WorldWideScience

Sample records for subjects subjects included

  1. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  2. Including subjectivity in the teaching of Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Domont de Serpa Junior

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Current psychopathology studies have often been presented in their descriptive dimension. This perspective is important for teaching because it helps the students to recognize and identify the symptomatology of each psychopathology case. However, subjectivity, the experience of suffering and interpersonal aspects are all lost in this perspective. Coming from another psychopathology tradition - existential anthropology - this paper presents practical psychopathology teaching experience which considers such dimensions as being relevant to the understanding of mental suffering. The features and limitations of such traditions are briefly reviewed to support this teaching experience. Two new modalities of practical teaching, used in the discipline of "Special Psychopathology I" offered by the Department of Psychiatry and Forensic Medicine at the medical school of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro for students of psychology, will be presented according to descriptive case study methodology. With these activities we also expect to change the practice of teaching. Traditionally, interviewing of in-patients by a large group of students who observe passively what is happening is the center of this kind of education. We intend to develop a model of teaching which is closer to the proposal of the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform which views mental illness as a complex phenomenon, always involving the relationship that the subject establishes with the world.

  3. Student Motivation in Science Subjects in Tanzania, Including Students' Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkimbili, Selina Thomas; Ødegaard, Marianne

    2017-12-01

    Fostering and maintaining students' interest in science is an important aspect of improving science learning. The focus of this paper is to listen to and reflect on students' voices regarding the sources of motivation for science subjects among students in community secondary schools with contextual challenges in Tanzania. We conducted a group-interview study of 46 Form 3 and Form 4 Tanzanian secondary school students. The study findings reveal that the major contextual challenges to student motivation for science in the studied schools are limited resources and students' insufficient competence in the language of instruction. Our results also reveal ways to enhance student motivation for science in schools with contextual challenges; these techniques include the use of questioning techniques and discourse, students' investigations and practical work using locally available materials, study tours, more integration of classroom science into students' daily lives and the use of real-life examples in science teaching. Also we noted that students' contemporary life, culture and familiar language can be utilised as a useful resource in facilitating meaningful learning in science in the school. Students suggested that, to make science interesting to a majority of students in a Tanzanian context, science education needs to be inclusive of students' experiences, culture and contemporary daily lives. Also, science teaching and learning in the classroom need to involve learners' voices.

  4. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  5. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  6. Subjective Response to Foot-Fall Noise, Including Localization of the Source Position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas; Hwang, Ha Dong; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2011-01-01

    Although an impact noise level is objectively evaluated the same according to current standards, a lightweight floor structure is often subjectively judged more annoying than a heavy homogeneous structure. The hypothesis of the present investigation is that the subjective judgment of impact noise...

  7. Subjective cognitive complaints included in diagnostic evaluation of dementia helps accurate diagnosis in a mixed memory clinic cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salem, L C; Vogel, Asmus Mejling; Ebstrup, J

    2015-01-01

    functions were assessed with the Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and Addenbrooke's cognitive examination (ACE), and symptoms of depression were rated with Major Depression Inventory (MDI). All interviews and the diagnostic conclusion were blinded to the SMC score. RESULTS: We found that young patients......OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine the quantity and profile of subjective cognitive complaints in young patients as compared with elderly patients referred to a memory clinic. METHODS: Patients were consecutively recruited from the Copenhagen University Hospital Memory Clinic at Rigshospitalet....... In total, 307 patients and 149 age-matched healthy controls were included. Patients were classified in 4 diagnostic groups: dementia, mild cognitive impairment, affective disorders and no cognitive impairment. Subjective memory was assessed with subjective memory complaints (SMC) scale. Global cognitive...

  8. Verifying the attenuation of earplugs in situ: method validation on human subjects including individualized numerical simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockstael, Annelies; Van Renterghem, Timothy; Botteldooren, Dick; D'Haenens, Wendy; Keppler, Hannah; Maes, Leen; Philips, Birgit; Swinnen, Freya; Vinck, Bart

    2009-03-01

    The microphone in real ear (MIRE) protocol allows the assessment of hearing protector's (HPD) attenuation in situ by measuring the difference between the sound pressure outside and inside the ear canal behind the HPD. Custom-made earplugs have been designed with an inner bore to insert the MIRE probe containing two microphones, the reference microphone measuring the sound pressure outside and the measurement microphone registering the sound pressure behind the HPD. Previous research on a head and torso simulator reveals a distinct difference, henceforth called transfer function, between the sound pressure at the MIRE measurement microphone and the sound pressure of interest at the eardrum. In the current study, similar measurements are carried out on humans with an extra microphone to measure the sound pressure at the eardrum. The resulting transfer functions confirm the global frequency dependency found earlier, but also show substantial variability between the ears with respect to the exact frequency and amplitude of the transfer functions' extrema. In addition, finite-difference time-domain numerical models of an ear canal with earplug are developed for each individual ear by including its specific geometrical parameters. This approach leads to a good resemblance between the simulations and their corresponding measurements.

  9. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  10. Subjects, Models, Languages, Transformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Bézivin, J.; Heckel, R.

    2005-01-01

    Discussions about model-driven approaches tend to be hampered by terminological confusion. This is at least partially caused by a lack of formal precision in defining the basic concepts, including that of "model" and "thing being modelled" - which we call subject in this paper. We propose a minimal

  11. Barron's SAT subject test

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, MA, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Includes one diagnostic test and three complete tests, all questions answered and explained, self-assessment guides, and subject reviews. Also features test strategies, QR codes to short instructional videos, and a detailed appendix with equations, physical constants, and a basic math review.

  12. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  13. [Subjective cognition in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, S; Aubin, G; Stip, E

    2017-02-01

    Given the extent, magnitude and functional significance of the neurocognitive deficits of schizophrenia, growing attention has been paid recently to patients' self-awareness of their own deficits. Thus far, the literature has shown either that patients fail to recognize their cognitive deficits or that the association between subjective and objective cognition is weak in schizophrenia. The reasons for this lack of consistency remain unexplained but may have to do, among others, with the influence of potential confounding clinical variables and the choice of the scale used to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits. In the current study, we sought to examine the relationships between subjective and objective cognitive performance in schizophrenia, while controlling for the influence of sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Eighty-two patients with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (DSM-IV criteria) were recruited. Patients' subjective cognitive complaints were evaluated with the Subjective Scale to Investigate Cognition in Schizophrenia (SSTICS), the most frequently used scale to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Neurocognition was evaluated with working memory, planning and visual learning tasks taken from Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery. The Stroop Color-Word test was also administered. Psychiatric symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. The relationships between subjective and objective cognition were evaluated with multivariate hierarchic linear regression analyses, taking into consideration potential confounders such as sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Finally, a factor analysis of the SSTICS was performed. For the SSTICS total score, the regression analysis produced a model including two predictors, namely visual learning and Stoop interference performance, explaining a moderate portion of the variance

  14. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions, and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must...

  15. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2014-01-01

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must ...

  16. Subjective meaning: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen-Huitink, Janneke; van Wijbergen-Huitink, Janneke; Meier, Cécile

    This introductory chapter traces some of the considerations on the basis of which relativistic approaches to subjective meaning became en vogue. In doing so, the chapter provides an overview of the relevant linguistic and philosophical issues when developing a treatment of subjectivity. In addition,

  17. Subjective safety in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The term ‘subjective safety in traffic’ refers to people feeling unsafe in traffic or, more generally, to anxiety regarding being unsafe in traffic for oneself and/or others. Subjective safety in traffic can lead to road users limiting their mobility and social activities, which is one of the

  18. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  19. Unifying Subjectivity and Objectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Chandrasekaran

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of modern science to the progress of civilization is immeasurable. Even its tendency toward exclusive concentration on the objective world has had salutary effects of great value. Modern science has wiped away much that was merely superstitious or speculative. Its rejection of unfounded opinions and prejudices has helped the thinking mind question conventional beliefs, shed preferences and prejudices, and challenge established authority. But modern systems thinking inherited from natural science is the suppression of the subjective dimension of reality. Many complex systems are an attempt to define and represent all subjective experience in physical terms. The modern man has a bias towards objectivity. The powerful influence of sense impressions on his mind and thinking makes him ignore the subjective experience and consider only objective facts as a valid, legitimate and representation of reality. Observing objective factors that are physical is easier than observing subjective factors that are subtle. The mechanistic view of reality has led to the rejection of the role of the individual in social development as insignificant. The individuals determine the development of society. Their social power has its roots both in subjective factors and objective factors. Economy, politics, society, and culture are inseparable dimensions of a single integrated reality. Subject and object constitute an integrated whole. The mind sees them as separate and independent. Or it views one as completely subordinate to the other. Unbiased approach to the study of all human experiences may prove that subject and object are interdependent dimensions or elements of reality.

  20. Comorbid subjective health complaints in patients with sciatica: a prospective study including comparison with the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grøvle, Lars; Haugen, Anne J; Ihlebaek, Camilla M; Keller, Anne; Natvig, Bård; Brox, Jens I; Grotle, Margreth

    2011-06-01

    Chronic nonspecific low back pain is accompanied by high rates of comorbid mental and physical conditions. The aims of this study were to investigate if patients with specific back pain, that is, sciatica caused by lumbar herniation, report higher rates of subjective health complaints (SHCs) than the general population and if there is an association between change in sciatica symptoms and change in SHCs over a 12-month period. A multicenter cohort study of 466 sciatica patients was conducted with follow-up at 3 months and 1 year. Comorbid SHCs were measured by 27 items of the SHC inventory. Odds ratios (ORs) for each SHC were calculated with comparison to a general population sample (n=928) by logistic regression. The SHC number was calculated by summing all complaints present. At baseline, the ORs for reporting SHCs for the sciatica patients were significantly elevated in 15 of the 27 items with a mean (S.D.) SHC number of 7.5 (4.4), compared to 5.2 (4.4) in the general population (Psciatica, the SHC number was reduced to normal levels. Among those with persisting or worsening sciatica, the number increased to a level almost double that of the general population. Compared to the general population, the prevalence of subjective health complaints in sciatica is increased. During follow-up, the number of health complaints increased in patients with persisting or worsening sciatica. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  2. The Data Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article considers whether it is fortunate that data protection rules, as a starting point, apply to all physical persons as data subjects, or whether it would be better to differentiate between kinds of persons on grounds of their ability to act as a data subject. In order to protect all...... persons, it is argued that a principle of care should be part of data protection law....

  3. Subject (of documents)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    such as concepts, aboutness, topic, isness and ofness are also briefly presented. The conclusion is that the most fruitful way of defining “subject” (of a document) is the documents informative or epistemological potentials, that is, the documents potentials of informing users and advance the development......This article presents and discuss the concept “subject” or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document......-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts...

  4. Science of the subjective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, R G; Dunne, B J

    2007-01-01

    Over the greater portion of its long scholarly history, the particular form of human observation, reasoning, and technical deployment we properly term "science" has relied at least as much on subjective experience and inspiration as it has on objective experiments and theories. Only over the past few centuries has subjectivity been progressively excluded from the practice of science, leaving an essentially secular analytical paradigm. Quite recently, however, a compounding constellation of newly inexplicable physical evidence, coupled with a growing scholarly interest in the nature and capability of human consciousness, are beginning to suggest that this sterilization of science may have been excessive and could ultimately limit its epistemological reach and cultural relevance. In particular, an array of demonstrable consciousness-related anomalous physical phenomena, a persistent pattern of biological and medical anomalies, systematic studies of mind/brain relationships and the mechanics of human creativity, and a burgeoning catalogue of human factors effects within contemporary information processing technologies, all display empirical correlations with subjective aspects that greatly complicate, and in many cases preclude, their comprehension on strictly objective grounds. However, any disciplined re-admission of subjective elements into rigorous scientific methodology will hinge on the precision with which they can be defined, measured, and represented, and on the resilience of established scientific techniques to their inclusion. For example, any neo-subjective science, while retaining the logical rigor, empirical/theoretical dialogue, and cultural purpose of its rigidly objective predecessor, would have the following requirements: acknowledgment of a proactive role for human consciousness; more explicit and profound use of interdisciplinary metaphors; more generous interpretations of measurability, replicability, and resonance; a reduction of ontological

  5. The Subjectivity of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    What is a 'we' – a collective – and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity – and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas...... practices. Through this dialogue, it develops an original trans-disciplinary critical theory and practice of collective subjectivity for which the ongoing construction and overcoming of common sense, or ideology, is central. It also points to ways of relating discourse with agency, and fertilizing insights...... from interactionism and ideology theories in a cultural-historical framework....

  6. Paying Hypertension Research Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarett, David; Karlawish, Jason; Asch, David A

    2002-01-01

    CONTEXT Cash payments are often used to compensate subjects who participate in research. However, ethicists have argued that these payments might constitute an undue inducement. OBJECTIVES To determine whether potential subjects agree with theoretical arguments that a payment could be an undue inducement. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS Survey of 350 prospective jurors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Belief that a $500 payment for research participation would impair their own, and others' ability to think carefully about the risks and benefits of a clinical trial. RESULTS Two hundred sixty-one jurors (74.6%) believed that a $500 payment would impair subjects' ability to think carefully about the risks and benefits of research. Ninety-six of 120 (80%) expressed this concern about subjects with a low income ($50,000). In contrast, only 69 (19.7%) of jurors believed that a $500 payment would influence them. Jurors who believed that this payment would influence them reported lower incomes and less education. CONCLUSION Members of the general public share ethical concerns about the influence of payments for research, although they believe that these concerns are more applicable to others than to themselves.

  7. Subjective Duration and Psychophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, Hannes

    1975-01-01

    Three models are proposed to describe the strategy applied by a subject when he is confronted with two successive time intervals and is required to deal with some relation between them, for example, by telling which was the longer by adjusting the second to match the first. (Author)

  8. Subjective memory complaints and personality traits in normal elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänninen, T; Reinikainen, K J; Helkala, E L; Koivisto, K; Mykkänen, L; Laakso, M; Pyörälä, K; Riekkinen, P J

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between objectively measured memory functions and subjective complaints of memory disturbance and whether subjective complaints are affected by some personality traits or affective states. Cross-sectional two-group comparison. The city of Kuopio in Eastern Finland, considered representative of the urban elderly population of Finland. Originally 403 subjects aged 67-78 years from the random sample and then two matched study groups initially including eighteen subjects but only ten in the final analysis. Screening and follow-up examinations of subjects with and without subjective memory complaints: (1) Memory functions: Benton's visual retention test and the paired-associated learning subtest of Wechsler Memory Scale. (2) Memory complaints: Memory Complaint Questionnaire. (3) Personality traits and affective state: Two subscales from Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and Geriatric Depression Scale. Complaints of memory loss did not correlate with the actual memory performance in the tests. However, those subjects who most emphatically complained of memory disturbance had greater tendencies toward somatic complaining, higher feelings of anxiety about their physical health, and more negative feelings of their own competence and capabilities than those who did not complain of memory deterioration associated with aging. The study suggests that subjective feelings of memory impairment are more closely associated with personality traits than with actual memory performance in normal elderly people.

  9. International Energy: Subject Thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raridon, M.H. (ed.)

    1990-01-01

    The International Energy Subject Thesaurus contains the standard vocabulary to indexing terms (descriptors) developed and structured to build and maintain energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and (2) the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) staff representing the more than ninety countries and organizations recording and indexing information for the international nuclear information community. ETDE member countries are also members of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). Nuclear information indexed and recorded for INIS by these ETDE member countries is also included in the ETDE Energy Data Base, and indexing terminology is therefore cooperatively standardized for use in both information systems. This structured vocabulary reflects the scope of international energy research, development, and technological programs and encompasses terminology derived not only from the basic sciences but also from the areas of energy resources, conservation, safety, environmental impact, and regulation.

  10. Interaction, transference, and subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Fieldwork is one of the important methods in educational, social, and organisational research. In fieldwork, the researcher takes residence for a shorter or longer period amongst the subjects and settings to be studied. The aim of this is to study the culture of people: how people seem to make...... sense of their lives and which moral, professional, and ethical values seem to guide their behaviour and attitudes. In fieldwork, the researcher has to balance participation and observation in her attempts at representation. Consequently, the researcher’s academic and life-historical subjectivity...... are important filters for fieldwork. In general, fieldwork can be understood as processes where field reports and field analysis are determined by how the researcher interacts with and experiences the field, the events and informants in it, and how she subsequently develops an ethnography. However, fieldwork...

  11. Writing and the 'Subject'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Charlotte

    /reading subject) manifests itself in the material mark on the page. The study shows how this indexical reference to a ‘subject’ is manipulated and used as a mask through which a writer/painter can perform a certain ‘subject’. Through analyses of the various levels on which the ‘subject’ is represented...... in the early as well as the contemporary avant-garde, it becomes clear that the ‘subject’ is an unstable category that can be exposed to manipulation and play. Handwriting is performing as a signature (as an index), but is at the same time similar to the signature of a subject (an icon) and a verbal construct...

  12. Atopic asthmatic subjects but not atopic subjects without ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Asthma is a known risk factor for acute ozone-associated respiratory disease. Ozone causes an immediate decrease in lung function and increased airway inflammation. The role of atopy and asthma in modulation of ozone-induced inflammation has not been determined. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether atopic status modulates ozone response phenotypes in human subjects. METHODS: Fifty volunteers (25 healthy volunteers, 14 atopic nonasthmatic subjects, and 11 atopic asthmatic subjects not requiring maintenance therapy) underwent a 0.4-ppm ozone exposure protocol. Ozone response was determined based on changes in lung function and induced sputum composition, including airway inflammatory cell concentration, cell-surface markers, and cytokine and hyaluronic acid concentrations. RESULTS: All cohorts experienced similar decreases in lung function after ozone. Atopic and atopic asthmatic subjects had increased sputum neutrophil numbers and IL-8 levels after ozone exposure; values did not significantly change in healthy volunteers. After ozone exposure, atopic asthmatic subjects had significantly increased sputum IL-6 and IL-1beta levels and airway macrophage Toll-like receptor 4, Fc(epsilon)RI, and CD23 expression; values in healthy volunteers and atopic nonasthmatic subjects showed no significant change. Atopic asthmatic subjects had significantly decreased IL-10 levels at baseline compared with healthy volunteers; IL-10 levels did not significa

  13. Subject Sensitive Invariantism: In Memoriam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Subject sensitive invariantism is the view that whether a subject knows depends on what is at stake for that subject: the truth-value of a knowledge-attribution is sensitive to the subject's practical interests. I argue that subject sensitive invariantism cannot accept a very plausible principle for

  14. Importance to include the term superficial musculoaponeurotic system in medical subject headings and in the international anatomical nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Lydia Massako; Locali, Rafael Fagionato; Lapin, Guilherme Abbud Franco; Hochman, Bernardo

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the relevance of the term superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) and demonstrate that this term is important enough to be added to the MeSH database and listed in International Anatomical Nomenclature. Terms related to SMAS were selected from original articles retrieved from the ISI Web of Science and MEDLINE (PubMed) databases. Groups of terms were created to define a search strategy with high-sensitivity and restricted to scientific periodicals devoted to plastic surgery. This study included articles between January 1996 and May 2009, whose titles, abstracts, and keywords were searched for SMAS-related terms and all occurrences were recorded. A total of 126 original articles were retrieved from the main periodicals related to plastic surgery in the referred databases. Of these articles, 51.6% had SMAS-related terms in the abstract only, and 25.4% had SMAS-related terms in both the title and abstract. The term 'superficial musculoaponeurotic system' was present as a keyword in 19.8% of the articles. The most frequent terms were 'SMAS' (71.4%) and superficial musculoaponeurotic system (62.7%). The term SMAS refers to a structure relevant enough to start a discussion about indexing it as a keyword and as an official term in Terminologia Anatomica: International Anatomical Terminology.

  15. Evaluation of P300 components for emotion-loaded visual event-related potential in elderly subjects, including those with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaumi, Yasue; Morita, Kiichiro; Nakashima, Youko; Muraoka, Akemi; Uchimura, Naohisa

    2014-07-01

    In the present study, the P300 component of the emotion-loaded visual event-related potential in response to photographs of babies crying or smiling was measured to evaluate cognitive function in elderly subjects, including those with dementia. The subjects were 48 elderly people who consulted a memory disorder clinic. The visual event-related potential was measured using oddball tasks. Brain waves were recorded from four sites. We analyzed the P300 amplitude and latency. Subjects were divided into three groups (the dementia with Alzheimer's disease group [ADG]; the intermediate group [MG], and the healthy group [HG]) based on the Revised Hasegawa Dementia Scale, Mini-mental State Examination scores and the Clinical Dementia Rating. For all subjects, there was a significant positive correlation between P300 latency and Z-score of voxel-based specific regional analysis for Alzheimer's disease for crying or smiling faces. There was a negative correlation between P300 amplitude and Z-score for the crying face. MG subjects were divided into two groups (high risk: HRMG, low risk: LRMG) based on Z-scores (HRMG ≥ 2.0). The P300 amplitude of ADG was significantly smaller than that of HG, and the P300 latency of ADG was significantly longer than those of other groups for crying or smiling faces. The P300 latency of HRMG was significantly longer than that of LRMG for the smiling face. Furthermore, the P300 latency for the crying face was significantly shorter than that for the smiling face in HG and ADG. These findings suggest that analysis of P300 components of the emotion-loaded visual event-related potential may be a useful neuropsychological index for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and high-risk subjects. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  16. Praxis, subjectivity and sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Gómez-Muller

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A primordial aspect of the Sartrian critique of alienation concerns understanding the analytic ideology as the domination of materiality over the symbolic, in other words as the reification of the human, and therefore as anticulture. In the context of contemporary nihilism, the decoding of the mechanisms which consign praxis to the practico-inert requires a critique of the relations between the social sciences and philosophy, which in its turn implies a new theory of the relation between what Sartre calls the "notion" (the area of subjectivity and the "concept" (objectivity, From this perspective, the deconstruction of the established frontiers between the social sciences and philosophy, and between the conceptual and the narrative, is corelative to a redefinition of the relation between theory and practice.

  17. The lifetime prevalence, health services utilization and risk of suicide of bipolar spectrum subjects, including subthreshold categories in the São Paulo ECA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Doris Hupfeld; Andrade, Laura Helena

    2005-08-01

    Identifying the bipolar (BP) spectrum, including the classic Bipolar I subtype (BP-I), Bipolar II (BP-II) and subthreshold bipolar disorders not meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria has raised growing interest, as these softer expressions of bipolar spectrum have been underdiagnosed in spite of clinical consequences. Data are from the Sao Paulo Epidemiological Catchment Area Study (N=1464). Non-affective controls were compared to BP spectrum groups, based on DSM-IIIR and on the "clinical significance" criteria: Subsyndromal Hypomania (SSH) and Manic Symptoms (MS). The lifetime prevalence of BP subgroups was 8.3% (N=122). All BP-I and -II and around 75% of SSH and MS subjects had a lifetime depressive syndrome. Compared to controls and MS subjects, BP-I, BP-II and SSH groups searched more medical help and mental health services. SSH group displayed higher rates of clinical significance than BP-I subjects, and suicidality was higher in BP groups compared to controls. Even the softer MS group had higher rate of suicide attempts than SSH subjects. This is a cross-sectional study and interviews were conducted by lay personnel. Replication in bigger community samples using a mood spectrum approach is necessary to confirm these findings. However, our findings were very similar to those obtained by other authors. Softer expressions of BP disorders appear in 6.6% of this community sample and have serious clinical consequences, which supports the importance of including these categories in the BP spectrum.

  18. Ribcage compressibility in living subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M; Hill, S; Scullin, J

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the responses of normal living subjects to the application of anteroposterior forces to the ribcage. Seventeen subjects aged between 25 and 37 years were tested during slow oscillatory loading while breath-holding at the end of a normal expiration. The mean stiffness coefficient was found to be 9.4 N mm(-1) (SD 2.9) and the mean gradient of the force-strain relation was 1888 N (SD 646). Comparison with previously published cadaver data indicates that the embalmed cadaver ribcage stiffness is in the order of three times stiffer than living subjects, while fresh cadavers showed comparable stiffness to living subjects. A number of studies have used models to predict and understand the behaviour of the thoracic spine. Validation of the behaviour of models which include the thoracic spine and ribcage depends on comparison of model response predictions with observed responses of human subjects. The present study provides data on the anteroposterior compressibility of the ribcage of living subjects which may be suitable for use in model validation studies. Copyright © 1994. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Naming the Ethological Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Etienne S

    2016-03-01

    Argument In recent decades, through the work of Jane Goodall and other ethologists, the practice of giving personal names to nonhuman animals who are the subjects of scientific research has become associated with claims about animal personhood and scientific objectivity. While critics argue that such naming practices predispose the researcher toward anthropomorphism, supporters suggest that it sensitizes the researcher to individual differences and social relations. Both critics and supporters agree that naming tends to be associated with the recognition of individual animal rights. The history of the naming of research animals since the late nineteenth century shows, however, that the practice has served a variety of purposes, most of which have raised few ethical or epistemological concerns. Names have been used to identify research animals who play dual roles as pets, workers, or patients, to enhance their market value, and to facilitate their identification in the field. The multifaceted history of naming suggests both that the use of personal names by Goodall and others is less of a radical break with previous practices than it might first appear to be and that the use of personal names to recognize the individuality, sentience, or rights of nonhuman animals faces inherent limits and contradictions.

  20. A Subjective Rational Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, G. P.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of constructing a choice model of an agent with endogenous purposes of evolution is under debate. It is demonstrated that its solution requires the development of well-known methods of decision-making while taking into account the relation of action mode motivation to an agent’s ambition to implement subjectively understood interests and the environment state. The latter is submitted for consideration as a purposeful state situation model that exists only in the mind of an agent. It is the situation that is a basis for getting an insight into the agent’s ideas on the possible selected action mode results. The agent’s ambition to build his confidence in the feasibility of the action mode and the possibility of achieving the desired state requires him to use the procedures of forming an idea model based on the measured values of environment state. This leads to the gaming approach for the choice problem and its solution can be obtained on a set of trade-off alternatives.

  1. Laboratory instruction and subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Barolli

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific aspects which determined the way some groups of students conducted their work in a university laboratory, made us understand the articulation of these groups´s dynamics, from elements that were beyond the reach of cognition. In more specific terms the conduction and the maintenance of the groups student´s dynamics were explicited based on a intergame between the non conscious strategies, shared anonymously, and the efforts of the individuals in working based on their most objective task. The results and issues we have reached so far, using a reference the work developed by W.R.Bion, with therapeutical groups, gave us the possibility for understanding the dynamics of the student´s experimental work through a new approach that approximates the fields of cognition and subjectivity. This approximation led us to a deeper reflection about the issues which may be involved in the teaching process, particularly in situations which the teacher deals with the class, organised in groups.

  2. The Subjective Dimension of Nazism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Föllmer, M.

    2013-01-01

    The present historiographical review discusses the subjective dimension of Nazism, an ideology and regime that needed translation into self-definitions, gender roles, and bodily practices to implant itself in German society and mobilize it for racial war. These studies include biographies of some of

  3. Subjectivity and severe psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, John

    2011-01-01

    To have a complete human science in the mental health field it is essential to give adequate attention to both the objective and the subjective data related to people with psychiatric disorders. The tendency in the past has been to ignore or discount one or the other of these data sources. Subjective data are particularly neglected, sometimes considered (only) part of the "art" of medicine since the usual methodologies of the physical sciences in themselves are not adequate to reflect the nature, elusiveness, and complexity of human subjective experience. The complete experience of hallucinated voices, for instance, often includes not only the voices themselves but also terrible anguish and terrifying inability to concentrate. But even such descriptors fall unnecessarily short of reflecting the data of the experience, thus leaving research, theory, and treatment with incomplete information. To represent adequately the subjective data it is essential to recognize that besides the usual discursive knowledge and methods of traditional physical science, a second kind of knowledge and method is required to reflect the depth of human experience. To accomplish this, we must employ approaches to narrative and the arts that are uniquely capable of capturing the nature of these experiences. Only by attending seriously in our research, training, theory, and practice to the unique nature of subjective data is it possible to have a true human science for our field.

  4. [Reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grein, H-J; Schmidt, O; Ritsche, A

    2014-11-01

    Reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement is limited by various factors. The main factors affecting reproducibility include the characteristics of the measurement method and of the subject and the examiner. This article presents the results of a study on this topic, focusing on the reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement in healthy eyes. The results of previous studies are not all presented in the same way by the respective authors and cannot be fully standardized without consulting the original scientific data. To the extent that they are comparable, the results of our study largely correspond largely with those of previous investigations: During repeated subjective refraction measurement, 95% of the deviation from the mean value was approximately ±0.2 D to ±0.65 D for the spherical equivalent and cylindrical power. The reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement in healthy eyes is limited, even under ideal conditions. Correct assessment of refraction results is only feasible after identifying individual variability. Several measurements are required. Refraction cannot be measured without a tolerance range. The English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink (under supplemental).

  5. Energy data base: subject thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redford, J.S. (ed.)

    1981-10-01

    The technical staff of the DOE Technical Information Center, during its subject indexing activities, develops and structures a vocabulary that allows consistent machine storage and retrieval of information necessary to the accomplishment of the DOE mission. This thesaurus incorporates that structured vocabulary. The terminology of this thesaurus is used for the subject control of information announced in DOE Energy Research Abstracts, Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis, and various update journals and bulletins in specialized areas. This terminology also facilitates subject searching of the DOE Energy Data Base on the DOE/RECON on-line retrieval system and on other commercial retrieval systems. The rapid expansion of the DOE's activities will result in a commitant thesaurus expansion as information relating to new activities is indexed. Only the terms used in the indexing of documents at the Technical Information Center to date are included. (JSR)

  6. Towards a definition of SUBJECT in binding domains and subject ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards a definition of SUBJECT in binding domains and subject-oriented anaphors 27 and it holds little explanatory value. At best, EPP ensures that the highest argument will move to subject position. The final property I will discuss here is the fact that, in some languages (e.g. Icelandic and. Dutch), there is a subset of ...

  7. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 1

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1EPA, 1Agrotourism, 148AHP, 148balance scorecard, 63batik tulis Rolla Junior, 23Broiler, 90business model canvas, 137business performance,32capital structure, 81cashew industry,158CHAID,106CLI,42coal transportation service,63company’s characteristics, 81competitive advantage, 12competitive strategy, 127consumer satisfaction, 51CSI, 42customer loyalty, 42customer satisfaction,42decision of visitors, 72development strategy, 23development,158entrepreneurship, 32Feasibility studies, 90FEM, 81gap analysis, 1Indonesia Stock Exchange, 177Indosat, 137investor,177Kawah Putih, 72kedai sop durian lodaya (KSDL,51klassen typology, 96leading sector, 96less cash society, 137liquidity ratio, 165location quotient, 96logistic regression, 115market, 177marketing development strategy, 148Marketing mix, 72mobile payment, 137modern and Traditional cage, 90multiple regression analyse,165multiple regression, 177net working capital, 165organic tofu product, 115Padang, 106paired comparison, 63partnership, 1, 32Pecking Order Theory, 81PLS, 81Portfolio, 96power, 32product quality, 51profitability ratio, 165Prol Tape Primadona, 127purchase decision, 115purchase intention, 51purchasing interest,115QSPM, 23, 127refilled drinking water, 106seed,1segmentation, 106SEM, 42, 51service quality, 51SMEs, 96specialty coffee, 12stock,177strategic diagnosis,137strategy, 158Sukorambi Botanic Garden, 148SWOT, 23, 127, 148, 158SWOT-AHP, 12tourists,72UD. Primadona, 127value chain, 12VRIO,12 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1Adiningsih, Kartika Puspitasari,42Aknesia, Vharessa,12Amalia, Firda Rachma,90Andati, Trias, 177Anggraeni, Lukytawati,23Asriani,158Daryanto, Arief,12, 90Djamaludin, MD., 42Djohar, Setiadi,96Fachrodji, Achmad,72Fahmi, Idqan,1, 63, 127Fasyni, Awisal,106Hubeis, Musa,148Iskandar, Dodi,51Juanda, Bambang, 165Kirbrandoko, 12, 106, 115Lumbantoruan, Dewi Margareth,96Maulana, TB Nur Ahmad,81Muksin, 148Mukti Soleh, Cecep,63Najib, Mukhamad,106Noor, Tajudin,81

  8. Assessing blood brain barrier dynamics or identifying or measuring selected substances, including ethanol or toxins, in a subject by analyzing Raman spectrum signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A non-invasive method for analyzing the blood-brain barrier includes obtaining a Raman spectrum of a selected portion of the eye and monitoring the Raman spectrum to ascertain a change to the dynamics of the blood brain barrier.Also, non-invasive methods for determining the brain or blood level of an analyte of interest, such as glucose, drugs, alcohol, poisons, and the like, comprises: generating an excitation laser beam at a selected wavelength (e.g., at a wavelength of about 400 to 900 nanometers); focusing the excitation laser beam into the anterior chamber of an eye of the subject so that aqueous humor, vitreous humor, or one or more conjunctiva vessels in the eye is illuminated; detecting (preferably confocally detecting) a Raman spectrum from the illuminated portion of the eye; and then determining the blood level or brain level (intracranial or cerebral spinal fluid level) of an analyte of interest for the subject from the Raman spectrum. In certain embodiments, the detecting step may be followed by the step of subtracting a confounding fluorescence spectrum from the Raman spectrum to produce a difference spectrum; and determining the blood level and/or brain level of the analyte of interest for the subject from that difference spectrum, preferably using linear or nonlinear multivariate analysis such as partial least squares analysis. Apparatus for carrying out the foregoing methods are also disclosed.

  9. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 2

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2access credit, 93acquisition, 177AHP, 61, 82, 165arena simulation,43BMC, 69Bojonegoro, 69brand choice, 208brand image, 208brand positioning, 208bullwhip effect, 43burger buns, 1business synergy and financial reports, 177capital structure, 130cluster, 151coal reserves, 130coffee plantation, 93competitiveness, 82consumer behaviour, 33consumer complaint behavior, 101cooking spices, 1crackers, 1cross sectional analytical, 139crosstab, 101CSI, 12direct selling, 122discriminant analysis, 33economic value added, 130, 187employee motivation, 112employee performance, 112employees, 139EOQ, 23farmer decisions, 93farmer group, 52financial performance evaluation, 187financial performance, 52, 177financial ratio, 187financial report, 187fiva food, 23food crops, 151horticulture, 151imports, 151improved capital structure, 177IPA, 12leading sector, 151life insurance, 165LotteMart, 43main product, 61marketing mix, 33, 165matrix SWOT, 69MPE, 61multiple linear regression, 122muslim clothing, 197Ogun, 139Pangasius fillet, 82Pati, 93pearson correlation, 101perceived value, 208performance suppy chain, 23PLS, 208POQ, 23portfolio analyzing, 1product, 101PT SKP, 122pulp and papers, 187purchase decision, 165purchase intention, 33remuneration, 112re-purchasing decisions, 197sales performance, 122sawmill, 52SCOR, 23sekolah peternakan rakyat, 69SEM, 112SERVQUAL, 12Sido Makmur farmer groups, 93SI-PUHH Online, 12small and medium industries (IKM, 61socio-demographic, 139sport drink, 208stress, 139supply chain, 43SWOT, 82the mix marketing, 197Tobin’s Q, 130trade partnership, 52uleg chili sauce, 1 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2Achsani, Noer Azam, 177Andati, Trias, 52, 177Andihka, Galih, 208Arkeman, Yandra, 43Baga, Lukman M, 69Cahyanugroho, Aldi, 112Daryanto, Arief, 12David, Ajibade, 139Djoni, 122Fahmi, Idqan, 1Fattah, Muhammad Unggul Abdul, 61Hakim, Dedi Budiman, 187Harianto, 93Hartoyo, 101Homisah, 1Hubeis, Musa, 112Hutagaol, M. Parulian, 93Jaya, Stevana

  10. Human subjects research handbook: Protecting human research subjects. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-30

    This handbook serves as a guide to understanding and implementing the Federal regulations and US DOE Orders established to protect human research subjects. Material in this handbook is directed towards new and continuing institutional review board (IRB) members, researchers, institutional administrators, DOE officials, and others who may be involved or interested in human subjects research. It offers comprehensive overview of the various requirements, procedures, and issues relating to human subject research today.

  11. Should nonalcoholic fatty liver disease be included in the definition of metabolic syndrome? A cross-sectional comparison with Adult Treatment Panel III criteria in nonobese nondiabetic subjects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Musso, Giovanni; Gambino, Roberto; Bo, Simona; Uberti, Barbara; Biroli, Giampaolo; Pagano, Gianfranco; Cassader, Maurizio

    2008-01-01

    The ability of the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria of metabolic syndrome to identify insulin-resistant subjects at increased cardiovascular risk is suboptimal, especially in the absence of obesity and diabetes...

  12. Problematization and Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamre, Bjørn

    This study originated in an observation of the return of medical and individual-oriented explanations in conceptualizing the problematization of students in Denmark. The study will include analyses of files of 125 Danish students from a ‘helpschool’ that focuses on children with special education...

  13. Objective and subjective sleep quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Jennum, Poul Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    and subjective sleep quality during benzodiazepine discontinuation and whether sleep variables were associated with benzodiazepine withdrawal. Eligible patients included adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder and long-term use of benzodiazepines in combination...... with antipsychotics. All participants gradually tapered the use of benzodiazepines after randomization to add-on treatment with melatonin versus placebo. Here we report a subsample of 23 patients undergoing sleep recordings (one-night polysomnography) and 55 patients participating in subjective sleep quality ratings....... Melatonin had no effect on objective sleep efficiency, but significantly improved self-reported sleep quality. Reduced benzodiazepine dosage at the 24-week follow-up was associated with a significantly decreased proportion of stage 2 sleep. These results indicate that prolonged-release melatonin has some...

  14. Subjectivity and professional vocational counselling

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Marina

    2004-01-01

    In this work, I shall deal with the psychodynamic approach to subjectivity in P.V.C. To this effect, I want to develop the concept of subject and subjectivity, its variation and historical-social construction and its approach in counselling, from a psychodynamic conceptual framework in P.V.C. with a short reference to the theoretical sources on which this approach is founded. Departamento de Psicología

  15. The Subject in Cognitive Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Caro-Gabalda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the various subjects embedded in cognitive psychotherapy. The cognitive model developed by Beck, considered as a rationalist and modernist model, will exemplify these subjects. Cognitive therapy should be placed in the modernist historical context and related to a subject characterized as having rationality and the ability to observe and detect cognitions, emotions and behaviors. The paper develops this background introducing three main subject types. The first is the introspective and conscious subject, who is able to observe what is within oneself, has free access, and is conscious of one's cognitive world. The second is the cognitive miser that describes the subject who enters into therapy. The final subject identified, is the trained scientist who is able to develop a more objective knowledge, changing faulty schemas and cognitive distortions. This subject is the one most looked for in cognitive therapy. We could connect these subjects to some of the main elements of cognitive therapy such as the concept of ABC, assessment procedures, cognitive techniques or the relevance of schemas. Finally, the paper suggests some issues for study that could contribute to the theoretical and clinical evolution of cognitive psychotherapy.

  16. Translating Signs, Producing Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Neilson

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper moves between two streets: Liverpool Road in the Sydney suburb of Ashfield and Via Sarpi in the Italian city of Milan. What connects these streets is that both have become important sites for businesses in the Chinese diaspora. Moreover, both are streets on which locals have expressed desires for Chinese signs to be translated into the national lingua franca. The paper argues that the cultural politics inherent in this demand for translation cannot be fully understood in the context of national debates about diversity and integration. It is also necessary to consider the emergence of the official Chinese Putonghua as global language, which competes with English but also colonizes dialects and minority languages. In the case of these dual language signs, the space between languages can neither be reduced to a contact zone of minority and majority cultures nor celebrated as a ‘third space’ where the power relations implied by such differences are subverted. At stake is rather a space characterised by what Naoki Sakai calls the schema of co-figuration, which allows the representation of translation as the passage between two equivalents that resemble each other and thus makes possible their determination as conceptually different and comparable. Drawing on arguments about translation and citizenship, the paper critically interrogates the ethos of interchangeability implied by this regime of translation. A closing argument is made for a vision of the common that implies neither civilisational harmony nor the translation of all values into a general equivalent. Primary sources include government reports, internet texts and media stories. These are analyzed using techniques of discourse analysis and interpreted with the help of secondary literature concerning globalisation, language and migration. The disciplinary matrix cuts and mixes between cultural studies, translation studies, citizenship studies, globalization studies and

  17. Prevention of urinary tract infections with vitamin D supplementation 20,000 IU per week for five years. Results from an RCT including 511 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorde, Rolf; Sollid, Stina T; Svartberg, Johan; Joakimsen, Ragnar M; Grimnes, Guri; Hutchinson, Moira Y S

    2016-01-01

    In observational studies vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased risk of infections, whereas the effect of vitamin D supplementation in randomized controlled trials is non-conclusive. Five hundred and eleven subjects with prediabetes were randomized to vitamin D3 (20,000 IU per week) versus placebo for five years. Every sixth month, a questionnaire on respiratory tract infections (RTI) (common cold, bronchitis, influenza) and urinary tract infection (UTI) was filled in. Mean baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level was 60 nmol/L. Two hundred and fifty-six subjects received vitamin D and 255 placebo. One hundred and sixteen subjects in the vitamin D and 111 in the placebo group completed the five-year study. Eighteen subjects in the vitamin D group and 34 subjects in the placebo group reported UTI during the study (p vitamin D on UTI was unrelated to baseline serum 25(OH)D level. Supplementation with vitamin D might prevent UTI, but confirmatory studies are needed.

  18. The disease-subject as a subject of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kottow Andrea R

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Based on the distinction between living body and lived body, we describe the disease-subject as representing the impact of disease on the existential life-project of the subject. Traditionally, an individual's subjectivity experiences disorders of the body and describes ensuing pain, discomfort and unpleasantness. The idea of a disease-subject goes further, representing the lived body suffering existential disruption and the possible limitations that disease most probably will impose. In this limit situation, the disease-subject will have to elaborate a new life-story, a new character or way-of-being-in-the-world, it will become a different subject. Health care professionals need to realize that patients are not mere observers of their body, for they are immersed in a reassesment of values, relationships, priorities, perhaps even life-plans. Becoming acquainted with literature's capacity to create characters, modify narratives and depict life-stories in crisis, might sharpen physicians' hermeneutic acumen and make them more receptive to the quandaries of disease-subjects facing major medical and existential decisions in the wake of disruptive disease.

  19. The Object of the Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The article presents a theory of the subject, based on the work of Jacques Lacan, using the concepts of alienation, separation and liberation.......The article presents a theory of the subject, based on the work of Jacques Lacan, using the concepts of alienation, separation and liberation....

  20. Electromyographic and neuromuscular variables in unstable postpolio subjects, stable postpolio subjects, and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, A A; Agre, J C; Franke, T M

    1997-09-01

    To compare strength and endurance variables obtained in the quadriceps muscles of postpolio and control subjects over a 7-year interval with macro and single fiber electromyography (EMG) variables. A controlled inception cohort study. Neuromuscular research laboratory of a university hospital. A cohort of 23 postpolio and 14 control subjects. All postpolio subjects had a history, physical examination, and EMG consistent with previous poliomyelitis, and had greater than antigravity strength in the quadriceps muscle tested. Unstable postpolio subjects acknowledged new quadriceps weakness over the 7-year period of the study (n = 11), and stable postpolio subjects denied new weakness of the quadriceps over the same period (n = 12). All subjects had tests of neuromuscular function of the quadriceps muscles at the onset of this study and yearly over a 7-year period. EMG variables were determined on a separate day after the seventh year of neuromuscular measurements. Neuromuscular variables measured were isometric knee extension peak torque, isometric endurance (time to inability to maintain knee extensor contraction at 40% of maximal torque), tension time index (TTI) (product of isometric endurance time and 40% of maximal torque), and recovery of torque at 10 minutes after the endurance test. EMG variables were macro EMG and single fiber EMG (jitter, fiber density, and percent blocking). Unstable postpolio subjects did not lose strength more rapidly than stable postpolio subjects or control subjects. Unstable postpolio subjects were significantly weaker, had decreased TTI, larger macro EMG amplitude, greater jitter, blocking, and fiber density in comparison with stable postpolio subjects (all p postpolio group (p .05) with neuromuscular or EMG variables in control, stable, or unstable postpolio subjects.

  1. Assessment of five different guideline indication criteria for spirometry, including modified GOLD criteria, in order to detect COPD: data from 5,315 subjects in the PLATINO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luize, Ana P; Menezes, Ana Maria B; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Muiño, Adriana; López, Maria Victorina; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Lisboa, Carmem; Montes de Oca, Maria; Tálamo, Carlos; Celli, Bartolomé; Nascimento, Oliver A; Gazzotti, Mariana R; Jardim, José R

    2014-10-30

    Spirometry is the gold standard for diagnosing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although there are a number of different guideline criteria for deciding who should be selected for spirometric screening, to date it is not known which criteria are the best based on sensitivity and specificity. Firstly, to evaluate the proportion of subjects in the PLATINO Study that would be recommended for spirometry testing according to Global initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD)-modified, American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP), National Lung Health Education Program (NLHEP), GOLD and American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) criteria. Secondly, we aimed to compare the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive and negative predictive values, of these five different criteria. Data from the PLATINO study included information on respiratory symptoms, smoking and previous spirometry testing. The GOLD-modified spirometry indication criteria are based on three positive answers out of five questions: the presence of cough, phlegm in the morning, dyspnoea, age over 40 years and smoking status. Data from 5,315 subjects were reviewed. Fewer people had an indication for spirometry (41.3%) according to the GOLD-modified criteria, and more people had an indication for spirometry (80.4%) by the GOLD and ATS/ERS criteria. A low percentage had previously had spirometry performed: GOLD-modified (14.5%); ACCP (13.2%); NLHEP (12.6%); and GOLD and ATS/ERS (12.3%). The GOLD-modified criteria showed the least sensitivity (54.9) and the highest specificity (61.0) for detecting COPD, whereas GOLD and ATS/ERS criteria showed the highest sensitivity (87.9) and the least specificity (20.8). There is a considerable difference in the indication for spirometry according to the five different guideline criteria. The GOLD-modified criteria recruit less people with the greatest sum of sensitivity and specificity.

  2. Is Piaget's epistemic subject dead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    Niaz (1990) presents arguments in favor of the retention of Piaget's epistemic subject as a theoretical construct to guide research and practice in science education and psychology. The intent of this article is to point out the weaknesses of those arguments and to suggest that the weight of evidence argues against the existence of the logical thinker postulated by Piaget. Therefore, contrary to Niaz's conclusion that the acceptance of Piaget's epistemic subject will facilitate the development of cognitive theories with greater explanatory power, the conclusion is reached that Piaget's epistemic subject is dead and that continued acceptance of this aspect of Piagetian theory would be counterproductive.

  3. International energy: Subject thesaurus supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This is a supplement to International Energy: Subject Thesaurus (ETDE/PUB--2(Rev.1)), which replaced DOE/TIC-7000--the EDB Subject Thesaurus. This supplement is provided periodically to keep International Energy: Subject Thesaurus recipients up-to-date on valid vocabulary terms (descriptors) used in building and maintaining several international energy information databases. Each issue contains all new terms added since the publication of the Thesaurus. Each supplement is a cumulative listing of the new terms, so that each issue replaces the previous one.

  4. Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor

    2006-03-03

    Forty-three subjects worked in a private office with switchable electrochromic windows, manually-operated Venetian blinds, and dimmable fluorescent lights. The electrochromic window had a visible transmittance range of approximately 3-60%. Analysis of subject responses and physical data collected during the work sessions showed that the electrochromic windows reduced the incidence of glare compared to working under a fixed transmittance (60%) condition. Subjects used the Venetian blinds less often and preferred the variable transmittance condition, but used slightly more electric lighting with it than they did when window transmittance was fixed.

  5. Should nonalcoholic fatty liver disease be included in the definition of metabolic syndrome? A cross-sectional comparison with Adult Treatment Panel III criteria in nonobese nondiabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Giovanni; Gambino, Roberto; Bo, Simona; Uberti, Barbara; Biroli, Giampaolo; Pagano, Gianfranco; Cassader, Maurizio

    2008-03-01

    The ability of the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria of metabolic syndrome to identify insulin-resistant subjects at increased cardiovascular risk is suboptimal, especially in the absence of obesity and diabetes. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with insulin resistance and is emerging as an independent cardiovascular risk factor. We compared the strength of the associations of ATP III criteria and of NAFLD to insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction in nonobese nondiabetic subjects. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) >2, oxidative stress (nitrotyrosine), soluble adhesion molecules (intracellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and E-selectin), and circulating adipokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, leptin, adiponectin, and resistin) were cross-sectionally correlated to ATP III criteria and to NAFLD in 197 unselected nonobese nondiabetic subjects. NAFLD more accurately predicted insulin resistance than ATP III criteria: sensitivity 73 vs. 38% (P = 0.0001); positive predictive value: 81 vs. 62% (P = 0.035); negative predictive value 87 vs. 74% (P = 0.012); positive likelihood ratio 4.39 vs. 1.64 (P = 0.0001); and negative likelihood ratio 0.14 vs. 0.35 (P = 0.0001). Adding NAFLD to ATP III criteria significantly improved their diagnostic accuracy for insulin resistance. Furthermore, NAFLD independently predicted HOMA-IR, nitrotyrosine, and soluble adhesion molecules on logistic regression analysis; the presence of NAFLD entailed more severe oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction, independent of adiposity or any feature of the metabolic syndrome in insulin-resistant subjects. NAFLD is more tightly associated with insulin resistance and with markers of oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction than with ATP III criteria in nonobese nondiabetic subjects and may help identify individuals with increased cardiometabolic risk in this population.

  6. Politics of modern muslim subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Dietrich; Petersen, Marie Juul; Sparre, Sara Lei

    Examining modern Muslim identity constructions, the authors introduce a novel analytical framework to Islamic Studies, drawing on theories of successive modernities, sociology of religion, and poststructuralist approaches to modern subjectivity, as well as the results of extensive fieldwork in th...

  7. Politics of modern muslim subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Dietrich; Petersen, Marie Juul; Sparre, Sara Lei

    Examining modern Muslim identity constructions, the authors introduce a novel analytical framework to Islamic Studies, drawing on theories of successive modernities, sociology of religion, and poststructuralist approaches to modern subjectivity, as well as the results of extensive fieldwork...

  8. The Subjective Experience of Punishment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adam J. Kolber

    2009-01-01

    ... laws pay little attention to such differences. I make two central claims: First, a successful justification of punishment must take account of offenders' subjective experiences when assessing punishment severity...

  9. Subjective Illness theory and coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessmann H.-W.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a view of a problem of subjective illness theory in context of coping behavior. The article compiles the results of the latest studies of coping; discloses the way subjective illness theory affects the illness coping and patient's health; presents the study of differences in coping behaviour of patients at risk of heart attack and oncology. The article is recommended for specialists, concerned with psychological reasons of pathogenic processes and coping strategies of patients.

  10. Preverbal subjects in null subject languages are not necessarily dislocated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Costa

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent work on null subject languages it has been claimed that preverbal subjects are always (clitic-left dislocated. In this paper, we argue against this claim, on the grounds of empirical evidence from European Portuguese concerning agreement facts, asymmetries between preverbal subjects and clitic-left dislocated XPs with respect to minimality effects, the existence of languages with a mixed system (null expletive subjects and full referential ones, language acquisition data, the behavior of negative QPs and interpretation facts, and propose a non-uniform analysis of preverbal subjects and clitic-left dislocated XPs that derives their topic interpretation from a predication rule stated configurationally (section 2. Our account of the SVO and VSO orders displayed in European Portuguese relies on a specific formulation of the EPP parameter, on the locality constraint Attract Closest X and on the independently motivated claim that V-movement targets T in European Portuguese (section 3. Under our analysis, the computational system generates equally economical SVO and VSO derivations and discourse considerations, at the appropriate interface, rule out the unfelicitous ones.

  11. Including indigestible carbohydrates in the evening meal of healthy subjects improves glucose tolerance, lowers inflammatory markers, and increases satiety after a subsequent standardized breakfast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Anne C; Ostman, Elin M; Holst, Jens Juul

    2008-01-01

    tolerance and related variables after a subsequent standardized breakfast in healthy subjects (n = 15). At breakfast, blood was sampled for 3 h for analysis of blood glucose, serum insulin, serum FFA, serum triacylglycerides, plasma glucagon, plasma gastric-inhibitory peptide, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1...... (GLP-1), serum interleukin (IL)-6, serum IL-8, and plasma adiponectin. Satiety was subjectively rated after breakfast and the gastric emptying rate (GER) was determined using paracetamol as a marker. Breath hydrogen was measured as an indicator of colonic fermentation. Evening meals with barley kernel......-kernel bread compared with WWB. Breath hydrogen correlated positively with satiety (r = 0.27; P metabolic risk variables at breakfast...

  12. subjective approach to subjective approach to human physiological

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    This study was based on the subjective responses of the masons that are performing physical activity of blocklaying in the outdoor condition in outdoor condition in outdoor condition in Ogun State Nigeria. A total of 204 masons were investigated on the average of seventeen. Ogun State Nigeria. A total of 204 masons were ...

  13. Subject to Form: Research Interviews, Performative Subjectivity, Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigianides, Sophia Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, I analyze teacher, literacy coach and researcher subjectivities in a five-year study of on-site professional development with middle-grade Language Arts teachers in a school designated by its district and state as severely underperforming. Interested in the role of research interviews as both research method and cultural…

  14. Subjective quality of life and emotional pain among subjects with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Heart failure (HF) is a common pathology worldwide. Associated emotional pain is an important risk factor of increased morbidity and secondary psychopathology. Methods: Subjects in stable state of HF attending the cardiology clinic of Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH) were recruited into the study.

  15. Psychoanalysis And Politics: Historicising Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I compare three different views of the relation between subjectivity and modernity: one proposed by Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, a second by theorists of institutionalised individualisation, and a third by writers in the Foucaultian tradition of studies of the history of governmentalities. The theorists were chosen because they represent very different understandings of the relation between contemporary history and subjectivity. My purpose is to ground psychoanalytic theory about what humans need in history and so to question what it means to talk ahistorically about what humans need in order to thrive psychologically. Only in so doing can one assess the relation between psychoanalysis and progressive politics. I conclude that while psychoanalysis is a discourse of its time, it can also function as a counter-discourse and can help us understand the effects on subjectivity of a more than thirty year history in the West of repudiating dependency needs and denying interdependence. PMID:23678239

  16. Cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiological data have established an association between cardiovascular disease and psoriasis. Only one general population study has so far compared prevalences of cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with psoriasis and control subjects. We aimed to determine the prevalence...... of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with and without psoriasis in the general population. Methods During 2006-2008, a cross-sectional study was performed in the general population in Copenhagen, Denmark. A total of 3471 subjects participated in a general health examination that included assessment of current...... between subjects with and without psoriasis with regard to traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions Our results contrast with the hitherto-reported increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in subjects with psoriasis in the general US population. However, our results agree with those of other...

  17. Visual perception of spatial subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterloh, K.R.S.; Ewert, U. [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Principally, any imaging technology consists of two consecutive, though strictly separated processes: data acquisition and subsequent processing to generate an image that can be looked at, either on a monitor screen or printed on paper. Likewise, the physiological process of viewing can be separated into vision and perception, though these processes are much more overlapping. Understanding the appearance of a subject requires the entire sequence from receiving the information carried e.g. by photons up to an appropriate processing leading to the perception of the subject shown. As a consequence, the imagination of a subject is a result of both, technological and physiological processes. Whenever an evaluation of an image is critical, also the physiological part of the processing should be considered. However, an image has two dimensions in the first place and reality is spatial, it has three dimensions. This problem has been tackled on a philosophical level at least since Platon's famous discussion on the shadow image in a dark cave. The mere practical point is which structural details can be perceived and what may remain undetected depending on the mode of presentation. This problem cannot be resolved without considering each single step of visual perception. Physiologically, there are three 'tools' available to understanding the spatial structure of a subject: binocular viewing, following the course of perspective projection and motion to collect multiple aspects. Artificially, an object may be cut in various ways to display the interior or covering parts could be made transparent within a model. Samples will be shown how certain details of a subject can be emphasised or hidden depending on the way of presentation. It needs to be discussed what might help to perceive the true spatial structure of a subject with all relevant details and what could be misleading. (authors)

  18. Including indigestible carbohydrates in the evening meal of healthy subjects improves glucose tolerance, lowers inflammatory markers, and increases satiety after a subsequent standardized breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Anne C; Ostman, Elin M; Holst, Jens J; Björck, Inger M E

    2008-04-01

    Low-glycemic index (GI) foods and foods rich in whole grain are associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We studied the effect of cereal-based bread evening meals (50 g available starch), varying in GI and content of indigestible carbohydrates, on glucose tolerance and related variables after a subsequent standardized breakfast in healthy subjects (n = 15). At breakfast, blood was sampled for 3 h for analysis of blood glucose, serum insulin, serum FFA, serum triacylglycerides, plasma glucagon, plasma gastric-inhibitory peptide, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), serum interleukin (IL)-6, serum IL-8, and plasma adiponectin. Satiety was subjectively rated after breakfast and the gastric emptying rate (GER) was determined using paracetamol as a marker. Breath hydrogen was measured as an indicator of colonic fermentation. Evening meals with barley kernel based bread (ordinary, high-amylose- or beta-glucan-rich genotypes) or an evening meal with white wheat flour bread (WWB) enriched with a mixture of barley fiber and resistant starch improved glucose tolerance at the subsequent breakfast compared with unsupplemented WWB (P carbohydrates of the evening meal may affect glycemic excursions and related metabolic risk variables at breakfast through a mechanism involving colonic fermentation. The results provide evidence for a link between gut microbial metabolism and key factors associated with insulin resistance.

  19. Subjective Vitality as Mediator and Moderator of the Relationship between Life Satisfaction and Subjective Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Recep; Satici, Seydi Ahmet; Satici, Begüm; Akin, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the mediator and moderator effects of subjective vitality on the relationship between life satisfaction and subjective happiness were investigated. The participants were 378 university students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Subjective Vitality Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Subjective…

  20. Youth Homelessness and Individualised Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, David

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to understandings of youth homelessness and subjectivity by analysing identity construction in terms of young people's negotiation of the structural and institutional environment of youth homelessness. I suggest that while existing literature on this topic concentrates mainly on micro-social encounters, the…

  1. The Societal Nature of Subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2013-01-01

    The HSR Focus presents a psycho-societal approach to qualitative empirical research in several areas of everyday social life. It is an approach which integrates a theory of subjectivity and an interpretation methodology which integrates hermeneutic experiences from text analysis and psychoanalysis...

  2. Student Pressure Subject of Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses student pressure as a subject of debate. The latest debate about schoolwork is being fueled by three recent books: "The Homework Myth" by Alfie Kohn, "The Case Against Homework" by Sara Bennett and Nancy Kalish, and "The Overachievers", by Alexandra Robbins, which depicts overextended high…

  3. Sexuality: Still a Taboo Subject?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguay, Lucille

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the fact that we are all bombarded with sexual messages every day, the subject of relationship and sexuality education for students with intellectual and developmental disabilities continues to be a taboo one. Generally speaking, the author has found it is not the parents of those young people who are reluctant to have the discussion,…

  4. Changes in Dictionary Subject Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2003-01-01

    The general content of the three editions of the Duden dictionary has undergone few changes. The most substantial changes are the addition of syllabification and the deletion of antonomy in respect of lemmata in the second and third editions. The concept of dictionary subject matter is questioned...

  5. Russia needs the Subjective Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Z. Gontcharov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the comparative analysis of different kinds of philosophic thinking, the paper reveals the advantages of subjective philosophy – the most adequate universal essentiality of socialized human being, opening the prospects for Russia as the creative society of cultural spontaneous activity. Objective principle of thinking is limited by the logic of outward definition. According to the above logic, people are regarded as tiny parts of social mechanism, the objects of manipulation. Separating action from spontaneous activity, object changes from self-alteration of human subject, executive functions from norm-creating ones brings about alienated practices and such social situation that makes individuals perceive their own existence as alien non- existence, or opposing existence.Subjectivity is a form of social activity regarding individuals and groups according to their ability in self-definition, self-organizing, self-control, norm-creating, as well as their actual rights and duties in social spheres of needs and objectives, and their feasible power over forces of nature and society. Subjective philosophy perceives the material production as the means for cultivating wholesome and spontaneously active individuals due to educational fundamentality and cultural prosperity. Accordingly, accumulation of capital turns into accumulation of culture and personal creativity growth. The results of the undertaken analysis and its conclusions can be implemented in developing creative anthropological bases for philosophy, pedagogy, psychology, economics, political science, as well as the relating discipline teaching. 

  6. Subjectivity, individuality and singularity in children: a socially constituted subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Del Ré

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Considering the hypothesis that Bakhtin and his Circle‟s reflections can help us think about issues involving the field of Language Acquisition, in addition to the fact that there are only a few works developed within this perspective in Brazil, in this article, we intend to discuss the notions of “subject”, “subjectivity”,“individuality” and “singularity”, drawing on Bakhtin‟s theory. Thus, in order to make this discussion clearer, we bring data from the speech of young children, from 1.8 to 3 years old, who were filmed in natural contexts interacting with their parents and relatives. From these data, we could verify, among other things, that children, as individuals who constitute themselves as subjects in and throughlanguage, bring marks to their discourse, revealing their subjectivity (through lexical, morphological, syntactic or genre choices.

  7. Working Memory Processing In Normal Subjects and Subjects with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, S. M.; Lajiness-O'Neill, R.; Weiland, B. J.; Mason, K.; Tepley, N.

    2004-10-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to determine the neuroanatomical location of working memory (WM) processes. Differences between subjects with dyslexia (SD; n=5) and normal readers (NR; n=5) were studied during two WM tasks. A spatial WM task (SMW) consisted of blocks visually presented in one of 12 positions for 2 s each. Subjects were to determine if the current position matched the position presented 2 slides earlier (N-Back Test). The verbal task (VMW) consisted of presentation of a single letter. The location of cortical activity during SWM in NR (determined with MR-FOCUSS analysis) was in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) and right angular gyrus (AG). Similar activation was seen in SD with a slight delay of approximately 20 ms. During VWM activity was seen in LEFT STG and LEFT AG in NR. In contrast for SD, activation was in the RIGHT STG and RIGHT AG. This study demonstrates the possibility to differentiate WM processing in subjects with and without learning disorders.

  8. Postprandial effects of test meals including concentrated arabinoxylan and whole grain rye in subjects with the metabolic syndrome: a randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartvigsen, M L; Lærke, H N; Overgaard, A; Holst, J J; Bach Knudsen, K E; Hermansen, K

    2014-05-01

    Prospective studies have shown an inverse relationship between whole grain consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes, where short chain fatty acids (SCFA) may be involved. Our objective was to determine the effect of isolated arabinoxylan alone or in combination with whole grain rye kernels on postprandial glucose, insulin, free fatty acids (FFA), gut hormones, SCFA and appetite in subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Fifteen subjects with MetS participated in this acute, randomised, cross-over study. The test meals each providing 50 g of digestible carbohydrate were as follows: semolina porridge added concentrated arabinoxylan (AX), rye kernels (RK) or concentrated arabinoxylan combined with rye kernels (AXRK) and semolina porridge as control (SE). A standard lunch was served 4 h after the test meals. Blood samples were drawn during a 6-h period, and appetite scores and breath hydrogen were assessed every 30 min. The AXRK meal reduced the acute glucose (P=0.005) and insulin responses (P<0.001) and the feeling of hunger (P=0.005; 0-360 min) compared with the control meal. The AX and AXRK meals increased butyrate and acetate concentrations after 6 h. No significant differences were found for the second meal responses of glucose, insulin, FFA, glucagon-like peptide-1 or ghrelin. Our results indicate a stimulatory effect of arabinoxylan on butyrate and acetate production, however, with no detectable effect on the second meal glucose response. It remains to be tested in a long-term study if a beneficial effect on the glucose response of the isolated arabinoxylan will be related to the SCFA production.

  9. Subject-verb number (disagreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Isac

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses cases of number mismatches between subjects and verbs. The main proposal is that subject-verb agreement is not in number but in a different feature, that we call Cardinality. Cardinality is a feature of DPs that is computed on the basis of number features and collectivity features carried by various heads in the DP. The “computation” of the Cardinality feature proceeds internal to the feature matrix of one lexical item - the D. The values of the number and collectivity features carried by various heads in the DP are transferred to the D by means of a feature checking mechanism and the value of the Cardinality feature is then derived from these.

  10. Energy Data Base: Subject Thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raridon, M.H. (ed.)

    1987-09-01

    This seventh edition of the subject thesaurus contains the standard vocabulary of indexing terms (descriptors) developed and structured by the technical staff of the Office of Scientific and Technical Information as part of its subject indexing activities for building and maintaining the Energy Data Base (EDB) and other energy information data bases for the Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this thesaurus is to enhance the efficiency of information retrieval from these data bases. This structured vocabulary reflects the scope of DOE's research, development, and technological programs and encompasses terminology derived not only from the basic sciences for also from areas of energy resources, conservation, safety, environmental impact, and regulation. There are 21,080 valid descriptors and 5683 forbidden terms in this edition of the Thesaurus. These descriptors are listed alphabetically.

  11. Backward disequilibrium in elderly subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Manckoundia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Manckoundia1,2, France Mourey1,2, Dominic Pérennou2,3, Pierre Pfitzenmeyer1,21Department of Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, University Hospital, Dijon, France; 2INSERM/ERIT-M 0207 Motricity-Plasticity University of Burgundy, Dijon, France; 3Department of Neurological Rehabilitation, University Hospital, Dijon, FranceAbstract: Backward disequilibrium is observed frequently in daily clinical practice. However, there are no epidemiological data concerning this postural disorder. Defined by a posterior position of the centre of mass with respect to the base of support, backward disequilibrium is abnormal postural behavior, usually characterized by a posterior trunk tilt in standing and sitting positions, which predisposes subjects to backward falls. Many afflictions whether they are somatic (degenerative, ischemic and traumatic brain lesions, psychosomatic (psychomotor disadaptation syndrome, confinement to bed, nonuse situations or psychological (depression can cause backward disequilibrium. A vicious circle of falls, and loss of autonomy can arise and this is the main consequence of backward disequilibrium. Thus, in this paper, we review backward disequilibrium in elderly subjects with regard to the causes, consequences, assessment, and management.Keywords: backward disequilibrium, balance, elderly subject, falls, posture

  12. Capitalist Discourse, Subjectivity and Lacanian Psychoanalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vanheule, Stijn

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies how subjectivity in capitalist culture can be characterized. Building on Lacan's later seminars XVI, XVII, XVIII, and XIX, the author first outlines Lacan's general discourse theory, which includes four characteristic discourses: the discourse of the master, the discourse of the university, the discourse of the hysteric and the discourse of the analyst. Next, the author explores the subjectivity and the mode of dealing with jouissance and semblance, which is entailed in a f...

  13. Corneal Biomechanics Determination in Healthy Myopic Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Kunliang Qiu; Xuehui Lu; Riping Zhang; Geng Wang; Mingzhi Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the corneal biomechanical properties by using the Ocular Response Analyzer? and to investigate potential factors associated with the corneal biomechanics in healthy myopic subjects. Methods. 135 eyes from 135 healthy myopic subjects were included in this cross-sectional observational study. Cornea hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), cornea-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc), and Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg) were determined with the ...

  14. Del.icio.us Subject Guides: Maintaining Subject Guides Using a Social Bookmarking Site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward M. Corrado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available By using Web 2.0 social bookmarking sites, libraries can more easily manage subject guides and other lists of Web resources. Social bookmarking services such as Delicious provide a one-click method to bookmark a Web site, allowing librarians to describe and categorize Web sites. Using a small amount of JavaScript, these bookmarked resources can be dynamically included into subject guides and other Web-based library resources. This paper describes and analyses the use of social bookmarking at a medium-sized comprehensive college library for the creation and maintenance of modern languages subject guides. A brief technical description outlining necessary JavaScript code provides a way for librarians to try this idea elsewhere. This paper examines the initiative at The College of New Jersey (TCNJ Library to utilize the social bookmarking Web site del.icio.us to easily update and maintain modern language subject-specific guides on the library Web site. Previously, the subject guides have proven difficult to maintain and a solution that allowed subject librarians to quickly and easily update subject guides from anywhere was desired. By using del.icio.us, librarians at TCNJ have been able to stream line subject guide maintenance. This paper describes the process used to include resources bookmarked on del.icio.us by librarians from both the subject librarians' and systems librarian's perspectives. Included is a brief technical description that outlines the JavaScript code that needs to be included in the subject guides that other libraries can use as an example if they choose to embark on a similar project. The response from librarians and teaching faculty has been positive. Librarians appreciate the ease of use while teaching faculty appreciate the constantly evolving nature of the subject guides. Recommendations on ways to expand this project, including methods to allowing students and faculty to identify content to be included in subject guides

  15. Small Ubiquitin-Like Modifier 4 (SUMO4 Gene M55V Polymorphism and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-analysis Including 6,823 Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-yan Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMany studies suggest that the small ubiquitin-like modifier 4 (SUMO4 M55V gene polymorphism (rs237025 may be associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. However, due to other conflicting results, a clear consensus is lacking in the matter.Objective and methodsA meta-analysis consisting of 6,823 subjects from 10 studies was conducted to elucidate relationship between the SUMO4 M55V gene polymorphism and T2DM. Depending on the heterogeneity of the data, either a fixed or random-effects model would be used to assess the combined odds ratio (ORs and their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI.ResultsSUMO4 gene M55V polymorphism was significantly associated with T2DM in the whole population under allelic (OR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.10–1.28, P = 1.63 × 10−5, recessive (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.14–2.23, P = 0.006, dominant (OR: 0.815, 95% CI: 0.737–0.901, P = 6.89 × 10−5, homozygous (OR: 1.415, 95% CI: 1.170–1.710, P = 0.0003, heterozygous (OR: 1.191, 95% CI: 1.072–1.323, P = 0.001, and additive genetic models (OR: 1.184, 95% CI: 1.097–1.279, P = 1.63 × 10−5. In our subgroup analysis, a significant association was found again in the Chinese population, but not in Japanese or Iranian population.ConclusionSUMO4 gene M55V polymorphism may correlate with increased T2DM risk. Chinese carriers of the V allele of the SUMO4 gene M55V polymorphism may be predisposed to developing T2DM.

  16. SUBJECTIVE RESOURCESTHE PSYCHOLOGICAL AND ACMEOLOGICAL PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ivanovna Ilyushina

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the moment the subject – resources of a person. Be caused, “loss” possible resources: lack of personal self-realization, the maladjustment of the individual in a social environment, obstructed line of identity, which in some cases is accompanied by incomplete personal self-actualization and self-sufficiency. The article emphasizes the importance of the subjective component in understanding, identifying, understanding, mobilization, conservation and accumulation of resources of the individual. Man is an active Converter to your reality, where he and reality are the result of the conversion and source conversion. The author proposed the concept of “subjective resource” as a necessary factor for quality of life of the individual, achievement of tops of her self-improvement and self-development, both professionally and personally. Subjective component emphasizes the role of the individual in the conservation, transformation, accumulation, the reallocation of resources. Purpose. The subject of analysis is the awareness, understanding person own resources – the subjective resourcest. The author aims to describe the subjective resourcest as psychological and acmeological phenomenon to reveal its essence and to suggest the methodology of the study of this phenomenon, showing the importance of verbalization resources through associative image without relying on the visibility and relying on her. Methodology. The basis of the study form a General theoretical methods (theoretical analysis, including psychological analysis, generalization, systematization, system description. Results. The results of the work lies in the fact that the author has defined the concept of “subjective resourcesthe” and proposed methodology of the study. The obtained results may be of interest to improve the efficiency of the work to define the resources of the individual. The results and method of determining a subjective resource

  17. Subjective wellbeing, health, and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Andrew; Deaton, Angus; Stone, Arthur A

    2015-02-14

    Subjective wellbeing and health are closely linked to age. Three aspects of subjective wellbeing can be distinguished-evaluative wellbeing (or life satisfaction), hedonic wellbeing (feelings of happiness, sadness, anger, stress, and pain), and eudemonic wellbeing (sense of purpose and meaning in life). We review recent advances in the specialty of psychological wellbeing, and present new analyses about the pattern of wellbeing across ages and the association between wellbeing and survival at older ages. The Gallup World Poll, a continuing survey in more than 160 countries, shows a U-shaped relation between evaluative wellbeing and age in high-income, English speaking countries, with the lowest levels of wellbeing in ages 45-54 years. But this pattern is not universal. For example, respondents from the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe show a large progressive reduction in wellbeing with age, respondents from Latin America also shows decreased wellbeing with age, whereas wellbeing in sub-Saharan Africa shows little change with age. The relation between physical health and subjective wellbeing is bidirectional. Older people with illnesses such as coronary heart disease, arthritis, and chronic lung disease show both increased levels of depressed mood and impaired hedonic and eudemonic wellbeing. Wellbeing might also have a protective role in health maintenance. In an analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, we identify that eudemonic wellbeing is associated with increased survival; 29·3% of people in the lowest wellbeing quartile died during the average follow-up period of 8·5 years compared with 9·3% of those in the highest quartile. Associations were independent of age, sex, demographic factors, and baseline mental and physical health. We conclude that the wellbeing of elderly people is an important objective for both economic and health policy. Present psychological and economic theories do not adequately account for the variations in patterns

  18. Postural control in blind subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vinicius Soares

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. Methods: A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. Results: On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Conclusion: Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.

  19. Scoring Rules for Subjective Probability Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    report the true subjective probability of a binary event, even under Subjective Expected Utility. To address this one can “calibrate” inferences about true subjective probabilities from elicited subjective probabilities over binary events, recognizing the incentives that risk averse agents have...

  20. The origin of the Northern Subject Rule : subject positions and verbal morphosyntax in older English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, Nynke; van Kemenade, Ans

    This article presents new evidence for the early history of the Northern Subject Rule in the form of an exhaustive corpus study of plural present-tense indicative verb forms in Northern and Northern Midlands early Middle English, analysed in relation to their syntactic context, including subject

  1. Authentic subjectivity and social transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O'Sullivan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Holiness in the Christian tradition has often been understood in a way that devalues embodiment and practical engagement with the world of one’s time. The latter understanding, for example, led to Marx’s critique and repudiation of Christianity. Both interpretations of holiness can be understood as mistaken efforts to express the dynamism for authenticity in contextualised human subjectivity. Vatican 2 opposed both views by addressing itself to all people of good will, declaring that everyone was called to holiness, and that authentic Christian identity involved solidarity with the world of one’s time, especially those who are poor. Vatican 2, therefore, provided an authoritative faith foundation for holiness expressed through social commitment and for viewing social commitment on the part of people of good will in whatever state of life as a form of holiness. This vision was also the conviction of leading spirituality writers of the period, like Thomas Merton, and inspired liberation theologians and the Latin American Catholic bishops at their conference in Medellín a few years after the Council. The argument of this article is that the emergence and development of a non-dualist Christian spirituality is grounded methodologically in the correct appropriation of the common innate dynamism for authenticity in concrete human persons and lived spiritual experiences consistent with and capable of enhancing this dynamism.

  2. Clinical management of transsexual subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Elaine Maria Frade; Mendonca, Berenice Bilharinho

    2014-03-01

    Transsexual subjects are individuals who have a desire to live and be accepted as a member of the opposite sex, usually accompanied by a sense of discomfort with, or inappropriateness of, one's anatomic sex, and a wish to have surgery and hormonal treatment to make one's body as congruent as possible with one's preferred sex. They seek to develop the physical characteristics of the desired gender, and should undergo an effective and safe treatment regimen. The goal of treatment is to rehabilitate the individual as a member of society in the gender he or she identifies with. Sex reassignment procedures necessary for the treatment of transsexual patients are allowed in our country, at Medical Services that have a multidisciplinary team composed of a psychologist, a social worker, a psychiatrist, an endocrinologist and surgeons (gynecologists, plastic surgeons, and urologists). Patients must be between 21 to 75 years old and in psychological and hormonal treatment for at least 2 years. Testosterone is the principal agent used to induce male characteristics in female transsexual patients, and the estrogen is the chosen hormone used to induce the female sexual characteristics in male transsexual patients. Based on our 15 years of experience, we can conclude that testosterone and estradiol treatment in physiological doses are effective and safe in female and male transsexual patients, respectively.

  3. Researching Risk: Narrative, Biography, Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Henwood

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to the development of methodological practices promoting greater epistemic reflexivity in risk research and in social science generally. Knowledge of the specific practices researchers will find useful cannot exist separately from any particular empirical project. Accordingly, we report on, and provide a reflective account of, the "nuclear risk" project that was part of the Social Contexts and Responses to Risk (SCARR network in the UK (2003-2008. A key focus is exploring the value of narrative methods—especially narrative elicitation methods—for understanding people's perceptions of, and ways of living with, risk. We credit our deployment of a narrative method with producing a rich form of data on risk-biography intersections, which have carried great significance in our analytical work on the way biographical experiences, dynamically unfolding through space and time, can be interrupted by risk events. Arguments from the literature on reflexive modernity are deployed to make the case for: researching risk in everyday life as a problematic in and of itself; placing concepts of risk-biography, risk-reflexivity and risk-subjectivity at centre stage; and finding ways to inquire into the social and psychic complexities involved in the dynamic construction and reconstruction of risk phenomena. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1001201

  4. Patient-generated subjective global assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr Harriët Jager-Wittenaar; Martine J. Sealy; Suzanne Kasenic; Elizabeth Isenring; Faith D. Ottery; Susan P. DeBolt

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA), including the PG-SGA Short Form (SF, aka ‘abridged’), was originally developed in the mid 1990’s as a scored, patient self-report, paperbased instrument and has been widely validated. The PG-SGA (SF) has been used for screening,

  5. Classifications of subjects with the language PROLOG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzi, R

    1989-03-01

    The logical language PROLOG is used for the definition and characterization of groups of subjects. The groups are firstly defined by sets of variables with comparable scales. Secondly, the single members of the groups are characterized by logically structured combinations of variables which do not necessarily have comparable scales. The performance of the characterizations is estimated by determining the rates sensitivity and specificity. The new classification method is applied in a follow-up study including the assessment of the activity of 76 healthy subjects during two controlled experiments. The classification with PROLOG is then compared with the methods of logistic regression and with discriminant analysis. The comparisons demonstrate that, under similar conditions, the results of a classification with PROLOG parallel the results of statistically based classification procedures. In addition, PROLOG permits characterizations of single subjects based on variables from different scientific disciplines.

  6. Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a binary lottery procedure for inducing risk neutral behavior in a subjective belief elicitation task. Prior research has shown this procedure to robustly induce risk neutrality when subjects are given a single risk task defined over objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from...... the same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure also induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation of subjective probabilities in subjects...

  7. Beer, wine, spirits and subjective health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbaek, M; Mortensen, E L; Mygind, K

    1999-01-01

    To examine the association between intake of different types of alcoholic beverages and self reported subjective health.......To examine the association between intake of different types of alcoholic beverages and self reported subjective health....

  8. Single Subject Research: Applications to Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakiroglu, Orhan

    2012-01-01

    Single subject research is a scientific research methodology that is increasingly used in the field of special education. Therefore, understanding the unique characteristics of single subject research methodology is critical both for educators and practitioners. Certain characteristics make single subject research one of the most preferred…

  9. Subject Choice and Earnings of UK Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Using a survey of a cohort of UK graduates, linked to administrative data on higher education participation, this paper investigates the labour market attainment of recent graduates by subject of study. We document a large heterogeneity in the mean wages of graduates from different subjects and a considerably larger one within subject with…

  10. The changing role of the subject specialist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cotta-Schønberg

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available As we all know, libraries are these years rapidly undergoing change on unparalleled scale. Evidently, this applies to librarians, too, and not the least to that important category of library staff, the subject specialist. As recruiting and education of library workers differ from country to country it is difficult to give a detailed, generally valid description of the subject librarian in libraries, but I believe that you can describe an ideal model of subject librarianship as follows: Within each of the major subject disciplines covered by the library, the library should have a subject specialist preferably with a master degree or at least a bachelor degree in the particular subject discipline. The role of the subject specialist is to perform four basic functions where extensive subject knowledge is considered to be necessary: selecting and classifying books, assisting users with advanced subject inquiries, giving subject-specific courses in information retrieval, and maintaining liaison with relevant academic departments and centres. Personally, I know this system very well since I got employment in the Royal Library in Copenhagen as a subject specialist in psychology in the very month I finished my degree in psychology from the University of Copenhagen, back in 1973. The subject librarian system at the Royal Library in Copenhagen was patterned on the ideal model, as I just described it, and it was closely paralleled in the other academic libraries in Denmark, also the new university libraries which were founded in the seventies.

  11. Sex Education as a Transversal Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Amanda Oliveira; Pereira, Graziela Raupp; Reis, Maria Amélia; Ferreira, António G.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, sex education is in many countries a transversal subject, in which the school becomes a privileged place for the implementation of policies that aim at promoting "public health." Its design as a cross-cutting subject envisages fostering the dissemination of these subjects in all pedagogical and curricular fields; however, we…

  12. Adult Playfulness, Humor Styles, and Subjective Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiao D; Leung, Chun-Lok; Hiranandani, Neelam A

    2016-12-01

    Playfulness has been referred to as a disposition that involves reframing a situation to amuse others and to make the situation more stimulating and enjoyable. It may serve to shift one's perspective when dealing with environmental threats. Despite all the benefits of playfulness towards psychological well-being, it remains a largely understudied subject in psychology, particularly in Chinese societies. Hence, this study examined the association between adult playfulness, humor styles, and subjective happiness among a sample of 166 university students in Hong Kong and 159 students in Guangzhou, who completed a self-administered questionnaire, including the Short Measure for Adult Playfulness, the Chinese Humor Styles Questionnaire, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed that adult playfulness was positively correlated with affiliative humor, self-enhancing humor, and subjective happiness in both Hong Kong and Guangzhou samples. By its implication, highly playful Chinese students preferred using affiliative and self-enhancing humor to amuse themselves and others. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Mediating effect of Facebook addiction on the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Recep; Satici, Seydi Ahmet; Akin, Ahmet

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the mediating effects of Facebook addiction on the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness. 297 university students (157 women, 140 men; M age = 20.1 yr., SD = 1.3) were administered the Facebook Addiction Scale, the Subjective Vitality Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that Facebook addiction partially mediated the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness.

  14. Inter-individual variability of oscillatory responses to subject's own name. A single-subject analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höller, Yvonne; Kronbichler, Martin; Bergmann, Jürgen; Crone, Julia Sophia; Schmid, Elisabeth Verena; Golaszewski, Stefan; Ladurner, Gunther

    2011-06-01

    In previous studies event-related potentials and oscillations in response to subject's own name have been analyzed extensively on group-level in healthy subjects and in patients with a disorder of consciousness. Subject's own name as a deviant produces a P3. With equiprobable stimuli, non-phase-locked alpha oscillations are smaller in response to subject's own name compared to other names or subject's own name backwards. However, little is known about replicability on a single-subject level. Seventeen healthy subjects were assessed in an own-name paradigm with equiprobable stimuli of subject's own name, another name, and subject's own name backwards. Event-related potentials and non-phase locked oscillations were analyzed with single-subject, non-parametric statistics. No consistent results were found either for ERPs or for the non-phase locked changes of oscillatory activities. Only 4 subjects showed a robust effect as expected, that is, a lower activity in the alpha-beta range to subject's own name compared to other conditions. Four subjects elicited a higher activity for subject's own name. Thus, analyzing the EEG reactivity in the own-name paradigm with equiprobable stimuli on a single-subject level yields a high variance between subjects. In future research, single-subject statistics should be applied for examining the validity of physiologic measurements in other paradigms and for examining the pattern of reactivity in patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Retinal Image Simulation of Subjective Refraction Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perches, Sara; Collados, M Victoria; Ares, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Refraction techniques make it possible to determine the most appropriate sphero-cylindrical lens prescription to achieve the best possible visual quality. Among these techniques, subjective refraction (i.e., patient's response-guided refraction) is the most commonly used approach. In this context, this paper's main goal is to present a simulation software that implements in a virtual manner various subjective-refraction techniques--including Jackson's Cross-Cylinder test (JCC)--relying all on the observation of computer-generated retinal images. This software has also been used to evaluate visual quality when the JCC test is performed in multifocal-contact-lens wearers. The results reveal this software's usefulness to simulate the retinal image quality that a particular visual compensation provides. Moreover, it can help to gain a deeper insight and to improve existing refraction techniques and it can be used for simulated training.

  16. Subjective adult identity and casual sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Heidi Ann

    2015-12-01

    A majority of Americans have a casual sexual experience before transitioning to adulthood. Little research has yet to examine how identity influences causal sexual behavior. The current study fills this gap in the literature by examining if subjective adult identity predicts casual sexual behavior net of life course transitions in a national sample of Americans. To answer this research question, the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health is utilized. Structural equation modeling results show the older and more adult-like individuals feel the less likely they are to report a recent casual sexual partner. Once life course factors are included in the model, subjective identity is no longer associated with casual sex. Practitioners who work with adult populations need to consider how life course transitions influence casual sexual behavior.

  17. [What is the subject of science "bioinformatics"?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaĭlakhian, L M

    2005-01-01

    The paper is concerned with some problems of terminology, in particular the term "bioinformatics". In the last few years, the term "bioinformatics" has been intensively used among molecular biologists to indicate a subject that is only a constituent of genomics and is considered to involve a computer-assisted analysis of all data on nucleotide sequences of DNA. However, a wide circle of scientists, including biologists, physicists, mathematicians, and specialists in the field of cybernetics, informatics, and other disciplines have accepted and accept, as a rule, the "bioinformatics" as a synonym of science cybernetics and as a successor of this science. In this case, the subject of science "bioinformatics" should embrace not only genomics but practically all sections of the biological science. It should involve a study of information processes (storage, transfer, and processing of information, etc.) participating in the regulation and control at all levels of living systems, from macromolecules to the brain of higher animals and human.

  18. The structural neural substrate of subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Kubota, Yasutaka; Sawada, Reiko; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-11-20

    Happiness is a subjective experience that is an ultimate goal for humans. Psychological studies have shown that subjective happiness can be measured reliably and consists of emotional and cognitive components. However, the neural substrates of subjective happiness remain unclear. To investigate this issue, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging and questionnaires that assessed subjective happiness, the intensity of positive and negative emotional experiences, and purpose in life. We found a positive relationship between the subjective happiness score and gray matter volume in the right precuneus. Moreover, the same region showed an association with the combined positive and negative emotional intensity and purpose in life scores. Our findings suggest that the precuneus mediates subjective happiness by integrating the emotional and cognitive components of happiness.

  19. The structural neural substrate of subjective happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Kubota, Yasutaka; Sawada, Reiko; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-01-01

    Happiness is a subjective experience that is an ultimate goal for humans. Psychological studies have shown that subjective happiness can be measured reliably and consists of emotional and cognitive components. However, the neural substrates of subjective happiness remain unclear. To investigate this issue, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging and questionnaires that assessed subjective happiness, the intensity of positive and negative emotional experiences, and purpose in life. We found a positive relationship between the subjective happiness score and gray matter volume in the right precuneus. Moreover, the same region showed an association with the combined positive and negative emotional intensity and purpose in life scores. Our findings suggest that the precuneus mediates subjective happiness by integrating the emotional and cognitive components of happiness. PMID:26586449

  20. SUBJECTIVE MEMORY IN OLDER AFRICAN AMERICANS

    OpenAIRE

    Sims, Regina C.; Whitfield, Keith E; Ayotte, Brian J.; Gamaldo, Alyssa A; Edwards, Christopher L.; Allaire, Jason C.

    2011-01-01

    The current analysis examined (a) if measures of psychological well-being predict subjective memory, and (b) if subjective memory is consistent with actual memory. Five hundred seventy-nine older African Americans from the Baltimore Study of Black Aging completed measures assessing subjective memory, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress, locus of control, and verbal and working memory. Higher levels of perceived stress and greater externalized locus of control predicted poorer subjecti...

  1. Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    We evaluate the binary lottery procedure for inducing risk neutral behavior in a subjective belief elicitation task. Harrison, Martínez-Correa and Swarthout [2013] found that the binary lottery procedure works robustly to induce risk neutrality when subjects are given one risk task defined over...... objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from the same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation...

  2. Energy information data base: subject thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    The technical staff of the DOE Technical Information Center, during its subject indexing activities, develops and structures a vocabulary that allows consistent machine storage and retrieval of information necessary to the accomplishment of the DOE mission. This thesaurus incorporates that structured vocabulary. The terminology of this thesaurus is used for the subject control of information announced in DOE Energy Research Abstracts, Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis, Solar Energy Update, Geothermal Energy Update, Fossil Energy Update, Fusion Energy Update, and Energy Conservation Update. This terminology also facilitates subject searching of the DOE energy information data base, a research in progress data base, a general and practical energy information data base, power reactor docket information data base, nuclear science abstracts data base, and the federal energy information data base on the DOE on-line retrieval system, RECON. The rapid expansion of the DOE's activities will result in a concomitant thesaurus expansion as information relating to new activities is indexed. Only the terms used in the indexing of documents at the Technical Information Center to date are included. (RWR)

  3. Energy information data base. Subject thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    The technical staff of the DOE Technical Information Center, during its subject indexing activities, develops and structures a vocabulary that allows consistent machine storage and retrieval of information necessary to the accomplishment of the DOE mission. This thesaurus incorporates that structured vocabulary. The terminology of this thesaurus is used for the subject control of information announced in DOE Energy Research Abstracts, Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis, Solar Energy Update, Geothermal Energy Update, Fossil Energy Update, Fusion Energy Update, Energy Conservation Update, and Power Reactor Docket Information (published for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission). This terminology also facilitates subject searching of the DOE technical information data base, a research in progress data base describing energy-related research, and a general and practical energy information data base on the DOE on-line retrieval system, RECON. The rapid expansion of DOE's activities will result in a concomitant thesaurus expansion as information relating to new activities is indexed. Only the terms used in indexing documents at the Technical Information Center to date are included. (RWR)

  4. Why to Treat Subjects as Fixed Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, James S.; Estes, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    Adelman, Marquis, Sabatos-DeVito, and Estes (2013) collected word naming latencies from 4 participants who read 2,820 words 50 times each. Their recommendation and practice was that R2 targets set for models should take into account subject idiosyncrasies as replicable patterns, equivalent to a subjects-as-fixed-effects assumption. In light of an…

  5. The anatomy of subjective well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Praag, B.M.S.; Frijters, P.; Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on Subjective Well-Being by taking into account different aspects of life, called domains, such as health, financial situation, job, leisure, housing, and environment. We postulate a two-layer model where individual total Subjective Well-Being depends on the

  6. Introductory Programming Subject in European Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksic, Veljko; Ivanovic, Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    Programming is one of the basic subjects in most informatics, computer science mathematics and technical faculties' curricula. Integrated overview of the models for teaching programming, problems in teaching and suggested solutions were presented in this paper. Research covered current state of 1019 programming subjects in 715 study programmes at…

  7. "Wo Es War": Psychoanalysis, Marxism, and Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Subjectivity, for Descartes, emerged when he doubted the veracity of his knowledge. Instead of truth, he counted this knowledge to be inherited myth. Cartesian subjectivity has been helpful for forming a critical education predicated on doubting ideology and hegemony. But Marx indicates a very different kind of knowledge in his analysis of…

  8. Innovativeness and Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Martin

    2013-01-01

    What are the effects of innovativeness on well-being? This paper argues that research on subjective well-being has progressed to a point where measures of subjective well-being (or: happiness) can usefully be employed to assess the welfare effects of innovative change. Based on a discussion of the prospects and pitfalls associated with subjective…

  9. Subjective Wellbeing Among Adults with Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes-Truscott, Elizabeth; Browne, Jessica L; Pouwer, Frans

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the subjective wellbeing of Australian adults with diabetes who completed the Diabetes MILES—Australia survey, investigating by diabetes type and treatment, and by comparing with the subjective wellbeing of the general Australian adult population. In addition, the extent to wh...

  10. Sliding Subject Positions: Knowledge and Teacher Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tony; Rowley, Harriet; Smith, Kim

    2016-01-01

    In England, adjustments to policy in teacher education have had implications for how subject knowledge is understood and for how job descriptions are defined. That is, the interface between teacher educator and subject knowledge representation has been changing. This paper reports on a wider study that considers the experience of university…

  11. Virtual materiality, potentiality and gendered subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    How do we conceptualize virtual materiality, in terms of for instance avatars and weapons in computer games, virtual discourse, subjectivity and the enactment of masculinity as phenomena intra-acting with real life materiality, discourse, subjectivity and masculinity in children’s everyday lives...

  12. Text and Subject Position after Althusser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony Easthope

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Althusser's achievement is that he redefined Marxism. He reconceptualizes history and totality in terms of different times, construes knowledge as the outcome of a process of construction, and interprets subjectivity as an effect of ideology and unconscious processes. Unfortunately, Althusser's functionalist view of ideology claims that the subject recognizes itself as a subject because it duplicates— reflects—an absolute subject. However, Lacan's notion of the mirror stage remedies this fault. Lacan's subject always misrecognizes itself in a process of contradiction that threatens the stability of any given social order. Moreover, unlike Foucault's subject, which is limited in that subjectivity is folded back into a vaguely expanded notion of "power," this revised Althusserian subject allows careful reading of texts. The critic does not simply read against the grain; he or she exposes the multiple points of identification offered the reader. For example, Wordsworth's "The Solitary Reaper" installs the reader in multiple positions: a devotee of high culture and the national canon, a lover of the verbal signifier and its play, a consumer of confessional discourse, and a masculine "I" desiring a laboring, singing woman.

  13. The Anatomy of Subjective Well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Praag, van B.M.S.; Frijters, P.; Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on Subjective Well-Being by taking into account different aspects of life, called domains, such as health, financial situation, job, leisure, housing, and environment. We postulate a two-Iayer model where individual total Subjective Well-Being depends on the

  14. Human Resource Subjects Allocation and Students' Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated human resource subjects' allocation and students' academic performance in Secondary Schools in Obudu, Nigeria. The relevant variables of teachers subject was used as independent variable while the dependent variables were students' academic performance. Six hundred teachers from 20 ...

  15. Objective versus subjective assessment of laparoscopic skill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Empel, P.J.; van Rijssen, L.B.; Commandeur, J.P.; Verdam, M.G.E.; Huirne, J.A.; Scheele, F.; Bonjer, H.J.; Meijerink, W.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The equality of subjective- and objective-assessment methods in laparoscopic surgery are unknown. The aim of this study was to compare a subjective assessment method to an objective assessment method to evaluate laparoscopic skill. Methods: A prospective observational cohort study was

  16. Sociological theories of subjective well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractSubjective well-being is no great issue in sociology; the subject is not mentioned in sociological textbooks (a notable exception is Nolan & Lenski, 2004) and is rarely discussed in sociological journals. This absence has many reasons: pragmatic, ideological, and theoretical. To begin

  17. Subject knowledge for teaching and continuing professional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This short discussion article outlines a range of theoretical issues underpinning the formation of subject knowledge for teaching. It suggests a number of practical needs that secondary school teachers of English may be seeking to address in the way of subject knowledge development and how this may relate to the ...

  18. Inferring Beliefs as Subjectively Imprecise Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2012-01-01

    . The experimental task consists of a series of standard lottery choices in which the subject is assumed to use conventional risk attitudes to select one lottery or the other and then a series of betting choices in which the subject is presented with a range of bookies offering odds on the outcome of some event...

  19. Heritability estimates and correlations between subjectively ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PavarniN

    exceptions were positive genetic correlations of fibre diameter (FD) and coefficient of variation of FD with staple formation score and belly and points score. Genetic progress in subjective traits thus appears possible, if desired in a selection strategy. Keywords: Correlations, heritabilities, linearly assessed traits, subjective ...

  20. Subjection and subjectification / technique and techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Clarizio

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Course on The Hermeneutic of the Subject problematizes a theme that goes through the whole Foucault’s thought, that of technique. The article, through a dialogue among Foucault, Heidegger and Simondon, aims to trace the development of this theme, also asking the way the technique works when related to processes of subjection and subjectification.

  1. Brain correlates of subjective freedom of choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filevich, Elisa; Vanneste, Patricia; Brass, Marcel; Fias, Wim; Haggard, Patrick; Kühn, Simone

    2013-01-01

    The subjective feeling of free choice is an important feature of human experience. Experimental tasks have typically studied free choice by contrasting free and instructed selection of response alternatives. These tasks have been criticised, and it remains unclear how they relate to the subjective feeling of freely choosing. We replicated previous findings of the fMRI correlates of free choice, defined objectively. We introduced a novel task in which participants could experience and report a graded sense of free choice. BOLD responses for conditions subjectively experienced as free identified a postcentral area distinct from the areas typically considered to be involved in free action. Thus, the brain correlates of subjective feeling of free action were not directly related to any established brain correlates of objectively-defined free action. Our results call into question traditional assumptions about the relation between subjective experience of choosing and activity in the brain’s so-called voluntary motor areas. PMID:24021855

  2. Multiple Image Arrangement for Subjective Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Zhai, Guangtao

    2017-12-01

    Subjective quality assessment serves as the foundation for almost all visual quality related researches. Size of the image quality databases has expanded from dozens to thousands in the last decades. Since each subjective rating therein has to be averaged over quite a few participants, the ever-increasing overall size of those databases calls for an evolution of existing subjective test methods. Traditional single/double stimulus based approaches are being replaced by multiple image tests, where several distorted versions of the original one are displayed and rated at once. And this naturally brings upon the question of how to arrange those multiple images on screen during the test. In this paper, we answer this question by performing subjective viewing test with eye tracker for different types arrangements. Our research indicates that isometric arrangement imposes less duress on participants and has more uniform distribution of eye fixations and movements and therefore is expected to generate more reliable subjective ratings.

  3. CLASSIFIED BY SUBJECT IN SPORT SCIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Protić

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available High school and academic libraries users need precise classifi cation and subject access review of printed and electronic resources. In library catalogue since, Universal Decimal Classifi cation (UDC -similar to Dewey system - ex classifi es research and scientifi c areas. in subject areas of 796 Sport and 371 Teaching. Nowadays, users need structure of subjects by disciplines in science. Full-open resources of library must be set for users in subject access catalogue, because on the example of bachelors degree thesis in Faculty of Physical Education in Novi Sad they reaches for disciplines in database with 36 indexes sort by fi rst letters in names (Athletics, Boxing, Cycling, etc. This database have single and multiplied index for each thesis. Users in 80% cases of research according to the subject access catalogue of this library.

  4. Subjectivity and intersubjectivity between semiotics and phenomenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Marsciani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A semiotic theory of subjectivity cannot prescind from a radical consideration of the intersubjective dimension, which, from the phenomenological perspective, represents the constitutive instance of the meaning of the world. The theory of signification has yet to come to terms with this fundamental option: the theory of enunciation, for example, is still tied to the alternative between an egological perception of the production of meaning and a truly intersubjective conception. A radically intersubjective understanding of the constitution of meaning must, in the theory of enunciation, include an authentic theory of alterity in which the production of communicative intentions can be described based on a more fundamental transcendental intentionality.

  5. Subject Orientation of Teaching and Academic Subjects in the Context of Different Didactic Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Osmolovskaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the research findings concerning the didactic characteristics and means of subject-oriented teaching. The research question includes the content of the general secondary education regarded as the design object. The process of selecting and structuring materials is reviewed from the theoretical standpoint, and the attempt is made to identify the ways of selecting materials for students’ learning from the social experience reflected in culture. The author introduces the concept of subject-orientation as a tool providing pedagogic adaptation of social experience in the process of teaching content development. Subject-oriented teaching is defined in the context of traditional knowledge, as well as the competence and student-oriented didac- tic approaches; the forms and means of its realization being indicated providing the new ways for introducing and understanding the educational subject. The research results can be used by the specialists in didactic, curricula developers, authors of textbooks in various subjects

  6. Relationship between subjective halitosis and psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vali, Armita; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Afghari, Parastoo; Javad Shirani, Mohamad; Afshar, Hamid; Savabi, Omid; Adibi, Peyman

    2015-06-01

    Subjective halitosis is a growing concern in the fields of dentistry and psychology. This study was designed to determine the association between subjective halitosis and contributing psychological factors. Data for this cross-sectional study were gathered from 4,763 participants who had answered questions on subjective halitosis and psychological factors (depression, anxiety, stress and personality traits) in the study on the epidemiology of psychological, alimentary health and nutrition (SEPAHAN). Binary logistic regression was used for data analysis. The mean age of all subjects was 36.58 years; and the majority of subjects were female (55.8%), married (81.2%) and graduates (57.2%). The prevalence of subjective halitosis was 52.8%. The majority of subjects with the complaint of subjective halitosis were married (Phalitosis were significantly more anxious [odds ratio (OR)=1.76, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.38-2.24], stressed (OR=1.41, 95% CI: 1.17-1.71) and depressed (OR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.09-1.57). Among personality traits, neuroticism was a risk factor (tertile 1 vs. tertile 2: OR=1.29, 95% CI: 1.09-1.51; and tertile 1 vs. tertile 3: OR=1.74, 95% CI: 1.43-2.13) and conscientiousness was revealed to be a protective factor (tertile 1 vs. tertile 2: OR=0.82, 95% CI: 0.70-0.98; and tertile 1 vs. tertile 3: OR=0.65, 95% CI: 0.53-0.80). It seems that psychological factors, such as anxiety, depression and stress, as well as some personality traits, can be considered as risk factors for subjective halitosis. Multidisciplinary efforts by dental and psychological professionals must be considered to address this problem. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.

  7. Subjective judgements in scientific practice and art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regidor, Enrique

    2011-12-01

    Since art and science went their separate ways in the 18th century, the purpose of science has been to generate true knowledge based on reason and objectivity. However, during the second half of the 20th century, opinions emerged within science that showed the impossibility of eliminating subjectivity in scientific practice. This paper describes the similarity of the subjective judgements that form part of the peer-review system-the method devised by the scientific community to guarantee truth and objectivity-and the subjective judgements involved in artistic evaluation.

  8. Subjective performance evaluations and employee careers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Lange, Fabian; Kriechell, Ben

    Firms commonly use supervisor evaluations to assess the performance of employees who work in complex environments. Doubts persist whether their subjective nature invalidates using these performance measures to learn about careers of individuals and to inform theory in personnel economics. We...... examine personnel data from six large companies and establish how subjective ratings, interpreted as ordinal rankings of employee performances within narrowly defined peer-groups, correlate with objective career outcomes. We find many similarities across firms in how subjective ratings correlate with base...

  9. Subject in Tractatus according to David Pears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hoseinzadeh Yazdi

    2013-03-01

    Considering the centrality of subjectivism in modern philosophy, this article attempts to explain subject in Tractatus according to David Pears. A review of Wittgenstein’s earlier teachings reveals that he considers a fundamental limitation for language. The subject serves as a point of view from which the language can be understood. The subject is the presupposition of understanding. Another way of putting this would be to say that any experience is understood from a point of view which is not represented in that experience. Regarding this, it seems that earlier Wittgenstein is somehow subjectivist. This specific form of subjectivism is different from Kantian subjectivism.

  10. International Energy: Subject Thesaurus. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutkowski, R.W. [ed.

    1997-12-31

    The Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) is a consortium of member countries around the globe that share their energy research and technology information through ETDE`s database. The Exchange was established in 1987 under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) and serves all ETDE member countries. The Exchange also collaborates with other entities as appropriate.The International Energy:Subject Thesaurus [ETDE/PUB--2(Rev.2)] contains the standard vocabulary of indexing terms (descriptors) developed and structured to build and maintain energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the U.S. DOE Office of Scientific and technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and (2) the International Atomic Energy Agency`s International Nuclear Information System (INIS) staff representing the more than 100 countries and organizations t hat record and index information for the international nuclear information community. Because all ETDE member countries are also members of INIS, the contents of INIS`s database are included in ETDE`s database. Indexing terminology is therefore cooperatively standardized for use in both information systems. This structured vocabulary reflects the scope of international energy research and technology programs. The terminology of this thesaurus aids in subject searching on commercial systems, such as the online products offered by Knight-Ridder Information Services and STN International and the CD-ROM products offered by Silver Platter and Knight-Ridder. This thesaurus can also be used with the in-house systems provided by some ETDE member countries. Descriptors are added to the thesaurus as needed (i.e., when a document contains a concept for which there is no adequate term or terms in the thesaurus). More than 28,000 entries appear in this document, which replaced International

  11. Cartel Stability with Subjective Detection Beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    Hinloopen, Jeroen

    2003-01-01

    The condition is derived for Friedman 's trigger strategy to sustaina collusive market equilibrium as a noncooperative Nash equilibriumgiven subjective beliefs as to the antitrust authority's ability of suc-cesfully dissolving the illegal cartel.

  12. Subjective appraisal of music: neuroimaging evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattico, Elvira; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    In the neurosciences of music, a consensus on the nature of affective states during music listening has not been reached. What is undeniable is that subjective affective states can be triggered by various and even opposite musical events. Here we review the few recent studies on the neural determinants of subjective affective processes of music, contrasted with early automatic neural processes linked to the objective universal properties of music. In particular, we focus on the evaluative judgments of music by subjects according to its aesthetic and structural values, on music-specific emotions felt by listeners, and on conscious liking. We then discuss and seek to stimulate further research on the interplay between the emotional attributes of music and the subjective cognitive, psychological, and biographic factors, such as personality traits and cognitive strategies of listening. We finally draw the neuroscientist's attention to the sociocultural context as a relevant variable to study when considering music as an aesthetic domain.

  13. Braille character discrimination in blindfolded human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Thomas; Théoret, Hugo; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2002-04-16

    Visual deprivation may lead to enhanced performance in other sensory modalities. Whether this is the case in the tactile modality is controversial and may depend upon specific training and experience. We compared the performance of sighted subjects on a Braille character discrimination task to that of normal individuals blindfolded for a period of five days. Some participants in each group (blindfolded and sighted) received intensive Braille training to offset the effects of experience. Blindfolded subjects performed better than sighted subjects in the Braille discrimination task, irrespective of tactile training. For the left index finger, which had not been used in the formal Braille classes, blindfolding had no effect on performance while subjects who underwent tactile training outperformed non-stimulated participants. These results suggest that visual deprivation speeds up Braille learning and may be associated with behaviorally relevant neuroplastic changes.

  14. Personality dimensions and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chico Librán, Eliseo

    2006-05-01

    This work examines the association between personality dimensions (extraversion and neuroticism) and subjective well-being. Subjective well-being is associated both with extraversion and neuroticism, and currently, neuroticism is generally considered the more important. A total of 368 students from the University of Rovira i Virgili completed the Extraversion and Neuroticism subscales of the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Eysenck, Eysenck, and Barrett, 1985), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, and Griffin, 1985), and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (Watson, Clark, and Tellegen, 1988). Regression analyses revealed the personality variable of neuroticism as one of the most important correlates of subjective well-being. Regression analyses also showed that 44% of the variance of subjective well-being was accounted for by neuroticism, whereas extraversion only explained 8% of the variance.

  15. Capitalist Discourse, Subjectivity and Lacanian Psychoanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanheule, Stijn

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies how subjectivity in capitalist culture can be characterized. Building on Lacan's later seminars XVI, XVII, XVIII, and XIX, the author first outlines Lacan's general discourse theory, which includes four characteristic discourses: the discourse of the master, the discourse of the university, the discourse of the hysteric and the discourse of the analyst. Next, the author explores the subjectivity and the mode of dealing with jouissance and semblance, which is entailed in a fifth type of discourse, the capitalist discourse, discussed by Lacan (1972). Indeed, like the other discourses that Lacan discerns, the discourse of the capitalist can be thought of as a mode of dealing with the sexual non-rapport. It is argued that in the case of neurosis the discourse of the capitalist functions as an attempt to ignore the sexual non-rapport and the dimension of the unconscious. Psychosis, by contrast, is marked by an a priori exclusion from discourse. In that case, consumerist ways of relating to the other might offer a semblance, and thus the possibility of inventing a mode of relating to the other. Two clinical vignettes are presented to illustrate this perspective: one concerning the neurotic structure and one concerning the psychotic structure. PMID:28018280

  16. Capitalist Discourse, Subjectivity and Lacanian Psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanheule, Stijn

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies how subjectivity in capitalist culture can be characterized. Building on Lacan's later seminars XVI, XVII, XVIII, and XIX, the author first outlines Lacan's general discourse theory, which includes four characteristic discourses: the discourse of the master, the discourse of the university, the discourse of the hysteric and the discourse of the analyst. Next, the author explores the subjectivity and the mode of dealing with jouissance and semblance, which is entailed in a fifth type of discourse, the capitalist discourse, discussed by Lacan (1972). Indeed, like the other discourses that Lacan discerns, the discourse of the capitalist can be thought of as a mode of dealing with the sexual non-rapport. It is argued that in the case of neurosis the discourse of the capitalist functions as an attempt to ignore the sexual non-rapport and the dimension of the unconscious. Psychosis, by contrast, is marked by an a priori exclusion from discourse. In that case, consumerist ways of relating to the other might offer a semblance, and thus the possibility of inventing a mode of relating to the other. Two clinical vignettes are presented to illustrate this perspective: one concerning the neurotic structure and one concerning the psychotic structure.

  17. Capitalist discourse, subjectivity and Lacanian psychoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stijn Vanheule

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies how subjectivity in capitalist culture can be characterised. Building on Lacan’s later seminars XVI, XVII, XVIII and XIX, the author first outlines Lacan’s general discourse theory, which includes four characteristic discourses: the discourse of the master, the discourse of the university, the discourse of the hysteric and the discourse of the analyst. Next, the author explores the subjectivity and the mode of dealing with jouissance and semblance, which is entailed in a fifth type of discourse, the capitalist discourse, discussed by Lacan in 1972. Indeed, like the other discourses that Lacan discerns, the discourse of the capitalist can be thought of as a mode of dealing with the sexual non-rapport. It is argued that in the case of neurosis the discourse of the capitalist functions as an attempt to ignore the sexual non-rapport and the dimension of the unconscious. Psychosis, by contrast, is marked by an a priori exclusion from discourse. In that case, consumerist ways of relating to the other might offer a semblance, and thus the possibility of inventing a mode of relating to the other. Two clinical vignettes are presented to illustrate this perspective: one concerning the neurotic structure and one concerning the psychotic structure.

  18. International Energy: Subject Thesaurus. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The International Energy Agency: Subject Thesaurus contains the standard vocabulary of indexing terms (descriptors) developed and structured to build and maintain energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and (2) the International Atomic Energy Agency`s International Nuclear Information System (INIS) staff representing the more than 100 countries and organizations that record and index information for the international nuclear information community. ETDE member countries are also members of INIS. Nuclear information prepared for INIS by ETDE member countries is included in the ETDE Energy Database, which contains the online equivalent of the printed INIS Atomindex. Indexing terminology is therefore cooperatively standardized for use in both information systems. This structured vocabulary reflects thscope of international energy research, development, and technological programs. The terminology of this thesaurus aids in subject searching on commercial systems, such as ``Energy Science & Technology`` by DIALOG Information Services, ``Energy`` by STN International and the ``ETDE Energy Database`` by SilverPlatter. It is also the thesaurus for the Integrated Technical Information System (ITIS) online databases of the US Department of Energy.

  19. Corneal Biomechanics Determination in Healthy Myopic Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Kunliang; Lu, Xuehui; Zhang, Riping; Wang, Geng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the corneal biomechanical properties by using the Ocular Response Analyzer™ and to investigate potential factors associated with the corneal biomechanics in healthy myopic subjects. Methods. 135 eyes from 135 healthy myopic subjects were included in this cross-sectional observational study. Cornea hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), cornea-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc), and Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg) were determined with the Reichert Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA). Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to investigate factors associated with corneal biomechanics. Results. The mean CH and CRF were 9.82 ± 1.34 mmHg and 9.64 ± 1.57 mmHg, respectively. In univariate regression analysis, CH was significantly correlated with axial length, refraction, central corneal thickness (CCT), and IOPg (r = −0.27, 0.23, 0.45, and 0.21, resp.; all with p ≤ 0.015), but not with corneal curvature or age; CRF was significantly correlated with CCT and IOPg (r = 0.52 and 0.70, resp.; all with p corneal curvature, or age. In multivariate regression analysis, axial length, IOPcc, and CCT were found to be independently associated with CH, while CCT and IOPg were associated with CRF. Conclusions. Both CH and CRF were positively correlated with CCT. Lower CH but not CRF was associated with increasing degree of myopia. Evaluation of corneal biomechanical properties should take CCT and myopic status into consideration. PMID:27525109

  20. Friendship network composition and subjective wellbeing

    OpenAIRE

    Awaworyi Churchill, Sefa; Smyth, Russell

    2017-01-01

    Using data from the UK Community Life Survey, we present the first study to examine the relationship between heterogeneity in one’s friendship network and subjective wellbeing. We measure network heterogeneity by the extent to which one’s friends are similar to oneself with regard to ethnicity and religion. We find that people who have friendship networks with characteristics dissimilar to themselves have lower levels of subjective wellbeing. Specifically, our two-stage least squares (2SLS) e...

  1. Teaching vocational subjects in a foreign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ticha Eva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the main aspects and problems of teaching vocational subjects in a foreign language (English at various degrees of education focusing mainly on secondary and concisely on tertiary learning. The main principles and methods have been outlined, supported by longstanding experience in teaching under the CLIL mode. The answers to both language-related and subject-related questions are sought.

  2. The Subject Analysis of Payment Systems Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Korobeynikova Olga Mikhaylovna

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the analysis of payment systems aimed at identifying the categorical terminological apparatus, proving their specific features and revealing the impact of payment systems on the state of money turnover. On the basis of the subject analysis, the author formulates the definitions of a payment system (characterized by increasing speed of effecting payments, by the reduction of costs, by high degree of payments convenience for subjects of transactions, by security of paymen...

  3. On the subject-predicate relation and subject agreement in SiSwati ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper also argues that subject agreement is a purely syntactic phenomenon that takes place in a spec-head relationship. It proposes that subject agreement is triggered by verbs, and that multiple subject agreement within a clause occurs when auxiliary verbs iterate. The theoretical consequences of the analysis ...

  4. Photogrammetry and remote sensing education subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridou, Maria A.; Karagianni, Aikaterini Ch.

    2017-09-01

    The rapid technologic advances in the scientific areas of photogrammetry and remote sensing require continuous readjustments at the educational programs and their implementation. The teaching teamwork should deal with the challenge to offer the volume of the knowledge without preventing the understanding of principles and methods and also to introduce "new" knowledge (advances, trends) followed by evaluation and presentation of relevant applications. This is of particular importance for a Civil Engineering Faculty as this in Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, as the framework of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing is closely connected with applications in the four educational Divisions of the Faculty. This paper refers to the above and includes subjects of organizing the courses in photogrammetry and remote sensing in the Civil Engineering Faculty of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. A scheme of the general curriculum as well the teaching aims and methods are also presented.

  5. [Subjectivity sense, language and subject: a new postrationalist perspective in psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Rey, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the philosophical roots of the concept of sense in Russian philosophy and linguistic, analyzing its consequences for the social sciences, in particular for psychology. Starting from the relevance of the Vygotsky's definition of sense, through which that concept became psychological, is discussed its relevance for advancing forward in a proposal about subjectivity from a cultural historical approach. Advancing on this proposal, the concept of subjective sense is defined as a subjective unity whose focus, rather than being on the unity between word and psychological elements, as Vygotsky stated, is on the unity between symbolical processes and emotions. This theoretical account leads to a different representation of the relation between language, subject and subjectivity, which support a non rationalistic reductionism concerning subjectivity. Finally, on the basis of this non individualistic and non essentialist definition of subjectivity are discussed some of its implications for the development of a non rationalistic approach in psychotherapy.

  6. Congenital pouch colon in female subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarin Y

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Over a period of 5-year (May 2000 to April 2005 29 patients of congenital pouch colon (CPC were managed by single pediatric surgeon in the Department of Pediatric Surgery of a tertiary hospital. Of these, 11 were girls (M: F: 1.6:1. Detailed anatomy could be studied in nine patients, were included in this study. Age of presentation in female subjects ranged 1 day to 8 years. On examination, eight of the nine patients had single perineal opening suggesting a very high incidence of association of cloaca in female subjects with CPC. Four had short urogenital sinus with colonic pouch opening in the posterior wall of urinary bladder. In other two patients, CPC terminated in short cloaca. Anomalies of mullerian structures such as uterus didelphus and septate vagina ware commonly encountered. Proximal diversion with or without pouch excision was done as the initial preliminary treatment for all those patients who presented in early life. Of the nine girls, two died after the preliminary surgery. Only five patients have undergone definitive surgery. Definitive surgery included abdomino-perineal pull-through of proximal normal colon ( n =2, tubularization of pouch with abdomino- posterior sagittal- pull through ( n =2 and abdomino-posterior sagittal urethra-vaginoanorectoplasty with pull through of tapered pouch colon in one patient. Two of these patients had concomitant bowel vaginoplasty. Three patients with tubularized pouches had constipation and spurious diarrhea. However, good pseudo-continence of bowel was achieved on regular bowel washes. The cosmetic appearance of perineum in all these three patients was acceptable. The patients in whom pouch excision was done had diarrhea and severe perineal excoriation resistant to conservative management.

  7. Pulmonary function studies in Gujarati subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, N M; Mavlankar, M G; Kulkarni, P K; Kashyap, S K

    1992-01-01

    In this study a multiple regression equation for prediction of ventilatory pulmonary function tests (FVC, FEV1%, FEF25-75% and PEFR) is developed in average healthy non-smoker male and female Gujarati subjects. The average adult female values showed a reduction varying from 21.0 to 29.0% compared to adult male subjects. There is a deviation of the present study values from other studies in Indian subjects and values from European studies are higher than the present values. This study demonstrated that the present regression equation is the most ideal and appropriate for prediction of pulmonary function values in Gujarati subjects either for assessing physical fitness in normal subjects or for determining the pattern of ventilatory impairment in respiratory disease patients. The pulmonary function values assessed by substituting the average age, height and weight of females in male regression equation revealed lower values in females ranging from 14.0 to 19.0% attributable only due to difference in sex.

  8. Subjective recovery time after exhausting muscular activity in postpolio and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agre, J C; Rodriquez, A A; Franke, T M

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the time to subjectively fully recover after the performance of exhausting muscular exercise was greater in unstable postpolio as compared with stable postpolio or control subjects. Twenty-five unstable (those complaining of declining muscle strength) postpolio, 16 stable (those denying declining muscle strength) postpolio, and 25 control subjects performed an isometric contraction of the knee extensor (quadriceps femoris) musculature at 40% of maximal torque until they were no longer able to do so. Five-second maximal effort contractions were made every 30 s through 2 min after the time of failure was reached and then at 1-min intervals through 10 min after failure was reached. Subjects reported the duration of time required to subjectively fully recover from this activity. Choices of "less than 1 day," "1 day," "2 days," etc., up to "greater than 2 wk" were given to the subjects for their response. Analysis was by nonparametric ANOVA and appropriate post hoc comparison procedures. Unstable postpolio subjects reported a greater recovery time than either the stable postpolio or control subjects (mean +/- SD of 2.6 +/- 3.0 days, 0.6 +/- 1.0 days, and 0.7 +/- 1.1 days, respectively, P postpolio subjects than stable postpolio or control subjects. The cause for this finding is unknown and requires further investigation.

  9. Corneal Biomechanics Determination in Healthy Myopic Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunliang Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the corneal biomechanical properties by using the Ocular Response Analyzer™ and to investigate potential factors associated with the corneal biomechanics in healthy myopic subjects. Methods. 135 eyes from 135 healthy myopic subjects were included in this cross-sectional observational study. Cornea hysteresis (CH, corneal resistance factor (CRF, cornea-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc, and Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg were determined with the Reichert Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to investigate factors associated with corneal biomechanics. Results. The mean CH and CRF were 9.82±1.34 mmHg and 9.64±1.57 mmHg, respectively. In univariate regression analysis, CH was significantly correlated with axial length, refraction, central corneal thickness (CCT, and IOPg (r=-0.27, 0.23, 0.45, and 0.21, resp.; all with p≤0.015, but not with corneal curvature or age; CRF was significantly correlated with CCT and IOPg (r=0.52 and 0.70, resp.; all with p<0.001, but not with axial length/refraction, corneal curvature, or age. In multivariate regression analysis, axial length, IOPcc, and CCT were found to be independently associated with CH, while CCT and IOPg were associated with CRF. Conclusions. Both CH and CRF were positively correlated with CCT. Lower CH but not CRF was associated with increasing degree of myopia. Evaluation of corneal biomechanical properties should take CCT and myopic status into consideration.

  10. Suspect Subjects: Affects of Bodily Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Henne

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of academic literature that scrutinises the effects of technologies deployed to surveil the physical bodies of citizens. This paper considers the role of affect; that is, the visceral and emotive forces underpinning conscious forms of knowing that can drive one’s thoughts, feelings and movements. Drawing from research on two distinctly different groups of surveilled subjects – paroled sex offenders and elite athletes – it examines the effects of biosurveillance in their lives and how their reflections reveal unique insight into how subjectivity, citizenship, harm and deviance become constructed in intimate and public ways vis-à-vis technologies of bodily regulation. Specifically, we argue, their narratives reveal cultural conditions of biosurveillance, particularly how risk becomes embodied and internalised in subjective ways.

  11. Content analysis of subjective experiences in partial epileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Mirja; Valli, Katja; Revonsuo, Antti; Wedlund, Jan-Eric

    2008-01-01

    A new content analysis method for systematically describing the phenomenology of subjective experiences in connection with partial epileptic seizures is described. Forty patients provided 262 descriptions of subjective experience relative to their partial epileptic seizures. The results revealed that subjective experiences during seizures consist mostly of sensory and bodily sensations, hallucinatory experiences, and thinking. The majority of subjective experiences during seizures are bizarre and distorted; nevertheless, the patients are able to engage in adequate behavior. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study for which detailed subjective seizure descriptions were collected immediately after each seizure and the first study in which the content of verbal reports of subjective experiences during seizures, including both the ictal and postictal experiences, has been analyzed in detail.

  12. THE MULTIATTRIBUTE CONSTRUCTION OF THE SUBJECT OF MODERN MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kalynychenko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research marketing subject as an object of scientific knowledge. Existing definitions of the subject marketing in modern specialized literature were systematized. The essence of the main characteristics and attributes (structure of the subject of marketing is determined; the features of marketing are highlighted in the narrow and broad sense. The author's definition of marketing subject is given including within the process and system approaches. It considers also the set of characteristics and attributes which reflect all possible objects of knowledge in marketing.

  13. Normal movement reading in Asperger subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avikainen, S; Kulomäki, T; Hari, R

    1999-11-26

    Patients with autism and Asperger syndrome (AS) are impaired in mindreading and imitation skills. One possibility would be that their 'mirror neuron' system, which matches action execution and observation, does not function properly. To test this hypothesis we compared action-viewing related motor cortex functions in an AS group (one autistic and four AS subjects) and eight control subjects. In both groups viewing hand actions modified the neuromagnetic approximately 20 Hz oscillatory activity in the primary motor cortex to the same extent. Thus impaired mindreading and imitation skills found in AS and autism do not seem to result from dysfunction of the motor cortex part of the action execution/observation system.

  14. Subject and text production in virtual campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Mireya Cuéllar Sánchez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This research takes place in the context of academic processes in virtual campus, through field diaries, which recorded the interactions and dynamics of both students and teachers, two discussion groups were planned with counselors who develop their practice through virtual platforms. This allowed us to recognize a substantial difference between the usual subject of culture and the virtual subject, this aspect has been developed over the investigation. Finally an argument arises about the need to work with methodologies that blend the synchronous and asynchronous chnopedagogy practices of virtual environments in order to promote academic interaction, critical and the possibility of textual construction.

  15. Life Events and Subjective Well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.; Schmidt, Torben Dall

    2014-01-01

    The literature on Happiness and Subjective Well-Being (SWB) has been dominated by studies of the impact from income and labour market status - and the impact on happiness from changes in these determinants. It seems obvious to expect an impact from non-economic factors as well. In the present paper...... we focus on the eventual impact on SWB from having children. The dominant result in the rather few studies until now is the finding of no – or even a negative – impact on subjective well being following birth of a child. We focus on the impact from having children using two very big panel data sets...

  16. Subjective biological self and self-actualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumerlin, J R; Berretta, S A; Privette, G; Bundrick, C M

    1994-12-01

    Ginsburg, Rogers, and Maslow, humanistic theorists, have maintained that the self is an emergent characteristic of one's biological makeup. The relationship between physical self-efficacy as an appraisal of subjective biology and self-actualization was examined in a sample of 160 black and white participants. An r of .46 supports the association of subjective biology and self-actualization. Whereas there were no gender or racial differences in scores on self-actualization, men scored higher on physical self-efficacy and subscales of perceived physical ability and perceived self-presentation confidence.

  17. Subjective Writing in Contemporary Chinese Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Siyan, Jin

    2008-01-01

    In twentieth century Chinese literature, we find writers expressing several forms of subjectivity characterised as “ziwo” (I), “xiaowo” (small I), “dawo” (capital I),“wangwo” (I to be forgotten), as well as “wuwo” (no I). The “capital I” and the “I to be forgotten” are characteristic of the “art for life” school of authors, which had its zenith in the 1950s and 1960s. The “ziwo” and “xiaowo” are both expressions of the “art for art’s sake” and the “ziwo de zhutixing” (the subjectivity of the ...

  18. Mechanics of composite material subjected to eigenstress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang Nielsen, L.

    In this SBI Bulletin a theory is presented dealing with the mechanical behavior of composites subjected to hygro-thermal actions such as shrinkage caused by moisture variations and expansion caused by temperature variations of freezing of water in pore systems. Special attention is given to the t......In this SBI Bulletin a theory is presented dealing with the mechanical behavior of composites subjected to hygro-thermal actions such as shrinkage caused by moisture variations and expansion caused by temperature variations of freezing of water in pore systems. Special attention is given...

  19. Subjective performance evaluations and employee careers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Lange, Fabian; Kriechel, Ben

    Firms commonly use supervisor ratings to evaluate employees when objective performance measures are unavailable. Supervisor ratings are subjective and data containing supervisor ratings typically stem from individual firm level data sets. For both these reasons, doubts persist on how useful...... such data are for evaluating theories in personnel economics and whether findings from such data generalize to the labor force at large. In this paper, we examine personnel data from six large companies and establish how subjective ratings, interpreted as ordinal rankings of employees within narrowly...

  20. Subject thesaurus permuted listing: Energy Data Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raridon, M.H. (ed.)

    1987-09-01

    This permuted listing, an appendix to the Energy Data Base: Subject Thesaurus (DOE/TIC-7000-R6), has been prepared to alleviate the problems of entry to a large multidisciplinary thesaurus containing both single and multi-word descriptors. It is designed to be used in conjunction with the Subject Thesaurus and is not to be used alone. Each descriptor, whether a single word or multi-word entry, has been permuted and alphabetized by each significant word. The complete descriptor is given at each point.

  1. Early labour market returns to college subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buonanno, Paolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    This paper aims at estimating early labour market outcomes  of Italian university graduates across college subjects. We devote great attention to endogenous selection issues using alternative methods to control for potential self-selection associated with the choice of the degree subject in order...... to unravel the causal link between college major and subsequent outcomes in the labour market.  Our results suggest that "quantitative" fields (i.e. Sciences, Engineering and Economics) increase not only the speed of transition into the first job and employment probability but also early earnings...

  2. Early Labour Market Returns to College Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buonanno, Paolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    2009-01-01

    We estimate early labour market outcomes of Italian university  graduates across college subjects. We devote great attention to endogenous selection issues using alternative methods to control for potential self-selection associated with the choice of the degree subject in order to unravel...... the causal link between college major and subsequent outcomes in the labour market. Our results suggest that 'quantitative' fields (i.e. Sciences, Engineering, and Economics) increase not only the speed of transition into the first job and employment probability but also early earnings, conditional...

  3. Reevaluating the "subjective weathering" hypothesis: subjective aging, coping resources, and the stress process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Janel E

    2014-03-01

    The subjective weathering model contends that subjective aging is a key component of the stress process. This study reevaluates and extends this model by considering how adaptive capacities influence subjective aging and depressive symptoms in late adolescence and young adulthood. Using longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 7,230), I investigate how earlier stressors and coping resources contribute to older age identities (ages 18-22) and how these self-perceptions influence subsequent depressive symptoms (ages 25-29). The results show that subjective weathering alone does not lead to depressive symptoms; the critical issue is the level of psychosocial maturity that accompanies an older age identity. Those with high levels of psychosocial maturity, regardless of subjective age, were least likely to exhibit depressive symptoms. These results demonstrate that psychosocial maturity is an important adaptive resource that can shield young adults from the negative effects of "subjective weathering" or growing up fast.

  4. Making Interdisciplinary Subjects Relevant to Students: An Interdisciplinary Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines issues relating to the design/redesign of the pedagogy of interdisciplinary undergraduate subjects. Examples include: (a) law subjects for students in Business Management or Building and Surveying; (b) "English Communication for Business" for students in English; and (c) "Information technology in Business" for students in…

  5. Subjects' experiences of a nutrition education programme: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects and outcome measures: The study subjects were adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 41, aged 40–70 years) participating in a nutrition education intervention (one-year randomised controlled trial). The intervention was based on the assessed nutrition education needs of the target group, and included the ...

  6. Subject Teachers as Educators for Sustainability: A Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitto, Anna; Saloranta, Seppo

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability education (SE) is included in school curricula to integrate the principles, values, and practices of sustainable development (SD) into all education. This study investigates lower secondary school subject teachers as educators for sustainability. A survey was used to study the perceptions of 442 subject teachers from 49 schools in…

  7. Subject-field components as integrated parts of LSP dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Nielsen, Sandro

    2006-01-01

    the introduction of subject-field components in dictionaries. Dictionary functions are communication-orientated or cognition-orientated, and the lexicographers must identify the relevant functions and select and present the data so that the dictionary satisfies the needs of the users. The optimal dictionary...... contains aided fully integrated subject-field components that supplement and complement the data included in the articles....

  8. Political Subjects: Decision and Subjectivity from a Post-Fundational Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Retamozo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of decision and of political subjects was addressed in the field of 20th century political philosophy by authors such as Carl Schmitt, Hannah Arendt, and Jacques Derrida, who related it closely to the concepts of sovereignty, freedom, and contingency. The works of Ernesto Laclau and Slavoj Žižek have currently turnedto the issue of decision in order to address the constitutive spects of the political. In a context dominated by deconstruction, post-Marxism, and post-structuralism,the article inquires into the elation between decision and political subjects in a contemporary setting, examining in depth the difference between subjectivity,subjectivization, and subject.

  9. Dietary management for older subjects with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernoff, Ronni

    2005-11-01

    In recent years, obesity has been recognized as a form of malnutrition in older adults and a continuing risk factor for serious health problems. Weight reduction in older adults is not as reliable a recommendation as it is for younger adults; a decreased body mass index (BMI) seems to be associated with a higher incidence of stroke, and a normal or slightly elevated BMI has been linked to greater reserve capacity. Weight loss in older adults requires strategies that consider health status, functional ability, and rational targets. Strategies may include behavior modification, dietary alterations, exercise or physical activity, and reasonable goals that do not put the individual at nutritional risk. Studies that examine different approaches to weight reduction rarely include older subjects, so it is difficult to make judgments about various interventions (surgery, exercise, drugs, or diet) and their efficacy in this population. Fad diets may be lacking in essential nutrients and may prove to be risky for elderly people. Weight loss programs for older adults should focus on maintaining adequate intake of essential nutrients while reducing calories by controlling dietary fat intake.

  10. Subjective Quantitative Studies of Human Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkire, Sabina

    2005-01-01

    Amartya Sen's writings have articulated the importance of human agency, and identified the need for information on agency freedom to inform our evaluation of social arrangements. Many approaches to poverty reduction stress the need for empowerment. This paper reviews "subjective quantitative measures of human agency at the individual level." It…

  11. Prostacyclin (epoprostenol) induces headache in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienecke, Troels; Olesen, Jes; Oturai, Peter S

    2008-01-01

    and vasodilatation of cranial vessels. A stable analog of PGI(2) epoprostenol (10 ng/kg/min) was infused for 25 min into 12 healthy subjects in a cross-over, double-blind study. Headache intensity was scored on a verbal rating scale from 0 to 10. In addition, we recorded mean flow in the middle cerebral artery (V...

  12. Subjective measures of well--being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis chapter deals with three question: 1) What are ‘subjective’ measure? 2) What is ‘wellbeing’? and 3) Are subjective measures of wellbeing of use for policymaking, in particular in developing nations? The first question is answered by making a distinction between two kinds of

  13. Subjective Evaluations: Discretionary Bonuses and Feedback Credibility

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, William

    2013-01-01

    We provide a new rationale for the use of discretionary bonuses. In a setting with unknown match qualities between a worker and a firm and subjective evaluations by the principal, bonuses are useful in order to make the feedback from the firm to the workers credible. This way workers in good matches are less inclined to accept outside offers.

  14. Homeownership and subjective well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloze, Gintautas; Skak, Morten

    Favouring homeownership is an important part of housing policies in many countries. Although this may be explained by the preferences of the majority of voters, it may also be because homeownership is believed to have positive effects on individuals’ behaviour and welfare. Previous research seems...... and subjective well-being....

  15. Family Support and Subjective Well-Being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta; Denegri, Marianela; Miranda, Horacio

    2015-01-01

    In order to distinguish typologies of university students based on family support received in the form of tangible and intangible resources, their level of satisfaction with life and food-related life as well as subjective happiness, a survey was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 347 stude...

  16. Subject Gateway Sites and Search Engine Ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelwall, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Discusses subject gateway sites and commercial search engines for the Web and presents an explanation of Google's PageRank algorithm. The principle question addressed is the conditions under which a gateway site will increase the likelihood that a target page is found in search engines. (LRW)

  17. Scoring Rules for Subjective Probability Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    2017-01-01

    Subjective beliefs are elicited routinely in economics experiments. However, such elicitation often suffers from two possible disadvantages. First, beliefs are recovered in the form of a summary statistic, usually the mean, of the underlying latent distribution. Second, recovered beliefs are bias...

  18. Effect Size Calculations and Single Subject Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Melissa L.; Smith, Benjamin W.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared visual analyses with five alternative methods for assessing the magnitude of effect with single subject designs. Each method was successful in detecting intervention effect. When rank ordered, each method was consistent in identifying the participants with the largest effect. We recommend the use of the standard mean difference…

  19. Single-Subject Research in Gifted Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Brandi; Little, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Single-subject research (SSR) is an experimental research tradition that is well established in other fields (e.g., special education, behavior analysis) but has rarely been applied to topics in gifted education. In this Methodological Brief, Brandi Simonsen and Catherine A. Little from the University of Connecticut highlight the key features of…

  20. Conditioning audience patronage using subject matters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Films are subject-based and when producers set out to communicate their viewpoints, some do it flamboyantly while others take the subtle path. Unlike live theatre before it, the possibility of a virile spiral regarding the themes treated in movies can be as much repugnant as they can be fascinating. In this case, the audience ...

  1. Neighborhood Disorder, Subjective Alienation, and Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Catherine E.; Mirowsky, John

    2009-01-01

    Living in a threatening, noxious, and dangerous neighborhood may produce anxiety, anger, and depression because it is subjectively alienating. We hypothesize that neighborhood disorder represents ambient threat that elicits perceptions of powerlessness, normlessness, mistrust, and isolation. These perceptions in turn lead to anxious and angry…

  2. Clinical Perspective An adolescent's subjective experiences of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An adolescent's subjective experiences of mindfulness were explored in a single case study of a 17-yearold female. Data were created by means of 'mindfulness sessions', unstructured interviews, creative expression, journals and field notes. The data were analysed and interpreted using a combination of typological and ...

  3. Essays on subjective expectations and mortality trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niu, G.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis consists of four chapters on two topics. The first topic, covered in chapter 2, 3, and 4, is about subjective expectations. Economists have long understood that expectations are important determinants of economic decisions. However, expectations are rarely observed. One way to overcome

  4. Evaluating the Streif index against commercial subjective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Historical physiological data for Golden Delicious and Starking apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) from various orchards in the Ceres area were analysed. Significant correlations were obtained between the SI and subjective predictions of the release date for harvesting, after adapting the local starch breakdown values.

  5. Sanskrit Grammarians and the 'Speaking Subjectivity'

    OpenAIRE

    Aussant, Emilie

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Starting from the grammatical terminology, I give in this paper a panorama of the speaking subjectivity manifestationsaccording to Sanskrit grammatical texts, from the Aṣṭādhyāyī of Pāṇini to the Paramalaghumañjūṣā of Nāgeśa.

  6. On confessional dialogue and collective subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Ulf; Petersson, Kenneth; Krejsler, John B.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of dialogue as an ideal for face-to face relationships in education has a long history in Western societies. Dialogue, however, does not only opeate in face-to-face relationships but also between collective subjects such as national states. The focus of this chapter is to discuss...

  7. Foodservice. Subject Matter Update 1986-87.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This publication recognizes the constantly changing requirements of the food service industry and varying conditions for employment opportunities. It addresses the goal of relevance in education by enabling the educator to make timely adjustments in the subject matter of the food service curriculum. There are six sections in this publication, each…

  8. CELEBRATING OUR SUBJECTIVITY: Research as Lived Experience

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When we celebrate our subjectivity we are learning new ways of telling our research tales. The research becomes a ... This paper is a celebration of learning from my research at two levels. the personal and the professional. ... some value hack into their lives. (Chairperson and parent speaking at the. Annual Let Laverton ...

  9. Neuropsychological evidence for subjective memory complaints in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Subjective memory and concentration difficulties are frequently expressed in modern society and, if sufficiently worrying, may elicit a medical consultation for elucidation. When a clear explanation cannot be given, a neuropsychological assessment may be a useful tool. Method. The present naturalistic study ...

  10. Axiology, the Subject and the Chair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Wayne; Campbell, Todd; Jones, Doug

    2017-08-01

    This article addresses two gaps in the literature related to science department chairs: the axiological relationship between the chair and science, the subject, and the perceptions of the chair with respect to teaching and learning within their departments. In this work, axiology is used to understand how the chair's values toward the subject influenced his own perceived capacity to lead learning within his department in a reformed discourse. A narrative inquiry methodology was used to consider the chair's experiences in the development of his identify over his life span in the form of two stories: (1) the relationship between the chair and science, the subject, and (2) the perceptions of the chair with regards to teacher learning within the department. The findings revealed that the work and career of the chair in this study were authored by strong elements of personal continuity and points of stability around the valuing of science, the subject, even as this valuing evolved from being more focused on epistemic values early in his career, to being more concerned with universal values connected to his legacy and his department later in his career.

  11. Subjective evaluation of noise from neighbours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Rye; Rindel, Jens Holger; Mortensen, Frank Rysgaard

    1998-01-01

    This publication describes the preparations for and the results obtained in subjective listening tests conducted at the Department of Acoustic Technology. The focus area is the annoyance produced by noise from neighbours and transmitted through different types of constructions with special focus...

  12. The Utility of Single Subject Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kyle D.

    2016-01-01

    Single subject design (SSD) research is a quantitative approach used to investigate basic and applied research questions. It has been used for decades to examine issues of social importance such as those related to general and special education strategies, therapeutic approaches in mental health, community health practices, safety, and business…

  13. Microvascular retinopathy in subjects without diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Inger Christine; Kessel, Line; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2012-01-01

    tolerance testing, clinical and laboratory examinations, non-invasive ocular lens fluorometry and seven-field fundus photography. Results: Retinopathy was present in 8.3% (CI(95) 6.3-10.3%) of subjects. Higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) (p = 0.032), increasing body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.014) and wider...

  14. Subjective comparison of temporal and quality scalability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari; Reiter, Ulrich; You, Junyong

    2011-01-01

    and quality scalability. The practical experiments with low resolution video sequences show that in general, distortion is a more crucial factor for the perceived subjective quality than frame rate. However, the results also depend on the content. Moreover,, we discuss the role of other different influence...

  15. What is the impact of subject benchmarking?

    OpenAIRE

    Pidcock, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The introduction of subject benchmarking led to fears of increased external intervention in the activities of universities and a more restrictive view of institutional autonomy, accompanied by an undermining of the academic profession, particularly through the perceived threat of the introduction of a national curriculum for higher education. For this study, semi-structured interviews were ...

  16. What Is the Impact of Subject Benchmarking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidcock, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of subject benchmarking led to fears of increased external intervention in the activities of universities and a more restrictive view of institutional autonomy, accompanied by an undermining of the academic profession, particularly through the perceived threat of the introduction of a national curriculum for higher education. For…

  17. Psychology or semiotics: persons or subjects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Philip

    2005-01-01

    Cultural studies and especially semiological theory has recently sought to re-conceptualise classical problems considered in academic psychology such as perception, identity, and "subjectivity". It is argued that these theorizations are reductionist and/or theoretically incoherent without an adequate epistemology. Yet they have become for many students of the human sciences the conventional modes of analyzing such questions as personal identity.

  18. The GRE Subject Test in Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, B. C.

    Specific and detailed instructions to implement an environmental engineering approach to the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) Subject Test for Psychology are outlined. Focus is on helping students prepare for this test. Some universities use the GRE as a measure of achievement and aptitude and as a criterion test. In truth, such a test does not…

  19. Emergent Subjectivity in Caring Institutions for Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severinsson, Susanne; Nord, Catharina

    2015-01-01

    We investigate how different mealtime situations help shape teenager and staff subjectivities in two Swedish residential care homes and a special school for girls and boys, 12-15 years old, with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties. Three mealtime networks are analysed using concepts from actor-network theory, treating architectural…

  20. Developmental Topographical Disorientation in a Healthy Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, F.; Incoccia, C.; Palermo, L.; Piccardi, L.; Zompanti, L.; Sabatini, U.; Peran, P.; Guariglia, C.

    2010-01-01

    We present the case of F.G., a healthy, normally developed 22-year-old male subject affected by a pervasive disorder in environmental orientation and navigation who presents no history of neurological or psychiatric disease. A neuro-radiological examination showed no evidence of anatomical or structural alterations to the brain. We submitted the…

  1. A Subject Clitic in Child Catalan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gavarró

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine an instance of subject cliticisation in child Catalan previously unattested in the literature (1,. Given the lack of an adult counterpart to (1 in the input the child is exposed to, the claim is made that its occurrence, far from being accidental, must result from deep properties of grammar, also detectable in other Romance varieties. (1M'he vist una pel.lícula.    (Lena, 5;9 1sCL have seen a film 'I have seen a film.' This subject clitic is sensitive to the presence of a person feature - it is limited to first person singular - and tense-sensitive - it is only found in the present perfect. The subject clitic is analysed as a means to identify the empty subject of the sentence in cases where incorporation of be to yield have is taking place, along the lines of Kayne (1993. The analysis extends to also previously unattested existential constructions found in child Catalan, which involve instances of be instead of have (Hi era un caçador instead of Hi havia un caçador 'There was a hunter' (Joan 3;5 , but not vice-versa.

  2. Genetic parameters for subjectively assessed wool and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    The only noteworthy maternal correlation among wool traits was estimated between QUAL and COL at 0.39 ± 0.18 (Table 6). Table 5 Genetic (rg), phenotypic (rp), environmental (re) and maternal (rm) correlations (± s.e.) among subjectively assessed conformation traits. Trait rg re rp rm. General head conformation (GEN) X.

  3. Subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Kumari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : There is limited information from India on subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients. The aim of the present study was to assess and compare patterns of subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted at the OPD level, and follow-up was done at the Ranchi Institute of Neuropsychiatry and Sciences (RINPAS during the period May 2008 to November 2008. Tools utilized were sociodemographic data sheet, Family Burden Interview Schedule developed by Pai and R. L. Kapur (1981. The sample comprised of 50 samples of spouses (25 male and 25 female spouses of schizophrenia patients. Results: The findings suggest that both the groups, viz., male and female spouses of schizophrenia patients, showed moderate level of subjective burden, i.e., 13 (52% and 15 (60% male and female spouses, respectively, which was statistically found to be insignificant. Conclusion : No significant difference was found between male and female spouses of schizophrenia patients with regard to the level of subjective burden.

  4. Suction caissons subjected to monotonic combined loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penzes, P.; Jensen, M.R.; Zania, Varvara

    2016-01-01

    for offshore wind turbines. The combined loading imposed typically to a suction caisson has led to the estimation of their bearing capacity by means of 3D failure envelopes. This study aims to analyse the behaviour of suction caissons for offshore wind turbines subjected to combined loading. Finite element...

  5. Local Development of Subject Area Item Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Annie W.; Barlow, Gene

    1984-01-01

    It is feasible for school districts to develop and use subject area tests as reliable as those previously available only from commercial publishers. Three projects in local item development in a large school district are described. The first involved only Algebra 1. The second involved life science and career education at the elementary level; and…

  6. Brown adipose tissue in morbidly obese subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy H E J Vijgen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cold-stimulated adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT to increase energy expenditure is suggested as a possible therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity. We have recently shown high prevalence of BAT in adult humans, which was inversely related to body mass index (BMI and body fat percentage (BF%, suggesting that obesity is associated with lower BAT activity. Here, we examined BAT activity in morbidly obese subjects and its role in cold-induced thermogenesis (CIT after applying a personalized cooling protocol. We hypothesize that morbidly obese subjects show reduced BAT activity upon cold exposure. METHODS AND FINDINGS: After applying a personalized cooling protocol for maximal non-shivering conditions, BAT activity was determined using positron-emission tomography and computed tomography (PET-CT. Cold-induced BAT activity was detected in three out of 15 morbidly obese subjects. Combined with results from lean to morbidly obese subjects (n = 39 from previous study, the collective data show a highly significant correlation between BAT activity and body composition (P<0.001, respectively explaining 64% and 60% of the variance in BMI (r = 0.8; P<0.001 and BF% (r = 0.75; P<0.001. Obese individuals demonstrate a blunted CIT combined with low BAT activity. Only in BAT-positive subjects (n = 26 mean energy expenditure was increased significantly upon cold exposure (51.5±6.7 J/s versus 44.0±5.1 J/s, P = 0.001, and the increase was significantly higher compared to BAT-negative subjects (+15.5±8.9% versus +3.6±8.9%, P = 0.001, indicating a role for BAT in CIT in humans. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that in an extremely large range of body compositions, BAT activity is highly correlated with BMI and BF%. BAT-positive subjects showed higher CIT, indicating that BAT is also in humans involved in adaptive thermogenesis. Increasing BAT activity could be a therapeutic target in (morbid obesity.

  7. Skeletal pattern in subjects with temporomandibular joint disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almăşan, Oana Cristina; Băciuţ, Mihaela; Almăşan, Horea Artimoniu; Bran, Simion; Lascu, Liana; Iancu, Mihaela; Băciuţ, Grigore

    2013-02-21

    To establish the skeletal pattern in subjects with malocclusions and temporomandibular disorders (TMD); to assess the relationship between craniofacial skeletal structures and TMD in subjects with malocclusions. Sixty-four subjects with malocclusions, over 18 years of age, were included in the study. Temporomandibular disorders were clinically assessed according to the Helkimo Anamnestic Index. Subjects underwent a lateral cephalogram. Subjects were grouped according to the sagittal skeletal pattern (ANB angle) into class I, II and III. Parametric Student tests with equal or unequal variations were used (variations were previously tested with Levene test). Twenty-four patients with TMD (experimental sample); 40 patients without TMD (control group); interincisal angle was higher in class I and II (p < 0.05) experimental subjects; overjet was larger in experimental subjects; midline shift and Wits appraisal were broader in the experimental group in all three classes. In class III subjects, the SNB angle was higher in the experimental group (p = 0.01). Joint noises followed by reduced mandible mobility, muscular pain and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain were the most frequent symptoms in subjects with TMD and malocclusions. Temporomandibular joint status is an important factor to consider when planning orthodontic treatment in patients with severe malocclusions; midline shift, large overjet and deep overbite have been associated with signs and symptoms of TMD.

  8. Construction of Subjectivity in Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anže Dolinar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Social media are a phenomenon that came about with the Web 2.0. The essential characteristic of social media is the so-called user-generated content, which means that individuals and their lives are entangled in a social interaction in which their identity is to some extent subsumed under the logic of the production of profit. From the standpoint of the critique of political economy, the phenomenon of digital labor can be tackled with a digital labor theory of value. On the other hand, a question of a subjective aspect remains open. The initial hypothesis is that an analysis of a dynamic character of capitalism is necessarily connected with historical transformations of subjectivity. I will inspect which type of subjectivity is produced during the “process of production” on Facebook, how relations of the exchange of information and meaning take place inside this medium, and what kind of consciousness comes with this virtual identity. I will attempt to address this question with an explication of social forms of sharing amongst individuals on this social network. I will focus on how photos, notifications and comments structure web subjectivity and its function. Answers to such questions can help us in understanding a certain aspect of a socioeconomic structure of contemporary capitalism and bear an emancipatory potential in a possibility of negation of such social relations. The article will limit itself to the exploration of subjectivity in social media, which will be dealt with in a dynamic sense and in regard to formal conditions of communication inside social media, and in respect to a social situation in which they are.

  9. ON THE SUBJECT OF ILLEGAL HUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Abdulmutalibov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The article considers a notion of subject of such crime as illegal hunting. Only a man can be a subject of this crime. The content of such crime is revealed with the help of such properties as guilt, motive and aim. The article considers different properties of a subject of crime: 1 Physical nature Illegal actions can be committed by a man directly or indirectly. If during hunting a dog without its master’s command got a wild animal, the hunter is not liable as here intentional crime is absent. Juridical entities also are not admitted a subject of crime, only their representative if he committed this crime. 2 Criminal capacity. A person is not liable for this crime if he committed it in the state of criminal incapacity (CC Art.21. If illegal hunting is committed by a person in the state of drunkenness he is admitted capable and is liable for the crime(Criminal Code art.23. 3 A definite age. According to Art.23 of RF CC criminal responsibility for illegal hunting comes from the age of 16 . Performance of art.11, 12, 13 of CC concerns citizens of Russia, foreign citizens and persons without citizenship who committed poaching on the territory of Russia. Thus, the subject of poaching is a capable physical person reached the age of 16 by the moment of committing the crime. Methods. questionnaire method was applied for finding out the predominant motive and aim of illegal hunting. Result. 82% of pollee officials of hunting supervision bodies indicated the motive of profit as a predominant in committing illegal hunting.Location. Pskovskaya, Tulskaya, Moskovskaya regions. Conclusions. 1.Illegal hunting is committed only intentionally.2.The aim of poaching is killing wild animals and further use of their meat, skin, down, and active rest3.The more spread motives of poaching are: mercenary motives (35% and hunting passion

  10. Foveal avascular zone area in normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Xu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To measure the foveal avascular zone(FAZarea and to investigate the characteristics of the FAZ area in normal eyes, using optical coherence tomography(OCTangiography.METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. The FAZ area was measured in 69 participants, for a total of 138 eyes, using RTVue-100 OCT. The relations between the FAZ area and the potential factors were evaluated by univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis. Differences between the right and left eyes were calculated, and values were compared by means of a paired t test. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to assess the relationships of the FAZ area between the right and left eyes. RESULTS: The mean FAZ area was 0.30±0.11mm2 in all subjects. For the male subjects, the mean FAZ area was 0.29±0.13mm2, and for the female subjects 0.31±0.09mm2, with no significant difference(t=-1.346,P=0.180. The FAZ area did not correlate with all the potential factors. The mean FAZ area in the right eye was 0.30±0.11mm2, and in the left eye was 0.30±0.10mm2,with no significant difference(P=0.943. There was a strong correlation between the right and left eyes for the FAZ area. CONCLUSION: OCT angiography is a noninvasive method of visualizing and measuring the FAZ area in normal subjects. The FAZ area does not correlate with old age, sex and other factors. It shows significant interocular symmetry in normal subjects.

  11. Vibration Response Imaging: evaluation of rater agreement in healthy subjects and subjects with pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makris Demosthenes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We evaluated pulmonologists variability in the interpretation of Vibration response imaging (VRI obtained from healthy subjects and patients hospitalized for community acquired pneumonia. Methods The present is a prospective study conducted in a tertiary university hospital. Twenty healthy subjects and twenty three pneumonia cases were included in this study. Six pulmonologists blindly analyzed images of normal subjects and pneumonia cases and evaluated different aspects of VRI images related to the quality of data aquisition, synchronization of the progression of breath sound distribution and agreement between the maximal energy frame (MEF of VRI (which is the maximal geographical area of lung vibrations produced at maximal inspiration and chest radiography. For qualitative assessment of VRI images, the raters' evaluations were analyzed by degree of consistency and agreement. Results The average value for overall identical evaluations of twelve features of the VRI image evaluation, ranged from 87% to 95% per rater (94% to 97% in control cases and from 79% to 93% per rater in pneumonia cases. Inter-rater median (IQR agreement was 91% (82-96. The level of agreement according to VRI feature evaluated was in most cases over 80%; intra-class correlation (ICC obtained by using a model of subject/rater for the averaged features was overall 0.86 (0.92 in normal and 0.73 in pneumonia cases. Conclusions Our findings suggest good agreement in the interpretation of VRI data between different raters. In this respect, VRI might be helpful as a radiation free diagnostic tool for the management of pneumonia.

  12. System and method for acquisition management of subject position information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrender, Curt

    2005-12-13

    A system and method for acquisition management of subject position information that utilizes radio frequency identification (RF ID) to store position information in position tags. Tag programmers receive position information from external positioning systems, such as the Global Positioning System (GPS), from manual inputs, such as keypads, or other tag programmers. The tag programmers program each position tag with the received position information. Both the tag programmers and the position tags can be portable or fixed. Implementations include portable tag programmers and fixed position tags for subject position guidance, and portable tag programmers for collection sample labeling. Other implementations include fixed tag programmers and portable position tags for subject route recordation. Position tags can contain other associated information such as destination address of an affixed subject for subject routing.

  13. System and method for acquisition management of subject position information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrender, Curt (Morgan Hill, CA)

    2007-01-23

    A system and method for acquisition management of subject position information that utilizes radio frequency identification (RF ID) to store position information in position tags. Tag programmers receive position information from external positioning systems, such as the Global Positioning System (GPS), from manual inputs, such as keypads, or other tag programmers. The tag programmers program each position tag with the received position information. Both the tag programmers and the position tags can be portable or fixed. Implementations include portable tag programmers and fixed position tags for subject position guidance, and portable tag programmers for collection sample labeling. Other implementations include fixed tag programmers and portable position tags for subject route recordation. Position tags can contain other associated information such as destination address of an affixed subject for subject routing.

  14. Mesopic Functional Visual Acuity in Normal Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Hiraoka

    Full Text Available To evaluate mesopic functional visual acuity (FVA with a newly developed system in normal subjects and to compare the results with photopic FVA, sixty-eight healthy volunteers (24.03 ± 4.42 [mean ± standard deviation] years were enrolled in this study. A commercially available FVA measurement system (AS-28; Kowa, Aichi, Japan was modified to measure FVA under mesopic conditions as well as photopic conditions. Measurements were performed monocularly in photopic conditions during 60 seconds. After dark adaptation for 15 minutes, the same measurements were repeated in mesopic conditions. Outcomes included starting visual acuity (VA, FVA (the average of VAs, visual maintenance ratio (VMR, maximum VA, minimum VA, and numbers of blinks during the 60-second measurement session, and were compared between mesopic and photopic conditions. Starting VA was -0.11 ± 0.08 and 0.39 ± 0.12 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR in photopic and mesopic conditions, respectively. FVA was -0.06 ± 0.09 and 0.52 ± 0.14 logMAR, VMR was 0.98 ± 0.02 and 0.94 ± 0.04, maximum VA was -0.15 ± 0.06 and 0.33 ± 0.12 logMAR, the minimum VA was 0.05 ± 0.12 and 0.78 ± 0.20 logMAR, and the number of blinks was 8.23 ± 7.54 and 7.23 ± 6.20, respectively. All these parameters except the number of blinks were significantly different between the two conditions (P < 0.001. Besides, the difference between maximum and minimum VAs and standard deviation of VA were significantly larger in mesopic than in photopic conditions (P < 0.001. This study revealed that not only overall visual function decline but also instability of vision under mesopic conditions even in healthy subjects.

  15. Subjective visual acuity with simulated defocus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehnert, Anne; Bach, Michael; Heinrich, Sven P

    2011-11-01

    Artificial degradation of vision by inducing dioptric blur is frequently used for evaluating diagnostic equipment. However, the use of lenses is prone to errors as it is adversely affected by eyelid squinting, pupil size, and imprecise lens position. The alternative is a degradation of the stimuli themselves based on a Fourier-optical mathematical model. With this, however, perceptual effects such as 'simultaneous blur' induced by the surround may affect acuity. We tested whether both methods, lens induced defocus and mathematical stimulus degradation, yield concordant results. We compared both methods in normal subjects, measuring Landolt C acuity at five different levels of defocus from 0 to 8 dioptres. The pupil size was determined individually, chromatic aberrations were avoided by using a monochromatic approach, and a correction for spectacle magnification was included. Otherwise, the experimental design was kept deliberately simple to remain comparable to typical applications. With the major sources of error associated with the use of lenses being accounted for, both methods yield similar mean results with differences in acuity ranging from <0.001 to 0.054 logMAR (0.2-13%). Using mathematically simulated defocus is a viable option if both reasonable accuracy and ease of use are required. The fact that the application of the mathematical model only blurs the stimulus itself, but not the surrounding environment, does not appear to be detrimental to the method. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2011 The College of Optometrists.

  16. Subjective Life Expectancy Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodemann, Alyssa E; Arigo, Danielle

    2017-09-14

    Establishing healthy habits in college is important for long-term health. Despite existing health promotion efforts, many college students fail to meet recommendations for behaviors such as healthy eating and exercise, which may be due to low perceived risk for health problems. The goals of this study were to examine: (1) the accuracy of life expectancy predictions, (2) potential individual differences in accuracy (i.e., gender and conscientiousness), and (3) potential change in accuracy after inducing awareness of current health behaviors. College students from a small northeastern university completed an electronic survey, including demographics, initial predictions of their life expectancy, and their recent health behaviors. At the end of the survey, participants were asked to predict their life expectancy a second time. Their health data were then submitted to a validated online algorithm to generate calculated life expectancy. Participants significantly overestimated their initial life expectancy, and neither gender nor conscientiousness was related to the accuracy of these predictions. Further, subjective life expectancy decreased from initial to final predictions. These findings suggest that life expectancy perceptions present a unique-and potentially modifiable-psychological process that could influence college students' self-care.

  17. [Functioning of memory in subjects with autism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras-Vincendon, A; Bursztejn, C; Danion, J-M

    2008-12-01

    , suggesting they have difficulties in relation to processes involving the self. Studies involving assessment of subjective states of awareness during recognition show less conscious recollection and more feelings of familiarity. Recent investigations are consistent in demonstrating memory impairments related to the failure of subjects with autism to use organizing strategies or meaning to support memory, an effect which grows with the increasing complexity of the material. Memory deficits in autism may be related more to retrieval and less to encoding, as deficit in source memory in participants with autism is largely eliminated when source was supported at test. The neuroanatomical basis of the specificities of memory impairment in autism is still uncertain, but it is suggested that autism involves an impairment in the conversion of limbic inputs into medial prefrontal outputs. Memory deficits found in individuals with autism may explain some of the clinical symptoms. Failure to encode all the information, especially its social aspects, may therefore contribute to dysfunction in the social, communication, and reasoning domains. Abnormal memory functioning in autism is also related to more general cognitive impairments, including executive function deficits and central coherence weakness. Evidence of the normality of certain memory capacities, at least in individuals with moderate autistic symptomatology, is encouraging for adaptive improvements in cognitive functioning.

  18. Urban and Spatial Opposition by the Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, Gizem; Kırcı, Nazan

    2017-10-01

    In the production of spaces, an important aspect, that is ‘the subject’ was neglected with the influence of the industrial revolution, modernisation, capitalism and neo-liberalism. While the rationalist reason was standardising and extending production, the relationship between space and its user was broken-off. It initiated a tremendous change when the subject as the user of the spaces, singled out his own existence and needs from the whole and comprehended his self-distinctiveness. Such a split up indicating the act of critical thinking and liberation of the subject also created a demand for diversity. The demands of the subject being the user of the space was not met at the architectural and urban levels for several reasons. The subject feeling the discomfort of such a situation brings into view his criticisms first in his own individual space and then in public space for the purposes of expressing his right to live and his locus standi. Such acts being classified as adversary are being realised in order to provide the adaptability of the subject and the space to changing living conditions using different means. Such adversary touches being provided partly by the urbanites and partly by the professionals draw attention to the issue through by-pass interventions to the architecturally choked urban areas. By taking a stance against the existing situation, the intention is to treat space in a different way than what has been produced by the system, to re-produce it and to render it more democratic. All such alternative spatial situations show us that other production methods and lines of thought, other than what has been defined by the dominant market conditions are also possible. It has been asserted through these adversary instigations that there is a requirement for micro designs towards the daily and changing needs of the subject as a user during the act of design by architects and planners. For this reason, the part played by the designer should be

  19. Introduction to Subject Indexing; a Programmed Text. Volume Two: UDC and Chain Procedure in Subject Cataloguing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A. G.; And Others

    This is the second of two volumes dealing with practical classification and subject indexing. The programed text considers use of the Universal Decimal Classification (UDC) and techniques of cross referencing based on UDC in the construction of classified and alphabetical subject catalogs. (Author/LS)

  20. Contemporary native American fiction (1968-2001) : subject-ivity and identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peraino, S.E.

    2010-01-01

    This study is a literary critical analysis of post-1960s Native American fiction and its engagement in the concepts of subject-ivity and identity in relation to both tribal- and Euroamerican -generated socio-cultural discourses and paradigms. This study adds to the critical enquiry of previous

  1. SUBJECTIVITY: SOCIAL REPRESENTATION OF THE FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdete Rejane Ferro Zago

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The family, first family group of human beings, is the collective dimension of human existence and becomes responsible for the formation of the first social identity, as well as the constitution of subjectivity. Subjectivity is the inner world of each and every human being. This inner world is made up of emotions, feelings and thoughts. It is through this inner world that the individual relates to the social world, appointed by the outside world. This relationship follows the individual characteristics that mark the individual as unique, originated in shaping the individual, when they built the knowledge and beliefs. social representation as a form of knowledge, socially elaborated, shared with a practical purpose, contributing to the construction of a common reality to a social group. Is thus built up the social representation of the family.

  2. Mechanics of composite material subjected to eigenstress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang Nielsen, L.

    In this SBI Bulletin a theory is presented dealing with the mechanical behavior of composites subjected to hygro-thermal actions such as shrinkage caused by moisture variations and expansion caused by temperature variations of freezing of water in pore systems. Special attention is given to the t......In this SBI Bulletin a theory is presented dealing with the mechanical behavior of composites subjected to hygro-thermal actions such as shrinkage caused by moisture variations and expansion caused by temperature variations of freezing of water in pore systems. Special attention is given...... to the topic of frost resistance of wet building materials. Three computer algorithms are presented to facilitate the numerical analysis of the phenomenons considered....

  3. Teaching physics as a service subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, T. L.; Hayes, M.

    1986-07-01

    At South Glamorgan Institute of Higher Education physics is taught over a wide range of courses. In addition to the more conventional courses found in science, technology and education faculties there is a physics input into areas such as beauty therapy, applied biology, catering, chiropody, dental technology, environmental health, food technology, hairdressing, human-movement studies, industrial design, applied life sciences, marine technology, medical laboratory science, physiological measurement, nursing and speech therapy. Due to the fundamental differences in emphasis required when teaching physics as a 'minor' subject on these types of courses, and since the authors have no courses which lead to a 'major' physics qualification, it is necessary to develop a rational strategy for teaching physics as a 'service' subject. If this is not achieved then staff satisfaction and student interest are likely to suffer. They describe their strategy.

  4. Identity, gender, and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Using the self-reported level of happiness as a measure of subjective well-being, this study examines the relationship between gender identity and subjective well-being with data from Taiwan. The findings suggest that an individual's perceptions about the ideals of women's gender roles in the labor market, the family, and politics are strongly related to his or her assigned social category, the prescriptions and characteristics associated with the social category, and the actions taken to match the ideals of gender identity. Consistent with Akerlof and Kranton's (2000) identity model, it is also found that an individual's gains or losses in gender identity lead to increases or decreases in the level of happiness.

  5. PARTIAL REINFORCEMENT (ACQUISITION) EFFECTS WITHIN SUBJECTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AMSEL, A; MACKINNON, J R; RASHOTTE, M E; SURRIDGE, C T

    1964-03-01

    Acquisition performance of 22 rats in a straight alley runway was examined. The animals were subjected to partial reinforcement when the alley was black (B+/-) and continuous reinforcement when it was white (W+). The results indicated (a) higher terminal performance, for partial as against continuous reinforcement conditions, for starting-time and running-time measures, and (b) lower terminal performance under partial conditions for a goal-entry-time measure. These results confirm within subjects an effect previously demonstrated, in the runway, only in between-groups tests, where one group is run under partial reinforcement and a separate group is run under continuous reinforcement in the presence of the same external stimuli. Differences between the runway situation, employing a discrete-trial procedure and performance measures at three points in the response chain, and the Skinner box situation, used in its free-operant mode with a single performance measure, are discussed in relation to the present findings.

  6. Validation of a subjective global assessment questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carniel, Maiara Pires; Santetti, Daniele; Andrade, Juliana Silveira; Favero, Bianca Penteado; Moschen, Tábata; Campos, Paola Almeida; Goldani, Helena Ayako Sueno; Dornelles, Cristina Toscani Leal

    2015-01-01

    To validate the Subjective Global Nutritional Assessment (SGNA) questionnaire for Brazilian children and adolescents. A cross-sectional study with 242 patients, aged 30 days to 13 years, treated in pediatric units of a tertiary hospital with acute illness and minimum hospitalization of 24h. After permission from the authors of the original study, the following criteria were observed to obtain the validation of SGNA instruments: translation and backtranslation, concurrent validity, predictive validity, and inter-observer reliability. The variables studied were age, sex, weight and length at birth, prematurity, and anthropometry (weight, height, body mass index, upper arm circumference, triceps skinfold, and subscapular skinfold). The primary outcome was considered as the need for admission/readmission within 30 days after hospital discharge. Statistical tests used included ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, chi-square, and Kappa coefficient. According to SGNA score, 80% of patients were considered as well nourished, 14.5% moderately malnourished, and 5.4% severely malnourished. Concurrent validity showed a weak correlation between the SGNA and anthropometric measurements (p<0.001). Regarding predictive power, the main outcome associated with SGNA was length of admission/readmission. Secondary outcomes associated included the following: length of stay at the unit after SGNA, weight and length at birth, and prematurity (p<0.05). The interobserver reliability showed good agreement among examiners (Kappa=0.74). This study validated the SGNA in this group of hospitalized pediatric patients, ensuring its use in the clinical setting and for research purposes in the Brazilian population. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Drones and the uninsurable security subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Barrinha, A.; da Mota, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper engages with the security dynamics underlying the use of drones and their impact on security subjects – individuals and groups that are the ultimate recipients of specific security policies, regardless of whether these have beneficial effects on them. Using Mark Duffield’s distinction between the insured Global North and the non-insured Global South, this paper discusses how drones generate a radical dissociation between the intervener and the intervened that ultimately produces ne...

  8. Expectation, information processing, and subjective duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simchy-Gross, Rhimmon; Margulis, Elizabeth Hellmuth

    2018-01-01

    In research on psychological time, it is important to examine the subjective duration of entire stimulus sequences, such as those produced by music (Teki, Frontiers in Neuroscience, 10, 2016). Yet research on the temporal oddball illusion (according to which oddball stimuli seem longer than standard stimuli of the same duration) has examined only the subjective duration of single events contained within sequences, not the subjective duration of sequences themselves. Does the finding that oddballs seem longer than standards translate to entire sequences, such that entire sequences that contain oddballs seem longer than those that do not? Is this potential translation influenced by the mode of information processing-whether people are engaged in direct or indirect temporal processing? Two experiments aimed to answer both questions using different manipulations of information processing. In both experiments, musical sequences either did or did not contain oddballs (auditory sliding tones). To manipulate information processing, we varied the task (Experiment 1), the sequence event structure (Experiments 1 and 2), and the sequence familiarity (Experiment 2) independently within subjects. Overall, in both experiments, the sequences that contained oddballs seemed shorter than those that did not when people were engaged in direct temporal processing, but longer when people were engaged in indirect temporal processing. These findings support the dual-process contingency model of time estimation (Zakay, Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 54, 656-664, 1993). Theoretical implications for attention-based and memory-based models of time estimation, the pacemaker accumulator and coding efficiency hypotheses of time perception, and dynamic attending theory are discussed.

  9. Mechanics of composite material subjected to eigenstress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang Nielsen, L.

    In this SBI Bulletin a theory is presented dealing with the mechanical behavior of composites subjected to hygro-thermal actions such as shrinkage caused by moisture variations and expansion caused by temperature variations of freezing of water in pore systems. Special attention is given...... to the topic of frost resistance of wet building materials. Three computer algorithms are presented to facilitate the numerical analysis of the phenomenons considered....

  10. Y chromosome haplogroups in autistic subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Jamain, Stéphane; Quach, Hélène; Quintana-Murci, Luis; Betancur, Catalina; Philippe, Anne; Gillberg, Christopher; Sponheim, Eili; Skjeldal, Ola H.; Fellous, Marc; Leboyer, Marion; Bourgeron, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    The male to female ratio in autism is 4:1 in the global autistic population, but increases to 23:1 in autistic subjects without physical or brain abnormalities. 1 Despite this well-recognised gender difference, male predisposition to autistic disorder remains unexplained and the role of sex chromosomes is still debated. Numerical and structural abnormalities of the sex chromosomes are among the most frequently reported chromosomal disorders associated with autism. However, genome scans have f...

  11. ERDA energy information data base subject thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    The technical staff of the ERDA Technical Information Center, during its subject indexing activities, develops and structures a vocabulary that allows consistent machine storage and retrieval of information necessary to the accomplishment of the ERDA mission. This thesaurus incorporates that structured vocabulary. Terms in the thesaurus are listed alphabetically; each alphabetic entry is accompanied by a ''word block'' containing all the terms associated with the entry. (RWR)

  12. ERDA energy information data base: subject thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-06-01

    The technical staff of the ERDA Technical Information Center, as part of its subject indexing activities, develops and structures a vocabulary which allows consistent machine storage and retrieval of information. This thesaurus incorporates that structured vocabulary. Terms in the thesaurus are listed alphabetically; each entry is accompanied by a ''word block'' containing all the terms associated with the entry. There are 15,905 approved terms and 4198 forbidden terms in this edition. (RWR)

  13. Feature Multi-Selection among Subjective Features

    OpenAIRE

    Sabato, Sivan; Kalai, Adam

    2013-01-01

    When dealing with subjective, noisy, or otherwise nebulous features, the "wisdom of crowds" suggests that one may benefit from multiple judgments of the same feature on the same object. We give theoretically-motivated `feature multi-selection' algorithms that choose, among a large set of candidate features, not only which features to judge but how many times to judge each one. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach for linear regression on a crowdsourced learning task of predicting...

  14. The Death of Narcissus: On Musical Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Currie

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available On the first page of the preface to Michael Steinberg’s excellent book, Listening to Reason: Culture, Subjectivity, and Nineteenth-Century Music, the author states that the book’s origin can be located specifically to “August 1990,” when he was giving “a short preconcert lecture on Brahms at the first Bard Music Festival.”

  15. Prosocial Behavior and Subjective Insecurity in Violent Contexts: Field Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, María Alejandra; Trujillo, Carlos Andres; Moros, Lina; Forero, Clemente

    2016-01-01

    Subjective insecurity is a key determinant of different forms of prosocial behavior. In Study 1, we used field experiments with farmers in Colombian villages exposed to different levels of violence to investigate how individual perceptions of insecurity affect cooperation, trust, reciprocity and altruism. To do so, we developed a cognitive-affective measure of subjective insecurity. We found that subjective insecurity has a negative effect on cooperation but influences trust and altruism positively. In Study 2, carried out three years after Study 1, we repeated the initial design with additional measures of victimization. Our goal was to relate subjective insecurity with actual victimization. The findings of Study 2 support the initial results, and are robust and consistent for cooperative behavior and trust when including victimization as a mediator. Different indicators of victimization are positively correlated with subjective insecurity and an aggregate index of victimization has a negative effect on cooperation but exerts a positive influence on trust. PMID:27472437

  16. Prosocial Behavior and Subjective Insecurity in Violent Contexts: Field Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, María Alejandra; Trujillo, Carlos Andres; Moros, Lina; Forero, Clemente

    2016-01-01

    Subjective insecurity is a key determinant of different forms of prosocial behavior. In Study 1, we used field experiments with farmers in Colombian villages exposed to different levels of violence to investigate how individual perceptions of insecurity affect cooperation, trust, reciprocity and altruism. To do so, we developed a cognitive-affective measure of subjective insecurity. We found that subjective insecurity has a negative effect on cooperation but influences trust and altruism positively. In Study 2, carried out three years after Study 1, we repeated the initial design with additional measures of victimization. Our goal was to relate subjective insecurity with actual victimization. The findings of Study 2 support the initial results, and are robust and consistent for cooperative behavior and trust when including victimization as a mediator. Different indicators of victimization are positively correlated with subjective insecurity and an aggregate index of victimization has a negative effect on cooperation but exerts a positive influence on trust.

  17. Prosocial Behavior and Subjective Insecurity in Violent Contexts: Field Experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra Vélez

    Full Text Available Subjective insecurity is a key determinant of different forms of prosocial behavior. In Study 1, we used field experiments with farmers in Colombian villages exposed to different levels of violence to investigate how individual perceptions of insecurity affect cooperation, trust, reciprocity and altruism. To do so, we developed a cognitive-affective measure of subjective insecurity. We found that subjective insecurity has a negative effect on cooperation but influences trust and altruism positively. In Study 2, carried out three years after Study 1, we repeated the initial design with additional measures of victimization. Our goal was to relate subjective insecurity with actual victimization. The findings of Study 2 support the initial results, and are robust and consistent for cooperative behavior and trust when including victimization as a mediator. Different indicators of victimization are positively correlated with subjective insecurity and an aggregate index of victimization has a negative effect on cooperation but exerts a positive influence on trust.

  18. Y chromosome haplogroups in autistic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamain, S; Quach, H; Quintana-Murci, L; Betancur, C; Philippe, A; Gillberg, C; Sponheim, E; Skjeldal, O H; Fellous, M; Leboyer, M; Bourgeron, T

    2002-01-01

    The male to female ratio in autism is 4:1 in the global autistic population, but increases to 23:1 in autistic subjects without physical or brain abnormalities.(1) Despite this well-recognised gender difference, male predisposition to autistic disorder remains unexplained and the role of sex chromosomes is still debated. Numerical and structural abnormalities of the sex chromosomes are among the most frequently reported chromosomal disorders associated with autism. However, genome scans have failed to detect linkage on the X chromosome(2,3,4) and this approach cannot study the non-recombining region of the Y chromosome. In this study, we searched for a specific Y chromosome effect in autistic subjects. Using informative Y-polymorphic markers, the Y chromosome haplotypes of 111 autistic subjects from France, Sweden and Norway were defined and compared with relevant control populations. No significant difference in Y-haplotype distribution between the affected and control groups was observed. Although this study cannot exclude the presence of a Y susceptibility gene, our results are not suggestive of a Y chromosome effect in autism.

  19. Subjective sleep quality in urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Alimohamad; Farhadi, Mohammad; Kamrava, Seyed Kamran; Ghalehbaghi, Babak; Nojomi, Marzieh

    2012-02-01

    Sleep disturbances are common among adult populations and can have a significant effect on daytime activities. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of sleep problems and subjective sleep quality in the adult population of Tehran, Iran. From an urban community of Tehran, a random sample of 3400 adult men and women were selected by a cross-sectional design. Using the Persian version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), subjects were interviewed face-to-face. There were 3114 completed questionnaires returned and analyzed. The mean age of the subjects was 43.57 (± SD 17.5) years. Overall 37% (95% CI: 35-39) of the population were categorized as poor sleepers. The PSQI > 5 showed 27% were males versus 35% among females. The global PSQI scores ranged from 4.20 ± 2.67 to 5.60 ± 3.74 for males and 5.03 ± 3.00 to 7.97 ± 4.31 for females by age groups. The difference across age groups for global PSQI score was significant in females (P rate of sleep complaints in this population-based study was high. Females, older adults, widows and separated couple were the most important risk factors for sleep disturbances.

  20. Timeliness of Creative Subjects in Architecture Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargot, T.

    2017-11-01

    The following article is about the problem of insufficient number of drawing and painting lessons delivered in the process of architectural education. There is a comparison between the education of successful architects of the past and modern times. The author stands for the importance of creative subjects being the essential part of development and education of future architects. Skills achieved during the study of creative subjects will be used not only as a mean of self-expression but as an instrument in the toolkit of a professional. Sergei Tchoban was taken as an example of a successful architect for whom the knowledge of a man-made drawing is very important. He arranges the contests of architectural drawings for students promoting creative development in this way. Nowadays, students tend to use computer programs to make architectural projects losing their individual approach. The creative process becomes a matter of scissors and paste being just a copy of something that already exists. The solution of the problem is the reconsideration of the department’s curriculum and adding extra hours for creative subjects.

  1. Signification, communication, and the subject of desire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Vinicius Cauduro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Every product of design must evoke appropriate sensorial and symbolic resonances in the subjects to which it is offered, not simply by satisfying to their specific .rational. needs but mainly by appealing to their 'irrational' desires. Thus, a successful product is one that evokes a polymorphous, complex 'image' of itself in people's minds, onto which targeted subjects may project their respective desires. According to Lacan.s theories, therefore, any successful product is one that becomes a mediating sign between the conscious subject and his unconcious 'object' of desire, which means that products are consumed not merely for their 'objective' properties, as commodities, but as brands imbued with specific images and fantasies. Keywords: signification; desire; design Resumo Significação, comunicação e o sujeito do desejo - Todo produto de design precisa despertar ressonâncias sensoriais e simbólicas apropriadas nos sujeitos aos quais se oferece. Não simplesmente apelando para necessidades racionais específicas de seus consumidores em potencial, mas principalmente se dirigindo aos seus desejos. Por isso, qualquer produto de sucesso, de acordo com as teorias de Lacan, é aquele que se torna um signo mediador entre o sujeito consciente e seu inconsciente 'objeto' de desejo, o que significa que produtos não são simplesmente consumidos por suas propriedades 'objetivas', como mercadorias, mas como marcas, com imagens e fantasias específicas. Palavras-chave: significação; desejo; design

  2. Enhancement of subject description of fiction with annotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Šauperl

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In Slovenia, subject description of fiction was traditionally limited to the Universal Decimal Classification number, which was mainly assigned for shelving. Readers found their books by browsing the library shelves, while librarians had to rely on their personal familiarity with the library collection if they wanted to advise readers on the selection of books. Subject description, such as is often associated with non-literary works, would require a lot of time. Therefore, we wanted to know whether reading book reviews in newspapers could replace reading the entire literary work. We analysed a small sample of book reviews written by literary critics and published in Slovenian newspapers and compared them to the reviews, written by librarians for the same literary works (in the »Priporočamo!« project. We realized that the content is different. However, they could be used for identification of additional subject headings. The same findings resulted from a similar analysis of literary works written for children. Concepts, that seemed potentially appropriate subject headings, often actually do not appear in the Slovenian subject headings or subject headings from the Pionirska knjižnica of Ljubljana. Both subject heading lists should include a larger number of abstract concepts, which more often appear in literary than in non-literary works. Both subject heading lists should also be coordinated.

  3. The neural subjective frame: from bodily signals to perceptual consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyeong-Dong; Tallon-Baudry, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The report ‘I saw the stimulus’ operationally defines visual consciousness, but where does the ‘I’ come from? To account for the subjective dimension of perceptual experience, we introduce the concept of the neural subjective frame. The neural subjective frame would be based on the constantly updated neural maps of the internal state of the body and constitute a neural referential from which first person experience can be created. We propose to root the neural subjective frame in the neural representation of visceral information which is transmitted through multiple anatomical pathways to a number of target sites, including posterior insula, ventral anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala and somatosensory cortex. We review existing experimental evidence showing that the processing of external stimuli can interact with visceral function. The neural subjective frame is a low-level building block of subjective experience which is not explicitly experienced by itself which is necessary but not sufficient for perceptual experience. It could also underlie other types of subjective experiences such as self-consciousness and emotional feelings. Because the neural subjective frame is tightly linked to homeostatic regulations involved in vigilance, it could also make a link between state and content consciousness. PMID:24639580

  4. Reduction of Subjective and Objective System Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Occam's razor is often used in science to define the minimum criteria to establish a physical or philosophical idea or relationship. Albert Einstein is attributed the saying "everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler". These heuristic ideas are based on a belief that there is a minimum state or set of states for a given system or phenomena. In looking at system complexity, these heuristics point us to an idea that complexity can be reduced to a minimum. How then, do we approach a reduction in complexity? Complexity has been described as a subjective concept and an objective measure of a system. Subjective complexity is based on human cognitive comprehension of the functions and inter relationships of a system. Subjective complexity is defined by the ability to fully comprehend the system. Simplifying complexity, in a subjective sense, is thus gaining a deeper understanding of the system. As Apple's Jonathon Ive has stated," It's not just minimalism or the absence of clutter. It involves digging through the depth of complexity. To be truly simple, you have to go really deep". Simplicity is not the absence of complexity but a deeper understanding of complexity. Subjective complexity, based on this human comprehension, cannot then be discerned from the sociological concept of ignorance. The inability to comprehend a system can be either a lack of knowledge, an inability to understand the intricacies of a system, or both. Reduction in this sense is based purely on a cognitive ability to understand the system and no system then may be truly complex. From this view, education and experience seem to be the keys to reduction or eliminating complexity. Objective complexity, is the measure of the systems functions and interrelationships which exist independent of human comprehension. Jonathon Ive's statement does not say that complexity is removed, only that the complexity is understood. From this standpoint, reduction of complexity can be approached

  5. METHODICAL ENSURING ELECTRONIC SUBJECT ANALYSIS OF DOCUMENTS: FEATURES OF EDITING SUBJECT HEADINGS IN ABIS ABSOTHEQUE UNICODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. М. Бикова

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our article is consideration of questions of electronic subject analysis of documents and methodical ensuring editing subject headings in the electronic catalog. The main objective of our article – to show a technique of editing the dictionary of subject headings, to study and apply this technique in work of libraries of higher education institutions. Object of research is the thesaurus of subject headings of the electronic catalog of the Scientific Library of Odessa I. I. Mechnikov National University. To improve the efficiency and quality of the search capabilities of the electronic catalog needs constant work on its optimization, that is, technical editing of subject headings, the opening of new subject headings and subheadings.  In Scientific library the instruction, which regulates a technique of edition of subject headings, was developed and put into practice and establishes rationing of this process. The main finding of the work should be to improve the level of bibliographic service users and rationalization systematizer. The research findings have the practical value for employees of libraries.

  6. High frequency of psychopathology in subjects wishing to lose weight: an observational study in Italian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Valentina; Colombo, Ottavia; Nichini, Cristiano; Repossi, Ilaria; Vinai, Piergiuseppe; Tagliabue, Anna

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the frequency of psychiatric disorders in subjects wishing to lose weight categorized according to BMI. Cross-sectional study. An academic outpatient clinical nutrition service in Italy. A total of 207 subjects (thirty-nine men and 168 women; mean age: 38·7 (sd 14·1) years) consecutively attending the study centre for the first time between January 2003 and December 2006. In the entire study group, eighty-three (40 %) subjects had a psychiatric disorder according to criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision. Eating disorders were the most prevalent psychiatric condition (thirty-six subjects, 17·4 %), followed by mood and anxiety disorders (9·7 % and 8·7 %, respectively). The frequency of psychiatric disorders among different BMI categories was as follows: 75·0 % in underweight, 50·0 % in normal weight, 33·3 % in overweight and 33·3 % in obese subjects. Psychiatric disorders may be frequently found in subjects wishing to lose weight. Our results highlight the importance of psychiatric assessment especially in underweight and normal-weight subjects.

  7. [Obesity and dyslipidemia in Tunisian bipolar subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzaher, Asma; Haj Mouhamed, Dhouha; Mechri, Anwar; Neffati, Fadoua; Douki, Wahiba; Gaha, Lotfi; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the prevalence of obesity and overweight and their association with lipid parameters in bipolar patients. Our study included 130 patients with bipolar disorder and 130 control subjects aged respectively 37.9 +/- 12.1 and 37.2 +/- 13.1 years. Obesity was evaluated by body mass index (BMI). Concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, cLDL and cHDL were determined by enzymatic methods and ApoA1, ApoB and Lp(a) by techniques immunoturbidimetric. The prevalence of obesity in patients is 30.1% vs 12.3% in controls. A significant increase in BMI was noted in patients compared with controls regardless of sex and tobacco status and in patients aged less than 35 years and those consumers of alcohol. The majority of obese and overweight patients are treated with valproic acid. We found increase in cholesterol (4.41 +/- 1.02 vs 3.90 +/- 0.98 mmol/L), in cLDL (2.13 +/- 1.09 vs 1.29 +/- 0.56 mmol/L) and in Lp(a) (236 +/- 207 vs 163 +/- 150 mg/L) and decrease in HDLc (0.98 +/- 0.28 vs 1.09 +/- 0.36 mmol/L), more frequent at the obese patients and those presenting an overweight. In conclusion, in bipolar patients, obesity and overweight are frequent and associated with perturbations in lipid profile particularly an increase in total cholesterol, cLDL and Lp(a) and decrease in cHDL that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  8. in sedentary healthy and unhealthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hammami

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recreational soccer (RS is becoming a popular alternative to the classical continuous exercise mode used for the improvement of cardiovascular and metabolic fitness in untrained people. The objective of this paper was to conduct a detailed systematic review of the literature, identifying the physiological responses to RS and the training effects of RS on aerobic fitness and health in untrained healthy individuals and clinical patients. PubMed, Google Scholar and ScienceDirect databases were searched using terms related to recreational soccer. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials (RCT that assessed acute physiological responses to RS or the training effects of RS on physical fitness and health in sedentary, untrained subjects of any age or health status. All studies were assessed for methodological quality using the PEDro scale. Thirty-five articles met the inclusion criteria; seven examined the acute response to RS, and 28 assessed training effects. Clear evidence was found that RS had positive effects on many health-related indices and variables, including VO2max (gains of 7-16%, blood pressure (reductions of 6-13 mmHg, body composition (decreased fat mass and improved indices of bone health, and metabolic and cardiac function. These positive effects were observed in both healthy individuals and clinical patients, irrespective of age or sex. Although this review provides clear evidence of the positive effects of RS on health, most studies had limitations of methodology (an average PEDro score < 6. Furthermore, many of the training studies were from a small number of research groups. Future studies should be extended to other countries and institutions to ensure generality of the results. Regular RS training leads to significant cardiovascular and muscular adaptations and gains of health both in sedentary individuals and clinical patients at all ages, suggesting that RS is a potentially highly motivational method to enhance

  9. Demographic features of subjects with congenital glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamçelik, Nevbahar; Atalay, Eray; Bolukbasi, Selim; Çapar, Olgu; Ozkok, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Context: Congenital glaucoma is a potentially blinding ocular disease of the childhood. Identification of the possible associated risk factors and may be helpful for prevention or early detection of this public health problem. Aims: To demonstrate the demographic features of congenital glaucoma subjects. Setting and Design: The charts of congenital glaucoma patients referred to Tamcelik Glaucoma Center were retrospectively reviewed through the dates of 2000 and 2013. Materials and Methods: Analyzed data included diagnosis, age at first presentation, symptoms at first presentation, laterality of the disease, sex, presence of consanguinity, family history of congenital glaucoma, maturity of the fetus at delivery, and maternal age at conception. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19.0 by IBM (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Illinois, USA) was used to compare the mean of continuous variables with Student's t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) and χ2 test was used to test differences in proportions of categorical variables. Results: The data of 600 eyes of 311 patients were analyzed. The distribution of primary and secondary congenital glaucoma among the patients were 63.3% (n = 197) and 36.7% (n = 114), respectively. Of the 311 patients, 57.2% (n = 178) were male and 42.8% (n = 133) were female. The overall frequency of bilateral disease was 92.3% (n = 287). Overall rate of consanguinity and positive family history was 45.3% (n = 141) and 21.2% (n = 66), respectively. Conclusions: Bilateral disease in this study was more common than previously reported studies. Positive family history was more frequent in primary congenital glaucoma although not statistically significant. PMID:24881602

  10. Fear-learning deficits in subjects with fibromyalgia syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenewein, J.; Moergeli, H.; Sprott, H.; Honegger, D.; Brunner, L.; Ettlin, D.; Grillon, C.; Bloch, K.; Brügger, M.; Schwegler, K.; Schumacher, S.; Hasler, G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is frequently associated with psychiatric conditions, particularly anxiety. Deficits in contingency learning during fear conditioning have been hypothesized to increase anxiety and, consequently, pain sensation in susceptible individuals. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between contingency learning and pain experience in subjects with FMS and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Fourteen female FMS subjects, 14 age-matched female RA subjects and 14 age-matched female healthy controls (HCs) were included in a fear-conditioning experiment. The conditioned stimulus (CS) consisted of visual signs, the unconditioned stimulus (US) of thermal stimuli. CS− predicted low-temperature exposure (US), while CS+ was followed by low or high temperature. Results In the FMS group, only 50% of the subjects were aware of the US–CS contingency, whereas 86% of the RA subjects and all of the HCs were aware of the contingency. CS+ induced more anxiety than CS− in RA subjects and HCs. As expected, low-temperature exposure was experienced as less painful after CS− than after CS+ in these subjects. FMS subjects did not show such adaptive conditioning. The effects of the type of CS on heart rate changes were significant in the HCs and the aware FMS subjects, but not in the unaware FMS subjects. Conclusions Contingency learning deficits represent a potentially promising and specific, but largely unstudied, psychopathological factor in FMS. Deficits in contingency learning may increase anxiety and, consequently, pain sensation. These findings have the potential to contribute to the development of novel therapeutic approaches for FMS. PMID:23468076

  11. Efficacy of auditory training in elderly subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Albuquerque Morais

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Auditory training (AT  has been used for auditory rehabilitation in elderly individuals and is an effective tool for optimizing speech processing in this population. However, it is necessary to distinguish training-related improvements from placebo and test-retest effects. Thus, we investigated the efficacy of short-term auditory training (acoustically controlled auditory training - ACAT in elderly subjects through behavioral measures and P300. Sixteen elderly individuals with APD received an initial evaluation (evaluation 1 - E1 consisting of behavioral and electrophysiological tests (P300 evoked by tone burst and speech sounds to evaluate their auditory processing. The individuals were divided into two groups. The Active Control Group [ACG (n=8] underwent placebo training. The Passive Control Group [PCG (n=8] did not receive any intervention. After 12 weeks, the subjects were  revaluated (evaluation 2 - E2. Then, all of the subjects underwent ACAT. Following another 12 weeks (8 training sessions, they underwent the final evaluation (evaluation 3 – E3. There was no significant difference between E1 and E2 in the behavioral test [F(9.6=0,.6 p=0.92, λ de Wilks=0.65] or P300 [F(8.7=2.11, p=0.17, λ de Wilks=0.29] (discarding the presence of placebo effects and test-retest. A significant improvement was observed between the pre- and post-ACAT conditions (E2 and E3 for all auditory skills according to the behavioral methods [F(4.27=0.18, p=0.94, λ de Wilks=0.97]. However, the same result was not observed for P300 in any condition. There was no significant difference between P300 stimuli. The ACAT improved the behavioral performance of the elderly for all auditory skills and was an effective method for hearing rehabilitation.

  12. [Lung cancer in the elderly subject].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrand, G; Biron, E; Boucot, I; Couderc, L J; Crestani, B; Dombret, M C; Guenard, H; Grivaux, M; Hervy, M P; Housset, B; Jougon, J; Orvoen-Frija, E; Piette, F; Pignon, T; Pinganaud, G; Puisieux, F; Quoix, E; Sauty, E; Vaylet, F; Wary, B; Weill-Engerer, S; Westeel, V; Wislez, M

    2007-06-01

    In France, the average age for the diagnosis of bronchial carcinoma is 64. It is 76 in the population of over 70. In fact, its incidence increases with age linked intrinsic risk of developing a cancer and with general ageing of the population. Diagnosis tools are the same for elderlies than for younger patients, and positive diagnosis mainly depends on fibreoptic bronchoscopy, complications of which being comparable to those observed in younger patients. The assessment of dissemination has been modified in recent years by the availability of PET scanning which is increasingly becoming the examination of choice for preventing unnecessary surgical intervention, a fortiori in elderly subjects. Cerebral imaging by tomodensitometry and nuclear magnetic resonance should systematically be obtained before proposing chirurgical treatment. An assessment of the general state of health of the elderly subject is an essential step before the therapeutic decision is made. This depends on the concept of geriatric evaluation: Geriatric Multidimensional Assessment, and the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment which concerns overall competence of the elderly. This is a global approach that allows precise definition and ranking of the patient's problems and their impact on daily life and social environment. Certain geriatric variables (IADL, BADL, MMSE, IMC etc) may be predictive of survival rates after chemotherapy or the incidence of complications following thoracic surgery. The main therapeutic principles for the management of bronchial carcinoma are applicable to the elderly subject; long term survival without relapse after surgical resection is independent of age. Whether the oncological strategy is curative or palliative, the elderly patient with bronchial carcinoma should receive supportive treatments. They should be integrated into a palliative programme if such is the case. In fact, age alone is not a factor that should detract from optimal oncological management. The

  13. Unpleasant subjective emotional experiencing of pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini Vallath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of pain medicine that once began as a supportive and compassionate care, adding value to the management of acute and chronic ailments, has now transformed into a vital and essential specialty with structured training programs and service units with professionals dedicating their careers to it. The expansion of understanding of the direct relationship of pain relief to the quality of life, uncovering of neuronal pathways, and technological advances in imaging as well as in interventional techniques have all contributed to this phenomenal growth. However, there is a growing concern whether the training programs and the specialized practitioners are gradually limiting their skilled inputs primarily within the sensory realm of the pain experience with sophisticated interventional techniques and relegating its subjective and emotional dimensions to perfunctory realms within the schema of service provision. While the specialty is still young, if we can understand the inherent aspect of these dimensions within the pain experience and acknowledge the gaps in service provision, it may be possible to champion development of truly comprehensive pain relief programs that responds effectively and ethically to a patient′s felt needs. This article attempts to position the subjectivity of pain experience in context and surface the need to design complete systems of pain relief services inclusive of this dimension. It presents authors′ review of literature on perspectives of ′unpleasant subjective emotional experiencing of the pain" to elucidate possible clinical implications based on the evidences presented on neuro-biology and neuro-psychology of the pain experience; the aim being to inspire systems of care where this dimension is sufficiently evaluated and managed.

  14. The subjective importance of noise spectral content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Donald; Phillips, Jonathan; Denman, Hugh

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents secondary Standard Quality Scale (SQS2) rankings in overall quality JNDs for a subjective analysis of the 3 axes of noise, amplitude, spectral content, and noise type, based on the ISO 20462 softcopy ruler protocol. For the initial pilot study, a Python noise simulation model was created to generate the matrix of noise masks for the softcopy ruler base images with different levels of noise, different low pass filter noise bandwidths and different band pass filter center frequencies, and 3 different types of noise: luma only, chroma only, and luma and chroma combined. Based on the lessons learned, the full subjective experiment, involving 27 observers from Google, NVIDIA and STMicroelectronics was modified to incorporate a wider set of base image scenes, and the removal of band pass filtered noise masks to ease observer fatigue. Good correlation was observed with the Aptina subjective noise study. The absence of tone mapping in the noise simulation model visibly reduced the contrast at high levels of noise, due to the clipping of the high levels of noise near black and white. Under the 34-inch viewing distance, no significant difference was found between the luma only noise masks and the combined luma and chroma noise masks. This was not the intuitive expectation. Two of the base images with large uniform areas, `restaurant' and `no parking', were found to be consistently more sensitive to noise than the texture rich scenes. Two key conclusions are (1) there are fundamentally different sensitivities to noise on a flat patch versus noise in real images and (2) magnification of an image accentuates visual noise in a way that is non-representative of typical noise reduction algorithms generating the same output frequency. Analysis of our experimental noise masks applied to a synthetic Macbeth ColorChecker Chart confirmed the color-dependent nature of the visibility of luma and chroma noise.

  15. [Body and subjectivity: about anorexia nervosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereña Garcia, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    To start with the clinical description of anorexia nervosa is indicative of the difficulty involved not only with regard to its etiology (whether it is an endocrine, neurological or psychological disorder) but also with regard to its diagnosis (whether or not it is a hysterical disorder, whether or not it is a disease as such) and with regard to its treatment (the stubbornness of the symptom). The early-onset differential criterion is rejection. The subject's eating-related problem must be placed within the framework of the radical dependency the human organism has with regard to the mother's body, thus breaking the close connection between need and demand, which throws the instinctive life out of balance. Drive is the name given to this imbalance. Drived life must be controlled by wish. The transmitting of life is the transmitting of the innermost wish to live, without which the body fails or life and the body separate from one another. Rejection, which is the subjectivity-related aspect, then turns into anorexia in rejection of the body and in submission to bewildering ideals with which anorexic subjects attempt to find their bearings. Bulimia marks the most addictive aspect of impulsive imbalance. There is no ready answer to the question as to why anorexia occurs more among females than males. Female sexuality (the relationship with sexual wish and reproduction), as well as how in a aboundance society, women symbolize the trimming on the cake, an inert virtual figure. Anorexia nervosa can be taken as a pronouncement against an automated, devitalized family life and of a society characterized by commodity fetishism and cannibalism.

  16. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Virtual Subjective Refraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perches, Sara; Collados, M Victoria; Ares, Jorge

    2016-10-01

    To establish the repeatability and reproducibility of a virtual refraction process using simulated retinal images. With simulation software, aberrated images corresponding with each step of the refraction process were calculated following the typical protocol of conventional subjective refraction. Fifty external examiners judged simulated retinal images until the best sphero-cylindrical refraction and the best visual acuity were achieved starting from the aberrometry data of three patients. Data analyses were performed to assess repeatability and reproducibility of the virtual refraction as a function of pupil size and aberrometric profile of different patients. SD values achieved in three components of refraction (M, J0, and J45) are lower than 0.25D in repeatability analysis. Regarding reproducibility, we found SD values lower than 0.25D in the most cases. When the results of virtual refraction with different pupil diameters (4 and 6 mm) were compared, the mean of differences (MoD) obtained were not clinically significant (less than 0.25D). Only one of the aberrometry profiles with high uncorrected astigmatism shows poor results for the M component in reproducibility and pupil size dependence analysis. In all cases, vision achieved was better than 0 logMAR. A comparison between the compensation obtained with virtual and conventional subjective refraction was made as an example of this application, showing good quality retinal images in both processes. The present study shows that virtual refraction has similar levels of precision as conventional subjective refraction. Moreover, virtual refraction has also shown that when high low order astigmatism is present, the refraction result is less precise and highly dependent on pupil size.

  17. Developmental Trajectories of Subjective Social Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Elizabeth; Maxwell, Sarah; Malspeis, Susan; Adler, Nancy

    2015-09-01

    Subjective social status (SSS), a person's sense of their (or for youth, abstract their family's) position in the socioeconomic hierarchy, is strongly related to health in adults but not health in adolescence. Understanding this developmental discrepancy requires first understanding the developmental trajectory of SSS. The objective of this study was to identify the number and shape of SSS trajectories as adolescents transition to adulthood and explore if trajectory membership affects health. Using data from 7436 assessments from the Princeton School District Study, a decade long cohort study of non-Hispanic black and white youth, latent class growth models with 3 to 7 SSS trajectories were developed. Model fit, trajectory structure, and shape were used to guide optimal model selection. Using this optimal model, the associations of trajectory membership with BMI and depressive symptoms in young adulthood were explored. The 5-class model was optimal. In this model, trajectories were persistent high (7.8%),mid–high (32.2%), middle (43.4%), low–lower (7.4%), and high–low (9.1%). Non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity, lower household income, and low parent education were associated with membership in this high–low trajectory. High–low trajectory membership was associated with higher BMI and depressive symptoms in non-Hispanic white subjects but was not associated with depressive symptoms. It was associated with lower BMI only after adjustment for BMI in adolescence in non-Hispanic black subjects. SSS is relatively stable in adolescence and the transition to adulthood, and it generally reflects objective markers of social advantage. However, socially disadvantaged youth with high SSS in early adolescence may be at increased health risk.

  18. Asperger's Syndrome, Subjectivity and the Senses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badone, Ellen; Nicholas, David; Roberts, Wendy; Kien, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Situated at the intersection of anthropological work on illness narratives and research on the anthropology of autism, this paper is a close reading of an autobiographical narrative recounted by Peter, a young man diagnosed with Asperger's Syndrome, a type of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Responding to Solomon's (2010a:252) call for phenomenologically grounded accounts of "the subjective, sensory, and perceptual experiences of autism … based on personal narratives and practices of being and self-awareness," this paper calls into question key assumptions in the clinical and popular literature about ASD relating to theory of mind, empathy, capacity for metaphorical thinking, and ASD as a life-long condition.

  19. Subjective Straight Ahead Orientation in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, G.; Reschke, M. F.; Wood, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    This joint ESA NASA study will address adaptive changes in spatial orientation related to the subjective straight ahead and the use of a vibrotactile sensory aid to reduce perceptual errors. The study will be conducted before and after long-duration expeditions to the International Space Station (ISS) to examine how spatial processing of target location is altered following exposure to microgravity. This study addresses the sensorimotor research gap to "determine the changes in sensorimotor function over the course of a mission and during recovery after landing."

  20. Economic Shocks and Subjective Well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Bjørnskov, Christian; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    This paper examines how economic shocks affect individual well-being in developing countries. Using the case of a sudden and unanticipated currency devaluation in Botswana as a quasi-experiment, we examine how this monetary shock affects individuals’ evaluations of well-being. We do so by using......-treatment respondents, surveyed after the devaluation. Our estimates show that the devaluation had a large and significantly negative effect on individuals’ evaluations of subjective well-being. These results suggest that macroeconomic shocks, such as unanticipated currency devaluations, may have significant short......-term costs in the form of reductions in people’s sense of well-being....

  1. Economic Shocks and Subjective Well-Being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Bjørnskov, Christian; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    This paper examines how economic shocks affect individual well-being in developing countries. Using the case of a sudden and unanticipated currency devaluation in Botswana as a quasi-experiment, we examine how this monetary shock affects individuals’ evaluations of well-being. We do so by using......-treatment respondents, surveyed after the devaluation. Our estimates show that the devaluation had a large and significantly negative effect on individuals’ evaluations of subjective well-being. These results suggest that macroeconomic shocks, such as unanticipated currency devaluations, may have significant short......-term costs in the form of reductions in people’s sense of well-being....

  2. Handbook of statistical methods single subject design

    CERN Document Server

    Satake, Eiki; Maxwell, David L

    2008-01-01

    This book is a practical guide of the most commonly used approaches in analyzing and interpreting single-subject data. It arranges the methodologies used in a logical sequence using an array of research studies from the existing published literature to illustrate specific applications. The book provides a brief discussion of each approach such as visual, inferential, and probabilistic model, the applications for which it is intended, and a step-by-step illustration of the test as used in an actual research study.

  3. Abortion - a subject that keeps coming back!

    OpenAIRE

    Łakomski, Mateusz; Dudzik, Katarzyna; Badiuk, Nataliia

    2017-01-01

    Łakomski Mateusz, Dudzik Katarzyna, Badiuk Nataliia. Abortion - a subject that keeps coming back! Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(7):1017-1026. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.999877 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/4914 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 1223 (26.01.2017). 1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306...

  4. Economic Shocks and Subjective Well-Being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Bjørnskov, Christian; Kamp Justesen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how economic shocks affect individual well-being in developing countries. Using the case of a sudden and unanticipated currency devaluation in Botswana as a quasi-experiment, we examine how this monetary shock affects individuals’ evaluations of well-being. We do so by using......-treatment respondents, surveyed after the devaluation. Our estimates show that the devaluation had a large and significantly negative effect on individuals’ evaluations of subjective well-being. These results suggest that macroeconomic shocks, such as unanticipated currency devaluations, may have significant short...

  5. Personality as a Subject of Managerial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tytova Kateryna V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological science, along with many other natural and social sciences, studies a person and personality, but it allocates in them its own specific aspect. The psychological science has a big number of approaches to understanding essence of the personality. Professionally important qualities are individual qualities of a subject of activity, which influence efficiency of activity and success of its mastering. The considered concepts are efforts to put in order various sociological and psychological knowledge about the personality and unite the personality theory with the theory of professional choice. The problem of professional formation of the personality belongs to actively developed psychological problems.

  6. Acquisition in different and special subject areas

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Linda S

    2013-01-01

    Learn how acquisitions librarians successfully serve specialized users! In this book, you'll find profiles, methods, and processes for acquisitions in specialized subject areas, such as local and regional poetry, oceanography, educational information in electronic formats, popular fiction, regional and ethnic materials, and more. Seasoned acquisitions librarians share their experiences in gathering the hard-to-find materials their libraries' highly specialized clients need to access. You'll also examine issues surrounding the acquisition of new reference tools that are vital in today's emergi

  7. Subjective benefits of energy storing prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaranta, H; Lempinen, V M; Haavisto, E; Pohjolainen, T; Hurri, H

    1994-08-01

    The energy storing (ES) prosthesis has been used in the Prosthetic Foundation's workshop since 1987. Subjective responses from 168 amputees (141 trans-tibial and 27 trans-femoral) fitted with the ES prosthesis were analysed. Ratings were generally favourable in comparison with those for conventional prostheses. The most pronounced advantages of the new prosthesis as shown by the ratings were in walking uphill or swift walking. The younger amputees had more benefit than the older ones. High body weight decreased the benefit of the ES prosthesis. The ES prosthesis does not seem to provide any major advantage for the less active amputee whose movements are mainly indoors.

  8. Collapse of granular media subjected to wetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Korchi Fatima Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the collapse of granular materials subjected to wetting action. For soils, the collapse potential depends on several parameters such as liquid limit, matric suction, compactness, initial water content and the amount of fine particles. The effect of grain size, which plays a key role in the rearrangement of grains, remains little studied and poorly understood. To investigate the capillary origin of the collapse phenomenon, we present an experimental study on macroscopic and local scales. Our results show the effect of grain size and water content on collapse.

  9. Spalling of concrete subjected to blast loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foglar M.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents outcomes of the blast field tests of FRC and reinforced concrete specimens, which were performed in cooperation with the Czech Army corps and Police of the Czech Republic in the military training area Boletice. The numerical evaluation of the experiments focused on the spalling of concrete subjected to blast loading started after the first set of the tests, took almost 3 years and required further small-scale experiments performed in the labs of the Czech Technical University.

  10. The Subject Analysis of Payment Systems Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeynikova Olga Mikhaylovna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of payment systems aimed at identifying the categorical terminological apparatus, proving their specific features and revealing the impact of payment systems on the state of money turnover. On the basis of the subject analysis, the author formulates the definitions of a payment system (characterized by increasing speed of effecting payments, by the reduction of costs, by high degree of payments convenience for subjects of transactions, by security of payments, by acceptable level of risks and by social efficiency, a national payment system, and a local payment system (characterized by the growth of economic and social efficiency of systems participants, by the process of money turnover optimization on the basis of saving transaction costs and increasing speed of money flows within the local payment systems. According to the economic levels, the payment systems are divided to macrosystems (national payment systems, mezosystems (payment systems localized on the operational and territorial basis, microsystems (payments by individual economic subjects. The establishment of qualitative features of payment systems, which is a basis of the author’s terminological interpretation, gave a possibility to reveal the cause-effect relations of payment systems influence on the state of money turnover in the involved subjects, and on the economy as a whole. The result of the present research consists in revealing the payment systems influence on the state of money turnover which is significant: at the state and regional level – in the optimization of budget and inter-budgetary relations, in acceleration of the money turnover, in deceleration of the money supply and inflation rate, in reduced need in money emission; at the level of economic entities – in accelerating the money turnover and accounts receivable, in the reduction of debit and credit loans, in the growth of profit (turnover; at the household level – in

  11. Subjective oral health in Dutch adults

    OpenAIRE

    Verrips, G.H.W.; Schuller, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether the subjective oral health (SOH) of the Dutch adult population was associated with clinical and demographic variables. Methods: A clinical examination was conducted in a sample of 1,018 people from the Dutch city of ‘s-Hertogenbosch. SOH was measured using the Dutch translation of the short form of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-NL14). Results: The average score on the OHIP-NL14 was 2.8 ± 5.9 and 51% of the respondents had a score of 0. Dental status was the mo...

  12. Sonoelastography of Plantar Fascia: Reproducibility and Pattern Description in Healthy Subjects and Symptomatic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Díaz, José; Martínez-Payá, Jacinto J; del Baño-Aledo, María Elena; de Groot-Ferrando, Ana; Botía-Castillo, Paloma; Fernández-Rodríguez, David

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of the work reported here was to describe the sonoelastographic appearance of the plantar fascia of healthy volunteers and patients with fasciitis. Twenty-three healthy subjects and 21 patients with plantar fasciitis were examined using B-mode and real-time sonoelastography (RTSR) scanning. B-Mode examination included fascia thickness and echotexture. Echogenicity and echovariation of the color histogram were analyzed. Fasciae were classified into type 1, blue (more elastic); type 2, blue/green (intermediate); or type 3, green (less elastic). RTSE revealed 72.7% of fasciae as type 2, with no significant association with fasciitis (χ(2) = 3.6, df = 2, p = 0.17). Quantitative analysis of the color histogram revealed a significantly greater intensity of green (mean = 77.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 71.9-83.6) and blue (mean = 74.2, 95% CI = 69.7-78.8) in healthy subjects. Echovariation of the color red was 33.4% higher in the fasciitis group than in the healthy group (95% CI = 16.7-50.1). Sonoelastography with quantitative analysis of echovariation can be a useful tool for evaluation of plantar fascia pathology. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The resilient subject: exploring subjectivity, identity and the body in narratives of resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Kay; Zeeman, Laetitia; Scholes, Julie; Morales, Arantxa Santa-María

    2012-09-01

    International research and policy interest in resilience has increased enormously during the last decade. Resilience is now considered to be a valuable asset or resource with which to promote health and well-being and forms part of a broader trend towards strength based as opposed to deficit models of health. And while there is a developing critique of resilience's conceptual limits and normative assumptions, to date there is less discussion of the subject underpinning these notions, nor related issues of subjectivity, identity or the body. Our aim in this article is to begin to address this gap. We do so by re-examining the subject within two established narratives of resilience, as 'found' and 'made'. We then explore the potential of a third narrative, which we term resilience 'unfinished'. This latter story is informed by feminist poststructural understandings of the subject, which in turn, resonate with recently articulated understandings of an emerging psychosocial subject and the contribution of psychoanalysis to these debates. We then consider the potential value of this poststructural, performative and embodied psychosocial subject and discuss the implications for resilience theory, practice and research.

  14. Subjective Narcosis Assessment Scale: measuring the subjective experience of nitrogen narcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Charles H; Meintjes, W A J

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of subjective experiences and objective measures of neuropsychological performance during hyperbaric exposure has received less attention in the literature, in part due to the shortage of available and appropriately standardized measures. This study aimed to describe the psychometric properties of a modified version of the Subjective High Assessment Scale when used in the hyperbaric context, by exploring internal reliability, factor structure, associations with psychological variables and simple cognitive delayed recall, and the effect of task focus on the recall of subjective experience. Seventy qualified divers completed dry hyperbaric chamber dives to 607.95 kPa, and completed ratings of their subjective experiences. Some also completed a delayed recall task and psychological measures prior to their dives. The scale displayed good internal consistency, with four meaningful factors emerging. It showed some significant but small associations with trait anxiety and transient mood states, and a small to moderate correlation with recall performance. There was no significant effect of task focus on self-report of subjective experiences. The modified scale, renamed the Subjective Narcosis Assessment Scale here, has useful psychometric properties, and promising potential for future use.

  15. Healthy subjects with a family history of alcoholism show increased stimulative subjective effects of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderpalm Gordh, Anna H V; Söderpalm, Bo

    2011-08-01

    Research has shown that subjects with a family history positive (FHP) of alcoholism are at increased risk for alcoholism and that this group reacts differently to alcohol than family history negative (FHN) subjects. These different levels of sensitivity may make FHP persons more likely to consume alcohol. Here, we tested the hypothesis that subjects FHP for type 1 alcoholism (according to Cloninger) are more sensitive than control subjects to the stimulative, properties of alcohol following a single moderate dose of alcohol. Fifty-one healthy men and women (22 FHP and 29 FHN) participated in 2 laboratory sessions, in which they consumed a beverage containing ethanol (0.6 g/kg in juice) or placebo (juice alone) in a randomized order. Primary dependent measures were self-report questionnaires of mood states. Subjects with family history of type 1 alcoholism showed increased stimulative responses and an elevated positive mood state after ethanol compared to controls. At this moderate dose, ethanol increased stimulative subjective responses in individuals who were "family history positive." This enhanced sensitivity could motivate to exaggerated drinking and thereby increase the risk for developing alcoholism. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  16. Goal Orientation Dan Subjective Well Being Pada Lansia

    OpenAIRE

    Desiningrum, Dinie Ratri

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between goal orientation and subjective well-being in the elderly, which includes psychological well-being, emotional well-being and social well-being. The research subjects consisted of 90 elderly from the elderly group Adi Yuswo and Wulandaru Semarang obtained through simple random sampling. The data were obtained using a measuring instrument goal orientation (18 items, α = .87), psychological well-being (33 items, α = .92), social well-being (33...

  17. Subjective Age and Changes in Memory in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R; Caudroit, Johan; Terracciano, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The subjective experience of aging, indexed by how old or young an individual feels, has been related to well-being and health-related outcomes among older adults. The present study examined whether subjective age is associated with memory level and changes, as indexed by measures of immediate and delayed recall. A complementary purpose was to test the mediating role of depressive symptoms and physical activity in the relation between subjective age and memory changes. Participants were drawn from three waves of the Health and Retirement Study. Subjective age, baseline memory measures, and covariates were assessed during the 2008 wave (N = 5809), depressive symptoms and physical activity were assessed again in the 2010 wave, and the follow-up memory measures were assessed in the 2012 wave. Regression analyses that included demographic, metabolic, and vascular covariates revealed that a younger subjective age at baseline was associated with better concurrent performance and with slower decline in immediate and delayed recall. Bootstrap procedures indicated that fewer depressive symptoms mediated these associations. Additional analyses revealed that memory level and change were unrelated to changes in subjective age. Beyond chronological age, the subjective experience of age is associated with cognitive aging. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Reflecting on subjective well-being and spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorini, Christine; Tonge, Bruce

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine factors associated with the subjective well-being of individuals with spinal cord injuries, while acknowledging theories that describe the subjective well-being tendency to homeostasis. A representative community cross-sectional cohort of 443 adults with traumatic and non-traumatic spinal cord injury completed a self-report survey (by internet, telephone or hard copy) that included reliable and valid measures of quality of life, depression, anxiety and stress, post-traumatic stress disorder, coping strategies, and emotional consequences. The subjective well-being of half of the population with spinal cord injury lay above the normative subjective well-being set-point threshold. Despite the inclusion of many biopsychosocial factors, only Intimacy, Safety, Acceptance, and Helplessness were significantly associated with normative subjective well-being. Comparatively few factors were significantly associated with normative subjective well-being, but the results help to explain observed contradictions noted in previous research into subjective well-being after spinal cord injuries. The results highlight the resilience of individuals in general and are in keeping with the disability paradox. However, many individuals with spinal cord injuries do not live satisfactory lives. It is for them that further psychological care and rehabilitation is necessary to create a good life after spinal cord injury.

  19. ASSESSING SUBJECTIVE SLEEP QUALITY IN SENIORS

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    Iveta Kukliczová

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aimed at assessing the quality of sleep in seniors. Another objective was to determine the impact of gender, age, type of residence and taking sleeping medication on the quality of sleep. Design: A cross-sectional study. Methods: Data were collected using the standardized Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI questionnaire. The sample comprised 146 seniors living in the Moravian-Silesian Region, Czech Republic. The survey was conducted from January 2014 to the end of October 2014 in a long-term chronic care department of a selected hospital, two retirement homes and among seniors living in their own homes. Results: Thirty-five (24% seniors had their global PSQI scores of 5 (i.e. the highest score indication good sleep quality or less. The remaining 111 (76% participants were shown to suffer from impaired sleep quality as their global PSQI scores were 6 or higher. There were statistically significant differences in component scores between seniors with the global PSQI scores of 5 or less and those with higher scores. The best quality of sleep was observed in females, seniors in the 65–74 age category and those sharing their own homes with their spouses or partners. Conclusion: Subjective sleep quality assessment varies significantly with respect to gender, age, type of residence and use of sleeping medication. Keywords: sleep quality, PSQI, subjective assessment, senior.

  20. IMMIGRANT WOMEN: BODY AND SUBJECTIVITY IN MOTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Lázaro-Castellanos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The visibility of women in contemporary migration has broken with the course and social representation of the organization and implementation of international migration projects are predominantly male (Pedone, 2008. The growing presence of women has inspired a large number of studies have focused on immigrant women and their relationship to the labor market, changes in social structure and family and gender systems in both societies of origin and the destination. However, the literature takes as a center for immigrant women and their relationship to emotions and body are relatively recent, the most important contributions are found in disciplines such as anthropology or psychology. The transnational perspective little has reflected on the physical and mental health, emotions and subjectivities of women, resulting from their migration experience. From a socio-anthropological point of view of immigrants and bring their own notions of subjectivity related to gender, race or social class, do not always coincide with those in the host country. We suspect that the same applies to perception, practices and experiences on the body and emotions of women.

  1. Subjective loudness of "minimized" sonic boom waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzwiecki, A; Ribner, H S

    1978-12-01

    For very long supersonic aircraft the "midfield" sonic boom signature may not have evolved fully into an N wave at ground level. Thus in current boom minimization techniques the shape of the aircraft may be tailored to optimize this midfield wave form for reduced subjective loudness. The present investigation tests a family of "flat-top" waveforms cited by Darden: all but one have a front shock height (deltapSH) less than the peak amplitude (deltapMAX). For equal subjective loudness, "flat top" vs N wave (peak overpressure deltapN), the peak amplitude of the "flat top" signature was found to be substantially higher than that of the N wave; thus for equal peak amplitude the "flat-top" signature was quieter. The results for equal loudness were well fitted by an emperical law deltapSH + 0.11deltapMAX = deltapN; the equivalence shows how the front shock amplitude (deltapSH) dominates the loudness. All this was found compatible with predictions by the method of Johnson and Robinson.

  2. Spatiotemporal interactions in retinal prosthesis subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsager, Alan; Greenberg, Robert J; Fine, Ione

    2010-02-01

    Vision loss due to retinitis pigmentosa affects an estimated 15 million people worldwide. Through collaboration between Second Sight Medical Products, Inc., and the Doheny Eye Institute, six blind human subjects underwent implantation with epiretinal 4 x 4 electrode arrays designed to directly stimulate the remaining cells of the retina, with the goal of restoring functional vision by applying spatiotemporal patterns of stimulation. To better understand spatiotemporal interactions between electrodes during synchronous and asynchronous stimulation, the authors investigated how percepts changed as a function of pulse timing across the electrodes. Pulse trains (20, 40, 80, and 160 Hz) were presented on groups of electrodes with 800, 1600, or 2400 microm center-to-center separation. Stimulation was either synchronous (pulses were presented simultaneously across electrodes) or asynchronous (pulses were phase shifted). Using a same-different discrimination task, the authors were able to evaluate how the perceptual quality of the stimuli changed as a function of phase shifts across multiple electrodes. Even after controlling for electric field interactions, subjects could discriminate between spatiotemporal pulse train patterns based on differences of phase across electrodes as small as 3 ms. These findings suggest that the quality of the percept is affected not only by electric field interactions but also by spatiotemporal interactions at the neural level. During multielectrode stimulation, interactions between electrodes have a significant influence on the quality of the percept. Understanding how these spatiotemporal interactions at the neural level influence percepts during multielectrode stimulation is fundamental to the successful design of a retinal prosthesis.

  3. Autism spectrum disorders in institutionalized subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anckarsäter, Henrik; Nilsson, Thomas; Saury, Jean-Michel; Råstam, Maria; Gillberg, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    What do we know about the prevalence and the specific features of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) among subjects in forensic psychiatry and special youth centres? A clinical case series consisting of 42 subjects with ASD, recruited from three well-characterized populations in forensic psychiatry and special youth care, was used to determine: 1) the prevalence of ASD in these institutions (at least 13%), 2) the distribution of diagnostic criteria in this special population (mostly social interaction and communication problems, few or atypical flexibility problems), 3) the degree of comorbidity (the rule rather than the exception), 4) neuropsychological test profiles (lowered IQ with uneven profiles), 5) types of crimes and offences (very heterogeneous, often stress-related with dissociated features), 6) mental health care needs (high), and 7) special clinical features (especially expressions of flexibility deficits in non-classical areas and proneness to dissociation). This descriptive study indicates that ASD is a clinically relevant problem among forensic populations that has to be considered in diagnostics, assessments of needs and treatment planning.

  4. Nation, Identity, and Subjectivity in Globalizing Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasue Arimitsu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the 20th century, particularly after the Cold War ended, national borderlines have been redrawn many times in the areas of the Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and a wide range of Asia, and people started crossing national borderlines to immigrate to other countries. As a result, the definition of a modern nation with one ethnicity, one language, and one culture collapsed. Under the policy of multiculturalism, Australia accepts immigrants from all over the world, and Australian literature at present is characterized as being ethnically, culturally, and linguistically hybrid. In this paper I look at Australian writers such as Brian Castro and Nam Le and compare them with other writers who are considered post-colonial writers, such as Salman Rushdie, V.S. Naipaul and Kazuo Ishiguro. I focus on how these writers attempt to present their identities along with their subjectivities. I also compare them with a Japanese writer, Haruki Murakami, whose literary works are widely read throughout the world, crossing cultural, ethnic, and language barriers, even though he writes in Japanese and has a mono-cultural background. I investigate the reason why Murakami’s works are accepted by many contemporary readers worldwide. I finally explore the meaning of national identity and subjectivity in the globalizing world, and clarify the transformation of modern literature.

  5. The Oppressive Classroom: Student Construction of Subjectivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudette A. Baluran

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Adopting a poststructuralist discourse analysis framework, the study explores a student‘s multiple subjectivities framed within discursive relations of power. Acknowledging language as a major contestation site for nego tiating subjectivities, it looks into the narrative of Ares, a senior university student. Utilizing the biographical approach, the study is centered on the shifting and fluid discourses in the student life of Ares, on how she was both positioned and positi oning within conflicting discourses of an ―obedient student‖ and ―resisting student‖ surrounded by oppressive practices of academics. ―Obedience‖ in the context of Ares meant refraining from questioning an academic‘s authority, undervaluing the self, and playing by expectations. However, a competing discourse involved ―resistance‖ in the form of non - attendance to classes, contemplating on students‘ rights, recognizing oppression, blaming, and prescribing. These discourses can potentially provide a glimps e into the effects of academics‘ oppressive behaviors towards students and create possibilities for the development of institutional policies to help suppress a troubling culture of oppression in the academe. Implications for the academic community are considered.

  6. Physical activity impairment in depressed COPD subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marco, Fabiano; Terraneo, Silvia; Roggi, Maria Adelaide; Repossi, Alice C; Pellegrino, Giulia M; Veronelli, Anna; Santus, Pierachille; Pontiroli, Antonio E; Centanni, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    Limited exercise tolerance is a cardinal clinical feature in COPD. Depression and COPD share some clinical features, such as reduced physical activity and impaired nutritional status. The aim of the present study was to evaluate maximum and daily physical activities and the nutritional status of COPD patients affected or not by depression. In 70 COPD out-patients, daily and maximum physical activities were assessed by multisensor accelerometer armband, 6-min walk test, and cardiopulmonary exercise test. Mental status, metabolic/muscular status, and systemic inflammation were evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and with regard to fibrinogen/C-reactive protein, respectively. Depressed subjects (27% of the sample) showed a similar level of respiratory functional impairment but a higher level of shortness of breath and a worse quality of life compared to non-depressed subjects (P physical activity impairment consisting of a reduced number of steps per day, a lower peak of oxygen consumption, an early anaerobic threshold, and a reduced distance in the 6-min walk test (P daily number of steps. Our study found that depressed COPD patients have a reduced daily and maximum exercise capacity compared to non-depressed patients. This further suggests the potential utility of screening for depression in COPD.

  7. Thyroid function and bone mineral density among Indian subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman K Marwaha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Thyroid hormones affect bone remodeling in patients with thyroid disease by acting directly or indirectly on bone cells. In view of limited information on correlation of thyroid function with bone mineral density (BMD in euthyroid subjects, we undertook this study to evaluate the correlation between thyroid function with BMD in subjects with normal thyroid function and subclinical hypothyroidism. Material and Methods : A total of 1290 subjects included in this cross sectional study, were divided in Group-1 with normal thyroid function and Group-2 with subclinical hypothyroidism. Fasting blood samples were drawn for the estimation of serum 25(OHD, intact parathyroid hormone, total and ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase. BMD at lumbar spine, femur, and forearm was measured. Results : BMD at all sites (radius, femur, and spine were comparable in both groups. There was no difference in BMD when subjects were divided in tertiles of TSH in either group. In group-1, FT4 and TSH were positively associated with BMD at 33% radius whereas FT3 was negatively associated with BMD at femoral neck in multiple regression analysis after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, 25(OHD and PTH levels. In group-2, there was no association observed between TSH and BMD at any site. Amongst all study subjects FT4 and FT3 were positively correlated with BMD at lumbar spine and radius respectively among all subjects. Conclusion: TSH does not affect BMD in euthyroid subjects and subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism. Thyroid hormones appear to have more pronounced positive effect on cortical than trabecular bone in euthyroid subjects.

  8. Human subject research for engineers a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    de Winter, Joost C F

    2017-01-01

    This Brief introduces engineers to the main principles in ethics, research design, statistics, and publishing of human subject research. In recent years, engineering has become strongly connected to disciplines such as biology, medicine, and psychology. Often, engineers (and engineering students) are expected to perform human subject research. Typical human subject research topics conducted by engineers include human-computer interaction (e.g., evaluating the usability of software), exoskeletons, virtual reality, teleoperation, modelling of human behaviour and decision making (often within the framework of ‘big data’ research), product evaluation, biometrics, behavioural tracking (e.g., of work and travel patterns, or mobile phone use), transport and planning (e.g., an analysis of flows or safety issues), etc. Thus, it can be said that knowledge on how to do human subject research is indispensable for a substantial portion of engineers. Engineers are generally well trained in calculus and mechanics, but m...

  9. Exploratory Subject Searching in Library Catalogs: Reclaiming the Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Bauder

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Librarians have had innovative ideas for ways to use subject and classification data to provide an improved online search experience for decades, and yet, after thirty-plus years of improvements in online catalogs, users continue to struggle with narrowing down their subject searches to produce manageable lists containing only relevant results. This article reports on one attempt to rectify that situation by radically re-envisioning the library catalog interface, enabling users to interact with and explore their search results in a profoundly different way. This new interface gives users the option of viewing a graphical overview of their results, grouped by discipline and subject. Results are depicted as a two-level treemap, which gives users a visual representation of the disciplinary perspectives (as represented by the main classes of the Library of Congress Classification and topics (as represented by elements of the Library of Congress Subject Headings included in the results.

  10. Questionnaire on Corporate Income Tax Subjects - Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Hansen, Søren; Nielsen, Jacob Graff

    In terms of tax policy, tax harmonization or coordination of corporate taxation in the EU is usually considered from two complementary points of view: tax base and tax rate. These two perspectives structure the debate whether EU Member States, and more broadly States belonging to the same economic...... area, should harmonize or coordinate their policies in tax matters. However, little attention has been paid so far to a more basic question: who are corporate taxpayers? Are they defined in the same way over Europe? This may be explained by the fact that the vast majority of tax systems accept the same...... fundamental idea: while companies limited by shares and limited liability companies should be subject to corporate income tax (CIT), partnerships should be considered fully or partly transparent for tax purposes. This general statement is nevertheless an oversimplification of reality. Comparative law indeed...

  11. SUBJECTIVE SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS AND HEALTH: RELATIONSHIPS RECONSIDERED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, Jenna; Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda; Adler, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Subjective status, an individual’s perception of her socioeconomic standing, is a robust predictor of physical health in many societies. To date, competing interpretations of this correlation remain unresolved. Using longitudinal data on 8,430 older adults from the 2000 and 2007 waves of the Indonesia Family Life Survey, we test these oft-cited links. As in other settings, perceived status is a robust predictor of self-rated health, and also of physical functioning and nurse-assessed general health. These relationships persist in the presence of controls for unobserved traits, such as difficult-to-measure aspects of family background and persistent aspects of personality. However, we find evidence that these links likely represent bi-directional effects. Declines in health that accompany aging are robust predictors of declines in perceived socioeconomic status, net of observed changes to the economic profile of respondents. The results thus underscore the social value afforded good health status. PMID:23453318

  12. Calcitonin secretion in normal human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parthemore, J.G.; Deftos, L.J.

    1978-07-01

    A sensitive RIA for human calcitonin has been developed which can detect 1 to 2 pg hormone. This procedure permits the measurement of the low concentrations of calcitonin in the unextracted plasma of normal human subjects. In 55 normal adults, mean plasma calcitonin was 24 pg/ml with an SD of +-18 pg/ml, an SE of +-2 pg/ml, and a range of less than 10 to 75 pg/ml. There were no discernible age or sex differences in basal hormone concentration. Infusions of calcium, pentagastrin, and glucagon stimulated plasma calcitonin, whereas food and oral calcium did not. The stimulatory effect of pentagastrin was greater in males than in females. These data demonstrate that the low concentration of calcitonin in humans can be stimulated by several secretagogues and suggest that females may have decreased calcitonin reserve.

  13. EMERGING RATIONALITY AND THE SUBJECT OF LIBERALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ION HIRGHIDUŞ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of leadership (a management phenomenon has attracted a lot of interest thought time, from theoreticians and scholars to practicians skilled in wide range of science subjects. (sociology, political science, philosophy, organizational management etc. The leader is generally defined as an individual of a person which has been given the task of coordinating and directing the group’s activities, or who, in the absence of an elected leader, has the greatest responsibility in achieving these group functions. The leadership represents nothing more than manner or way of achieving those responsibilities that were taken in charge by the leader. Leadership in practice results in successfully carrying out a task or designing a behavior that will allow the group to remain closely bounded.

  14. Transcranial cerebral oximetry in random normal subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Mukesh; Stark, Jennifer; Dujovny, Manuel; Alp, M. Serdar; Widman, Ronald; Ausman, James I.

    1997-08-01

    Near infrared optical spectroscopy is becoming a useful method for monitoring regional cerebral oxygenation status. The method is simple, reliable and noninvasive and the information which it provides is clinically significant in managing a growing number of neurological ailments. Use of this technique has been described previously by numerous authors. In the present study, regional cerebral oxygen saturation was measured at rest in 94 subjects randomly elected from a diverse population of individuals. This sample consisted of 38 males and 65 females, with the age ranging from 18 - 70. There were 68 light-skinned individuals and 35 with darker skin comprising various ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Mean regional cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation was recorded as 67.14 plus or minus 8.84%. The association of the mean regional cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation in various group of individuals in relationship of their age, race, sex and skin color is examined.

  15. Neighborhood disorder, subjective alienation, and distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Catherine E; Mirowsky, John

    2009-03-01

    Living in a threatening, noxious, and dangerous neighborhood may produce anxiety, anger, and depression because it is subjectively alienating. We hypothesize that neighborhood disorder represents ambient threat that elicits perceptions of powerlessness, normlessness, mistrust, and isolation. These perceptions in turn lead to anxious and angry agitation, and depressed exhaustion. We use data from the 1995 Community, Crime, and Health survey, a probability sample of 2,482 adults in Illinois, with a follow-up survey in 1998. We find that perceived neighborhood disorder is associated with high levels of anxiety, anger, and depression. Personal victimization mediates about 10 percent of the association. The rest of the association is mediated primarily by mistrust and, secondarily, by perceived powerlessness. Normlessness reflects neighborhood disorder but it appears to have little influence on distress. Social isolation has trade-offs in its connections to neighborhood disorder and to distress.

  16. Reliability of Human Subject - Artificial System Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Novák

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Main problems related to reliability of interaction between human subject and artificial system (namely of the transportation character are discussed. The paper consists of three mayor parts:The first one is devoted to the theoretical backgrounds of the problem from the both theory of system reliability and neurology/psychology views.Second part presents the discussion of relevant methodologies of the classification and prediction of the reliability decline. The methodology based on EEG pattern analysis is chosen as the appropriate one for the presented task. The key phenomenon of "micro-sleep" is discussed in detail.The last part presents some latest experimental results in context of presented knowledge. Proposals for the future studies are presented at the end of the presented article. The special interest should be devoted to the analysis and in-time prediction of fatal attention decreases and to the design and construction of the respective on-board applicable warning system.

  17. Communication, Technology and Subjectivity: Strategic Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilton Garcia

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This text presents a critical reflection of communication and technology as production of knowledge and subjectivity, considering the sociopolitical aspects. How to attribute new dimensions from ideological to technological values? In this context, an emergent situation about the implantation of the Brazilian system of digital TV (SBTVD is analyzed. Body, experience and image are putted as critical categories that were introduced during this research, from the language – stratified between culture and representation. The article analyzes the contemporary studies from the cultural researches to the new technologies (analysis about body, culture, language and new technologies. Thus, contemporary studies (BHABHA, 1998; CANCLINI, 1998; COSTA, 2004; EAGLETON, 2005; GUMBRECHT, 1998; HALL, 2003; HUTCHEON, 2000; LÉVY, 1999; MATURANA, 1997; YÚDICE, 2004 strategically contextualize a theoretical-methodological point of view to demonstrate concepts of upgrading and innovation. The methodology is established by description of objects and their contexts to be investigated in a multidisciplinary way.

  18. Subjective Sleep Experience During Shuttle Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmire, Alexandra; Slack, Kelley; Locke, James; Patterson, Holly; Faulk, Jeremy; Keeton, Kathryn; Leveton, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    It is now known that for many astronauts, sleep is reduced in spaceflight. Given that sleep is intimately tied to performance, safety, health, and well being, it is important to characterize factors that hinder sleep in space, so countermeasures can be implemented. Lessons learned from current spaceflight can be used to inform the development of space habitats and mitigation strategies for future exploration missions. The purpose of this study was to implement a survey and one-on-one interviews to capture Shuttle flyers' subjective assessment of the factors that interfered with a "good nights sleep" during their missions. Strategies that crewmembers reported using to improve their sleep quality during spaceflight were also discussed. Highlights from the interview data are presented here.

  19. ICT Consumption and Emergent Subjectivities: New Problems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Gil-Juarez

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we propose a re-reading and a re-interpretation of subjectivation processes which underlie the forms of relationship, identity construction and socialization. Our main goal is to unproblematize the relationships between people and ICT and between people through ICT. In this respect, we do not consider that consumption of ICT impact us and damages or affects us due to their harmful effects, but as a continuous process between "on" and "off line" situations; a process of renegotiation and redefinition of our sociotechnical environment and our subjectivity. This process involves significant changes in norms, ways of thinking, doing and feeling. These changes in the way of relating to others and to ourselves, are situations for interrogation, not problems to avoid.

  20. Subjective Oral Health in Dutch Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijsbert H.W. Verrips

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine whether the subjective oral health (SOH of the Dutch adult population was associated with clinical and demographic variables. Methods: A clinical examination was conducted in a sample of 1,018 people from the Dutch city of ‘s-Hertogenbosch. SOH was measured using the Dutch translation of the short form of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-NL14. Results: The average score on the OHIP-NL14 was 2.8 ± 5.9 and 51% of the respondents had a score of 0. Dental status was the most important predictor of SOH. Conclusions:  The SOH in the Dutch adult population was much better than in groups of adults in Australia, the United Kingdom and New Zealand. Nevertheless, there were important variations in SOH related to dental and socio-economic status.

  1. The mathematics of various entertaining subjects

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenhouse, Jason

    Volume 1 : The history of mathematics is filled with major breakthroughs resulting from solutions to recreational problems. Problems of interest to gamblers led to the modern theory of probability, for example, and surreal numbers were inspired by the game of Go. Yet even with such groundbreaking findings and a wealth of popular-level books exploring puzzles and brainteasers, research in recreational mathematics has often been neglected. The Mathematics of Various Entertaining Subjects brings together authors from a variety of specialties to present fascinating problems and solutions in recreational mathematics. Contributors to the book show how sophisticated mathematics can help construct mazes that look like famous people, how the analysis of crossword puzzles has much in common with understanding epidemics, and how the theory of electrical circuits is useful in understanding the classic Towers of Hanoi puzzle. The card game SET is related to the theory of error-correcting codes, and simple tic-tac-toe tak...

  2. Witkacy’s Attempt at a Subject – a Subject for a Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Górska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article Witkacego próba podmiotu – podmiot na próbę [Witkacy’s Attempt at a Subject – a Subject for a Test] the subjective identity of S.I. Witkiewicz is characterised by means of the widely understood category of a trial. This latter is interpreted from the view of theatrical aesthetics, but also philosophy, enables to show the biography and oeuvre of the artist from Zakopane as a continuous game between constructing and deconstructing of the subjective identity. The category of subjectivity becomes here a tool of revealing of the mechanisms, making it possible to remove boundaries between art and life, reality and fiction, literature and theory. Whereas in the interpretation proposed this attempt appears as a very literally understood experiencing of oneself, “putting oneself to the test”, but also as an attempt at literature (in the area of theory and an attempt at theory (in the area of literature.

  3. SUBJECTIVITY UNDER CONSUMERISM: THE TOTALIZATION OF THE SUBJECT AS A COMMODITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Xavier

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This theoretical work discusses consumerism's processes of subjectivation and their psychological consequences. Its regime is studied through its social imaginary and its totalitarian character: the discourse of advertising, as a global hegemon, absorbs all forms of discourse and signification, thereby actualizing capitalism's telos - the colonization of the Lebenswelt under a great imperative: everything must become a commodity, especially the subject. A process of totalization of subjectivity occurs under a commodification logic centered on the representation: every image must be transformed into commodity-signs. Thus the consumption imaginary appears as a totalizing ideology, functioning as archaic représentations collectives (Durkheim and simulating a religious imaginary. It mass-produces subjectivity through participation mystique (Lévy-Bruhl with its commodity-signs (and their fetish and the whole imaginary. Its subject is defined as a bricolage of consumable commodity-signs, being therefore eternally fluid, performative, and ethereal. Thus it produces an anthropological mutation, the commodity-subject: a disposable, empty, thoroughly commodified self.

  4. Thermogenic effect of glucose in hypothyroid subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozacz, Agnieszka; Grunt, Paulina; Steczkowska, Marta; Mikulski, Tomasz; Dąbrowski, Jan; Górecka, Monika; Sanocka, Urszula; Ziemba, Andrzej Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    The importance of thyroid hormone, catecholamines, and insulin in modification of the thermogenic effect of glucose (TEG) was examined in 34 healthy and 32 hypothyroid subjects. We calculated the energy expenditure at rest and during oral glucose tolerance test. Blood samples for determinations of glucose, plasma insulin, adrenaline (A), and noradrenaline (NA) were collected. It was found that TEG was lower in hypothyroid than in control group (19.68 ± 3.90 versus 55.40 ± 7.32 kJ, resp., P < 0.0004). Mean values of glucose and insulin areas under the curve were higher in women with hypothyroidism than in control group (286.79 ± 23.65 versus 188.41 ± 15.84 mmol/L·min, P < 0.003 and 7563.27 ± 863.65 versus 4987.72 ± 583.88 mU/L·min, P < 0.03 resp.). Maximal levels of catecholamines after glucose ingestion were higher in hypothyroid patients than in control subjects (Amax-0.69 ± 0.08 versus 0.30 ± 0.07 nmol/L, P < 0.0001, and NAmax-6.42 ± 0.86 versus 2.54 ± 0.30 nmol/L, P < 0.0002). It can be concluded that in hypothyroidism TEG and glucose tolerance are decreased while the adrenergic response to glucose administration is enhanced. Presumably, these changes are related to decreased insulin sensitivity and responsiveness to catecholamine action.

  5. Thermogenic Effect of Glucose in Hypothyroid Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kozacz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of thyroid hormone, catecholamines, and insulin in modification of the thermogenic effect of glucose (TEG was examined in 34 healthy and 32 hypothyroid subjects. We calculated the energy expenditure at rest and during oral glucose tolerance test. Blood samples for determinations of glucose, plasma insulin, adrenaline (A, and noradrenaline (NA were collected. It was found that TEG was lower in hypothyroid than in control group (19.68±3.90 versus 55.40±7.32 kJ, resp., P<0.0004. Mean values of glucose and insulin areas under the curve were higher in women with hypothyroidism than in control group (286.79±23.65 versus 188.41±15.84 mmol/L·min, P<0.003 and 7563.27±863.65 versus 4987.72±583.88 mU/L·min, P<0.03 resp.. Maximal levels of catecholamines after glucose ingestion were higher in hypothyroid patients than in control subjects (Amax—0.69±0.08 versus 0.30±0.07 nmol/L, P<0.0001, and NAmax—6.42±0.86 versus 2.54±0.30 nmol/L, P<0.0002. It can be concluded that in hypothyroidism TEG and glucose tolerance are decreased while the adrenergic response to glucose administration is enhanced. Presumably, these changes are related to decreased insulin sensitivity and responsiveness to catecholamine action.

  6. Subjective duration distortions mirror neural repetition suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani Pariyadath

    Full Text Available Subjective duration is strongly influenced by repetition and novelty, such that an oddball stimulus in a stream of repeated stimuli appears to last longer in duration in comparison. We hypothesize that this duration illusion, called the temporal oddball effect, is a result of the difference in expectation between the oddball and the repeated stimuli. Specifically, we conjecture that the repeated stimuli contract in duration as a result of increased predictability; these duration contractions, we suggest, result from decreased neural response amplitude with repetition, known as repetition suppression.Participants viewed trials consisting of lines presented at a particular orientation (standard stimuli followed by a line presented at a different orientation (oddball stimulus. We found that the size of the oddball effect correlates with the number of repetitions of the standard stimulus as well as the amount of deviance from the oddball stimulus; both of these results are consistent with a repetition suppression hypothesis. Further, we find that the temporal oddball effect is sensitive to experimental context--that is, the size of the oddball effect for a particular experimental trial is influenced by the range of duration distortions seen in preceding trials.Our data suggest that the repetition-related duration contractions causing the oddball effect are a result of neural repetition suppression. More generally, subjective duration may reflect the prediction error associated with a stimulus and, consequently, the efficiency of encoding that stimulus. Additionally, we emphasize that experimental context effects need to be taken into consideration when designing duration-related tasks.

  7. Being anorexic: hunger, subjectivity, and embodied morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooldin, Sigal

    2008-09-01

    This article explores the embodied process of being anorexic and the moral repertoires within which this process is entangled. The point of departure for this discussion is that, while critical feminist epistemology plays an important role in politicizing anorexia as a symbolic cluster of meanings, it has provided us with limited analytical tools for an in-depth understanding of an anorexic's lived experiences and of the embodied realities involved in being anorexic. At the same time, autobiographical accounts of anorexia provide insightful emic perspectives on being anorexic but are not engaged with symbolic and theoretical etic perspectives on anorexia. This article attempts to bridge this gap through an anthropological exploration of anorexia from within; that is, as a situated embodied knowledge of anorexic women anchored in concrete lived experiences. Findings from an ethnographic study of young women who were diagnosed with anorexia and admitted to an outpatient hospital unit in Israel suggest that anorexic women actively construct a "heroic moral subjectivity," in which the experience of hunger plays a crucial role, and in which everyday (mundane) practices gain "out-of-the-ordinary" meanings. While these findings partially accord with feminist philosophical explorations of anorexia, I argue that it is only via a detailed ethnographic account that we can follow the ongoing phenomenological and semiotic process through which such heroic subjectivity actually develops. Using an anthropological perspective to bear on the phenomenology of anorexia as an embodied experience contributes toward extending our understanding of the concrete ways in which "culture" becomes present in anorexia. The concluding section discusses gaps between feminist and anorexic narratives of anorexia in terms of therapeutic encounters.

  8. Subjective evaluation to thermal environment. Onnetsu kankyo no shukanteki hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taya, H. (Human Factors Reserach Department, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1991-11-10

    This paper introduces a subjective evaluation on a thermal environment. Providing human being with an appropriate and pleasant environment requires considerations from three aspects of economy, health, and comfort. Related with these are the productively optimal temperature, the physiologically optimal temperature, and the subjectively optimal temperature. While a human being makes subjective judgments on his or her environment through physiological reactions, the kinds of these subjective judgments include those on perception, evaluation, preference, receptivity, and permissibility. The subjective evaluation is measured by declaration of subjects. An evaluation method using a category scale or an SD scale is used for the measurement. The evaluation on cold-hot feeling and comfort using the category scale and that using the SD scale are explained, whereas the evaluation on preference relative to environmental temperatures is carried out by rating that the present environment should be made warmer'', can remain unchanged'' or should be made cooler''. 22 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Subjective Response to Alcohol as a Research Domain Criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Lara A; Bujarski, Spencer; Roche, Daniel J O

    2016-01-01

    Individual differences in the subjective experience of the pharmacological effects of alcohol have long been implicated in the likelihood that one will drink heavily and develop alcoholism. The theme of this conceptual review and perspective article is to synthesize the literature on subjective responses to alcohol and to set an agenda for the next generation of research in the area. Specifically, we contend that in order for subjective response to alcohol to play a prominent role in alcoholism research, it is critical that it be studied as a multimodal phenotype. First, we review the human research on subjective response to alcohol measured under controlled laboratory conditions and draw recommendations for the application of these findings to understanding alcoholism neurobiology in humans. Second, we highlight multimodal approaches, including studies of the genetic and neural substrates of individual differences in subjective response to alcohol. Third, we review treatment implications with a focus on subjective response to alcohol as an intervention target. Upon review of the research on subjective response to alcohol across levels of analyses, we provide recommendations for leveraging these phenotypes in a systematic and methodologically rigorous fashion that can address central questions about alcoholism etiology, disease progression, and personalized treatment. The approach recommended herein is largely consistent with the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative across the National Institute of Mental Health. The defining feature of such domains is that they inform behavior yet be amenable to examination through multiple units of analysis, such as molecular, genetic, circuit-level, and behavioral measurements. To that end, we contend that subjective response to alcohol represents a behaviorally and biologically plausible phenotype upon which to build using the RDoC framework for understanding alcohol use disorder. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society

  10. Correlations of subjectively assessed fleece and conformation traits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data used for this study were collected on the Carnarvon Afrino flock from 1986 to 1998, and include data records on several subjectively assessed traits, body weight and fleece traits of 3291 animals, the progeny of 127 sires and 772 dams. Reproduction data of 686 ewes born from 1986 to 1997 were also included.

  11. The relationships between faecal worm egg count and subjectively ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2014-08-02

    Aug 2, 2014 ... globally has included the genetics of nematode resistance and resilience in sheep flocks, using faecal worm egg count ... 2007). Studies of the genetic correlation between FEC and other subjectively assessed wool and .... (2014). The model including only the direct additive genetic effect of animal (σ2 a).

  12. On the subject marker in Kinyarwanda | Zeller | Southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the morphosyntactic representation of the subject agreement marker (SM) in null subject constructions in the Bantu language Kinyarwanda. Three prominent analyses are compared. The first analysis treats the SM in null subject constructions as a pronoun which receives the subject theta role in the ...

  13. 45 CFR 703.3 - Scope of subject matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope of subject matter. 703.3 Section 703.3... AND FUNCTIONS OF STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 703.3 Scope of subject matter. The scope of the subject matter to be dealt with by Advisory Committees shall be those subjects of inquiry or study with which the...

  14. 48 CFR 1352.235-70 - Protection of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... subjects research protocol, all questionnaires, surveys, advertisements, and informed consent forms... . (f) In addition, if the contractor modifies a human subjects research protocol, questionnaire, survey... of Human Subjects (APR 2010) (a) Research involving human subjects is not permitted under this award...

  15. A new approach to assessing intra-subject variability in single-subject designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Borodkin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Research Aim: One of the methodological challenges of single-subject designs is accounting for intra-individual variability in performance, which is commonly assessed by applying the same testing materials on multiple sessions (McReynolds & Thompson, 1986. This approach might be less feasible in some individuals, such as bilingual speakers with aphasia, who would need to be tested, using the same materials, on several occasions within as well as across languages. Repetitive exposure to the same testing materials can increase practice effects and further reduce the validity of the testing. In the present study, we explored an alternative approach to measuring stability in performance by comparing the use of identical vs. different (but comparable testing materials. Method: Participants were five monolinguals with non-fluent aphasia following a single left CVA. Participants performed an action-naming task and two narrative tasks: a picture sequence and a personal narrative. There were two testing times, several weeks apart using identical materials. Each testing time included three consecutive sessions, using different materials. Action-naming performance was assessed by the number of correct verbs produced. The verbal output in the narrative tasks was scored for amount (number of utterances, grammaticality (percentage of grammatical sentences, and verb diversity (number of different verbs. Pearson correlation coefficients (r were computed to establish the intra-subject variability across testing times and across sessions. The magnitude of the correlations was evaluated using published guidelines (Strauss, Sherman, & Spreen, 2006. Results: For action naming, the correlations ranged from high to very high (.87 to .98 across testing times and from adequate to very high across sessions (.74 to .96. For the narrative tasks, the correlations between the number of utterances across testing times ranged from adequate to very high (.76 to .97 and from low

  16. [Psychiatric aspects in workers subject to mobbing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabei, A; Gebhardt, Eva; Petrucci, Manuela

    2005-01-01

    Mobbing in the language of ethologists means a particular behaviour of a group of animals consisting of several members forming an alliance against a single animal, in order to eliminate this animal away from the group. This term has been adopted in current usage to mean a kind of relationship at the workplace that, by aggressive and underhand means, aims at influencing or expelling the person. The term "bossing" is used to indicate a negative action, under the meaning described above, made by one or more senior persons, or possibly by the employer. In the Italian Parliament, under the current legislature, several bills are pending regarding this problem. Besides the aspects of topical interest in the problem, there are first and foremost the different kinds of reaction-adaptation to mobbing, according to the type of individual internal working models in action, that can be anxious/avoiding, anxious/resistant or disorganised. The purpose of our study was a clinical evaluation of the different ways of adaptation-reaction to a mobbing-type relationship at the workplace, and of the type of internal working models found among the examined patients. A clinical interview was carried out with 40 patients who, over a period of 12 months of observation, came to request a clinical assessment, for medical-legal reasons, of their psycho-pathological state and ways to react to adverse situations at the workplace, such as a mobbing or bossing. Besides the psychological and relational effects of mobbing, the reactions of the examined subjects to mobbing are also described, considering also the different cognitive self-organization possibilities, according to the individual internal working model, regarding patterns of attachment in adult age. The most frequent internal working model seems to be the one related to resistant attachment, followed by the avoidance and lastly--rarely--the disorganized model. Furthermore we observed among these subjects a certain deficit in meta

  17. 76 FR 44512 - Human Subjects Research Protections: Enhancing Protections for Research Subjects and Reducing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... organizations (CROs), data and safety monitoring committees, community-based organizations, and other entities... neuroscience has led to substantial advances in the understanding of human physiology, cognition, and behavior... subjects? What entity or organization should develop and disseminate such standardized document formats...

  18. Comparison of Subjective Refraction under Binocular and Monocular Conditions in Myopic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobashi, Hidenaga; Kamiya, Kazutaka; Handa, Tomoya; Ando, Wakako; Kawamorita, Takushi; Igarashi, Akihito; Shimizu, Kimiya

    2015-07-28

    To compare subjective refraction under binocular and monocular conditions, and to investigate the clinical factors affecting the difference in spherical refraction between the two conditions. We examined thirty eyes of 30 healthy subjects. Binocular and monocular refraction without cycloplegia was measured through circular polarizing lenses in both eyes, using the Landolt-C chart of the 3D visual function trainer-ORTe. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to assess the relations among several pairs of variables and the difference in spherical refraction in binocular and monocular conditions. Subjective spherical refraction in the monocular condition was significantly more myopic than that in the binocular condition (p refraction (p = 0.99). The explanatory variable relevant to the difference in spherical refraction between binocular and monocular conditions was the binocular spherical refraction (p = 0.032, partial regression coefficient B = 0.029) (adjusted R(2) = 0.230). No significant correlation was seen with other clinical factors. Subjective spherical refraction in the monocular condition was significantly more myopic than that in the binocular condition. Eyes with higher degrees of myopia are more predisposed to show the large difference in spherical refraction between these two conditions.

  19. Dream as a subject of psychological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Egorova,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the main theoretical concepts of a dream: dream definitions, ideas about its genesis, functions, dream location in the structure of activity. We analyze the similarities and differences between the approaches. The results of empirical studies of adolescent and adult dreams are generalized, dream functions in adolescence are analyzed. Based on the analysis of different approaches, we chose theoretical basis of our own research – A. Leontiev activity theory, L.S. Vygotsky concept, K. Lewin's model. We formulated and substantiated the definition of dream as emotionally colored image of the desired future, having a subjective significance. We show the significance and hypotheses of our research: 1 the content of dreams is connected not only with a situation of frustration, but also with the teenager abilities, 2 the dream is involved in regulating of values choice; 3 restoration and development of the ability to dream can be used in the practice of counseling and psychotherapy as an effective tool to help adolescents and adults

  20. Women’s subjectivity in contemporary society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Arcidiacono

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This new issue, which follows up the online publication of La camera blu, makes itsway through the contemporary scenario by investigating experiences, perceptions andpolitical representations developing nowadays around female subjectivity. While in the7th issue of La camera blu (The policies of the present we focused our attention on theasymmetries between sexes across politics, work and family, despite being in the pres-ence of legislation increasingly attentive to the pursuit of fundamental rights for womenand men alike, here we intend to open up a debate over the new forms of alienation andself-hetero-oppression which have silently developed behind the creases of emancipa-tion. In doing so, we set out to offer multidisciplinary instruments for deepening ourknowledge about the man-woman relational tangles still present in the current social or-ganization of Western and developing countries, which are still grappling with ethical-normative and often legally outdated, albeit socially shared, statutes, which still legiti-mate this kind of asymmetry. Therefore, we seek to understand the individual collusionsand relational strategies that continue to sustain female subordination, bring about con-flicts between sexes and drive social and welfare policies.

  1. Pharmacokinetics of Loratadine in Pediatric Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Chung; Radwanski, Elaine; Affrime, Melton; Cayen, Mitchell

    1995-07-01

    The pharmacokinetics of loratadine, a new nonsedating antihistamine, was studied in 14 pediatric volunteers between the ages of 8 to 12 years. In an open-label design, one volunteer (with body weight less than 30 kg) received 5 mg of loratadine syrup and 13 volunteers (with body weights greater than 30 kg) received 10 mg of loratadine syrup. Blood samples were collected up to 72 h after dosing. Plasma concentrations of loratadine and its metabolite, descarboethoxyloratadine, were determined by a specific and sensitive gas-liquid chromatographic method. Following a 10-mg dose as a syrup, plasma concentrations of loratadine and descarboethoxyloratadine could be determined up to 8 and 48 h, respectively. The maximum concentration (C(max)) of loratadine and descarboethoxyloratadine were approximately 4 ng ml(minus sign1) each. However, the AUC of the metabolite was about six times that of loratadine. The elimination phase half-life of descarboethoxyloratadine averaged about 13.8 hr. The pharmacokinetics of loratadine in pediatric subjects was similar to that in healthy adult volunteers.

  2. The effect of predictability on subjective duration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani Pariyadath

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Events can sometimes appear longer or shorter in duration than other events of equal length. For example, in a repeated presentation of auditory or visual stimuli, an unexpected object of equivalent duration appears to last longer. Illusions of duration distortion beg an important question of time representation: when durations dilate or contract, does time in general slow down or speed up during that moment? In other words, what entailments do duration distortions have with respect to other timing judgments? We here show that when a sound or visual flicker is presented in conjunction with an unexpected visual stimulus, neither the pitch of the sound nor the frequency of the flicker is affected by the apparent duration dilation. This demonstrates that subjective time in general is not slowed; instead, duration judgments can be manipulated with no concurrent impact on other temporal judgments. Like spatial vision, time perception appears to be underpinned by a collaboration of separate neural mechanisms that usually work in concert but are separable. We further show that the duration dilation of an unexpected stimulus is not enhanced by increasing its saliency, suggesting that the effect is more closely related to prediction violation than enhanced attention. Finally, duration distortions induced by violations of progressive number sequences implicate the involvement of high-level predictability, suggesting the involvement of areas higher than primary visual cortex. We suggest that duration distortions can be understood in terms of repetition suppression, in which neural responses to repeated stimuli are diminished.

  3. Subjectivity, Identity and Violence: Masculinity Crossroads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Pineda Duque

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores elements of masculine subjectivity and identity based on interviews with men from median and low income groups whose spouses pressed charges against them with the Family Commissioners (comisaría de familia of Bogota. Based on the poststructuralist tradition in social sciences and pro-feminist studies about masculinities, the article examines the significances and representations of the men about the occurrences of intrafamilial violence, in the context of the negotiation of homes in front of family judges. The article points out properties of the accounts related to everyday practices that represent a tactical character in the negotiation of the representation of self, and are codified expressions of cultural constructs that configure the relationships between intrafamilial violence and masculinity. It is shown how intervention processes in matters that traditionally were reserved for private consideration, have allowed to evidence the ambivalence of masculine identities to get rid of the stigma of having been reported and consolidate images that result in accordance with hegemonic patterns of representation and power.

  4. Subjective Meanings and Identification With Middle Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolberg, Pnina; Ayalon, Liat

    2017-01-01

    The "middle-age" life period has not been researched extensively and lacks a theoretical conceptualization. The present study explores subjective experiences of members of this age-group. This is a qualitative research, based on in-depth interviews and thematic analysis, which looks into the life stories of 25 Israeli residents aged 48-64 years. The results indicate that the definition of middle age is not clear-cut, and some participants regard their age negatively. Yet, participants report that this period is characterized by a relief of tasks, broader choice opportunity, a sense of liberation, peace of mind, experience, self-awareness, and self-acceptance. Description of middle age as a peak in life, with concerns about future old age, came up repeatedly. Middle-aged individuals' difficulties to identify with their age-group and the social concept that dichotomizes age into young versus old are discussed. The article calls for further research of and engagement with middle age.

  5. Behavioral responses to catecholamine depletion in unmedicated, remitted subjects with bulimia nervosa and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Simona; Stern, Jair; Gamper, Lara; Moergeli, Hanspeter; Milos, Gabriella; Schnyder, Ulrich; Hasler, Gregor

    2015-04-01

    Bulimia nervosa (BN) has been associated with dysregulation of the central catecholaminergic system. An instructive way to investigate the relationship between catecholaminergic function and psychiatric disorder has involved behavioral responses to experimental catecholamine depletion (CD). The purpose of this study was to examine a possible catecholaminergic dysfunction in the pathogenesis of bulimia nervosa. CD was achieved by oral administration of alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine (AMPT) in 18 remitted female subjects with BN (rBN) and 31 healthy female control subjects. The study design consisted of a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled crossover, single-site experimental trial. The main outcome measures were bulimic symptoms assessed by the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire. Measures were assessed before and 26, 30, 54, 78, 102 hours after the first AMPT or placebo administration. In the experimental environment (controlled environment with a low level of food cues) rBN subjects had a greater increase in eating disorder symptoms during CD compared with healthy control subjects (condition × diagnosis interaction, p < .05). In the experimental environment, rBN subjects experienced fewer bulimic symptoms than in the natural environment (uncontrolled environment concerning food cues) 36 hours after the first AMPT intake (environment × diagnosis interaction, p < .05). Serum prolactin levels increased significantly, and to a comparable degree across groups, after AMPT administration. This study suggests that rBN is associated with vulnerability for developing eating disorder symptoms in response to reduced catecholamine neurotransmission after CD. The findings support the notion of catecholaminergic dysfunction as a possible trait abnormality in BN. © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry Published by Society of Biological Psychiatry All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Down's syndrome subjects and systemically healthy subjects: A comparative clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Nizar; Parthasarathy, Harinath; Arshad, Mohamed; Victor, Dhayanand John; Mathew, Danny; Sankari, Siva

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To compare and quantify the presence of periodontal pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aac) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) in Down's syndrome (DS) and systemically healthy subjects with periodontitis and gingivitis. Materials and Methods: Fifty-nine age-matched subjects were categorized into four groups; Group I: DS subjects with gingivitis, Group II: DS subjects with periodontitis, Group III: Systemically healthy subjects with gingivitis and Group IV: Systemicall...

  7. Mitochondrial mutations in subjects with psychiatric disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Sequeira

    Full Text Available A considerable body of evidence supports the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in psychiatric disorders and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA mutations are known to alter brain energy metabolism, neurotransmission, and cause neurodegenerative disorders. Genetic studies focusing on common nuclear genome variants associated with these disorders have produced genome wide significant results but those studies have not directly studied mtDNA variants. The purpose of this study is to investigate, using next generation sequencing, the involvement of mtDNA variation in bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and methamphetamine use. MtDNA extracted from multiple brain regions and blood were sequenced (121 mtDNA samples with an average of 8,800x coverage and compared to an electronic database containing 26,850 mtDNA genomes. We confirmed novel and rare variants, and confirmed next generation sequencing error hotspots by traditional sequencing and genotyping methods. We observed a significant increase of non-synonymous mutations found in individuals with schizophrenia. Novel and rare non-synonymous mutations were found in psychiatric cases in mtDNA genes: ND6, ATP6, CYTB, and ND2. We also observed mtDNA heteroplasmy in brain at a locus previously associated with schizophrenia (T16519C. Large differences in heteroplasmy levels across brain regions within subjects suggest that somatic mutations accumulate differentially in brain regions. Finally, multiplasmy, a heteroplasmic measure of repeat length, was observed in brain from selective cases at a higher frequency than controls. These results offer support for increased rates of mtDNA substitutions in schizophrenia shown in our prior results. The variable levels of heteroplasmic/multiplasmic somatic mutations that occur in brain may be indicators of genetic instability in mtDNA.

  8. From Perception to Subject: The Bergsonian Reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messay Kebede

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In lieu of an abstract, here is the opening paragraph to the essay:What singles out philosophical analyses of perception is the challenge to common sense, that is, to the spontaneous, instinctive belief that an external world exists and that it is similar to the perception we have of it. Even those theories that refrain from questioning the independent existence of the world concede that the resemblance of whatever is out there to the perceived reality is anything but assured. Henri Bergson proposes a theory of perception that not only restores the common belief in the existence of an external world, but also goes a long way in narrowing the alleged disparity between perception and the objective world. With few exceptions, Bergson’s theory of perception has been either ignored or misunderstood. Through a close reading of the first chapter of Matter and Memory, the paper argues, in addition to correcting misreadings, that the strength and originality of Bergson’s theory lie in the reversal of the method of explaining perception from the premise of a given subject, a premise shared by all idealist and realist theories as well as phenomenology. This de-subjectification proposes an approach deriving perception from the interactions of objects while countering the materialist theory of the brain as an organ of representation. The paper contends that the Bergsonian elucidation of the brain as an organ of simulation both anticipates the findings of the sensorimotor theory and overcomes its limitation by showing how simulation inserts indetermination into materiality, thereby actualizing consciousness.

  9. Smoking status and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinhold, Diana; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2017-03-01

    A debate is currently underway about the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) methods for evaluating antitobacco regulation. In particular, the US government requires a cost-benefit analysis for significant new regulations, which has led the FDA to consider potential lost subjective well-being (SWB) of ex-smokers as a cost of any proposed antitobacco policy. This practice, which significantly limits regulatory capacity, is premised on the assumption that there is in fact a loss in SWB among ex-smokers. We analyse the relationship between SWB and smoking status using a longitudinal internet survey of over 5000 Dutch adults across 5 years. We control for socioeconomic, demographic and health characteristics, and in a contribution to the literature, we additionally control for two potential confounding personality characteristics, habitual use of external substances and sensitivity to stress. In another contribution, we estimate panel fixed effects models that additionally control for unobservable time-invariant characteristics. We find strong suggestive evidence that ex-smokers do not suffer a net loss in SWB. We also find no evidence that the change in SWB of those who quit smoking under stricter tobacco control policies is different from those who quit under a more relaxed regulatory environment. Furthermore, our cross-sectional estimates suggest that the increase in SWB from quitting smoking is statistically significant and also of a meaningful magnitude. In sum, we find no empirical support for the proposition that ex-smokers suffer lower net SWB compared to when they were smoking. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. The Effects of Objective and Subjective Socioeconomic Status on Subjective Well-Being among Rural-to-Urban Migrants in China: The Moderating Role of Subjective Social Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Silin; Hou, Jiawei; Sun, Ling; Dou, Donghui; Liu, Xia; Zhang, Hongchuan

    2017-01-01

    Although previous investigations have agreed that Chinese rural-to-urban migrants' socioeconomic status (SES) increases with their migration, the association between SES and subjective well-being is uncertain. To address this research gap, the present study proposed that the association between objective SES and subjective well-being is mediated by subjective SES. This model was tested with a sample of 432 Chinese rural-to-urban migrants. The results indicate a significant association between objective SES and subjective well-being and a partial mediating effect of subjective SES. Furthermore, subjective social mobility, which is one's expectation about the possibility to move upward in the social hierarchy, was found to moderate both the direct path from objective SES to subjective well-being and the indirect path from subjective SES to subjective well-being. These findings suggest that Chinese rural-to-urban migrants gained in subjective well-being not only because of direct financial achievement but also because of their perceptions and beliefs about their relative social status.

  11. Outpatient treatment of alcohol use disorders among subjects 60+ years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kjeld; Bogenschutz, Michael P; Bühringer, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    disorders (AUD). We present the rationale and design of a multisite, multinational AUD treatment study for subjects aged 60+ years. METHODS/DESIGN: 1,000 subjects seeking treatment for AUD according to DSM-5 in outpatient clinics in Denmark, Germany, and New Mexico (USA) are invited to participate in a RCT....... Participants are randomly assigned to four sessions of Motivational Enhancement Treatment (MET) or to MET plus an add-on with eight sessions based on the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA), which include a new module targeting specific problems of older adults. A series of assessment instruments is applied...

  12. Modelling and management of subjective information in a fuzzy setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchon-Meunier, Bernadette; Lesot, Marie-Jeanne; Marsala, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Subjective information is very natural for human beings. It is an issue at the crossroad of cognition, semiotics, linguistics, and psycho-physiology. Its management requires dedicated methods, among which we point out the usefulness of fuzzy and possibilistic approaches and related methods, such as evidence theory. We distinguish three aspects of subjectivity: the first deals with perception and sensory information, including the elicitation of quality assessment and the establishment of a link between physical and perceived properties; the second is related to emotions, their fuzzy nature, and their identification; and the last aspect stems from natural language and takes into account information quality and reliability of information.

  13. Destabilising the subject: examining identity through the moving image

    OpenAIRE

    Rosetzky, David

    2017-01-01

    This studio-based PhD is an enquiry into contemporary subjectivity. Through video art, it explores issues of self and how identity is informed. It questions whether or not there is an essential core to our being by examining if we are self-determined, ever-shifting, creatures of change? Or, whether we are fixed to a prescribed subject position that is wholly determined by others, cultural context and language? Through a discussion of my working methodologies including my collaboration wit...

  14. The Impact of Multiple Fluency Interventions on a Single Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morra, Jennifer; Tracey, Dianne H.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of multiple fluency interventions on a single subject in grade three. Fluency interventions, including choral reading, echo reading, repeated reading, audio book modeling, and teacher modeling were implemented over a period of eight weeks. Results indicated that using multiple fluency strategies, rather…

  15. Cerebral atrophy in elderly with subjective memory complaints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palm, W.M.; Ferrarini, L.; van der Flier, W.M.; Westendorp, R.G.J.; Bollen, E.L.E.M.; Middelkoop, H.A.M.; Milles, J.R.; van der Grond, J.; van Buchem, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate ventricular shape differences along the complete surface of the lateral and third ventricles of persons with subjective memory complaints (MC). Materials and Methods We included 28 controls and 21 persons with MC. FLAIR, T2, and PD-weighted brain MRI scans were acquired at 1.5

  16. Psychosocial Correlates of Subjects with Heart Failure in Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heart failure (HF) is associated with high morbidity and mortality most especially in developing countries including Nigeria. In the country, most patients present late for treatment and with attendant high treatment default. Thus, the study set out to examine the psychosocial correlates of subjects with HF. It was a ...

  17. Current Research in Bookkeeping/Accounting and Basic Business Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanassy, Louis C., Comp.

    1976-01-01

    Listed are 26 doctoral and masters theses completed during the years 1974-5 involving research in bookkeeping/accounting and basic business subjects. The entries are arranged alphabetically by author and include the title of the study and the name of the associated institution. (MS)

  18. Social Relationships and Children's Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Haridhan

    2012-01-01

    The quality of relationships is now recognised as an important aspect of children's subjective well-being. This article focuses on both positive and negative quality of relationships. It includes six areas of children's relationships--family, neighbourhood adults, positive affect friendship, negative affect friendship, experiences of being bullied…

  19. Youth Subjectivities and Associational Life in Bamenda, Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2009-05-13

    May 13, 2009 ... of structural dependency), social adulthood, citizenship and social participa- tion. This study answers the above questions by focusing on the subjectivities and activities of three associations of young men and women in Bamenda,. Cameroon's leading Anglophone city. The associations include the Chosen.

  20. Alzheimer's disease cerebrospinal fluid biomarker in cognitively normal subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toledo, J.B.; Zetterberg, H.; van Harten, A.C.; Glodzik, L.; Martinez-Lage, P.; Bocchio-Chiavetto, L.; Rami, L.; Hansson, O.; Sperling, R.; Engelborghs, S.; Osorio, R.S.; Vanderstichele, H.; Vandijck, M.; Hampel, H.; Teipl, S.; Moghekar, A.; Albert, M.; Hu, W.T.; Argiles, J.A.M.; Gorostidi, A.; Teunissen, C.E.; de Deyn, P.P.; Hyman, B.T.; Molinuevo, J.L.; Frisoni, G. B.; Linazasoro, G.; de Leon, M.J.; van der Flier, W.M.; Scheltens, P.; Blennow, K.; Shaw, L.M.; Trojanowski, J.Q.

    2015-01-01

    In a large multicentre sample of cognitively normal subjects, as a function of age, gender and APOE genotype, we studied the frequency of abnormal cerebrospinal fluid levels of Alzheimer's disease biomarkers including: total tau, phosphorylated tau and amyloid-β1-42. Fifteen cohorts from

  1. Gender classification of running subjects using full-body kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christina M.; Flora, Jeffrey B.; Iftekharuddin, Khan M.

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes novel automated gender classification of subjects while engaged in running activity. The machine learning techniques include preprocessing steps using principal component analysis followed by classification with linear discriminant analysis, and nonlinear support vector machines, and decision-stump with AdaBoost. The dataset consists of 49 subjects (25 males, 24 females, 2 trials each) all equipped with approximately 80 retroreflective markers. The trials are reflective of the subject's entire body moving unrestrained through a capture volume at a self-selected running speed, thus producing highly realistic data. The classification accuracy using leave-one-out cross validation for the 49 subjects is improved from 66.33% using linear discriminant analysis to 86.74% using the nonlinear support vector machine. Results are further improved to 87.76% by means of implementing a nonlinear decision stump with AdaBoost classifier. The experimental findings suggest that the linear classification approaches are inadequate in classifying gender for a large dataset with subjects running in a moderately uninhibited environment.

  2. On the relationship between subjective and objective measures of fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völker, Ina; Kirchner, Christine; Bock, Otmar Leo

    2016-09-01

    Objective and subjective methods have been used in the past to assess workplace fatigue, but little is known about correlations between them. We examine correlations between subjective and objective measures, including measures collected in a workplace scenario. 15 young and 17 older participants were assessed before and after work with four types of fatigue measure: objective physical (posturography), objective mental (psychomotor vigilance task), subjective physical and mental (self-assessment), objective and subjective realistic (oculomotor behaviour, observer-rated facial expression, typing performance). Pre- and post-test scores were analysed with an ANOVA, significant differences were submitted to a factor analysis. It yielded three factors: one representing posturography, the second self-rated mental and physical fatigue and the third observer-rated facial expression. Results advocate the existence of three independent fatigue components: Objective physical fatigue, introspective and extrospective fatigue. Practitioner Summary: This study analyses correlations between different subjective and objective fatigue markers to better understand the complex nature of workplace fatigue. Measurements were conducted directly at the workplace. Results reveal that fatigue comprises three independent fatigue components: Objective physical fatigue, introspective and extrospective fatigue.

  3. Subject Teachers as Educators for Sustainability: A Survey Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Uitto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability education (SE is included in school curricula to integrate the principles, values, and practices of sustainable development (SD into all education. This study investigates lower secondary school subject teachers as educators for sustainability. A survey was used to study the perceptions of 442 subject teachers from 49 schools in Finland. There were significant differences between the subject teachers’ perceptions of their SE competence, and the frequency with which they used different dimensions of SE (ecological, economic, social, well-being, cultural in their teaching varied. Teachers’ age had a small effect, but gender, school, and its residential location were nonsignificant factors. Teachers could be roughly classified into three different subgroups according to their perceptions of the role of SE in their teaching; those who considered three SE dimensions rather often and used holistic sustainability approaches in their teaching (biology, geography, history; those who considered two or three dimensions often but were not active in holistic teaching (mother tongue, religion, visual arts, crafts, music, physical and health education, and home economics and those who used one SE dimension or consider only one holistic approach in their teaching (mathematics, physics, chemistry and language. Subject teachers’ awareness of their SE competence is important to encourage them to plan and implement discipline-based and interdisciplinary SE in their teaching. The specific SE expertise of subject teachers should be taken into account in teacher training and education.

  4. Subjective approach to the determination of criteria weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić R. Milićević

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the methods of the subjective approach in determining the criteria weights. The compensatory and noncompensatory methods for determining the criteria weights are briefly summarized. Determining the criteria weight using pairwise comparisons and rankings is elaborated in detail. Possible ways of determining the criteria weight in a group environment are presented in the last part of the paper. A subjective approach includes an impact of the decision maker on the criteria weights, and therefore on the final solution of multicriteria problems. In contrast to the objective approach, some methods of the subjective approach do not require the existence of a decision matrix. The main aim of this paper is a systematic review of possible ways of determining the criteria weights by the decision maker or more participants in the decision process.

  5. Theorizing the complexities of discursive and material subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Lis; Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to address the theoretical foundations of subjectivity as co-constituted by discursive and material/technological forces. Our ambition is to develop a conceptual framework that draws from Science and Technology Studies and related “new materialist” frameworks and poststructural......This article seeks to address the theoretical foundations of subjectivity as co-constituted by discursive and material/technological forces. Our ambition is to develop a conceptual framework that draws from Science and Technology Studies and related “new materialist” frameworks...... to a redefinition of the concept of subjectivity that emphasizes the multiplicity of enacting forces including human as well as non-human, material/technological actors; and that underlinesthe importance of a conceptualization of all actors as simultaneously enacting and enacted forces....

  6. Subjective Quality of Life in the Psychology of Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapoval I.A.,

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a theoretical introduction to the discussion of the subjective quality of life for carriers of psychology of poverty. We revealed the socio-cultural determinants of subjective quality of life, systematize its psychological components and factors of its high level. We describe a set of characteristics of psychology of poverty, including the sense of displacement from normal life, hopelessness, fatalism, deprivation, social envy, metapathology of personality, lack of subjectivity, responsibility, an outsider position, survivor guilt complex, and so on. On the criterion of the relationship to own life we revealed types of carriers of psychology of poverty: a passive-contemplative, passive-aggressive, pseudocompensatory-devalued, infantile, anomic. We analyzed the specificity of reflection and benchmarking of carriers of psychology of poverty as a cognitive and affective strategies to assess the quality of own lives, focused on the maintenance of self-esteem

  7. The effect of varying task difficulty on subjective workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Y.-Y.; Wickens, C. D.; Hart, S. G.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of different difficulty distribution patterns on subjective workload, and the presence of a primacy/recency effect in subjective ratings are examined. Eight subjects performed the perceptual central processing required for response selection and manual target acquisition for response execution. The reaction time, movement time, and the percent of correct pattern matching and arithmetic equations are analyzed. The data reveal that subjective rating is unaffected by different task difficulty and no primacy/recency effects are observed in subjective ratings. It is concluded that subjective workload reflects the experience of an ongoing integration process.

  8. All-day performance variations in normal and narcoleptic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbout, R; Montplaisir, J

    1986-01-01

    This study compared the performance of narcoleptic and control subjects on one psychomotor task, examined the recuperative power of naps in narcoleptic subjects, and evaluated the respective recuperative values of REM and NREM sleep. Ten untreated narcoleptic and eight control subjects repeatedly responded to a choice reaction time task during days with and days without napping. Narcoleptic subjects exhibited low performance levels relative to control subjects on all variables. Napping improved the performance of narcoleptic subjects except for the number of long latency (reaction time greater than 1,000 ms) responses. Finally, performance, particularly on accuracy measures, was better, although not significantly, after NREM naps when compared with REM naps.

  9. Gender-related dissociations of categorical fluency in normal subjects and in subjects with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Camillo; Ferraccioli, Monica; Gainotti, Guido

    2007-03-01

    Semantic fluency tasks, with the categories of birds and furniture as stimuli, were administered to normal subjects and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Normal subjects showed a gender-related double dissociation consistent with the literature data because men were more fluent with the birds category and women with the furniture category. Also, patients with AD showed a Gender x Category interaction, but the double dissociation between birds and furniture was not present because of a prevalent impairment of the living category birds that was irrespective of gender. This pattern of impairment in patients with AD was independent from the disease stage. The authors conclude that (a) gender-related categorical effects cannot be considered as inborn, sex-related cognitive differences but as familiarity effects and (b) both lesion-related and familiarity-related factors must be taken into account to explain category-specific effects of patients with brain damage and patients with AD.

  10. Comparison of Subjective and Objective Sleep Estimations in Patients with Bipolar Disorder and Healthy Control Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp S. Ritter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Several studies have described but not formally tested discrepancies between subjective and objective measures of sleep. Study Objectives. To test the hypothesis that patients with bipolar disorder display a systematic bias to underestimate sleep duration and overestimate sleep latency. Methods. Actimetry was used to assess sleep latency and duration in 49 euthymic participants (bipolar = 21; healthy controls = 28 for 5–7 days. Participants simultaneously recorded estimated sleep duration and sleep latency on a daily basis via an online sleep diary. Group differences in the discrepancy between subjective and objective parameters were calculated using t-tests and corrected for multiple comparisons. Results. Patients with bipolar disorder significantly underestimated their sleep duration but did not overestimate their sleep latency compared to healthy controls. Conclusions. Studies utilizing diaries or questionnaires alone in patients with bipolar disorders may systematically underestimate sleep duration compared to healthy controls. The additional use of objective assessment methods such as actimetry is advisable.

  11. Objective and Subjective Voice Examination in Korean Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junsang Yu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: When a person speaks, voice problems usually include pain or discomfort and/or difficulties in terms of the pitch, the loudness and the quality of the voice. When patients with voice problems induced by stroke, Parkinson’s disease, and systemic diseases involving the voice are examined, generally, of the Four Diagnoses (四診, a Diagnosis of Hearing can be used in current Korean medicine. The effects of acupuncture and herb medicine on voice problems have been reported for over 20 years. However, when it comes to improvements, objective and subjective evaluation methods need to be explained. Methods: Subjective methods for evaluating voice were studied through a literature search of old medicinal books containing Korean medicine diagnostics, and an objective evaluation method using Praat software is presented. Results: Korean medicine doctors analyze the patient’s voice in clinical settings unconsciously on a daily basis. However, most voice diagnoses depend on the doctor’s subjective evaluation. Voice qualities can be evaluated by using the Eight Principles (八綱, including Yin-Yang; the Five Elements (Phases; the Grade, Roughness, Breathy, Asthenic, Strained (GRBAS score, and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS as subjective methods, and an acoustic analysis using the Praat program can be used as an objective method. Conclusion: A more complete voice examination can be achieved by using subjective and objective methods at the same time. For an objective explanation and management of patient’s voice problems or systemic disorders, an objective method should be used in Korean medicine, which already has many subjective diagnostic methods. More research needs to be conducted, and more clinical evidence needs to be collected in the future.

  12. Objective and subjective voice examination in korean medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junsang

    2014-09-01

    When a person speaks, voice problems usually include pain or discomfort and/or difficulties in terms of the pitch, the loudness and the quality of the voice. When patients with voice problems induced by stroke, Parkinson's disease, and systemic diseases involving the voice are examined, generally, of the Four Diagnoses (), a Diagnosis of Hearing can be used in current Korean medicine. The effects of acupuncture and herb medicine on voice problems have been reported for over 20 years. However, when it comes to improvements, objective and subjective evaluation methods need to be explained. Subjective methods for evaluating voice were studied through a literature search of old medicinal books containing Korean medicine diagnostics, and an objective evaluation method using Praat software is presented. Korean medicine doctors analyze the patient's voice in clinical settings unconsciously on a daily basis. However, most voice diagnoses depend on the doctor's subjective evaluation. Voice qualities can be evaluated by using the Eight Principles (), including Yin-Yang; the Five Elements (Phases); the Grade, Roughness, Breathy, Asthenic, Strained (GRBAS) score, and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) as subjective methods, and an acoustic analysis using the Praat program can be used as an objective method. A more complete voice examination can be achieved by using subjective and objective methods at the same time. For an objective explanation and management of patient's voice problems or systemic disorders, an objective method should be used in Korean medicine, which already has many subjective diagnostic methods. More research needs to be conducted, and more clinical evidence needs to be collected in the future.

  13. Y chromosome haplogroups in autistic subjects : Y chromosome in autistic subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Jamain, Stéphane; Quach, Hélène; Quintana-Murci, Luis; Betancur, Catalina; Philippe, Anne; Gillberg, Christopher; Sponheim, Eili; Skjeldal, Ola,; Fellous, Marc; Leboyer, Marion; Bourgeron, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    The male to female ratio in autism is 4:1 in the global autistic population, but increases to 23:1 in autistic subjects without physical or brain abnormalities. Despite this well-recognised gender difference, male predisposition to autistic disorder remains unexplained and the role of sex chromosomes is still debated. Numerical and structural abnormalities of the sex chromosomes are among the most frequently reported chromosomal disorders associated with autism. However, genome scans have fai...

  14. DIDACTIC PRINCIPLES OF THE FORMATION OF STUDENTS’ SUBJECT POSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Garanina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Subject position of a personality is the phenomenon that determines self-activity, identity, sovereignty, and positive dynamics of selfdevelopment, self-education, self-training and self-realization, i.e. those qualities which are necessary for a modern expert. Therefore, the development of the concept of formation and development of a subject position of a future expert during his/her vocational training is an urgent scientific and practical task.The aim of the present research is to prove theoretically the following issues: regularities of a formation process of a subject position of a student of a higher education institution; principles reflecting features of functioning of subject space; and requirements shown to the organization of this pedagogical process.Methodology and research methods. The methods involve the analysis of philosophical and psychology and pedagogical sources on the research problem; transspective, phenomenological, psychological, comparative, system, and structure-functional types of the analysis; deductive and inductive methods; comparison, generalization, synthesis, and abstraction.Results and scientific novelty. The concept «student’s subject position» is redefined; the concept includes such features as polysystemacity, multidimensionality, and multi-functionality. The characteristics of a person with a subject position are summarized; special attention is paid to his/her personal characteristics. The regularities of formation and development of the subject position of the student caused by internal mechanisms of self-updating, self-organization, self-development and self-improvement are found out. It is testified that these regularities are shown in the system of various social relations; depend on external impact, integrity and unity of a teaching and educational process; those regularities are characterized by heterochronism, emergence, and evolving. The research enables to present an overall

  15. Neurocardiological differences between musicians and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burggraaf, J L I; Elffers, T W; Segeth, F M; Austie, F M C; Plug, M B; Gademan, M G J; Maan, A C; Man, S; de Muynck, M; Soekkha, T; Simonsz, A; van der Wall, E E; Schalij, M J; Swenne, C A

    2013-04-01

    Exercise training is beneficial in health and disease. Part of the training effect materialises in the brainstem due to the exercise-associated somatosensory nerve traffic. Because active music making also involves somatosensory nerve traffic, we hypothesised that this will have training effects resembling those of physical exercise. We compared two groups of healthy, young subjects between 18 and 30 years: 25 music students (13/12 male/female, group M) and 28 controls (12/16 male/female, group C), peers, who were non-musicians. Measurement sessions to determine resting heart rate, resting blood pressure and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) were held during morning hours. Groups M and C did not differ significantly in age (21.4 ± 3.0 vs 21.2 ± 3.1 years), height (1.79 ± 0.11 vs 1.77 ± 0.10 m), weight (68.0 ± 9.1 vs 66.8 ± 10.4 kg), body mass index (21.2 ± 2.5 vs 21.3 ± 2.4 kg∙m(-2)) and physical exercise volume (39.3 ± 38.8 vs 36.6 ± 23.6 metabolic equivalent hours/week). Group M practised music daily for 1.8 ± 0.7 h. In group M heart rate (65.1 ± 10.6 vs 68.8 ± 8.3 beats/min, trend P =0.08), systolic blood pressure (114.2 ± 8.7 vs 120.3 ± 10.0 mmHg, P = 0.01), diastolic blood pressure (65.0 ± 6.1 vs 71.0 ± 6.2 mmHg, P active music making has training effects resembling those of physical exercise training. Our study opens a new perspective, in which active music making, additionally to being an artistic activity, renders concrete health benefits for the musician.

  16. Taste loss in hospitalized multimorbid elderly subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toffanello ED

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ED Toffanello,1 EM Inelmen,1 A Imoscopi,1 E Perissinotto,2 A Coin,1 F Miotto,1 LM Donini,3 D Cucinotta,4 M Barbagallo,5 E Manzato,1 G Sergi11Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Geriatrics Division and University of Padova, Padova, 2Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health, University of Padua, Padua, Italy; 3Department of Medical Physiopathology (Food Science Section, University of Roma, La Sapienza, Roma, 4S Orsola Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, 5Geriatric Unit, Department of Internal Medicine and Emerging Diseases, University of Palermo, Palermo, ItalyBackground: Loss of the sense of taste is common among older people. Morbidities and polypharmacy may contribute to the age-related decline in gustatory function. The aims of the present study were to investigate taste perception in elderly hospitalized patients by comparing their taste recognition thresholds with those of healthy, free-living elderly individuals and to identify potential determinants of taste loss.Methods: The participants in this observational study were 55 elderly patients hospitalized in the acute geriatric section of the Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences at Padova University and 41 free-living individuals aged older than 65 years, randomly recruited from elderly people attending mild fitness programs at public gymnasiums in Padova. Data were collected on nutrition, health, cognitive, and functional status for all participants. Gustatory capabilities were assessed using aqueous solutions of sucrose, sodium chloride, citric acid, and quinine hydrochloride (representing sweet, salty, sour, and bitter stimuli, respectively, and taste recognition thresholds were measured in both groups.Results: In comparison with the free-living elderly subjects, those in hospital were significantly less able to recognize the taste of citric acid (P < 0.05. Low citric acid sensitivity was independently associated with advanced age (≥75 years; odds ratio [OR] 3

  17. IDENTITY AND SUBJECTIVITY: THE SUBJECT WITH DISABILITIES IN THE DOCUMENTARY “SEEING IS BELIEVEING”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismara Eliane Vidal de Souza TASSO

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the uniqueness of the gaze regime to people with disabilities in contemporary, this study focuses on the identity constitution of this subject as it is transformed into discourse from complex relationships among the domain of knowledge, power and ethics. Such restlessness, leads us to undertake a gesture of reading about the documentary “Seeing and believing”, showed in films festival “So we live” (2007. Based on the theoretical assumptions of Cultural Studies, on the question of identity and its relationship with the notions of subjectivity and practices of themselves, from epistemological ground of Discourse Analysis of Foucault perspective, we aim at understanding how the identity constitution is given from the relationships established between visual representation and conditions (co existence enunciative on the disabled body. On the movie materiality, object of this analysis, the linguistic-discursive strategies and the mechanisms employed in the documentary give visibility to the exercise of a government on the other, legitimized by the culture of inclusion. Mind yourself is the guiding principle of the discourse about the relationship between subjectivity and truth, which permeates the will of truth about the inclusion constructed in contemporary society.

  18. CURRICULUM POLICIES AND GEOGRAPHY TEACHING: perspectives ond discourse, subjectivity and subject community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Heleno Camilo Costa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper I discuss, in the context of research in curriculum policy for the teaching of Geography, the processes of constitution of the subjects involved in policy. Present initially snippets of the course of research development, drawing attention to possibilities of understanding about the processes that lead to the production of curriculum policies for Geography. I call attention to the subjectivity involved in the production of such policies, questioning the category subject community in reflection on the constitution of political subjects that operate in the discursive field of Geography. I discuss, from the Discourse Theory of Ernesto Laclau and also the works of Lopes and Macedo, the importance of the curriculum policy is conceived as a process by mobilizing articulations that aim to hegemony and unleash political subjectivities. I conclude criticizing Goodson's formulations on political subjects considering the theoretical contributions of Laclau, through which I propose the incorporation the idea of povo as element capable of assisting in critique to readings about the disciplines and curriculum in structural view, and resize reflection on the demands articulated in the production of curriculum policies and the processes of constitution of subjects.RESUMO: Neste trabalho discuto, com foco no contexto da pesquisa em políticas de currículo para o ensino de Geografia, os processos de constituição dos sujeitos envolvidos nas políticas. Apresento, inicialmente, trechos do percurso da pesquisa que desenvolvo, ponderando possibilidades de compreensão sobre os processos que levam à produção da política de currículo para Geografia. Chamo a atenção para as subjetividades envolvidas na produção de tais políticas, problematizando a categoria comunidade disciplinar na reflexão sobre a constituição dos sujeitos políticos atuantes no campo discursivo da Geografia. Discuto, a partir da Teoria do Discurso de Ernesto Laclau e dos

  19. 34 CFR 300.10 - Core academic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.10 Core academic subjects. Core academic subjects means English, reading or language arts, mathematics, science, foreign languages, civics and government...

  20. Blood and urinary concentrations of salbutamol in asthmatic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Henninge, John

    2010-01-01

    Data on blood and urinary concentrations of salbutamol after inhalation and oral administration in healthy subjects are scarce. Accordingly, we examined the pharmacokinetics of inhaled and oral salbutamol in asthmatic subjects....

  1. Effect of fasting on laryngopharyngeal reflux disease in male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Abdul-latif; Nassar, Jihad; Dowli, Alexander; Al Zaghal, Zeid; Sabri, Alain

    2012-11-01

    To address the effect of fasting on laryngopharyngeal reflux disease (LPRD). A total of 22 male subjects have been recruited for this study. Subjects with vocal fold pathologies, recent history of upper respiratory tract infection or laryngeal manipulation were excluded. Demographic data included age and history of smoking. All subjects were evaluated while fasting for at least 12 h and non-fasting. By non-fasting we mean that they ate and drank during the day at their discretion with no reservation. The abstention from water and or food intake during the non-fasting period extended from few minutes to 3 h. All subjects were evaluated at the same time during the day. The evaluation consisted of a laryngeal examination and the Reflux Symptom Index (RSI). The Reflux Finding Score (RFS) was used to report on the reflux laryngeal findings. Subjects were considered to have LPRD if either the RSI or the RFS were positive (>9 RSI, >7 RFS). There was a non-significant increase in the total prevalence of LPRD while fasting compared to non-fasting (32 vs. 50 % while fasting, p value 0.361). In the RSI, the most common symptoms while non-fasting and fasting were throat clearing (64 vs. 68 %), postnasal drip (45 vs. 59 %) and globus sensation (36 vs. 50 %). The average score of all the three increased significantly while fasting. For the RFS the most common laryngeal findings in the non-fasting group versus the fasting group were erythema (77 vs. 68 %), thick endolaryngeal mucus (77 vs. 77 %) and posterior commissure hypertrophy (55 vs. 64 %). Fasting results in a nonsignificant increase in laryngopharyngeal reflux disease. The increase can be hypothetically explained on the change in eating habits and the known alterations in gastric secretions during Ramadan. Fasting subjects must be alert to the effect of LPRD on their throat and voice in particular.

  2. Sonographic evaluation of the plantar fascia in asymptomatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadalla, N; Kichouh, M; Boulet, C; Machiels, F; De Mey, J; De Maeseneer, M

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the appearance of the plantar fascia in asymptomatic subjects. Thirty-one asymptomatic subjects were examined by 2 musculoskeletal radiologists. The plantar fascia was evaluated for thickness, echogenicity, vascularity on power Doppler, rupture, fluid adjacent to the fascia, andcalcifications. The study included 14 men and 17 women (age, 17-79 years; mean, 45 years). The mean thickness of the plantar fascia in men was 3.7 mm (range 2.5-7 mm), and in women 3.5 mm (range, 1.7-5.1 mm). The thickness was greater than 4 mm in 4 men (bilateral in 2). The mean thickness of fascias thicker than 4 mm in men was 5.4 mm (range, 4.3-7 mm). The thickness was greater than 4 mm in 5 women ( bilateral in 4). The mean thickness of fascias thicker than 4 mm in women was 4.7 mm (range, 4.2-5.1 mm). There was no statistically significant difference between men and women and between both heels. Hypoechogenicity was observed in 3 men (bilateral in 2), and in 5 women (bilateral in 6). Hypervascularity, rupture, fluid adjacent to the fascia, and calcifications were not observed. A thickness greater than 4 mm and hypoechogenicity, are common in the plantar fascia of asymptomatic subjects. Findings that were not seen in asymptomatic subjects include a thickness greater than 7 mm, hypervascularity on power Doppler, rupture, fluid adjacent to the fascia, and calcifications.

  3. Subjective Sleep Measures in Children: Self-Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Andrea M; Bashore, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) recently published a consensus statement on the recommended number of hours of sleep in infants and children. The AASM expert panel identified seven health categories in children influenced by sleep duration, a component of sleep quality. For optimal health and general function, children require a certain number of hours of sleep each night. Limited data exist to subjectively assess sleep in this population. Practitioners must evaluate overall sleep quality not simply sleep duration. The purpose of this article is to provide a mini-review of the self-report sleep measures used in children. The authors individually completed a review of the literature for this article via an independent review followed by collaborative discussion. The subjective measures included in this mini-review have been used in children, but not all measures have reported psychometrics. Several tools included in this mini-review measure subjective sleep in children but with limited reliabilities or only preliminary psychometrics. Accurate measurement of self-reported sleep in children is critical to identify sleep problems in this population and further detect associated health problems. Ongoing studies are warranted to establish reliable and valid measures of self-reported sleep in children to accurately detect health problems associated with poor sleep quality. This mini-review of the literature is an important first step to identify the most reliable subjective sleep measures in children.

  4. The Diagnostic Method Features of Communication Subject Development (ORSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lioznova E.V.,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is familiarization with the development of questionnaire "Features of communication subject development" (ORSO. This new psychodiagnostic tool assesses communicative personality traits, its characteristics as the subject of communication. We present the theoretical foundation of the approach to the personality as a subject of communication, propose a structure of such subject, including two levels of properties: generic and specific. The latter include the responsibility in communication, unconditional acceptance of self, attitude to the partner as an absolute value. The questionnaire comprises five scales and measures the level of these features, as well as integrated communication success rate. The accuracy of responses is controlled by the scale of the adequacy of self-esteem. We describe communication styles, revealed by the ratio of the generic properties. The test is intended for men and women older than 12 years and allows to predict the success of communication with different partners in different situations and features of communicative behavior, attitudes, experiences of the respondent. We presented satisfactory performance criteria of test quality: reliability, validity and representativeness of the ORSO technique, provide examples of its application in scientific and applied purposes and prospects for future work.

  5. Overt and Null Subject Pronouns in Jordanian Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam M. Al-Momani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at examining the role that morphology plays in allowing and/or motivating sentences in Jordanian Arabic (hereafter JA to be formed with or without subject pronouns. It also aims at giving a comprehensive and descriptive presentation of the distribution of overt and null subject pronouns in JA, and tries to determine to what extent there is optionality in its system. Keywords: null subject pronouns, overt subjects, pro-drop languages, verbal inflectional morphology

  6. Creating Subjects: The Language of the Stage 6 English Syllabus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, Daniel W. J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the language of the 2009 NSW Stage 6 English Syllabus. I argue that the language of the syllabus aims to create two distinct subjects: Subject English, that is, what students learn; and the subject position of its students, that is, what students are expected to become. Analysis reveals themes of personal development and…

  7. Descriptive Analysis of Single Subject Research Designs: 1983-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Diana; Gast, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Single subject research methodology is commonly used and cited in special education courses and journals. This article reviews the types of single subject research designs published in eight refereed journals between 1983 and 2007 used to answer applied research questions. Single subject designs were categorized as withdrawal/reversal, time…

  8. Serum lipid profile in diabetic and hypertensive Nigerian subjects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to compare the serum lipid profile of diabetic and hypertensive subjects resident in Kano metropolis and to evaluate their pattern and probable disposition to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. ... Results: Hypertensive subjects had higher mean serum TC, HDL-CH, BMI and BP values that diabetic subjects.

  9. 49 CFR 1108.3 - Matters subject to arbitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Matters subject to arbitration. 1108.3 Section... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE ARBITRATION OF CERTAIN DISPUTES SUBJECT TO THE STATUTORY JURISDICTION OF THE SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD § 1108.3 Matters subject to arbitration. (a) Any...

  10. Effect of Subject Control and Graduated Exposure on Snake Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepner, Alain; Cauthen, Nelson R.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of two of the variables in Leitenberg's graduated exposure technique for treating phobias, graduated exposure and subject control of the exposure time, was investigated using 15 snake-phobic subjects. Subjective fear significantly decreased from pretesting to posttesting. (Author)

  11. Perceived Social Policy Fairness and Subjective Wellbeing: Evidence from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feng; Xiao, Jing Jian

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived fairness of social policies and subjective well-being. Two types of policies examined were related to income distribution and social security. Subjective well-being was measured by work and life satisfaction. In addition, subjective well-beings between different income, age, and education…

  12. Variation in Subject Pronominal Expression in L2 Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoshi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates subject pronominal expression in second language Chinese and compares learner usage with patterns found in their first language. The results show that (a) overt pronouns are used more for singular, +animate subjects than plural, -animate ones; (b) switch in subject surface form favors overt pronouns; (c) English and Russian…

  13. Facets of Subjective Health From Early Adulthood to Old Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franz, Carol E; Finkel, Deborah; Panizzon, Matthew S

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Subjective health is a complex indicator predicting longevity independent of objective health. Few studies examine genetic and environmental mechanisms underlying different facets of subjective health across the life course. METHOD: Three subjective health measures were examined in 12...... appears to be dependent on frame of reference and reflect different aspects of health. Results suggest different genetic and environmental mechanisms underlie each facet....

  14. Psychiatric Morbidity among Subjects with Leprosy and Albinism in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Skin, which is the largest organ in the body, carries immense psychological significance. Disfiguring skin disorders may impact negatively on the mental health of individuals. Aim: This study compared the psychiatric morbidity of subjects with leprosy and albinism. Subjects and Methods: One hundred subjects ...

  15. Subject marking, coordination and noun classes in ciNsenga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subject marking on the Bantu verb seems to be a straightforward process in clauses with simple subject noun phrases (NP) as the verb only has to agree with a single NP. With conjoined NPs, on the other hand, subject-verb agreement is more complicated as there are three possibilities for such agreement: (i) agreement ...

  16. 42 CFR 1008.15 - Facts subject to advisory opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facts subject to advisory opinions. 1008.15 Section... Requesting Party § 1008.15 Facts subject to advisory opinions. (a) The OIG will consider requests from a requesting party for advisory opinions regarding the application of specific facts to the subject matters set...

  17. Crowdsourcing based subjective quality assessment of adaptive video streaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahid, M.; Søgaard, Jacob; Pokhrel, J.

    2014-01-01

    humans are considered to be the most valid method of the as- sessment of QoE. Besides lab-based subjective experiments, crowdsourcing based subjective assessment of video quality is gaining popularity as an alternative method. This paper presents insights into a study that investigates perceptual pref......- erences of various adaptive video streaming scenarios through crowdsourcing based subjective quality assessment....

  18. Florida Master Teacher Program: Testing Teacher Subject Matter Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavely, Carolyn; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The efforts of the Florida Institute for Instructional Research and Practice in designing, developing, and analyzing the subject area knowledge tests of the Florida Master Teacher Program are described. A total of 13 subject area examinations was developed in 1984-85, and 5 additional tests were developed the following year. For each subject area…

  19. Geschiedenis: een vak apart? (History: A Distinct Subject?).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toebes, Johan Gerhard

    The extent to which history has been and is combined with other subjects dealing with man and society in the secondary school curriculum of West Germany, England, and the Netherlands is discussed. The study looks at arguments for and against subject combinations and the teaching of history as an independent subject, reasons for the determination…

  20. Within- and between-subject variability in the reinforcing and subjective effects of nitrous oxide in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D J; Zacny, J P

    2001-09-01

    Within- and between-subject variability in the reinforcing and subjective effects of nitrous oxide (N(2)O) was studied across five sessions. Twelve volunteers with no history of drug dependence sampled 30% N(2)O and 100% oxygen for 10 min each, then chose nine times, once every 5 min, among N(2)O (e.g. "Agent A"), oxygen (e.g. "Agent B"), or "drug-free air." Choice varied across subjects but was stable within subjects. Quantitative differences in subjective effects occurred within and across subjects. Some subjective effects were correlated with choice and/or differed between subjects who were consistent choosers of N(2)O versus those who were not. However, drug liking and euphoria, two face-valid measures of abuse liability, were unrelated to choice. Thus, the present study found individual differences (i.e. between-subject variability) in subjective and reinforcing effects of N(2)O and, in terms of within-subject variability, suggested that subjective effects fluctuate across sessions to a relatively greater extent than do reinforcing effects. The varying degrees of correlation between N(2)O choice and its subjective effects emphasize the need for obtaining multiple measures when characterizing abuse liability of this drug.

  1. Surgery and Brain Atrophy In Cognitively Normal Elderly Subjects and Subjects Diagnosed with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Richard P.; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Cheng, Hao; Santi, Susan De; Li, Yi; Haile, Michael; de Leon, Mony J.; Bekker, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Background Structural MRI is used to longitudinally monitor the progression of Alzheimer's disease from its presymptomatic to symptomatic phases. Using magnetic resonance imaging data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), we tested the hypothesis that surgery would affect brain parameters associated with progression of dementia. Materials and Methods Brain images from the neuroimaging initiative database were used to study normal volunteer subjects and patients with mild cognitive impairment for the age group 55 to 90 inclusive. We compared changes in regional brain anatomy for three visits that defined two inter-visit intervals for a surgical cohort (n=41) and a propensity matched non-surgical control cohort (n = 123). The first interval for the surgical cohort contained the surgical date. Regional brain volumes were determined with Freesurfer and quantitatively described with J-image software (University of California at San Francisco). Statistical analysis used Repeated Measures ANCOVA (SPSS, v.18.0; Chicago, IL). Results We found that surgical patients, during the first follow-up interval (5–9 months), but not subsequently, had increased rates of atrophy for cortical gray matter and hippocampus, and lateral ventricle enlargement, as compared to non-surgical controls. A composite score of five cognitive tests during this interval showed reduced performance for surgical patients with mild cognitive impairment. Conclusions Elderly subjects after surgery experienced an increased rate of brain atrophy during the initial evaluation interval, a time associated with enhanced risk for postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Although there was no difference in atrophy rate by diagnosis, subjects with mild cognitive impairment suffered greater subsequent cognitive effects. PMID:22293721

  2. Causality and Subjectivity in Spanish Connectives: Exploring the Use of Automatic Subjectivity Analyses in Various Text Types

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Santana, Andrea; Nieuwenhuijsen, Dorien; Spooren, Wilbert; Sanders, Ted

    2017-01-01

    .... This paper explores the use of automatic analyses of subjectivity in causal connectives. The goal is to determine the degree to which Spanish causal connectives encode subjectivity across different text types, by carrying out automatic analyses...

  3. Psychometric properties of the Subjective Well-Being Under Neuroleptics Scale and the Subjective Deficit Syndrome Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, L.; Weisfelt, M.; Dingemans, P. M. A. J.; Linszen, D. H.; Wouters, L.

    2002-01-01

    Rationale: Subjective experience of antipsychotic drugs is relevant for medication compliance and quality of life. There is, however, sparse knowledge about the assessment of subjective experience. Objectives: To examine the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, sensitivity to medication

  4. Effects of Prism Eyeglasses on Objective and Subjective Fixation Disparity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkhard Schroth

    Full Text Available In optometry of binocular vision, the question may arise whether prisms should be included in eyeglasses to compensate an oculomotor and/or sensory imbalance between the two eyes. The corresponding measures of objective and subjective fixation disparity may be reduced by the prisms, or the adaptability of the binocular vergence system may diminish effects of the prisms over time. This study investigates effects of wearing prisms constantly for about 5 weeks in daily life. Two groups of 12 participants received eyeglasses with prisms having either a base-in direction or a base-out direction with an amount up to 8 prism diopters. Prisms were prescribed based on clinical fixation disparity test plates at 6 m. Two dependent variables were used: (1 subjective fixation disparity was indicated by a perceived offset of dichoptic nonius lines that were superimposed on the fusion stimuli and (2 objective fixation disparity was measured with a video based eye tracker relative to monocular calibration. Stimuli were presented at 6 m and included either central or more peripheral fusion stimuli. Repeated measurements were made without the prisms and with the prisms after about 5 weeks of wearing these prisms. Objective and subjective fixation disparity were correlated, but the type of fusion stimulus and the direction of the required prism may play a role. The prisms did not reduce the fixation disparity to zero, but induced significant changes in fixation disparity with large effect sizes. Participants receiving base-out prisms showed hypothesized effects, which were concurrent in both types of fixation disparity. In participants receiving base-in prisms, the individual effects of subjective and objective effects were negatively correlated: the larger the subjective (sensory effect, the smaller the objective (motor effect. This response pattern was related to the vergence adaptability, i.e. the individual fusional vergence reserves.

  5. Effects of Prism Eyeglasses on Objective and Subjective Fixation Disparity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroth, Volkhard; Joos, Roland; Jaschinski, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In optometry of binocular vision, the question may arise whether prisms should be included in eyeglasses to compensate an oculomotor and/or sensory imbalance between the two eyes. The corresponding measures of objective and subjective fixation disparity may be reduced by the prisms, or the adaptability of the binocular vergence system may diminish effects of the prisms over time. This study investigates effects of wearing prisms constantly for about 5 weeks in daily life. Two groups of 12 participants received eyeglasses with prisms having either a base-in direction or a base-out direction with an amount up to 8 prism diopters. Prisms were prescribed based on clinical fixation disparity test plates at 6 m. Two dependent variables were used: (1) subjective fixation disparity was indicated by a perceived offset of dichoptic nonius lines that were superimposed on the fusion stimuli and (2) objective fixation disparity was measured with a video based eye tracker relative to monocular calibration. Stimuli were presented at 6 m and included either central or more peripheral fusion stimuli. Repeated measurements were made without the prisms and with the prisms after about 5 weeks of wearing these prisms. Objective and subjective fixation disparity were correlated, but the type of fusion stimulus and the direction of the required prism may play a role. The prisms did not reduce the fixation disparity to zero, but induced significant changes in fixation disparity with large effect sizes. Participants receiving base-out prisms showed hypothesized effects, which were concurrent in both types of fixation disparity. In participants receiving base-in prisms, the individual effects of subjective and objective effects were negatively correlated: the larger the subjective (sensory) effect, the smaller the objective (motor) effect. This response pattern was related to the vergence adaptability, i.e. the individual fusional vergence reserves. PMID:26431525

  6. Disability, participation, and subjective wellbeing among older couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Vicki A; Stafford, Frank; Schwarz, Norbert; Conrad, Frederick; Cornman, Jennifer C

    2012-02-01

    This paper investigates the link between disability and subjective wellbeing, using data from the 2009 Disability and Use of Time supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, the longest running national panel study in the United States. Disability is construed broadly to include both the presence of any physical, cognitive, or sensory impairment or activity limitation and also the severity of underlying impairments. Subjective wellbeing is measured using two distinct approaches: reports of life satisfaction and of moment-to-moment wellbeing-both positive and negative-on the previous day. The latter, collected through 24-h time diaries, also offers for the first time the ability to explore the role of participation in particular kinds of activities linking disability to subjective wellbeing. The analytic sample included married persons ages 60 and older and their spouses (n = 751 married individuals) who completed 1498 diaries. Several new findings emerged: no matter what the measure of wellbeing, older married adults with disability report worse subjective wellbeing than those without, and neither different demographic and socioeconomic profiles nor differences in participation fully account for these disparities. Influences of disability on global life satisfaction and episodic reports of happiness were relatively small and of comparable size. However, notably sizeable differences were identified in the cumulative number of pleasant minutes experienced yesterday by disability status - on the order of 71 fewer minutes on average for those with a disability of average severity. Differences appear to be more strongly linked to somatic symptoms of pain and feeling tired than to differential intensity of experiencing happiness, sadness, frustration, or worry. We also found limited support for the notion that participation partially mediates the relationship between disability and global, but not episodic, subjective wellbeing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All

  7. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Subjective Halitosis in Korean Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Kim

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of subjective halitosis in adolescents. In total, 359,263 participants were selected from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS from 2009 through 2013. Demographic data including age, sex, obesity and residency; psychosocial factors such as subjective health, stress, and economic levels; and dietary factors such as alcohol consumption; smoking; and fruit, soda, fast food, instant noodle, confection, and vegetable consumption were analyzed for correlations with halitosis using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. In total, 23.6% of the participants reported the presence of halitosis. The following subjectively assessed factors were related to halitosis: poor health status (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.56, overweight or obese (AOR = 1.37, stress (AOR = 2.56, and lower economic levels (AOR = 1.85. The high intake of fast food (AOR = 1.15, instant noodles (AOR = 1.17, and confections (AOR = 1.17 and the low intake of fruits (AOR = 1.22 and vegetables (AOR = 1.19 were also related to halitosis. The prevalence of subjective halitosis in the studied adolescents was 23.6%. Specific psychosocial factors and dietary intake were related to halitosis.

  8. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Subjective Halitosis in Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Kim, Sung-Gyun; Park, Bumjung; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of subjective halitosis in adolescents. In total, 359,263 participants were selected from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) from 2009 through 2013. Demographic data including age, sex, obesity and residency; psychosocial factors such as subjective health, stress, and economic levels; and dietary factors such as alcohol consumption; smoking; and fruit, soda, fast food, instant noodle, confection, and vegetable consumption were analyzed for correlations with halitosis using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. In total, 23.6% of the participants reported the presence of halitosis. The following subjectively assessed factors were related to halitosis: poor health status (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.56), overweight or obese (AOR = 1.37), stress (AOR = 2.56), and lower economic levels (AOR = 1.85). The high intake of fast food (AOR = 1.15), instant noodles (AOR = 1.17), and confections (AOR = 1.17) and the low intake of fruits (AOR = 1.22) and vegetables (AOR = 1.19) were also related to halitosis. The prevalence of subjective halitosis in the studied adolescents was 23.6%. Specific psychosocial factors and dietary intake were related to halitosis.

  9. Subjective experiences of transient ischaemic attack: a repertory grid approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Laura; James, Gill; Sackley, Cath

    2013-01-01

    Research on the psychosocial reactions to stroke has been used to inform rehabilitation programmes. Yet much less research has been conducted into experiences of, and reactions to, transient ischaemic attack (TIA), despite its link with secondary stroke. This study aimed to investigate the subjective psychological experiences of TIA. Repertory grid technique was used because of its capacity to make individual implicit experiences explicit. Using the standard repertory grid protocol, 12 post-TIA patients were asked to consider how five everyday activities had been affected by TIA. Each participant generated six constructs or personal perspectives, which were analysed using proprietary (RepGrid IV) software. Despite the individualised nature of the responses, six themes emerged from the constructs. These included deep-seated anxiety about future uncertainties/disruption to normality, loss of confidence, frustration, TIA as a wake-up call, a sense of loss and sadness, and embarrassment. Research has shown that the patient's subjective experience and perspective are important to the rehabilitation process post-stroke. Relatively little research has been conducted into the subjective experiences of TIA patients. This study has revealed a range of subjective reactions to TIA, which could be used to inform individualised post-TIA management, adaptation and rehabilitation.

  10. Subjective perspective of the quality of life of senior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Mora

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to know the relationship between the variables (social support, autonomy, mental health, and physical recreational activity included in the subjective perspective of the quality of life of Costa Rican senior citizens related to gender.  Another objective was to know the main reason for the subjects to practice physical activity and the benefits perceived by them, according to their gender. A total of 152 subjects (92 women and 60 men ranging between 60 and 75 years of age from 21 senior centers participated in this study.  Two instruments were applied to the subjects: a questionnaire on quality of life (INISA, 1994 and a survey on physical recreational activity. Results showed a significant relationship between the variables autonomy and social support, autonomy and mental health, autonomy and frequency of activity, and autonomy and duration.  Regarding gender, geriatric depression was more frequent in women (F=5.86. Health was the main motivation to do physical activity and the major benefits for both genders were feeling more revitalized, happier, energized, and pain relief.  In conclusion, quality of life (social support, autonomy, mental health as perceived by senior citizens shows no differences as far as gender or reasons to exercise or benefits received, except for depression, which is more frequent in women. It is proven that the more times and the longer physical recreational activities are practiced by senior citizens per week the more positive results are received.

  11. Reduced adipose tissue lymphatic drainage of macromolecules in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngrim, N; Simonsen, L; Holst, Jens Juul

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate subcutaneous adipose tissue lymphatic drainage (ATLD) of macromolecules in lean and obese subjects and, furthermore, to evaluate whether ATLD may change in parallel with adipose tissue blood flow. Lean and obese male subjects were studied before and after...... the lymphatic system in obese subjects. Furthermore, they suggest that postprandial changes in ATLD taking place in lean subjects are not observed in obese subjects. This may have a role in the development of obesity-related inflammation in hypertrophic adipose tissue.International Journal of Obesity advance...

  12. Humor styles, self-esteem, and subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiao Dong; Liu, Katy Wing-Yin; Jiang, Feng; Hiranandani, Neelam Arjan

    2014-10-01

    Summary.-This study examined how humor styles could mediate the effect of self-esteem on subjective happiness. 227 Hong Kong undergraduate students completed the Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Roxsenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed adaptive humor styles (affiliative humor and self-enhancing humor) significantly predicted self-esteem and subjective happiness and mediated the relationship between self-esteem and subjective happiness. Maladaptive humor styles (aggressive humor and self-defeating humor) did not strongly predict self-esteem or subjective happiness. The mediation effects of humor styles found in the present research provided useful suggestions for future studies.

  13. Subject: Construct or Acting Being? The Status of the Subject and the Problem of Solipsism in Wittgenstein’s Tractatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzimierz HEFLIK

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In his Tractatus and Notebooks 1914-1916, Wittgenstein develops some themes concerning the nature of the subject, transcendentalism, solipsism and mysticism. Though Wittgenstein rejects a naive, psychological understanding of the subject, he preserves the idea of the metaphysical subject, so-called “philosophical I”. The present investigations exhibit two ways of grasping the subject: (1 subject as a boundary (of the world; (2 subject (I as the world. The author of the paper aims to analyze different methods of conceiving the subject, both logical and transcendental. Then he discusses the naturalistic or reductionist consequences of solipsism which were derived by Wittgenstein. Moreover, he refers to the concept of ‘subject of will’ introduced in the Tractatus. Finally, the author puts a question whether the metaphysical subject is a boundary of the world identified with the subject of will. While trying to answer this question one can point to the essential difficulties of Wittgenstein’s standpoint. These difficulties become especially evident if we examine Wittgenstein’s statements concerning mysticism. The category of subject seems to gain a new dimension when reconsidered in this context. In the conclusion, the author offers an interpretation inspired by Schopenhauer’s conception of the double aspect of the subject that is to overstep these difficulties.

  14. Subjective well-being in schizophrenia as measured with the Subjective Well-Being under Neuroleptic Treatment scale : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vothknecht, Sylke; Schoevers, Robert A.; de Haan, Lieuwe

    Objective: The Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptic Treatment scale (SWN) is the most widely used self-rating scale in recent research of subjective well-being in schizophrenia. We reviewed all available publications on relevant research of subjective well-being using the SWN, in order to

  15. Subjective well-being in schizophrenia as measured with the Subjective Well-Being under Neuroleptic Treatment scale: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vothknecht, Sylke; Schoevers, Robert A.; de Haan, Lieuwe

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptic Treatment scale (SWN) is the most widely used self-rating scale in recent research of subjective well-being in schizophrenia. We reviewed all available publications on relevant research of subjective well-being using the SWN, in order to

  16. Subjective Happiness of Lebanese College Youth in Lebanon: Factorial Structure and Invariance of the Arabic Subjective Happiness Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghnie, Lamia; Kazarian, Shahe S.

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluated the subjective happiness of Lebanese college youth using a multi-item rather than a single-item subjective happiness measure. An Arabic translation of the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) was administered to 273 Lebanese college youth from state- and private-run higher institutions of learning, as was the Arabic Adult…

  17. Do subjective memory complaints predict senile Alzheimer dementia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungwirth, Susanne; Zehetmayer, Sonja; Weissgram, Silvia; Weber, Germain; Tragl, Karl Heinz; Fischer, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Many elderly complain about their memory and undergo dementia screening by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). While objective memory impairment always precedes Alzheimer dementia (AD) it is unclear whether subjective memory complaints are predicting AD. We tried to answer this question in a prospective cohort study. The 75-years old non-demented inhabitants of Vienna-Transdanube were investigated for conversion to AD after 30 months. The predictive value of subjective memory complaints was analysed in two groups: subjects with high MMSE-score (28-30) and subjects with low MMSE-score (23-27). Only in subjects with high MMSE univariate analyses showed an association between subjective memory complaints and incident AD. In both groups the verbal memory test was the main predictor of AD in multivariate analyses. We suggest to perform memory testing in subjects complaining about memory irrespective of their performance in a screening procedure like the MMSE.

  18. Renal effects of hyperinsulinaemia in subjects with two hypertensive parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, U B; Skøtt, P; Bruun, N E

    1999-01-01

    aged 18-35 years whose parents both had essential hypertension, and 22 age- and sex-matched subjects whose parents were both normotensive. Diabetes or morbid obesity in any subject or parent excluded the family. The 24-h blood pressure was measured. The subjects received an isocaloric diet with a fixed.......04). Compared with the controls, the subjects predisposed to hypertension had a higher 24-h diastolic blood pressure [78 (70, 82) mmHg, compared with 73 (68, 77) mmHg], but a similar insulin sensitivity index ¿10(7)x[313 (225, 427)] compared with 10(7)x[354 (218, 435)] l(2).min(-1).pmol(-1).kg(-1)¿. Thus...... the sodium-retaining effect of insulin was more pronounced in subjects with a strong genetic predisposition to essential hypertension than in subjects with normotensive parents. This effect may contribute to the development of hypertension in subjects with a genetic predisposition to hypertension....

  19. Family Medicine in Croatia: Quality Measured by Patients’ Subjective Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Stanić, Arsen; Stevanović, Ranko; Pristaš, Ivan; Tiljak, Hrvoje; Benković, Vanesa; Krčmar, Nevenka; Jovanović, Aleksandar; Jurlina, Nataša; Nott, Teodora

    2007-01-01

    A survey of the subjective assessment of quality in the fi eld of family medicine was conducted on a random sample of 50 family medicine teams distributed proportionally across all Croatian counties, and both rural and urban areas. It measured the satisfaction of insurants/patients, i.e. healthcare service users, on the basis of the completed EUROPEP questionnaire. The survey included 7.271 respondents (the response rate to 15.000 distributed questionnaires was 48.47%). O...

  20. Teaching university lecturers how to teach subject:specific writing

    OpenAIRE

    Manderstedt, Lena; Palo, Annbritt

    2015-01-01

    Teaching university lecturers how to teach subject-specific writingLena Manderstedt, Annbritt PaloStandards of student literacy are falling, due to an increased number of students described as non-traditional entrants not knowing how to write (Lea & Street, 1998). Extensive research into academic literacy practices has been carried out, including genre pedagogy (Martin, 2009), the effectiveness of feedback (Hattie & Timperley, 2007) and the role of assessment as a key to develop and i...

  1. Explaining the Objective-Subjective Memory Discrepancy in Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that epilepsy patients frequently report increased memory impairments compared to the normal population but that their performance on standardised memory tests does not reflect this, displaying an “objective-subjective memory discrepancy” not seen in healthy controls (e.g. Witt et al., 2012). Multiple factors have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, many summarised comprehensively by Hall et al. (2009). These explanations include methodological flaws in both ...

  2. Objective and Subjective Assessment of Digital Pathology Image Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prarthana Shrestha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of an image produced by the Whole Slide Imaging (WSI scanners is of critical importance for using the image in clinical diagnosis. Therefore, it is very important to monitor and ensure the quality of images. Since subjective image quality assessments by pathologists are very time-consuming, expensive and difficult to reproduce, we propose a method for objective assessment based on clinically relevant and perceptual image parameters: sharpness, contrast, brightness, uniform illumination and color separation; derived from a survey of pathologists. We developed techniques to quantify the parameters based on content-dependent absolute pixel performance and to manipulate the parameters in a predefined range resulting in images with content-independent relative quality measures. The method does not require a prior reference model. A subjective assessment of the image quality is performed involving 69 pathologists and 372 images (including 12 optimal quality images and their distorted versions per parameter at 6 different levels. To address the inter-reader variability, a representative rating is determined as a one-tailed 95% confidence interval of the mean rating. The results of the subjective assessment support the validity of the proposed objective image quality assessment method to model the readers’ perception of image quality. The subjective assessment also provides thresholds for determining the acceptable level of objective quality per parameter. The images for both the subjective and objective quality assessment are based on the HercepTestTM slides scanned by the Philips Ultra Fast Scanners, developed at Philips Digital Pathology Solutions. However, the method is applicable also to other types of slides and scanners.

  3. Potential predictive factors of osteoporosis in HIV-positive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fausto, Alfonso; Bongiovanni, Marco; Cicconi, Paola; Menicagli, Laura; Ligabò, Emanuela Valentina; Melzi, Sara; Bini, Teresa; Sardanelli, Francesco; Cornalba, GianPaolo; Monforte, Antonella d'Arminio

    2006-06-01

    Recent reports showed a high frequency of osteopenia/osteoporosis in HIV-infected subjects. Mechanism on the basis of this alteration is still unclear, as the direct effect of virus or of antiretroviral drugs. One hundred sixty-one consecutive HIV-infected outpatients aged 30-50 years, both naive and HAART-treated for >1 year, were included. An interview questionnaire was performed to establish prior pathological, toxic, epidemiological histories, medications intake, physical activity and eating habits. Blood and urinary tests were checked to exclude concomitant diseases, as were markers of bone metabolism and vitamin D3-metabolites. Each subject underwent to a lumbar spine and left hipbone mineral density by DEXA, using WHO criteria for diagnosis of osteopenia/osteoporosis. Radiologist was unaware if the subject was receiving HAART or not. For groups' homogeneity Chi-square, Fisher's exact and Student's t tests were used. Logistic regression analysis was used to find predictors of osteopenia/osteoporosis and linear regression model to find differences in bone mass density. The demographic characteristics of the 48 naive subjects and the 113 on HAART were comparable. Eighty subjects (49.7%) showed osteopenia/osteoporosis: 22 (45.8%) naive and 58 (51.3%) on HAART (P = 0.46). Independent predictors of osteopenia/osteoporosis were female gender (OR: 3.02, 95% CI: 1.26-7.25, P = 0.01 vs. male), older age (OR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.01-1.20, P = 0.03, for each additional year), low body mass index (OR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.68-0.91, P = 0.001 for each additional unit) and higher HIV-RNA levels at DEXA (OR: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.16-3.34, P = 0.01 for each additional Log(10)), whereas the use of HAART (OR: 2.61, 95% CI: 0.66-10.27, P = 0.17 vs. naive) and the alterations of markers of bone metabolism were not significantly related to osteopenia/osteoporosis. Similar findings were obtained using linear regression model analysis. HIV-infected subjects have a high frequency of osteopenia

  4. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolder, Patrick C; Schmid, Yasmin; Steuer, Andrea E; Kraemer, Thomas; Rentsch, Katharina M; Hammann, Felix; Liechti, Matthias E

    2017-10-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is used recreationally and in clinical research. The aim of the present study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics and exposure-response relationship of oral LSD. We analyzed pharmacokinetic data from two published placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over studies using oral administration of LSD 100 and 200 µg in 24 and 16 subjects, respectively. The pharmacokinetics of the 100-µg dose is shown for the first time and data for the 200-µg dose were reanalyzed and included. Plasma concentrations of LSD, subjective effects, and vital signs were repeatedly assessed. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using compartmental modeling. Concentration-effect relationships were described using pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling. Geometric mean (95% confidence interval) maximum plasma concentration values of 1.3 (1.2-1.9) and 3.1 (2.6-4.0) ng/mL were reached 1.4 and 1.5 h after administration of 100 and 200 µg LSD, respectively. The plasma half-life was 2.6 h (2.2-3.4 h). The subjective effects lasted (mean ± standard deviation) 8.2 ± 2.1 and 11.6 ± 1.7 h for the 100- and 200-µg LSD doses, respectively. Subjective peak effects were reached 2.8 and 2.5 h after administration of LSD 100 and 200 µg, respectively. A close relationship was observed between the LSD concentration and subjective response within subjects, with moderate counterclockwise hysteresis. Half-maximal effective concentration values were in the range of 1 ng/mL. No correlations were found between plasma LSD concentrations and the effects of LSD across subjects at or near maximum plasma concentration and within dose groups. The present pharmacokinetic data are important for the evaluation of clinical study findings (e.g., functional magnetic resonance imaging studies) and the interpretation of LSD intoxication. Oral LSD presented dose-proportional pharmacokinetics and first-order elimination up to 12 h. The effects of LSD were related

  5. Analysis of sagittal condyl inclination in subjects with temporomandibular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodić Slobodan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Disturbances of mandibular border movements is considered to be one of the major signs of temporomandibular disorders (TMD. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible association between disturbances of mandibular border movements and the presence of symptoms of TMD in the young. Methods. This study included two groups of volunteers between 18 and 26 years of age. The study group included 30 examineers with signs (symptoms of TMD, and the control group also included 30 persons without any signs (symptoms of TMD. The presence of TMD was confirmed according to the craniomandibular index (Helkimo. The functional analysis of mandibular movements was performed in each subject using the computer pantograph. Results. The results of this study did not confirm any significant differences between the values of the condylar variables/sagittal condylar inclination, length of the sagital condylar guidance, in the control and in the study group. Conclusion. The study did not confirm significant differences in the length and inclination of the protrusive condylar guidance, as well as in the values of the sagittal condylar inclination between the subjects with the signs and symptoms of TMD and the normal asymptomatic subjects.

  6. Differentiation chronic post traumatic stress disorder patients from healthy subjects using objective and subjective sleep-related parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasian, Masoud; Jamalabadi, Hamidreza; Abedini, Mina; Ghadami, Mohammad R; Sepehry, Amir A; Knight, David C; Khazaie, Habibolah

    2017-05-22

    Sleep disturbance is common in chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, prior work has demonstrated that there are inconsistencies between subjective and objective assessments of sleep disturbance in PTSD. Therefore, we investigated whether subjective or objective sleep assessment has greater clinical utility to differentiate PTSD patients from healthy subjects. Further, we evaluated whether the combination of subjective and objective methods improves the accuracy of classification into patient versus healthy groups, which has important diagnostic implications. We recruited 32 chronic war-induced PTSD patients and 32 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects to participate in this study. Subjective (i.e. from three self-reported sleep questionnaires) and objective sleep-related data (i.e. from actigraphy scores) were collected from each participant. Subjective, objective, and combined (subjective and objective) sleep data were then analyzed using support vector machine classification. The classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for subjective variables were 89.2%, 89.3%, and 89%, respectively. The classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for objective variables were 65%, 62.3%, and 67.8%, respectively. The classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for the aggregate variables (combination of subjective and objective variables) were 91.6%, 93.0%, and 90.3%, respectively. Our findings indicate that classification accuracy using subjective measurements is superior to objective measurements and the combination of both assessments appears to improve the classification accuracy for differentiating PTSD patients from healthy individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Electronic cigarettes: abuse liability, topography and subjective effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sarah E; Hoffman, Allison C

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available evidence evaluating the abuse liability, topography, subjective effects, craving and withdrawal suppression associated with e-cigarette use in order to identify information gaps and provide recommendations for future research. Methods Literature searches were conducted between October 2012 and January 2014 using five electronic databases. Studies were included in this review if they were peer-reviewed scientific journal articles evaluating clinical laboratory studies, national surveys or content analyses. Results A total of 15 peer-reviewed articles regarding behavioural use and effects of e-cigarettes published between 2010 and 2014 were included in this review. Abuse liability studies are limited in their generalisability. Topography (consumption behaviour) studies found that, compared with traditional cigarettes, e-cigarette average puff duration was significantly longer, and e-cigarette use required stronger suction. Data on e-cigarette subjective effects (such as anxiety, restlessness, concentration, alertness and satisfaction) and withdrawal suppression are limited and inconsistent. In general, study data should be interpreted with caution, given limitations associated with comparisons of novel and usual products, as well as the possible effects associated with subjects’ previous experience/inexperience with e-cigarettes. Conclusions Currently, very limited information is available on abuse liability, topography and subjective effects of e-cigarettes. Opportunities to examine extended e-cigarette use in a variety of settings with experienced e-cigarette users would help to more fully assess topography as well as behavioural and subjective outcomes. In addition, assessment of ‘real-world’ use, including amount and timing of use and responses to use, would clarify behavioural profiles and potential adverse health effects. PMID:24732159

  8. Pharmacokinetics of Nintedanib in Subjects With Hepatic Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzin, Kristell; Kretschmar, Gunther; Luedtke, Doreen; Kraemer, Sandrine; Kuelzer, Raimund; Schlenker-Herceg, Rozsa; Schmid, Ulrike; Schnell, David; Dallinger, Claudia

    2017-11-06

    Nintedanib is an intracellular inhibitor of tyrosine kinases used in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). This phase 1 open-label study investigated the influence of mild and moderate hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and tolerability of nintedanib following oral administration of a single 100-mg dose. Subjects with hepatic impairment classified as Child-Pugh A (mild hepatic impairment) or Child-Pugh B (moderate hepatic impairment) were eligible. The control group comprised healthy matched subjects. Primary end points were Cmax and AUC0-∞ of nintedanib. Thirty-three subjects received nintedanib (8 in each of the Child-Pugh A and Child-Pugh B groups and 17 controls). The shape of the plasma concentration-time curve for nintedanib was similar between Child-Pugh A or B and healthy subjects. Nintedanib exposure was ∼2-fold higher in Child-Pugh A subjects and ∼8-fold higher in Child-Pugh B subjects than in healthy subjects. Adverse events were reported in 3 Child-Pugh B subjects (37.5%), no Child-Pugh A subjects, and 3 healthy subjects (17.6%). In conclusion, exposure to nintedanib was higher in Child-Pugh A and B subjects than in matched healthy subjects. A single dose of nintedanib 100 mg had an acceptable safety and tolerability profile in subjects with hepatic impairment. Results of this dedicated phase 1 study are in line with exploratory investigations into the PK of nintedanib in patients with advanced solid tumors or IPF and hepatic impairment. © 2017, The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  9. Subjective and objective characteristics of altered consciousness during epileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campora, Nuria; Kochen, Silvia

    2016-02-01

    Conscious states are inner states and processes of awareness. These states are by definition subjective. We analyzed subjective and objective characteristics of alteration of consciousness (AOC) during epileptic seizures, including its involvement in both the level of awareness and subjective content of consciousness. We evaluated AOC using the Consciousness Seizure Scale, the Ictal Consciousness Inventory, and a new structured survey developed by our group: the Seizure Perception Survey, which incorporates patients' subjective experiences before and after they watch a video-electroencephalographic recording of their own seizure. We included 35 patients (105 seizures) with drug-resistant epilepsy. Most seizures caused profound AOC. The content of consciousness was lower during temporal seizures with profound AOC. We uncovered a correlation between the subjective perception and objective duration of a seizure using the Seizure Perception Survey regarding memory; the patients had a better recall of ictal onset during wakefulness regardless of the epileptogenic zone, laterality, or magnitude of AOC. Nonetheless, the recovery of memory at the end of a seizure took more time in patients who showed greater AOC, less vivid content of consciousness, or a longer seizure. For 85% of the patients, this was the first time they were able to view their own seizures. The majority of the patients requested to view them again because this procedure allowed them to compare the recordings with their own memories and emotions during a seizure and to verify the real duration of the seizure. Alteration of consciousness is one of the most dramatic clinical manifestations of epilepsy. Usually, practitioners or relatives assume that the patients with AOC may not have any knowledge on their seizures. In this study, however, we found that most patients with AOC had a fairly accurate perception of the duration of a seizure and retained their memory of ictal onset. In contrast, for the

  10. African Journals Online: Humanities (broad subject range)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 55 ... It focuses both on conceptual or theoretical approaches and case studies or essays demonstrating how advanced information technologies further scholarly .... Global Journal of Humanities is aimed at promoting reasearch in all areas of Humanities including philosophy, languages, linguistics, literature, ...

  11. Subjective Optic Disc Assessment and Single Measurement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Verbal consent was obtained from the Treasury Department of the Rivers State Ministry of Finance and also from all individuals who participated in the study. Demographic data including age and sex were recorded in the WHO/PBL eye examination form. Ocular examination consisted of uncorrected VA measured with ...

  12. infected subjects attending three selected hospitals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... and Infectious Diseases Hospital. HIV infection was confirmed using indirect ... HIV infection affects the serum levels of iron, vitamin A and β-carotene by reducing their levels; hence, dietary supplementation with ... include vitamins such as vitamin A, D, E, K, B and C and minerals such as Iron, iodine, zinc, ...

  13. Study of Subjective Life Quality in Young People with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtanova Yu.E.,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a study of subjective life quality in young people with disabilities compared with their healthy peers. The study sample comprised 62 women aged 14 to 18 years. The experimental study group consisted of 30 students of grades VIII-XI of Secondary School of home-based learning № 1673 "Support". The control group included 32 student of grades VIII-XI of School № 1222 with in-depth study of the German language. The methods used were: Medical Outcomes Study 36 Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36, M. Kuhn test "Who am I" (M. Kuhn, T. McPartland; modification by T.V. Rumjantseva, Method and diagnosis of health, activity and mood, projective technique "Picture of the actual self" and "Picture of the desired self" with questions. We formulated conclusions about the features of the subjective assessment of the quality of life in young people with disabilities compared with their healthy peers.

  14. The interrelationship between subject matter and school gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jacob Højgaard; Wistoft, Karen

    2018-01-01

    This article maps out existing research regarding the effectiveness of integrated teaching in school gardens, i.e. including the math, languages and science subjects with their related objectives and curricula in school garden teaching and vice versa. The article is based on a literature review...... a standard garden curriculum is essential to planning, carrying out and evaluating effective school garden teaching in math, languages and science. Experiential learning and hands-on activities are teaching methods that immediately come to mind because they make the subject content less abstract, activate...... that concludes that school gardens have a predominantly positive influence on students’ learning outcome. However, there are a few school garden programmes that have the same or even a less beneficial influence on students’ learning outcome than traditional teaching. Thus, school gardens do not have...

  15. Serological biomarkers in triage of FIT-positive subjects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans J; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Andersen, Berit

    2017-01-01

    FIT-based colorectal cancer screening has been implemented in many countries including Denmark, where 916 colorectal cancer and 4468 high- or medium-risk adenoma patients were identified within April-December 2014, among 16,806 subjects with a positive FIT test. Screening increases the overall...... with neoplastic lesions missed by increased cut-off levels appears to be much higher than expected. Therefore, tests that identify those patients missed by increased FIT cut-off levels must be developed. Preliminary results of determination of one of several biomarker entities currently under investigation show...... that nucleosome blood tests may be one option for identifying some of these patients. Implementation of a triage test consisting of FIT, blood-based biomarkers and plus/minus colonoscopy is suggested to identify subjects with FIT levels between the initial and the increased cut-off level that must be offered...

  16. Subjective relevance of objective measures for spatial impression (A)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lily M.; Gade, Anders Christian

    2000-01-01

    Several objective measures have been proposed to describe the feeling of spatial impression in concert halls, including Lateral Energy Fraction (LF) and Interaural Cross-Correlation Coefficient (IACC). However, previous studies have shown that LF and IACC values did not highly correlate with each...... generated by the room acoustics simulation program ODEON, using four different musical motifs, and were presented to test subjects via headphones. Results from the experiments are presented. [Work supported by ASA Hunt Postdoctoral Research Fellowship.]...... other at individual seat positions in real halls [J. S. Bradley, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 96, 3525–3535 (1994)]. To investigate the listener envelopment aspect of spatial impression further, subjective paired-comparison tests have been run using signals which have various values for LF, early IACC (from 5...

  17. Searching electronically for information on transcultural nursing and health subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Margaret; Burr, Jennifer; Janetos, Deborah H

    2004-07-01

    With the proliferation of electronic resources available to search for subjects related to transcultural nursing and health, nurses must keep abreast of computer-based tools that enable them to quickly and efficiently obtain information on a variety of topics. This article provides suggestions for narrowing and focusing a search on transcultural nursing and related subjects using important research databases such as Medline and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). Information about additional useful databases such as Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) and Psychological Abstracts (PsycINFO) is also provided. In the article, selected examples of Internet sites of interest in transcultural nursing and health are identified and described in brief annotations. Web sites for U.S. government agencies, organizations, and commercial groups that concern transcultural nursing and health care are cited. Global transcultural health and nursing Internet resources also are included.

  18. Acute Effects of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Yasmin; Enzler, Florian; Gasser, Peter; Grouzmann, Eric; Preller, Katrin H; Vollenweider, Franz X; Brenneisen, Rudolf; Müller, Felix; Borgwardt, Stefan; Liechti, Matthias E

    2015-10-15

    After no research in humans for >40 years, there is renewed interest in using lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in clinical psychiatric research and practice. There are no modern studies on the subjective and autonomic effects of LSD, and its endocrine effects are unknown. In animals, LSD disrupts prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response, and patients with schizophrenia exhibit similar impairments in PPI. However, no data are available on the effects of LSD on PPI in humans. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study, LSD (200 μg) and placebo were administered to 16 healthy subjects (8 women, 8 men). Outcome measures included psychometric scales; investigator ratings; PPI of the acoustic startle response; and autonomic, endocrine, and adverse effects. Administration of LSD to healthy subjects produced pronounced alterations in waking consciousness that lasted 12 hours. The predominant effects induced by LSD included visual hallucinations, audiovisual synesthesia, and positively experienced derealization and depersonalization phenomena. Subjective well-being, happiness, closeness to others, openness, and trust were increased by LSD. Compared with placebo, LSD decreased PPI. LSD significantly increased blood pressure, heart rate, body temperature, pupil size, plasma cortisol, prolactin, oxytocin, and epinephrine. Adverse effects produced by LSD completely subsided within 72 hours. No severe acute adverse effects were observed. In addition to marked hallucinogenic effects, LSD exerts methylenedioxymethamphetamine-like empathogenic mood effects that may be useful in psychotherapy. LSD altered sensorimotor gating in a human model of psychosis, supporting the use of LSD in translational psychiatric research. In a controlled clinical setting, LSD can be used safely, but it produces significant sympathomimetic stimulation. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ocular and systemic findings in a survey of aniridia subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netland, Peter A; Scott, Michele L; Boyle, John W; Lauderdale, James D

    2011-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of ocular and systemic abnormalities in a group of subjects with aniridia. Survey forms developed by Aniridia Foundation International were sent to all members prior to the 2010 AFI member conference. An additional form was provided for completion by physicians caring for patients. Forms were then collected from all members who attended the meeting. A total of 155 surveys were distributed, of which 83 (53%) were completed. The mean age was 25.4 ± 18.4 years, with 65% sporadic and 35% familial cases, and 2.4% with WAGR (Wilms' tumor, aniridia, genitourinary anomalies, and mental retardation) syndrome. Ocular abnormalities included nystagmus (83%), cataract (71%), dry eye (53%), glaucoma (46%), keratopathy (45%), foveal hypoplasia (41%), strabismus (31%), and retinal disease (5%). The mean age at diagnosis of aniridia was 22.1 months (median, 1.5 months) and glaucoma was 13.6 years (median, 8.5 years). Of 38 subjects with aniridia and glaucoma, 76% were treated medically, and 58% had been treated surgically. In subjects with glaucoma, the mean number (± SD) of glaucoma medications was 1.8 ± 1.3, and number of surgical procedures was 1.7 ± 2.0. Developmental delay was reported in 17%. The mean body mass index and the prevalence of obesity in subjects with aniridia was significantly greater (P = 0.003) than in siblings without aniridia. In this study, aniridia was associated with nystagmus and other motility problems, cataract, glaucoma, and keratopathy. Systemic abnormalities included increased average body mass index and obesity, which appeared to occur not only in WAGR syndrome but more broadly in aniridia. Copyright © 2011 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Unraveling Researcher Subjectivity Through Multivocality in Autoethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Mizzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes and discusses the notion of including multivocality as an autoethnographic method to: (a illustrate that there is no single and temporally-fixed voice that a researcher possesses, (b unfix identity in a way that exposes the fluid nature of identity as it moves through particular contexts, and (c deconstruct competing tensions within the autoethnographer as s/he connects the personal self to the social context. After providing a short, multivocal vignette based on the author's previous work assignment as a teacher educator in Kosovo, the author offers a reflective analysis of his approach. His analysis includes a critical discussion around the benefits and challenges of using such a method in autoethnography. The author concludes that research-oriented institutions might be resistant to validating multivocality as research practice given the myopic view that "voice" is linear, categorizable, and one-dimensional. In this way, the use of multivocality in autoethnography can also be understood as a way to liberate research practices from oppressive institutional rules and restrictions.

  1. Eating habits and subjective well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta Lorena; Miranda, Horacio; Lobos, Germán

    2015-01-01

    (mean age = 20.9 years, SD = 2.27). The survey included the Health-related Quality of Life Index-4 (HRQOL), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life Scale (SWFL), as well as questions about the place of residence, importance of food for well-being, frequency of meals...... with mental health problems, number of days of health-related incapacity, place of residence, socioeconomic status, importance of food for well-being, frequency of breakfast and dinner in the place of residence, frequency of consumption of meat, milk, fruits and vegetables. It was found that most students...... with higher levels of life satisfaction and satisfaction with food-related life live with their parents, eat at home more frequently, report fewer health problems, have healthful eating habits and consider food very important for their well-being. Although it is necessary to promote or improve the campaigns...

  2. Irish Intercultural Cinema: Memory, Identity and Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray, Enda Vincent

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Irish intercultural cinema looks at the development of a cinematic genre which focuses on issues of Irish migrancy but is produced outside of Ireland. This paper has as its focus the cultural landscape of Irish-Australia. The essay uses methodologies of ethnographic and documentary theory plus textual analysis of film and written texts to establish a throughline of Irish intercultural film. The essay begins by contextualising the place of the Irish diaspora within the creation of Irish identity globally. The discussion around migrancy is widened to consider the place of memory and intergenerational tensions within not just the Irish migrant population, but also within the diverse cultures which comprise the contemporary Australian landscape. The historical development of intercultural cinema is then explored internationally within a context of colonial, gender and class struggles in the 1970s and1980s. The term intercultural cinema has its origins in the Third Cinema of Argentinians Solanas and Getino in the 1970s and covers those films which deal with issues involving two countries or cultures. The term was refined by Laura Marks in 2000 and further developed by Hamid Naficy in 2001 in his discussion of accented cinema which narrows its definition to include the politics of production. The paper then traces the development of Irish intercultural cinema from its beginnings in England in the 1970s with Thaddeus O'Sullivan through to Nicola Bruce and others including Enda Murray in the present day. The essay concludes by bringing these various strands together to see where intercultural film might have a place in today's globalised cultural landscape. Common traits within intercultural film such as the notion of place, autobiographical film and personal identity are explored using examples of intercultural filmmaking from around the globe. These commonalities point to a way forward for the future of a sustainable multicultural film culture.

  3. The Effect of Environmental Change in Single-Subject Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    RD-RI725 779 THE EFFECT 0F ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE IN SINGLE - SUBJECT - i/i EXPERINENTS(U) DESNATICS INC STATE COLLEGE PA U AS K C BURNS ET AL. FEB 83 TR...238-9621 Applied Research in Statistics - Mathematics - Operations Research THE EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE IN SINGLE - SUBJECT EXPERIMENTS by Kevin...necessary to analyze repeated measurements taken on a single subject . In some situations, such an analysis may be carried out under the assumption that

  4. Pursuing the Emancipatory Purport of Subjectivity from Frankfurt to Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mesbahian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to investigating the philosophical place of Subjectivity in the contemporary thought. My justification for engaging in further study on this much-discussed concept is that three significant questions concerning subjectivity have remained insufficiently examined: What is the problem of philosophical foundation of modernity from Cartesian Cogito to the Kantian autonomous will and to the Hegelian subjectivity? Is there any possibility to overcome the proposed problem from an internal point of view and from the perspective of Jürgen Habermas? Whether the radical criticism of the Enlightenment idea of an autonomous subject by thinkers like Foucault and Derrida leads to loss of freedom or to the robust notion of freedom being deeply improved? This paper, accordingly, will examine the three above mentioned questions regarding subjectivity across three sections. I have argued, in the first section that the Enlightenment’s her¬itage is contradictory. On the one hand, the notion of subjectivity has generated a kind of emancipation. On the other hand, the subjectivity has enthroned a conception of reason and of method that can be interpreted as a new form of domination. In the second section, I have argued that Habermas’s answer to the philosophical dilemma of subjectivity is to accept the criticism of subject-centered reason but to find a basis for reason in communicative action. Habermas’s conception of subjectivity has been criticized by the help of some contemporary thinkers, in the third section of this paper, and it has been argued that based on his notions of modernity and subjectivity the marginalized populations of the World- namely the Other- can no longer expect intellectual and ethical support for their plight from Frankfurt and should immigrate to Paris in order to purse the emancipatory aspect of subjectivity.

  5. Sexualities and the ECHR: Introducing the Universal Sexual Legal Subject

    OpenAIRE

    Grigolo, M

    2003-01-01

    Shifting from an essentialist to a constructionist perspective on sexual identities, I move from a consideration of the homosexual legal subject, as presently treated under the European Convention on Human Rights, to the elaboration of a universal sexual legal subject. The\\ud universal sexual legal subject enjoys two basic rights: the right to choose sexual activity and sexual identity and the right to establish relationships and families in accordance with this choice. The possibility of inc...

  6. Pursuing the Emancipatory Purport of Subjectivity from Frankfurt to Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mesbahian

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to investigating the philosophical place of Subjectivity in the contemporary thought. My justification for engaging in further study on this much-discussed concept is that three significant questions concerning subjectivity have remained insufficiently examined: What is the problem of philosophical foundation of modernity from Cartesian Cogito to the Kantian autonomous will and to the Hegelian subjectivity? Is there any possibility to overcome the proposed problem from an internal point of view and from the perspective of Jürgen Habermas? Whether the radical criticism of the Enlightenment idea of an autonomous subject by thinkers like Foucault and Derrida leads to loss of freedom or to the robust notion of freedom being deeply improved? This paper, accordingly, will examine the three above mentioned questions regarding subjectivity across three sections. I have argued, in the first section that the Enlightenment’s heritage is contradictory. On the one hand, the notion of subjectivity has generated a kind of emancipation. On the other hand, the subjectivity has enthroned a conception of reason and of method that can be interpreted as a new form of domination. In the second section, I have argued that Habermas’s answer to the philosophical dilemma of subjectivity is to accept the criticism of subject-centered reason but to find a basis for reason in communicative action. Habermas’s conception of subjectivity has been criticized by the help of some contemporary thinkers, in the third section of this paper, and it has been argued that based on his notions of modernity and subjectivity the marginalized populations of the World- namely the Other- can no longer expect intellectual and ethical support for their plight from Frankfurt and should immigrate to Paris in order to purse the emancipatory aspect of subjectivity.

  7. Insight and neurocognitive functioning in bipolar subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shad, Mujeeb U; Prasad, Konasale; Forman, Steven D; Haas, Gretchen L; Walker, Jon D; Pisarov, Liubomir A; Goldstein, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Insight concerning having a mental illness has been found to influence outcome and effectiveness of treatment. It has been studied mainly in the area of schizophrenia with few studies addressing other disorders. This study evaluates insight in individuals with bipolar disorder using the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD), a comprehensive interview for evaluation of awareness of illness and attribution of symptoms. The hypothesis was that in bipolar disorder level of awareness may be associated with numerous factors including neurocognitive function, structural changes in the frontal lobes and hippocampus evaluated by MRI, neurocognitive status, severity of mania and other psychiatric symptoms and comorbid alcoholism. In order to evaluate this hypothesis 33 individuals with DSM-IV diagnosed bipolar disorder, some with and some without comorbid alcoholism, were administered the SUMD and a number of other procedures including a quantitative MRI measuring volume of the frontal lobes and hippocampus, a brief battery of neurocognitive tests, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, and the Young Mania Rating Scale. The data were analyzed by comparing participants with and without alcoholism on these procedures using t tests and by linear multiple regression, with SUMD ratings of awareness and attribution as the dependent variables and variable sets from the other procedures administered as multivariate independent variables. The median score obtained from the SUMD for current awareness was in a range between full awareness and uncertainty concerning presence of a mental disorder. For attribution, the median score indicated that attribution was usually made to the illness itself. None of the differences between participants with and without comorbid alcoholism were significant for the SUMD awareness and attribution scores, neurocognitive or MRI variables. The multiple regression analyses only showed a significant degree of association between the SUMD

  8. Progressive Failure Studies of Stiffened Panels Subjected to Shear Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambur, Damodar R.; Jaunky, Navin; Hilburger, Mark W.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Experimental and analytical results are presented for progressive failure of stiffened composite panels with and without a notch and subjected to in plane shear loading well into their postbuckling regime. Initial geometric imperfections are included in the finite element models. Ply damage modes such as matrix cracking, fiber-matrix shear, and fiber failure are modeled by degrading the material properties. Experimental results from the test include strain field data from video image correlation in three dimensions in addition to other strain and displacement measurements. Results from nonlinear finite element analyses are compared with experimental data. Good agreement between experimental data and numerical results are observed for the stitched stiffened composite panels studied.

  9. Subjective dimension in the analysis of human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÓPEZ NOVAL, Borja

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years subjective evaluations about own quality of life, resumed in levels of life satisfactionor happiness, are gaining importance as indicators of development. Some authors state that subjectivewell-being is a necessary and sufficient condition for human development. In this work the arguments ofthese authors are explained and it is discussed the role subjective evaluations must play on developmentstudies. The main conclusion is that although it is necessary to integrate subjective well-being into humandevelopment studies we cannot identify subjective well-being and development.

  10. Reproducibility of single-subject functional connectivity measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anderson, J S; Ferguson, M A; Lopez-Larson, M; Yurgelun-Todd, D

    2011-01-01

    .... We collected data to characterize how much imaging time is necessary to obtain reproducible quantitative functional connectivity measurements needed for a reliable single-subject diagnostic test...

  11. Anomalous subjective experiences in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and unipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Ju-Hee; Lee, Jinyoung

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare anomalous subjective experiences in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and unipolar depression, in order to elucidate differences in subjective experiences and examine their potential clinical correlates in schizophrenia and mood disorders. The subjective experiences of 78 outpatients with schizophrenia (n=32), bipolar disorder (n=24) and unipolar depression (n=22), and 32 healthy controls were comprehensively assessed using the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (FCQ). The FCQ total score was significantly higher in the schizophrenia and depression groups than in the healthy control group. There were no significant differences in the FCQ total or subscale scores among the schizophrenia, unipolar depression, and bipolar disorder groups. In the schizophrenia group, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative factor score was a significant negative predictor of the severity of subjective experiences assessed by the FCQ total score. Disruption of subjective experiences in patients with unipolar depression was associated with greater severity of depressive symptoms and younger age. In the bipolar disorder group, women reported more disruptions in subjective experience. Anomalous subjective experiences measured by the FCQ are not specific to schizophrenia, and the severity of these experiences in unipolar depression is substantially high. The finding of a dissimilar pattern of predictors of subjective experiences across different diagnostic groups suggests the complexity and variety of factors contributing to anomalous subjective experiences in schizophrenia and mood disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Patterns of regional brain activity in alcohol-dependent subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Elizabeth P; Wiegand, Ryan E; Meyer, Eric T; Bauer, Lance O; O'connor, Sean J; Nurnberger, John I; Chorlian, David B; Porjesz, Bernice; Begleiter, Henri

    2006-12-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of hemispheric asymmetry in anterior brain activity have been related to a variety of indices of psychopathology and emotionality. However, little is known about patterns of frontal asymmetry in alcohol-dependent (AD) samples. It is also unclear whether psychiatric comorbidity in AD subjects accounts for additional variance in frontal asymmetry, beyond a diagnosis of AD alone. We compared 193 AD subjects with 108 control subjects on resting brain activity in anterior and posterior regions, as indexed by asymmetries in alpha band power in the left and right hemispheres. Within the AD group alone, we examined whether comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD) or antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) had effects on regional asymmetry. Compared with control subjects, AD subjects exhibited lower left, relative to right, cortical activation in anterior regions. Evidence that comorbidity in AD subjects accounted for further variance in EEG asymmetry was mixed; AD subjects with comorbid ASPD were not significantly different from those without ASPD, while AD subjects with a lifetime history of MDD showed less asymmetry in anterior regions than those without MDD. Our findings indicate that AD subjects exhibit a pattern of frontal asymmetry similar to that found in other psychiatric groups. Results examining the effects of comorbidity in AD on EEG asymmetry were inconclusive. The implications of our findings for future work are described.

  13. Developing a biomedical expert finding system using medical subject headings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harpreet; Singh, Reema; Malhotra, Arjun; Kaur, Manjit

    2013-12-01

    Efficient identification of subject experts or expert communities is vital for the growth of any organization. Most of the available expert finding systems are based on self-nomination, which can be biased, and are unable to rank experts. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a robust and unbiased expert finding system which can quantitatively measure expertise. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a controlled vocabulary developed by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) for indexing research publications, articles and books. Using the MeSH terms associated with peer-reviewed articles published from India and indexed in PubMed, we developed a Web-based program which can be used to identify subject experts and subjects associated with an expert. We have extensively tested our system to identify experts from India in various subjects. The system provides a ranked list of experts where known experts rank at the top of the list. The system is general; since it uses information available with the PubMed, it can be implemented for any country. The expert finding system is able to successfully identify subject experts in India. Our system is unique because it allows the quantification of subject expertise, thus enabling the ranking of experts. Our system is based on peer-reviewed information. Use of MeSH terms as subjects has standardized the subject terminology. The system matches requirements of an ideal expert finding system.

  14. Soft tissue facial morphometry in subjects with Moebius syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforza, Chiarella; Grandi, Gaia; Pisoni, Luca; Di Blasio, Chiara; Gandolfini, Mauro; Ferrario, Virgilio F

    2009-12-01

    Moebius syndrome is a congenital facial palsy associated with the impairment of ocular abduction. The three-dimensional characteristics of the facial soft tissues of 12 male and 14 female subjects [3-52 yr of age (mean age + standard deviation: 17 + 14 yr)] were measured using a non-invasive, computerized system; facial volumes, areas, angles, and distances were computed and compared with those obtained in reference subjects of the same age and gender. When compared with reference subjects, patients with Moebius syndrome had a more prominent and hyperdivergent face in the sagittal plane, a smaller and more prominent upper facial third; a smaller middle facial width; a smaller nose; smaller mandibular volume, depth, corpus length, and ramus height; and a more posterior positioned mandible, with a less prominent chin. In conclusion, patients with Moebius syndrome had a tendency towards a skeletal Class II pattern. These morphological variations may be the combined effect of a general alteration of the motor and sensitive facial nerves, including the trigeminal nerve, and of a maldevelopment of the brainstem.

  15. To the Issue of the Subject Definition of Pedagogic Acmeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Tchapayev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the subject of pedagogic acmeology as an evolving phenomenon integrating a complex set of pedagogic, psychological, anthropological and socially significant characteristics. The methodology framework is based on dialectics – «the only method that can grasp a living reality on the whole» (A. F. Losev. As the result, the author comes up with his own definition of pedagogic acmeology as a science dealing with the conformities and ways of developing the human potential and aimed at the positive personal achievements in educational process; wherein the man is regarded as the human subject, individual and individuality - i.e. a holistic multidimensional personality. The significant conclusion of the study involves the idea that pedagogic acmeology should not be confined to teacher’s professional activities, as it was previously stated, but should include the activities of a learner as a growing and developing human being. In other words, pedagogic acmeology should overcome the age restrictions confining its subject matters to the adult’s activities. 

  16. The effectiveness of hypnotherapy in the treatment of subjective tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Moghtaderi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Tinnitus is an annoying disease cause major problems including insomnia, impaired concentration, and reduced quality of life. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of hypnotherapy in the treatment of subjective tinnitus.Methods: This was a pilot experimental study with pre- and post-test method. 20 people suffered from subjective tinnitus were divided equally in two groups of experimental and control. The two groups were matched according to age and severity of tinnitus. They completed tinnitus clinical questionnaires before and after the test and the severity of their tinnitus was recorded by a number from one to ten. Experimental group went under hypnotherapy for 10 sessions. The control group did not perform any psychological treatment. The gathered data were statistically analyzed using Student's t-test (independent and dependent.Results: There were significant differences between the pre-test and post-test scores of each group and also, between the post-test scores of experimental and control groups (p = 0.001 for all.Conclusion: The results showed that hypnotherapy could effectively reduce the seventy of tinnitus in patients in the experimental group; in other words, the results confirm the effectiveness of medical hypnosis in the treatment of subjective tinnitus.

  17. The relationship between subjects with mental disorder and social facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina de Moraes Dantas Moura

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The mental care currently provided in primary health care includes tools which present the community territory as a privileged space for the new assistance process. This way, interventions with the population with mental disorders should be aimed at developing strategies which seek the promotion of changes in the social space occupied by these people and at constructing and/or resuming territorial networks. This study aims to understand the relationship between individuals with mental disorder and the community social facilities by means of a qualitative investigation with 7 users, who present a history of psychic suffering, assisted at a unit of the Family Health Strategy. We identified 97 social facilities in the community, distributed into the following categories: health, religion, education, leisure, social organization, and workplaces. We observed that users only participated in religious activities and they resorted to the Family Health Strategy for health care. The lack of spaces and leisure activities in the community increases the difficulty with regard to the social participation of these subjects. We conclude that the subjects present relationships limited to the nuclear family, health professionals at the Family Health Strategy, and religious activities, reflecting a fragile connection to the community network of care. This fact indicates a need for expanding mental care actions in primary care and reinforces the practice of occupational therapy, contributing to increase the territorial and everyday life relationships of subjects with psychosocial needs.

  18. Subjective experience of emotions and emotional empathy in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Anja; Bahçesular, Katja; Brockmann, Eva-Maria; Biederbick, Sarah-Elisabeth; Dziobek, Isabel; Gallinat, Jürgen; Montag, Christiane

    2014-12-30

    Unlike the cognitive dimensions, alterations of the affective components of empathy in schizophrenia are less well understood. This study explored cognitive and affective dimensions of empathy in the context of the subjective experience of aspects of emotion processing, including emotion regulation, emotional contagion, and interpersonal distress, in individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls. In addition, the predictive value of these parameters on psychosocial function was investigated. Fifty-five patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 55 healthy controls were investigated using the Multifaceted Empathy Test and Interpersonal Reactivity Index, as well as the Subjective Experience of Emotions and Emotional Contagion Scales. Individuals with schizophrenia showed impairments of cognitive empathy, but maintained emotional empathy. They reported significantly more negative emotional contagion, overwhelming emotions, lack of emotions, and symbolization of emotions by imagination, but less self-control of emotional expression than healthy persons. Besides cognitive empathy, the experience of a higher extent of overwhelming emotions and of less interpersonal distress predicted psychosocial function in patients. People with schizophrenia and healthy controls showed diverging patterns of how cognitive and emotional empathy related to the subjective aspects of emotion processing. It can be assumed that variables of emotion processing are important moderators of empathic abilities in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Calculating and graphing within-subject confidence intervals for ANOVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguley, Thom

    2012-03-01

    The psychological and statistical literature contains several proposals for calculating and plotting confidence intervals (CIs) for within-subjects (repeated measures) ANOVA designs. A key distinction is between intervals supporting inference about patterns of means (and differences between pairs of means, in particular) and those supporting inferences about individual means. In this report, it is argued that CIs for the former are best accomplished by adapting intervals proposed by Cousineau (Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 1, 42-45, 2005) and Morey (Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 4, 61-64, 2008) so that nonoverlapping CIs for individual means correspond to a confidence for their difference that does not include zero. CIs for the latter can be accomplished by fitting a multilevel model. In situations in which both types of inference are of interest, the use of a two-tiered CI is recommended. Free, open-source, cross-platform software for such interval estimates and plots (and for some common alternatives) is provided in the form of R functions for one-way within-subjects and two-way mixed ANOVA designs. These functions provide an easy-to-use solution to the difficult problem of calculating and displaying within-subjects CIs.

  20. Dark Adaptation of Colour Vision in Diabetic Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Gamiño, S.; Cortés-Peñaloza, J. L.; Pérez-Hernández, J. U.; Cruz-Rodríguez, E.; Caudillo, C.

    2004-09-01

    Eye disease, a late complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) occurs even under a careful glicemic control. It includes optic nerve, retina, vitreous humor, crystalline lens and pupillary affection. The physiopathological process could be independent of blood glucose levels or start at initial stages of the disease. Photoreceptors have specific physiological functions. The functional substrate of day light or colour vision in superior primates, the cones have different spectral sensitivity, 455, 530 and 560 nm. The rods, maximal sensitivity at 505 nm, are much more sensitive to light than are cones. Dark adaptation was tested to evaluate functional impairment differences in photoreceptors of diabetic subjects. 14 DM2 (type 2 DM), and 5 DM1 (type 1 DM) patients, as well as 9 healthy subjects were studied. Retinal affected individuals, were excluded. Dark adaptation curves seemed to be different between DM, and healthy subjects. Cones, specially those sensitive to 560 nm type, seems to be more labile to DM, as demonstrated by the lack of sensitivity to low, and medium intensity stimuli. Medical Physics and elementary Biomedical Engineering exhibited to be useful to discern malfunction between different types of photorreceptors. The inexpensive method used could be applied for early color vision alteration detection.

  1. Does Ramadan fasting affect expiratory flow rates in healthy subjects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhan, Mirza M F; Siddiqui, Qamar A; Khan, Mohammed N; Sabir, Salman

    2006-11-01

    To assess whether Ramadan fasting affects the expiratory flow rates in healthy subjects, and to know if these effects correlate to a change in other variables. This unmatched case-control longitudinal study includes 46 non-smoking healthy subjects who undertook lung function testing at the Aga Khan University, Pakistan. Expiratory flow rates and body mass were measured in 3 Islamic months, corresponding to November 2001 to January 2002. There was a significant reduction in body mass in Ramadan compared to pre and post Ramadan. No significant changes in expiratory flows were seen during Ramadan as compared to the pre Ramadan period. However, forced expiratory flow rates at 75% of vital capacity (FEF(75)) and between 75% and 85% of vital capacity (FEF(75-85)) showed a significant increase in the post Ramadan period compared to Ramadan. Changes in FEF(75) were negatively correlated to changes in body mass between Ramadan and post Ramadan. This study shows that Ramadan fasting will not affect expiratory flow rates in healthy subjects. Post Ramadan values did show an increase in FEF(75) and FEF(75-85), possibly due to changes in body water and fat content. The reductions in body mass were most probably due to lack of nutrition and not dehydration as the fasts were performed in winter. Collection of reference values or early phase clinical trials measuring expiratory flow rates should not be affected by Ramadan fasting.

  2. CORPOREAL PRAGMATICS OF THE SUBJECT OF POLITICAL DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    З З Чанышева

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at tracing means of corporeal semantics employed to create a nonverbal discourse-portrait of the subject of political discourse. Complexity of semantic corporeal pragmatics interpretation of participants in political communication by members of other linguacultures is determined by national and cultural specificity of nonverbal behavioral signs as well as by individual preferences. The article shows dependence of body language signals on the character and conditions of social interaction in institutional sphere, psycho-emotional type and state of a politician, the aim to produce a certain effect on the interlocutor and the audience. The material includes theoretical resources, body language dictionaries, descriptions of Barack Obama’s corporeal discourse-portrait by American nonverbal experts with detailed interpretation of significance of such cues. The examples selected from descriptions are subjected to componential, contextual, pragmatic, comparative and linguacultural methods of analysis. The research testifies to the prospects of efficient use of various representations of corporeal semantics and pragmatics related to participants in political communication. The data obtained confirm the importance of body language in creating individual nonverbal behavior models of the subject of political discourse reflecting ethnic, national and socio-cultural peculiarities and personal features.

  3. Modelling of subject specific based segmental dynamics of knee joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, N. H. M.; Ibrahim, B. S. K. K.; Huq, M. S.; Ahmad, M. K. I.

    2017-09-01

    This study determines segmental dynamics parameters based on subject specific method. Five hemiplegic patients participated in the study, two men and three women. Their ages ranged from 50 to 60 years, weights from 60 to 70 kg and heights from 145 to 170 cm. Sample group included patients with different side of stroke. The parameters of the segmental dynamics resembling the knee joint functions measured via measurement of Winter and its model generated via the employment Kane's equation of motion. Inertial parameters in the form of the anthropometry can be identified and measured by employing Standard Human Dimension on the subjects who are in hemiplegia condition. The inertial parameters are the location of centre of mass (COM) at the length of the limb segment, inertia moment around the COM and masses of shank and foot to generate accurate motion equations. This investigation has also managed to dig out a few advantages of employing the table of anthropometry in movement biomechanics of Winter's and Kane's equation of motion. A general procedure is presented to yield accurate measurement of estimation for the inertial parameters for the joint of the knee of certain subjects with stroke history.

  4. To the Issue of the Subject Definition of Pedagogic Acmeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Tchapayev

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the subject of pedagogic acmeology as an evolving phenomenon integrating a complex set of pedagogic, psychological, anthropological and socially significant characteristics. The methodology framework is based on dialectics – «the only method that can grasp a living reality on the whole» (A. F. Losev. As the result, the author comes up with his own definition of pedagogic acmeology as a science dealing with the conformities and ways of developing the human potential and aimed at the positive personal achievements in educational process; wherein the man is regarded as the human subject, individual and individuality - i.e. a holistic multidimensional personality. The significant conclusion of the study involves the idea that pedagogic acmeology should not be confined to teacher’s professional activities, as it was previously stated, but should include the activities of a learner as a growing and developing human being. In other words, pedagogic acmeology should overcome the age restrictions confining its subject matters to the adult’s activities. 

  5. Oscillometry complements spirometry in evaluation of subjects following toxic inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth I. Berger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The World Trade Center (WTC destruction released dust and fumes into the environment. Although many community members developed respiratory symptoms, screening spirometry was usually normal. We hypothesised that forced oscillation testing would identify functional abnormalities undetected by spirometry and that symptom severity would relate to magnitude of abnormalities measured by oscillometry. A symptomatic cohort (n=848 from the Bellevue Hospital WTC Environmental Health Center was evaluated and compared to an asymptomatic cohort (n=475 from the New York City Department of Health WTC Health Registry. Spirometry and oscillometry were performed. Oscillometry measurements included resistance (R5 and frequency dependence of resistance (R5−20. Spirometry was normal for the majority of subjects (73.2% symptomatic versus 87.6% asymptomatic, p<0.0001. In subjects with normal spirometry, R5 and R5−20 were higher in symptomatic versus asymptomatic subjects (median (interquartile range R5 0.436 (0.206 versus 0.314 (0.129 kPa·L−1·s−1, p<0.001; R5−20 0.075 (0.085 versus 0.004 (0.042 kPa·L−1·s−1, p<0.0001. In symptomatic subjects, R5 and R5−20 increased with increasing severity and frequency of wheeze (p<0.05. Measurement of R5–20 correlated with the presence and severity of symptoms even when spirometry was within normal limits. These findings are in accord with small airway abnormalities as a potential explanation of the respiratory symptoms.

  6. Oscillometry complements spirometry in evaluation of subjects following toxic inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Kenneth I.; Turetz, Meredith; Liu, Mengling; Shao, Yongzhao; Kazeros, Angeliki; Parsia, Sam; Caplan-Shaw, Caralee; Friedman, Stephen M.; Maslow, Carey B.; Marmor, Michael; Goldring, Roberta M.

    2015-01-01

    The World Trade Center (WTC) destruction released dust and fumes into the environment. Although many community members developed respiratory symptoms, screening spirometry was usually normal. We hypothesised that forced oscillation testing would identify functional abnormalities undetected by spirometry and that symptom severity would relate to magnitude of abnormalities measured by oscillometry. A symptomatic cohort (n=848) from the Bellevue Hospital WTC Environmental Health Center was evaluated and compared to an asymptomatic cohort (n=475) from the New York City Department of Health WTC Health Registry. Spirometry and oscillometry were performed. Oscillometry measurements included resistance (R5) and frequency dependence of resistance (R5−20). Spirometry was normal for the majority of subjects (73.2% symptomatic versus 87.6% asymptomatic, p<0.0001). In subjects with normal spirometry, R5 and R5−20 were higher in symptomatic versus asymptomatic subjects (median (interquartile range) R5 0.436 (0.206) versus 0.314 (0.129) kPa·L−1·s−1, p<0.001; R5−20 0.075 (0.085) versus 0.004 (0.042) kPa·L−1·s−1, p<0.0001). In symptomatic subjects, R5 and R5−20 increased with increasing severity and frequency of wheeze (p<0.05). Measurement of R5–20 correlated with the presence and severity of symptoms even when spirometry was within normal limits. These findings are in accord with small airway abnormalities as a potential explanation of the respiratory symptoms. PMID:27730155

  7. Cortical hypermetabolism in MCI subjects: a compensatory mechanism?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashraf, A.; Fan, Z.; Brooks, D.J.; Edison, P. [Imperial College London, Neurology Imaging Unit, Division of Brain Sciences, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-30

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with amyloid accumulation that takes place decades before symptoms appear. Cognitive impairment in AD is associated with reduced glucose metabolism. However, neuronal plasticity/compensatory mechanisms might come into play before the onset of dementia. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is evidence of cortical hypermetabolism as a compensatory mechanism before amyloid deposition takes place in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Nine AD subjects and ten aMCI subjects had both [{sup 11}C]PIB and [{sup 18}F]FDG PET scans with arterial input in order to quantify the amyloid deposition and glucose metabolism in vivo in comparison with healthy control subjects who underwent either [{sup 11}C]PIB or [{sup 18}F]FDG PET scans. The [{sup 11}C]PIB PET scans were quantified using [{sup 11}C]PIB target region to cerebellum uptake ratio images created by integrating the activity collected from 60 to 90 min, and regional cerebral glucose metabolism was quantified using spectral analysis. In MCI subjects, cortical hypermetabolism was observed in four amyloid-negative subjects and one amyloid-positive subject, while hypometabolism was seen in five other MCI subjects with high amyloid load. Subjects with hypermetabolism and low amyloid did not convert to AD during clinical follow-up for 18 months in contrast to four amyloid-positive hypometabolic subjects who did convert to AD. This preliminary study suggests that compensatory hypermetabolism can occur in aMCI subjects, particularly in those who are amyloid-negative. The increase in metabolic rate in different cortical regions with predominance in the occipital cortex may be a compensatory response to the neuronal damage occurring early in the disease process. It may also reflect recruitment of relatively minimally affected cortical regions to compensate for reduced function in the temporoparietal cortical association areas. (orig.)

  8. Incorporation of Inter-Subject Information to Improve the Accuracy of Subject-Specific P300 Classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Minpeng; Liu, Jing; Chen, Long; Qi, Hongzhi; He, Feng; Zhou, Peng; Wan, Baikun; Ming, Dong

    2016-05-01

    Although the inter-subject information has been demonstrated to be effective for a rapid calibration of the P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI), it has never been comprehensively tested to find if the incorporation of heterogeneous data could enhance the accuracy. This study aims to improve the subject-specific P300 classifier by adding other subject's data. A classifier calibration strategy, weighted ensemble learning generic information (WELGI), was developed, in which elementary classifiers were constructed by using both the intra- and inter-subject information and then integrated into a strong classifier with a weight assessment. 55 subjects were recruited to spell 20 characters offline using the conventional P300-based BCI, i.e. the P300-speller. Four different metrics, the P300 accuracy and precision, the round accuracy, and the character accuracy, were performed for a comprehensive investigation. The results revealed that the classifier constructed on the training dataset in combination with adding other subject's data was significantly superior to that without the inter-subject information. Therefore, the WELGI is an effective classifier calibration strategy which uses the inter-subject information to improve the accuracy of subject-specific P300 classifiers, and could also be applied to other BCI paradigms.

  9. Accuracy of medical subject heading indexing of dental survival analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Danielle M; Clarke, Michael

    2014-01-01

    To assess the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) indexing of articles that employed time-to-event analyses to report outcomes of dental treatment in patients. Articles published in 2008 in 50 dental journals with the highest impact factors were hand searched to identify articles reporting dental treatment outcomes over time in human subjects with time-to-event statistics (included, n = 95), without time-to-event statistics (active controls, n = 91), and all other articles (passive controls, n = 6,769). The search was systematic (kappa 0.92 for screening, 0.86 for eligibility). Outcome-, statistic- and time-related MeSH were identified, and differences in allocation between groups were analyzed with chi-square and Fischer exact statistics. The most frequently allocated MeSH for included and active control articles were "dental restoration failure" (77% and 52%, respectively) and "treatment outcome" (54% and 48%, respectively). Outcome MeSH was similar between these groups (86% and 77%, respectively) and significantly greater than passive controls (10%, P indexed as such. Significantly more time-related MeSH were allocated to the included than the active controls (92% and 79%, respectively, P = .02), or to the passive controls (22%, P < .001). MeSH allocation within MEDLINE to time-to-event dental articles was inaccurate and inconsistent. Statistical MeSH were omitted from 30% of the included articles and incorrectly allocated to 15% of active controls. Such errors adversely impact search accuracy.

  10. The subject marker in Bantu as an antifocus marker*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KATEVG

    Why does the subject end up in [Spec, T] when there is an agreeing SM, and why is the SM absent when the subject has remained in situ? Interestingly, in the Government-Binding Theory (Chomsky 1981; 1986) and early versions of the Minimalist Program (Chomsky 1995), it was assumed that agreement is only licensed if.

  11. Sera of some urinary schistosomiasis subjects affect migration and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leucocyte migration- and bactericidal- indices were determined to establish the effect of sera from urinary schistosomiasis subjects on host defense mechanism. Both leucocyte migration and bacterial activity were diminished by sera from 66% of children with untreated urinary schistosomiasis subjects (uUSS), 25% of ...

  12. Ethnic Identity and Subjective Well-Being of Bully Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Elizabeth M.; Kordesh, Kathy; Polanin, Megan; Adams, Kristen; Aydin, Fatma; Knoll, Mike; Oh, Jennifer; Wade, James; Roche, Meghan; Hughes, Kelly; Eisenberg, Corry; Camacho, Daniel; Jeremie-Brink, Gihane

    2015-01-01

    Relationships among bully victimization, bully perpetration, ethnic identity, and subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) were examined in a group of urban, ethnically diverse early adolescents. Indices of subjective well-being correlated with participants' scores on bully victimization and…

  13. Cultural influences on the measurement of subjective mental workload

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Addie; Widyanti, Ari

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive ergonomics is well entrenched in North American and most European work environments, where systems and products are designed with the capabilities and limitations of the user in mind. A prominent technique for analysing task demands is subjective mental workload measurement. Subjective

  14. Role interference and subjective well-being among expatriate families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zee, KI; Salome, E

    The present study examined the relation of demands and social support, and positive and negative Work-Home (WHI) and Home-Work interference (HWI) with the subjective well-being of expatriates. Moreover, we were also interested in crossover effects of expatriate interference to the subjective

  15. Differences in subjective well-being within households: An analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigate differences in subjective well-being (life satisfaction) within the household using matched data on co-resident couples drawn from the 2008 National Income Dynamics Study for South Africa. The majority of men and women in co-resident partnerships report different levels of subjective wellbeing. We use ...

  16. Personality and Motivation in Positive Subjective Well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Martin Hammershøj

    Autonomous general causality orientation is a unique motivational concept, that mediates the relationship between Extraversion and positive subjective well-being (SWB).......Autonomous general causality orientation is a unique motivational concept, that mediates the relationship between Extraversion and positive subjective well-being (SWB)....

  17. Subjective well-being, reference groups and relative standing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous studies on the determinants of subjective well-being concur on the importance of relative income, i.e., the fact that individuals' subjective well-being is dependent on how well they are doing in relation to their reference group. Using South African data from 1993, Kingdon and Knight (2006, 2007) found that in ...

  18. The Making of Entrepreneurial Subjectivity in Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siivonen, Päivi; Brunila, Kristiina

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the idea of entrepreneurial subjectivity and the ways in which it is shaped by the entrepreneurial discourse in adult education. As a result, we argue that educational practices related to adults form a particular kind of ideal subjectivity that we refer to as entrepreneurial. In order to understand how this entrepreneurial…

  19. 26 CFR 403.25 - Personal property subject to seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Personal property subject to seizure. 403.25... AND ADMINISTRATION DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Seizures and Forfeitures § 403.25 Personal property subject to seizure. Personal property may be seized by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue or his...

  20. Single-Subject Designs in Special Education: Advantages and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnahdi, Ghaleb H.

    2015-01-01

    Single-subject designs provide the special education field with an alternative to group designs. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the topic of single-subject designs by providing an overview of the relevant literature and a discussion of the major issues and applications of these designs in the field of special education. This paper is…

  1. The Use of Randomization Tests in Single-Subject Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haardorfer, Regine; Gagne, Phill

    2010-01-01

    Some researchers have argued for the use of or have attempted to make use of randomization tests in single-subject research. To address this tide of interest, the authors of this article describe randomization tests, discuss the theoretical rationale for applying them to single-subject research, and provide an overview of the methodological…

  2. Reduced serum tetanus antibody titre in HIV infected subjects with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tetanus infection is widespread and difficult to completely eradicate. Thus the present study was designed to assess the tetanus antibody titre in HIV infected subjects in relation to the presence or absence of malaria parasitaemia. 107 subjects consisting of asymptomatic group (asymptomatic HIV, n=17 and asymptomatic ...

  3. Subjective Invulnerability, Optimism Bias and Adjustment in Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapsley, Daniel K.; Hill, Patrick L.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between subjective invulnerability and optimism bias in risk appraisal, and their comparative association with indices of risk activity, substance use and college adjustment problems was assessed in a sample of 350 (M [subscript age] = 20.17; 73% female; 93% White/European American) emerging adults. Subjective invulnerability was…

  4. T lymphocyte subsets in prostate cancer subjects in south eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Humoral and cellular mechanisms play roles in immune response to foreign antigens. The present study was designed to determine the T lymphocyte subsets (CD4 + T cells, CD8 + T cells and CD4/CD8 ratio) in the prostate cancer subjects and control subjects. CD4 + T cells (`l/count) and CD8 + T cells (`l/count) were ...

  5. Heuristic Inquiry: Intensifying Subjectivity in Art Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Lee

    1996-01-01

    Recommends using a number of qualitative research techniques, specifically for research regarding art education teaching techniques and teachers. Argues that the process of teaching and the subject of art are so subjective that researchers should embrace unabashedly qualitative approaches to research. Briefly describes these approaches. (MJP)

  6. Beyond Bombardment: Subjectivity, Visual Culture, and Art Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhauer, Jennifer F.

    2006-01-01

    Beginning with an understanding of visual culture as a postmodern discourse, this article argues for more focused attention to how visual culture presents a critical rethinking of subjectivity within art education. Through an analysis of a language of bombardment, a discourse that positions the subject as bombarded by media messages, this article…

  7. A Study of Anti-Sperm Antibodies among Infertile Subjects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: to evaluate the contribution of ASA to infertility in male and female subjects investigated for infertility and to correlate their presence with seminal fluid viscosity. Materials and methods: Two hundred and two infertile subjects: males (n=110) and females (n=92) irrespective of the etiologies were consecutively ...

  8. Ethics of Research Involving Human Subjects in Criminal Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Seth Allan; Wilkins, Leslie T.

    1977-01-01

    Research in criminal justice involving human subjects has increased greatly, yet we have no code of ethics to guide such research. This paper argues that the primary purpose of a code should be protection of these research subjects, who are especially susceptible to mistreatment because of their prisoner status. (Author)

  9. What Software to Use in the Teaching of Mathematical Subjects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berežný, Štefan

    2015-01-01

    We can consider two basic views, when using mathematical software in the teaching of mathematical subjects. First: How to learn to use specific software for the specific tasks, e. g., software Statistica for the subjects of Applied statistics, probability and mathematical statistics, or financial mathematics. Second: How to learn to use the…

  10. Lacan, Subjectivity and the Task of Mathematics Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tony

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of subjectivity in the context of mathematics education research. It introduces the psychoanalyst and theorist Jacques Lacan whose work on subjectivity combined Freud's psychoanalytic theory with processes of signification as developed in the work of de Saussure and Peirce. The paper positions Lacan's subjectivity…

  11. Performance pinned down: studying subjectivity and the language of performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedemaekers, C.; Keegan, A.

    2010-01-01

    We draw on Lacan’s notion of language to study employee subjectivity in a public sector organization (Publica) in the Netherlands. Our main contribution lies in using Lacan’s theorization of language and subjectivity as a basis for a detailed textual analysis of how local organizational discourses

  12. 43 CFR 2.47 - Records subject to Privacy Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Records subject to Privacy Act. 2.47 Section 2.47 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior RECORDS AND TESTIMONY; FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT Privacy Act § 2.47 Records subject to Privacy Act. The Privacy Act applies to all...

  13. Teachers' subjectivities and emotionality in HIV/AIDS teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper draws on qualitative, narrative data gathered from five teachers teaching in a midlands town in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. It finds that teachers' subject positions play a significant role in presenting compassionate, supportive and knowledgeable subjectivities in the classroom; and that their positive and negative ...

  14. 27 CFR 26.101 - Subject to tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.101 Subject to tax. (a) Beer of Puerto Rican manufacture coming into the United States and withdrawn for consumption or sale is subject to a tax equal to the internal revenue tax imposed on beer in the United States by 26 U.S.C. 5051. (b) The excise taxes collected...

  15. Investigation of Subject perceptions of the Environment in Commercial kitchens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    of the employees. It is relevant to know how the employees assess the thermal conditions and what their subjective reactions in commercial kitchens are. The subjective feedback is the effective way, together with the physical measurements, of defining the values of thermal comfort parameters in commercial kitchens...

  16. The User-Subjective Approach to Personal Information Management Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Ofer; Beyth-Marom, Ruth; Nachmias, Rafi

    2003-01-01

    Explains personal information management (PIM) systems and suggests a user-subjective approach to PIM system design. Advocates that PIM systems relate to the subjective value-added attributes that the user gives the stored data so that the user can find information again, recall it when needed, and use it effectively in the next interaction.…

  17. Decoding the Neoliberal Subjectivity in Self-Helping Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moosung

    2017-01-01

    This article explores and explains the subjectivity of self-helping adult learners, as depicted in contemporary, best-selling self-help books. It interrogates how those self-help texts embody particular features of self-helping subjectivity by appropriating neoliberalist perspectives on self and the world. It illuminates four salient features of…

  18. Subjective and Objective Evaluation of PBL Outcomes in Preclinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this report, outcomes of a PBL tutorial in 55 second year MBBS students have been evaluated by the facilitators (subjective evaluation) and by asking the students a set of questions based on the intended outcome of the PBL ( objective evaluation) soon after the completion of PBL tutorial. In the subjective assessment by ...

  19. Subjectively impaired bed mobility in Parkinson disease affects sleep efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louter, M.; Sloun, R.J. van; Pevernagie, D.A.; Arends, J.B.; Cluitmans, P.J.; Bloem, B.R.; Overeem, S.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Impaired bed mobility (IBM) may be an important reason for the high prevalence of sleep insomnia in Parkinson disease (PD). Here we assessed the influence of subjectively IBM on both subjective and objective sleep parameters in insomnia PD patients with (PD+IBM) and without (PD-IBM)

  20. The Romantic subject as an absolutely autonomous individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljana Cunta

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay deals with the Romantic subject as a philosophical and literary category. Recog­ nizing the diversity and complexity of literary production in the Romantic period, this study does not attempt to treat all the many aspects of this subject, but it instead focuses upan a few: the role of nature, the status of imagination, and the subject's relation to the transcendental reality. In its rela­ tion to these issues, the Romantic subject appears as an absolutely autonomous individual, one who finds no satisfaction in claims to transcendental certainty made by any source outside the self, but relies on his immanent powers to achieve the self-awareness that is the only sure access to truth. Special attention is given to the Romantic mystical experience, whereby the subject eames into relation with the transcendental reality. Here what are termed mystical feelings are contrasted with religious feelings proper so as to stress the peculiarities of the Romantic religious experience. In providing a theoretical framewok for the religious experience, we have recourse to Rudolf Otto's definition of the "numinous," which denotes the feeling response of the subject to the divine aspect of reality. In comparison with the true religious experience, the Romantic type is seen as pseudo­- religious, thus confirming the proposed definition of the Romantic subject as a truly autonomous individual. The essay's second part contains an interpretation of selected poems by Samuel Taylor Coleridge with a view of extrapolating from them some aspects of the Romantic subject.