in Schizophrenia (SSTICS), the most frequently used scale to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Neurocognition was evaluated with working memory, planning and visual learning tasks taken from Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery. The Stroop Color-Word test was also administered. Psychiatric symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. The relationships between subjective and objective cognition were evaluated with multivariate hierarchic linear regression analyses, taking into consideration potential confounders such as sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Finally, a factor analysis of the SSTICS was performed. For the SSTICS total score, the regression analysis produced a model including two predictors, namely visual learning and Stoop interference performance, explaining a moderate portion of the variance

  11. Mesenteric panniculitis: systematic review of cross-sectional imaging findings and risk of subsequent malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halligan, Steve; Plumb, Andrew; Taylor, Stuart [University College London UCL, Centre for Medical Imaging, 3rd Floor East, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-15

    Systematic review to determine any association between imaging features of idiopathic mesenteric panniculitis (MP) and subsequent malignancy. Two researchers searched primary literature independently for imaging studies of MP. They extracted data focusing on methodology for unbiased patient accrual and capability to determine a link between MP and subsequent malignancy. They noted imaging features of MP. Data were accrued and meta-analysis intended. Fourteen of 675 articles were eligible; 1,226 patients. Only three (21 %) accrued patients prospectively. Twelve (86 %) studies described CT features. Follow-up varied widely; 1 month to 8 years. Prevalence of MP was influenced by accrual: 0.2 % for keyword search versus 1.7 % for consecutive series. Accrual bias affected nine (64 %) studies. 458 (38 %) of 1,209 patients had malignancy at accrual but varied widely (8-89 %), preventing meta-analysis. Sixty (6.4 %) of 933 patients developed new malignancy subsequently, also varying widely (0-11 %). Of just four studies that determined the proportion of unselected, consecutive patients with MP developing subsequent malignancy, three were retrospective and the fourth excluded patients with lymphadenopathy, likely excluding patients with MP. Studies were heterogeneous, with biased accrual. No available study can determine an association between MP and subsequent malignancy with certainty. (orig.)

  12. Objective and subjective socioeconomic status and susceptibility to the common cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Sheldon; Alper, Cuneyt M; Doyle, William J; Adler, Nancy; Treanor, John J; Turner, Ronald B

    2008-03-01

    We ask whether subjective socioeconomic status (SES) predicts who develops a common cold when exposed to a cold virus. 193 healthy men and women ages 21-55 years were assessed for subjective (perceived rank) and objective SES, cognitive, affective and social dispositions, and health practices. Subsequently, they were exposed by nasal drops to a rhinovirus or influenza virus and monitored in quarantine for objective signs of illness and self-reported symptoms. Infection, signs and symptoms of the common cold, and clinical illness (infection and significant objective signs of illness). Increased subjective SES was associated with decreased risk for developing a cold for both viruses. This association was independent of objective SES and of cognitive, affective and social disposition that might provide alternative spurious (third factor) explanations for the association. Poorer sleep among those with lesser subjective SES may partly mediate the association between subjective SES and colds. Increased Subjective SES is associated with less susceptibility to upper respiratory infection, and this association is independent of objective SES, suggesting the importance of perceived relative rank to health. Copyright (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Effects of partial sleep restriction and subsequent daytime napping on prolonged exertional heat strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokizawa, Ken; Sawada, Shin-Ichi; Tai, Tetsuo; Lu, Jian; Oka, Tatsuo; Yasuda, Akinori; Takahashi, Masaya

    2015-07-01

    It is considered that sleep restriction is one of the risk factors for the development of exertional heat stroke and illness. However, how sleep restriction affects exertional heat strain and the nature of the coping strategy involved in this phenomenon remain unclear. Fourteen healthy subjects were studied on four occasions: after a night of normal sleep (NS, 7-8 h) and after a night of partial sleep restriction (PSR, 4 h), each with or without taking a daytime nap during the subsequent experimental day. The laboratory test consisted of two 40 min periods of moderate walking in a hot room in the morning and the afternoon. The increase in rectal temperature during walking was significantly greater in PSR than in NS in the afternoon. The rating scores for physical and psychological fatigue and sleepiness were significantly greater in PSR than in NS, both in the morning and in the afternoon. The reaction times and lapses in the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) after walking were significantly worse in PSR than in NS in the morning and after lunch. The nap intervention attenuated significantly the scores for fatigue and sleepiness in PSR. Furthermore, the decreased PVT response in PSR was significantly reversed by the nap. These results suggest that PSR augments physiological and psychological strain and reduces vigilance in the heat. Taking a nap seemed to be effective in reducing psychological strain and inhibiting the decrease in vigilance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Exercise lowers blood pressure in university professors during subsequent teaching and sleeping hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro F

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Fabiana Ribeiro1, Carmen S Grubert Campbell1, Gisele Mendes1, Gisela Arsa1,3, Sérgio R Moreira2, Francisco M da Silva1, Jonato Prestes1, Rafael da Costa Sotero1, Herbert Gustavo Simões1 1Graduate Program on Physical Education and Health, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brasilia; 2Federal University of Vale do São Francisco, Petrolina, 3Graduate Program on Physical Education, Nine of July University, São Paulo SP, Brazil Background: University professors are subjected to psychological stress that contributes to blood pressure (BP reactivity and development of hypertension. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise on BP in university professors during teaching and sleeping hours. Methods: Twelve normotensive professors (42.2 ± 10.8 years, 74.2 ± 11.2 kg, 172.8 ± 10.4 cm, 20.1% ± 6.7% body fat randomly underwent control (CONT and exercise (EX30 sessions before initiating their daily activities. EX30 consisted of 30 minutes of cycling at 80%–85% of heart rate reserve. Ambulatory BP was monitored for 24 hours following both sessions. Results: BP increased in comparison with pre-session resting values during teaching after CONT (P < 0.05 but not after EX30. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial BP showed a more pronounced nocturnal dip following EX30 (approximately -14.7, -12.7, and -9.6 mmHg, respectively when compared with CONT (approximately -6, -5 and -3 mmHg. Conclusion: Exercise induced a BP reduction in university professors, with the main effects being observed during subsequent teaching and sleeping hours. Keywords: post-exercise blood pressure, aerobic exercise, activities of daily living

  15. Writing and the 'Subject'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Charlotte

    /reading subject) manifests itself in the material mark on the page. The study shows how this indexical reference to a ‘subject’ is manipulated and used as a mask through which a writer/painter can perform a certain ‘subject’. Through analyses of the various levels on which the ‘subject’ is represented...... in the early as well as the contemporary avant-garde, it becomes clear that the ‘subject’ is an unstable category that can be exposed to manipulation and play. Handwriting is performing as a signature (as an index), but is at the same time similar to the signature of a subject (an icon) and a verbal construct...

  16. Faster Algorithms for Computing Longest Common Increasing Subsequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutz, Martin; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Kaligosi, Kanela

    2011-01-01

    of the alphabet, and Sort is the time to sort each input sequence. For k⩾3 length-n sequences we present an algorithm which improves the previous best bound by more than a factor k for many inputs. In both cases, our algorithms are conceptually quite simple but rely on existing sophisticated data structures......We present algorithms for finding a longest common increasing subsequence of two or more input sequences. For two sequences of lengths n and m, where m⩾n, we present an algorithm with an output-dependent expected running time of and O(m) space, where ℓ is the length of an LCIS, σ is the size....... Finally, we introduce the problem of longest common weakly-increasing (or non-decreasing) subsequences (LCWIS), for which we present an -time algorithm for the 3-letter alphabet case. For the extensively studied longest common subsequence problem, comparable speedups have not been achieved for small...

  17. A Novel Image Encryption Algorithm Based on DNA Subsequence Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel image encryption algorithm based on DNA subsequence operation. Different from the traditional DNA encryption methods, our algorithm does not use complex biological operation but just uses the idea of DNA subsequence operations (such as elongation operation, truncation operation, deletion operation, etc. combining with the logistic chaotic map to scramble the location and the value of pixel points from the image. The experimental results and security analysis show that the proposed algorithm is easy to be implemented, can get good encryption effect, has a wide secret key's space, strong sensitivity to secret key, and has the abilities of resisting exhaustive attack and statistic attack.

  18. Subject knowledge for teaching and continuing professional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This short discussion article outlines a range of theoretical issues underpinning the formation of subject knowledge for teaching. It suggests a number of practical needs that secondary school teachers of English may be seeking to address in the way of subject knowledge development and how this may relate to the ...

  19. Subjection and subjectification / technique and techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Clarizio

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Course on The Hermeneutic of the Subject problematizes a theme that goes through the whole Foucault’s thought, that of technique. The article, through a dialogue among Foucault, Heidegger and Simondon, aims to trace the development of this theme, also asking the way the technique works when related to processes of subjection and subjectification.

  20. Subject Sensitive Invariantism: In Memoriam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Subject sensitive invariantism is the view that whether a subject knows depends on what is at stake for that subject: the truth-value of a knowledge-attribution is sensitive to the subject's practical interests. I argue that subject sensitive invariantism cannot accept a very plausible principle for

  1. Evolution of microstructure and texture in copper during repetitive extrusion-upsetting and subsequent annealing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Q.; Shu, D. Y.; Lin, J.

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of the microstructure and texture in copper has been studied during repetitive extrusion-upsetting (REU) to a total von Mises strain of 4.7 and during subsequent annealing at different temperatures. It is found that the texture is significantly altered by each deformation pass...... developing predominantly in high misorientation regions. At 350 ºC the microstructure is fully recrystallized with an average grain size of only 2.3 μm and a very weak crystallographic texture. This REU-processed and subsequently annealed material is considered to be potentially suitable for using...

  2. Previous Mental Disorders and Subsequent Onset of Chronic Back or Neck Pain: Findings From 19 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Maria Carmen; Lim, Carmen C W; Garcia Pereira, Flavia; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Jonge, Peter; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; O'Neill, Siobhan; Stein, Dan J; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Benjet, Corina; Cardoso, Graça; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Rabczenko, Daniel; Kessler, Ronald C; Scott, Kate M

    2018-01-01

    Associations between depression/anxiety and pain are well established, but its directionality is not clear. We examined the associations between temporally previous mental disorders and subsequent self-reported chronic back/neck pain onset, and investigated the variation in the strength of associations according to timing of events during the life course, and according to gender. Data were from population-based household surveys conducted in 19 countries (N = 52,095). Lifetime prevalence and age of onset of 16 mental disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, and the occurrence and age of onset of back/neck pain were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Survival analyses estimated the associations between first onset of mental disorders and subsequent back/neck pain onset. All mental disorders were positively associated with back/neck pain in bivariate analyses; most (12 of 16) remained so after adjusting for psychiatric comorbidity, with a clear dose-response relationship between number of mental disorders and subsequent pain. Early-onset disorders were stronger predictors of pain; when adjusting for psychiatric comorbidity, this remained the case for depression/dysthymia. No gender differences were observed. In conclusion, individuals with mental disorder, beyond depression and anxiety, are at higher risk of developing subsequent back/neck pain, stressing the importance of early detection of mental disorders, and highlight the need of assessing back/neck pain in mental health clinical settings. Previous mental disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition are positively associated with subsequent back/neck pain onset, with a clear dose-response relationship between number of mental disorders and subsequent pain. Earlier-onset mental disorders are stronger predictors of subsequent pain onset, compared with later-onset disorders

  3. Assessing the Risk of Prehospital Administration of Naloxone with Subsequent Refusal of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Michael; Sanko, Stephen; Eckstein, Marc

    2016-01-01

    EMS providers frequently encounter opioid-toxic patients who receive naloxone and then refuse further medical care. Older studies revealed this practice to be safe. In light of the evolving patterns of opioid abuse, this study attempted to determine the safety of this practice. This is a retrospective review of all patient encounters by the Los Angeles Fire Department (LAFD) between July 1, 2011-December 31, 2013. All LAFD patient encounters are stored electronically. These electronic records were reviewed for subjects who received naloxone had a documented respiratory rate (RR) less than 12, and subsequently refused transport. Data abstracted included name, social security number (SSN), date of birth (DOB), date of EMS encounter, age, and treatment rendered. The names, SSN, and DOB, as available, were supplied to the coroner's office. The Coroner's records were reviewed to determine if a patient with the same or similar name (e.g., Jon vs. Jonathan) had died within 24 hours, 30 days, or 6 months of the initial EMS encounter. The abstractor was blinded to the study hypothesis. 205 subjects were identified; the median (IQR) age was 41 (29-53) years. 27 (13%) were female. One subject (0.49%) died within 24 hours of the initial EMS encounter. The cause of death (COD) was coronary artery disease and heroin use. Two additional subjects (1. %) died within 30 days. One of these subjects died 6 days later; the COD is unknown. The other subject died 20 days after the EMS encounter; the COD was cardiovascular disease and liver cirrhosis. No additional subjects were identified at the 6 month follow up. A third subject died of a heroin overdose 16 months after the initial EMS encounter, but was beyond the pre-defined follow up period. The practice of receiving pre-hospital naloxone by paramedics and subsequently refusing care is associated with an extremely low short- and intermediate-term mortality. Despite an evolving pattern of opioid abuse, the results of this study

  4. Mental fatigue induced by prolonged self-regulation does not exacerbate central fatigue during subsequent whole-body endurance exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pageaux, Benjamin; Marcora, Samuele M.; Rozand, Vianney; Lepers, Romuald

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that the mental fatigue induced by prolonged self-regulation increases perception of effort and reduces performance during subsequent endurance exercise. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying these negative effects of mental fatigue are unclear. The primary aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental fatigue exacerbates central fatigue induced by whole-body endurance exercise. Twelve subjects performed 30 min of either an incongruent Stroop task to induce a condition of mental fatigue or a congruent Stroop task (control condition) in a random and counterbalanced order. Both cognitive tasks (CTs) were followed by a whole-body endurance task (ET) consisting of 6 min of cycling exercise at 80% of peak power output measured during a preliminary incremental test. Neuromuscular function of the knee extensors was assessed before and after CT, and after ET. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured during ET. Both CTs did not induce any decrease in maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque (p = 0.194). During ET, mentally fatigued subjects reported higher RPE (mental fatigue 13.9 ± 3.0, control 13.3 ± 3.2, p = 0.044). ET induced a similar decrease in MVC torque (mental fatigue –17 ± 15%, control –15 ± 11%, p = 0.001), maximal voluntary activation level (mental fatigue –6 ± 9%, control –6 ± 7%, p = 0.013) and resting twitch (mental fatigue –30 ± 14%, control –32 ± 10%, p fatigue does not reduce the capacity of the central nervous system to recruit the working muscles. The negative effect of mental fatigue on perception of effort does not reflect a greater development of either central or peripheral fatigue. Consequently, mentally fatigued subjects are still able to perform maximal exercise, but they are experiencing an altered performance during submaximal exercise due to higher-than-normal perception of effort. PMID:25762914

  5. Relationship between egg weight, hatch weight and subsequent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred (300) Fulani Ecotype (FE) chicken eggs collected from free ranged Fulani Ecotype chicken were used to study the effect of egg weight on hatch weight and subsequent body weight. Eggs were grouped into two according to their weight (small and medium) and incubated. Body weight of the chicks was ...

  6. McGurk illusion recalibrates subsequent auditory perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lüttke, C.S.; Ekman, M.; Gerven, M.A.J. van; Lange, F.P. de

    2016-01-01

    Visual information can alter auditory perception. This is clearly illustrated by the well-known McGurk illusion, where an auditory/aba/ and a visual /aga/ are merged to the percept of 'ada'. It is less clear however whether such a change in perception may recalibrate subsequent perception. Here we

  7. 27 CFR 479.66 - Subsequent transfer of firearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Subsequent transfer of firearms. 479.66 Section 479.66 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES...

  8. Risks associated with subsequent pregnancy after one caesarean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The absolute risk of failed trial of vaginal birth after a cesarean was 45% (95% CI: 38.5, 51.5). Conclusion: Women who have one previous C.section face a markedly increased risk of repeat caesarean sections and feto.maternal complications in subsequent pregnancies. There is a need for doctors in Nigeria to be mindful of ...

  9. Effect of winter nutritional levels on subsequent growth of beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of winter nutritional levels on subsequent growth of beef heifers in the Highland Sourveld of Natal. ... Teen 'n lae veebelading van 0,75 GVE/ha (vir die weiperiode) op somerveld, het verse betekenisvol (P < 0,01) meer in massa toegeneem vergeleke met 'n hoë veebelading (1,25 GVE/ha). Binne elk van die ...

  10. Fast Arc-Annotated Subsequence Matching in Linear Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2010-01-01

    is deleted any arc with an endpoint in that base is also deleted. Arc-annotated strings where the arcs are "nested" are a natural model of RNA molecules that captures both the primary and secondary structure of these. The arc-preserving subsequence problem for nested arc-annotated strings is basic primitive...

  11. Maternal Obesity in Early Pregnancy and Subsequent Pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite a rising prevalence worldwide, there is limited data on pregnancy outcome among African women with prepregnancy or early pregnancy obesity. This was a case-control study to determine the prevalence of maternal obesity in early pregnancy and compare the subsequent pregnancy outcome between 201 women ...

  12. Physical Restraint Initiation in Nursing Homes and Subsequent Resident Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engberg, John; Castle, Nicholas G.; McCaffrey, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: It is widely believed that physical restraint use causes mental and physical health decline in nursing home residents. Yet few studies exist showing an association between restraint initiation and health decline. In this research, we examined whether physical restraint initiation is associated with subsequent lower physical or mental…

  13. Duration of exclusive breastfeeding and subsequent child feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Mothers of young children in Ghana believe that breastfeeding exclusively for six months impairs subsequent introduction of other foods. The current study was designed to determine whether feeding adequacy among 9-23 months old children is influenced by duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Design: We ...

  14. Beliefs about Child Support Modification Following Remarriage and Subsequent Childbirth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans, Jason D.

    2009-01-01

    Framed by equity theory, fairness beliefs regarding child support modification to account for the financial impact of remarriage and subsequent childbirth were assessed. Based on a random sample of 407 Kentucky residents using a multiple segment factorial vignette approach, modification was supported by 57% of respondents following remarriage, but…

  15. Sustained mental workload does not affect subsequent sleep intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, EA; Beersma, DGM; Daan, S; Bruin, Eveline A. de

    Mental activity is a neglected factor in sleep research. The few investigations on sleep that manipulate prior mental activity are inconclusive with respect to the possible effects of mental activity on recovery. In the present study, the effects of two levels of mental activity on subsequent sleep

  16. Fitness Change and Subsequent Academic Performance in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Jung; Fox, Kenneth R.; Ku, Po-Wen; Taun, Chih-Yang

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study examined the association between fitness change and subsequent academic performance in Taiwanese schoolchildren from 7th grade to 9th grade. Methods: The 7th graders from 1 junior high school district participated in this study (N=669). Academic performance was

  17. Biological control of Aspergillus flavus growth and subsequent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... This study, therefore explored the potential use of certain biocontrol agents for the reduction of growth of toxigenic Aspergillus flavus and subsequent aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production in sorghum. Among all the biocontrol agents tested, culture filtrate of Rhodococcus erythropolis completely inhibited the A.

  18. Incidence of pelvic organ prolapse repair subsequent to hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Rune; Blaakær, Jan; Ottesen, Bent

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of subsequent pelvic organ prolapse (POP) repair in women following radical hysterectomy versus total abdominal hysterectomy. METHODS: From the Danish National Patient Registry, we collected data on all radical...

  19. Changes in job strain and subsequent weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterlund, Gitte Kingo; Keller, Amélie Cléo; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Obesity as well as job strain is increasing, and job strain might contribute to weight gain. The objective of the current study was to examine associations between longitudinal alterations in the components of job strain and subsequent weight gain. Design: The study was designed...

  20. Hypertensive pregnancy disorders and subsequent cardiovascular morbidity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the mother

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Jacob A; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Sibai, Baha M

    2009-01-01

    for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The end points were subsequent hypertension, ischemic heart disease, congestive heart failure, thromboembolic event, stroke, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The risk of subsequent hypertension was increased 5.31-fold (range: 4.90 to 5.75) after gestational hypertension......Minimal data exist concerning the relationship between hypertensive pregnancy disorders and various subsequent cardiovascular events and the effect of type 2 diabetes mellitus on these. In a registry-based cohort study, we identified women delivering in Denmark from 1978 to 2007 with a first...... singleton (n=782 287) and 2 first consecutive singleton deliveries (n=536 419). The exposures were gestational hypertension and mild and severe preeclampsia. We adjusted for preterm delivery, small for gestational age, placental abruption, and stillbirth and, in a second model, we also adjusted...

  1. Natural course of subsequent pregnancy after peripartum cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Manes Albanesi Fº

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of subsequent pregnancy after peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM on maternal and fetal outcome. METHODS: Prospective study of 34 patients with the diagnosis of PPCM (mean age= 26years. At the time of first diagnosis 5 were in NYHA functional class (FC II for heart failure, one in FC III and 28 in FC IV. After clinical treatment, patients were advised to avoid new pregnancies and a follow-up was obtained. RESULTS: There were 12 (35.3% subsequent pregnancies in patients (pt aged 19 to 44 years (mean 32, divided into two groups: GI: 6 pts who had normalized their heart size and GII: 6 pts with persistent cardiomegaly. GI had initially mild clinical manifestations ( 3 were in FC II, 1 in FC II and 2 in FC IV and complete recovery of cardiac function (FC I. A new pregnancy was well-tolerated in 5 (83.3%; 1 pt presented with preeclampsia, and progressed to FC II. Presently, 5 pt are in FC I and 1 in FC II. GII pts had more severe heart failure at the onset of PPCM (1 pt in FC II and 5 in FC IV; during follow-up, 4 pt were in FC I and 2 in FC II. A new pregnancy was well tolerated in all of them, but the eldest, who had had 2 pregnancies and had a progressive worsening of clinical status, dying 8 years after the last pregnancy and 13 years after the diagnosis of PPCM. The remaining 5 pt are still alive, 3 in FC I and 2 in FC II, with worsening of FC in 1. Subsequent pregnancies occurred 3-7 years after clinical treatment of PPCM and no fetal distress was observed. CONCLUSION: Subsequent pregnancies are well-tolerated after PPCM, but not devoid of risk. No fetal distress was observed. A minimum interval of 3 years after the recovery of function seems to be safe for subsequent pregnancies.

  2. Term induction of labor and subsequent preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Lisa D; Bogner, Hillary R; Hirshberg, Adi; Elovitz, Michal A; Sammel, Mary D; Srinivas, Sindhu K

    2014-04-01

    Although the rate of inductions continues to rise, there is a paucity of data investigating subsequent pregnancy outcomes after induction. Our objective was to compare term inductions with term spontaneous labor and evaluate the rate of subsequent spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB). A retrospective cohort study of women with 2 consecutive deliveries from 2005 through 2010 was performed. Term inductions or term spontaneous labor in the index pregnancy was included, and those with a prior sPTB were excluded. Data were obtained through chart abstraction. The primary outcome was sPTB (Term inductions were less likely to have a subsequent sPTB compared with term spontaneous labor (6% vs 11%; odds ratio [OR], 0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.29-0.81; P = .005). This remained after adjusting for confounders (adjusted OR, 0.55; P = .04). The sPTB risk depended on gestational age of index delivery. At 37-38.9 weeks, the sPTB rate after spontaneous labor was 24% vs 9% after induction (OR, 3.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.44-6.16; P = .003). This was not significant for 39-39.9 weeks (P = .2) or 40 weeks or longer (P = .8). Induction is not a risk factor for subsequent sPTB. Spontaneous labor, however, in the early term period is associated with subsequent sPTB. Further investigation among early term deliveries is warranted to evaluate the risk of sPTB and target interventions in this cohort. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Post-meal perceivable satiety and subsequent energy intake with intake of partially hydrolysed guar gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Theertham Pradyumna; Hayakawa, Mariko; Minami, Tadayasu; Ishihara, Noriyuki; Kapoor, Mahendra Parkash; Ohkubo, Tsutomu; Juneja, Lekh Raj; Wakabayashi, Kazuo

    2015-05-14

    Partially hydrolysed guar gum (PHGG), a soluble dietary fibre, has been shown to provide many health benefits. Previous studies had suggested that the combination of PHGG with protein provided a significant satiation effect on visual analogue scales (VAS). What was lacking was only the effect of administration of small doses of PHGG on post-meal satiation and subsequent energy intake. The objectives of the present investigations were to find the subjective perception of post-meal satiety with acute and long term administration of small amounts of PHGG alone with food, its effects on subsequent energy intake and the comparative effects among different types of soluble fibres. The following three separate studies were conducted: in study 1, healthy subjects (n 12) consumed PHGG along with breakfast, lunch and an evening snack; in study 2, healthy subjects (n 24) consumed 2 g of PHGG or dextrin along with yogurt as breakfast for 2 weeks; in study 3, healthy subjects (n 6) took 6 g each of either PHGG or indigestible dextrin or inulin along with lunch. In all the studies, various satiety parameters were measured on VAS before and after consumption of PHGG. The addition of PHGG showed significant (P < 0.05) acute (studies 1 and 3) and long-term (studies 1 and 2) satiety effects compared to the control and/or an equal amount of carbohydrate or other types of soluble fibre. Study 2 also indicated that the prolonged consumption of PHGG may significantly (P < 0.05) reduce energy intake from whole-day snacking. PHGG could be an ideal natural soluble fibre for delivering acute and long term satiety effects for comfortable appetite control.

  4. Florida Master Teacher Program: Testing Teacher Subject Matter Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavely, Carolyn; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The efforts of the Florida Institute for Instructional Research and Practice in designing, developing, and analyzing the subject area knowledge tests of the Florida Master Teacher Program are described. A total of 13 subject area examinations was developed in 1984-85, and 5 additional tests were developed the following year. For each subject area…

  5. Praxis, subjectivity and sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Gómez-Muller

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A primordial aspect of the Sartrian critique of alienation concerns understanding the analytic ideology as the domination of materiality over the symbolic, in other words as the reification of the human, and therefore as anticulture. In the context of contemporary nihilism, the decoding of the mechanisms which consign praxis to the practico-inert requires a critique of the relations between the social sciences and philosophy, which in its turn implies a new theory of the relation between what Sartre calls the "notion" (the area of subjectivity and the "concept" (objectivity, From this perspective, the deconstruction of the established frontiers between the social sciences and philosophy, and between the conceptual and the narrative, is corelative to a redefinition of the relation between theory and practice.

  6. Sexuality in subjects with intellectual disability: an educational intervention proposal for parents and counselors in developing countries La sexualidad en personas con discapacidad intelectual: una propuesta de intervención educacional para padres y consejeros en paises en desarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Katz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, the study of intellectual disability has enormous knowledge gaps, especially in the areas of intervention, utilization of services and legislation. This article provides information not only for aiding in the potential development of sexuality in individuals with intellectual disability, but also for fostering their social integration. In Mexico and the region, in order to develop educational interventions for promoting sexual health, it is necessary to consider the following priorities: a mental health professionals should have the knowledge or receive training for carrying out a sexual education and counseling program; b educational interventions for subjects with intellectual disability should be adapted for the different stages of life (childhood, adolescence and adulthood; c during childhood, educational intervention should emphasize the concept of public and private conducts; d in adolescence, intervention should consider the actual mental age and not the chronological age of the subjects receiving intervention; e the expression of sexuality in the adult with intellectual disability depends on the early incorporation of factors for promoting social inclusion; f for educational interventions to be successful, it is fundamental that sexual educators and counselors, in addition to working with the clients, also work with their parents and other close family members; g intervention programs should establish development objectives for developing in persons with intellectual disability a positive attitude towards sexuality and the improvement in self-esteem; h in subjects with intellectual disability, their linguistic comprehension level should be taken into consideration and techniques for open discussion and non-inductive education should be used; i social integration programs should address the needs of developing countries and their individuals, since it is not feasible to import external programs due to differences

  7. Medical abortion and the risk of subsequent adverse pregnancy outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Jasveer; Zhang, Jun; Olsen, Jørn

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The long-term safety of surgical abortion in the first trimester is well established. Despite the increasing use of medical abortion (abortion by means of medication), limited information is available regarding the effects of this procedure on subsequent pregnancies. METHODS: We...... identified all women living in Denmark who had undergone an abortion for nonmedical reasons between 1999 and 2004 and obtained information regarding subsequent pregnancies from national registries. Risks of ectopic pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth (at ... weight (abortion were compared with risks in women who had had a first-trimester surgical abortion. RESULTS: Among 11,814 pregnancies in women who had had a previous first-trimester medical abortion (2710 women...

  8. Association Between Psychotic Experiences and Subsequent Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bromet, Evelyn J; Nock, Matthew K; Saha, Sukanta

    2017-01-01

    Importance: Community-based studies have linked psychotic experiences (PEs) with increased risks of suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs). However, it is not known if these associations vary across the life course or if mental disorders contribute to these associations. Objective: To examine...... the temporal association between PEs and subsequent STBs across the life span as well as the influence of mental disorders (antecedent to the STBs) on these associations. Design, Setting, and Participants: A total of 33 370 adult respondents across 19 countries from the World Health Organization World Mental...... Health Surveys were assessed for PEs, STBs (ie, ideation, plans, and attempts), and 21 DSM-IV mental disorders. Discrete-time survival analysis was used to investigate the associations of PEs with subsequent onset of STBs. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prevalence and frequency of STBs with PEs, and odds...

  9. Personal commentary: monitoring subsequent pregnancy in recovered peripartum cardiomyopathy mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fett, James D

    2009-12-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is defined as the first appearance of systolic heart failure in a previously healthy woman during the last month of pregnancy or up to 6 months postpartum. Both planned and unplanned pregnancies may occur in recovered and non-recovered PPCM mothers, requiring careful counseling and management strategies. Previous studies indicate that relapse of heart failure in post-PPCM pregnancies is always a possibility, even in recovered PPCM mothers. The risk of relapse is high when the left ventricular ejection fraction is less than 0.50, and should be considered a relative contraindication to subsequent pregnancy. There are not yet established protocols for monitoring subsequent pregnancies in those who once had PPCM, and few medical articles with guidelines. This personal commentary contains parameters that have been found useful to contribute to safer monitoring with improved outcomes.

  10. Learning increases human electroencephalographic coherence during subsequent slow sleep oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölle, Matthias; Marshall, Lisa; Gais, Steffen; Born, Jan

    2004-09-21

    Learning is assumed to induce specific changes in neuronal activity during sleep that serve the consolidation of newly acquired memories. To specify such changes, we measured electroencephalographic (EEG) coherence during performance on a declarative learning task (word pair associations) and subsequent sleep. Compared with a nonlearning control condition, learning performance was accompanied with a strong increase in coherence in several EEG frequency bands. During subsequent non-rapid eye movement sleep, coherence only marginally increased in a global analysis of EEG recordings. However, a striking and robust increase in learning-dependent coherence was found when analyses were performed time-locked to the occurrence of slow oscillations (learning in the slow-oscillatory, delta, slow-spindle, and gamma bands. The findings identify the depolarizing phase of the slow oscillations in humans as a time period particularly relevant for a reprocessing of memories in sleep.

  11. Association between mental disorders and subsequent adult onset asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Jordi; de Jonge, Peter; Lim, Carmen C W; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Liu, Zhaorui; O'Neill, Siobhan; Stein, Dan J; Viana, Maria Carmen; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Borges, Guilherme; Ciutan, Marius; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Fiestas, Fabian; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Kessler, Ronald C; Lépine, Jean Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Posada-Villa, Jose; Wojtyniak, Bogdan J; Scott, Kate M

    2014-12-01

    Associations between asthma and anxiety and mood disorders are well established, but little is known about their temporal sequence. We examined associations between a wide range of DSM-IV mental disorders with adult onset of asthma and whether observed associations remain after mental comorbidity adjustments. During face-to-face household surveys in community-dwelling adults (n = 52,095) of 19 countries, the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview retrospectively assessed lifetime prevalence and age at onset of 16 DSM-IV mental disorders. Asthma was assessed by self-report of physician's diagnosis together with age of onset. Survival analyses estimated associations between first onset of mental disorders and subsequent adult onset asthma, without and with comorbidity adjustment. 1860 adult onset (21 years+) asthma cases were identified, representing a total of 2,096,486 person-years of follow up. After adjustment for comorbid mental disorders several mental disorders were associated with subsequent adult asthma onset: bipolar (OR = 1.8; 95%CI 1.3-2.5), panic (OR = 1.4; 95%CI 1.0-2.0), generalized anxiety (OR = 1.3; 95%CI 1.1-1.7), specific phobia (OR = 1.3; 95%CI 1.1-1.6); post-traumatic stress (OR = 1.5; 95%CI 1.1-1.9); binge eating (OR = 1.8; 95%CI 1.2-2.9) and alcohol abuse (OR = 1.5; 95%CI 1.1-2.0). Mental comorbidity linearly increased the association with adult asthma. The association with subsequent asthma was stronger for mental disorders with an early onset (before age 21). A wide range of temporally prior mental disorders are significantly associated with subsequent onset of asthma in adulthood. The extent to which asthma can be avoided or improved among those with early mental disorders deserves study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of equine chorionic gonadotrophin on follicular, luteal and conceptus development of non-lactating Bos indicus beef cows subjected to a progesterone plus estradiol-based timed artificial insemination protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Pitaluga Costa e Silva Filho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG on ovarian follicular responses, corpus luteum (CL development and conceptus length on day 16 after timed artificial insemination (TAI. A total of 124 cows at day 0 (D0 received 2 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB and the insertion of a progesterone (P4 intravaginal device. Eight days later, the device was removed, and cows received 0.15 mg of prostaglandin and 0.5 mg of estradiol cypionate (EC, and were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: eCG (n=60, in which cows received 300 U of eCG; and control (n=64. Cows were TAI 48 h after P4 device removal. The diameter of the largest follicle (LF present on D8 and D10 and of CL on D15 and D26 were measured. Conceptus recovered rate, conceptus length, CL diameter and weight were determined at slaughter on D26. Plasma P4 concentration was determined on D15 and D26. Follicular growth from D8 to D10 (P=0.03, the diameter of CL at D15 (P=0.03 and D26 (P=0.003 and the CL weight at day 26 (P=0.04 were greater in the eCG group than the control. However, there was no effect of eCG treatment on oestrus occurrence, conceptus recovery rate and length, or P4 concentrations on either D15 or D26. In conclusion, although eCG increases follicular responses and the diameter of the CL, this gonadotropin treatment does not influence the length of the conceptus or the P4 concentration on the subsequent oestrus cycle.

  13. The Past Is Present: Representations of Parents, Friends, and Romantic Partners Predict Subsequent Romantic Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Wyndol; Collibee, Charlene

    2016-12-28

    This study examined how representations of parent-child relationships, friendships, and past romantic relationships are related to subsequent romantic representations. Two-hundred 10th graders (100 female; Mage  = 15.87 years) from diverse neighborhoods in a Western U.S. city were administered questionnaires and were interviewed to assess avoidant and anxious representations of their relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners. Participants then completed similar questionnaires and interviews about their romantic representations six more times over the next 7.5 years. Growth curve analyses revealed that representations of relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners each uniquely predicted subsequent romantic representations across development. Consistent with attachment and behavioral systems theory, representations of romantic relationships are revised by representations and experiences in other relationships. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  14. Infant and child deaths: Parent concerns about subsequent pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooten, Dorothy; Youngblut, JoAnne M; Hannan, Jean; Caicedo, Carmen; Roche, Rosa; Malkawi, Fatima

    2015-12-01

    Examine parents' concerns about subsequent pregnancies after experiencing an infant or child death (newborn to 18 years). Thirty-nine semistructured parent (white, black, Hispanic) interviews 7 and 13 months post infant/child death conducted in English and/or Spanish, audio-recorded, transcribed, and content analyzed. Mothers' mean age was 31.8 years, fathers' was 39 years; 11 parents were white, 16 black, and 12 Hispanic. Themes common at 7 and 13 months: wanting more children; fear, anxiety, scared; praying to God/God's will; thinking about/keeping the infant's/child's memory and at 7 months importance of becoming pregnant for family members; and at 13 months happy about a new baby. Parents who lost a child in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) commented more than those who lost a child in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Black and Hispanic parents commented more on praying to God and subsequent pregnancies being God's will than white parents. Loss of an infant/child is a significant stressor on parents with documented negative physical and mental health outcomes. Assessing parents' subsequent pregnancy plans, recognizing the legitimacy of their fears about another pregnancy, discussing a plan should they encounter problems, and carefully monitoring the health of all parents who lost an infant/child is an essential practitioner role. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  15. Subsequent pregnancy outcomes in women previously diagnosed with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David B; Casey, Brian M; McIntire, Donald D; Cunningham, F Gary

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcomes in women previously identified during an index pregnancy to have subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). From 2000 to 2003, thyroid analytes were measured in 17,298 women. Using their index pregnancy thyroid-analyte classification, pregnancy outcomes were compared between the returning cohorts. There were 6,985 women previously screened and subsequently delivered at our hospital though 2011 with 230 (3.3%) designated to have SCH and 6,645 (95.1%) euthyroid. Significant differences between the two cohorts included risk for diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2 to 2.7, p = 0.005), gestational diabetes (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.69, p = 0.015), and stillbirth (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.05 to 11.68, p = 0.042). After adjustment, the increased likelihood of diabetes (adjusted OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.40, p = 0.032) and stillbirth (adjusted OR 3.41, 95% CI 1.01 to 11.49, p = 0.048) persisted. Women identified during a previous pregnancy with SCH are at increased risk for some adverse perinatal outcomes during a subsequent pregnancy. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. Repetition related changes in activation and functional connectivity in hippocampus predict subsequent memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manelis, Anna; Paynter, Christopher A; Wheeler, Mark E; Reder, Lynne M

    2013-01-01

    Using fMRI, this study examined the relationship between repetition-related changes in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) activation during encoding and subsequent memory for similarity of repetitions. During scanning, subjects classified pictures of objects as natural or man-made. Each object-type was judged twice with presentations of either identical pictures or pictures of different exemplars of the same object. After scanning, a surprise recognition test required subjects to decide whether a probe word corresponded to pictures judged previously. When a subject judged the word as "old," a second judgment was made concerning the physical similarity of the two pictures. Repetition related changes in MTL activation varied depending on whether or not subjects could correctly state that pictures were different. Moreover, psychophysiological interactions analyses showed that accuracy in recalling whether the two pictures were different was predicted by repetition-related changes in the functional connectivity of MTL with frontal regions. Specifically, correct recollection was predicted by increased connectivity between the left posterior hippocampus and the right inferior frontal gyrus, and also by decreased connectivity between the left posterior hippocampus and the left precentral gyrus on the second stimulus presentation. The opposite pattern was found for trials that were incorrectly judged on the nature of the repetition. These results suggest that successful encoding is predicted by a combination of increases and decreases in both the MTL activation and functional connectivity, and not merely by increases in activation and connectivity as suggested previously. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Naming the Ethological Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Etienne S

    2016-03-01

    Argument In recent decades, through the work of Jane Goodall and other ethologists, the practice of giving personal names to nonhuman animals who are the subjects of scientific research has become associated with claims about animal personhood and scientific objectivity. While critics argue that such naming practices predispose the researcher toward anthropomorphism, supporters suggest that it sensitizes the researcher to individual differences and social relations. Both critics and supporters agree that naming tends to be associated with the recognition of individual animal rights. The history of the naming of research animals since the late nineteenth century shows, however, that the practice has served a variety of purposes, most of which have raised few ethical or epistemological concerns. Names have been used to identify research animals who play dual roles as pets, workers, or patients, to enhance their market value, and to facilitate their identification in the field. The multifaceted history of naming suggests both that the use of personal names by Goodall and others is less of a radical break with previous practices than it might first appear to be and that the use of personal names to recognize the individuality, sentience, or rights of nonhuman animals faces inherent limits and contradictions.

  18. IL-34 mediates acute kidney injury and worsens subsequent chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jea-Hyun; Zeng, Rui; Weinmann-Menke, Julia; Valerius, M. Todd; Wada, Yukihiro; Ajay, Amrendra K.; Colonna, Marco; Kelley, Vicki R.

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages (Mø) are integral in ischemia/reperfusion injury–incited (I/R-incited) acute kidney injury (AKI) that leads to fibrosis and chronic kidney disease (CKD). IL-34 and CSF-1 share a receptor (c-FMS), and both cytokines mediate Mø survival and proliferation but also have distinct features. CSF-1 is central to kidney repair and destruction. We tested the hypothesis that IL-34–dependent, Mø-mediated mechanisms promote persistent ischemia-incited AKI that worsens subsequent CKD. In renal I/R, the time-related magnitude of Mø-mediated AKI and subsequent CKD were markedly reduced in IL-34–deficient mice compared with controls. IL-34, c-FMS, and a second IL-34 receptor, protein-tyrosine phosphatase ζ (PTP-ζ) were upregulated in the kidney after I/R. IL-34 was generated by tubular epithelial cells (TECs) and promoted Mø-mediated TEC destruction during AKI that worsened subsequent CKD via 2 distinct mechanisms: enhanced intrarenal Mø proliferation and elevated BM myeloid cell proliferation, which increases circulating monocytes that are drawn into the kidney by chemokines. CSF-1 expression in TECs did not compensate for IL-34 deficiency. In patients, kidney transplants subject to I/R expressed IL-34, c-FMS, and PTP−ζ in TECs during AKI that increased with advancing injury. Moreover, IL-34 expression increased, along with more enduring ischemia in donor kidneys. In conclusion, IL-34-dependent, Mø-mediated, CSF-1 nonredundant mechanisms promote persistent ischemia-incited AKI that worsens subsequent CKD. PMID:26121749

  19. The Association Between Serum Biomarkers of Collagen Turnover and Subsequent Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Steven J; Owens, Brett D; Harvey, Travis M; Tarwater, Patrick M; Brechue, William F; Cameron, Kenneth L

    2016-07-01

    No study has attempted to associate the levels of preinjury serum biomarkers of collagen turnover with the subsequent risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Preinjury serum biomarkers of collagen turnover would be associated with the subsequent risk of ACL injury. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. We conducted a case-control study with 45 ACL-injured cases and 45 controls matched for sex, age, height, and weight. In addition to the matching criteria, controls had no history of major joint injury. Baseline preinjury serum samples were obtained from the Department of Defense Serum Repository for all subjects. Samples were assessed for 2 serum biomarkers of collagen synthesis (CPII and CS846) and 2 markers of collagen degradation (C1,2C and C2C) through commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. All ELISAs were performed in triplicate. Conditional logistic regression models were used to analyze the data. Univariate results suggested that both biomarkers for collagen degradation (C1,2C and C2C) were significantly associated with the subsequent likelihood of ACL injury. Serum C2C and C1,2C concentration at baseline were associated with odds ratios (ORs) of 2.05 (95% CI, 1.30-3.23; P = .001) and 3.02 (95% CI, 1.60-5.71; P = .002), respectively. Baseline serum CPII concentrations were also associated with subsequent ACL injury. Serum CPII concentration at baseline was associated with an OR of 4.41 (95% CI, 1.87-10.38; P = .001). Baseline serum CS846 levels approached significance (OR = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.57-1.03; P = .080). Multivariable models suggested that preinjury CPII and C2C concentrations at baseline are important indicators of subsequent ACL injury risk. Preinjury differences in serum biomarker levels of collagen turnover suggest that collagen metabolism in individuals who go on to tear an ACL may be different when compared with a matched control group with no history of major joint injury. These differences may be

  20. [Subjectivity sense, language and subject: a new postrationalist perspective in psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Rey, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the philosophical roots of the concept of sense in Russian philosophy and linguistic, analyzing its consequences for the social sciences, in particular for psychology. Starting from the relevance of the Vygotsky's definition of sense, through which that concept became psychological, is discussed its relevance for advancing forward in a proposal about subjectivity from a cultural historical approach. Advancing on this proposal, the concept of subjective sense is defined as a subjective unity whose focus, rather than being on the unity between word and psychological elements, as Vygotsky stated, is on the unity between symbolical processes and emotions. This theoretical account leads to a different representation of the relation between language, subject and subjectivity, which support a non rationalistic reductionism concerning subjectivity. Finally, on the basis of this non individualistic and non essentialist definition of subjectivity are discussed some of its implications for the development of a non rationalistic approach in psychotherapy.