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Sample records for subjects structural abnormality

  1. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  2. A comparative study of EEG abnormalities among subjects with inter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: A number of subjects in our sample with inter-ictal psychosis and PWS had EEG epileptiform activities reflecting cerebral insults in early life. Thus, preventive measures such as good antenatal care are advocated to minimize the occurrence of these neuro-psychiatric disorders. Keywords: EEG abnormalities ...

  3. Early carotid atherosclerosis and cardiac diastolic abnormalities in hypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, G; Colomba, D; Bologna, P; Licata, A; Pinto, A; Paterna, S; Scaglione, R; Licata, G

    2004-03-01

    Despite the fact that it is known that hypertension may be associated to early atherosclerosis manifestations, few data are to date available on the relationship between early carotid abnormalities and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. To address this issue, 142 hypertensive patients (64 females and 78 males) younger than 55 years, at the first diagnosis of mild-to-moderate essential hypertension (WHO/ISH criteria), were selected from a database consisting of 3541 subjects referred to ultrasound cardiovascular laboratory in the last 5 years. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) was detected by high-resolution vascular ultrasound and left ventricular structure and function by the use of Doppler echocardiography. According to carotid IMT values, all patients were subgrouped into two groups consisting of 89 (62.6%) pts with IMT > or = 1 mm (A) and 53 (37.4%) pts with IMT < 1 mm (B). Our results show that isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT), deceleration time of E velocity (EDT) and left ventricular relative wall thickness (LV-RWT) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in group A (IVRT 112 +/- 8.9 ms; EDT 288 +/- 21.8 ms; LV-RWT 0.40 +/- 0.08) than in group B (IVRT 92.3 +/- 4.6 ms; EDT 203.3 +/- 27.01 ms; LV- RWT 0.37 +/- 0.06). Moreover, the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) was significantly (P < 0.01) higher in group A (30/89; 33.7%) than in group B (8/53; 15%). A positive correlation (P < 0.001) between IMT, EDT and IVRT was found only in hypertensives without LVH. These results are consistent with the indication that IMT evaluation has to be recommended both in hypertensive patients with LVH and in those without LVH, but with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. This approach might improve the prognostic stratification of hypertensive subjects and it might be suitable to recognize the subset of patients at a higher risk of cardiovascular disease or events early.

  4. Migraine and structural abnormalities in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Ashina, Messoud

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim is to provide an overview of recent studies of structural brain abnormalities in migraine and to discuss the potential clinical significance of their findings. RECENT FINDINGS: Brain structure continues to be a topic of extensive research in migraine. Despite advances...... in neuroimaging techniques, it is not yet clear if migraine is associated with grey matter changes. Recent large population-based studies sustain the notion of increased prevalence of white matter abnormalities in migraine, and possibly of silent infarct-like lesions. The clinical relevance of this association...... is not clear. Structural changes are not related to cognitive decline, but a link to an increased risk of stroke, especially in patients with aura, cannot be ruled out. SUMMARY: Migraine may be a risk factor for structural changes in the brain. It is not yet clear how factors such as migraine sub-type, attack...

  5. [Y chromosome structural abnormalities and Turner's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravel, C; Siffroi, J-P

    2009-06-01

    Although specifically male, the human Y chromosome may be observed in female karyotypes, mostly in women with Turner syndrome stigmata. In women with isolated gonadal dysgenesis but otherwise normal stature, the testis determining factor or SRY gene may have been removed from the Y chromosome or may be mutated. In other women with Turner syndrome, the karyotype is usually abnormal and shows a frequent 45,X/46,XY mosaicism. In these cases, the phenotype depends on the ratio between Y positive and 45,X cell lines in the body. When in mosaicism, Y chromosomes are likely to carry structural abnormalities which explain mitotic instability, such as the existence of two centromeres. Dicentric Y isochromosomes for the short arm (idic[Yp]) or ring Y chromosomes (r[Y]) are the most frequent abnormal Y chromosomes found in infertile patients and in Turner syndrome in mosaic with 45,X cells. Although monocentric, deleted Y chromosomes for the long arm and those carrying microdeletions in the AZF region are also instable and are frequently associated with a 45,X cell line. Management of infertile patients carrying such abnormal Y chromosomes must take into account the risk and the consequences of a mosaicism in the offspring.

  6. Structural brain abnormalities in 12 persons with aniridia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Madison K.; Bobilev, Anastasia M.; Pierce, Jordan E.; DeWitte, Jon; Lauderdale, James D.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Aniridia is a disorder predominately caused by heterozygous loss-of-function mutations of the PAX6 gene, which is a transcriptional regulator necessary for normal eye and brain development.  The ocular abnormalities of aniridia have been well characterized, but mounting evidence has implicated brain-related phenotypes as a prominent feature of this disorder as well.  Investigations using neuroimaging in aniridia patients have shown reductions in discrete brain structures and changes in global grey and white matter.  However, limited sample sizes and substantive heterogeneity of structural phenotypes in the brain remain a challenge.  Methods: Here, we examined brain structure in a new population sample in an effort to add to the collective understanding of anatomical abnormalities in aniridia.  The current study used 3T magnetic resonance imaging to acquire high-resolution structural data in 12 persons with aniridia and 12 healthy demographically matched comparison subjects.  Results: We examined five major structures: the anterior commissure, the posterior commissure, the pineal gland, the corpus callosum, and the optic chiasm.  The most consistent reductions were found in the anterior commissure and the pineal gland; however, abnormalities in all of the other structures examined were present in at least one individual.  Conclusions: Our results indicate that the anatomical abnormalities in aniridia are variable and largely individual-specific.  These findings suggest that future studies investigate this heterogeneity further, and that normal population variation should be considered when evaluating structural abnormalities. PMID:29034075

  7. Abnormal Cortex-Muscle Interactions in Subjects with X-linked Kallmann's Syndrome and Mirror Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, S. F.; Harrison, L. M.; Mayston, M. J.; Parekh, A.; James, L. M.; Stephens, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    X-linked Kallmann's (XKS) subjects, who display mirror movements, have abnormal corticospinal tracts which innervate motoneurons of the left and right distal muscles of the upper limb. The size of the abnormal ipsilateral projection is variable. We have used coherence and cumulant analysis between EEG and first dorsal interosseous muscle (1DI) EMG…

  8. Prognostic implications of fasting plasma glucose in subjects with echocardiographic abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Bhatt, Deepak L

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To examine whether baseline fasting plasma glucose (FPG) modifies the prognostic role of left ventricular (LV) mass, geometric pattern, and diastolic function, for prediction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Population-based cohort study comprising of 1047 men and 456 women...... proportional-hazards regression with interaction analysis was used to evaluate the risk associated with FPG and LV structure and function. RESULTS: Median age was 67years, and 31% had impaired fasting glucose, 31% diabetes, 17% LV hypertrophy, and 40% diastolic dysfunction. During a median follow-up duration.......001), and with the association between diastolic dysfunction and event risk (P=0.02), including grade 2 or 3 dysfunction (P=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Echocardiographic abnormalities were more strongly associated with an adverse prognosis among subjects with impaired fasting glucose or diabetes....

  9. Microstructural abnormalities in subcortical reward circuitry of subjects with major depressive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne J Blood

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies of major depressive disorder (MDD have focused on abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex and medial temporal regions. There has been little investigation in MDD of midbrain and subcortical regions central to reward/aversion function, such as the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra (VTA/SN, and medial forebrain bundle (MFB.We investigated the microstructural integrity of this circuitry using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI in 22 MDD subjects and compared them with 22 matched healthy control subjects. Fractional anisotropy (FA values were increased in the right VT and reduced in dorsolateral prefrontal white matter in MDD subjects. Follow-up analysis suggested two distinct subgroups of MDD patients, which exhibited non-overlapping abnormalities in reward/aversion circuitry. The MDD subgroup with abnormal FA values in VT exhibited significantly greater trait anxiety than the subgroup with normal FA values in VT, but the subgroups did not differ in levels of anhedonia, sadness, or overall depression severity.These findings suggest that MDD may be associated with abnormal microstructure in brain reward/aversion regions, and that there may be at least two subtypes of microstructural abnormalities which each impact core symptoms of depression.

  10. Left ventricular false tendons and electrocardiogram repolarization abnormalities in healthy young subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarevic, Zlatan; Ciminelli, Emanuela; Quaranta, Federico; Sperandii, Fabio; Guerra, Emanuele; Pigozzi, Fabio; Borrione, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    AIM To describe echocardiographically left ventricular false tendon characteristics and the correlation with ventricular repolarization abnormalities in young athletes. METHODS Three hundred and sixteen healthy young athletes from different sport disciplines were evaluated from 2009 to 2011 during routine screening for agonistic sports eligibility. All subjects, as part of standard pre-participation screening medical evaluation, underwent a basal and post step test 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG). The athletes with abnormal T-wave flattening and/or inversion were considered for an echocardiogram evaluation and an incremental maximal exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Arterial blood pressure and heart rate, during and after exercise, were also measured. RESULTS Twenty-one of the 316 subjects (6.9%) showed false tendons in the left ventricle. The majority of false tendons (52.38%) were localized between the middle segments of the inferior septum and the lateral wall, 19.06% between the distal segments of the septum and the lateral wall, in 5 subjects between the middle segments of the anterior and inferior walls, and in one subject between the middle segments of the anterior septum and the posterior wall. ECG abnormalities, represented by alterations of ventricular repolarization, were found in 11 subjects (52.38%), 90% of these anomalies were T wave abnormalities from V1 to V3. These anomalies disappeared with an increasing heart rate following the three minute step test as well as during the execution of the maximal exercise. CONCLUSION Left ventricular false tendons are frequently localized between the middle segments of the inferior septum and the lateral wall and are statistically associated with ventricular repolarization abnormalities. PMID:27847560

  11. Functional and structural abnormalities associated with empathy in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Empathy deficit is a core feature of schizophrenia which may lead to social dysfunction. The present study was carried out to investigate functional and structural abnormalities associated with empathy in patients with schizophrenia using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM).

  12. Individualized Gaussian process-based prediction and detection of local and global gray matter abnormalities in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, G; Ridgway, G R; Dahnke, R; Gaser, C

    2014-08-15

    Structural imaging based on MRI is an integral component of the clinical assessment of patients with potential dementia. We here propose an individualized Gaussian process-based inference scheme for clinical decision support in healthy and pathological aging elderly subjects using MRI. The approach aims at quantitative and transparent support for clinicians who aim to detect structural abnormalities in patients at risk of Alzheimer's disease or other types of dementia. Firstly, we introduce a generative model incorporating our knowledge about normative decline of local and global gray matter volume across the brain in elderly. By supposing smooth structural trajectories the models account for the general course of age-related structural decline as well as late-life accelerated loss. Considering healthy subjects' demography and global brain parameters as informative about normal brain aging variability affords individualized predictions in single cases. Using Gaussian process models as a normative reference, we predict new subjects' brain scans and quantify the local gray matter abnormalities in terms of Normative Probability Maps (NPM) and global z-scores. By integrating the observed expectation error and the predictive uncertainty, the local maps and global scores exploit the advantages of Bayesian inference for clinical decisions and provide a valuable extension of diagnostic information about pathological aging. We validate the approach in simulated data and real MRI data. We train the GP framework using 1238 healthy subjects with ages 18-94 years, and predict in 415 independent test subjects diagnosed as healthy controls, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Neurodynamics of abnormalities in cerebral metabolism and structure in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, J L

    1993-01-01

    Much evidence points to the importance of intrauterine events in the etiology of schizophrenia and suggests a complex interplay between dysfunctional and intact neurons in the pathophysiology of the disorder. This article contrasts what is known of the topographies of metabolic and structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia at differing stages of the illness. From these contrasts, a schema is elaborated by which subtle neurodevelopmental perturbation in early to middle gestation might give rise to functional and structural abnormalities that ultimately release the diagnostic symptoms of schizophrenia. An interaction between those mechanisms mediating the expression of psychosis and the initially subtle stages of normal aging is posited to act on the substrate of a brain that is already developmentally compromised. Such a process might masquerade as "progression" in the absence of any active disease directly attributable to the original etiological event.

  14. Abnormal uterine bleeding unrelated to structural uterine abnormalities: management in the perimenopausal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbioni, Lorenzo; Zanetti, Isabella; Orlandini, Cinzia; Petraglia, Felice; Luisi, Stefano

    2017-02-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is one of the commonest health problems encountered by women and a frequent phenomenon during menopausal transition. The clinical management of AUB must follow a standardized classification system to obtain the better diagnostic pathway and the optimal therapy. The PALM-COEIN classification system has been approved by the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO); it recognizes structural causes of AUB, which can be measured visually with imaging techniques or histopathology, and non-structural entities such as coagulopathies, ovulatory dysfunctions, endometrial and iatrogenic causes and disorders not yet classified. In this review we aim to evaluate the management of nonstructural causes of AUB during the menopausal transition, when commonly women experience changes in menstrual bleeding patterns and unexpected bleedings which affect their quality of life.

  15. Proteoglycan abnormalities in olfactory epithelium tissue from subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazopoulos, Harry; Boyer-Boiteau, Anne; Holbrook, Eric H; Jang, Woochan; Hahn, Chang-Gyu; Arnold, Steven E; Berretta, Sabina

    2013-11-01

    Emerging evidence points to proteoglycan abnormalities in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ). In particular, markedly abnormal expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), key components of the extracellular matrix, was observed in the medial temporal lobe. CSPG functions, including regulation of neuronal differentiation and migration, are highly relevant to the pathophysiology of SZ. CSPGs may exert similar functions in the olfactory epithelium (OE), a continuously regenerating neural tissue that shows cell and molecular abnormalities in SZ. We tested the hypothesis that CSPG expression in OE may be altered in SZ. CSPG-positive cells in postmortem OE from non-psychiatric control (n=9) and SZ (n=10) subjects were counted using computer-assisted light microscopy. 'Cytoplasmic' CSPG (c-CSPG) labeling was detected in sustentacular cells and some olfactory receptor neurons (c-CSPG+ORNs), while 'pericellular' CSPG (p-CSPG) labeling was found in basal cells and some ORNs (p-CSPG+ORNs). Dual labeling for CSPG and markers for mature and immature ORNs suggests that c-CSPG+ORNs correspond to mature ORNs, and p-CSPG+ORNs to immature ORNs. Previous studies in the same cohort demonstrated that densities of mature ORNs were unaltered (Arnold et al., 2001). In the present study, numerical densities of c-CSPG+ORNs were significantly decreased in SZ (p<0.025; 99.32% decrease), suggesting a reduction of CSPG expression in mature ORNs. Previous studies showed a striking increase in the ratios of immature neurons with respect to basal cells. In this study, we find that the ratio of p-CSPG+ORNs/CSPG+basal cells was significantly increased (p=0.03) in SZ, while numerical density changes of p-CSPG+ORNs (110.71% increase) or CSPG+basal cells (53.71% decrease), did not reach statistical significance. Together, these results indicate that CSPG abnormalities are present in the OE of SZ and specifically point to a reduction of CSPG expression in mature ORNs in SZ. Given the

  16. Structural brain abnormalities in 12 persons with aniridia [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madison K. Grant

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aniridia is a disorder predominately caused by heterozygous loss-of-function mutations of the PAX6 gene, which is a transcriptional regulator necessary for normal eye and brain development.  The ocular abnormalities of aniridia have been well characterized, but mounting evidence has implicated brain-related phenotypes as a prominent feature of this disorder as well.  Investigations using neuroimaging in aniridia patients have shown reductions in discrete brain structures and changes in global grey and white matter.  However, limited sample sizes and substantive heterogeneity of structural phenotypes in the brain remain a challenge.  Methods: Here, we examined brain structure in a new population sample in an effort to add to the collective understanding of anatomical abnormalities in aniridia.  The current study used 3T magnetic resonance imaging to acquire high-resolution structural data in 12 persons with aniridia and 12 healthy demographically matched comparison subjects.  Results: We examined five major structures: the anterior commissure, the posterior commissure, the pineal gland, the corpus callosum, and the optic chiasm.  The most consistent reductions were found in the anterior commissure and the pineal gland; however, abnormalities in all of the other structures examined were present in at least one individual.  Conclusions: Our results indicate that the anatomical abnormalities in aniridia are variable and largely individual-specific.  These findings suggest that future studies investigate this heterogeneity further, and that normal population variation should be considered when evaluating structural abnormalities.

  17. Quadrantal macular retinal thickness changes in strabismus subjects with abnormal binocular vision development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Mayumi; Yamashita, Tsutomu; Ono, Shizuka; Kubo, Ikumi; Tabuchi, Akio

    2013-03-01

    To investigate retinal morphological changes in strabismus patients with abnormal binocular vision development by comparing differences in quadrantal macular retinal thickness. Six strabismus patients (6 dominant and 5 non-dominant eyes) with abnormal binocular vision (mean age 22 years), and 11 control subjects (11 dominant and 11 non-dominant eyes) (mean age 21 years) were enrolled. Macular retinal thickness measurements were performed by optical coherence tomography, with total macular retinal (TMR) and ganglion cell complex (GCC) thicknesses measured in 3- and 6-mm regions in each quadrant. Measurement values were then used to determine quadrant ratios. Compared to the dominant eyes of the controls, the superior/inferior (S/I) ratio of the TMR thickness and GCC thickness in the 3-mm region was significantly lower in the dominant eyes of the strabismus group (P binocular vision development exhibited thinner superior temporal GCC thicknesses in the 3-mm region. Retinal ganglion cells in this region might be affected by efferent neural degeneration that originates in the visual pathway responsible for adaptations to the visual experience.

  18. The structural neural substrate of subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Kubota, Yasutaka; Sawada, Reiko; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-11-20

    Happiness is a subjective experience that is an ultimate goal for humans. Psychological studies have shown that subjective happiness can be measured reliably and consists of emotional and cognitive components. However, the neural substrates of subjective happiness remain unclear. To investigate this issue, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging and questionnaires that assessed subjective happiness, the intensity of positive and negative emotional experiences, and purpose in life. We found a positive relationship between the subjective happiness score and gray matter volume in the right precuneus. Moreover, the same region showed an association with the combined positive and negative emotional intensity and purpose in life scores. Our findings suggest that the precuneus mediates subjective happiness by integrating the emotional and cognitive components of happiness.

  19. The structural neural substrate of subjective happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Kubota, Yasutaka; Sawada, Reiko; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-01-01

    Happiness is a subjective experience that is an ultimate goal for humans. Psychological studies have shown that subjective happiness can be measured reliably and consists of emotional and cognitive components. However, the neural substrates of subjective happiness remain unclear. To investigate this issue, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging and questionnaires that assessed subjective happiness, the intensity of positive and negative emotional experiences, and purpose in life. We found a positive relationship between the subjective happiness score and gray matter volume in the right precuneus. Moreover, the same region showed an association with the combined positive and negative emotional intensity and purpose in life scores. Our findings suggest that the precuneus mediates subjective happiness by integrating the emotional and cognitive components of happiness. PMID:26586449

  20. Swallowing abnormalities in multiple sclerosis: correlation between videofluoroscopy and subjective symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesner, W.; Steinbrich, W. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital of Basel (Switzerland); Wetzel, S.G.; Radue, E.W. [Institute of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Basel (Switzerland); Kappos, L.; Hoshi, M.M. [Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Basel (Switzerland); Witte, U. [Section of Logopedia, University Hospital of Basel (Switzerland)

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if subjective symptoms indicating an impaired deglutition correlate with videofluoroscopic findings in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Videofluoroscopic examinations of 18 MS patients were analyzed by a radiologist and a logopedist and compared with the symptoms of these patients. Four patients complained about permanent dysphagia. Six patients reported mild and intermittent difficulties in swallowing, but were asymptomatic at the time of videofluoroscopy. Eight patients had no symptoms regarding their deglutition. All patients (n=4) who complained of permanent dysphagia showed aspiration. All patients (n=6) with mild and intermittent difficulties in swallowing showed undercoating of the epiglottis and/or laryngeal penetration. Of those 8 patients without any swallowing symptoms, only 2 had a normal videofluoroscopy. Swallowing abnormalities seem to be much more frequent in patients with MS than generally believed and they may easily be missed clinically as long as the patients do not aspirate. (orig.)

  1. Hierarchical structure analysis describing abnormal base composition of genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Zhengqing; Liu, Jian-Kun; She, Zhen-Su

    2005-10-01

    Abnormal base compositional patterns of genomic DNA sequences are studied in the framework of a hierarchical structure (HS) model originally proposed for the study of fully developed turbulence [She and Lévêque, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 336 (1994)]. The HS similarity law is verified over scales between 103bp and 105bp , and the HS parameter β is proposed to describe the degree of heterogeneity in the base composition patterns. More than one hundred bacteria, archaea, virus, yeast, and human genome sequences have been analyzed and the results show that the HS analysis efficiently captures abnormal base composition patterns, and the parameter β is a characteristic measure of the genome. Detailed examination of the values of β reveals an intriguing link to the evolutionary events of genetic material transfer. Finally, a sequence complexity (S) measure is proposed to characterize gradual increase of organizational complexity of the genome during the evolution. The present study raises several interesting issues in the evolutionary history of genomes.

  2. Structural Abnormality on Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Late-onset Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Fen Lin

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the structural abnormalities of patients with late-onset major depressive disorder using brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and to assess clinical correlates of these structural abnormalities. Thirty-seven elderly patients with DSM-IV major depressive disorder that first occurred after the age of 50 years, and 18 control subjects without depression were recruited. All participants underwent comprehensive psychiatric assessment and cerebral MRI. Brain ventricular and sulcal sizes and white matter hyperintensities were assessed visually. Relative to control subjects, patients with late-life major depressive disorder showed more severe brain atrophy (p = 0.043 and white matter hyperintensities (p = 0.024, especially in the periventricular area (p = 0.012. Over 60% of the patient group had significant brain MRI hyperintensities. White matter hyperintensity was correlated with later onset of depressive illness (r = 0.49, p = 0.002 among patients. Brain atrophy and white matter hyperintensities are prevalent in patients with late-onset major depressive disorders. These two abnormalities may represent different pathophysiologic processes of depressive disorders. White matter hyperintensities may be predisposing factors for late-onset major depressive disorder.

  3. Deficits in Neurite Density Underlie White Matter Structure Abnormalities in First-Episode Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Charlotte L; Davies, Geoff; Garfinkel, Sarah N; Gabel, Matt C; Dowell, Nicholas G; Cercignani, Mara; Seth, Anil K; Greenwood, Kathryn E; Medford, Nick; Critchley, Hugo D

    2017-11-15

    Structural abnormalities across multiple white matter tracts are recognized in people with early psychosis, consistent with dysconnectivity as a neuropathological account of symptom expression. We applied advanced neuroimaging techniques to characterize microstructural white matter abnormalities for a deeper understanding of the developmental etiology of psychosis. Thirty-five first-episode psychosis patients, and 19 healthy controls, participated in a quantitative neuroimaging study using neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging, a multishell diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging technique that distinguishes white matter fiber arrangement and geometry from changes in neurite density. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity images were also derived. Tract-based spatial statistics compared white matter structure between patients and control subjects and tested associations with age, symptom severity, and medication. Patients with first-episode psychosis had lower regional FA in multiple commissural, corticospinal, and association tracts. These abnormalities predominantly colocalized with regions of reduced neurite density, rather than aberrant fiber bundle arrangement (orientation dispersion index). There was no direct relationship with active symptoms. FA decreased and orientation dispersion index increased with age in patients, but not control subjects, suggesting accelerated effects of white matter geometry change. Deficits in neurite density appear fundamental to abnormalities in white matter integrity in early psychosis. In the first application of neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging in psychosis, we found that processes compromising axonal fiber number, density, and myelination, rather than processes leading to spatial disruption of fiber organization, are implicated in the etiology of psychosis. This accords with a neurodevelopmental origin of aberrant brain-wide structural connectivity predisposing individuals to

  4. Structural genomic abnormalities in autism and schizophrenia. With a focus on the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorstman, J.A.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304817023

    2008-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis is centered around one question: What can we learn from the study of psychiatric phenotypes related to structural genomic abnormalities? In this thesis this subject is examined, with most studies focused on the clinical and genetic aspects of the 22q11.2

  5. Structural Echocardiographic Abnormalities Seen in HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-28

    Jun 28, 2017 ... All the individuals had clinical examination, electrocardiography. (ECG) and echocardiography (echo) done. Results: ECG abnormalities were seen in 55.3% of the HIV‑positive patients compared with 2.7% of controls (P <. 0.001). The overall prevalence of echo abnormalities among the patients was 54%,.

  6. Structural echocardiographic abnormalities seen in HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the individuals had clinical examination, electrocardiography (ECG) and echocardiography (echo) done. Results: ECG abnormalities were seen in 55.3% of the HIV-positive patients compared with 2.7% of controls (P < 0.001). The overall prevalence of echo abnormalities among the patients was 54%, against 15.3% (P ...

  7. Structural gray matter abnormalities in migraine relate to headache lateralization, but not aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Amin, Faisal M; Hoffmann, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The hallmark of migraine aura (MA) is transient cortical dysfunction but it is not known if MA is associated with structural cortical or subcortical changes. To determine the relation between MA and structural gray matter abnormalities, we studied a unique sample of 20 patients...... with frequent side-locked MA, i.e. visual aura consistently occurring in the same hemifield. METHODS: We applied a highly sensitive within-patient design to assess anatomical differences with both voxel-based morphometry and surface-based morphometry on a whole-hemisphere level and for specific anatomical...... regions of interest. Within-subject comparisons were made with regard to aura symptoms (N = 20 vs 20) and with regard to headache (N = 13 vs 13). RESULTS: We found no differences in gray matter structure with regard to aura symptoms in MA patients. Comparing the typical migraine headache side...

  8. Psychological characteristics of and counseling for carriers of structural chromosome abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H L; Wu, B; Guo, K M; Tian, R H

    2016-04-27

    Infertility as a psychological problem has gained increasing attention. Male partners among infertile couples have elevated levels of psychological distress, which could affect semen quality, result in hormonal abnormalities, and increase the occurrence of early miscarriage. Infertile women are more vulnerable to psychological distress and require psychological support. Subfertile women who conceive after assisted reproduction have higher stress, anxiety, and depression levels. Psychological interventions have been shown to have beneficial effects on infertility patients. However, psychosocial characteristics of carriers of structural chromosome abnormalities have not been studied. We report the characteristics of carriers of structural chromosome abnormalities and their influence on psychological counseling. Seventy-five patients were carriers of reciprocal translocations, 25 carried Robertsonian translocations, 17 carried inversions, 10 carried deletions, and 3 carried isochromosomes. The main clinical characteristics were recurrent spontaneous abortion, oligospermatism, azoospermatism, primary amenorrhea, and fetal death. Self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and self-rating depression scale (SDS) scores of women with structural chromosome abnormality were significantly higher than those scores of women with normal karyotype. SAS and SDS scores of men with structural chromosome abnormality were significantly higher than those of men with normal karyotype. SAS and SDS scores of women with structural chromosome abnormality were significantly higher than their scores of men with structural chromosome abnormality. Women carriers with structural chromosome abnormality were more vulnerable to psychological distress. Psychosocial counseling for carriers of structural chromosome abnormalities should focus on self-confidence and treatment with assisted reproductive technology.

  9. Relationship between structural abnormalities in the cerebellum and dementia, posttraumatic stress disorder and bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Baldaçara

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. New evidence suggests that the cerebellum has structural and functional abnormalities in psychiatric disorders. Objective: In this research, the goal was to measure the volume of the cerebellum and its subregions in individuals with psychiatric disorders and to relate these findings to their symptoms. Methods: Patients with different degrees of cognitive impairment (Epidemiology of the Elderly - UNIFESP and patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD from population studies were analyzed. Also, patients with bipolar disorder from an outpatient clinic (Center for the Study of Mood and Anxiety Disorders, Universidade Federal da Bahia were recruited for this study. All subjects underwent a 1.5T structural magnetic resonance scan. Volumetric measures and symptom measurements, by psychometric scales, were performed and compared between patients and controls. Results: The cerebellum volume was reduced in patients with cognitive impairment without dementia and with dementia, in patients with PTSD, and in patients with bipolar disorder compared to controls. In dementia and PTSD, the left cerebellar hemisphere and vermis volume were reduced. In bipolar disorder, volumes of both hemispheres and the vermis were reduced. In the first two studies, these cerebellar volumetric reductions correlated with symptoms of the disease. Conclusion: The exact nature of cerebellar involvement in mental processes is still not fully understood. However, abnormalities in cerebellar structure and its functions have been reported in some of these diseases. Future studies with larger samples are needed to clarify these findings and investigate whether they are important for treatment and prognosis.

  10. Inherited unbalanced structural chromosome abnormalities at prenatal chromosome analysis are rarely ascertained through recurrent miscarriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, M. T. M.; Korevaar, J. C.; Tjoa, W. M.; Leschot, N. J.; Bossuyt, P. M. M.; Knegt, A. C.; Suykerbuyk, R. F.; Hochstenbach, R.; van der Veen, F.; Goddijn, M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the mode of ascertainment of inherited unbalanced structural chromosome abnormalities detected at prenatal chromosome analysis. METHODS: From the databases of three centres for clinical genetics in the Netherlands, all cases of inherited unbalanced structural chromosome

  11. Inherited unbalanced structural chromosome abnormalities at prenatal chromosome analysis are rarely ascertained through recurrent miscarriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, M. T. M.; Korevaar, J. C.; Tjoa, W. M.; Leschot, N. J.; Bossuyt, P. M. M.; Knegt, A. C.; Suykerbuyk, R. F.; Hochstenbach, R.; van der Veen, F.; Goddijn, M.

    Objective To determine the mode of ascertainment of inherited unbalanced structural chromosome abnormalities detected at prenatal chromosome analysis. Methods From the databases of three centres for clinical genetics in the Netherlands, all cases of inherited unbalanced structural chromosome

  12. MR imaging after rotator cuff repair: full-thickness defects and bursitis-like subacromial abnormalities in asymptomatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, M; Jost, B; Hodler, J; Gerber, C

    2000-06-01

    To determine the prevalence and extent of residual defects or retears and bursitis-like subacromial abnormalities on MR images after rotator cuff repair in asymptomatic subjects, and to define the clinical relevance of these findings. Fourteen completely asymptomatic patients and 32 patients with residual symptoms were investigated 27-53 months (mean 39 months) after open transosseous reinsertion of the rotator cuff. Coronal T2-weighted turbo spin-echo and turbo STIR or T2-weighted fat-suppressed MR images were obtained. The prevalence and extent of residual defects or retears of the rotator cuff and bursitis-like subacromial abnormalities were determined. Residual defects or retears were detected in three (21%) and bursitis-like abnormalities in 14 (100%) of the 14 asymptomatic patients. Fifteen (47%) residual defects or retears and 31 (97%) bursitis-like abnormalities were diagnosed in the 32 patients with residual symptoms. The size of the residual defects/retears was significantly smaller in the asymptomatic group (mean 8 mm, range 6-11 mm) than in the symptomatic group (mean 32 mm, range 7-50 mm) (t-test, P = 0.001). The extent of the bursitis-like subacromial abnormalities did not significantly differ (t-test, P > 0.05) between asymptomatic (mean 28 x 3 mm) and symptomatic patients (mean 32 x 3 mm). Small residual defects or retears (Subacromial bursitis-like MR abnormalities are almost always seen after rotator cuff repair even in patients without residual complaints. They may persist for several years after rotator cuff repair and appear to be clinically irrelevant.

  13. MR imaging after rotator cuff repair: full-thickness defects and bursitis-like subacromial abnormalities in asymptomatic subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanetti, M.; Hodler, J. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital Balgrist, Zurich (Switzerland); Jost, B.; Gerber, C. [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, University Hospital Balgrist, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2000-06-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence and extent of residual defects or retears and bursitis-like subacromial abnormalities on MR images after rotator cuff repair in asymptomatic subjects, and to define the clinical relevance of these findings.Design and patients. Fourteen completely asymptomatic patients and 32 patients with residual symptoms were investigated 27-53 months (mean 39 months) after open transosseous reinsertion of the rotator cuff. Coronal T2-weighted turbo spin-echo and turbo STIR or T2-weighted fat-suppressed MR images were obtained. The prevalence and extent of residual defects or retears of the rotator cuff and bursitis-like subacromial abnormalities were determined.Results. Residual defects or retears were detected in three (21%) and bursitis-like abnormalities in 14 (100%) of the 14 asymptomatic patients. Fifteen (47%) residual defects or retears and 31 (97%) bursitis-like abnormalities were diagnosed in the 32 patients with residual symptoms. The size of the residual defects/retears was significantly smaller in the asymptomatic group (mean 8 mm, range 6-11 mm) than in the symptomatic group (mean 32 mm, range 7-50 mm) (t-test, P=0.001). The extent of the bursitis-like subacromial abnormalities did not significantly differ (t-test, P>0.05) between asymptomatic (mean 28 x 3 mm) and symptomatic patients (mean 32 x 3 mm).Conclusion. Small residual defects or retears (<1 cm) of the rotator cuff are not necessarily associated with clinical symptoms. Subacromial bursitis-like MR abnormalities are almost always seen after rotator cuff repair even in patients without residual complaints. They may persist for several years after rotator cuff repair and appear to be clinically irrelevant. (orig.)

  14. Abnormalities of stromal structure in the bullous keratopathy cornea identified by second harmonic generation imaging microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishige, Naoyuki; Yamada, Norihiro; Zhang, Xu; Morita, Yukiko; Yamada, Naoyuki; Kimura, Kazuhiro; Takahara, Atsushi; Sonoda, Koh-Hei

    2012-07-27

    To identify structural alterations in collagen lamellae and the transdifferentiation of keratocytes into myofibroblasts in the corneal stroma of bullous keratopathy (BK) patients and to examine the relation of such changes to the duration of stromal edema or the underlying cause of BK. Six normal human corneas and 16 BK corneas were subjected to second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging microscopy to allow three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of collagen lamellae. Expression of α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) was examined by immunofluorescence analysis and conventional laser confocal microscopy. Collagen lamellae were interwoven at the anterior stroma and uniformly aligned at the posterior stroma, whereas αSMA was not detected throughout the entire stroma of the normal cornea. Nine (56%) and 7 (44%) of the 16 BK corneas showed abnormal collagen structure at the anterior and posterior stroma, respectively. Expression of αSMA was detected in the anterior or posterior stroma of 7 (44%) and 6 (38%) of the 16 BK corneas, respectively. Disorganization of collagen lamellae and myofibroblastic transdifferentiation were detected only in corneas with a duration of stromal edema of at least 12 months. Corneas with BK as a result of birth injury showed abnormal collagen structure at the posterior stroma, whereas those with BK resulting from laser iridotomy did not. Changes in the structure of the entire stroma were detected in BK corneas with a duration of stromal edema of at least 12 months, suggesting that such changes may be progressive. In addition, the underlying cause of BK may influence structural changes at the posterior stroma.

  15. Intrahemispheric and interhemispheric structural network abnormalities in PLS and ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosta, Federica; Galantucci, Sebastiano; Riva, Nilo; Chiò, Adriano; Messina, Stefano; Iannaccone, Sandro; Calvo, Andrea; Silani, Vincenzo; Copetti, Massimiliano; Falini, Andrea; Comi, Giancarlo; Filippi, Massimo

    2014-04-01

    Using diffusion tensor (DT) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), damage to brain intrahemispheric and interhemispheric connections was assessed in 26 sporadic primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) patients compared with 28 sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients with similar disability and 35 healthy controls. DT MRI diagnostic accuracy in distinguishing the two motor neuron disease (MND) variants was tested. PLS and ALS patients showed a distributed pattern of abnormalities of the motor system, including the corticospinal tracts and corpus callosum (CC). PLS versus ALS patients showed a more severe damage to the motor CC fibers and subcortical white matter (WM) underlying the primary motor cortices. Both patient groups showed an extra-motor damage, which was more severe in PLS. This did not appear to be driven by longer disease duration in PLS. In PLS patients, damage to the CC mid-body correlated with the severity of upper motor neuron clinical burden. CC fractional anisotropy values had the highest accuracy in distinguishing PLS from controls and ALS. PLS and ALS share an overlapped pattern of WM abnormalities. This underscores that PLS, despite its distinct clinical phenotype and long survival, still lies within the wider MND spectrum. Whether CC diffusivity may be a novel marker to increase confidence in an early diagnostic separation of PLS from ALS still needs to be investigated. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Anatomic olfactory structural abnormalities in congenital smell loss: magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of olfactory bulb, groove, sulcal, and hippocampal morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Lucien M; Degnan, Andrew J; Sethi, Ila; Henkin, Robert I

    2013-01-01

    There are 2 groups of patients with congenital smell loss: group 1 (12% of the total), in which patients exhibit a familial smell loss in conjunction with severe anatomical, somatic, neurological, and metabolic abnormalities such as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism; and a larger group, group 2 (88% of the total), in which patients possess a similar degree of smell loss but without somatic, neurological, or anatomical abnormalities or hypogonadism. Both groups are characterized by similar olfactory dysfunction, and both have been reported to have absent or decreased olfactory bulbs and grooves, which indicates some overlap in olfactory pathophysiology and anatomy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate patients with congenital smell loss, primarily among group 2 patients, comparing brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results in patients with types of hyposmia. Forty group 2 patients were studied by measurements of taste (gustometry) and smell (olfactometry) function and by use of MRI in which measurements of olfactory bulbs, olfactory sulcus depth, olfactory grooves, and hippocampal anatomy were performed. Anatomical results were compared with similar studies in group 1 patients and in 22 control subjects with normal sensory function. Olfactometry was abnormal in all patients with no patient reporting ever having normal olfaction. No patient had a familial history of smell loss. On MRI, all exhibited at least 1 abnormality in olfactory system anatomy, including absence or decreased size of at least 1 olfactory bulb, decreased depth of an olfactory sulcus, and abnormalities involving hippocampal anatomy with hippocampal malrotations. One patient had bilateral bulb duplication. Normal subjects with normal smell and taste function exhibited some but very few or significant neuroanatomical changes on MRI. Although both groups have similar abnormalities of smell function, group 2 patients demonstrate anatomical anomalies in olfactory structures that are neither as

  17. Molecular cytogenetic studies in structural abnormalities of chromosome 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozzio, C.B.; Bamberger, E.; Anderson, I. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    A partial trisomy 13 was detected prenatally in an amniocentesis performed due to the following ultrasound abnormalities: open sacral neural tube defect (NTD), a flattened cerebellum, and lumbar/thoracic hemivertebrae. Elevated AFP and positive acetylcholinesterase in amniotic fluid confirmed the open NTD. Chromosome analysis showed an extra acrocentric chromosome marker. FISH analysis with the painting probe 13 showed that most of the marker was derived from this chromosome. Chromosomes on the parents revealed that the mother had a balanced reciprocal translocation t(2;13)(q23;q21). Dual labeling with painting chromosomes 2 and 13 on cells from the mother and from the amniotic fluid identified the marker as a der(13)t(2;13)(p23;q21). Thus, the fetus had a partial trisomy 13 and a small partial trisomy 2p. The maternal grandfather was found to be a carrier for this translocation. Fetal demise occurred a 29 weeks of gestation. The fetus had open lumbar NTD and showed dysmorphic features, overlapping fingers and imperforate anus. This woman had a subsequent pregnancy and chorionic villi sample showed that this fetus was normal. Another case with an abnormal chromosome 13 was a newborn with partial monosomy 13 due to the presence of a ring chromosome 13. This infant had severe intrauterine growth retardation, oligohydramnios, dysmorphic features and multiple congenital microphthalmia, congenital heart disease, absent thumbs and toes and cervical vertebral anomalies. Chromosome studies in blood and skin fibroblast cultures showed that one chromosome 3 was replaced by a ring chromosome of various sizes. This ring was confirmed to be derived from chromosome 13 using the centromeric 21/13 probe.

  18. Impaired isotonic contractility and structural abnormalities in the diaphragm of congestive heart failure rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hees, H.W.H. van; Heijden, H.F.M. van der; Hafmans, T.G.M.; Ennen, L.; Heunks, L.M.A.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Metabolic alterations and decreased isometric force generation have been demonstrated in different animal models for congestive heart failure (CHF). However, as few morphological examinations have been performed on the CHF diaphragm, it is unknown if structural abnormalities comprise a

  19. Subject-specific abnormal region detection in traumatic brain injury using sparse model selection on high dimensional diffusion data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Matineh; Erdogmus, Deniz; Dy, Jennifer; Bouix, Sylvain

    2017-04-01

    We present a method to estimate a multivariate Gaussian distribution of diffusion tensor features in a set of brain regions based on a small sample of healthy individuals, and use this distribution to identify imaging abnormalities in subjects with mild traumatic brain injury. The multivariate model receives apriori knowledge in the form of a neighborhood graph imposed on the precision matrix, which models brain region interactions, and an additional L1 sparsity constraint. The model is then estimated using the graphical LASSO algorithm and the Mahalanobis distance of healthy and TBI subjects to the distribution mean is used to evaluate the discriminatory power of the model. Our experiments show that the addition of the apriori neighborhood graph results in significant improvements in classification performance compared to a model which does not take into account the brain region interactions or one which uses a fully connected prior graph. In addition, we describe a method, using our model, to detect the regions that contribute the most to the overall abnormality of the DTI profile of a subject's brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Abnormal reliance on object structure in apraxics' learning of novel object-related actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barde, Laura H F; Buxbaum, Laurel J; Moll, Adrienne D

    2007-11-01

    We assessed the prediction that object structural cues could benefit the learning of object-action relationships in ideomotor apraxia (IMA). A total of 15 patients with left-hemisphere stroke, 11 of whom exhibited IMA, and 10 healthy subjects were trained to match novel gestures to novel tool pictures that were either High- or Low-Afforded by their associated tools. Learning was assessed with recognition and production tests. Only IMA patients demonstrated better recognition of High- than Low-Afforded gestures, and their recognition of High-Afforded gestures was statistically comparable to the other groups. This finding suggests that apraxics may rely abnormally on object structure when learning to associate novel gestures and tools. Finally, the "affordance benefit" was associated with relative sparing of structures in the dorsal visual processing stream. These data are consistent with the proposal that two routes may mediate skilled action, one specialized for stored information, and the other responsive to object structure, and that deficient gesture learning may be compensated by "bootstrapping" intact dorsal stream coding of action.

  1. POST-STROKE ARTHROPATHIES: PHENOMENOLOGY AND STRUCTURAL JOINT ABNORMALITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Telenkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the post-stroke period, arthropathies of paretic limbs are frequently seen. They may lead to formation of contractures, with significant limitation of active and passive movements due to severe pain in affected joints. This can hinder restoration of motor functions and consequently lead to a dramatic deterioration of quality of life.Aim: To study phenomenology of a post-stroke arthropathic syndrome and specific types of joint abnormalities.Materials and methods: The study included 148 patients with post-stroke hemiparesis. In all patients we analyzed demographic characteristics, stroke type, localization and size, absence or presence of concurrent circulatory encephalopathy and diabetes mellitus. A full neurologic examination was done with assessment of a degree of motor dysfunction. Pathogenetic subtypes of ischemic strokes were determined by means of duplex scanning of major head arteries, assessment of blood rheology and lipid profile. Assessment of joints was done by ultrasound examination and computer tomography.Results: One hundred and eighteen of 148 patients had post-stroke hemiparesis without joint abnormalities, whereas 30 patients had post-stroke hemiparesis with associated arthropathies. Most patients were elderly (≥ 60 years, 75 patients, 16 of them having arthropathies. One hundred and twenty of patients had ischemic strokes, 28 patients had hemorrhagic strokes. A lacunar subtype of stroke was the most prevalent among all patients (29 of patients, or 24%, whereas among those with arthropathies, the most prevalent type of stroke was cardioembolic (8 of patients, 33%. From 30 patients with arthropathies, isolated shoulder arthropathy was seen in 26, in combination with other arthropathies, in 2; isolated wrist arthropathy was seen in 2 patients. Arthropathies manifested within the first two to three weeks after a stroke in 9 patients (including shoulder arthropathies in 7 of them. In all other patients, arthropathies

  2. How Does Structured Sparsity Work in Abnormal Event Detection?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Pan, Hong; Olsen, Søren Ingvor

    In traditional sparse modeling, it is assumed that a signal/feature/image can be either accurately or approximately represented by a sparse linear combination of atoms from a learned dictionary. Structured sparsity, which is beyond traditional sparse modeling, addresses collaborative structured...

  3. Structural brain abnormalities in early onset first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagsberg, A K; Baaré, W F C; Raabjerg Christensen, A M

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brain morphometry in children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis offer a unique opportunity for pathogenetic investigations. METHODS: We compared high-resolution 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance images of the brain in 29 patients (schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder, delusi...... already at illness onset in young schizophrenia spectrum patients, suggests aberrant neurodevelopmental processes in the pathogenesis of these disorders. Gray matter volume changes, however, appear not to be a key feature in early onset first-episode psychosis.......BACKGROUND: Brain morphometry in children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis offer a unique opportunity for pathogenetic investigations. METHODS: We compared high-resolution 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance images of the brain in 29 patients (schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder......, delusional disorder or other non-organic psychosis), aged 10-18 to those of 29 matched controls, using optimized voxel-based morphometry. RESULTS: Psychotic patients had frontal white matter abnormalities, but expected (regional) gray matter reductions were not observed. Post hoc analyses revealed...

  4. Cortical Structural Abnormalities in Deficit Versus Nondeficit Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Bernard A.; Keller, William R.; Arango, Celso; Pearlson, Godfrey; McMahon, Robert P.; Meyer, Walter A.; Francis, Alan; Kirkpatrick, Brian; Carpenter, William T.; Buchanan, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the structural integrity of the dorsolateral prefrontal-basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit in people with the deficit form of schizophrenia. Method A three-dimensional structural MRI sequence was used to conduct morphometric assessments of cortical and subcortical regions in deficit and nondeficit outpatients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Results The superior prefrontal and superior and middle temporal gyral gray matter volumes were significantly smaller in the deficit versus the nondeficit group and normal control groups. There were no significant group differences in examined subcortical structures. Conclusion People with deficit schizophrenia are characterized by selective reductions in the prefrontal and temporal cortex. PMID:22336954

  5. Abnormal epigenetic changes during differentiation of human skeletal muscle stem cells from obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davegårdh, Cajsa; Broholm, Christa; Perfilyev, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    subjects. Interestingly, numerous genes implicated in metabolic diseases and epigenetic regulation showed differential methylation and expression during differentiation only in obese subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identifies IL-32 as a novel myogenic regulator, provides a comprehensive map of the dynamic...... is associated with low relative muscle mass and diminished metabolism. Epigenetic alterations taking place during myogenesis might contribute to these defects. METHODS: We used Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip Kit (Illumina) and HumanHT-12 Expression BeadChip (Illumina) to analyze genome-wide DNA......-wide changes in DNA methylation and expression patterns during differentiation of primary human muscle stem cells (myoblasts). We identified epigenetic and transcriptional changes of myogenic transcription factors (MYOD1, MYOG, MYF5, MYF6, PAX7, MEF2A, MEF2C, and MEF2D), cell cycle regulators, metabolic...

  6. Increased variability and abnormalities in pancreatic enzyme concentrations in otherwise asymptomatic subjects with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malloy J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Jaret Malloy, Kate Gurney, Kevin Shan, Ping Yan, Steve ChenAmylin Pharmaceuticals LLC, San Diego, CABackground: Recent studies have demonstrated an increased incidence of pancreatitis in patients with type 2 diabetes compared with obese nondiabetic individuals. Serum lipase and pancreatic amylase concentrations are used in conjunction with clinical findings to diagnose pancreatitis.Methods: In two large clinical trials of overweight/obese nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects, lipase and pancreatic amylase were measured at screening and 2–5 weeks later at baseline (prior to treatment with study medication.Results: Lipase and pancreatic amylase concentrations were above the upper limit of normal (ULN in 13% and 6% of type 2 diabetic subjects, respectively, and were approximately three-fold (3 × higher than the proportion of nondiabetic subjects with levels above ULN. Elevations exceeding ULN were seen in many subjects asymptomatic for pancreatitis; however, elevations >2 × ULN and >3 × ULN were uncommon, and elevations >3 × ULN were often associated with a history of dyslipidemia, hyperlipidemia, and gastrointestinal disorders. Additionally, enzyme concentrations varied within this 2–5-week screening period, including shifts between elevated and normal levels.Conclusion: Results from this post hoc analysis suggest that, although pancreatic enzymes can be a useful marker for pancreatitis within the proper clinical context, diagnosis of pancreatitis may be confounded in populations known to have asymptomatic elevations associated with disease, such as type 2 diabetes. Further effort is needed to clarify the etiology and epidemiology of pancreatic enzyme elevations in type 2 diabetes.Keywords: diabetes, pancreatitis, amylase, lipase

  7. Increased variability and abnormalities in pancreatic enzyme concentrations in otherwise asymptomatic subjects with type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Gurney, Kate; Malloy,; Shan,; Yan,; Chen,

    2012-01-01

    Jaret Malloy, Kate Gurney, Kevin Shan, Ping Yan, Steve ChenAmylin Pharmaceuticals LLC, San Diego, CABackground: Recent studies have demonstrated an increased incidence of pancreatitis in patients with type 2 diabetes compared with obese nondiabetic individuals. Serum lipase and pancreatic amylase concentrations are used in conjunction with clinical findings to diagnose pancreatitis.Methods: In two large clinical trials of overweight/obese nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects, lipase and p...

  8. Brain Structure Abnormalities in Adolescent Girls with Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Graeme; Hagan, Cindy C.; Walsh, Nicholas D.; Passamonti, Luca; Calder, Andrew J.; Goodyer, Ian M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Conduct disorder (CD) in female adolescents is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including teenage pregnancy and antisocial personality disorder. Although recent studies have documented changes in brain structure and function in male adolescents with CD, there have been no neuroimaging studies of female adolescents with CD.…

  9. Abnormal brain structure in youth who commit homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, L M; Ermer, E; Gaudet, L M; Steele, V R; Eckhardt, A L; Arbabshirani, M R; Caldwell, M F; Calhoun, V D; Kiehl, K A

    2014-01-01

    Violence that leads to homicide results in an extreme financial and emotional burden on society. Juveniles who commit homicide are often tried in adult court and typically spend the majority of their lives in prison. Despite the enormous costs associated with homicidal behavior, there have been no serious neuroscientific studies examining youth who commit homicide. Here we use neuroimaging and voxel-based morphometry to examine brain gray matter in incarcerated male adolescents who committed homicide (n = 20) compared with incarcerated offenders who did not commit homicide (n = 135). Two additional control groups were used to understand further the nature of gray matter differences: incarcerated offenders who did not commit homicide matched on important demographic and psychometric variables (n = 20) and healthy participants from the community (n = 21). Compared with incarcerated adolescents who did not commit homicide (n = 135), incarcerated homicide offenders had reduced gray matter volumes in the medial and lateral temporal lobes, including the hippocampus and posterior insula. Feature selection and support vector machine learning classified offenders into the homicide and non-homicide groups with 81% overall accuracy. Our results indicate that brain structural differences may help identify those at the highest risk for committing serious violent offenses.

  10. Association of leukocyte count and hsCRP with metabolic abnormalities in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (CURES - 64).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokulakrishnan, K; Deepa, R; Sampathkumar, R; Balasubramanyam, M; Mohan, V

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the association of leukocyte count and high sensitivity C-Reactive protein (hsCRP) with metabolic abnormalities in subjects with normal glucose tolerance. Subjects with Normal Glucose Tolerance (NGT) (n = 865) were recruited from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study [CURES]. Standard methods were used for assessing hsCRP [Nephelometry, in a subset] and leukocytes [Flowcytometry, Sysmex SF-3000]. Insulin resistance was calculated using the Homeostasis Assessment model (HOMA-IR). Body mass index, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HOMA IR and hsCRP increased significantly with increasing tertiles of leukocyte count [p for trend leukocyte count and hsCRP showed a positive correlation with cardiovascular risk factors. Leukocyte count showed a positive correlation with hsCRP [p = 0.008]. Both mean leukocyte count [p leukocyte count [p leukocyte count and hsCRP] and MS/cardiovascular risk factors in Asian Indians even among non-diabetic subjects.

  11. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome is associated with structural and vascular placental abnormalities and leptin dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Helen N; Olbrych, Stephanie K; Smith, Kathleen L; Cnota, James F; Habli, Mounira; Ramos-Gonzales, Osniel; Owens, Kathryn J; Hinton, Andrea C; Polzin, William J; Muglia, Louis J; Hinton, Robert B

    2015-10-01

    Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a severe cardiovascular malformation (CVM) associated with fetal growth abnormalities. Genetic and environmental factors have been identified that contribute to pathogenesis, but the role of the placenta is unknown. The purpose of this study was to systematically examine the placenta in HLHS with and without growth abnormalities. HLHS term singleton births were identified from a larger cohort when placenta tissue was available. Clinical data were collected from maternal and neonatal medical records, including anthropometrics and placental pathology reports. Placental tissues from cases and controls were analyzed to assess parenchymal morphology, vascular architecture and leptin signaling. HLHS cases (n = 16) and gestational age-matched controls (n = 18) were analyzed. Among cases, the average birth weight was 2993 g, including 31% that were small for gestational age. When compared with controls, gross pathology of HLHS cases demonstrated significantly reduced placental weight and increased fibrin deposition, while micropathology showed increased syncytial nuclear aggregates, decreased terminal villi, reduced vasculature and increased leptin expression in syncytiotrophoblast and endothelial cells. Placentas from pregnancies complicated by fetal HLHS are characterized by abnormal parenchymal morphology, suggesting immature structure may be due to vascular abnormalities. Increased leptin expression may indicate an attempt to compensate for these vascular abnormalities. Further investigation into the regulation of angiogenesis in the fetus and placenta may elucidate the causes of HLHS and associated growth abnormalities in some cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationship between Abnormal Earnings Persistence, Industry Structure, and Market Share in Brazilian Public Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Coelho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Ohlson’s Linear Information Dynamic (LID is analyzed and the effect of other information on the abnormal earnings series is evaluated. The hypothesis that industry structure and market share have significant effects on abnormal earnings in the following period is tested, with Ohlson’s LID persistence maintained. The results confirm the premise of LID in a sample of Brazilian public firms, considering all the statistical models. The hypothesis regarding market share is rejected as its effect on the degree of abnormal earnings persistence has no informational content, either directly or jointly. Finally, the results confirm that different industries affect abnormal earnings persistence differently. In view of these results, the research hypotheses are partially rejected. It is concluded that (a industry contains other information that can impact abnormal earnings for the following period and (b market share (in isolation and together with industry concentration does not imply differentiated impacts on firms’ abnormal earnings for the following period, and therefore do not reflect the presence of other information in Ohlson’s Model (1995.

  13. Abnormal auditory mismatch response in tinnitus sufferers with high-frequency hearing loss is associated with subjective distress level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berg Patrick

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tinnitus is an auditory sensation frequently following hearing loss. After cochlear injury, deafferented neurons become sensitive to neighbouring intact edge-frequencies, guiding an enhanced central representation of these frequencies. As psychoacoustical data 123 indicate enhanced frequency discrimination ability for edge-frequencies that may be related to a reorganization within the auditory cortex, the aim of the present study was twofold: 1 to search for abnormal auditory mismatch responses in tinnitus sufferers and 2 relate these to subjective indicators of tinnitus. Results Using EEG-mismatch negativity, we demonstrate abnormalities (N = 15 in tinnitus sufferers that are specific to frequencies located at the audiometrically normal lesion-edge as compared to normal hearing controls (N = 15. Groups also differed with respect to the cortical locations of mismatch responsiveness. Sources in the 90–135 ms latency window were generated in more anterior brain regions in the tinnitus group. Both measures of abnormality correlated with emotional-cognitive distress related to tinnitus (r ~ .76. While these two physiological variables were uncorrelated in the control group, they were correlated in the tinnitus group (r = .72. Concerning relationships with parameters of hearing loss (depth and slope, slope turned out to be an important variable. Generally, the steeper the hearing loss is the less distress related to tinnitus was reported. The associations between slope and the relevant neurophysiological variables are in agreement with this finding. Conclusions The present study is the first to show near-to-complete separation of tinnitus sufferers from a normal hearing control group based on neurophysiological variables. The finding of lesion-edge specific effects and associations with slope of hearing loss corroborates the assumption that hearing loss is the basis for tinnitus development. It is likely that some central

  14. Effects of the copy number of ribosomal genes (genes for rRNA) on viability of subjects with chromosomal abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyapunova, N A; Porokhovnik, L N; Kosyakova, N V; Mandron, I A; Tsvetkova, T G

    2017-05-05

    The number of active ribosomal genes (AcRG) was evaluated in 172 carriers of chromosomal abnormalities (CA) such as Down's syndrome (DS), Robertsonian translocations (RT), Klinefelter's and Turner's syndromes, trisomy Х, disomy Y, and various structural CA. In controls (n=318), AcRG dosage varied from 119 to 190 copies with a mean of 151 copies per diploid genome. In CA carriers, except for DS newborns, AcRG dosage was not beyond these limits. As shown previously, only within these limits cellular homeostasis and organism's viability can be supported, while genomes beyond these limits are eliminated by embryonic loss. About 10% of embryos with DS and 50% of embryos with RT die/are aborted exclusively due to a surplus (DS) or a shortage (RT) of AcRG. AcRG dosage also affects the CA carrier's viability after birth, as demonstrated by comparing newborn and aged (10-40 y.o.) DS patients. Sampling range of AcRG dosage becomes considerably narrower with age: DS newborns ranged from 139 to 194 RG copies (σ 2 =3.59), while aged DS patients varied from 152 to 190 copies (σ 2 =1.55) with the same mean. Each CA group showed peculiarities in AcRG dosage distribution. We found that carriers of numerical abnormalities of gonosomes (sex chromosomes) concentrate within the area of medium, most adaptive dosages, whilst carriers of structural CA can only survive with relatively high AcRG number. Our article is the first ever to report an association of CA viability with the genomic number of AcRG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Extra-Visual Functional and Structural Connection Abnormalities in Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Maria A.; Valsasina, Paola; Pagani, Elisabetta; Bianchi-Marzoli, Stefania; Milesi, Jacopo; Falini, Andrea; Comi, Giancarlo; Filippi, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    We assessed abnormalities within the principal brain resting state networks (RSNs) in patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) to define whether functional abnormalities in this disease are limited to the visual system or, conversely, tend to be more diffuse. We also defined the structural substrates of fMRI changes using a connectivity-based analysis of diffusion tensor (DT) MRI data. Neuro-ophthalmologic assessment, DT MRI and RS fMRI data were acquired from 13 LHON patients and 13 healthy controls. RS fMRI data were analyzed using independent component analysis and SPM5. A DT MRI connectivity-based parcellation analysis was performed using the primary visual and auditory cortices, bilaterally, as seed regions. Compared to controls, LHON patients had a significant increase of RS fluctuations in the primary visual and auditory cortices, bilaterally. They also showed decreased RS fluctuations in the right lateral occipital cortex and right temporal occipital fusiform cortex. Abnormalities of RS fluctuations were correlated significantly with retinal damage and disease duration. The DT MRI connectivity-based parcellation identified a higher number of clusters in the right auditory cortex in LHON vs. controls. Differences of cluster-centroid profiles were found between the two groups for all the four seeds analyzed. For three of these areas, a correspondence was found between abnormalities of functional and structural connectivities. These results suggest that functional and structural abnormalities extend beyond the visual network in LHON patients. Such abnormalities also involve the auditory network, thus corroborating the notion of a cross-modal plasticity between these sensory modalities in patients with severe visual deficits. PMID:21347331

  16. Extra-visual functional and structural connection abnormalities in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A Rocca

    Full Text Available We assessed abnormalities within the principal brain resting state networks (RSNs in patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON to define whether functional abnormalities in this disease are limited to the visual system or, conversely, tend to be more diffuse. We also defined the structural substrates of fMRI changes using a connectivity-based analysis of diffusion tensor (DT MRI data. Neuro-ophthalmologic assessment, DT MRI and RS fMRI data were acquired from 13 LHON patients and 13 healthy controls. RS fMRI data were analyzed using independent component analysis and SPM5. A DT MRI connectivity-based parcellation analysis was performed using the primary visual and auditory cortices, bilaterally, as seed regions. Compared to controls, LHON patients had a significant increase of RS fluctuations in the primary visual and auditory cortices, bilaterally. They also showed decreased RS fluctuations in the right lateral occipital cortex and right temporal occipital fusiform cortex. Abnormalities of RS fluctuations were correlated significantly with retinal damage and disease duration. The DT MRI connectivity-based parcellation identified a higher number of clusters in the right auditory cortex in LHON vs. controls. Differences of cluster-centroid profiles were found between the two groups for all the four seeds analyzed. For three of these areas, a correspondence was found between abnormalities of functional and structural connectivities. These results suggest that functional and structural abnormalities extend beyond the visual network in LHON patients. Such abnormalities also involve the auditory network, thus corroborating the notion of a cross-modal plasticity between these sensory modalities in patients with severe visual deficits.

  17. Fifty probands with extra structurally abnormal chromosomes characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blennow, E.; Telenius, H.; Nordenskjoeld, M. [Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)] [and others

    1995-01-02

    Extra structurally abnormal chromosomes (ESACs) are small supernumerary chromosomes often associated with developmental abnormalities and malformations. We present 50 probands with ESACs characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization using centromere-specific probes and chromosome-specific libraries. ESAC-specific libraries were constructed by flow sorting and subsequent amplification by DOP-PCR. Using such ESAC-specific libraries we were able to outline the chromosome regions involved. Twenty-three of the 50 ESACs were inverted duplications of chromosome 15 (inv dup(15)), including patients with normal phenotypes and others with similar clinical symptoms. These 2 groups differed in size and shape of the inv dup(15). Patients with a large inv dup(15), which included the Prader-Willi region, had a high risk of abnormality, whereas patients with a small inv dup(15), not including the Prader-Willi region, were normal. ESACs derived from chromosomes 13 or 21 appeared to have a low risk of abnormality, while one out of 3 patients with an ESAC derived from chromosome 14 had discrete symptoms. One out of 3 patients with an ESAC derived from chromosome 22 had severe anomalies, corresponding to some of the manifestations of the cat eye syndrome. Small extra ring chromosomes of autosomal origin and ESACs identified as i(12p) or i(18p) were all associated with a high risk of abnormality. 42 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Abnormalities in the structural covariance of emotion regulation networks in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huawang; Sun, Hui; Wang, Chao; Yu, Lin; Li, Yilan; Peng, Hongjun; Lu, Xiaobing; Hu, Qingmao; Ning, Yuping; Jiang, Tianzi; Xu, Jinping; Wang, Jiaojian

    2017-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common psychiatric disorder that is characterized by cognitive deficits and affective symptoms. To date, an increasing number of neuroimaging studies have focused on emotion regulation and have consistently shown that emotion dysregulation is one of the central features and underlying mechanisms of MDD. Although gray matter morphological abnormalities in regions within emotion regulation networks have been identified in MDD, the interactions and relationships between these gray matter structures remain largely unknown. Thus, in this study, we adopted a structural covariance method based on gray matter volume to investigate the brain morphological abnormalities within the emotion regulation networks in a large cohort of 65 MDD patients and 65 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. A permutation test with p emotion dysregulation is an underlying mechanism of MDD by revealing disrupted structural covariance patterns in the emotion regulation network. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dichotic listening in children with focal epilepsy: effects of structural brain abnormality and seizure characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkman, Marit; Granström, Marja-Liisa; Berg, Salla

    2004-02-01

    The study examined performance on a dichotic listening test in children with focal epilepsy. The aim of the study was to explore how factors related to brain pathology would affect ear advantage. The effects of lateralization of epileptogenic area, size and localization of structural abnormality on MRI findings, and seizure characteristics were studied. Children treated for focal epileptic seizures took part in the study (N = 35). The dichotic test consisted of pairs of words, nonwords, syllables and vowels. Results demonstrated that large congenital structural abnormality in the left hemisphere altered ear advantage whereas smaller abnormality and right-hemisphere abnormality did not. Further, epileptic seizures of left-hemisphere origin that had started at an early age affected ear advantage whereas seizure frequency at the time of the assessment did not. Children with early onset of seizures of right-hemisphere origin had a strong right-ear advantage. The total score did not differ between the groups. There was a strong negative correlation between the scores for the right-ear and the left-ear. The findings were interpreted to indicate altered functional dominance for perception of auditory, linguistic stimuli following early left-hemisphere pathology rather than unilateral functional suppression.

  20. Persistent Mosaicism for 12p Duplication/Triplication Chromosome Structural Abnormality in Peripheral Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L. Shackelford

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a rare case of mosaicism for a structural abnormality of chromosome 12 in a patient with phenotypic features of Pallister-Killian syndrome. A six-month-old child with dysmorphic features, exotropia, hypotonia, and developmental delay was mosaic for both a normal karyotype and a cell line with 12p duplication/triplication in 25 percent of metaphase cells. Utilization of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH identified three copies of probes from the end of the short arm of chromosome 12 (TEL(12p13 locus and the subtelomere (12p terminal on the structurally abnormal chromosome 12. Genome-wide SNP array analysis revealed that the regions of duplication and triplication were of maternal origin. The abnormal cell line in our patient was present at 25 percent at six months and 19 months of age in both metaphase and interphase cells from peripheral blood, where typically the isochromosome 12p is absent in the newborn. This may suggest that the gene(s resulting in a growth disadvantage of abnormal cells in peripheral blood of patients with tetrasomy 12p may not have the same influence when present in only three copies.

  1. Structured imaging technique in the gynecologic office for the diagnosis of abnormal uterine bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueholm, Margit; Hjorth, Ina Marie D

    2017-04-01

    The aim in the diagnosis of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is to identify the bleeding cause, which can be classified by the PALM-COEIN (Polyp, Adenomyosis, Leiomyoma, Malignancy (and hyperplasia), Coagulopathy, Ovulatory disorders, Endometrial, Iatrogenic and Not otherwise classified) classification system. In a gynecologic setting, the first step is most often to identify structural abnormalities (PALM causes). Common diagnostic options for the identification of the PALM include ultrasonography, endometrial sampling, and hysteroscopy. These options alone or in combination are sufficient for the diagnosis of most women with AUB. Contrast sonography with saline or gel infusion, three-dimensional ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging may be included. The aim of this article is to describe how a simple structured transvaginal ultrasound can be performed and implemented in the common gynecologic practice to simplify the diagnosis of AUB and determine when additional invasive investigations are required. Structured transvaginal ultrasound for the identification of the most common endometrial and myometrial abnormalities and the most common ultrasound features are described. Moreover, situations where magnetic resonance imaging may be included are described. This article proposes a diagnostic setup in premenopausal women for the classification of AUB according to the PALM-COEIN system. Moreover, a future diagnostic setup for fast-track identification of endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women based on a structured evaluation of the endometrium is described. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Capital structure and value firm: an empirical analysis of abnormal returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris Nasif AL-SHUBIRI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates whether capital structure is value relevant for the equity investor. In this sense, the paper links empirical corporate finance issues with investment analysis. This study also integrates the Miller-Modigliani (MM framework (1958 into an investment approach by estimating abnormal returns on leverage portfolios in the time-series for different risk classes. For most risk classes, abnormal returns decline in firm leverage. Descriptive statistics, simple and multiple regressions are used to test the hold indicator significance. The results reflect that the designed measures are the negative relationship between returns and leverage could also be due to the market’s pricing of the firm’s ability to raise funds if need be. Further avenues for research in this area include examining the stock return performance of companies based on the changes in leverage of the firms relative to their risk classes. It would be particularly noteworthy to examine the rate at which the information content of said changes is incorporated in the share prices of companies as well as in their long run returns This study encompasses all non-financial firms across the five sectors that cover all the various classes of risk. This study investigates neither the determinants of multiple capital structure choices nor changes in capital structures over time. Our main goal is to explore the effect of capital structure on cumulative abnormal returns. This study also examine a firm’s cumulative average abnormal returns by measuring leverage at the firm level and at the average level for the firm’s industry. And also examine other factors, such as size, price earnings, market-to-book and betas.

  3. Structural and functional brain abnormalities place phenocopy frontotemporal dementia (FTD in the FTD spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M.E. Steketee

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: PhFTD and bvFTD show overlapping cortical structural abnormalities indicating a continuum of changes especially in the frontotemporal regions. Together with functional changes suggestive of a compensatory response to incipient pathology in the left prefrontal regions, these findings are the first to support a possible neuropathological etiology of phFTD and suggest that phFTD may be a neurodegenerative disease on the FTD spectrum.

  4. Multimodal Highlighting of Structural Abnormalities in Diabetic Rat and Human Corneas.

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalczuk, Laura; Latour, Gaël; Bourges, Jean-Louis; Savoldelli, Michèle; Jeanny, Jean-Claude; Plamann, Karsten; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire; Behar-Cohen, Françine

    2013-01-01

    International audience; PURPOSE: This study aimed to highlight structural corneal changes in a model of type 2 diabetes, using in vivo corneal confocal microscopy (CCM). The abnormalities were also characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy in rat and human corneas. METHODS: Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats were observed at age 12 weeks (n = 3) and 1 year (n = 6), and compared to age-matched controls. After in vivo CCM examination, TEM and S...

  5. Structural cerebral abnormalities and neurodevelopmental status in single ventricle congenital heart disease before Fontan procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knirsch, Walter; Mayer, Kristina Nadine; Scheer, Ianina; Tuura, Ruth; Schranz, Dietmar; Hahn, Andreas; Wetterling, Kristina; Beck, Ingrid; Latal, Beatrice; Reich, Bettina

    2017-04-01

    Neonates with single ventricle congenital heart disease are at risk for structural cerebral abnormalities. Little is known about the further evolution of cerebral abnormalities until Fontan procedure. Between August 2012 and July 2015, we conducted a prospective cross-sectional two centre study using cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuro-developmental outcome assessed by the Bayley-III. Forty-seven children (31 male) were evaluated at a mean age of 25.9 ± 3.4 months with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (25) or other single ventricle (22). Cerebral MRI was abnormal in 17 patients (36.2%) including liquor space enlargements (10), small grey (9) and minimal white (5) matter injuries. Eight of 17 individuals had combined lesions. Median (range) cognitive composite score (CCS) (100, 65-120) and motor composite score (MCS) (97, 55-124) were comparable to the reference data, while language composite score (LCS) (97, 68-124) was significantly lower ( P  = 0.040). Liquor space enlargement was associated with poorer performance on all Bayley-III subscores (CCS: P  = 0.02; LCS: P  = 0.002; MCS: P  = 0.013). The number of re-operations [odds ratio (OR) 2.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-4.3] ( P  = 0.03) and re-interventions (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-3.8) ( P  = 0.03) was associated with a higher rate of overall MRI abnormalities. Cerebral MRI abnormalities occur in more than one third of children with single ventricle, while the neuro-developmental status is less severely affected before Fontan procedure. Liquor space enlargement is the predominant MRI finding associated with poorer neuro-developmental status, warranting further studies to determine aetiology and further evolution until school-age.

  6. Structural magnetic resonance imaging can identify trigeminal system abnormalities in classical trigeminal neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle DeSouza

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Classical trigeminal neuralgia (TN is a chronic pain disorder that has been described as one ofthe most severe pains one can suffer. The most prevalent theory of TN etiology is that the trigeminal nerve is compressed at the root entry zone (REZ by blood vessels. However, there is significant evidence showing a lack of neurovascular compression (NVC for many cases of classical TN. Furthermore, a considerable number of patients who are asymptomatic have MR evidence of NVC. Since there is no validated animal model that reproduces the clinical features of TN, our understanding of TN pathology mainly comes from biopsy studies that have limitations. Sophisticated structural MRI techniques including diffusion tensor imaging provide new opportunities to assess the trigeminal nerves and CNS to provide insight into TN etiology and pathogenesis. Specifically, studies have used high-resolution structural MRI methods to visualize patterns of trigeminal nerve-vessel relationships and to detect subtle pathological features at the trigeminal REZ. Structural MRI has also identified CNS abnormalities in cortical and subcortical gray matter and white matter and demonstrated that effective neurosurgical treatment for TN is associated with a reversal of specific nerve and brain abnormalities. In conclusion, this review highlights the advanced structural neuroimaging methods that are valuable tools to assess the trigeminal system in TN and may inform our current understanding of TN pathology. These methods may in the future have clinical utility for the development of neuroimaging-based biomarkers of TN.

  7. Non-dipping pattern in ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is associated with metabolic abnormalities in a random sample of middle-aged subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukkola, Olavi; Vasunta, Riitta-Liisa; Kesäniemi, Y Antero

    2009-11-01

    A reduction in the blood pressure decline at night (pattern') is associated with cardiovascular morbidity. Our aim was to evaluate whether ABPM characteristics are associated with metabolic abnormalities in subjects without known hypertension or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This is a cross-sectional population-based study on middle-aged subjects (n=462). Two distinct definitions of metabolic syndrome (MetS) were used: National Cholesterol Education Program-Third Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATPIII) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Results suggested that subjects characterized by non-dipping in 24 h ABPM were more obese (P=0.014). After adjustment for body mass index, age and sex, non-dippers had higher very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol (P=0.003), total (P=0.029)-and VLDL-triglycerides (P=0.026) and oral glucose tolerance test 2 h blood glucose (P=0.027) compared with dippers. Non-dipping status was more common among subjects with MetS (Ppattern. The percentage decline in blood pressure from day to night decreased with the number of metabolic abnormalities (P=0.012). In conclusion, ABPM non-dipping status is an independent predictor of glucose intolerance. It is also associated with several other metabolic abnormalities. Whether non-dipping pattern is causally related to these metabolic aberrations remains to be explored in a future prospective follow-up of this cohort.

  8. Mutant laboratory mice with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, cycling, and/or structure: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Motonobu; Schneider, Marlon R; Schmidt-Ullrich, Ruth; Paus, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Human hair disorders comprise a number of different types of alopecia, atrichia, hypotrichosis, distinct hair shaft disorders as well as hirsutism and hypertrichosis. Their causes vary from genodermatoses (e.g. hypotrichoses) via immunological disorders (e.g. alopecia areata, autoimmune cicatrical alopecias) to hormone-dependent abnormalities (e.g. androgenetic alopecia). A large number of spontaneous mouse mutants and genetically engineered mice develop abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, cycling, and/or hair shaft formation, whose analysis has proven invaluable to define the molecular regulation of hair growth, ranging from hair follicle development, and cycling to hair shaft formation and stem cell biology. Also, the accumulating reports on hair phenotypes of mouse strains provide important pointers to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying human hair growth disorders. Since numerous new mouse mutants with a hair phenotype have been reported since the publication of our earlier review on this matter a decade ago, we present here an updated, tabulated mini-review. The updated annotated tables list a wide selection of mouse mutants with hair growth abnormalities, classified into four categories: Mutations that affect hair follicle (1) morphogenesis, (2) cycling, (3) structure, and (4) mutations that induce extrafollicular events (for example immune system defects) resulting in secondary hair growth abnormalities. This synthesis is intended to provide a useful source of reference when studying the molecular controls of hair follicle growth and differentiation, and whenever the hair phenotypes of a newly generated mouse mutant need to be compared with existing ones. Copyright © 2012 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of normal sexual dimorphisms on sex differences in structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia assessed by magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jill M; Seidman, Larry J; O'Brien, Liam M; Horton, Nicholas J; Kennedy, David N; Makris, Nikos; Caviness, Verne S; Faraone, Stephen V; Tsuang, Ming T

    2002-02-01

    Previous studies suggest that the impact of early insults predisposing to schizophrenia may have differential consequences by sex. We hypothesized that brain regions found to be structurally different in normal men and women (sexual dimorphisms) and abnormal in schizophrenia would show significant sex differences in brain abnormalities, particularly in the cortex, in schizophrenia. Forty outpatients diagnosed as having schizophrenia by DSM-III-R were systematically sampled to be comparable within sex with 48 normal comparison subjects on the basis of age, ethnicity, parental socioeconomic status, and handedness. A comprehensive assessment of the entire brain was based on T1-weighted 3-dimensional images acquired from a 1.5-T magnet. Multivariate general linear models for correlated data were used to test for sex-specific effects regarding 22 hypothesized cortical, subcortical, and cerebrospinal fluid brain volumes, adjusted for age and total cerebrum size. Sex x group interactions were also tested on asymmetries of the planum temporale, Heschl's gyrus, and superior temporal gyrus, additionally controlled for handedness. Normal patterns of sexual dimorphisms were disrupted in schizophrenia. Sex-specific effects were primarily evident in the cortex, particularly in the frontomedial cortex, basal forebrain, cingulate and paracingulate gyri, posterior supramarginal gyrus, and planum temporale. Normal asymmetry of the planum was also disrupted differentially in men and women with schizophrenia. There were no significant differential sex effects in subcortical gray matter regions or cerebrospinal fluid. Factors that produce normal sexual dimorphisms may be associated with modulating insults producing schizophrenia, particularly in the cortex.

  10. Abnormal structural connectivity in the brain networks of children with hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Weihong; Holland, Scott K; Shimony, Joshua S; Altaye, Mekibib; Mangano, Francesco T; Limbrick, David D; Jones, Blaise V; Nash, Tiffany; Rajagopal, Akila; Simpson, Sarah; Ragan, Dustin; McKinstry, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    Increased intracranial pressure and ventriculomegaly in children with hydrocephalus are known to have adverse effects on white matter structure. This study seeks to investigate the impact of hydrocephalus on topological features of brain networks in children. The goal was to investigate structural network connectivity, at both global and regional levels, in the brains in children with hydrocephalus using graph theory analysis and diffusion tensor tractography. Three groups of children were included in the study (29 normally developing controls, 9 preoperative hydrocephalus patients, and 17 postoperative hydrocephalus patients). Graph theory analysis was applied to calculate the global network measures including small-worldness, normalized clustering coefficients, normalized characteristic path length, global efficiency, and modularity. Abnormalities in regional network parameters, including nodal degree, local efficiency, clustering coefficient, and betweenness centrality, were also compared between the two patients groups (separately) and the controls using two tailed t-test at significance level of p path length and lower modularity. At regional level, significant group differences (or differences at trend level) in regional network measures were found between hydrocephalus patients and the controls in a series of brain regions including the medial occipital gyrus, medial frontal gyrus, thalamus, cingulate gyrus, lingual gyrus, rectal gyrus, caudate, cuneus, and insular. Our data showed that structural connectivity analysis using graph theory and diffusion tensor tractography is sensitive to detect abnormalities of brain network connectivity associated with hydrocephalus at both global and regional levels, thus providing a new avenue for potential diagnosis and prognosis tool for children with hydrocephalus.

  11. Focus on: Structural and Functional Brain Abnormalities in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, S. Christopher; Roussotte, Florence; Sowell, Elizabeth R.

    2011-01-01

    Children exposed to alcohol prenatally can experience significant deficits in cognitive and psychosocial functioning as well as alterations in brain structure and function related to alcohol’s teratogenic effects. These impairments are present both in children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and in children with heavy in utero alcohol exposure who do not have facial dysmorphology required for the FAS diagnosis. Neuropsychological and behavioral studies have revealed deficits in most cognitive domains measured, including overall intellectual functioning, attention/working memory, executive skills, speed of processing, and academic skills in children and adolescents across the range of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). As with neuropsychological studies, brain-imaging studies have detected differences in brain structure related to alcohol exposure in multiple brain systems and abnormalities in the white matter that connects these brain regions. Several studies have found relationships between these morphological differences and cognitive function, suggesting some clinical significance to the structural brain abnormalities. Concentrations of neurotransmitter metabolites within the brains of prenatally exposed children also appear to be altered, and functional imaging studies have identified significant differences in brain activation related to working memory, learning, and inhibitory control in children and adolescents with FASD. PMID:23580049

  12. Abnormal blood rheology and chronic low grade inflammation: possible risk factors for accelerated atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease in Lewis negative subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexy, Tamas; Pais, Eszter; Wenby, Rosalinda B; Mack, Wendy J; Hodis, Howard N; Kono, Naoko; Wang, Jun; Baskurt, Oguz K; Fisher, Timothy C; Meiselman, Herbert J

    2015-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that abnormal hemorheology and chronic low-grade inflammation are more prevalent in Lewis negative individuals, possibly contributing to premature atherosclerosis. We enrolled 223 healthy subjects (154 females, mean age: 64yrs). Conventional risk factors, markers of inflammation and hemorheological profiles were measured; Lewis blood group was determined by serology. Conventional risk factors (age, gender, BMI, blood pressure, lipid profile, smoking habit) did not differ among Lewis phenotypes. However, markers of inflammation (WBC, hs-CRP, ESR) were significantly elevated and rheological parameters (RBC aggregation, plasma viscosity) were abnormal in Lewis negative subjects, especially when compared to the Le(a-b+) group. With a prevalence of 33% in select populations, our data support the hypothesis that Le(a-b-) represents a pro-inflammatory phenotype that may contribute to the elevated cardiovascular risk in this group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cognitive Impairment and Structural Neuroimaging Abnormalities Among Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Chen Pi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Cognitive impairment and abnormal structural neuroimaging is common in chronic kidney disease patients. We aimed to explore its association with dialysis modality and the relationship between cognitive impairment and abnormal structural neuroimaging. Methods: Sixty peritoneal dialysis patients and 30 hemodialysis and 30 non-dialyzed stage 3-5 chronic kidney disease patients without history of stroke were enrolled for the study. Participants were matched for age, gender, education, diabetes status, and dialysis duration (if appropriate. Cognitive functions were measured using a battery of recognized instruments. Brain features were examined with 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Cognitive impairment was significantly more severe in dialysis patients than in non-dialyzed patients. The global and specific cognitive function were not significantly different between patients on peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis. Hemodialysis patients had more severe white matter hyperintensity, sulcal and ventricular atrophy, and SVIs than other patients. In all groups, higher white matter grade, ventricular grade, and hippocampal atrophy were significantly associated with global cognitive impairment, with hazard ratios of 1.80 (1.22-2.64, 1.67 (1.09-2.57, and 2.49 (1.07-5.77, respectively. White matter grade was also significantly associated with delayed memory (hazard ratio 1.63; 1.12-2.39. Conclusion: Dialysis modality showed no association with cognitive impairment, although hemodialysis patients had more severe neuroimaging abnormalities. For the whole group, white matter hyperintensity, and ventricular and hippocampal atrophy, were independently associated with global cognitive impairment in chronic kidney disease patients.

  14. Three patients with structurally abnormal X chromosomes, each with Xq13 breakpoints and a history of idiopathic acquired sideroblastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewald, G W; Pierre, R V; Phyliky, R L

    1982-01-01

    Structural abnormalities of the X chromosome are rarely found in neoplastic disorders. We describe three patients with a history of idiopathic acquired sideroblastic anemia (IASA); each one had an abnormal clone of cells in the bone marrow, characterized by a structurally abnormal X chromosome. In two of these patients, the predominant karyotype was 47,X,2idic(X)(q13); in the other patient, it was 46,X,t(X;11)(q13;p15). Inasmuch as all three of these cases involved chromosome band Xq13, as did two previously published cases, we suggest that band Xq13 may be more prone to structural rearrangement than other X chromosome bands in hematologic disorders. The common Xq13 chromosome breakpoint and clinical presentation (IASA) among these three patients and the occurrence of an X-linked type of sideroblastic anemia may suggest that an association exists between X chromosome abnormalities and IASA. Perhaps alteration of a gene or chromosome structure in or near band Xq13 predisposes to development of IASA. The fact that two of these patients had preleukemia and the third had overt acute leukemia may imply that patients with IASA and X chromosome abnormalities have a poor prognosis. Cases of IASA without associated X chromosome abnormalities are known; thus, if an association between IASA and an abnormal X chromosome does exist, most likely it involves only some patients with IASA.

  15. Abnormal release of incretins and cortisol after oral glucose in subjects with insulin-resistant myotonic dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Asa; Olsson, Tommy; Cederquist, Kristina

    2002-01-01

    patients and controls, although long CTG repeat expansions were associated with a more pronounced GIP response. Interestingly, the GLP-1 response to oral glucose correlated with the insulin response in patients but not in controls whereas, in controls, the insulin response closely correlated with the GIP...... response. Furthermore, cortisol and ACTH levels increased paradoxically in patients after glucose; this was more pronounced in patients with long CTG repeat expansions. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the GLP-1 and ACTH/cortisol responses to oral glucose are abnormal in insulin-resistant DM1 patients...... and that CTG triplet repeats are linked to GIP release. These abnormalities may contribute both to the severe insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia in DM1 and to the preservation of adequate islet function, enabling glucose tolerance to be normal in spite of this marked insulin resistance in DM1....

  16. Failure of underground concrete structures subjected to blast loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, C. A.; Nash, P. T.; Griner, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    The response and failure of two edges of free reinforced concrete slabs subjected to intermediate blast loadings are examined. The failure of the reinforced concrete structures is defined as a condition where actual separation or fracture of the reinforcing elements has occurred. Approximate theoretical methods using stationary and moving plastic hinge mechanisms with linearly varying and time dependent loadings are developed. Equations developed to predict deflection and failure of reinforced concrete beams are presented and compared with the experimental results.

  17. Integrating normal and abnormal personality structure: a proposal for DSM-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiger, Thomas A

    2011-06-01

    The personality disorders section of the American Psychiatric Association's fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) is currently being developed. The purpose of the current paper is to encourage the authors of DSM-V to integrate normal and abnormal personality structure within a common, integrative model, and to suggest that the optimal choice for such an integration would be the five-factor model (FFM) of general personality structure. A proposal for the classification of personality disorder from the perspective of the FFM is provided. Discussed as well are implications and issues associated with an FFM of personality disorder, including validity, coverage, feasibility, clinical utility, and treatment implications.

  18. [Application of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification for rapid detection of aneuploidies and structural chromosomal abnormalities in prenatal diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Hu, Ping; Luo, Chunyu; Ji, Qiuqing; Zhou, Jing; Liu, An; Ma, Dingyuan; Xu, Zhengfeng

    2014-02-01

    To explore the value of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) for rapid detection of aneuploidies and structural chromosomal abnormalities during prenatal diagnosis. Two hundred and eight six amniotic fluid samples were analyzed with both MLPA and conventional karyotyping. Structural abnormalities were verified with array comparative genomic hybridization. Ten cases of trisomy 21, 2 cases of trisomy 18, 1 case of trisomy 13, 1 case of mosaic trisomy 21, 1 case of 45,X, 1 case of large deletion of Xp, 1 case of trisomy 18p and 1 case of large deletion of 18p and 18q were identified. The same results were derived by both MLPA and conventional karyotyping. Structural abnormalities were verified by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) with 100% accuracy. In addition to aneuploidies, MLPA can rapidly identify large deletions and duplications of chromosomes 21, 18, 13, X and Y. MLPA is supplementary to conventional karyotyping for identification of such chromosomal abnormalities prenatal diagnosis.

  19. White matter structural network abnormalities underlie executive dysfunction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimond, Dennis; Ishaque, Abdullah; Chenji, Sneha; Mah, Dennell; Chen, Zhang; Seres, Peter; Beaulieu, Christian; Kalra, Sanjay

    2017-03-01

    Research in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) suggests that executive dysfunction, a prevalent cognitive feature of the disease, is associated with abnormal structural connectivity and white matter integrity. In this exploratory study, we investigated the white matter constructs of executive dysfunction, and attempted to detect structural abnormalities specific to cognitively impaired ALS patients. Eighteen ALS patients and 22 age and education matched healthy controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging on a 4.7 Tesla scanner and completed neuropsychometric testing. ALS patients were categorized into ALS cognitively impaired (ALSci, n = 9) and ALS cognitively competent (ALScc, n = 5) groups. Tract-based spatial statistics and connectomics were used to compare white matter integrity and structural connectivity of ALSci and ALScc patients. Executive function performance was correlated with white matter FA and network metrics within the ALS group. Executive function performance in the ALS group correlated with global and local network properties, as well as FA, in regions throughout the brain, with a high predilection for the frontal lobe. ALSci patients displayed altered local connectivity and structural integrity in these same frontal regions that correlated with executive dysfunction. Our results suggest that executive dysfunction in ALS is related to frontal network disconnectivity, which potentially mediates domain-specific, or generalized cognitive impairment, depending on the degree of global network disruption. Furthermore, reported co-localization of decreased network connectivity and diminished white matter integrity suggests white matter pathology underlies this topological disruption. We conclude that executive dysfunction in ALSci is associated with frontal and global network disconnectivity, underlined by diminished white matter integrity. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1249-1268, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. First-Trimester Crown-Rump Length and Embryonic Volume of Fetuses with Structural Congenital Abnormalities Measured in Virtual Reality: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, B.; Koning, A. H. J.; van der Spek, P. J.; Steegers, E. A. P.; Exalto, N.

    2017-01-01

    Background. With the introduction of three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound it has become possible to measure volumes. The relative increase in embryonic volume (EV) is much larger than that of the crown-rump length (CRL) over the same time period. We examined whether EV is a better parameter to determine growth restriction in fetuses with structural congenital abnormalities. Study Design, Subjects, and Outcome Measures. CRL and EV were measured using a Virtual Reality (VR) system in prospectively collected 3D ultrasound volumes of 56 fetuses diagnosed with structural congenital abnormalities in the first trimester of pregnancy (gestational age 7+5 to 14+5 weeks). Measured CRL and EV were converted to z-scores and to percentages of the expected mean using previously published reference curves of euploid fetuses. The one-sample t-test was performed to test significance. Results. The EV was smaller than expected for GA in fetuses with structural congenital abnormalities (−35%  p < 0.001, z-score −1.44  p < 0.001), whereas CRL was not (−6.43%  p = 0.118, z-score −0.43  p = 0.605). Conclusions. CRL is a less reliable parameter to determine growth restriction in fetuses with structural congenital abnormalities as compared with EV. By measuring EV, growth restriction in first-trimester fetuses with structural congenital abnormalities becomes more evident and enables an earlier detection of these cases. PMID:28421190

  1. First-Trimester Crown-Rump Length and Embryonic Volume of Fetuses with Structural Congenital Abnormalities Measured in Virtual Reality: An Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Baken

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. With the introduction of three-dimensional (3D ultrasound it has become possible to measure volumes. The relative increase in embryonic volume (EV is much larger than that of the crown-rump length (CRL over the same time period. We examined whether EV is a better parameter to determine growth restriction in fetuses with structural congenital abnormalities. Study Design, Subjects, and Outcome Measures. CRL and EV were measured using a Virtual Reality (VR system in prospectively collected 3D ultrasound volumes of 56 fetuses diagnosed with structural congenital abnormalities in the first trimester of pregnancy (gestational age 7+5 to 14+5 weeks. Measured CRL and EV were converted to z-scores and to percentages of the expected mean using previously published reference curves of euploid fetuses. The one-sample t-test was performed to test significance. Results. The EV was smaller than expected for GA in fetuses with structural congenital abnormalities (−35%  p<0.001, z-score −1.44  p<0.001, whereas CRL was not (−6.43%  p=0.118, z-score −0.43  p=0.605. Conclusions. CRL is a less reliable parameter to determine growth restriction in fetuses with structural congenital abnormalities as compared with EV. By measuring EV, growth restriction in first-trimester fetuses with structural congenital abnormalities becomes more evident and enables an earlier detection of these cases.

  2. fMRI abnormalities in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during a working memory task in manic, euthymic and depressed bipolar subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, Jennifer; Bookheimer, Susan Y; Foland, Lara C.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Altshuler, Lori L.

    2010-01-01

    Neuropsychological studies of subjects with bipolar disorder suggest impairment of working memory not only in acute mood states, but also while subjects are euthymic. Using fMRI to probe working memory regions in bipolar subjects in different mood states, we sought to determine the functional neural basis for these impairments. Typical working memory areas in normal populations include dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA9/46) and the posterior parietal cortex (BA40). We evaluated the activatio...

  3. Swimming exercise reverses aging-related contractile abnormalities of female heart by improving structural alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Nihal; Olgar, Yusuf; Er, Hakan; Kucuk, Murathan; Ozdemir, Semir

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of swimming exercise on aging-related Ca2+ handling alterations and structural abnormalities of female rat heart. For this purpose, 4-month and 24-month old female rats were used and divided into three following groups: sedentary young (SY), sedentary old (SO), and exercised old (Ex-O). Swimming exercise was performed for 8 weeks (60 min/day, 5 days/week). Myocyte shortening, L-type Ca2+ currents and associated Ca2+ transients were measured from ventricular myocytes at 36 ± 1°C. NOX-4 levels, aconitase activity, glutathione measurements and ultrastructural examination by electron microscopy were conducted in heart tissue. Swimming exercise reversed the reduced shortening and slowed kinetics of aged cardiomyocytes. Although the current density was similar for all groups, Ca2+ transients were higher in SO and Ex-O myocytes with respect to the SY group. Caffeine-induced Ca2+ transients and the integrated NCX current were lower in cardiomyocytes of SY rats compared with other groups, suggesting an increased sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ content in an aged heart. Aging led to upregulated cardiac NOX-4 along with declined aconitase activity. Although it did not reverse these oxidative parameters, swimming exercise achieved a significant increase in glutathione levels and improved structural alterations of old rats' hearts. We conclude that swimming exercise upregulates antioxidant defense capacity and improves structural abnormalities of senescent female rat heart, although it does not change Ca2+ handling alterations further. Thereby, it improves contractile function of aged myocardium by mitigating detrimental effects of oxidative stress.

  4. Abnormal structural connectivity in the brain networks of children with hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihong Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased intracranial pressure and ventriculomegaly in children with hydrocephalus are known to have adverse effects on white matter structure. This study seeks to investigate the impact of hydrocephalus on topological features of brain networks in children. The goal was to investigate structural network connectivity, at both global and regional levels, in the brains in children with hydrocephalus using graph theory analysis and diffusion tensor tractography. Three groups of children were included in the study (29 normally developing controls, 9 preoperative hydrocephalus patients, and 17 postoperative hydrocephalus patients. Graph theory analysis was applied to calculate the global network measures including small-worldness, normalized clustering coefficients, normalized characteristic path length, global efficiency, and modularity. Abnormalities in regional network parameters, including nodal degree, local efficiency, clustering coefficient, and betweenness centrality, were also compared between the two patients groups (separately and the controls using two tailed t-test at significance level of p < 0.05 (corrected for multiple comparison. Children with hydrocephalus in both the preoperative and postoperative groups were found to have significantly lower small-worldness and lower normalized clustering coefficient than controls. Children with hydrocephalus in the postoperative group were also found to have significantly lower normalized characteristic path length and lower modularity. At regional level, significant group differences (or differences at trend level in regional network measures were found between hydrocephalus patients and the controls in a series of brain regions including the medial occipital gyrus, medial frontal gyrus, thalamus, cingulate gyrus, lingual gyrus, rectal gyrus, caudate, cuneus, and insular. Our data showed that structural connectivity analysis using graph theory and diffusion tensor tractography is sensitive to

  5. Functional and Structural Abnormalities in Deferoxamine Retinopathy: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Di Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deferoxamine mesylate (DFO is the most commonly used iron-chelating agent to treat transfusion-related hemosiderosis. Despite the clear advantages for the use of DFO, numerous DFO-related systemic toxicities have been reported in the literature, as well as sight-threatening ocular toxicity involving the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. The damage to the RPE can lead to visual field defects, color-vision defects, abnormal electrophysiological tests, and permanent visual deterioration. The purpose of this review is to provide an updated summary of the ocular findings, including both functional and structural abnormalities, in DFO-treated patients. In particular, we pay particular attention to analyzing results of multimodal technologies for retinal imaging, which help ophthalmologists in the early diagnosis and correct management of DFO retinopathy. Fundus autofluorescence, for example, is not only useful for screening patients at high-risk of DFO retinopathy, but is also a prerequisite for identify specific high-risk patterns of RPE changes that are relevant for the prognosis of the disease. In addition, optical coherence tomography may have a clinical usefulness in detecting extent and location of different retinal changes in DFO retinopathy. Finally, this review wants to underline the need for universally approved guidelines for screening and followup of this particular disease.

  6. Structural abnormalities in the levator palpebrae superioris muscle in patients with congenital blepharoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iljin, Aleksandra; Zielinska, Anna; Karasek, Michal; Zielinski, Andrzej; Omulecka, Aleksandra

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate structural and ultrastructural abnormalities of the levator palpebrae superioris (LPS) complex in patients with congenital blepharoptosis. Samples of the LPS complex were obtained from patients operated on for congenital blepharoptosis between 2000 and 2001 and studied under light microscopy (15 cases) and electron microscopy (9 cases). Findings of light microscopy evaluation of the LPS complex correlated closely with the clinical grading of congenital blepharoptosis-hypoplasia, decreased number and varying diameter of muscle fibers, and fibrous tissue hyperplasia in the endomysium and perimysium. The Müller's muscle preserved a normal appearance. Mild blepharoptosis revealed proliferation of collagen fibers on electron microscopy. Moderate blepharoptosis showed abnormal distribution of myofibrils and distortion of the tubular system and mitochondria in addition to the changes observed in mild blepharoptosis. Severe blepharoptosis showed mitochondria loss, cytoplasm thinning, and homogenous fiber areas in addition to the changes observed in mild and moderate blepharoptosis. The clinical degree of severity of congenital blepharoptosis correlates positively with the degree of histopathologic changes in the levator palpebrae superioris muscle.

  7. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: Cardiac structural and microvascular abnormalities as evaluated with multi-parametric MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu-Dong, E-mail: njmu_zyd@163.com [Department of Radiology, the First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University (China); Li, Meijiao, E-mail: newgljyk@163.com [Department of Radiology, Peking University First Hospital (China); Qi, Liang, E-mail: qiliang1120@126.com [Department of Radiology, the First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University (China); Wu, Chen-Jiang, E-mail: njmu_wcj@163.com [Department of Radiology, the First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University (China); Wang, Xiaoying, E-mail: cjr.wangxiaoying@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, Peking University First Hospital (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • LGE-present HCM had lower K{sup trans}, higher V{sub e} and MTT against LGE-absent HCM and normal group. • LGE-absent had significantly higher V{sub e} and MTT against normal group. • K{sup trans} was not changed between LGE-absent and normal group Microcirculatory dysfunction in HCM closely correlated to structural abnormality. - Abstract: Purpose: To determine the relationship between myocardial structural and microvascular abnormality in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) by multi-parametric cardiac MRI. Materials and methods: Twenty-four HCM and eighteen controls were retrospectively included. Left ventricle mass (LVM), LV end-systolic and end-diastolic volume (LVESV, LVEDV), LV ejection fraction (LVEF), and 16-segment wall thickness at ES and ED (SESWT, SEDWT) were assessed with a 2D cine-MRI. Myocardial perfusion (reflected by K{sup trans}), interstitial volume (V{sub e}) and mean transmit time (MTT) were evaluated with a model-dependent dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Myocardial fibrosis was assessed with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging. Results: K{sup trans} was significantly decreased in LGE-present (0.74 ± 0.15 mL/g/min) against LGE-absent (0.55 ± 0.14 mL/g/min, p = 0.030) and normal group (0.81 ± 0.32 mL/g/min, p < 0.001), but was unchanged in LGE-absent against normal group (p > 0.05). V{sub e} and MTT were significantly increased in LGE-present (V{sub e}: 26.7 ± 15.7%; MTT: 28.6 ± 21.3 s) against LGE-absent (37.6 ± 18.3%; 49.8 ± 30.5 s) and normal group (19.7 ± 6.9%; 15.1 ± 3.9 s; all p < 0.001), and were significantly increased in LGE-absent against normal group (p < 0.001). LGE significantly correlated to K{sup trans}, V{sub e}, MTT, and SESWT (ρ = 0.232, −0.247, −0.443, and −0.207, respectively). K{sup trans} negatively correlated to SEDWT and SESWT (ρ = −0.224 and −0.231). V{sub e} and MTT positively correlated to SEDWT (V{sub e}: ρ = 0.223; MTT: ρ = 0.239) and SESWT (V{sub e}: ρ = 0.248; MTT:

  8. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  9. Factor structure of trunk performance data for healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y; Kuo, C

    2000-05-01

    To examine the factor structure of various measurements of trunk muscle performance for healthy subjects. A total of 22 performance scores were collected and their univariate and multi-variate relationships were examined. Extensive literature exists on the measurement of trunk performance data and the relationships between measurements but what needs to be collected to realize a true performance score remains unclear. Trunk muscle performance scores of 150 subjects (71 males and 79 females) were obtained on an Isostation B-200 Dynamometer. Twenty-two parameters measuring range of motion, isometric strength, velocity, and endurance on all three planes of motion were collected. The factor structures were constructed using Principal Components Analysis. Clear-cut factor patterns (explained 96.3% of the total variance) suggests that the five-factor structure might be valid and appropriate for this population. The major loading on each factor indicated that: Factor 1 could be labeled as a static strength measure; Factor 2 as velocity; Factor 3 as flexibility; and Factors 4 and 5 as fatigue-resistance. No single mode of measurement can provide a good representation of a total trunk muscle performance. RelevanceFor the realization of trunk muscle performance, clinics have to measure all modes of isometric strength, velocity, range of motion, and endurance. Care must be taken in eliminating any parameter.

  10. Linear increase of structural and numerical chromosome 9 abnormalities in human sperm regarding age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Mercè; Rajmil, Osvaldo; Egozcue, Josep; Templado, Cristina

    2003-10-01

    A simultaneous four-colour fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) assay was used in human sperm in order to search for a paternal age effect on: (1) the incidence of structural aberrations and aneuploidy of chromosome 9, and (2) the sex ratio in both normal spermatozoa and spermatozoa with a numerical or structural abnormality of chromosome 9. The sperm samples were collected from 18 healthy donors, aged 24-74 years (mean 48.8 years old). Specific probes for the subtelomeric 9q region (9qter), centromeric regions of chromosomes 6 and 9, and the satellite III region of the Y chromosome were used for FISH analysis. A total of 190,117 sperms were evaluated with a minimum of 10,000 sperm scored from each donor. A significant linear increase in the overall level of duplications and deletions for the centromeric and subtelomeric regions of chromosome 9 (Pchromosome 9 disomy (Pchromosome 9 disomy, 18.8% for diploidy, and ranged from 14.6 to 28% for structural aberrations. Our results indicate a linear increase in structural aberrations and disomy for chromosome 9 in sperm with respect to age.

  11. Abnormal Ocular Movement With Executive Dysfunction and Personality Change in Subject With Thalamic Infarction: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ee Jin; Kim, Myeong Ok; Kim, Chang Hwan; Joa, Kyung Lim; Jung, Han Young

    2015-12-01

    The thalamus, located between the cerebrum and midbrain, is a nuclear complex connected to the cerebral cortex that influences motor skills, cognition, and mood. The thalamus is composed of 50-60 nuclei and can be divided into four areas according to vascular supply. In addition, it can be divided into five areas according to function. Many studies have reported on a thalamic infarction causing motor or sensory changes, but few have reported on behavioral and executive aspects of the ophthalmoplegia of the thalamus. This study reports a rare case of a paramedian thalamus infarction affecting the dorsomedial area of the thalamus, manifesting as oculomotor nerve palsy, an abnormal behavioral change, and executive dysfunction. This special case is presented with a review of the anatomical basis and function of the thalamus.

  12. Abnormally Small Neuromuscular Junctions in the Extraocular Muscles From Subjects With Idiopathic Nystagmus and Nystagmus Associated With Albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoon, Linda K; Willoughby, Christy L; Anderson, Jill S; Bothun, Erick D; Stager, David; Felius, Joost; Lee, Helena; Gottlob, Irene

    2016-04-01

    Infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) is often associated with abnormalities of axonal outgrowth and connectivity. To determine if this manifests in extraocular muscle innervation, specimens from children with idiopathic INS or INS and albinism were examined and compared to normal age-matched control extraocular muscles. Extraocular muscles removed during normal surgery on children with idiopathic INS or INS and albinism were immunostained for neuromuscular junctions, myofiber type, the immature form of the acetylcholine receptor, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and compared to age-matched controls. Muscles from both the idiopathic INS and INS and albinism groups had neuromuscular junctions that were 35% to 71% smaller based on myofiber area and myofiber perimeter than found in age-matched controls, and this was seen on both fast and slow myosin heavy chain isoform-expressing myofibers (all P albinism showed a 7-fold increase in neuromuscular junction numbers on fast myofibers expressing the immature gamma subunit of the acetylcholine receptor. The extraocular muscles from both INS subgroups showed a significant increase in the number and size of slow myofibers compared to age-matched controls. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor was expressed in control muscle but was virtually absent in the INS muscles. These studies suggest that, relative to the final common pathway, INS is not the same between different patient etiologies. It should be possible to modulate these final common pathway abnormalities, via exogenous application of appropriate drugs, with the hope that this type of treatment may reduce the involuntary oscillatory movements in these children.

  13. Popliteal cysts and subgastrocnemius bursitis are associated with knee symptoms and structural abnormalities in older adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuelong; Jones, Graeme; Han, Weiyu; Antony, Benny; Wang, Xia; Cicuttini, Flavia; Ding, Changhai

    2014-03-03

    The role of popliteal cysts and subgastrocnemius bursitis in knee joint homeostasis is uncertain. The aim of this study is to describe cross-sectional associations between popliteal cysts, subgastrocnemius bursitis, knee symptoms and structural abnormalities in older adults. A cross-sectional sample of 900 randomly-selected subjects (mean age 63 years, 48% female) were studied. Knee pain, stiffness and dysfunction were assessed by self-administered Western Ontario McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire. Radiographic knee osteophyte and joint space narrowing (JSN) were recorded. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was utilized to assess popliteal cysts, subgastrocnemius bursitis, cartilage defects and bone marrow lesions (BMLs). Popliteal cysts were present in 11.7% and subgastrocnemius bursitis in 12.7% of subjects. Subgastrocnemius bursitis was more common in those with popliteal cyst (36.2% versus 9.7%, P weight-bearing knee pain but these associations became non-significant after adjustment for cartilage defects and BMLs. Popliteal cysts and subgastrocnemius bursitis are associated with increased symptoms as well as radiographic and MRI-detected joint structural abnormalities. Longitudinal data will help resolve if they are a consequence or a cause of knee joint abnormalities.

  14. Popliteal cysts and subgastrocnemius bursitis are associated with knee symptoms and structural abnormalities in older adults: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The role of popliteal cysts and subgastrocnemius bursitis in knee joint homeostasis is uncertain. The aim of this study is to describe cross-sectional associations between popliteal cysts, subgastrocnemius bursitis, knee symptoms and structural abnormalities in older adults. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 900 randomly-selected subjects (mean age 63 years, 48% female) were studied. Knee pain, stiffness and dysfunction were assessed by self-administered Western Ontario McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire. Radiographic knee osteophyte and joint space narrowing (JSN) were recorded. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was utilized to assess popliteal cysts, subgastrocnemius bursitis, cartilage defects and bone marrow lesions (BMLs). Results Popliteal cysts were present in 11.7% and subgastrocnemius bursitis in 12.7% of subjects. Subgastrocnemius bursitis was more common in those with popliteal cyst (36.2% versus 9.7%, P bursitis was associated with increased osteophytes and JSN in the medial tibiofemoral compartment. Both were significantly associated with cartilage defects in all compartments, and with BMLs in the medial tibiofemoral compartment. Furthermore, both popliteal cysts and subgastrocnemius bursitis were significantly associated with increased weight-bearing knee pain but these associations became non-significant after adjustment for cartilage defects and BMLs. Conclusions Popliteal cysts and subgastrocnemius bursitis are associated with increased symptoms as well as radiographic and MRI-detected joint structural abnormalities. Longitudinal data will help resolve if they are a consequence or a cause of knee joint abnormalities. PMID:24581327

  15. Sensory migraine aura is not associated with structural grey matter abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hougaard, Anders; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Arngrim, Nanna; Vlachou, Maria; Larsen, Vibeke Andrée; Larsson, Henrik B W; Ashina, Messoud

    2016-01-01

    Migraine with aura (MA) is characterized by cortical dysfunction. Frequent aura attacks may alter cerebral cortical structure in patients, or structural grey matter abnormalities may predispose MA patients to aura attacks. In the present study we aimed to investigate cerebral grey matter structure in a large group of MA patients with and without sensory aura (i.e. gradually developing, transient unilateral sensory disturbances). We included 60 patients suffering from migraine with typical visual aura and 60 individually age and sex-matched controls. Twenty-nine of the patients additionally experienced sensory aura regularly. We analysed high-resolution structural MR images using two complimentary approaches and compared patients with and without sensory aura. Patients were also compared to controls. We found no differences of grey matter density or cortical thickness between patients with and without sensory aura and no differences for the cortical visual areas between patients and controls. The somatosensory cortex was thinner in patients (1.92 mm vs. 1.96 mm, P = 0.043) and the anterior cingulate cortex of patients had a decreased grey matter density (P = 0.039) compared to controls. These differences were not correlated to the clinical characteristics. Our results suggest that sensory migraine aura is not associated with altered grey matter structure and that patients with visual aura have normal cortical structure of areas involved in visual processing. The observed decreased grey matter volume of the cingulate gyrus in patients compared to controls have previously been reported in migraine with and without aura, but also in a wide range of other neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Most likely, this finding reflects general bias between patients and healthy controls.

  16. Sensory migraine aura is not associated with structural grey matter abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Hougaard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Migraine with aura (MA is characterized by cortical dysfunction. Frequent aura attacks may alter cerebral cortical structure in patients, or structural grey matter abnormalities may predispose MA patients to aura attacks. In the present study we aimed to investigate cerebral grey matter structure in a large group of MA patients with and without sensory aura (i.e. gradually developing, transient unilateral sensory disturbances. We included 60 patients suffering from migraine with typical visual aura and 60 individually age and sex-matched controls. Twenty-nine of the patients additionally experienced sensory aura regularly. We analysed high-resolution structural MR images using two complimentary approaches and compared patients with and without sensory aura. Patients were also compared to controls. We found no differences of grey matter density or cortical thickness between patients with and without sensory aura and no differences for the cortical visual areas between patients and controls. The somatosensory cortex was thinner in patients (1.92 mm vs. 1.96 mm, P = 0.043 and the anterior cingulate cortex of patients had a decreased grey matter density (P = 0.039 compared to controls. These differences were not correlated to the clinical characteristics. Our results suggest that sensory migraine aura is not associated with altered grey matter structure and that patients with visual aura have normal cortical structure of areas involved in visual processing. The observed decreased grey matter volume of the cingulate gyrus in patients compared to controls have previously been reported in migraine with and without aura, but also in a wide range of other neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Most likely, this finding reflects general bias between patients and healthy controls.

  17. Fluid-Structure Interaction in a Fluid-Filled Composite Structure Subjected to Low Velocity Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    this study of impact force, deflection, and strain were measured in a carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite cylinder subjected to low...Sanchez, J. Lopez-Puente, and D. Varas, “On the influence of filling level in CFRP aircraft fuel tank subjected to high velocity impacts,” Composite ...and back sides. The baffle provided the greatest strain reduction at the high fill levels. 14. SUBJECT TERMS glass fiber composite , fluid structure

  18. Regional brain structural abnormality in ischemic stroke patients: a voxel-based morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous study used regional homogeneity analysis and found that activity in some brain areas of patients with ischemic stroke changed significantly. In the current study, we examined structural changes in these brain regions by taking structural magnetic resonance imaging scans of 11 ischemic stroke patients and 15 healthy participants, and analyzing the data using voxel-based morphometry. Compared with healthy participants, patients exhibited higher gray matter density in the left inferior occipital gyrus and right anterior white matter tract. In contrast, gray matter density in the right cerebellum, left precentral gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, and left middle temporal gyrus was less in ischemic stroke patients. The changes of gray matter density in the middle frontal gyrus were negatively associated with the clinical rating scales of the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment (r = -0.609, P = 0.047 and the left middle temporal gyrus was negatively correlated with the clinical rating scales of the nervous functional deficiency scale (r = -0.737, P = 0.010. Our findings can objectively identify the functional abnormality in some brain regions of ischemic stroke patients.

  19. An OMERACT reliability exercise of inflammatory and structural abnormalities in patients with knee osteoarthritis using ultrasound assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruyn, George Aw; Naredo, Esperanza; Damjanov, Nemanja

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether ultrasonography (US) is reliable for the evaluation of inflammatory and structural abnormalities in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Thirteen patients with early knee OA were examined by 11 experienced sonographers during 2 days. Dichotomous and semiqu......OBJECTIVE: To assess whether ultrasonography (US) is reliable for the evaluation of inflammatory and structural abnormalities in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Thirteen patients with early knee OA were examined by 11 experienced sonographers during 2 days. Dichotomous...

  20. Differing patterns of brain structural abnormalities between black and white patients with their first episode of psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morgan, K D

    2010-07-01

    African-Caribbean and black African people living in the UK are reported to have a higher incidence of diagnosed psychosis compared with white British people. It has been argued that this may be a consequence of misdiagnosis. If this is true they might be less likely to show the patterns of structural brain abnormalities reported in white British patients. The aim of this study therefore was to investigate whether there are differences in the prevalence of structural brain abnormalities in white and black first-episode psychosis patients.

  1. Two patterns of cerebral metabolite abnormalities are detected on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in HIV-infected subjects commencing antiretroviral therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winston, Alan; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D. [Imperial College London, St. Mary' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Duncombe, Chris [HIV-NAT, Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre, Bangkok (Thailand); Li, Patrick C.K. [Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong (China); Gill, John M. [Calgary Regional Health Authority, Calgary (Canada); Kerr, Stephen J. [HIV-NAT, Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre, Bangkok (Thailand); University of New South Wales, National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Puls, Rebekah L.; Emery, Sean; Cooper, David A. [University of New South Wales, National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Collaboration: for the Altair Study Group

    2012-12-15

    Cerebral function impairment remains problematic in subjects with chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection despite effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Using cerebral proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS), we aimed to determine if abnormalities could be detected in neurologically asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects electively commencing cART. Therapy-naive, HIV-infected individuals and HIV-uninfected controls underwent {sup 1}H MRS in several anatomical voxels including the mid-frontal grey matter (FGM) and right basal ganglia (RBG). Differences in cerebral metabolite ratios between groups and correlations between immune and virological status were assessed. Forty-six subjects were recruited (26 HIV-infected and 20 control subjects). In the HIV-infected group, mean CD4+ count (SD, cells per microlitre) and plasma HIV RNA (SD, log10 copies per millilitre) were 192 (86) and 4.71 (0.64), respectively. Choline (Cho)/Creatine (Cr) and myoinositol (MI)/Cr ratios were significantly lower in the FGM in HIV-infected subjects compared to controls (0.67 (0.14) versus 0.88 (0.49), p = 0.036, and 0.94 (0.28) and 1.17 (0.26), p = 0.008, for Cho/Cr and MI/Cr, respectively) and Cho/Cr ratio associated with CD4+ lymphocyte count (p = 0.041). N-Acetyl-aspartate (NAA)/Cho ratio was significantly lower in the RBG in HIV-infected subjects compared to controls (2.27 (0.54) versus 2.63 (0.68), p = 0.002), and this was associated with greater plasma HIV RNA load (p = 0.014). Two patterns of cerebral metabolite abnormalities were observed in HIV-infected subjects electively commencing cART. Greater inflammatory metabolite ratios (Cho/Cr and MI/Cr) associated with lower markers of peripheral immune markers (CD4+ lymphocyte count) in the FGM and lower neuronal metabolite ratios (NAA/Cho) associated with greater HIV viraemia in the RBG were present in HIV-infected subjects. (orig.)

  2. Single-subject-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Xiong; Nichols, Sharon; Baker, Dewleen G; Robb, Ashley; Angeles, Annemarie; Yurgil, Kate A; Drake, Angela; Levy, Michael; Song, Tao; McLay, Robert; Theilmann, Rebecca J; Diwakar, Mithun; Risbrough, Victoria B; Ji, Zhengwei; Huang, Charles W; Chang, Douglas G; Harrington, Deborah L; Muzzatti, Laura; Canive, Jose M; Christopher Edgar, J; Chen, Yu-Han; Lee, Roland R

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of sustained impairment in military and civilian populations. However, mild TBI (mTBI) can be difficult to detect using conventional MRI or CT. Injured brain tissues in mTBI patients generate abnormal slow-waves (1-4 Hz) that can be measured and localized by resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG). In this study, we develop a voxel-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mTBI on a single-subject basis. A normative database of resting-state MEG source magnitude images (1-4 Hz) from 79 healthy control subjects was established for all brain voxels. The high-resolution MEG source magnitude images were obtained by our recent Fast-VESTAL method. In 84 mTBI patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms (36 from blasts, and 48 from non-blast causes), our method detected abnormalities at the positive detection rates of 84.5%, 86.1%, and 83.3% for the combined (blast-induced plus with non-blast causes), blast, and non-blast mTBI groups, respectively. We found that prefrontal, posterior parietal, inferior temporal, hippocampus, and cerebella areas were particularly vulnerable to head trauma. The result also showed that MEG slow-wave generation in prefrontal areas positively correlated with personality change, trouble concentrating, affective lability, and depression symptoms. Discussion is provided regarding the neuronal mechanisms of MEG slow-wave generation due to deafferentation caused by axonal injury and/or blockages/limitations of cholinergic transmission in TBI. This study provides an effective way for using MEG slow-wave source imaging to localize affected areas and supports MEG as a tool for assisting the diagnosis of mTBI.

  3. Single-subject-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mild traumatic brain injury

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    Ming-Xiong Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a leading cause of sustained impairment in military and civilian populations. However, mild TBI (mTBI can be difficult to detect using conventional MRI or CT. Injured brain tissues in mTBI patients generate abnormal slow-waves (1–4 Hz that can be measured and localized by resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG. In this study, we develop a voxel-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mTBI on a single-subject basis. A normative database of resting-state MEG source magnitude images (1–4 Hz from 79 healthy control subjects was established for all brain voxels. The high-resolution MEG source magnitude images were obtained by our recent Fast-VESTAL method. In 84 mTBI patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms (36 from blasts, and 48 from non-blast causes, our method detected abnormalities at the positive detection rates of 84.5%, 86.1%, and 83.3% for the combined (blast-induced plus with non-blast causes, blast, and non-blast mTBI groups, respectively. We found that prefrontal, posterior parietal, inferior temporal, hippocampus, and cerebella areas were particularly vulnerable to head trauma. The result also showed that MEG slow-wave generation in prefrontal areas positively correlated with personality change, trouble concentrating, affective lability, and depression symptoms. Discussion is provided regarding the neuronal mechanisms of MEG slow-wave generation due to deafferentation caused by axonal injury and/or blockages/limitations of cholinergic transmission in TBI. This study provides an effective way for using MEG slow-wave source imaging to localize affected areas and supports MEG as a tool for assisting the diagnosis of mTBI.

  4. Structural and behavioral correlates of abnormal encoding of money value in the sensorimotor striatum in cocaine addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konova, Anna B; Moeller, Scott J; Tomasi, Dardo; Parvaz, Muhammad A; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Volkow, Nora D; Goldstein, Rita Z

    2012-10-01

    Abnormalities in frontostriatal systems are thought to be central to the pathophysiology of addiction, and may underlie the maladaptive processing of the highly generalizable reinforcer, money. Although abnormal frontostriatal structure and function have been observed in individuals addicted to cocaine, it is less clear how individual variability in brain structure is associated with brain function to influence behavior. Our objective was to examine frontostriatal structure and neural processing of money value in chronic cocaine users and closely matched healthy controls. A reward task that manipulated different levels of money was used to isolate neural activity associated with money value. Gray matter volume measures were used to assess frontostriatal structure. Our results indicated that cocaine users had an abnormal money value signal in the sensorimotor striatum (right putamen/globus pallidus) that was negatively associated with accuracy adjustments to money and was more pronounced in individuals with more severe use. In parallel, group differences were also observed in both the function and gray matter volume of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex; in the cocaine users, the former was directly associated with response to money in the striatum. These results provide strong evidence for abnormalities in the neural mechanisms of valuation in addiction and link these functional abnormalities with deficits in brain structure. In addition, as value signals represent acquired associations, their abnormal processing in the sensorimotor striatum, a region centrally implicated in habit formation, could signal disadvantageous associative learning in cocaine addiction. © 2012 Published 2012. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Primary cilia are increased in number and demonstrate structural abnormalities in human cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar, Binnaz; Linton, Kim; Slater, Christian; Byers, Richard

    2017-07-01

    Primary cilia play an important role in the regulation of cell signalling pathways and are thought to have a role in cancer but have seldom been studied in human cancer samples. Primary cilia were visualised by dual immunofluorescence for anti-CROCC (ciliary rootlet coiled-coil) and anti-tubulin in a range of human cancers (including carcinomas of stomach, pancreas, prostate, lung and colon, lobular and ductal breast cancers and follicular lymphoma) and in matched normal tissue (stomach, pancreas, lung, large and small intestines, breast and reactive lymph nodes) samples using a tissue microarray; their frequency, association with proliferation, was measured by Ki-67 staining and their structure was analysed. Compared with normal tissues, primary cilia frequency was significantly elevated in adenocarcinoma of the lung (2.75% vs 1.85%, p=0.016), adenocarcinoma of the colon (3.80% vs 2.43%, respectively, p=0.017), follicular lymphoma (1.18% vs 0.83%, p=0.003) and pancreatic adenocarcinoma (7.00% vs 5.26%, p=0.002); there was no statistically significant difference compared with normal control tissue for gastric and prostatic adenocarcinomas or for lobular and ductal breast cancers. Additionally, structural abnormalities of primary cilia were identified in cancer tissues, including elongation of the axoneme, multiple basal bodies and branching of the axoneme. Ki-67 scores ranged from 0.7% to 78.4% and showed no statistically significant correlation with primary cilia frequency across all tissues (p=0.1501). The results show upregulation of primary cilia and the presence of structural defects in a wide range of human cancer tissue samples demonstrating association of dysregulation of primary cilia with human cancer. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Structural abnormalities in childhood absence epilepsy: voxel-based analysis using diffusion tensor imaging

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    Wenchao Qiu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE is a common syndrome of idiopathic generalized epilepsy. However, little is known about the brain structural changes in this type of epilepsy, especially in the default mode network (DMN regions. This study aims at using the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI technique to quantify structural abnormalities of DMN nodes in CAE patients. Method: DTI data were acquired in 14 CAE patients (aged 8.64±2.59 years, 7 females and 7 males and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The data were analyzed using voxel-based analysis (VBA and statistically compared between patients and controls. Pearson correlation was explored between altered DTI metrics and clinical parameters. The difference of brain volumes between patients and controls were also tested using unpaired t-test. Results: Patients showed significant increase of mean diffusivity (MD and radial diffusivity (RD in left medial prefrontal cortex, and decrease of fractional anisotropy (FA in left precuneus and axial diffusivity (AD in both left medial prefrontal cortex and precuneus. In correlation analysis, MD value from left medial prefrontal cortex was positively associated with duration of epilepsy. Neither the disease duration nor the seizure frequency showed significant correlation with FA values. Between-group comparison of brain volumes got no significant difference. Conclusion: The findings indicate that structural impairments exist in DMN regions in children suffering from absence epilepsy and MD values positively correlate with epilepsy duration. This may contribute to understanding the pathological mechanisms of chronic neurological deficits and promote the development of new therapies for this disorder.

  7. Exhaled aerosol pattern discloses lung structural abnormality: a sensitivity study using computational modeling and fractal analysis.

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    Jinxiang Xi

    Full Text Available Exhaled aerosol patterns, also called aerosol fingerprints, provide clues to the health of the lung and can be used to detect disease-modified airway structures. The key is how to decode the exhaled aerosol fingerprints and retrieve the lung structural information for a non-invasive identification of respiratory diseases.In this study, a CFD-fractal analysis method was developed to quantify exhaled aerosol fingerprints and applied it to one benign and three malign conditions: a tracheal carina tumor, a bronchial tumor, and asthma. Respirations of tracer aerosols of 1 µm at a flow rate of 30 L/min were simulated, with exhaled distributions recorded at the mouth. Large eddy simulations and a Lagrangian tracking approach were used to simulate respiratory airflows and aerosol dynamics. Aerosol morphometric measures such as concentration disparity, spatial distributions, and fractal analysis were applied to distinguish various exhaled aerosol patterns.Utilizing physiology-based modeling, we demonstrated substantial differences in exhaled aerosol distributions among normal and pathological airways, which were suggestive of the disease location and extent. With fractal analysis, we also demonstrated that exhaled aerosol patterns exhibited fractal behavior in both the entire image and selected regions of interest. Each exhaled aerosol fingerprint exhibited distinct pattern parameters such as spatial probability, fractal dimension, lacunarity, and multifractal spectrum. Furthermore, a correlation of the diseased location and exhaled aerosol spatial distribution was established for asthma.Aerosol-fingerprint-based breath tests disclose clues about the site and severity of lung diseases and appear to be sensitive enough to be a practical tool for diagnosis and prognosis of respiratory diseases with structural abnormalities.

  8. Behaviour of plated structures subjected to blast loading

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    Aune Vegard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation using a new shock tube facility to study blast-load effects on thin aluminium plates is presented. The shock tube is designed to expose materials and structures to extreme loading conditions, such as accidental explosions or terrorist attacks. The intensity of the loading in the present study was determined by the initial conditions of the compressed gas, i.e. volume and pressure, and the resulting loading on the target plate was compared to experimental data from explosive detonations found in the literature. The square plates were manufactured from a low-strength aluminium alloy and had an exposed area of 0.3 × 0.3 m2. Piezoelectric pressure sensors were used for pressure recordings and synchronized with two high-speed cameras operating at a frame rate of 21,000 fps in a stereoscopic setup to capture the dynamic response using a three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC technique. The experiment showed that the shock tube is capable of recreating a loading similar to that of an unconfined far-field airblast, and worked as an easily controllable alternative to explosive detonations when studying the dynamic response of structures subjected to blast loading.

  9. Curcumin Ameliorates Functional and Structural Abnormalities in Cisplatin-induced Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agthong, Sithiporn; Kaewsema, Athitaya; Charoensub, Thuntawat

    2015-06-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is one of the major side effects of cisplatin; however, effective treatments are lacking. Curcumin is a polyphenol found in the root of Curcuma longa and has been shown neuroprotective against several neurological diseases. Nevertheless, its effects on cisplatin neuropathy remain unclear. This study aimed to clarify this issue by inducing neuropathy in the rats with intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin 2 mg/kg twice a week for 5 consecutive weeks. Curcumin 200 mg/kg/day was given by gavage to a group of cisplatin-treated rats during these five weeks. The results showed that cisplatin induced thermal hypoalgesia in the 5(th) week which could be prevented by curcumin. In the 5(th) and 8(th) weeks, sciatic motor nerve conduction velocity was reduced in the cisplatin compared with the control groups. Curcumin significantly attenuated this deficit. Morphometric analysis of L4 dorsal root ganglia from the cisplatin group revealed nuclear and nucleolar atrophy including loss of neurons in the 8(th) week. These alterations were significantly blocked by curcumin. Moreover, curcumin also ameliorated the reduced myelin thickness in the sciatic nerve of cisplatin-treated rats. Taken together, our findings suggest the favorable effects of curcumin on both functional and structural abnormalities in cisplatin neuropathy. Future studies are needed to clarify the exact underlying mechanisms.

  10. Abnormal Cardiac Structure and Function in the Metabolic Syndrome: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aijaz, Bilal; Ammar, Khawaja A.; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Redfield, Margaret M.; Jacobsen, Steven J.; Rodeheffer, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To measure the association between cardiac structure and function abnormalities and isolated metabolic syndrome (metabolic syndrome excluding established hypertension or diabetes mellitus). PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS We collected data prospectively on a population-based random sample of 2042 Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents aged 45 years or older who underwent echocardiography between January 1, 1997, and September 30, 2000. Metabolic syndrome was defined by National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. RESULTS The prevalence of isolated metabolic syndrome was 21.7% (214/984) in men and 16.7% (177/1058) in women. Left ventricular (LV) mass index was greater (91.7 vs 87.9 g/m2; P=.04) and LV diastolic dysfunction more prevalent (28.2% [50/177] vs 14.9% [81/544]; Psyndrome than in women without metabolic syndrome; no difference was found in men. When patients with hypertension or diabetes mellitus were included in the cohort, there was a stepwise increase in LV mass index and LV diastolic dysfunction from no metabolic syndrome to isolated metabolic syndrome to metabolic syndrome in women and men. CONCLUSION Isolated metabolic syndrome, which is associated with increased LV mass index and LV diastolic dysfunction in women, identifies women with evidence of early ventricular dysfunction. PMID:19046554

  11. Neurological abnormalities and neurocognitive functions in healthy elder people: A structural equation modeling analysis

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    Chan Raymond CK

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Aims Neurological abnormalities have been reported in normal aging population. However, most of them were limited to extrapyramidal signs and soft signs such as motor coordination and sensory integration have received much less attention. Very little is known about the relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognitive function in healthy elder people. The current study aimed to examine the underlying relationships between neurological soft signs and neurocognition in a group of healthy elderly. Methods One hundred and eighty healthy elderly participated in the current study. Neurological soft signs were evaluated with the subscales of Cambridge Neurological Inventory. A set of neurocognitive tests was also administered to all the participants. Structural equation modeling was adopted to examine the underlying relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognition. Results No significant differences were found between the male and female elder people in neurocognitive function performances and neurological soft signs. The model fitted well in the elderly and indicated the moderate associations between neurological soft signs and neurocognition, specifically verbal memory, visual memory and working memory. Conclusions The neurological soft signs are more or less statistically equivalent to capture the similar information done by conventional neurocognitive function tests in the elderly. The implication of these findings may serve as a potential neurological marker for the early detection of pathological aging diseases or related mental status such as mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

  12. Neurological abnormalities and neurocognitive functions in healthy elder people: a structural equation modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Raymond C K; Xu, Ting; Li, Hui-jie; Zhao, Qing; Liu, Han-hui; Wang, Yi; Yan, Chao; Cao, Xiao-yan; Wang, Yu-na; Shi, Yan-fang; Dazzan, Paola

    2011-08-10

    Neurological abnormalities have been reported in normal aging population. However, most of them were limited to extrapyramidal signs and soft signs such as motor coordination and sensory integration have received much less attention. Very little is known about the relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognitive function in healthy elder people. The current study aimed to examine the underlying relationships between neurological soft signs and neurocognition in a group of healthy elderly. One hundred and eighty healthy elderly participated in the current study. Neurological soft signs were evaluated with the subscales of Cambridge Neurological Inventory. A set of neurocognitive tests was also administered to all the participants. Structural equation modeling was adopted to examine the underlying relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognition. No significant differences were found between the male and female elder people in neurocognitive function performances and neurological soft signs. The model fitted well in the elderly and indicated the moderate associations between neurological soft signs and neurocognition, specifically verbal memory, visual memory and working memory. The neurological soft signs are more or less statistically equivalent to capture the similar information done by conventional neurocognitive function tests in the elderly. The implication of these findings may serve as a potential neurological marker for the early detection of pathological aging diseases or related mental status such as mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

  13. Prevalence of lung structure abnormalities in patients with acromegaly and their relationship with gas exchange: cross-sectional analytical study with a control group

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    Marcelo Palmeira Rodrigues

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Different functional respiratory alterations have been described in acromegaly, but their relationship with pulmonary tissue abnormalities is unknown. The objective of this study was to observe possible changes in lung structure and explain their relationship with gas exchange abnormalities. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional analytical study with a control group, conducted at a university hospital. METHODS: The study included 36 patients with acromegaly and 24 controls who were all assessed through high-resolution computed tomography of the thorax (CT. Arterial blood gas, effort oximetry and serum growth hormone (GH and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1 were also assessed in the patients with acromegaly. RESULTS: The abnormalities found in the CT scan were not statistically different between the acromegaly and control groups: mild cylindrical bronchiectasis (P = 0.59, linear opacity (P = 0.29, nodular opacity (P = 0.28, increased attenuation (frosted glass; P = 0.48 and decreased attenuation (emphysema; P = 0.32. Radiographic abnormalities were not associated with serum GH and IGF-1. Hypoxemia was present in seven patients; however, in six of them, the hypoxemia could be explained by underlying clinical conditions other than acromegaly: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in two, obesity in two, bronchial infection in one and asthma in one. CONCLUSION: No changes in lung structure were detected through thorax tomography in comparison with the control subjects. The functional respiratory alterations found were largely explained by alternative diagnoses or had subclinical manifestations, without any plausible relationship with lung structural factors.

  14. A Systematic Investigation of Within-Subject and Between-Subject Covariance Structures in Growth Mixture Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junhui

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigated how between-subject and within-subject variance-covariance structures affected the detection of a finite mixture of unobserved subpopulations and parameter recovery of growth mixture models in the context of linear mixed-effects models. A simulation study was conducted to evaluate the impact of variance-covariance…

  15. Left hemisphere structural connectivity abnormality in pediatric hydrocephalus patients following surgery

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    Weihong Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Edition (ABAS-II]. However, one global network measure (global efficiency and two regional network measures in the insula (local efficiency and between centrality tested at 3-month post-surgery were found to correlate with GAC score tested at 12-month post-surgery with statistical significance (all p < 0.05, corrected. Our data showed that the structural connectivity analysis based on DTI and graph theory was sensitive in detecting both global and regional network abnormality when the analysis was conducted in the left hemisphere only. This approach provides a new avenue enabling the application of advanced neuroimaging analysis methods in quantifying brain damage in children with hydrocephalus surgically treated with programmable shunts.

  16. Exercise and vitamin E intake are independently associated with metabolic abnormalities in human immunodeficiency virus-positive subjects: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrila, Alina; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Doweiko, John; Nagy, G Sonia; Brodovicz, Kimberly; Hsu, William; Karchmer, Adolf W; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2003-06-15

    We investigated the relationship among habitual exercise, diet, and the presence of metabolic abnormalities (body fat redistribution, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance) in a cross-sectional study of 120 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected subjects with use of bivariate and multivariate regression-analysis models. Total and aerobic exercise were significantly and negatively associated with fasting plasma triglyceride levels in the entire sample and in the fat redistribution group. Inverse associations between total or aerobic exercise and insulin resistance were suggestive but did not achieve statistical significance. Diastolic blood pressure was significantly and inversely associated with supplemental or total but not habitual dietary intake of vitamin E. In conclusion, exercise and vitamin E intake were independently and negatively associated with several phenotypic manifestations of HIV-associated metabolic syndrome, whereas other macro- or micronutrients did not have comparable significance.

  17. Numerical and structural chromosomal abnormalities detected in human sperm with a combination of multicolor FISH assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, A; Van Hummelen, P; Lowe, X R; Adler, I D; Wyrobek, A J

    1999-01-01

    A pair of multicolor FISH assays (X-Y-21 and A-M-16) was developed for human sperm to simultaneously measure sex ratios; aneuploidies involving chromosomes 1, 16, 21, X, and Y; meiotic diploidies; and structural aberrations involving chromosome 1p. Sex ratios in sperm were not significantly different from unity among healthy men. Baseline frequencies of disomic sperm for chromosomes 1, 8, and 21 were similar (6.7 per 10(4) sperm, 95% CI of 5.6-8.1), suggesting that among these three chromosomes, chromosome 21 was not especially prone to nondisjunction. Frequencies of disomy 16 sperm were significantly lower, however (3.5 per 10(4) sperm, 95% CI of 2.0-6.2; P chromosomes 16 and 21 were validated against aneuploidy data obtained by the hamster-egg technique for human sperm cytogenetics. The frequencies of X-X, Y-Y, X-Y ("Klinefelter") sperm and sex-null ("Turner") sperm were 5.5, 5.1, 5.5, and 7.8 per 10(4) sperm, respectively. For chromosomes 16 and 21, the frequencies of nullisomic and disomic sperm were similar, suggesting that gain and loss events occurred symmetrically. However, more gain than loss was reported for chromosomes 1, X, and Y. The frequency of MI and MII diploid sperm (with flagella) was approximately 12 per 10(4) (range 8.3-16.7 per 10(4) sperm). Based on flagella data, the frequency of somatic cells in the semen was estimated to be approximately 1.8 per 10(4) sperm. Loss or gain of a portion of chromosome-arm 1p occurred in 5.5 per 10(4) sperm, and the percentage of sperm carrying structural aberrations within the haploid genome as calculated from FISH (1.4%), was similar to that obtained with the hamster-egg technique. These complementary sperm FISH assays have promising applications in studies of chromosomally abnormal sperm after exposure to occupational, medical, and environmental toxicants.

  18. Abnormal structure of fear circuitry in pediatric post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keding, Taylor J; Herringa, Ryan J

    2015-02-01

    Structural brain studies of adult post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) show reduced gray matter volume (GMV) in fear regulatory areas including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and hippocampus. Surprisingly, neither finding has been reported in pediatric PTSD. One possibility is that they represent age-dependent effects that are not fully apparent until adulthood. In addition, lower-resolution MRI and image processing in prior studies may have limited detection of such differences. Here we examine fear circuitry GMV, including age-related differences, using higher-resolution MRI in pediatric PTSD vs healthy youth. In a cross-sectional design, 3 T anatomical brain MRI was acquired in 27 medication-free youth with PTSD and 27 healthy non-traumatized youth of comparable age, sex, and IQ. Voxel-based morphometry was used to compare GMV in a priori regions including the medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala/hippocampus. Compared with healthy youth, PTSD youth had reduced GMV but no age-related differences in anterior vmPFC (BA 10/11, Z=4.5), which inversely correlated with PTSD duration. In contrast, although there was no overall group difference in hippocampal volume, a group × age interaction (Z=3.6) was present in the right anterior hippocampus. Here, age positively predicted hippocampal volume in healthy youth but negatively predicted volume in PTSD youth. Within the PTSD group, re-experiencing symptoms inversely correlated with subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC, Z=3.7) and right anterior hippocampus (Z=3.5) GMV. Pediatric PTSD is associated with abnormal structure of the vmPFC and age-related differences in the hippocampus, regions important in the extinction and contextual gating of fear. Reduced anterior vmPFC volume may confer impaired recovery from illness, consistent with its role in the allocation of attentional resources. In contrast, individual differences in sgACC volume were associated with re-experiencing symptoms, consistent with

  19. Obesity increases the prevalence and severity of focal knee abnormalities diagnosed using 3T MRI in middle-aged subjects - data from the osteoarthritis initiative

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    Laberge, Marc A.; Baum, Thomas; Virayavanich, Warapat; Nardo, Lorenzo; Link, Thomas M. [University of California San Francisco, Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Research, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Nevitt, M.C.; Lynch, J.; McCulloch, C.E. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2012-06-15

    To study the effect of BMI on the prevalence, severity, and 36-month progression of early degenerative changes in the knee by using 3T MRI in middle-aged subjects without radiographic osteoarthritis (OA). We examined baseline and 36-month follow-up MR studies from 137 middle-aged individuals (45-55 years old) with risk factors for knee OA but no radiographic OA from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Subjects were grouped into three categories: normal BMI (BMI < 25 kg/m{sup 2}, n = 38), overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m{sup 2}, n = 37), and obese (BMI {>=} 30 kg/m{sup 2}, n = 62). Using 3T MRI, cartilage, meniscus, and bone marrow abnormalities were graded using the OA Whole-organ MR Imaging Score (WORMS). The statistical analysis was corrected as necessary for differences in age, sex, and OA risk factors other than BMI. The overall prevalence of lesions was 64% for meniscus and 79% for cartilage (including low grade lesions). At baseline, the prevalence and severity of knee lesions was positively associated with BMI, with a nearly fourfold increase in meniscal tears and more than twofold increase in high-grade cartilage defects in obese individuals relative to normal-weight subjects. Over the 36-month follow-up period, the number of new or worsening cartilage lesions of any grade was significantly higher in obese subjects (p = 0.039), while there was no significant difference in meniscal lesion progression. Obesity was associated with both higher prevalence and severity of early degenerative changes in the knee in middle-aged individuals without radiographic OA and with significantly increased cartilage lesion progression (of any grade) over 36 months. (orig.)

  20. Patterns of brain structural connectivity differentiate normal weight from overweight subjects

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    Arpana Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: 1. An increased BMI (i.e., overweight subjects is associated with distinct changes in gray-matter and fiber density of the brain. 2. Classification algorithms based on white-matter connectivity involving regions of the reward and associated networks can identify specific targets for mechanistic studies and future drug development aimed at abnormal ingestive behavior and in overweight/obesity.

  1. Rehabilitation of Existing Structures Subjected to Extreme Events

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    Corneliu Bob

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the characteristics of existing structures under extreme actions, general and specific rehabilitation solutions detailed for reinforced concrete and masonry structures. Rehabilitation of different types of existing structures are described: a reinforced concrete framed structure presenting major detailing vulnerabilities at seismic actions; an apartment house affected by an explosion; two masonry buildings affected by a recent earthquake.

  2. Detection of structural and numerical chomosomal abnormalities by ACM-FISH analysis in sperm of oligozoospermic infertility patients

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    Schmid, T E; Brinkworth, M H; Hill, F; Sloter, E; Kamischke, A; Marchetti, F; Nieschlag, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2003-11-10

    Modern reproductive technologies are enabling the treatment of infertile men with severe disturbances of spermatogenesis. The possibility of elevated frequencies of genetically and chromosomally defective sperm has become an issue of concern with the increased usage of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), which can enable men with severely impaired sperm production to father children. Several papers have been published about aneuploidy in oligozoospermic patients, but relatively little is known about chromosome structural aberrations in the sperm of these patients. We examined sperm from infertile, oligozoospermic individuals for structural and numerical chromosomal abnormalities using a multicolor ACM FISH assay that utilizes DNA probes specific for three regions of chromosome 1 to detect human sperm that carry numerical chromosomal abnormalities plus two categories of structural aberrations: duplications and deletions of 1pter and 1cen, and chromosomal breaks within the 1cen-1q12 region. There was a significant increase in the average frequencies of sperm with duplications and deletions in the infertility patients compared with the healthy concurrent controls. There was also a significantly elevated level of breaks within the 1cen-1q12 region. There was no evidence for an increase in chromosome-1 disomy, or in diploidy. Our data reveal that oligozoospermia is associated with chromosomal structural abnormalities suggesting that, oligozoospermic men carry a higher burden of transmissible, chromosome damage. The findings raise the possibility of elevated levels of transmissible chromosomal defects following ICSI treatment.

  3. Role of conventional magnetic resonance imaging in the screening of epilepsy with structural abnormalities: a pictorial essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Wenzhen; Xiang, Hongbing

    2017-01-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disease with serious impact on patients and society. The causes of epilepsy comprise a heterogeneous group of disorders, rendering epilepsy diagnoses rather difficult and challenging. The primary role of MRI is to locate and define the probable anatomic epileptogenic lesions. In the developing countries, where functional MRI (fMRI) is not popular, conventional MRI (cMRI) becomes especially important in epilepsy diagnoses. Apart from that, an experienced radiologist can increase the diagnostic yield of MRI to epileptogenic lesions. Thus, we present a pictorial review focusing on the role of cMRI in the screening of epilepsy with structural abnormalities and highlighting the key findings on cMRI to help radiologists to be familiar with the characteristic findings. Considering the complexity and diversity of the structural abnormalities, we propse a mnemonic "MAGIC TVs" approach to reduce false negative diagnosis and improve the diagnosis rate.

  4. Disruption of Ah Receptor Signaling during Mouse Development Leads to Abnormal Cardiac Structure and Function in the Adult.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius S Carreira

    Full Text Available The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD Theory proposes that the environment encountered during fetal life and infancy permanently shapes tissue physiology and homeostasis such that damage resulting from maternal stress, poor nutrition or exposure to environmental agents may be at the heart of adult onset disease. Interference with endogenous developmental functions of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR, either by gene ablation or by exposure in utero to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, a potent AHR ligand, causes structural, molecular and functional cardiac abnormalities and altered heart physiology in mouse embryos. To test if embryonic effects progress into an adult phenotype, we investigated whether Ahr ablation or TCDD exposure in utero resulted in cardiac abnormalities in adult mice long after removal of the agent. Ten-months old adult Ahr-/- and in utero TCDD-exposed Ahr+/+ mice showed sexually dimorphic abnormal cardiovascular phenotypes characterized by echocardiographic findings of hypertrophy, ventricular dilation and increased heart weight, resting heart rate and systolic and mean blood pressure, and decreased exercise tolerance. Underlying these effects, genes in signaling networks related to cardiac hypertrophy and mitochondrial function were differentially expressed. Cardiac dysfunction in mouse embryos resulting from AHR signaling disruption seems to progress into abnormal cardiac structure and function that predispose adults to cardiac disease, but while embryonic dysfunction is equally robust in males and females, the adult abnormalities are more prevalent in females, with the highest severity in Ahr-/- females. The findings reported here underscore the conclusion that AHR signaling in the developing heart is one potential target of environmental factors associated with cardiovascular disease.

  5. [Non-structural abnormalities of CNS function resulting in coincidence of endocrinopathies, epilepsy and psychoneurologic disorders in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starzyk, Jerzy; Pituch-Noworolska, Anna; Pietrzyk, Jacek A; Urbanik, Andrzej; Kroczka, Sławomir; Drozdz, Ryszard; Wójcik, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    In the population of children and adolescents, epilepsy affects approximately 1% of cases, nonepileptic seizures are seen in approximately 3%, and endocrine disorders are several times more common. For this reason, coincidence of endocrine disorders and epilepsy and psychoneurologic disorders is frequent. Much less common are structural abnormalities (tumors, developmental abnormalities), and especially non-structural CNS abnormalities, resulting in coincidence of both disorders. There are no reports available in the literature that would address the problem. 1) Assessment of the frequency of coincidental epilepsy and endocrine disorders in patients without structural CSN abnormalities treated as outpatients and inpatients of Department of Endocrinology University Children's Hospital of Krakow. 2) Presentation of diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties in these patients, and 3) An attempt at defining the common etiology of both disorders. On the basis of ICD code patients with coincidance of endocrine disorders, epilepsy and psychoneurologic disorders were selected from several thousands of children treated between 2000 and 2009 in Pediatric Endocrinology Department. The neurologic disorders were diagnosed and treated in Chair and Department of Children's and Adolescents Neurology or in another pediatric neurology center. Various forms of epilepsy (symptomatic or idiopathic) and other psychoneurological disorders (disorders of behavior and emotions, obsession-compulsion syndromes, stereotypias, aggression, autoaggression, or hypothalamic obesity) coincident with one or more endocrine disorders, such as growth disorders, disorders of pubertal development, obesity, thyroid diseases, adrenal diseases, hyperprolactinemia, hypoparathyroidism and ion metabolism disorders were diagnosed in 49 patients. The group included: i) children after cranial irradiation and chemotherapy due to medulloblastoma (3 patients), oligodenroglioma (1 patient), ependymoma (1 patient), optic

  6. Modal Testing of Mechanical Structures Subject to Operational Excitation Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, N.; Brincker, Rune; Herlufsen, H.

    2000-01-01

    Operational Modal Analysis also known as Output Only Modal Analysis has in the recent years been used for extracting modal parameters of civil engineering structures and is now becoming popular for mechanical structures. The advantage of the method is that no artificial excitation need to be appl...

  7. Modal Testing of Mechanical Structures subject to Operational Excitation Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, N.; Brincker, Rune; Herlufsen, H.

    2001-01-01

    Operational Modal Analysis also known as Output Only Modal Analysis has in the recent years been used for extracting modal parameters of civil engineering structures and is now becoming popular for mechanical structures. The advantage of the method is that no artificial excitation need to be appl...

  8. On the modal characteristics of damaging structures subjected to earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo Ponzo, Felice; Ditommaso, Rocco; Auletta, Gianluca; Iacovino, Chiara; Mossucca, Antonello; Nigro, Antonella; Nigro, Domenico

    2015-04-01

    Structural Health Monitoring, especially for structures located in seismic prone areas, has assumed a meaning of great importance in last years, for the possibility to make a more objective and more rapid estimation of the damage occurred on buildings after a seismic event. In the last years many researchers are working to set-up new methodologies for Non-destructive Damage Evaluation based on the variation of the dynamic behaviour of structures under seismic loads. The NDE methods for damage detection and evaluation can be classified into four levels, according to the specific criteria provided by the Rytter. Each level of identification is correlated with specific information related to monitored structure. In fact, by increasing the level it is possible to obtain more information about the state of the health of the structures, to know if damage occurred on the structures, to quantify and localize the damage and to evaluate its impact on the monitored structure. Several authors discussed on the possibility to use the mode shape curvature to localize damage on structural elements, for example, by applying the curvature-based method to frequency response function instead of mode shape, and demonstrated the potential of this approach by considering real data. Damage detection approach based on dynamic monitoring of structural properties over time has received a considerable attention in recent scientific literature. In earthquake engineering field, the recourse to experimental research is necessary to understand the mechanical behaviour of the various structural and non-structural components. In this paper a new methodology to detect and localize a possible damage occurred on a framed structure after an earthquake is presented and discussed. The main outcomes retrieved from many numerical non linear dynamic models of reinforced concrete framed structures characterized by 3, 5 and 8 floors with different geometric configurations and designed for gravity loads only

  9. Behaviour of Large Cylindrical Offshore Structures Subjected to Wave Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begüm Yurdanur DAĞLI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Spar-type and monopole substructures consisting of a large-diameter, single vertical cylinders have been used as wind turbine towers, oil storage platforms, tankers and wave energy converters at deepwater region in the sea. These towers and platforms are exposed to environmental forces such as wind, wave and current. Wave force is the most effective force in the total environmental force. The body disturbs the incident wave and Diffraction Theory is used for computing the pressure distribution for designing the structure. Therefore, this study aims to present the effect of structural design of towers on dynamic behavior due to wave actions. Two different cases of structural models are selected to employ bidirectional fluid structure interaction (FSI analysis. Diffraction Theory is utilized to investigate wave forces. Solid and fluid domains are modeled in Abaqus finite elements program. Behaviors of various types of offshore structures are evaluated and compared according to the significant stresses and displacements. The hydrodynamic pressure on the cylindrical structure surface and the diffraction forces acting on structures are presented. Mode shapes, first three natural frequencies are comparatively given.

  10. State Confessional Relations: Problem of the Subject Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra A. Dorskaya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article various existing definitions of the concept "state and confessional relations" are analyzed, also author's definition is offered. Three levels of the state and confessional relations are revealed: conceptual, legislative and administrative-managerial. In the article it is shown that in Russia a tradition of only two subjects of the state and confessional relations – government bodies and the religious organizations allocation exists. It is revealed that at the present stage many researchers are dissatisfied with such situation. Scientific sources of the problem of the state and church relations within the psychological school of the law, which are addressed to the personality and experiences in the legal sphere are studied and revealed. Special attention is paid to scientific heritage of the M.A. Reysner, who was one of the first to begin study of this problem. In the article the question of the school of three subjects of the state and confessional relations allocation formation, what adds the faithful or faithless personality in addition to two traditional subjects is analyzed. The state and confessional relations are considered in the context of the human rights development. The question of new type of the believer possessing high education level and knowledge formation is considered. In the article it is shown that at the present stage relations of any regulation between the state and religious organizations is based on the basis of international legal standards, domestic legislation and norms of canon law.

  11. Optimizing the Structure of Distribution Smart Grids with Renewable Generation against Abnormal Conditions: A Complex Networks Approach with Evolutionary Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Cuadra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we describe an approach that allows for optimizing the structure of a smart grid (SG with renewable energy (RE generation against abnormal conditions (imbalances between generation and consumption, overloads or failures arising from the inherent SG complexity by combining the complex network (CN and evolutionary algorithm (EA concepts. We propose a novel objective function (to be minimized that combines cost elements, related to the number of electric cables, and several metrics that quantify properties that are beneficial for SGs (energy exchange at the local scale and high robustness and resilience. The optimized SG structure is obtained by applying an EA in which the chromosome that encodes each potential network (or individual is the upper triangular matrix of its adjacency matrix. This allows for fully tailoring the crossover and mutation operators. We also propose a domain-specific initial population that includes both small-world and random networks, helping the EA converge quickly. The experimental work points out that the proposed method works well and generates the optimum, synthetic, small-world structure that leads to beneficial properties such as improving both the local energy exchange and the robustness. The optimum structure fulfills a balance between moderate cost and robustness against abnormal conditions. Our approach should be considered as an analysis, planning and decision-making tool to gain insight into smart grid structures so that the low level detailed design is carried out by using electrical engineering techniques.

  12. Right ventricular function assessed by tissue Doppler echocardiography in older subjects without evidence for structural cardiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laszlo, Roman; Baumann, Tobias; Konz, Hanna; Dallmeier, Dhayana; Klenk, Jochen; Denkinger, Michael; Koenig, Wolfgang; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Steinacker, Juergen Michael

    2017-06-01

    The aim of our study was to obtain right ventricular (RV) tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) data in older subjects (n = 95, mean age: 74.5 ± 4.6 years) without evidence of hemodynamically significant structural heart disease recruited from a large population-based cohort (ActiFE-Ulm study). Our data indicate that aging may be accompanied by decreasing RV diastolic function and at most little alterations of RV systolic function. Mean values of all parameters were still within the guideline-suggested reference range with most of them closer to the abnormality thresholds. On an individual basis, respective thresholds were also exceeded in some subjects (almost all parameters right heart.

  13. Modal Testing of Mechanical Structures Subject to Operational Excitation Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, N.; Brincker, Rune; Herlufsen, H.

    2000-01-01

    Operational Modal Analysis also known as Output Only Modal Analysis has in the recent years been used for extracting modal parameters of civil engineering structures and is now becoming popular for mechanical structures. The advantage of the method is that no artificial excitation need...... to the Operational Modal Analysis. For Operational Modal Analysis two different estimation techniques are used: a non-parametric technique based on Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD), and a parametric technique working on the raw data in time domain, a data driven Stochastic Subspace Identification (SSI) algorithm....... These are compared to other methods such as traditional Modal Analysis....

  14. Meta-analysis of structural brain abnormalities associated with stimulant drug dependence and neuroimaging of addiction vulnerability and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersche, Karen D; Williams, Guy B; Robbins, Trevor W; Bullmore, Edward T

    2013-08-01

    Since the first study in stimulant-dependent individuals using structural MRI was published fifteen years ago, much evidence has accumulated on brain abnormalities associated with stimulant drug dependence. Here we conducted a voxel-based morphometry meta-analysis of published MRI data in stimulant-dependent individuals to clarify the most robust abnormalities underlying the disorder. We found that neuroimaging studies in stimulant-dependent individuals consistently report a gray matter decline in the prefrontal cortex regions associated with self-regulation and self-awareness. One of the next key questions that neuroimaging research today needs to address is the question of causality, namely to what extent these brain abnormalities are caused by the toxic effects of drug exposure, or the possibility that these may have predated drug-taking and even predisposed individuals for the development of drug dependence. Although the question of causality has not yet been answered completely, there has been significant progress made to date. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Durability of Adhesive Bonded Structures Subjected to Acoustic Loads,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    performed on such structures in progressive-wave tubes (PWT) [5]. These tests have involved various adhesives having widely varying peel strengths and lap...loading augmented by selective progressive-wave tube tests appear to be the best approach. Riveted technology prediction methods in general are not...foematiommstum am[*l, Deopo do Servigo de Mateial Fy.Madhmatik GmibH 4a Porn Awne KeeaoemeiapmtmumRue da Eacols Pollticalca 42 D-7314 UgmunLeopdisafen 2 Lim Atn

  16. Coronary microvascular dysfunction is related to abnormalities in myocardial structure and function in cardiac amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorbala, Sharmila; Vangala, Divya; Bruyere, John; Quarta, Christina; Kruger, Jenna; Padera, Robert; Foster, Courtney; Hanley, Michael; Di Carli, Marcelo F; Falk, Rodney

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that coronary microvascular function is impaired in subjects with cardiac amyloidosis. Effort angina is common in subjects with cardiac amyloidosis, even in the absence of epicardial coronary artery disease (CAD). Thirty-one subjects were prospectively enrolled in this study, including 21 subjects with definite cardiac amyloidosis without epicardial CAD and 10 subjects with hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). All subjects underwent rest and vasodilator stress N-13 ammonia positron emission tomography and 2-dimensional echocardiography. Global left ventricular myocardial blood flow (MBF) was quantified at rest and during peak hyperemia, and coronary flow reserve (CFR) was computed (peak stress MBF/rest MBF) adjusting for rest rate pressure product. Compared with the LVH group, the amyloid group showed lower rest MBF (0.59 ± 0.15 ml/g/min vs. 0.88 ± 0.23 ml/g/min; p = 0.004), stress MBF (0.85 ± 0.29 ml/g/min vs. 1.85 ± 0.45 ml/g/min; p coronary vascular resistance (111 ± 40 ml/g/min/mm Hg vs. 70 ± 19 ml/g/min/mm Hg; p = 0.004). Of note, almost all subjects with amyloidosis (>95%) had significantly reduced peak stress MBF (coronary vasodilator function. Coronary microvascular dysfunction is highly prevalent in subjects with cardiac amyloidosis, even in the absence of epicardial CAD, and may explain their anginal symptoms. Further study is required to understand whether specific therapy directed at amyloidosis may improve coronary vasomotion in amyloidosis. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of LMS-Based NN Structure for Power Quality Enhancement in a Distribution Network Under Abnormal Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rahul Kumar; Hussain, Ikhlaq; Singh, Bhim

    2017-03-16

    This paper proposes an application of a least mean-square (LMS)-based neural network (NN) structure for the power quality improvement of a three-phase power distribution network under abnormal conditions. It uses a single-layer neuron structure for the control in a distribution static compensator (DSTATCOM) to attenuate the harmonics such as noise, bias, notches, dc offset, and distortion, injected in the grid current due to connection of several nonlinear loads. This admittance LMS-based NN structure has a simple architecture which reduces the computational complexity and burden which makes it easy to implement. A DSTATCOM is a custom power device which performs various functionalities such as harmonics attenuation, reactive power compensation, load balancing, zero voltage regulation, and power factor correction. Other main contribution of this paper involves operation of the system under abnormal conditions of distribution network which means noise and distortion in voltage and imbalance in three-phase voltages at the point of interconnection. For substantiating and demonstrating the performance of proposed control approach, simulations are carried on MATLAB/Simulink software and corresponding experimental tests are conducted on a developed prototype in the laboratory.

  18. Cosmology from large-scale structure observations: a subjective review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilicki, Maciej; Hellwing, Wojciech A.

    2017-08-01

    In these lecture notes we give a brief overview of cosmological inference from the observed large-scale structure (LSS) of the Universe. After a general introduction, we briefly summarize the current status of the standard cosmological model, ΛCDM, and then discuss a few general puzzles related to this otherwise successful model. Next, after a concise presentation of LSS properties, we describe various observational cosmological probes, such as baryon acoustic oscillations, redshift space distortions and weak gravitational lensing. We also provide examples of how the rapidly developing technique of cross-correlations of cosmological datasets is applied. Finally, we briefly mention the promise brought to cosmology by gravitational wave detections.

  19. Abnormal epithelial structure and chronic lung inflammation after repair of chlorine-induced airway injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yiqun; Chen, Jing; Humphrey, David M.; Fodah, Ramy A.; Warawa, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Chlorine is a toxic gas used in a variety of industrial processes and is considered a chemical threat agent. High-level chlorine exposure causes acute lung injury, but the long-term effects of acute chlorine exposure are unclear. Here we characterized chronic pulmonary changes following acute chlorine exposure in mice. A/J mice were exposed to 240 parts per million-hour chlorine or sham-exposed to air. Chlorine inhalation caused sloughing of bronchial epithelium 1 day after chlorine exposure, which was repaired with restoration of a pseudostratified epithelium by day 7. The repaired epithelium contained an abnormal distribution of epithelial cells containing clusters of club or ciliated cells rather than the uniformly interspersed pattern of these cells in unexposed mice. Although the damaged epithelium in A/J mice was repaired rapidly, and minimal airway fibrosis was observed, chlorine-exposed mice developed pneumonitis characterized by infiltration of alveoli with neutrophils and prominent, large, foamy macrophages. Levels of CXCL1/KC, CXCL5/LPS-induced CXC chemokine, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and VEGF in bronchoalveolar (BAL) fluid from chlorine-exposed mice showed steadily increasing trends over time. BAL protein levels were increased on day 4 and remained elevated out to day 28. The number of bacteria cultured from lungs of chlorine-exposed mice 4 wk after exposure was not increased compared with sham-exposed mice, indicating that the observed pneumonitis was not driven by bacterial infection of the lung. The results indicate that acute chlorine exposure may cause chronic abnormalities in the lungs despite rapid repair of injured epithelium. PMID:25398987

  20. Abnormal epithelial structure and chronic lung inflammation after repair of chlorine-induced airway injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yiqun; Chen, Jing; Humphrey, David M; Fodah, Ramy A; Warawa, Jonathan M; Hoyle, Gary W

    2015-01-15

    Chlorine is a toxic gas used in a variety of industrial processes and is considered a chemical threat agent. High-level chlorine exposure causes acute lung injury, but the long-term effects of acute chlorine exposure are unclear. Here we characterized chronic pulmonary changes following acute chlorine exposure in mice. A/J mice were exposed to 240 parts per million-hour chlorine or sham-exposed to air. Chlorine inhalation caused sloughing of bronchial epithelium 1 day after chlorine exposure, which was repaired with restoration of a pseudostratified epithelium by day 7. The repaired epithelium contained an abnormal distribution of epithelial cells containing clusters of club or ciliated cells rather than the uniformly interspersed pattern of these cells in unexposed mice. Although the damaged epithelium in A/J mice was repaired rapidly, and minimal airway fibrosis was observed, chlorine-exposed mice developed pneumonitis characterized by infiltration of alveoli with neutrophils and prominent, large, foamy macrophages. Levels of CXCL1/KC, CXCL5/LPS-induced CXC chemokine, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and VEGF in bronchoalveolar (BAL) fluid from chlorine-exposed mice showed steadily increasing trends over time. BAL protein levels were increased on day 4 and remained elevated out to day 28. The number of bacteria cultured from lungs of chlorine-exposed mice 4 wk after exposure was not increased compared with sham-exposed mice, indicating that the observed pneumonitis was not driven by bacterial infection of the lung. The results indicate that acute chlorine exposure may cause chronic abnormalities in the lungs despite rapid repair of injured epithelium. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Structural and Functional Abnormalities of Default Mode Network in Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy: A Study Combining DTI and fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jianhui; Zheng, Gang; Wu, Shengyong; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Liao, Wei; Zhong, Yuan; Ni, Ling; Jiao, Qing; Zhang, Zongjun; Liu, Yijun; Lu, Guangming

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose Live failure can cause brain edema and aberrant brain function in cirrhotic patients. In particular, decreased functional connectivity within the brain default-mode network (DMN) has been recently reported in overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE) patients. However, so far, little is known about the connectivity among the DMN in the minimal HE (MHE), the mildest form of HE. Here, we combined diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) to test our hypothesis that both structural and functional connectivity within the DMN were disturbed in MHE. Materials and Methods Twenty MHE patients and 20 healthy controls participated in the study. We explored the changes of structural (path length, tracts count, fractional anisotropy [FA] and mean diffusivity [MD] derived from DTI tractography) and functional (temporal correlation coefficient derived from rs-fMRI) connectivity of the DMN in MHE patients. Pearson correlation analysis was performed between the structural/functional indices and venous blood ammonia levels/neuropsychological tests scores of patients. All thresholds were set at P<0.05, Bonferroni corrected. Results Compared to the healthy controls, MHE patients showed both decreased FA and increased MD in the tract connecting the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PCUN) to left parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), and decreased functional connectivity between the PCC/PCUN and left PHG, and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). MD values of the tract connecting PCC/PCUN to the left PHG positively correlated to the ammonia levels, the temporal correlation coefficients between the PCC/PCUN and the MPFC showed positive correlation to the digital symbol tests scores of patients. Conclusion MHE patients have both disturbed structural and functional connectivity within the DMN. The decreased functional connectivity was also detected between some regions without abnormal structural connectivity, suggesting that the former may be more

  2. Sensitivity of Reliability Estimates in Partially Damaged RC Structures subject to Earthquakes, using Reduced Hysteretic Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwankiewicz, R.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Skjærbæk, P. S.

    The subject of the paper is the investigation of the sensitivity of structural reliability estimation by a reduced hysteretic model for a reinforced concrete frame under an earthquake excitation.......The subject of the paper is the investigation of the sensitivity of structural reliability estimation by a reduced hysteretic model for a reinforced concrete frame under an earthquake excitation....

  3. Gray matter textural heterogeneity as a potential in-vivo biomarker of fine structural abnormalities in Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulescu, E; Ganeshan, B; Minati, L; Beacher, F D C C; Gray, M A; Chatwin, C; Young, R C D; Harrison, N A; Critchley, H D

    2013-02-01

    Brain imaging studies contribute to the neurobiological understanding of Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC). Herein, we tested the prediction that distributed neurodevelopmental abnormalities in brain development impact on the homogeneity of brain tissue measured using texture analysis (TA; a morphological method for surface pattern characterization). TA was applied to structural magnetic resonance brain scans of 54 adult participants (24 with Asperger syndrome (AS) and 30 controls). Measures of mean gray-level intensity, entropy and uniformity were extracted from gray matter images at fine, medium and coarse textures. Comparisons between AS and controls identified higher entropy and lower uniformity across textures in the AS group. Data reduction of texture parameters revealed three orthogonal principal components. These were used as regressors-of-interest in a voxel-based morphometry analysis that explored the relationship between surface texture variations and regional gray matter volume. Across the AS but not control group, measures of entropy and uniformity were related to the volume of the caudate nuclei, whereas mean gray-level was related to the size of the cerebellar vermis. Similar to neuropathological studies, our study provides evidence for distributed abnormalities in the structural integrity of gray matter in adults with ASC, in particular within corticostriatal and corticocerebellar networks. Additionally, this in-vivo technique may be more sensitive to fine microstructural organization than other more traditional magnetic resonance approaches and serves as a future testable biomarker in AS and other neurodevelopmental disorders.

  4. Nuclear containment structure subjected to commercial and fighter aircraft crash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadique, M.R., E-mail: rehan.sadique@gmail.com; Iqbal, M.A., E-mail: iqbalfce@iitr.ernet.in; Bhargava, P., E-mail: bhpdpfce@iitr.ernet.in

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: • Nuclear containment response has been studied against aircraft crash. • Concrete damaged plasticity and Johnson–Cook elasto-viscoplastic models were employed. • Boeing 747-400 and Boeing 767-400 aircrafts caused global failure of containment. • Airbus A320 and Boeing 707-320 aircrafts caused local damage. • Tension damage of concrete was found more prominent compared to compression damage. -- Abstract: The response of a boiling water reactor (BWR) nuclear containment vessel has been studied against commercial and fighter aircraft crash using a nonlinear finite element code ABAQUS. The aircrafts employed were Boeing 747-400, Boeing 767-400, Airbus A-320, Boeing 707-320 and Phantom F4. The containment was modeled as a three-dimensional deformable reinforced concrete structure while the loading of aircraft was assigned using the respective reaction–time curve. The location of strike was considered near the junction of dome and cylinder, and the angle of incidence, normal to the containment surface. The material behavior of the concrete was incorporated using the damaged plasticity model while that of the reinforcement, the Johnson–Cook elasto-viscoplastic model. The containment could not sustain the impact of Boeing 747-400 and Boeing 767-400 aircrafts and suffered rupture of concrete around the impact region leading to global failure. On the other hand, the maximum local deformation at the point of impact was found to be 0.998 m, 0.099 m, 0.092 m, 0.089 m, and 0.074 m against Boeing 747-400, Phantom F4, Boeing 767, Boeing 707-320 and Airbus A-320 aircrafts respectively. The results of the present study were compared with those of the previous analytical and numerical investigations with respect to the maximum deformation and overall behavior of the containment.

  5. Neonatal seizures: the overlap between diagnosis of metabolic disorders and structural abnormalities. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Alessandra; Casella, Erasmo B; Valente, Marcelo; Buchpiguel, Carlos A; Valente, Kette D R

    2003-06-01

    Inborn metabolic errors (IME) and cortical developmental malformations are uncommon etiologies of neonatal seizures, however they may represent treatable causes of refractory epilepsy and for this reason must be considered as possible etiological factors. This case report aims to demonstrate the importance of neuroimaging studies in one patient with neonatal seizures, even when there are clues pointing to a metabolic disorder. A previously healthy 14 day-old child started presenting reiterated focal motor seizures (FMS) which evolved to status epilepticus. Exams showed high serum levels of ammonia and no other abnormalities. A metabolic investigation was conducted with normal results. During follow-up, the patient presented developmental delay and left side hemiparesia. Seizures remained controlled with anti-epileptic drugs for four months, followed by relapse with repetitive FMS on the left side. Temporary improvement was obtained with anti-epileptic drug adjustment. At the age of 6 months, during a new episode of status epilepticus, high ammonia levels were detected. Other metabolic exams remained normal. The child was referred to a video-electroencephalographic monitoring and continuous epileptiform discharges were recorded over the right parasagittal and midline regions, with predominance over the posterior quadrant. A new neuroimaging study was performed and displayed a malformation of cortical development. Our case illustrates that because newborns are prone to present metabolic disarrangement, an unbalance such as hyperammonemia may be a consequence of acute events and conduct to a misdiagnosis of IME.

  6. Relationship between the abnormal diastolic vortex structure and impaired left ventricle filling in patients with hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin-Yu; Xie, Ming-Xing; Wang, Jing; Wang, Xin-Fang; Lv, Qing; Liu, Man-Wei; Kong, Shuang-Shuang; Zhang, Ping-Yu; Liu, Jin-Feng

    2017-04-01

    Intraventricular hydrodynamics plays an important role in evaluating cardiac function. Relationship between diastolic vortex and left ventricular (LV) filling is still rarely elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the evolution of vortex during diastole in hyperthyroidism (HT) and explore the alteration of hydromechanics characteristics with sensitive indexes.Forty-three patients diagnosed with HT were classified into 2 groups according to whether myocardial damage existed: simple hyperthyroid group (HT1, n = 21) and thyrotoxic cardiomyopathy (HT2, n = 22). Twenty-seven age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers were enrolled as the control group. Offline vector flow mapping (VFM model) was used to analyze the LV diastolic blood flow patterns and fluid dynamics. Hemodynamic parameters, vortex area (A), circulation (C), and intraventricular pressure gradient (ΔP), in different diastolic phases (early, mid, and late) were calculated and analyzed.HT2, with a lower E/A ratio and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), had a larger left atrium diameter (LAD) compared with those of the control group and HT1 (P vortex size and strength, intraventricular pressure gradient during early and mid-diastole were higher in HT1 and lower in HT2 (P vortex size and strength, intraventricular pressure gradient of HT2 became higher than those of the control group (P vortex and the abnormal left ventricular filling.

  7. Neonatal seizures: the overlap between diagnosis of metabolic disorders and structural abnormalities. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freitas Alessandra

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Inborn metabolic errors (IME and cortical developmental malformations are uncommon etiologies of neonatal seizures, however they may represent treatable causes of refractory epilepsy and for this reason must be considered as possible etiological factors. This case report aims to demonstrate the importance of neuroimaging studies in one patient with neonatal seizures, even when there are clues pointing to a metabolic disorder. CASE REPORT: A previously healthy 14 day-old child started presenting reiterated focal motor seizures (FMS which evolved to status epilepticus. Exams showed high serum levels of ammonia and no other abnormalities. A metabolic investigation was conducted with normal results. During follow-up, the patient presented developmental delay and left side hemiparesia. Seizures remained controlled with anti-epileptic drugs for four months, followed by relapse with repetitive FMS on the left side. Temporary improvement was obtained with anti-epileptic drug adjustment. At the age of 6 months, during a new episode of status epilepticus, high ammonia levels were detected. Other metabolic exams remained normal. The child was referred to a video-electroencephalographic monitoring and continuous epileptiform discharges were recorded over the right parasagittal and midline regions, with predominance over the posterior quadrant. A new neuroimaging study was performed and displayed a malformation of cortical development. Our case illustrates that because newborns are prone to present metabolic disarrangement, an unbalance such as hyperammonemia may be a consequence of acute events and conduct to a misdiagnosis of IME.

  8. Abnormal coexistence of unipolar, bipolar, and threshold resistive switching in an Al/NiO/ITO structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xin-Cai; Tang, Jin-Long; Zeng, Hui-Zhong; Wei, Xian-Hua

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports an abnormal coexistence of different resistive switching behaviors including unipolar (URS), bipolar (BRS), and threshold switching (TRS) in an Al/NiO/indium tin oxide (ITO) structure fabricated by chemical solution deposition. The switching behaviors have been strongly dependent on compliance current (CC) and switching processes. It shows reproducible URS and BRS after electroforming with low and high CC of 1 and 3 mA, respectively, which is contrary to previous reports. Furthermore, in the case of high-forming CC, TRS is observed after several switching cycles with a low-switching CC. Analysis of current-voltage relationship demonstrates that Poole-Frenkel conduction controlled by localized traps should be responsible for the resistance switching. The unique behaviors can be dominated by Joule heating filament mechanism in the dual-oxygen reservoir structure composed of Al/NiO interfacial layer and ITO. The tunable switching properties can render it flexible for device applications.

  9. Sensory migraine aura is not associated with structural grey matter abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Arngrim, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    in a large group of MA patients with and without sensory aura (i.e. gradually developing, transient unilateral sensory disturbances). We included 60 patients suffering from migraine with typical visual aura and 60 individually age and sex-matched controls. Twenty-nine of the patients additionally experienced....... These differences were not correlated to the clinical characteristics. Our results suggest that sensory migraine aura is not associated with altered grey matter structure and that patients with visual aura have normal cortical structure of areas involved in visual processing. The observed decreased grey matter...... sensory aura regularly. We analysed high-resolution structural MR images using two complimentary approaches and compared patients with and without sensory aura. Patients were also compared to controls. We found no differences of grey matter density or cortical thickness between patients with and without...

  10. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome is associated with structural abnormalities in pain-related regions of the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barad, Meredith J; Ueno, Takefumi; Younger, Jarred; Chatterjee, Neil; Mackey, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic condition that involves significant hyperalgesia of the affected limb, typically accompanied by localized autonomic abnormalities, and frequently motor dysfunction. Although central brain systems are thought to play a role in the development and maintenance of CRPS, these systems have not been well characterized. In this study, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) to characterize differences in gray matter volume between patients with right upper extremity CRPS and matched controls . Analyses were carried out using a whole brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) approach. The CRPS group showed decreased gray matter volume in several pain-affect regions, including the dorsal insula, left orbitofrontal cortex, and several aspects of the cingulate cortex. Greater gray matter volume in CRPS patients was seen in the bilateral dorsal putamen and right hypothalamus. Correlation analyses with self-reported pain were then performed on the CRPS group. Pain duration was associated with decreased gray matter in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Pain intensity was positively correlated with volume in the left posterior hippocampus and left amygdala, and negatively correlated with the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Our findings demonstrate that CRPS is associated with abnormal brain system morphology, particularly pain-related sensory, affect, motor, and autonomic systems. PMID:24212070

  11. Co-Localisation of Abnormal Brain Structure and Function in Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badcock, Nicholas A.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Hardiman, Mervyn J.; Barry, Johanna G.; Watkins, Kate E.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the relationship between brain structure and function in 10 individuals with specific language impairment (SLI), compared to six unaffected siblings, and 16 unrelated control participants with typical language. Voxel-based morphometry indicated that grey matter in the SLI group, relative to controls, was increased in the left inferior…

  12. Brain structural abnormalities in behavior therapy-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder revealed by voxel-based morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashimoto N

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nobuhiko Hashimoto,1 Shutaro Nakaaki,2 Akiko Kawaguchi,1 Junko Sato,1 Harumasa Kasai,3 Takashi Nakamae,4 Jin Narumoto,4 Jun Miyata,5 Toshi A Furukawa,6,7 Masaru Mimura2 1Department of Psychiatry and Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan; 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Central Radiology, Nagoya City University Hospital, Nagoya, Japan; 4Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 5Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan; 6Department of Health Promotion and Human Behavior, 7Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine/School of Public Health, Kyoto, Japan Background: Although several functional imaging studies have demonstrated that behavior therapy (BT modifies the neural circuits involved in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, the structural abnormalities underlying BT-resistant OCD remain unknown. Methods: In this study, we examined the existence of regional structural abnormalities in both the gray matter and the white matter of patients with OCD at baseline using voxel-based morphometry in responders (n=24 and nonresponders (n=15 to subsequent BT. Three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed before the completion of 12 weeks of BT. Results: Relative to the responders, the nonresponders exhibited significantly smaller gray matter volumes in the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the right orbitofrontal cortex, the right precentral gyrus, and the left anterior cingulate cortex. In addition, relative to the responders, the nonresponders exhibited significantly smaller white matter volumes in the left cingulate bundle and the left superior frontal white matter. Conclusion: These results suggest that the brain

  13. Brain structure abnormalities in first-episode psychosis patients with persistent apathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørch-Johnsen, Lynn; Nesvåg, Ragnar; Faerden, Ann; Haukvik, Unn K; Jørgensen, Kjetil N; Lange, Elisabeth H; Andreassen, Ole A; Melle, Ingrid; Agartz, Ingrid

    2015-05-01

    Apathy is an enduring and debilitating feature related to poor outcome in patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP). The biological underpinnings of apathy are unknown. We tested if FEP patients with persistent apathy (PA) differed from FEP patients without persistent apathy (NPA) in specific brain structure measures in the early phase of illness. A total of 70 Norwegian FEP patients were recruited within 1 year of first adequate treatment. They were defined as having PA (N=18) or NPA (N=52) based on Apathy Evaluation Scale score at baseline and 1 year later. MRI measures of cortical thickness and subcortical structure volumes were compared between the PA and NPA groups. The PA group had significantly thinner left orbitofrontal cortex and left anterior cingulate cortex. The results remained significant after controlling for depressive symptoms and antipsychotic medication. FEP patients with persistent apathy in the early phase of their illness show brain structural changes compared to FEP patients without persistent apathy. The changes are confined to regions associated with motivation, occur early in the disease course and appear selectively in PA patients when both groups are compared to healthy controls. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Histological investigation of the supra-glottal structures in humans for understanding abnormal phonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Miwako; Sakakibara, Ken-Ichi; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Chan, Roger; Niimi, Seijii; Tayama, Niro

    2002-11-01

    Phonation is the vocal fold vibration on normal voice. But sometimes we can observe the other phonation styles like as the pressed voice or some throat singings like as ''kargyraa'' or ''drone'' in Khoomei in Mongolian music. Also, clinically, we know that some patients who have the wide glottal slit in phonation because of the recurrence nerve palsy or after partial laryngectomy, could make the ''supra-glottal phonation.'' The ''supra-glottal phonation'' would be made from the vibration of ''supra-glottal structures'' such as the false vocal folds, the arytenoids and the epiglottis, etc. Endoscopic examination suggests the existence of some contractile functions in supra-glottal space. However, these phonation systems have not been clear to explain their neuromuscular mechanism in histology. This study aimed to find the basis for making the supra-glottal phonation from the points of view of the histological structures. We tried to investigate if there were any muscles that could contract the supra-glottal structures. The samples are the excised larynx of human beings. They were fixed by formalin after excision. We observed their macroscopic anatomy, and also with the microscopic observation their histological preparations after the process of the embedding in paraffin, slicing for the preparation and HE (hematoxylin-eosin) staining.

  15. The Chinese and Kazakh Languages Comparative Study: Subject-Predicate Sentence Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhalyk Abdurakyn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article compares subject-predicate sentence and subject-predicate-object sentence forms with extended sentence of the Kazakh language. It compares Chinese and Kazakh sentences with subject-predicate sentence structure and studies differences of verb-predicate sentences word order. Detailed comparative study of Chinese and Kazakh language differences and characteristics. Morphology structure of Chinese language belongs to radical language, and Kazakh language belongs to the type of adhesive language, syntax of Chinese and Kazakh Languages in the same syntactic structure often used in different ways, the morphological role in Chinese and Kazakh language is also not the same, and even the same kind of grammatical means in Chinese and Kazakh languages are various. According to the analysis of languages, the different positions of word order, the function of words and grammatical word order are different too. The same syntax is very considerable, and lead to different syntactic structures. Chinese thinking reflects the realities as follows: subject - action- object. It is reflected in the grammatical structure: Subject - predicate - object. Kazakh thinking reflects the realities as follows: subject - object - action. It is reflected in the grammatical structure: Subject - object - predicate. Chinese and Kazakh predicate and object places in a sentence are different, but their dominance relationship is the same.

  16. Prenatal detection of structural abnormalities of chromosome 18: associations with interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and maternal serum screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Michael D; Gill, Prabhcharan; Krew, Michael; Schwartz, Stuart

    2002-08-01

    We describe two cases of prenatally ascertained isochromosome 18. Case 1 included both an isochromosome 18p and an isochromosome 18q, while Case 2 involved only an isochromosome 18q. Both of these cases were associated with a positive maternal serum triple screen trisomy 18 risk (greater than 1 in 100 risk). In addition, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed on uncultured amniotic fluid interphase cells in both cases looking for aneuploidy for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y. The results of the interphase analyses support the common knowledge that careful interpretation of interphase FISH analysis is necessary and that results should be followed by full cytogenetic analysis. To our knowledge these are the first reported cases of structurally abnormal chromosomes 18 being associated with a positive maternal serum triple screen for trisomy 18. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Structural brain abnormalities in postural tachycardia syndrome: A VBM-DARTEL study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi eUmeda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS, a form of dysautonomia, is characterized by orthostatic intolerance, and is frequently accompanied by a range of symptoms including palpitations, lightheadedness, clouding of thought, blurred vision, fatigue, anxiety and depression. Although the estimated prevalence of PoTS is approximately 5-10 times ascommon as the better-known condition orthostatic hypotension, the neural substrates of the syndrome are poorly characterized. In the present study, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI with voxel-based morphometry (VBM applying the diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated lie algebra (DARTEL procedure to examine variation in regional brain structure associated with PoTS. We recruited eleven patients with established PoTS and twenty-three age-matched normal controls. Group comparison of grey matter volume revealed diminished grey matter volume within the left anterior insula, right middle frontal gyrus and right cingulate gyrus in the PoTS group. We also observed lower white matter volume beneath the precentral gyrus and paracentral lobule, right pre- and post-central gyrus, paracentral lobule and superior frontal gyrus in PoTS patients. Subsequent ROI analyses revealed significant negative correlations between left insula volume and trait anxiety and depression scores. Together, these findings of structural differences, particularly within insular and cingulate components of the salience network, suggest a link between dysregulated physiological reactions arising from compromised central autonomic control (and interoceptive representation and increased vulnerability to psychiatric symptoms in PoTS patients.

  18. Radiation-induced brain structural and functional abnormalities in presymptomatic phase and outcome prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhongxiang; Zhang, Han; Lv, Xiao-Fei; Xie, Fei; Liu, Lizhi; Qiu, Shijun; Li, Li; Shen, Dinggang

    2018-01-01

    Radiation therapy, a major method of treatment for brain cancer, may cause severe brain injuries after many years. We used a rare and unique cohort of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with normal-appearing brains to study possible early irradiation injury in its presymptomatic phase before severe, irreversible necrosis happens. The aim is to detect any structural or functional imaging biomarker that is sensitive to early irradiation injury, and to understand the recovery and progression of irradiation injury that can shed light on outcome prediction for early clinical intervention. We found an acute increase in local brain activity that is followed by extensive reductions in such activity in the temporal lobe and significant loss of functional connectivity in a distributed, large-scale, high-level cognitive function-related brain network. Intriguingly, these radiosensitive functional alterations were found to be fully or partially recoverable. In contrast, progressive late disruptions to the integrity of the related far-end white matter structure began to be significant after one year. Importantly, early increased local brain functional activity was predictive of severe later temporal lobe necrosis. Based on these findings, we proposed a dynamic, multifactorial model for radiation injury and another preventive model for timely clinical intervention. Hum Brain Mapp 39:407-427, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Structural brain abnormalities in a single gene disorder associated with epilepsy, language impairment and intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Bathelt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood speech and language deficits are highly prevalent and are a common feature of neurodevelopmental disorders. However, it is difficult to investigate the underlying causal pathways because many diagnostic groups have a heterogeneous aetiology. Studying disorders with a shared genetic cause and shared cognitive deficits can provide crucial insight into the cellular mechanisms and neural systems that give rise to those impairments. The current study investigated structural brain differences of individuals with mutations in ZDHHC9, which is associated with a specific neurodevelopmental phenotype including prominent speech and language impairments and intellectual disability. We used multiple structural neuroimaging methods to characterise neuroanatomy in this group, and observed bilateral reductions in cortical thickness in areas surrounding the temporo-parietal junction, parietal lobule, and inferior frontal lobe, and decreased microstructural integrity of cortical, subcortical-cortical, and interhemispheric white matter projections. These findings are compared to reports for other genetic groups and genetically heterogeneous disorders with a similar presentation. Overlap in the neuroanatomical phenotype suggests a common pathway that particularly affects the development of temporo-parietal and inferior frontal areas, and their connections.

  20. Prevalence of X-aneuploidies, X-structural abnormalities and 46,XY sex reversal in Turkish women with primary amenorrhea or premature ovarian insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geckinli, B B; Toksoy, G; Sayar, C; Soylemez, M A; Yesil, G; Aydın, H; Karaman, A; Devranoglu, B

    2014-11-01

    Our objective was to identify the distribution of cytogenetic abnormalities of 175 Turkish women with primary amenorrhea (PA) or premature ovarian insufficiency (POI). A retrospective study was performed using medical records of 94 patients with PA and 81 patients with POI at the Genetics Department, Zeynep Kamil Women's and Children's Research and Training Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. G-banded metaphase karyotype analysis were prepared and analyzed. Chromosomal abnormalities were present in 44 of 175 cases (25%). 15 were full blown or mosaic numerical X chromosome abnormalities (8.5%), 10 were full blown or mosaic X-chromosome structural anomalies (5.7%), one was X-autosome translocation (0.5%), 3 were autosomal anomalies (1.7%), 12 were XY karyotype (6.8%), one was 45,X/46,XY mosaic and 2 were full blown or mosaic structural anomalies of Y chromosome (1.7%). The prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities was 25% in this large series of Turkish women with primary amenorrhea or premature ovarian insufficiency, most cases involving X-aneuploidy or X-structural abnormalities or 46,XY karyotype. High prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities is associated with POI starting at an early age (average age: 26 years). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hybrid Element Method for Compsoite Structures Subjected to Boundary Layer Loading Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In many situations, aerospace structures are subjected to a wide frequency spectrum of mechanical and/or acoustic excitations and therefore, there is a need for the...

  2. Does abnormal glycogen structure contribute to increased susceptibility to seizures in epilepsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNuzzo, Mauro; Mangia, Silvia; Maraviglia, Bruno; Giove, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is a family of brain disorders with a largely unknown etiology and high percentage of pharmacoresistance. The clinical manifestations of epilepsy are seizures, which originate from aberrant neuronal synchronization and hyperexcitability. Reactive astrocytosis, a hallmark of the epileptic tissue, develops into loss-of-function of glutamine synthetase, impairment of glutamate-glutamine cycle and increase in extracellular and astrocytic glutamate concentration. Here, we argue that chronically elevated intracellular glutamate level in astrocytes is instrumental to alterations in the metabolism of glycogen and leads to the synthesis of polyglucosans. Unaccessibility of glycogen-degrading enzymes to these insoluble molecules compromises the glycogenolysis-dependent reuptake of extracellular K+ by astrocytes, thereby leading to increased extracellular K+ and associated membrane depolarization. Based on current knowledge, we propose that the deterioration in structural homogeneity of glycogen particles is relevant to disruption of brain K+ homeostasis and increased susceptibility to seizures in epilepsy. PMID:24643875

  3. Carrier trapping induced abnormal temperature dependent photoluminescence properties of novel sandwiched structure InGaN quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Juan; Li, Ding; Rajabi, K.; Yang, Wei; Hu, Xiaodong [State Key Laboratory for Artificial Microstructure and Mesoscopic Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Liu, Lei [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, CAS, Suzhou 215125 (China)

    2014-04-15

    A dual-wavelength LED sample with novel sandwiched structure in high-In-content MQWs is studied by temperature dependent photoluminescence (TDPL) and the abnormal temperature dependence of emission intensity is obtained. The novel MQWs structure which contains staggered quantum wells and an ultra-thin InN interlayer in the wells shows better luminescence property than the reference sample which has conventional quantum wells. Under 325 nm continuous wave laser excitation the LED sample of novel structure exhibits unexpected increasing luminescence intensity as temperature goes up from 140 K to 220 K and reaches its maximum at 220 K. This could be attributed to (1) the carrier redistribution and the novel sandwiched MQWs' high carrier trapping capability; (2) the intrinsic emission property of the MQWs enhanced by improvement of electron-hole overlap and reduction of quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) and compositional fluctuation. TDPL under 405 nm laser excitation is also measured to support this view. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Pulmonary and cardiac function in asymptomatic obese subjects and changes following a structured weight reduction program: a prospective observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Held

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity is rising. Obesity can lead to cardiovascular and ventilatory complications through multiple mechanisms. Cardiac and pulmonary function in asymptomatic subjects and the effect of structured dietary programs on cardiac and pulmonary function is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine lung and cardiac function in asymptomatic obese adults and to evaluate whether weight loss positively affects functional parameters. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated bodyplethysmographic and echocardiographic data in asymptomatic subjects undergoing a structured one-year weight reduction program. RESULTS: 74 subjects (32 male, 42 female; mean age 42±12 years with an average BMI 42.5±7.9, body weight 123.7±24.9 kg were enrolled. Body weight correlated negatively with vital capacity (R = -0.42, p<0.001, FEV1 (R = -0.497, p<0.001 and positively with P 0.1 (R = 0.32, p = 0.02 and myocardial mass (R = 0.419, p = 0.002. After 4 months the study subjects had significantly reduced their body weight (-26.0±11.8 kg and BMI (-8.9±3.8 associated with a significant improvement of lung function (absolute changes: vital capacity +5.5±7.5% pred., p<0.001; FEV1+9.8±8.3% pred., p<0.001, ITGV+16.4±16.0% pred., p<0.001, SR tot -17.4±41.5% pred., p<0.01. Moreover, P0.1/Pimax decreased to 47.7% (p<0.01 indicating a decreased respiratory load. The change of FEV1 correlated significantly with the change of body weight (R = -0.31, p = 0.03. Echocardiography demonstrated reduced myocardial wall thickness (-0.08±0.2 cm, p = 0.02 and improved left ventricular myocardial performance index (-0.16±0.35, p = 0.02. Mitral annular plane systolic excursion (+0.14, p = 0.03 and pulmonary outflow acceleration time (AT +26.65±41.3 ms, p = 0.001 increased. CONCLUSION: Even in asymptomatic individuals obesity is associated with abnormalities in pulmonary and cardiac function and increased myocardial mass. All the

  5. Growth and Age-Related Abnormalities in Cortical Structure and Fracture Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ego Seeman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vertebral fractures and trabecular bone loss have dominated thinking and research into the pathogenesis and the structural basis of bone fragility during the last 70 years. However, 80% of all fractures are non-vertebral and occur at regions assembled using large amounts of cortical bone; only 20% of fractures are vertebral. Moreover, ~80% of the skeleton is cortical and ~70% of all bone loss is cortical even though trabecular bone is lost more rapidly than cortical bone. Bone is lost because remodelling becomes unbalanced after midlife. Most cortical bone loss occurs by intracortical, not endocortical remodelling. Each remodelling event removes more bone than deposited enlarging existing canals which eventually coalesce eroding and thinning the cortex from 'within.' Thus, there is a need to study the decay of cortical as well as trabecular bone, and to develop drugs that restore the strength of both types of bone. It is now possible to accurately quantify cortical porosity and trabecular decay in vivo. The challenges still to be met are to determine whether measurement of porosity identifies persons at risk for fracture, whether this approach is compliments information obtained using bone densitometry, and whether changes in cortical porosity and other microstructural traits have the sensitivity to serve as surrogates of treatment success or failure.

  6. Usefulness of Multiparametric Ultrasound for Evaluating Structural Abnormality of Transplanted Kidney: Can We Predict Histologic Abnormality on Renal Biopsy in Advance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Moon Gyu; Jung, Dae Chul; Oh, Young Taik; Park, Sung Yoon; Han, Kyunghwa

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between microscopic abnormalities of transplanted kidneys and sonography-based imaging biomarkers, including elasticity, venous impedance index, arterial resistive index, and size. Between 2011 and 2015, 159 recipients underwent sonography and biopsy of a transplanted kidney at our institution; 104 adult patients were included in this study. The maximal longitudinal length on gray-scale images, arterial resistive index, and venous impedance index on Doppler images and shear wave velocity on acoustic radiation force impulse imaging or Young modulus on supersonic shear imaging were measured before biopsy. The Banff criteria (2009 update), an international standardized classification and scoring system for renal allograft pathology, were used to evaluate the biopsy samples. Sonography parameters and clinical variables were analyzed with individual and summed Banff scores. Spearman rank correlation coefficients and ordinal logistic regression showed no association between sonography parameters and summed Banff scores. Only the interval between transplant and biopsy was significantly associated with summed Banff scores (p biopsy (p biopsy showed stronger correlation than any imaging biomarkers with renal allograft deterioration.

  7. Meiotic abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Influence of structural heterogeneity on the structural coarsening during annealing of polycrystalline Ni subjected to dynamic plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, H.W.; Luo, Z.P.; Hansen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The structural heterogeneity of a polycrystalline Ni subjected to dynamic plastic deformation to a strain of 2.3 was characterized, and its influence on the structural coarsening behaviour during post annealing was investigated. Structural heterogeneity on the large scale manifests itself...... orientation. In contrast HMRs contain both low and high angle boundaries (>15o) and the texture is mixed with close to the compression axis. During annealing, LMRs coarsen uniformly and recrystallization nucleation is difficult to form. In HMRs, the structural evolution is heterogeneous...... and recrystallization nuclei are readily formed. The importance of structural heterogeneity during structural design for high performance nanostructure was highlighted....

  9. Nonlinear Analysis and Scaling Laws for Noncircular Composite Structures Subjected to Combined Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburger, Mark W.; Rose, Cheryl A.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Results from an analytical study of the response of a built-up, multi-cell noncircular composite structure subjected to combined internal pressure and mechanical loads are presented. Nondimensional parameters and scaling laws based on a first-order shear-deformation plate theory are derived for this noncircular composite structure. The scaling laws are used to design sub-scale structural models for predicting the structural response of a full-scale structure representative of a portion of a blended-wing-body transport aircraft. Because of the complexity of the full-scale structure, some of the similitude conditions are relaxed for the sub-scale structural models. Results from a systematic parametric study are used to determine the effects of relaxing selected similitude conditions on the sensitivity of the effectiveness of using the sub-scale structural model response characteristics for predicting the full-scale structure response characteristics.

  10. Congenital Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ribbon Commands Skip to main content Turn off Animations Turn on Animations Our Sponsors Log in | Register Menu Log in | ... course of action. Additional Information Your Family Health History & Genetics Detecting Genetic Abnormalities Prenatal Genetic Counseling Children ...

  11. Walking abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with short-term or long-term gait disorders. Therapy will reduce the risk of falls and other injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are ...

  12. Subjective Happiness of Lebanese College Youth in Lebanon: Factorial Structure and Invariance of the Arabic Subjective Happiness Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghnie, Lamia; Kazarian, Shahe S.

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluated the subjective happiness of Lebanese college youth using a multi-item rather than a single-item subjective happiness measure. An Arabic translation of the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) was administered to 273 Lebanese college youth from state- and private-run higher institutions of learning, as was the Arabic Adult…

  13. Relations between depressive symptoms, anxiety, and T Wave abnormalities in subjects without clinically-apparent cardiovascular disease (from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis [MESA]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whang, William; Peacock, James; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Alcantara, Carmela; Nazarian, Saman; Shah, Amit J; Davidson, Karina W; Shea, Steven; Muntner, Paul; Shimbo, Daichi

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that depression and anxiety are associated with electrocardiographic (ECG) repolarization abnormalities in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a cohort free of symptomatic cardiovascular disease. Depressive symptoms were assessed by using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and trait anxiety symptoms by using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; both were categorized according to uppermost quartile. T-wave inversions in ECG leads other than V1 to V3 were obtained from electrocardiograms obtained at rest during the baseline examination. Participants with major intraventricular conduction abnormalities and those taking antiarrhythmics, antidepressants, and/or antipsychotics were excluded. Logistic regression models were estimated with multivariable adjustment for traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors. Among 5,906 participants, elevated depressive symptoms were associated with increased odds of T-wave inversion after multivariable adjustment (odds ratio 2.02, 95% confidence interval 1.33 to 3.06, p = 0.001), whereas greater trait anxiety was associated with reduced odds of T-wave inversion (odds ratio 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.29 to 0.77, p = 0.003). The divergent associations of depressive symptoms and trait anxiety with ECG T-wave inversions were similar in men and women, and these associations were present across the racial and ethnic subgroups (non-Hispanic white, African-American, Hispanic, and Chinese). In conclusion, symptoms of depression and anxiety were independently yet oppositely associated with ECG T-wave inversions. Negative emotions may have a differential impact on cardiovascular mortality through unique relations with cardiac repolarization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationship between Secondary Structure and Surface Hydrophobicity of Soybean Protein Isolate Subjected to Heat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongjiang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated relationship between secondary structure and surface hydrophobicity of soy protein isolate (SPI subjected to a thermal treatment at 70~90°C. Heat denaturation increased the surface hydrophobicity and surface hydrophobicity decreased as aggregate formed. Heat caused an increase in the relative amount of α-helix structures and an overall decrease in the amount of β-sheet structures when compared with nontreated SPI. The relative amounts of secondary structures varied with time, temperature, and intensity of heat treatment applied. The β-sheet structure was most important for its significant role in denaturation of 7S globulin and following formed aggregates and even in denaturation of 11S globulin. The amount of β-sheet structure in SPI had an inverse correlation with the surface hydrophobicity when the temperature was kept below 90°C. Besides, β-turn structure increased as β-7S/B-11S aggregate formated.

  15. Test-retest reliability of the underlying latent factor structure of alcohol subjective response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Joseph A; Childs, Emma

    2017-04-01

    Alcohol subjective experiences are multi-dimensional and demonstrate wide inter-individual variability. Recent efforts have sought to establish a clearer understanding of subjective alcohol responses by identifying core constructs derived from multiple measurement instruments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the temporal stability of this approach to conceptualizing alcohol subjective experiences across successive alcohol administrations in the same individuals. Healthy moderate alcohol drinkers (n = 104) completed six experimental sessions each, three with alcohol (0.8 g/kg), and three with a non-alcoholic control beverage. Participants reported subjective mood and drug effects using standardized questionnaires before and at repeated times after beverage consumption. We explored the underlying latent structure of subjective responses for all alcohol administrations using exploratory factor analysis and then tested measurement invariance over the three successive administrations using multi-group confirmatory factor analyses. Exploratory factor analyses on responses to alcohol across all administrations yielded four factors representing "Positive mood," "Sedation," "Stimulation/Euphoria," and "Drug effects and Urges." A confirmatory factor analysis on the separate administrations indicated acceptable configural and metric invariance and moderate scalar invariance. In this study, we demonstrate temporal stability of the underlying constructs of subjective alcohol responses derived from factor analysis. These findings strengthen the utility of this approach to conceptualizing subjective alcohol responses especially for use in prospective and longitudinal alcohol challenge studies relating subjective response to alcohol use disorder risk.

  16. A structural abnormality associated with graded levels of thyroid hormone insufficiency: Dose dependent increases in heterotopia volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    A large number of environmental contaminants reduce circulating levels of thyroid hormone (TH), but clear markers of neurological insult associated with modest TH insufficiency are lacking. We have previously identified the presence of an abnormal cluster of misplaced neurons in ...

  17. The Structure of the Subjective Economic Well-being Depending on Its Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V A Hashchenko

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the new approach to studying the psychology of the economic well-being, i.e. structural-level. From its position the subjective economic well-being is revealed as polyphenomenological formation, the contents and specificity of which are defined by the natural organization of the system of its structural formations. The new data are submitted, allowing to establish and explain a number of features and laws of the organization of SEW.

  18. Optical study on the dependence of breast tissue composition and structure on subject anamnesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taroni, Paola; Quarto, Giovanna; Pifferi, Antonio; Abbate, Francesca; Balestreri, Nicola; Menna, Simona; Cassano, Enrico; Cubeddu, Rinaldo

    2015-07-01

    Time domain multi-wavelength (635 to 1060 nm) optical mammography was performed on 200 subjects to estimate their average breast tissue composition in terms of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin, water, lipid and collagen, and structural information, as provided by scattering parameters (amplitude and power). Significant (and often marked) dependence of tissue composition and structure on age, menopausal status, body mass index, and use of oral contraceptives was demonstrated.

  19. Skeletal Structure in Postmenopausal Women with Osteopenia and Fractures is Characterized by Abnormal Trabecular Plates and Cortical Thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Emily M.; Kepley, Anna; Walker, Marcella; Nickolas, Thomas L.; Nishiyama, Kyle; Zhou, Bin; Liu, X. Sherry; McMahon, Donald J.; Zhang, Chiyuan; Boutroy, Stephanie; Cosman, Felicia; Nieves, Jeri; Guo, X. Edward; Shane, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The majority of fragility fractures occur in women with osteopenia rather than osteoporosis by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). However, it is difficult to identify which women with osteopenia are at greatest risk. We performed this study to determine whether osteopenic women with and without fracture had differences in trabecular morphology and biomechanical properties of bone. We hypothesized that women with fractures would have fewer trabecular plates, less trabecular connectivity and lower stiffness. We enrolled 117 postmenopausal women with osteopenia by DXA (mean age 66 years; 58 with fragility fractures and 59 non-fractured controls). All had areal bone mineral density by DXA. Trabecular and cortical volumetric BMD (vBMD), trabecular microarchitecture, and cortical porosity were measured by high resolution peripheral computed tomography (HR-pQCT) of the distal radius and tibia. HR-pQCT scans were subjected to finite element analysis to estimate whole bone stiffness and individual trabecula segmentation (ITS) to evaluate trabecular type (as plate or rod), orientation and connectivity. Groups had similar age, race, BMI, and mean T-scores. Fracture subjects had lower cortical and trabecular vBMD, thinner cortices, and thinner more widely separated trabeculae. By ITS, fracture subjects had fewer trabecular plates, less axially aligned trabeculae and less trabecular connectivity. Whole bone stiffness was lower in women with fractures. Cortical porosity did not differ. Differences in cortical bone were found at both sites, whereas trabecular differences were more pronounced at the radius. In summary, postmenopausal women with osteopenia and fractures had lower cortical and trabecular vBMD, thinner, more widely separated and rod-like trabecular structure, less trabecular connectivity and lower whole bone stiffness compared to controls, despite similar aBMD by DXA. Our results suggest that in addition to trabecular and cortical bone loss, changes in plate and

  20. Structural behavior of SC panel subjected to impact loading using finite element analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyuk-Kee; Kim, Seung-Eock, E-mail: sekim@sejong.ac.kr

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Structural behavior of SC panel subjected to impact loading is evaluated using numerical analysis. • Sensitivity studies according to fracture energy and erosion value are performed. • Analysis results are compared with impact test for SC panel. - Abstract: After the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center using aircraft in New York City in 2001, safety assessments of nuclear power plant (NPP) structures subjected to impact loading have been actively performed. Since impact tests are possible for small-scale structures but not for full-scale structures, finite element (FE) analysis is necessary for a safety assessment of NPP structure. Analysis factors such as the material model of concrete and steel, strain rate effect, concrete fracture energy, and erosion value influence the analysis results. In this paper, the effect of the concrete fracture energy and the erosion in the material model of a steel-plate concrete (SC) panel subjected to the impact loading is evaluated using the commercial software LS-DYNA. The analysis results are compared with the impact test for an SC panel conducted in other research. A quarter model of an SC panel is adopted for impact analysis. The impact force–time history is applied on the SC panel. Sensitivity studies according to the fracture energy and the erosion value are performed in order to evaluate the structural behavior of SC panels.

  1. Structural Changes in Cattle Immature Oocytes Subjected to Slow Freezing and Vitrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wahid*, M. Thein1, E.A. El-Hafez2, M.O. Abas3, K. Mohd Azam4, O. Fauziah5, Y. Rosnina and H. Hajarian

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different cryopreservation methods (slow-freezing and vitrification on structural changes of bovine immature oocytes. Bovine ovaries were collected from local abattoirs. Cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COCs were retrieved using aspiration method from 2-6 mm follicles. In Experiment 1, selected oocytes were randomly divided into 4 treatment groups namely freezing solution-exposed, frozen-thawed, vitrification solution-exposed and vitrified-thawed and then oocytes abnormalities were examined under a stereomicroscope. In Experiment 2, oocytes were randomly allocated to the same grouping as experiment 1 plus control group. Following freezing or vitrification, all oocytes were fixed in glutaraldehyde and processed for transmission electron microscopy. In experiment 1, there was a higher incidence of abnormalities in the frozen-thawed and vitrified-warmed oocytes compared to those in freezing solution and vitrification solution-exposed groups (P<0.05. In experiment 2, there were marked alterations in the perivitelline space, microvilli and vesicles of frozen-thawed and vitrified-warmed oocytes characterized by loss of elasticity and integrity of cytoplasmic processes and microvilli following cooling and warming. In conclusion, ethylene glycol-based freezing and vitrification solutions are suitable choices for cryopreservation of immature oocytes and most organelles are able to retain their normal morphology following cryopreservation and thawing processes.

  2. The Structure of Subject Matter Content and Its Instructional Design Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigeluth, Charles M.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Four types of fundamental structures are briefly described and illustrated: the learning hierarchy, the procedural hierarchy, the taxonomy, and the model. Then a theoretical framework is presented for classifying types of subject matter content, and some implications of these content classifications are discussed. (VT)

  3. Inner ear manifestations in CHARGE: Abnormalities, treatments, animal models, and progress toward treatments in auditory and vestibular structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Daniel I; Tawfik, Kareem O; Martin, Donna M; Raphael, Yehoash

    2017-12-01

    The inner ear contains the sensory organs for hearing and balance. Both hearing and balance are commonly affected in individuals with CHARGE syndrome (CS), an autosomal dominant condition caused by heterozygous pathogenic variants in the CHD7 gene. Semicircular canal dysplasia or aplasia is the single most prevalent feature in individuals with CHARGE leading to deficient gross motor skills and ambulation. Identification of CHD7 as the major gene affected in CHARGE has enabled acceleration of research in this field. Great progress has been made in understanding the role of CHD7 in the development and function of the inner ear, as well as in related organs such as the middle ear and auditory and vestibular neural pathways. The goals of current research on CHD7 and CS are to (a) improve our understanding of the pathology caused by CHD7 pathogenic variants and (b) to provide better tools for prognosis and treatment. Current studies utilize cells and whole animals, from flies to mammals. The mouse is an excellent model for exploring mechanisms of Chd7 function in the ear, given the evolutionary conservation of ear structure, function, Chd7 expression, and similarity of mutant phenotypes between mice and humans. Newly recognized developmental functions for mouse Chd7 are shedding light on how abnormalities in CHD7 might lead to CS symptoms in humans. Here we review known human inner ear phenotypes associated with CHD7 pathogenic variants and CS, summarize progress toward diagnosis and treatment of inner ear-related pathologies, and explore new avenues for treatment based on basic science discoveries. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Theoretical, methodological and methodical bases of structural policy of territorial subjects of the russian federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Sergeevna Antonyuk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the maintenance of the various points of view on a category «the structural policy» is revealed. The sight of authors of the article is reflected: the structural policy is understood as a subsystem of a social and economic policy of the state, called to carry out function managing by development of branches of the economy together with private business, distributions of financial resources between sectors, control over use of the given money resources with a view of, actual for a certain historical stage, by use of administrative, standard and financial tools of regulation. The methodological basis of a structural policy is defined, functions with that end in view reveal, the target system, subjects and objects, and also are specified principles and classification of tools of a structural policy. By sight authors, regional branch shifts which promote progressivechanges of branch structure of a region in directions of formation V and VI technological ways, increase of a diversification of manufacture by stimulation of innovative changes should become a target reference point of a structural policy. The most sensitiveto tactical both technological fluctuations and vulnerablein the economic plan are monospecialized regions. In this connection, the technique of carrying out of a structural policy in monospecialized subjects of the Russian Federation taking into account shifts in branches of their industrial specializations is offered.

  5. Distributed Piezoelectric Sensor System for Damage Identification in Structures Subjected to Temperature Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitola, Jaime; Pozo, Francesc; Tibaduiza, Diego A; Anaya, Maribel

    2017-05-31

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) is a very important area in a wide spectrum of fields and engineering applications. With an SHM system, it is possible to reduce the number of non-necessary inspection tasks, the associated risk and the maintenance cost in a wide range of structures during their lifetime. One of the problems in the detection and classification of damage are the constant changes in the operational and environmental conditions. Small changes of these conditions can be considered by the SHM system as damage even though the structure is healthy. Several applications for monitoring of structures have been developed and reported in the literature, and some of them include temperature compensation techniques. In real applications, however, digital processing technologies have proven their value by: (i) offering a very interesting way to acquire information from the structures under test; (ii) applying methodologies to provide a robust analysis; and (iii) performing a damage identification with a practical useful accuracy. This work shows the implementation of an SHM system based on the use of piezoelectric (PZT) sensors for inspecting a structure subjected to temperature changes. The methodology includes the use of multivariate analysis, sensor data fusion and machine learning approaches. The methodology is tested and evaluated with aluminum and composite structures that are subjected to temperature variations. Results show that damage can be detected and classified in all of the cases in spite of the temperature changes.

  6. Sequencing of a patient with balanced chromosome abnormalities and neurodevelopmental disease identifies disruption of multiple high risk loci by structural variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon Blake

    Full Text Available Balanced chromosome abnormalities (BCAs occur at a high frequency in healthy and diseased individuals, but cost-efficient strategies to identify BCAs and evaluate whether they contribute to a phenotype have not yet become widespread. Here we apply genome-wide mate-pair library sequencing to characterize structural variation in a patient with unclear neurodevelopmental disease (NDD and complex de novo BCAs at the karyotype level. Nucleotide-level characterization of the clinically described BCA breakpoints revealed disruption of at least three NDD candidate genes (LINC00299, NUP205, PSMD14 that gave rise to abnormal mRNAs and could be assumed as disease-causing. However, unbiased genome-wide analysis of the sequencing data for cryptic structural variation was key to reveal an additional submicroscopic inversion that truncates the schizophrenia- and bipolar disorder-associated brain transcription factor ZNF804A as an equally likely NDD-driving gene. Deep sequencing of fluorescent-sorted wild-type and derivative chromosomes confirmed the clinically undetected BCA. Moreover, deep sequencing further validated a high accuracy of mate-pair library sequencing to detect structural variants larger than 10 kB, proposing that this approach is powerful for clinical-grade genome-wide structural variant detection. Our study supports previous evidence for a role of ZNF804A in NDD and highlights the need for a more comprehensive assessment of structural variation in karyotypically abnormal individuals and patients with neurocognitive disease to avoid diagnostic deception.

  7. Mobility power flow analysis of an L-shaped plate structure subjected to acoustic excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuschieri, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    An analytical investigation based on the Mobility Power Flow method is presented for the determination of the vibrational response and power flow for two coupled flat plate structures in an L-shaped configuration, subjected to acoustical excitation. The principle of the mobility power flow method consists of dividing the global structure into a series of subsystems coupled together using mobility functions. Each separate subsystem is analyzed independently to determine the structural mobility functions for the junction and excitation locations. The mobility functions, together with the characteristics of the junction between the subsystems, are then used to determine the response of the global structure and the power flow. In the coupled plate structure considered here, mobility power flow expressions are derived for excitation by an incident acoustic plane wave. In this case, the forces (acoustic pressures) acting on the structure are dependent on the response of the structure because of the scattered pressure component. The interaction between the structure and the fluid leads to the derivation of a corrected mode shape for the plates' normal surface velocity and also for the structure mobility functions. The determination of the scattered pressure components in the expressions for the power flow represents an additional component in the power flow balance for the source plate and the receiver plate. This component represents the radiated acoustical power from the plate structure.

  8. Abnormal topological organization in white matter structural networks revealed by diffusion tensor tractography in unmedicated patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhaoxi; Zhao, Tengda; Luo, Jia; Guo, Zhihua; Guo, Meng; Li, Ping; Sun, Jing; He, Yong; Li, Zhanjiang

    2014-06-03

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder defined by recurrent thoughts, intrusive and distressing impulses, or images and ritualistic behaviors. Although focal diverse regional abnormalities white matter integrity in specific brain regions have been widely studied in populations with OCD, alterations in the structural connectivities among them remain poorly understood. The aim was to investigate the abnormalities in the topological efficiency of the white matter networks and the correlation between the network metrics and Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale scores in unmedicated OCD patients, using diffusion tensor tractography and graph theoretical approaches. This study used diffusion tensor imaging and deterministic tractography to map the white matter structural networks in 26 OCD patients and 39 age- and gender-matched healthy controls; and then applied graph theoretical methods to investigate abnormalities in the global and regional properties of the white matter network in these patients. The patients and control participants both showed small-world organization of the white matter networks. However, the OCD patients exhibited significant abnormal global topology, including decreases in global efficiency (t = -2.32, p = 0.02) and increases in shortest path length, Lp (t = 2.30, p = 0.02), the normalized weighted shortest path length, λ (t = 2.08, p=0.04), and the normalized clustering coefficient, γ (t = 2.26, p = 0.03), of their white matter structural networks compared with healthy controls. Further, the OCD patients showed a reduction in nodal efficiency predominately in the frontal regions, the parietal regions and caudate nucleus. The normalized weighted shortest path length of the network metrics was significantly negatively correlated with obsessive subscale of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (r = -0.57, p = 0.0058). These findings demonstrate the abnormal topological efficiency in the white matter networks

  9. A structural analysis of an ocean going patrol boat subjected to planning loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James H.; Lafreniere, Robert; Stoodt, Robert; Wiedenheft, John

    1987-01-01

    A static structural analysis of an ocean going patrol vessel subjected to hydrodynamic planning loads is discussed. The analysis required the development of a detailed model that included hull plating, five structural bulkheads, longitudinal and transverse stiffners, and a coarse representation of the superstructure. The finite element model was developed from fabrication drawings using the Navy computer aided design system. Various stress and displacement contours are shown for the entire hull. Because several critical areas appeared to be overstressed, these areas were remeshed for detail and are presented for completeness.

  10. Comparative Analysis of the Reliability of Steel Structure with Pinned and Rigid Nodes Subjected to Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicka, Katarzyna; Radoń, Urszula; Szaniec, Waldemar; Pawlak, Urszula

    2017-10-01

    The paper concerns the reliability analysis of steel structures subjected to high temperatures of fire gases. Two types of spatial structures were analysed, namely with pinned and rigid nodes. The fire analysis was carried out according to prescriptions of Eurocode. The static-strength analysis was conducted using the finite element method (FEM). The MES3D program, developed by Szaniec (Kielce University of Technology, Poland), was used for this purpose. The results received from MES3D made it possible to carry out the reliability analysis using the Numpress Explore program that was developed at the Institute of Fundamental Technological Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences [9]. The measurement of reliability of structures is the Hasofer-Lind reliability index (β). The reliability analysis was carried out according to approximation (FORM, SORM) and simulation (Importance Sampling, Monte Carlo) methods. As the fire progresses, the value of reliability index decreases. The analysis conducted for the study made it possible to evaluate the impact of node types on those changes. In real structures, it is often difficult to define correctly types of nodes, so some simplifications are made. The presented analysis contributes to the recognition of consequences of such assumptions for the safety of structures, subjected to fire.

  11. Mobility power flow analysis of an L-shaped plate structure subjected to distributed loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuschieri, J. M.; Cimmerman, B.

    1990-01-01

    An analytical investigation based in the Mobility Power Flow (MPF) method is presented for the determination of the vibrational response and power flow for two coupled flat plate structures in an L-shaped configuration, subjected to distributed excitation. The principle of the MPF method consists of dividing the global structure into a series of subsystems coupled together using mobility functions. Each separate subsystem is analyzed independently to determine the structural mobility functions for the junction and excitation locations. The mobility functions, together with the characteristics of the junction between the subsystems, are then used to determine the response of the global structure and the MPF. In the considered coupled plate structure, MPF expressions are derived for distributed mechanical excitation which is independent of the structure response. However using a similar approach with some modifications excitation by an acoustic plane wave can be considered. Some modifications are required to deal with the latter case are necessary because the forces (acoustic pressure) acting on the structure are dependent on the response of the structure due to the presence of the scattered pressure.

  12. A study of ECG pattern, cardiac structural abnormalities and familial tendency in patients with early repolarisation syndrome in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhu, K G; George, Vijo; Binu, T G; Ranjith, R; Kunju, Subair; Baiju, R; Mohanan, K S; Jayaram, R; Radhakrishnan, V V

    2014-01-01

    Early repolarisation (ER) on ECG, which was initially believed to be benign, has of late been considered otherwise. Brugada syndrome has recently been thought to be an extension of the ER spectrum, and the familial tendency of the ER pattern is being highlighted. With attention being drawn to ER's association with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation (VF), the prognosis and lineage of patients with an ER pattern are under scrutiny. To analyse ER patterns on ECG, their presence in first-degree relatives and their association with structural heart disease. To classify different types of ER and estimate the prevalence of the high-risk notch/slur pattern in the population studied. We screened all patients presenting to our department from December 2011 to July 2014 for ER patterns. We excluded patients with other causes of ST elevation that mimicked the ER pattern, those aged study. A complete physical examination, 12-lead ECG and echocardiography were performed on all study patients. Willing first-degree relatives were screened with a 12-lead ECG. Of the 963 patients with ER that we initially screened, 843 completed the study. A total of 4116 relatives were screened. Of the 843 patients who completed the study, 687 (81.5%) were male and 156 (18.5%) were female. The majority were asymptomatic (70.11%), but had been referred for ECG abnormalities. Fifteen patients with chest pain were inadvertently thrombolysed and were later diagnosed to have ER. Their ER pattern was exaggerated during chest pain, which made this error highly likely. Among the 48 patients who had acute coronary syndrome (ACS), ER pattern was noticed in a different lead than those affected by ACS. Of these, 27 (56.25%) had ventricular tachycardia/VF during the acute phase. Six patients had electrical storm without evidence of ACS, and all had a global ER pattern with prominent notching/slurring on baseline ECG. The most common type of ER pattern was type I (lateral leads; 55.87%). Twenty-one patients had

  13. Dynamic and static knee alignment at baseline predict structural abnormalities on MRI associated with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis after 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian, Armaghan; van Dieёn, Jaap H; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Baert, Isabel A C; Faber, Gert S; Luyten, Frank P; Verschueren, Sabine M P

    2017-09-01

    Dynamic and static varus alignment, both, have been reported as risk factors associated with structural progression of knee osteoarthritis. However the association of none of the static and dynamic alignment with structural, clinical, and functional progression associated with knee osteoarthritis has not been assessed yet in a longitudinal study. Forty-seven women with early and established medial knee osteoarthritis were evaluated. Static and dynamic alignment as well as MRI detected structural features, clinical, and functional characteristics of patients were assessed at baseline and at 2 years follow-up. Associations between baseline static and dynamic alignment with structural, functional, and clinical characteristics at the time of entry, as well as the changes over 2 years were evaluated. Both static and dynamic varus alignment at baseline were significantly associated with osteoarthritis related tibio-femoral joint structural abnormalities detected on MRI, at the time of entry. Only the magnitude of varus thrust at baseline was predictive of the changes in the presence of meniscal maceration over two years. None of the static or dynamic measures of knee joint alignment were associated with clinical characteristics associated with medial knee osteoarthritis. The key finding of this study is that both frontal plane dynamic and static alignment, are associated with structural abnormalities in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Fine structural characterization of chondroitin sulfate in urine of bladder pain syndrome subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccari, Francesca; Buzzega, Dania; Galeotti, Fabio; Volpi, Nicola

    2011-12-01

    Urothelial glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are decreased in bladder pain syndrome (BPS), and urinary GAGs are thought to reflect this deficiency. In previous researches, urine GAG levels were found increased, decreased, or similar between BPS and controls. Additionally, no study is available on the structure characterization of urinary chondroitin sulfate (CS) in BPS patients. CS in the urine of BPS-affected patients and controls has been determined by specific electrophoresis, along with total GAGs and heparan sulfate (HS) percentage, and CS disaccharides have been quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. No significant differences were obtained for total amount of GAGs, absolute content of CS and HS, and their relative percentages. Moreover, no differences were observed for CS structure confirming similar urine CS composition in BPS subjects and controls. This study found no significant differences of BPS and control urine GAG levels and CS structure to allow use of these parameters as diagnostic markers for BPS diagnosis.

  15. The use of subjective expert opinions in cost optimum design of aerospace structures. [probabilistic failure models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J. M.; Hanagud, S.

    1975-01-01

    The results of two questionnaires sent to engineering experts are statistically analyzed and compared with objective data from Saturn V design and testing. Engineers were asked how likely it was for structural failure to occur at load increments above and below analysts' stress limit predictions. They were requested to estimate the relative probabilities of different failure causes, and of failure at each load increment given a specific cause. Three mathematical models are constructed based on the experts' assessment of causes. The experts' overall assessment of prediction strength fits the Saturn V data better than the models do, but a model test option (T-3) based on the overall assessment gives more design change likelihood to overstrength structures than does an older standard test option. T-3 compares unfavorably with the standard option in a cost optimum structural design problem. The report reflects a need for subjective data when objective data are unavailable.

  16. Effects of Soil-Structure Interaction on Response of Structures Subjected to Near-Fault Earthquake Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghannad, M. Ali; Amiri, Asghar; Ghahari, S. Farid

    2008-07-01

    Near-fault ground motions have notable characteristics such as velocity time histories containing large-amplitude and long-period pulses caused by forward directivity effects and acceleration time histories with high frequency content. These specifications of near-fault earthquake records make structural responses to be different from those expected in far-fault earthquakes. In this paper, using moving average filtering, a set of near-fault earthquake records containing forward directivity pulses are decomposed into two parts having different frequency content: a Pulse-Type Record (PTR) that possesses long period pulses, and a relatively high-frequency Background Record (BGR). Studying the structural response to near-fault records reveals that elastic response spectra for fixed-base systems, in contrast to their response to ordinary earthquakes, show two distinct local peaks related to BGR and PTR parts. Also, the effect of Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) on response of structures subjected to this type of excitations is investigated. Generally, the SSI effect on the response of structures is studied through introducing a replacement single-degree-of-freedom system with longer period and usually higher damping. Since this period elongation for the PTR-dominated period range is greater than that of the BGR-dominated one, the spectral peaks become closer in the case of soil-structure systems in comparison to the corresponding fixed-base systems.

  17. Neurological abnormalities predict disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggesi, Anna; Gouw, Alida; van der Flier, Wiesje

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of neurological abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in predicting global functional decline in a cohort of initially independent-living elderly subjects. The Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study, involving 11 European centres, was primarily aimed...... at evaluating age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) as an independent predictor of the transition to disability (according to Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale) or death in independent elderly subjects that were followed up for 3 years. At baseline, a standardized neurological examination.......0 years, 45 % males), 327 (51.7 %) presented at the initial visit with ≥1 neurological abnormality and 242 (38 %) reached the main study outcome. Cox regression analyses, adjusting for MRI features and other determinants of functional decline, showed that the baseline presence of any neurological...

  18. Vibration Analysis and Design of a Structure Subjected to Human Walking Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Setareh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Annoying building floor vibrations have become a serious serviceability issue. This is mainly due to decrease in the system mass resulting from the use of higher strength materials; use of computer-assisted design and the Load and Resistance Factor Design Method to optimize the structure based on the strength requirements; fewer partitions and more innovative designs by architects achieving long, column free spans resulting in a reduction in the natural frequency and damping. This paper provides details of the vibration analysis and design of a novel office building. Three-dimensional computer models of the structure were created and various modifications were made to the original structure, designed based on static loads, to reduce the possible excessive floor vibrations when subjected to walking excitations. Tuned mass dampers were also designed as a back-up vibration control system. A series of dynamic tests were conducted on the building floor to identify the dynamic properties of the structure and these were then used to update the original computer model. Finally, various forcing functions representing human walks and the updated computer model of the structure were used to evaluate the accuracy of the walking excitation force models to predict the structural response. Conclusions are made on the validity of each forcing function studied here.

  19. Impedance measures in analysis and characterization of multistable structures subjected to harmonic excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harne, Ryan L.; Goodpaster, Benjamin A.

    2018-01-01

    Structural components susceptible to adverse, post-buckled dynamic behaviors have long challenged the success of applications requiring lightweight, slender curved structures, while researchers have begun to leverage such bistable systems in emerging applications for novel energy attenuation and shape-changing properties. To expedite development and deployment of these built-up platforms containing post-buckled constituents, efficient approaches are required to complement time-consuming full-field models in the prediction of the near- and far-from-equilibrium dynamics. This research meets the need by introducing a semi-analytical model framework to enable the characterization of steady-state responses in multi degree-of-freedom (DOF) and multistable structural systems subjected to harmonic excitation. In so doing, the pathway for assessing impedance measures is created here so as to identify how energy travels and returns within built-up multistable structures. Verified by simulations and qualitatively validated by experiments, the analysis is shown to accurately reproduce both near- and far-from-equilibrium responses including different classes of energetic snap-through dynamics that only exist in such multistable structures. A first look at the impedance measures of different dynamic regimes reveals a connection between damping in multistable structures and the sustainability of far-from-equilibrium oscillations.

  20. STUDY ON THE DAMAGE MECHANISM OF PORE STRUCTURE IN CONCRETE SUBJECTED TO FREEZE-THAW CYCLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well know that freeze-thaw cycles play the most significant role in the durability evolution in concrete structures, freeze-thaw cycles have been accounted as one of the major factors on the damage and demolition of concrete. Microscopic parameters have been used for describing the characterizations of damage in concrete under freeze-thaw actions by researchers. However, their models could not provide specific damage factors or parameters. In this paper, a new damage model and equation based on variations of pore structure in concrete is established. This new pore damage model is used for analysing freeze-thaw damage of concrete and validated by experiments. The results show that the measurement of pore structure becomes larger, the diameters of most probably pore structure, critical pore structure, and the variations of porosity increase with the process of freeze-thaw cycles. The pore damage factor or parameter is suitable for describing the mechanism of freeze-thaw damage. Furthermore, the damage results calculated by this new freeze-thaw damage equation, based on variations of pore structure in concrete gives an excellent correlation with experimental results. This pore damage equation was proved to be effective for evaluating the degradation of concrete which is subjected to freezing and thawing cycles in low or sub-zero regions.

  1. Modelling the behaviour of composite sandwich structures when subject to air-blast loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Arora

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP and carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP sandwich structures (1.6 m x 1.3 m were subject to explosive air blast (100 kg TNT equivalent at stand-off distances of 14 m. Digital image correlation (DIC was used to obtain full-field data for the rear-face of each deforming target. A steel plate of comparable mass per unit area was also subjected to the same blast conditions for comparison. The experimental data was then verified with finite element models generated in Abaqus/Explicit. Close agreement was obtained between the numerical and experimental results, confirming that the CFRP panels had a superior blast performance to the GFRP panels. Moreover all composite targets sustained localised failures (that were more severe in the GFRP targets but retained their original shape post blast. The rear-skins remained intact for each composite target with core shear failure present.

  2. Left ventricular structure and diastolic function in subjects with two hypertensive parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, U B; Steensgaard-Hansen, F; Rokkedal, J

    2001-01-01

    vetricular mass index, diastolic function parameters, insulin sensitivity and plasma concentrations of cardiomyotrophic hormones. The increased RWT was not attributable to any other factor than the systolic blood pressure. CONCLUSION: In a carefully selected group of subjects with two hypertensive parents......PURPOSE: To examine the influence of (i) strong predisposition to essential hypertension and (ii) insulin sensitivity and plasma levels of cardiomyotrophic hormones on echocardiographic parameters of left ventricular structure and function. METHODS: 26 normotensive subjects (age 18-35) with bi-parental...... hypertension and 26 matched controls with normotensive parents. Families with non-insulin-dependent diabetes or morbid obesity were excluded. (i) Echocardiography; (ii) plasma concentrations of renin, angiotensin-II, aldosterone, epinephrine and norepinephrine; (iii) euglycaemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp study...

  3. Application of shearography to crack detection in concrete structures subjected to traffic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzet, V.; Blain, P.; Przybyla, D.

    2010-09-01

    Early detection of defects in concrete structures, such as bridges or dams, is essential to optimize the maintenance of civil engineering facilities. Optical methods constitute non-destructive means of control and measurement but they are generally confined in laboratories where both the setup and environnement are controlled. The method of shearography is especially well adapted to detect damages due to both its capacity to distinctly visualize strain concentration zones and its robustness. The experimental set-up is relatively compact, which enables to examine an extensive surface area by simply moving the shearographic head. In this paper, the application of this methodology for the detection of cracks is presented on concrete samples and circulated outside concrete structures. Due to its sensitivity to strain concentration, shearography is able to detect structural cracks, even when they were not through-cracks. Operational implementation is made on two circulated structures with experts in manual cracks detection. No stimulation device is used. In the first structure, cracks are detected on the bridge deck and on the bridge abutment. In the second structure, cracks on the intrados of the bridge deck are detected and also beginning of cracks which have not been detected by the visual inspection. Different areas are scanned and the results are in agreement with the visual inspection. This technique enables detecting cracks on structures subjected to traffic load. The natural loading of an engineering structure, i.e. the rolling traffic it bears, proves well suited for cracks detection by means of shearography, provided traffic patterns are regular enough.

  4. Detection of structural abnormalities in spermatozoa of a translocation carrier t(3;11)(q27.3;q24.3) by triple FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, E; von Bergh, A R; Coonen, E; de Die-Smulders, C E; Hopman, A H; Ramaekers, F C; Geraedts, J P

    1998-02-01

    Structural chromosome abnormalities in spermatozoa represent an important category of paternally transmittable genetic damage. A couple was referred to our centre because of repetitive abortions and the man was found to be a carrier of a reciprocal translocation t(3;11)(q27.3;q24.3). A tailored fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) approach was developed to study the meiotic segregation patterns in spermatozoa from this translocation carrier. A combination of three DNA probes was used, a centromeric probe for chromosome 11, a cosmid probe for chromosome 11q and a YAC probe for chromosome 3q. The frequency of spermatozoa carrying an abnormal chromosome constitution was compared with baseline frequencies in control semen specimens and it was found that a significantly higher percentage of spermatozoa carried an abnormal constitution for the chromosomes involved in the translocation. A normal or balanced chromosome constitution was found in 44.3% of the analysed spermatozoa, while the remainder exhibited an abnormal chromosome constitution reflecting different modes of segregation (15.9% adjacent I segregation, 6.5% adjacent II segregation, 28.9% 3:1 segregation, 0.8% 4:0 segregation, 3.6% aberrant segregation). The frequency of aneuploidy for chromosomes X, Y, 13 and 21 was assessed using specific probes but there was no evidence of interchromosomal effects or variations in the sex ratio in spermatozoa from the translocation carrier. In conclusion, structural aberrations can be reliably assessed in interphase spermatozoa using unique DNA probe cocktails, and this method provides insight into the genetic constitution of germ cells and enables evaluation of potential risks for the offspring.

  5. The Use of Subject-Verb Agreement and Verb Argument Structure in Monolingual and Bilingual Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoelman, Marianne; Bol, Gerard W.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the use of subject-verb agreement and verb argument structure in the spoken Dutch of monolingual Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) and bilingual Frisian-Dutch children with SLI. Both SLI groups appeared to be less efficient in their use of subject-verb agreement and verb argument structure than the…

  6. Mobility power flow analysis of coupled plate structure subjected to mechanical and acoustic excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuschieri, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    The mobility power flow approach that was previously applied in the derivation of expressions for the vibrational power flow between coupled plate substructures forming an L configuration and subjected to mechanical loading is generalized. Using the generalized expressions, both point and distributed mechanical loads on one or both of the plates can be considered. The generalized approach is extended to deal with acoustic excitation of one of the plate substructures. In this case, the forces (acoustic pressures) acting on the structure are dependent on the response of the structure because of the scattered pressure component. The interaction between the plate structure and the acoustic fluid leads to the derivation of a corrected mode shape for the plates' normal surface velocity and also for the structure mobility functions. The determination of the scattered pressure components in the expressions for the power flow represents an additional component in the power flow balance for the source plate and the receiver plate. This component represents the radiated acoustical power from the plate structure. For a number of coupled plate substrates, the acoustic pressure generated by one substructure will interact with the motion of another substructure. That is, in the case of the L-shaped plate, acoustic interaction exists between the two plate substructures due to the generation of the acoustic waves by each of the substructures. An approach to deal with this phenomena is described.

  7. Random lock-in intervals for tubular structural elements subject to simulated natural wind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus F.; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    1999-01-01

    The paper reports on wind tunnel experiments with an elastically suspended circular cylinder vibrating under the excitation of natural wind of high turbulence degree. The natural wind turbulence was simulated bysuperposing the low frequency part of the natural wind turbulence on the background high...... structural elements subject to thenatural wind. The engineering relevance of the investigation is supported by comparing with the unrealistic highlyconservative rules of wind induced fatique commonly given in codes of practice. The stochastic lock-in model aswell as the related fatigue calculation procedure...

  8. Gratitude mediates the effect of emotional intelligence on subjective well-being: A structural equation modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yuan

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the relationship among emotional intelligence, gratitude, and subjective well-being in a sample of university students. A total of 365 undergraduates completed the emotional intelligence scale, the gratitude questionnaire, and the subjective well-being measures. The results of the structural equation model showed that emotional intelligence is positively associated with gratitude and subjective well-being, that gratitude is positively associated with subjective well-being, and that gratitude partially mediates the positive relationship between emotional intelligence and subjective well-being. Bootstrap test results also revealed that emotional intelligence has a significant indirect effect on subjective well-being through gratitude.

  9. Nonparametric Monitoring for Geotechnical Structures Subject to Long-Term Environmental Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Bum Yun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonparametric, data-driven methodology of monitoring for geotechnical structures subject to long-term environmental change is discussed. Avoiding physical assumptions or excessive simplification of the monitored structures, the nonparametric monitoring methodology presented in this paper provides reliable performance-related information particularly when the collection of sensor data is limited. For the validation of the nonparametric methodology, a field case study was performed using a full-scale retaining wall, which had been monitored for three years using three tilt gauges. Using the very limited sensor data, it is demonstrated that important performance-related information, such as drainage performance and sensor damage, could be disentangled from significant daily, seasonal and multiyear environmental variations. Extensive literature review on recent developments of parametric and nonparametric data processing techniques for geotechnical applications is also presented.

  10. Y chromosome haplogroups in autistic subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Jamain, Stéphane; Quach, Hélène; Quintana-Murci, Luis; Betancur, Catalina; Philippe, Anne; Gillberg, Christopher; Sponheim, Eili; Skjeldal, Ola H.; Fellous, Marc; Leboyer, Marion; Bourgeron, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    The male to female ratio in autism is 4:1 in the global autistic population, but increases to 23:1 in autistic subjects without physical or brain abnormalities. 1 Despite this well-recognised gender difference, male predisposition to autistic disorder remains unexplained and the role of sex chromosomes is still debated. Numerical and structural abnormalities of the sex chromosomes are among the most frequently reported chromosomal disorders associated with autism. However, genome scans have f...

  11. Structure and mechanical properties of a high-carbon steel subjected to severe deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorkunov, E. S.; Zadvorkin, S. M.; Goruleva, L. S.; Makarov, A. V.; Pecherkina, N. L.

    2017-10-01

    The structure and mechanical properties of a high-carbon eutectic steel subjected to the cold plastic deformation by hydrostatic extrusion in a wide range of true strain have been studied. Using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, it has been shown that the formation of cellular, fragmented, and submicrocrystalline structures occurs in the ferritic constituent of the pearlite structure of the steel upon extrusion. This is a consequence of the occurrence of dynamic recovery and continuous dynamic and post-dynamic recrystallization, which cause a decrease in the density of free dislocations at the true strain of more than 1.62. The partial dissolution of the carbide phase is also observed. It has been found that, at a true strain of up to 0.81, the strength properties of the investigated steel are determined mainly by subgrain, dislocation, and precipitation mechanisms of the strengthening; in the deformation range of 0.81-1.62, the role of the grainboundary strengthening increases. At strains above 1.62, grain-boundary strengthening is a prevailing mechanism in the formation of the level of strength properties of the extruded U8A steel. The ultimate tensile strength and yield stress over the entire strain range only uniquely correlate with the density of highangle boundaries; the dependences of the strength characteristics on other structural parameters are not monotonic.

  12. CRISPR correction of the PRKAG2 gene mutation in a patient's induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes eliminates electrophysiological and structural abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Jehuda, Ronen; Eisen, Binyamin; Shemer, Yuval; Mekies, Lucy N; Szantai, Agnes; Reiter, Irina; Cui, Huanhuan; Guan, Kaomei; Haron-Khun, Shiraz; Freimark, Dov; Sperling, Silke R; Gherghiceanu, Mihaela; Arad, Michael; Binah, Ofer

    2017-09-14

    Mutations in the PRKAG2 gene encoding the γ-subunit of adenosine monophosphate kinase (AMPK) cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and familial Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. Patients carrying the R302Q mutation in PRKAG2 present with sinus bradycardia, escape rhythms, ventricular preexcitation, supraventricular tachycardia, and atrioventricular block. This mutation affects AMPK activity and increases glycogen storage in cardiomyocytes. The link between glycogen storage, WPW syndrome, HCM, and arrhythmias remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pathological changes caused by the PRKAG2 mutation. We tested the hypothesis that a patient's induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) display clinical aspects of the disease. Using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) technology, we corrected the mutation and then generated isogenic iPSC-CMs. Action potentials were recorded from spontaneously firing and paced cardiomyocytes using the patch clamp technique. Using a microelectrode array setup, we recorded electrograms from iPSC-CM clusters. Transmission electron microscopy was used to detect ultrastructural abnormalities in the mutated iPSC-CMs. PRKAG2-mutated iPSC-CMs exhibited abnormal firing patterns, delayed afterdepolarizations, triggered arrhythmias, and augmented beat rate variability. Importantly, CRISPR correction eliminated the electrophysiological abnormalities, the augmented glycogen, storage, and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. PRKAG2-mutated iPSC-CMs displayed functional and structural abnormalities, which were abolished by correcting the mutation in the patient's iPSCs using CRISPR technology. Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Abnormal spindle-like microcephaly-associated (ASPM) mutations strongly disrupt neocortical structure but spare the hippocampus and long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passemard, Sandrine; Verloes, Alain; Billette de Villemeur, Thierry; Boespflug-Tanguy, Odile; Hernandez, Karen; Laurent, Marion; Isidor, Bertrand; Alberti, Corinne; Pouvreau, Nathalie; Drunat, Séverine; Gérard, Bénédicte; El Ghouzzi, Vincent; Gallego, Jorge; Elmaleh-Bergès, Monique; Huttner, Wieland B; Eliez, Stephan; Gressens, Pierre; Schaer, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly results from abnormal brain development linked to proliferation defects in neural progenitors. The most frequent form, caused by ASPM mutations, is usually defined by a reduced brain volume and is associated with intellectual disability. Although many ASPM cases have now been reported, structural brain abnormalities and their link with cognitive disabilities have rarely been investigated. In this study, we used high resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in seven patients with ASPM mutations and 39 healthy age-matched controls to quantify regional volumes, thickness, surface area, gyrification index and white matter volumes of 30 cortical regions. We observed a consistent reduction of 50% or more in the volume and surface area of all cortical regions except for the hippocampus and surrounding medial temporal structures, which were significantly less reduced. Neuropsychologic assessment indicated significant impairments of cognitive abilities. However, these impairments were associated with normal mnesic abilities, in keeping with the relative preservation of the hippocampus and medial temporal structures. These results show that, contrary to current opinion, the cortical volume and surface area of patients with ASPM mutations is reduced depending on a regionally specific fashion and their cognitive profile reflects this heterogeneity. The precise characterization of the cortical map and cognitive abilities of patients with ASPM mutations should allow developing more focused reeducative interventions well-suited to their real abilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pipelines subject to slow landslide movements: Structural modeling vs field measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruschi, R.; Glavina, S.; Spinazze, M.; Tomassini, D. [Snamprogetti S.p.A., Fano (Italy); Bonanni, S.; Cuscuna, S. [Snam S.p.A., Milan (Italy)

    1996-12-01

    In recent years finite element techniques have been increasingly used to investigate the behavior of buried pipelines subject to soil movements. The use of these tools provides a rational basis for the definition of minimum wall thickness requirements in landslide crossings. Furthermore the design of mitigation measures or monitoring systems which control the development of undesirable strains in the pipe wall over time, requires a detailed structural modeling. The scope of this paper is to discuss the use of dedicated structural modeling with relevant calibration to field measurements. The strain measurements used were regularly gathered from pipe sections, in two different sites over a period of time long enough to record changes of axial strain due to soil movement. Detailed structural modeling of pipeline layout in both sites and for operating conditions, is applied. Numerical simulations show the influence of the distribution of soil movement acting on the pipeline with regards to the state of strain which can be developed in certain locations. The role of soil nature and direction of relative movements in the definition of loads transferred to the pipeline, is also discussed.

  15. Chemical Ablation of Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide Receptor Action by Daily (Pro3)GIP Administration Improves Glucose Tolerance and Ameliorates Insulin Resistance and Abnormalities of Islet Structure in Obesity-Related Diabetes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Victor A. Gault; Nigel Irwin; Brian D. Green; Jane T. McCluskey; Brett Greer; Clifford J. Bailey; Patrick Harriott; Finbarr P.M. O’Harte; Peter R. Flatt

    2005-01-01

    Chemical Ablation of Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide Receptor Action by Daily (Pro 3 )GIP Administration Improves Glucose Tolerance and Ameliorates Insulin Resistance and Abnormalities of Islet Structure in Obesity-Related Diabetes Victor...

  16. Effect of Piezoelectric Implant on the Structural Integrity of Composite Laminates Subjected to Tensile Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masmoudi, Sahir; El Mahi, Abderrahim; Turki, Saïd

    2017-02-01

    The embedment of sensors within composite structures gives the opportunity to develop smart materials for health and usage monitoring systems. This study investigates the use of acoustic emission monitoring with embedded piezoelectric sensor during mechanical tests in order to identify the effects of introducing the sensor into the composite materials. The composite specimen with and without embedded sensor were subject to tensile static and fatigue loading. The analysis and observation of AE signals show that the integration of a sensor presents advantage of the detection of the acoustic events and also show the presence of three or four types of damage during tests. The incorporation of piezoelectric sensor has a negligible influence on the mechanical properties of materials.

  17. A general symplectic method for the response analysis of infinitely periodic structures subjected to random excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available A general symplectic method for the random response analysis of infinitely periodic structures subjected to stationary/non-stationary random excitations is developed using symplectic mathematics in conjunction with variable separation and the pseudo-excitation method (PEM. Starting from the equation of motion for a single loaded substructure, symplectic analysis is firstly used to eliminate the dependent degrees of the freedom through condensation. A Fourier expansion of the condensed equation of motion is then applied to separate the variables of time and wave number, thus enabling the necessary recurrence scheme to be developed. The random response is finally determined by implementing PEM. The proposed method is justified by comparison with results available in the literature and is then applied to a more complicated time-dependent coupled system.

  18. Solution Methods for Structures with Random Properties Subject to Random Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köylüoglu, H. U.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Cakmak, A. S.

    This paper deals with the lower order statistical moments of the response of structures with random stiffness and random damping properties subject to random excitation. The arising stochastic differential equations (SDE) with random coefficients are solved by two methods, a second order...... perturbation approach and a Markovian method. The second order perturbation approach is grounded on the total probability theorem and can be compactly written. Moreover, the problem to be solved is independent of the dimension of the random variables involved. The Markovian approach suggests transforming...... the SDE with random coefficients with deterministic initial conditions to an equivalent nonlinear SDE with deterministic coefficient and random initial conditions. In both methods, the statistical moment equations are used. Hierarchy of statistical moments in the markovian approach is closed...

  19. Students attitude towards calculus subject: A case-study using structural equation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, Noorehan; Hamid, Nur Nadiah Abd.

    2015-10-01

    This study was designed to assess the attitude of Bumiputera students towards mathematics. The instrument used to measure the attitude was Test of Mathematics Related Attitude (TOMRA). This test measures students' attitudes in four criteria: normality of mathematics (N), attitudes towards mathematics inquiry (I), adoption of mathematics attitude (A) and enjoyment of mathematics lessons (E). The target population of this study was all computer science and quantitative science students who enrolled in a Calculus subject at UiTM Negeri Sembilan. Confirmatory Factor Analysis was carried out and the inter-relationship among the four criteria was analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling. The students scored high in E, moderately in A and relatively low in N and I.

  20. Increasing number of components of the metabolic syndrome and cardiac structural and functional abnormalities – cross-sectional study of the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abreu-Lima Cassiano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to assess whether we could identify a graded association between increasing number of components of the metabolic syndrome and cardiac structural and functional abnormalities independently of predicted risk of coronary heart disease by the Framingham risk score. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study on a random sample of the urban population of Porto aged 45 years or over. Six hundred and eighty-four participants were included. Data were collected by a structured clinical interview with a physician, ECG and a transthoracic M-mode and 2D echocardiogram. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to ATPIII-NCEP. The association between the number of features of the metabolic syndrome and the cardiac structural and functional abnormalities was assessed by 3 multivariate regression models: adjusting for age and gender, adjusting for the 10-year predicted risk of coronary heart disease by Framingham risk score and adjusting for age, gender and systolic blood pressure. Results There was a positive association between the number of features of metabolic syndrome and parameters of cardiac structure and function, with a consistent and statistically significant trend for all cardiac variables considered when adjusting for age and gender. Parameters of left ventricular geometry patterns, left atrial diameter and diastolic dysfunction maintained this trend when taking into account the 10-year predicted risk of coronary heart disease by the Framingham score as an independent variable, while left ventricular systolic dysfunction did not. The prevalence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, and the mean left ventricular mass, left ventricular diameter and left atrial diameter increased significantly with the number of features of the metabolic syndrome when additionally adjusting for systolic blood pressure as a continuous variable. Conclusion Increasing severity of metabolic syndrome was associated with increasingly

  1. Assessment of Structural and Functional Abnormalities of the Myocardium and the Ascending Aorta in Fetus with Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To detect anatomical and intrinsic histopathological features of the ascending aorta and left ventricular (LV myocardium and evaluate right ventricular (RV function in fetuses with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS. Methods. Twenty-five fetuses diagnosed with HLHS were followed up in the antenatal and postpartum periods. 12 necropsy heart specimens were analyzed for morphological and histological changes. Results. Prenatal echocardiography and pathologic anatomy displayed the typical characteristics of HLHS as a severe underdevelopment of the LV in the form of mitral stenosis or atresia or as aortic atresia or stenosis, with a decreased ratio of aortic diameter to pulmonary artery diameter (median of 0.49 with a range of 0.24 to 0.69, p≤0.001 and a higher ratio of RV diameter to LV diameter (median of 2.44 with a range of 1.33 to 6.25, p≤0.001. The RV volume, stroke volume, and cardiac output in HLHS fetuses were increased compared with the gestational age-matched normal controls (p<0.01. Histological changes in the 12 HLHS specimens included LV myocardial fibrosis, aortic elastic fragmentation, and fibrosis. Conclusions. In addition to severe anatomical deformity, distinct histological abnormalities in the LV myocardium and aortic wall were identified in the fetuses with HLHS. RV function damage may be potentially exists.

  2. Assessment of Structural and Functional Abnormalities of the Myocardium and the Ascending Aorta in Fetus with Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Xu, Yali; Tang, Jinliang; Xia, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To detect anatomical and intrinsic histopathological features of the ascending aorta and left ventricular (LV) myocardium and evaluate right ventricular (RV) function in fetuses with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). Methods. Twenty-five fetuses diagnosed with HLHS were followed up in the antenatal and postpartum periods. 12 necropsy heart specimens were analyzed for morphological and histological changes. Results. Prenatal echocardiography and pathologic anatomy displayed the typical characteristics of HLHS as a severe underdevelopment of the LV in the form of mitral stenosis or atresia or as aortic atresia or stenosis, with a decreased ratio of aortic diameter to pulmonary artery diameter (median of 0.49 with a range of 0.24 to 0.69, p ≤ 0.001) and a higher ratio of RV diameter to LV diameter (median of 2.44 with a range of 1.33 to 6.25, p ≤ 0.001). The RV volume, stroke volume, and cardiac output in HLHS fetuses were increased compared with the gestational age-matched normal controls (p < 0.01). Histological changes in the 12 HLHS specimens included LV myocardial fibrosis, aortic elastic fragmentation, and fibrosis. Conclusions. In addition to severe anatomical deformity, distinct histological abnormalities in the LV myocardium and aortic wall were identified in the fetuses with HLHS. RV function damage may be potentially exists. PMID:26981527

  3. Performance Evaluation of Waterproofing Membrane Systems Subject to the Concrete Joint Load Behavior of Below-Grade Concrete Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jaeyoung Song; Kyuhwan Oh; Byoungil Kim; Sangkeun Oh

    2017-01-01

    .... In this type of environment, they become subject to higher water pressure. The concrete material of the structures is exposed to wet conditions for longer periods of time, which makes the proper adhesion of waterproofing membranes difficult...

  4. The use of subject-verb agreement and verb argument structure in monolingual and bilingual children with specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelman, Marianne; Bol, Gerard W.

    This study investigates the use of subject-verb agreement and verb argument structure in the spoken Dutch of monolingual Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) and bilingual Frisian-Dutch children with SLI. Both SLI groups appeared to be less efficient in their use of subject-verb

  5. Experimental Research on the Dynamic Response of Floating Structures with Coatings Subjected to Underwater Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental investigation into the dynamic response of three free floating stiffened metal boxes with protective coatings subjected to underwater explosion (UNDEX. One box was kept intact while the other two were, respectively, covered with monolithic coatings and chiral honeycomb coatings. Three groups of live fire tests with different attack angles and stand-off distances were conducted. The acceleration on the stiffener and strain peak on the bottom hull were selected as the major comparative criterions. Test results show that the impulse transmitted to the structure at the initial stage can be reduced, owing to the coating flexibility and fluid-structure interaction mechanism. Consequently, the acceleration peaks induced by both shock wave and bubble pulse were reduced. The shock environment can be more effectively improved by honeycomb coating when compared with monolithic coating. Most of the strain peaks decreased to a certain extent, but some of them were notably manifested, especially for honeycomb coating. The test affirms the fact that soft coating can cause stress concentration on the shell that is in direct contact with the coating due to the impedance mismatch between the interfaces of materials. A softer rubber coating induces a greater magnitude of strain.

  6. Fluid-structure interaction analysis for pressurizer surge line subjected to thermal stratification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dong Gu [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 19 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-338 (Korea, Republic of); Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jhung, Myung Jo, E-mail: mjj@kins.re.k [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 19 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-338 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: Temperature of surge line due to stratified flow is defined using CFD analysis. Fluid-structure interaction analysis is performed to investigate the response characteristics due to thermal stress. Fatigue usage factors due to thermal stratification are relatively low. Simplifying temperature distribution in surge line is not always conservative. - Abstract: Serious mechanical damages such as cracks and plastic deformations due to excessive thermal stress caused by thermal stratification have been experienced in several nuclear power plants. In particular, the thermal stratification in the pressurizer surge line has been addressed as one of the significant safety and technical issues. In this study, a detailed unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis involving conjugate heat transfer analysis is performed to obtain the transient temperature distributions in the wall of the pressurizer surge line subjected to stratified internal flows either during out-surge or in-surge operation. The thermal loads from CFD calculations are transferred to the structural analysis code which is employed for the thermal stress analysis to investigate the response characteristics, and the fatigue analysis is ultimately performed. In addition, the thermal stress and fatigue analysis results obtained by applying the realistic temperature distributions from CFD calculations are compared with those by assuming the simplified temperature distributions to identify some requirements for a realistic and conservative thermal stress analysis from a safety point of view.

  7. Cerebral small-resistance artery structure and cerebral blood flow in normotensive subjects and hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ciuceis, Carolina; Cornali, Claudio; Porteri, Enzo; Mardighian, Dikran; Pinardi, Chiara; Fontanella, Marco M; Rodella, Luigi F; Rezzani, Rita; Rizzoni, Damiano; Boari, Gianluca E M; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti; Gasparotti, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate whether the structure of cerebral small-resistance arteries is related to cerebral perfusion parameters as measured with dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) in a selected cohort of hypertensive and normotensive patients. Ten hypertensive and 10 normotensive patients were included in the study. All patients underwent neurosurgical intervention for an intracranial tumor and were investigated with DSC-MRI at 1.5 T. Cerebral small-resistance arteries were dissected from a small portion of morphologically normal cerebral tissue and mounted on an isometric myograph for the measurement of the media-to-lumen (M/L) ratio. A quantitative assessment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and volume (CBV) was performed with a region-of-interest approach. Correlation coefficients were calculated for normally distributed variables. The institutional review board approved the study, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Compared with normotensive subjects, hypertensive patients had significantly lower regional CBF (mL/100 g/min) in the cortical grey matter (55.63 ± 1.90 vs 58.37 ± 2.19, p cerebral arteries and CBF in the cortical grey matter (r = -0.516, p microvascular structure might play a role in controlling CBF, with possible clinical consequences.

  8. Morphological Abnormalities of Thalamic Subnuclei in Migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magon, Stefano; May, Arne; Stankewitz, Anne

    2015-01-01

    . SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: This multicenter imaging study shows morphological thalamic abnormalities in a large cohort of patients with episodic migraine compared with healthy subjects using state-of-the-art MRI and advanced, fully automated multiatlas segmentation techniques. The results stress that migraine...... is a disorder of the CNS in which not only is brain function abnormal, but also brain structure is undergoing significant remodeling....... techniques in substantial patient populations are lacking. In the present study, we investigated changes of thalamic volume and shape in a large multicenter cohort of patients with migraine. High-resolution T1-weighted MRI data acquired at 3 tesla in 131 patients with migraine (38 with aura; 30.8 ± 9 years...

  9. Structural Abnormalities and Learning Impairments Induced by Low Level Thyroid Hormone Insufficiency: A Cross-Fostering Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe reductions in thyroid hormones (TH) during development alter brain structure and impair learning. Uncertainty surrounds both the impact oflower levels of TH disruption and the sensitivity of available metrics to detect neurodevelopmental deficits of this disruption. We ha...

  10. Y chromosome haplogroups in autistic subjects : Y chromosome in autistic subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Jamain, Stéphane; Quach, Hélène; Quintana-Murci, Luis; Betancur, Catalina; Philippe, Anne; Gillberg, Christopher; Sponheim, Eili; Skjeldal, Ola,; Fellous, Marc; Leboyer, Marion; Bourgeron, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    The male to female ratio in autism is 4:1 in the global autistic population, but increases to 23:1 in autistic subjects without physical or brain abnormalities. Despite this well-recognised gender difference, male predisposition to autistic disorder remains unexplained and the role of sex chromosomes is still debated. Numerical and structural abnormalities of the sex chromosomes are among the most frequently reported chromosomal disorders associated with autism. However, genome scans have fai...

  11. Lysyl Oxidase Induces Vascular Oxidative Stress and Contributes to Arterial Stiffness and Abnormal Elastin Structure in Hypertension: Role of p38MAPK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Revelles, Sonia; García-Redondo, Ana B.; Avendaño, María S.; Varona, Saray; Palao, Teresa; Orriols, Mar; Roque, Fernanda R.; Fortuño, Ana; Touyz, Rhian M.; Martínez-González, Jose; Salaices, Mercedes

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Vascular stiffness, structural elastin abnormalities, and increased oxidative stress are hallmarks of hypertension. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an elastin crosslinking enzyme that produces H2O2 as a by-product. We addressed the interplay between LOX, oxidative stress, vessel stiffness, and elastin. Results: Angiotensin II (Ang II)-infused hypertensive mice and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) showed increased vascular LOX expression and stiffness and an abnormal elastin structure. Mice over-expressing LOX in vascular smooth muscle cells (TgLOX) exhibited similar mechanical and elastin alterations to those of hypertensive models. LOX inhibition with β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) attenuated mechanical and elastin alterations in TgLOX mice, Ang II-infused mice, and SHR. Arteries from TgLOX mice, Ang II-infused mice, and/or SHR exhibited increased vascular H2O2 and O2.− levels, NADPH oxidase activity, and/or mitochondrial dysfunction. BAPN prevented the higher oxidative stress in hypertensive models. Treatment of TgLOX and Ang II-infused mice and SHR with the mitochondrial-targeted superoxide dismutase mimetic mito-TEMPO, the antioxidant apocynin, or the H2O2 scavenger polyethylene glycol-conjugated catalase (PEG-catalase) reduced oxidative stress, vascular stiffness, and elastin alterations. Vascular p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) activation was increased in Ang II-infused and TgLOX mice and this effect was prevented by BAPN, mito-TEMPO, or PEG-catalase. SB203580, the p38MAPK inhibitor, normalized vessel stiffness and elastin structure in TgLOX mice. Innovation: We identify LOX as a novel source of vascular reactive oxygen species and a new pathway involved in vascular stiffness and elastin remodeling in hypertension. Conclusion: LOX up-regulation is associated with enhanced oxidative stress that promotes p38MAPK activation, elastin structural alterations, and vascular stiffness. This pathway contributes to vascular abnormalities in

  12. Effect of web openings on the structural behavior of RC beams subjected to pure torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdo Taha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the construction of modern buildings, the presence of openings became a necessity nowadays in order to accommodate the many pipes and ducts required for the different services. On the other hand, the presence of these openings in RC beams affects their structural behavior. One important behavior that needs further study would be torsion. Currently, there are no guide lines available to analyze or design RC beams with web openings under pure torsion. Thus, the main objective of this research is to investigate the behavior of simply supported RC beams with openings subjected to pure torsion. In the first part of this paper, an experimental study is conducted on seven beams subjected to pure torsion loading in order to investigate the effect of the number of openings, the spacing between stirrups, and beam depth. All beams have a constant clear span length of 1800 mm and a constant beam width of 150 mm. The beams have varying opening number and stirrups arrangement as well as varying beam depth in order to investigate the effect of these parameters on the behavior of the beams. Systematic measurements such as the cracking torque, the ultimate torque, the angle of rotation of the beam at cracking, and the angle of rotation of the beam at the ultimate load are conducted for further understanding of the beam behavior under torsion. In the second part of the paper, the experimental results are compared with the numerical results obtained using the non-linear finite element analysis program, ANSYS. Good agreement between the experimental and numerical results is found.

  13. Effects of subclinical depression, anxiety and somatization on brain structure in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besteher, Bianca; Gaser, Christian; Langbein, Kerstin; Dietzek, Maren; Sauer, Heinrich; Nenadić, Igor

    2017-06-01

    Dimensional approaches in highly prevalent psychiatric disorders like depression or anxiety could lead to a better understanding of pathogenesis and advantages in early detection and prevention. In an effort to better understand associations of brain structural variation across the depression/anxiety spectra, we investigated minor subclinical symptoms in a non-clinical healthy population. We studied 177 healthy subjects from the community, who underwent high-resolution T1-weighted 3T MRI and completed the symptom-checklist-90 (SCL-90-R). Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis with CAT12 software, we correlated SCL-90-R-subscales for depression, anxiety, and somatization with gray matter across the brain. Significant positive gray matter correlations emerged across all three scales in different areas: the depression subscale correlated positively with gray matter in the Rolandic operculum, superior temporal gyrus (left) and postcentral gyrus (bilateral), the anxiety subscale correlated positively with middle temporal gyrus, Rolandic operculum, middle cingular gyrus and precuneus bilaterally, and the somatization subscale with left inferior prefrontal cortex. Somatization also showed negative correlations with cerebellar vermis and right supplementary motor area. Our study is limited to VBM and does not include surface-based measures. It also only contains subjects with very small psychological distress by partly overlapping symptoms. Our findings are consistent with a non-linear relationship between symptom severity and cortical volume in several brain areas involved in both emotion regulation as well as altered in clinically manifest depressive/anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. No recurrent structural abnormalities apart from i(12p) in primary germ cell tumors of the adult testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Echten, J; Oosterhuis, Jan; Looijenga, LHJ; van de Pol, M; Wiersema-Buist, Jantje; te Meerman, Gerhardus; Koops, HS; Sleijfer, Dirk; de Jong, Bauke

    1995-01-01

    Malignant transformation may be caused by gene deregulation resulting from specific chromosomal rearrangements, by amplification, by mutations in proto-oncogenes, by loss of tumor suppressor genes, or a combination of these. We investigated the role of numerical and structural chromosomal

  15. Learning Discloses Abnormal Structural and Functional Plasticity at Hippocampal Synapses in the APP23 Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middei, Silvia; Roberto, Anna; Berretta, Nicola; Panico, Maria Beatrice; Lista, Simone; Bernardi, Giorgio; Mercuri, Nicola B.; Ammassari-Teule, Martine; Nistico, Robert

    2010-01-01

    B6-Tg/Thy1APP23Sdz (APP23) mutant mice exhibit neurohistological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease but show intact basal hippocampal neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. Here, we examine whether spatial learning differently modifies the structural and electrophysiological properties of hippocampal synapses in APP23 and wild-type mice. While…

  16. Facial structure alterations and abnormalities of the paranasal sinuses on multidetector computed tomography scans of patients with treated mucosal leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Abegão de Camargo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Mucosal leishmaniasis (ML is a progressive disease that affects cartilage and bone structures of the nose and other upper respiratory tract structures. Complications associated with ML have been described, but there is a lack of studies that evaluate the structural changes of the nose and paranasal sinuses in ML using radiological methods. In this study, we aimed to assess the opacification of the paranasal sinuses in patients with treated ML and any anatomical changes in the face associated with ML using multidetector computed tomography scans (MDCT of the sinuses. We compared the findings with a control group. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated 54 patients with treated ML who underwent CT scans of the sinuses and compared them with a control group of 40 patients who underwent orbital CT scans. The degree of sinus disease was assessed according to the Lund-Mackay criteria. Forty of the 54 patients with a history of ML (74.1% had a tomographic score compatible with chronic sinusitis (Lund-Mackay ≥4. CT scans in the leishmaniasis and control groups demonstrated significant differences in terms of facial structure alterations. Patients from the ML group showed more severe levels of partial opacification and pansinus mucosal thickening (42.6% and a greater severity of total opacification. Patients from the ML group with a Lund-Mackay score ≥4 presented longer durations of disease before treatment and more severe presentations of the disease at diagnosis. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: CT scans of the sinuses of patients with ML presented several structural alterations, revealing a prominent destructive feature of the disease. The higher prevalence in this study of chronic rhinosinusitis observed in CT scans of patients with treated ML than in those of the control group suggests that ML can be considered a risk factor for chronic rhinosinusitis in this population (p<0.05.

  17. Plastic damage induced fracture behaviors of dental ceramic layer structures subjected to monotonic load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Raorao; Lu, Chenglin; Arola, Dwayne; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare failure modes and fracture strength of ceramic structures using a combination of experimental and numerical methods. Twelve specimens with flat layer structures were fabricated from two types of ceramic systems (IPS e.max ceram/e.max press-CP and Vita VM9/Lava zirconia-VZ) and subjected to monotonic load to fracture with a tungsten carbide sphere. Digital image correlation (DIC) and fractography technology were used to analyze fracture behaviors of specimens. Numerical simulation was also applied to analyze the stress distribution in these two types of dental ceramics. Quasi-plastic damage occurred beneath the indenter in porcelain in all cases. In general, the fracture strength of VZ specimens was greater than that of CP specimens. The crack initiation loads of VZ and CP were determined as 958 ± 50 N and 724 ± 36 N, respectively. Cracks were induced by plastic damage and were subsequently driven by tensile stress at the elastic/plastic boundary and extended downward toward to the veneer/core interface from the observation of DIC at the specimen surface. Cracks penetrated into e.max press core, which led to a serious bulk fracture in CP crowns, while in VZ specimens, cracks were deflected and extended along the porcelain/zirconia core interface without penetration into the zirconia core. The rupture loads for VZ and CP ceramics were determined as 1150 ± 170 N and 857 ± 66 N, respectively. Quasi-plastic deformation (damage) is responsible for crack initiation within porcelain in both types of crowns. Due to the intrinsic mechanical properties, the fracture behaviors of these two types of ceramics are different. The zirconia core with high strength and high elastic modulus has better resistance to fracture than the e.max core. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  18. A population study of the association between thyroid autoantibodies in serum and abnormalities in thyroid function and structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, I.B.; Laurberg, P.; Knudsen, N.

    2005-01-01

    Objective Patients with autoimmune overt hypothyroidism may present with goitrous Hashimoto's disease or autoimmune atrophic thyroiditis. Little is known about the prevalence of subclinical autoimmune hypothyroidism. The aims of this study were to evaluate the association between thyroid autoanti......Objective Patients with autoimmune overt hypothyroidism may present with goitrous Hashimoto's disease or autoimmune atrophic thyroiditis. Little is known about the prevalence of subclinical autoimmune hypothyroidism. The aims of this study were to evaluate the association between thyroid.......4-3.6) in 91.0% and high (> 3.6) in 4.3%. The prevalence rate of subclinical goitrous Hashimoto's disease was 0.62% and of subclinical autoimmune atrophic thyroiditis 0.24%. There was a strong association between large volume and autoantibodies, but only in subjects with elevated TSH (P ... between thyroid nodules and TPO-Ab in univariate analyses (P Hashimoto's disease and a smaller subgroup with subclinical autoimmune atrophic...

  19. Predicting the Reliability of Brittle Material Structures Subjected to Transient Proof Test and Service Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Noel N.; Jadaan, Osama M.; Palfi, Tamas; Baker, Eric H.

    Brittle materials today are being used, or considered, for a wide variety of high tech applications that operate in harsh environments, including static and rotating turbine parts, thermal protection systems, dental prosthetics, fuel cells, oxygen transport membranes, radomes, and MEMS. Designing brittle material components to sustain repeated load without fracturing while using the minimum amount of material requires the use of a probabilistic design methodology. The NASA CARES/Life 1 (Ceramic Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structure/Life) code provides a general-purpose analysis tool that predicts the probability of failure of a ceramic component as a function of its time in service. This capability includes predicting the time-dependent failure probability of ceramic components against catastrophic rupture when subjected to transient thermomechanical loads (including cyclic loads). The developed methodology allows for changes in material response that can occur with temperature or time (i.e. changing fatigue and Weibull parameters with temperature or time). For this article an overview of the transient reliability methodology and how this methodology is extended to account for proof testing is described. The CARES/Life code has been modified to have the ability to interface with commercially available finite element analysis (FEA) codes executed for transient load histories. Examples are provided to demonstrate the features of the methodology as implemented in the CARES/Life program.

  20. The Subjective Index for Physical and Social Outcome (SIPSO in Stroke: investigation of its subscale structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Steve

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short and valid measures of the impact of a stroke on integration are required in health and social settings. The Subjective Index of Physical and Social Outcome (SIPSO is one such measure. However, there are questions whether scores can be summed into a total score or whether subscale scores should be calculated. This paper aims to provide clarity on the internal construct validity of the subscales and the total scale. Methods SIPSO data were collected as part of two parallel surveys of the met and unmet needs of 445 younger people (aged 18-65 with non-recent stroke (at least one year and living at home. Factor, Mokken and Rasch analysis were used. Results Factor analysis supported a two factor structure (explaining 68% of the variance as did the Mokken analysis (overall Loevinger coefficient 0.77 for the Physical Integration subscale; 0.51 for the Social Integration subscale. Both subscales fitted the Rasch model (P > 0.01 after adjusting for some observed differential item functioning. The 10-items together did not fit the Rasch model. Conclusions The SIPSO subscales are valid for use with stroke patients of working age but the total SIPSO is not. The conversion table can be used by clinicians and researchers to convert ordinal data to interval level prior to mathematical operations and other parametric procedures. Further work is required to explore the occurrence of bias by gender for some of the items.

  1. Structural Response of Polyethylene Foam-Based Sandwich Panels Subjected to Edgewise Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Lamberti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the mechanical behavior of low density polyethylene foam core sandwich panels subjected to edgewise compression. In order to monitor panel response to buckling, strains generated in the facesheets and overall out-of-plane deformations are measured with strain gages and projection moiré, respectively. A finite element (FE model simulating the experimental test is developed. Numerical results are compared with moiré measurements. After having been validated against experimental evidence, the FE model is parameterized, and a trade study is carried out to investigate to what extent the structural response of the panel depends on the sandwich wall construction and facesheet/core interface defects. The projection moiré set-up utilized in this research is able to capture the sudden and very localized buckling phenomena occurring under edgewise compression of foam-based sandwich panels. Results of parametric FE analyses indicate that, if the total thickness of the sandwich wall is fixed, including thicker facesheets in the laminate yields a larger deflection of the panel that becomes more sensitive to buckling. Furthermore, the mechanical response of the foam sandwich panel is found to be rather insensitive to the level of waviness of core-facesheet interfaces.

  2. Elucidation of structural abnormalities of the X chromosome using fluorescence in situ hybridisation with a Y chromosome painting probe.

    OpenAIRE

    Howell, R T; Millener, R; Thorne, S; O'Loughlin, J; Brassey, J; McDermott, A

    1994-01-01

    Particular regions of the X and Y chromosomes share DNA sequence homology to the extent that cross hybridisation occurs. Thus, chromosome painting with a whole Y chromosome probe consistently results in fluorescence on specific regions of the X chromosome as well as the complete Y chromosome. This phenomenon has been exploited to elucidate the structure of unusual X chromosome rearrangements, without Y involvement, in two females.

  3. Toward validation of a structural approach to conceptualizing psychopathology: A special section of the Journal of Abnormal Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Robert F; Tackett, Jennifer L; MacDonald, Angus

    2016-11-01

    Traditionally, psychopathology has been conceptualized in terms of polythetic categories derived from committee deliberations and enshrined in authoritative psychiatric nosologies-most notably the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013). As the limitations of this form of classification have become evident, empirical data have been increasingly relied upon to investigate the structure of psychopathology. These efforts have borne fruit in terms of an increasingly consistent set of psychopathological constructs closely connected with similar personality constructs. However, the work of validating these constructs using convergent sources of data is an ongoing enterprise. This special section collects several new efforts to use structural approaches to study the validity of this empirically based organizational scheme for psychopathology. Inasmuch as a structural approach reflects the natural organization of psychopathology, it has great potential to facilitate comprehensive organization of information on the correlates of psychopathology, providing evidence for the convergent and discriminant validity of an empirical approach to classification. Here, we highlight several themes that emerge from this burgeoning literature. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Performance Evaluation of Waterproofing Membrane Systems Subject to the Concrete Joint Load Behavior of Below-Grade Concrete Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Jaeyoung Song; Kyuhwan Oh; Byoungil Kim; Sangkeun Oh

    2017-01-01

    Below-grade structures such as parking lots, underground subway tunnels, and basements are growing in scale and reaching deeper below-ground levels. In this type of environment, they become subject to higher water pressure. The concrete material of the structures is exposed to wet conditions for longer periods of time, which makes the proper adhesion of waterproofing membranes difficult. Joint movements from increased structural settlement, thermal expansion/shrinkage, and physical loads from...

  5. Structural and Functional Abnormalities of the Neuromuscular Junction in the Trembler-J Homozygote Mouse Model of Congenital Hypomyelinating Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scurry, Alexandra N; Heredia, Dante J; Feng, Cheng-Yuan; Gephart, Gregory B; Hennig, Grant W; Gould, Thomas W

    2016-04-01

    Mutations in peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) result in the most common form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, CMT1A. This hereditary peripheral neuropathy is characterized by dysmyelination of peripheral nerves, reduced nerve conduction velocity, and muscle weakness. APMP22 point mutation in L16P (leucine 16 to proline) underlies a form of human CMT1A as well as the Trembler-J mouse model of CMT1A. Homozygote Trembler-J mice (Tr(J)) die early postnatally, fail to make peripheral myelin, and, therefore, are more similar to patients with congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy than those with CMT1A. Because recent studies of inherited neuropathies in humans and mice have demonstrated that dysfunction and degeneration of neuromuscular synapses or junctions (NMJs) often precede impairments in axonal conduction, we examined the structure and function of NMJs in Tr(J)mice. Although synapses appeared to be normally innervated even in end-stage Tr(J)mice, the growth and maturation of the NMJs were altered. In addition, the amplitudes of nerve-evoked muscle endplate potentials were reduced and there was transmission failure during sustained nerve stimulation. These results suggest that the severe congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy that characterizes Tr(J)mice results in structural and functional deficits of the developing NMJ. © 2016 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Association of formal thought disorder in schizophrenia with structural brain abnormalities in language-related cortical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sans-Sansa, B; McKenna, P J; Canales-Rodríguez, E J; Ortiz-Gil, J; López-Araquistain, L; Sarró, S; Dueñas, R M; Blanch, J; Salvador, R; Pomarol-Clotet, E

    2013-05-01

    Formal thought disorder (FTD) in schizophrenia has been found to be associated with volume reductions in the left superior temporal cortex. However, there have been negative findings and some studies have also found associations in other cortical regions. Fifty-one schizophrenic patients were evaluated for presence of FTD with the Thought, Language and Communication (TLC) scale and underwent whole-brain structural MRI using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Fifty-nine matched healthy controls were also scanned. Compared to 31 patients without FTD (global TLC rating 0 or 1), 20 patients with FTD (global TLC rating 2-5) showed clusters of volume reduction in the medial frontal and orbitofrontal cortex bilaterally, and in two left-sided areas approximating to Broca's and Wernicke's areas. The pattern of FTD-associated volume reductions was largely different from that found in a comparison between the healthy controls and the patients without FTD. Analysis of correlations within regions-of-interest based on the above clusters indicated that the 'fluent disorganization' component of FTD was correlated with volume reductions in both Broca's and Wernicke's areas, whereas poverty of content of speech was correlated with reductions in the medial frontal/orbitofrontal cortex. The findings point to a relationship between FTD in schizophrenia and structural brain pathology in brain areas involved in language and executive function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Agent-patient similarity affects sentence structure in language production: evidence from subject omissions in Mandarin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yaling; Gao, Yannan; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

    2014-01-01

    Interference effects from semantically similar items are well-known in studies of single word production, where the presence of semantically similar distractor words slows picture naming. This article examines the consequences of this interference in sentence production and tests the hypothesis that in situations of high similarity-based interference, producers are more likely to omit one of the interfering elements than when there is low semantic similarity and thus low interference. This work investigated language production in Mandarin, which allows subject noun phrases to be omitted in discourse contexts in which the subject entity has been previously mentioned in the discourse. We hypothesize that Mandarin speakers omit the subject more often when the subject and the object entities are conceptually similar. A corpus analysis of simple transitive sentences found higher rates of subject omission when both the subject and object were animate (potentially yielding similarity-based interference) than when the subject was animate and object was inanimate. A second study manipulated subject-object animacy in a picture description task and replicated this result: participants omitted the animate subject more often when the object was also animate than when it was inanimate. These results suggest that similarity-based interference affects sentence forms, particularly when the agent of the action is mentioned in the sentence. Alternatives and mechanisms for this effect are discussed. PMID:25278915

  8. Band heterotopia or double cortex in a male: bridging structures suggest abnormality of the radial glial guide system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, J; Mano, T; Andermann, E; Harada, K; Sakurai, K; Ikeda, T; Yoshihara, N; Shimizu, K; Okada, S; Andermann, F

    1997-06-01

    A moderately retarded Japanese boy, with a normal male karyotype (46,XY), was diagnosed to have a subcortical band heterotopia or double cortex syndrome. The band heterotopia was relatively thick compared with that of other patients reported. On T2-weighted coronal MR sections, there were numerous radial linear structures between the cortex and the band, probably representing the trace of radial fibers. He had no family members with seizures or mental retardation. Over 50 described patients with this malformation have been female except two patients briefly mentioned by several investigators. Band heterotopia or the double cortex syndrome is inherited as a sex-linked dominant condition. Affected mothers may have affected daughters or sons with lissencephaly, suggesting a link between these disorders. This is the first detailed description of a male with band heterotopia.

  9. Differences in the pattern of structural abnormalities on CT scan in patients with cystic fibrosis and pancreatic sufficiency or insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanovsky, Natalia; Cohen-Cymberknoh, Malena; Shoseyov, David; Gileles-Hillel, Alex; Wilschanski, Michael; Kerem, Eitan; Hiller, Nurith

    2013-07-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) genotypes characterized by pancreatic sufficiency (PS) are generally associated with milder disease vs genotypes characterized by pancreatic insufficiency (PI); however, the correlation between pancreatic status and type and severity of structural lung changes has not been studied. We aimed to evaluate differences in the severity and distribution of pulmonary manifestations of CF in patients with PS vs PI. We retrospectively evaluated changes in individual lobes and the whole lung on chest CT scan with the modified Brody score. The study population included 84 (39 female, 45 male) patients with CF aged 4 to 68 years (mean, 20.5) treated from 2000 to 2010. Our institutional review board waived the requirement for informed consent. The severity of lung changes and distribution of pulmonary disease were compared by Student t test, nonparametric Pearson χ2 test, or mixed-design analysis of variance for 28 patients with CF-PS and 56 with CF-PI. Correlations were evaluated with the Pearson (continuous variables) or Spearman ρ (nonparametric variables) tests. A linear regression model was used for multivariate analyses. Compared with patients with CF-PS, those with CF-PI had more-severe lung disease (P=.001) with predominant upper lobe involvement (P=.002) and significant differences in Brody scores for bronchiectasis and bronchial wall thickening. Lung manifestations in patients with CF-PS did not show predominant involvement of any one area (P=.133). In patients with CF-PI, structural lung changes are more severe with upper lobe predominance, prominent bronchiectasis, and bronchial wall thickening vs lower severity and more general distribution of changes in those with CF-PS.

  10. Central dogma in thyroid dysfunction: a review on structure modification of TSHR as a cornerstone for thyroid abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansourian, Azad Reza

    2011-02-01

    Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) is a vital thyrocyte membrane protein in the thyroid gland. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) which is a pituitary hormone is the main stimulator of thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones, it binds with high affinity to the TSHR through weak bonds including hydrophobic, ionic, hydrogen bonds and trigger the initial steps in thyroid gland stimulation to produce the related hormones. This study was carried out at department of biochemistry of Golestan university of medical sciences. All the related articles related to TSHR modification happened due to mutations and any other alterations which affect the level of TSH-TSHR complex were studied and the main points were extracted out of the pile of information and were organized as present review. TSH-TSHR is the initial and vital step of a long process of thyroid hormone production within the thyroid gland. Any alteration on the TSH-TSHR affinity which may happen due to the direct effect of TSHR modification eventually lead to the serious adverse effects of either hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism if the TSH-TSHR level are suppressed or elevated, respectively. The prime cause of the thyroid disorders relay on the possible modification on the biochemical structure of TSHR with subsequent alteration on the level of TSH-TSHR complex. TSHR mutation accompanied by biochemical modification, unable it to bind properly to TSH. In some other conditions such mutation leave a TSHR with either of higher affinity towards to TSH or even TSHR which can be activated in the absence of TSH. The structural modification of TSHR and alteration in the level of TSH-TSHR in the thyroid gland eventually lead to thyroid disorders either of hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism.

  11. Cerebral small-resistance artery structure and cerebral blood flow in normotensive subjects and hypertensive patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Ciuceis, Carolina; Porteri, Enzo; Rizzoni, Damiano; Boari, Gianluca E.M.; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti [University of Brescia, Clinica Medica, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Brescia (Italy); Cornali, Claudio; Mardighian, Dikran; Fontanella, Marco M. [University of Brescia, Section of Neurosurgery, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy); Pinardi, Chiara [Spedali Civili, Medical Physics Unit, Brescia (Italy); University of Brescia, Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy); Rodella, Luigi F.; Rezzani, Rita [University of Brescia, Section of Anatomy, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Brescia (Italy); Gasparotti, Roberto [University of Brescia, Section of Neurosurgery, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy); University of Brescia, Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate whether the structure of cerebral small-resistance arteries is related to cerebral perfusion parameters as measured with dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) in a selected cohort of hypertensive and normotensive patients. Ten hypertensive and 10 normotensive patients were included in the study. All patients underwent neurosurgical intervention for an intracranial tumor and were investigated with DSC-MRI at 1.5 T. Cerebral small-resistance arteries were dissected from a small portion of morphologically normal cerebral tissue and mounted on an isometric myograph for the measurement of the media-to-lumen (M/L) ratio. A quantitative assessment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and volume (CBV) was performed with a region-of-interest approach. Correlation coefficients were calculated for normally distributed variables. The institutional review board approved the study, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Compared with normotensive subjects, hypertensive patients had significantly lower regional CBF (mL/100 g/min) in the cortical grey matter (55.63 ± 1.90 vs 58.37 ± 2.19, p < 0.05), basal ganglia (53.34 ± 4.39 vs 58.22. ± 4.33, p < 0.05), thalami (50.65 ± 3.23 vs 57.56 ± 4.45, p < 0.01), subcortical white matter (19.32 ± 2.54 vs 22.24 ± 1.9, p < 0.05), greater M/L ratio (0.099 ± 0.013 vs 0.085 ± 0.012, p < 0.05), and lower microvessel density (1.66 ± 0.67 vs 2.52 ± 1.28, p < 0.05). A statistically significant negative correlation was observed between M/L ratio of cerebral arteries and CBF in the cortical grey matter (r = -0.516, p < 0.05), basal ganglia (r = -0.521, p < 0.05), thalami (r = -0.527 p < 0.05), and subcortical white matter (r = -0.612, p < 0.01). Our results indicate that microvascular structure might play a role in controlling CBF, with possible clinical consequences. (orig.)

  12. Structural health monitoring in end-of-life prediction for steel bridges subjected to fatigue cracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Attema, T.; Courage, W.M.G.; Maljaars, J.; Meerveld, H. van; Paulissen, J.H.; Pijpers, R.J.M.; Slobbe, A.T.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a monitoring and modelling methodology to assess the current and future conditions of steel bridges subjected to fatigue cracking. Steel bridges are subjected to fatigue cracking as a result of fluctuating stresses caused by the crossing of heavy vehicles. Specifically for

  13. The Syntax-Information Structure Interface: Subjects and Clausal Word Order in Galician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupton, Timothy Michael

    2010-01-01

    Previous accounts of preverbal subjects in Spanish and European Portuguese (EP) in the literature have debated the syntactic position of these elements. According to some analyses, preverbal subjects are canonical arguments appearing in an A-position (e.g. Goodall 2001, 2002; Suner 2003 for Spanish; Duarte 1997; Costa 2004 for EP). Other analyses…

  14. Using tensor-based morphometry to detect structural brain abnormalities in rats with adolescent intermittent alcohol exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Beatriz; Ehlers, Cindy; Crews, Fulton; Budin, Francois; Larson, Garrett; Styner, Martin; Oguz, Ipek

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the effects of adolescent binge drinking that persist into adulthood is a crucial public health issue. Adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure (AIE) is an animal model that can be used to investigate these effects in rodents. In this work, we investigate the application of a particular image analysis technique, tensor-based morphometry, for detecting anatomical differences between AIE and control rats using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). Deformation field analysis is a popular method for detecting volumetric changes analyzing Jacobian determinants calculated on deformation fields. Recent studies showed that computing deformation field metrics on the full deformation tensor, often referred to as tensor-based morphometry (TBM), increases the sensitivity to anatomical differences. In this paper we conduct a comprehensive TBM study for precisely locating differences between control and AIE rats. Using a DTI RARE sequence designed for minimal geometric distortion, 12-directional images were acquired postmortem for control and AIE rats (n=9). After preprocessing, average images for the two groups were constructed using an unbiased atlas building approach. We non-rigidly register the two atlases using Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping, and analyze the resulting deformation field using TBM. In particular, we evaluate the tensor determinant, geodesic anisotropy, and deformation direction vector (DDV) on the deformation field to detect structural differences. This yields data on the local amount of growth, shrinkage and the directionality of deformation between the groups. We show that TBM can thus be used to measure group morphological differences between rat populations, demonstrating the potential of the proposed framework.

  15. Behavior of plywood and fiberglass steel composite tube structures subjected to impact loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaghani, Seyamend Bilind

    Paratransit buses are custom built as the major vehicle manufacturer produces the custom built passenger cage installed on the chassis for the Paratransit bus. In order for these Paratransit bus members to be sufficient, they have to be evaluated for crashworthiness and energy absorption. This has prompted Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) to fund research for the safety evaluation of Paratransit busses consisting of crash and safety analysis. There has been a large body of research done on steel subjected to static loads, but more research is needed for steel applied under dynamic loading and high speeds in order to improve crashworthiness in events such as rollovers and side impacts. Bare steel Hollow Structural Section (HSS) tubing are used a lot as structural members of Paratransit buses because of their lightness and progressive buckling under loading. The research will be conducted on quantifying the tubing's behavior under bending by conducting static three point bending and impact loading tests. In addition to the bare tubing, plywood and fiberglass composites are investigated because they are both strong and lightweight and their behavior under dynamic loading hasn't been quantified. As a result, the main purpose of this research is to quantify the differences between the dynamic and static behavior of plywood steel composite and fiberglass steel composite tubing and compare these findings with those of bare steel tubing. The differences will be quantified using detailed and thorough experiments that will examine the composites behavior under both static and dynamic loading. These tests will determine if there are any advantages of using the composite materials and thus allow for recommendations to be made to the FDOT with the goal of improving the safety of Paratransit busses. Tensile tests were conducted to determine the material properties of the tested specimens. Before the static and dynamic experiments are run to investigate the differences

  16. Structural and functional MRI abnormalities of cerebellar cortex and nuclei in SCA3, SCA6 and Friedreich's ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanescu, Maria R; Dohnalek, Moritz; Maderwald, Stefan; Thürling, Markus; Minnerop, Martina; Beck, Andreas; Schlamann, Marc; Diedrichsen, Joern; Ladd, Mark E; Timmann, Dagmar

    2015-05-01

    nuclei in patients with Friedreich's ataxia and spinocerebellar ataxia type 3. In spinocerebellar ataxia type 6, pathology was not restricted to the cerebellar cortex but also involved the cerebellar nuclei. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data, on the other hand, revealed that pathology in Friedreich's ataxia and spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 is not restricted to the cerebellar nuclei. There was functional involvement of the cerebellar cortex despite no or little structural changes. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Single-subject structural networks with closed-form rotation invariant matching mprove power in developmental studies of the cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Benjamin M; Wang, Danny J J; Gee, James C; Avants, Brian B

    2014-01-01

    Although much attention has recently been focused on single-subject functional networks, using methods such as resting-state functional MRI, methods for constructing single-subject structural networks are in their infancy. Single-subject cortical networks aim to describe the self-similarity across the cortical structure, possibly signifying convergent developmental pathways. Previous methods for constructing single-subject cortical networks have used patch-based correlations and distance metrics based on curvature and thickness. We present here a method for constructing similarity-based cortical structural networks that utilizes a rotation-invariant representation of structure. The resulting graph metrics are closely linked to age and indicate an increasing degree of closeness throughout development in nearly all brain regions, perhaps corresponding to a more regular structure as the brain matures. The derived graph metrics demonstrate a four-fold increase in power for detecting age as compared to cortical thickness. This proof of concept study indicates that the proposed metric may be useful in identifying biologically relevant cortical patterns.

  18. Near-surface structural examination of human tooth enamel subject to in vitro demineralization and remineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Carmen Veronica

    The early stages of chemical tooth decay are governed by dynamic processes of demineralization and remineralization of dental enamel that initiates along the surface of the tooth. Conventional diagnostic techniques lack the spatial resolution required to analyze near-surface structural changes in enamel at the submicron level. In this study, slabs of highly-polished, decay-free human enamel were subjected to 0.12M EDTA and buffered lactic acid demineralizing agents and MI Paste(TM) and calcifying (0.1 ppm F) remineralizing treatments in vitro. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXD), a technique typically used for thin film analysis, provided depth profiles of crystallinity changes in surface enamel with a resolution better than 100 nm. In conjunction with nanoindentation, a technique gaining acceptance as a means of examining the mechanical properties of sound enamel, these results were corroborated with well-established microscopy and Raman techniques to assess the nanohardness, morphologies and chemical nature of treated enamel. Interestingly, the average crystallite size of surface enamel along its c-axis dimension increased by nearly 40% after a 60 min EDTA treatment as detected by GIXD. This result was in direct contrast to the obvious surface degradation observed by microscopic and confocal Raman imaging. A decrease in nanohardness from 4.86 +/- 0.44 GPa to 0.28 +/- 0.10 GPa was observed. Collective results suggest that mineral dissolution characteristics evident on the micron scale may not be fully translated to the nanoscale in assessing the integrity of chemically-modified tooth enamel. While an intuitive decrease in enamel crystallinity was observed with buffered lactic acid-treated samples, demineralization was too slow to adequately quantify the enamel property changes seen. MI Paste(TM) treatment of EDTA-demineralized enamel showed preferential growth along the a-axis direction. Calcifying solution treatments of both demineralized sample types

  19. Correlation of subjective slipperiness judgements with quantitative COF (Coefficient Of Friction) measurements for structural steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purswell, Jerry L.; Schlegel, Robert E.

    1988-06-01

    When there is no simple or accurate procedure for measuring the coefficient of friction (COF) at a job site, workers and/or supervisors involved must make subjective judgments about the slipperiness of the walking and climbing surfaces and in turn decide whether the surface presents a safe or an unsafe condition for work. This project was designed to determine whether these subjective judgment calls did in fact agree with the COF measurements obtained using a mechanical device. It was noted that the coatings chosen for study were subject to a polishing factor by the boot soles during the trials, causing the COF values to become lower as the trials continued. Poor correlation was obtained between subjective ratings of slipperiness and the COF values measured before the trials began. A relatively high correlation was obtained between subjective ratings and the COF values measured after the trials had been completed. A difference was noted in the subjective ratings for the effects of water on a coating for column climbing, but not for walking a beam, suggesting the effects of water on a coating are related to the type of task being performed in steel erection. An increase in the measured COF was noted for all of the coatings when they were wet as compared to the dry condition. The importance of clean shoe soles was clearly demonstrated.

  20. Machine-Learned Data Structures of Lipid Marker Serum Concentrations in Multiple Sclerosis Patients Differ from Those in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lötsch, Jörn; Thrun, Michael; Lerch, Florian; Brunkhorst, Robert; Schiffmann, Susanne; Thomas, Dominique; Tegder, Irmgard; Geisslinger, Gerd; Ultsch, Alfred

    2017-06-07

    Lipid metabolism has been suggested to be a major pathophysiological mechanism of multiple sclerosis (MS). With the increasing knowledge about lipid signaling, acquired data become increasingly complex making bioinformatics necessary in lipid research. We used unsupervised machine-learning to analyze lipid marker serum concentrations, pursuing the hypothesis that for the most relevant markers the emerging data structures will coincide with the diagnosis of MS. Machine learning was implemented as emergent self-organizing feature maps (ESOM) combined with the U*-matrix visualization technique. The data space consisted of serum concentrations of three main classes of lipid markers comprising eicosanoids ( d = 11 markers), ceramides ( d = 10), and lyosophosphatidic acids ( d = 6). They were analyzed in cohorts of MS patients ( n = 102) and healthy subjects ( n = 301). Clear data structures in the high-dimensional data space were observed in eicosanoid and ceramides serum concentrations whereas no clear structure could be found in lysophosphatidic acid concentrations. With ceramide concentrations, the structures that had emerged from unsupervised machine-learning almost completely overlapped with the known grouping of MS patients versus healthy subjects. This was only partly provided by eicosanoid serum concentrations. Thus, unsupervised machine-learning identified distinct data structures of bioactive lipid serum concentrations. These structures could be superimposed with the known grouping of MS patients versus healthy subjects, which was almost completely possible with ceramides. Therefore, based on the present analysis, ceramides are first-line candidates for further exploration as drug-gable targets or biomarkers in MS.

  1. An Analysis of Prospective Chemistry Teachers' Cognitive Structures through Flow Map Method: The Subject of Oxidation and Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, Senar

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to analyse prospective chemistry teachers' cognitive structures related to the subject of oxidation and reduction through a flow map method. Purposeful sampling method was employed in this study, and 8 prospective chemistry teachers from a group of students who had taken general chemistry and analytical chemistry courses were…

  2. Structural Relations of Personal and Collective Self-Esteem to Subjective Well-Being: Attachment as Moderator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Omer Faruk

    2013-01-01

    A model indicating that the relationship between collective self-esteem and indicators of subjective well-being, happiness and life satisfaction, was mediated by personal self-esteem was tested by structural equation modeling. The model, including all participants, fitted well to the data. The results suggested that the relationship of collective…

  3. Perturbation Solutions for Random Linear Structural Systems subject to Random Excitation using Stochastic Differential Equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köyluoglu, H.U.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Cakmak, A.S.

    1994-01-01

    The paper deals with the first and second order statistical moments of the response of linear systems with random parameters subject to random excitation modelled as white-noise multiplied by an envelope function with random parameters. The method of analysis is basically a second order perturbat......The paper deals with the first and second order statistical moments of the response of linear systems with random parameters subject to random excitation modelled as white-noise multiplied by an envelope function with random parameters. The method of analysis is basically a second order...... for multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) systems and the method is illustrated for a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) oscillator. The results are compared to those of exact results for a random oscillator subject to white noise excitation with random intensity....

  4. Structural Performance of a Hybrid FRP-Aluminum Modular Triangular Truss System Subjected to Various Loading Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel hybrid FRP-aluminum truss system has been employed in a two-rut modular bridge superstructure composed of twin inverted triangular trusses. The actual flexural behavior of a one-rut truss has been previously investigated under the on-axis loading test; however, the structural performance of the one-rut truss subjected to an off-axis load is still not fully understood. In this paper, a geometrical linear finite element model is introduced and validated by the on-axis loading test; the structural performance of the one-rut truss subjected to off-axis load was numerically obtained; the dissimilarities of the structural performance between the two different loading cases are investigated in detail. The results indicated that (1 the structural behavior of the off-axis load differs from that of the on-axis load, and the off-axis load is the critical loading condition controlling the structural performance of the triangular truss; (2 under the off-axis load, the FRP trussed members and connectors bear certain out-of-plane bending moments and are subjected to a complicated stress state; and (3 the stress state of these members does not match that of the initial design, and optimization for the redesign of these members is needed, especially for the pretightened teeth connectors.

  5. Numerical Behavior Reproduction of a Truss Structure and Beam, Subjected to Concentrated Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedelcu Dorian

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a numerical reproduction of a real experiment consisting of the same restraints and concentrated load applied to a truss structure and beam; the numerical reproduction was performed with SolidWorks software, where both geometrical reconstruction and finite element analysis were made. The goals of the analysis was to compare the numerical with experimental results and to evaluate the best structure using the structural response criteria.

  6. Structural Technology Evaluation and Analysis Program (STEAP). Delivery Order 0046: Multiscale Modeling of Composite Structures Subjected to Cyclic Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    reinforced composites, cyclic loading, fatigue loading, spatial scale effects, X-ray radiography , X-ray computed tomography 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...5 3.1.4 X-ray Radiography ......................................................................................... 5...Subjected to Cyclic Loading ................................................................................................ 50 24 Quasi-isotropic Virtual

  7. The Relationship of Coping, Self-Worth, and Subjective Well-Being: A Structural Equation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedema, Susan Miller; Catalano, Denise; Ebener, Deborah J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between various coping-related variables and the evaluation of self-worth and subjective well-being among persons with spinal cord injury. Positive coping variables included hope, proactive coping style, and sense of humor, whereas negative coping variables included perceptions of stress,…

  8. Queer Outings: Uncomfortable Stories about the Subjects of Post-Structural School Ethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youdell, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, I consider the abiding value as well as the limits of queer; navigating the contradictions of a politics and ethnographic practice based on a refutation of an abiding subject; resisting subjectivation and needing recognition; and "coming out" in school ethnography framed by queer theory. The paper moves from the work of Michel…

  9. External cavity mode structure of a two-mode VCSEL subject to optical feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, K.; Krauskopf, B.; Lenstra, D.

    2007-01-01

    We consider a multi-transverse-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) subject to optical feedback. The system is modeled by a partial differential equation for the spatial carrier population, which is coupled to delay differential equations for the electric fields of the participating

  10. Revisiting the Structure of Subjective Well-Being in Middle-Aged Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Magda; Brunner, Martin; Martin, Romain; Schalke, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Subjective well-being is a broad, multifaceted construct comprising general satisfaction with life, satisfaction with life domains (health, family, people, free time, self, housing, work, and finances), positive affect, and negative affect. Drawing on representative data from middle-aged adults (N = 738), the authors used three different…

  11. Dowel-type fastener connections in timber structures subjected to short-term loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen Jensen, J.

    Design of dowel-type fastener connections in framed timber structures usually involves a two-step analysis: determination of the distribution of the sectional forces, and design of the eccentrically loaded connections. This report presents an integrated model for design of framed timber structures...

  12. Voice, Post-Structural Representation and the Subjectivity of "Included" Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitburn, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Aligned with the broader movement from structuralism to the post-structuralisms [Lather, P. 2013. "Methodology-21: What Do We Do in the Afterward?" "International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education" 26 (6): 634-645; St. Pierre, E. A. 2009. "Afterword: Decentering Voice in Qualitative Inquiry." In "Voice…

  13. Analysis of Risks and Factors of Formation of the Structure of Financial Capital of Subject of Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubaha Mariya V.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to analysis of the structure of sources of financing economic subjects, study of commercial and financial risks of formation of the structure of financial capital of subjects of entrepreneurship. The article pays significant attention to calculation of the weighted average cost of capital, degrees of financial and operational leverages and also to assessment of their mutual influence upon results of financial and economic activity of an enterprise. It studies impact of factors of external environment on the structure of sources of financing subjects of entrepreneurship, these factors include specific features of operational activity, quality and liquidity of assets, concentration of own capital, stages of the life cycle, level of profitability of operational activity, credit history of a borrower and a necessity to ensure the prospective repayment capacity, and financial mentality of owners and managers of an enterprise. The article also analyses factors of external environment of an enterprise (cost of attraction of financing from different sources, commodity and financial markets situations, state regulation and control over business processes, level of taxation of profit of enterprises and also income of physical persons and legal entities – investors from owning securities that influence the possibilities to attract financial capital and, consequently, prospects of efficient functioning of a subject of entrepreneurship in a long-term prospect.

  14. Stress during a Critical Postnatal Period Induces Region-Specific Structural Abnormalities and Dysfunction of the Prefrontal Cortex via CRF1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Dun; Liao, Xue-Mei; Uribe-Mariño, Andrés; Liu, Rui; Xie, Xiao-Meng; Jia, Jiao; Su, Yun-Ai; Li, Ji-Tao; Schmidt, Mathias V; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Si, Tian-Mei

    2015-01-01

    During the early postnatal period, environmental influences play a pivotal role in shaping the development of the neocortex, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC) that is crucial for working memory and goal-directed actions. Exposure to stressful experiences during this critical period may disrupt the development of PFC pyramidal neurons and impair the wiring and function of related neural circuits. However, the molecular mechanisms of the impact of early-life stress on PFC development and function are not well understood. In this study, we found that repeated stress exposure during the first postnatal week hampered dendritic development in layers II/III and V pyramidal neurons in the dorsal agranular cingulate cortex (ACd) and prelimbic cortex (PL) of neonatal mice. The deleterious effects of early postnatal stress on structural plasticity persisted to adulthood only in ACd layer V pyramidal neurons. Most importantly, concurrent blockade of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF1) by systemic antalarmin administration (20 μg/g of body weight) during early-life stress exposure prevented stress-induced apical dendritic retraction and spine loss in ACd layer V neurons and impairments in PFC-dependent cognitive tasks. Moreover, the magnitude of dendritic regression, especially the shrinkage of apical branches, of ACd layer V neurons predicted the degree of cognitive deficits in stressed mice. Our data highlight the region-specific effects of early postnatal stress on the structural plasticity of prefrontal pyramidal neurons, and suggest a critical role of CRF1 in modulating early-life stress-induced prefrontal abnormalities. PMID:25403725

  15. [Fetal abnormalities and prognosis associated with increased nuchal translucency and abnormal karyotype].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldanha, Fátima Aparecida Targino; Brizot, Maria de Lourdes; Lopes, Lilian M; Liao, Adolfo Wenjaw; Zugaib, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of chromosomal abnormalities in fetuses with increased nuchal translucency (NT) measurement. Incidence of structural abnormalities and pregnancy outcome was also described in fetuses with increased NT and abnormal karyotype. This was a retrospective study involving 246 fetuses with increased NT and known karyotype followed at the Fetal Medicine Unit, Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo University Medical School. Fetal karyotype was abnormal in 14.2% of the cases. Ultrasound anomaly scan and specialized echocardiographic studies in these cases showed fetal structural abnormalities in 80.8% and cardiac defects were found in 61.5% of the fetuses. Pregnancy outcome was abnormal in 76.5% of these women. Increased NT measurement at 11 to 13 weeks and 6 days is an important marker for fetal chromosomal and structural abnormalities, mainly fetal cardiac defects. This finding also indicates increased risk of spontaneous fetal and neonatal death.

  16. STRUCTURE AND PRODUCTIVITY OF TANZANIA GRASS SUBJECTED TO DIFFERENT DEFOLIATION FREQUENCIES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vitor Hugo Maués Macedo; Antônio Marcos Quadros Cunha; Ebson Pereira Cândido; Felipe Nogueira Domingues; Deyvid de Menezes Melo; Aníbal Coutinho do Rêgo

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different frequencies of defoliation at fixed periods on the structural and productive characteristics of Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum...

  17. Validating a Finite Element Model of a Structure Subjected to Mine Blast with Experimental Modal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    simulations of structural response.8 In the experiments, stereo- digital image correlation (SDIC) was used to record the shock response of a V-hull structure...and the associated fast Fourier transforms corroborate this statement.9 Therefore, the first mode is considered the most important metric for... Organisation , Aeronautical and Maritime Research Laboratory; 2001 June. Report No.: DSTO-TR-1168. 7. Cummins C. Modeling brown clayey sand in LS-DYNA

  18. REVIEW OF PRACTICE FOR DEEPLY EMBEDDED/BURIED NPP STRUCTURES SUBJECT TO SEISMIC LOADINGS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    XU,J.HOFMAYER,C.MILLER,C.GRAVES,H.

    2004-03-24

    Motivated by many design considerations, several conceptual designs for advanced reactors have proposed that the entire reactor building and a significant portion of the steam generator building will be either partially or completely embedded below grade. For the analysis of seismic events, the soil-structure interaction (SSI) effect and passive earth pressure for these types of deeply embedded structures will have a significant influence on the predicted seismic response. Sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is carrying out a research program to assess the significance of these proposed design features for advanced reactors, and to evaluate the existing analytical methods to determine their applicability and adequacy in capturing the seismic behavior of the proposed designs. This paper summarizes a literature review performed by BNL to determine the state of knowledge and practice for seismic analyses of deeply embedded and/or buried (DEB) nuclear containment type structures. Included in the paper is BNL's review of the open literature of existing standards, tests, and practices that have been used in the design and analysis of DEB structures. The paper also provides BNL's evaluation of available codes and guidelines with respect to seismic design practice of DEB structures. Based on BNL's review, a discussion is provided to highlight the applicability of the existing technologies for seismic analyses of DEB structures and to identify gaps that may exist in knowledge and potential issues that may require better understanding and further research.

  19. MBBS student perceptions about physiology subject teaching and objective structured practical examination based formative assessment for improving competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmipathy, K

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of the present study were to 1) assess student attitudes to physiology, 2) evaluate student opinions about the influence of an objective structured practical examination (OSPE) on competence, and 3) assess the validity and reliability of an indigenously designed feedback questionnaire. A structured questionnaire containing 16 item statements, 8 items on an Osgood's 5-point semantic differential scale and 8 items on a Likert's 5-point scale, was used. Options were assigned scores of 1-5 according to weightage. For Osgood's semantic differential scale items, a χ(2)-test was done to analyze student attitudes toward the subject. For Likert scale items, mean score and SD were calculated to analyze student opinions of the OSPE. Item validity was assessed by item analysis, and reliability was assessed by calculating Crohnbach's α. The subject as a whole was interesting to 82% of the students (n = 135). The theory was interesting to 75% of the students (n = 132) but complex to 42% (n = 118). The practical was interesting to 93% of the students (n = 134); 76% of the students (n = 104) felt that the practical was simple, whereas 4% felt it was complex. The OSPE was interesting to 79% of the students (n = 131); 57% of the students (n = 116) felt it was simple, whereas 24% found it complex. Components of the subject, intricateness, and student interests were strongly associated. Students chose options on a higher weight scale, favoring the OSPE. Items were found to be valid and reliable. In conclusion, the subject of physiology was interesting but not simple to understand. Student interests varied with the components of the subject, and the components of the subject had varied intricateness. Students were in favor of the OSPE for assessment. The questionnaire used for the study was valid and reliable. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  20. Laminated Thin Shell Structures Subjected to Free Vibration in a Hygrothermal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotsis, Pascal K.; Guptill, James D.

    1994-01-01

    Parametric studies were performed to assess the effects of various parameters on the free-vibration behavior (natural frequencies) of (+/- theta)(sub 2) angle-ply, fiber composite, thin shell structures in a hygrothermal environment. Knowledge of the natural frequencies of structures is important in considering their response to various kinds of excitation, especially when structures and force systems are complex and when excitations are not periodic. The three dimensional, finite element structural analysis computer code CSTEM was used in the Cray YMP computer environment. The fiber composite shell was assumed to be cylindrical and made from T300 graphite fibers embedded in an intermediate-modulus, high-strength matrix. The following parameters were investigated: the length and the laminate thickness of the shell, the fiber orientation, the fiber volume fraction, the temperature profile through the thickness of the laminate, and laminates with different ply thicknesses. The results indicate that the fiber orientation and the length of the laminated shell had significant effects on the natural frequencies. The fiber volume fraction, the laminate thickness, and the temperature profile through the shell thickness had weak effects on the natural frequencies. Finally, the laminates with different ply thicknesses had an insignificant influence on the behavior of the vibrated laminated shell. Also, a single through-the-thickness, eight-node, three dimensional composite finite element analysis appears to be sufficient for investigating the free-vibration behavior of thin, composite, angle-ply shell structures.

  1. Structural Stability of a Stiffened Aluminum Fuselage Panel Subjected to Combined Mechanical and Internal Pressure Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Marshall; Young, Richard D.; Gehrki, Ralph R.

    2003-01-01

    Results from an experimental and analytical study of a curved stiffened aluminum panel subjected to combined mechanical and internal pressure loads are presented. The panel loading conditions were simulated using a D-box test fixture. Analytical buckling load results calculated from a finite element analysis are presented and compared to experimental results. Buckling results presented indicate that the buckling load of the fuselage panel is significantly influenced by internal pressure loading. The experimental results suggest that the stress distribution is uniform in the panel prior to buckling. Nonlinear finite element analysis results correlates well with experimental results up to buckling.

  2. Analysis of shell-type structures subjected to time-dependent mechanical and thermal loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simitses, G. J.

    1989-01-01

    The objective is to develop a general mathematical model and solution methodologies for analyzing structural response of thin, metallic shell-type structures under large transient, cyclic, or static thermomechanical loads. Among the system responses, which are associated with these load conditions, are thermal buckling, creep buckling, and racheting. Thus, geometric as well as material-type nonlinearities (of high order) can be anticipated and must be considered in the development of the mathematical model. Furthermore, this must also be accommodated in the solution procedures.

  3. Dowel-type fastener connections in timber structures subjected to short-term loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen Jensen, J.

    Design of dowel-type fastener connections in framed timber structures usually involves a two-step analysis: determination of the distribution of the sectional forces, and design of the eccentrically loaded connections. This report presents an integrated model for design of framed timber structures...... with dowel-type fastener connections. A Finite-Element approach has been adopted. An element has been developed for modelling a plane group of dowel-type fasteners, taking due account of the material and geometric non-linearities, and two different elements have been developed for modelling gap closure...

  4. Prediction of Global and Localized Damage and Future Reliability for RC Structures subject to Earthquakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köyluoglu, H.U.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Cakmak, A.S.

    1994-01-01

    the arrival of the first earthquake from non-destructive vibration tests or via structural analysis. The previous excitation and displacement response time series is employed for the identification of the instantaneous softening using an ARMA model. The hysteresis parameters are updated after each earthquake....... The proposed model is next generalized for the MDOF system. Using the adapted models for the structure and the global damage state, the global damage in a future earthquake can then be estimated when a suitable earthquake model is applied. The performance of the model is illustrated on RC frames which were...

  5. Prediction of Global and Localized Damage and Future Reliability for RC Structures subject to Earthquakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köyluoglu, H.U.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Cakmak, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    the arrival of the first earthquake from non-destructive vibration tests or via structural analysis. The previous excitation and displacement response time series is employed for the identification of the instantaneous softening using an ARMA model. The hysteresis parameters are updated after each earthquake....... The proposed model is next generalized for the MDOF system. Using the adapted models for the structure and the global damage state, the global damage in a future earthquake can then be estimated when a suitable earthquake model is applied. The performance of the model is illustrated on RC frames which were...

  6. Chromosomal abnormalities in child psychiatric patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, K. E.; Kim, J. H.; Moon, S. Y.; Oh, S. K.

    1999-01-01

    To determine the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities in a child psychiatric population, and to evaluate possible associations between types of abnormalities and patient's clinical characteristics, cytogenetic examination was performed on 604 patients. Demographic data, reasons for karyotyping, clinical signs, and other patient characteristics were assessed and correlated with the results from karyotyping. Chromosomal abnormalities were found in 69 patients (11.3%); these were structural in...

  7. Estimating Modal Parameters of Civil Engineering Structures subject to Ambient and Harmonic Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Brincker, Rune; Ventura, Carlos

    In this paper addresses the problems of separating structural modes and harmonics arising from sinusoidal excitation. Though the problem is mostly know in mechanical engineering applications such as rotating machinery, some civil engineering applications experiences the same challenges. A robust...... and fast harmonic detection procedure is presented and illustrated on a civil engineering case....

  8. Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis for Pressurizer Surge Line subjected to Thermal Stratification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dong Gu; Jhung, Myung Jo; Yang, Chae Yong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Fluid-Structure Interactions (FSIs) occurring inevitably in operating reactor component systems can cause excessive force or stress to the structures resulting in mechanical damages that may eventually threaten the structural integrity of components. To solve FSI problems, results from one field (fluid-thermal) analysis are applied as loads in other fields (structural) analysis. If two media with different densities flow inside a pipe, thermal stratification can occur. Warm water is lighter than cool water and therefore tends to float on top of the cooler and heavier water, resulting in the upper portion of the pipe being hotter than the lower portion. Under these conditions, differential thermal expansion of the pipe metal can cause the pipe to deflect significantly. Unexpected piping movements are highly undesirable because of potential high piping stress that may exceed design limits for fatigue and stress. In PWRs, there are great possibilities of occurrence of thermal stratification at the feed water lines of the steam generator, at the pressurizer surge line and at the injection pipes of the emergency core cooling systems. The most affected pipe by the thermal stratification is reported to be the pressurizer surge line. Therefore in this study, a thermal-stress simulation is performed using ANSYS FSI. For the pressurizer surge line, thermal loads are transferred from ANSYS CFX to ANSYS Multiphysics in order to determine the heat transfer between the fluid and the solid body. From this information, stresses are determined and ultimately a fatigue analysis is performed

  9. Modal Estimation of Civil Structures Subject to Ambient and Harmonic Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Brincker, Rune; Ventura, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    In this paper addresses the problems of separating structural modes and harmonics arising from sinusoidal excitation. Though the problem is mostly know in mechanical engineering applications such as rotating machinery, some civil engineering applications experiences the same challenges. A robust...... and fast harmonic detection procedure is presented and illustrated on a civil engineering case....

  10. Efficiency of fiber reinforced concrete application in structures subjected to dynamic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morozov Valeriy Ivanovich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fiber reinforced concretes possess high strength under dynamic loadings, which include impact loads, thanks to their high structural viscosity. This is the reason for using them in difficult operating conditions, where increasing the performance characteristics and the structure durability is of prime importance, and the issues of the cost become less significant. Applying methods of disperse reinforcement is most challenging in case of subtle high-porous materials on mineral binders, for example foamed concrete. At the same time, the experiments conducted in Russia and abroad show, that also in other cases the concrete strength resistance several times increases as a result of disperse reinforcement. This doesn't depend on average density of the concrete and type of fiber used. In the article the fibre reinforced concrete impact resistance is analysed. Recommendations are given in regard to fibre concrete application in manufacture of monolithic floor units for industrial buildings and precast piles.

  11. The gradient structure of the NiTi surface layers subjected to tantalum ion beam alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girsova, S. L.; Poletika, T. M.; Meisner, L. L.; Schmidt, E. Yu

    2017-05-01

    The NiTi shape memory alloy has been modified by ion implantation with Ta to improve the surface and biological properties. The elemental and phase composition and structure of the surface and near-surface layers of NiTi specimens after the Ta ion implantation with the fluency D = 3 × 1017 cm-2 and D = 6 × 1017 cm-2 are examined. The methods of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electron dispersion analysis (EDS) are used. It is found that a nonuniform distribution of elements along the depth of the surface layer after the ion implantation of NiTi specimens, regardless of the regime, is accompanied by the formation of a number of sublayer structures.

  12. Optimization of structures subjected to dynamic load: deterministic and probabilistic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élcio Cassimiro Alves

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper deals with the deterministic and probabilistic optimization of structures against bending when submitted to dynamic loads. The deterministic optimization problem considers the plate submitted to a time varying load while the probabilistic one takes into account a random loading defined by a power spectral density function. The correlation between the two problems is made by one Fourier Transformed. The finite element method is used to model the structures. The sensitivity analysis is performed through the analytical method and the optimization problem is dealt with by the method of interior points. A comparison between the deterministic optimisation and the probabilistic one with a power spectral density function compatible with the time varying load shows very good results.

  13. Effect of web openings on the structural behavior of RC beams subjected to pure torsion

    OpenAIRE

    Abdo Taha; Mabrouk Rasha

    2017-01-01

    In the construction of modern buildings, the presence of openings became a necessity nowadays in order to accommodate the many pipes and ducts required for the different services. On the other hand, the presence of these openings in RC beams affects their structural behavior. One important behavior that needs further study would be torsion. Currently, there are no guide lines available to analyze or design RC beams with web openings under pure torsion. Thus, the main objective of this researc...

  14. Seismic Structural Considerations for the Stem and Base of Retaining Walls Subjected to Earthquake Ground Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Agency (FEMA) 356 (2000) and Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute ( CRSI ) (2001). B.1 FEMA 356 (2000) Ductility Demand Classifications FEMA 356 (2000...Development Length Requirements for Low-Bond Deformation Bars CRSI (2001) indicates that: "For older structures, it is prudent to consider all varieties...area of the square bar. Square straight bars, however, are to be treated as plain bars using the CRSI (2001) process described previously. FEMA 356

  15. Seismic Structural Considerations for the Stern and Base of Retaining Walls Subjected to Earthquake Ground Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute ( CRSI ) (2001). B.1 FEMA 356 (2000) Ductility Demand Classifications FEMA 356 (2000) defines three...two. B.3 Splice and Development Length Requirements for Low-Bond Deformation Bars CRSI (2001) indicates that: “For older structures, it is prudent...diameter is determined based on the gross area of the square bar. Square straight bars, however, are to be treated as plain bars using the CRSI

  16. Subject Consciousness of Junior-high Students regarding Home Economics : Reproductive Structure of Gender in School

    OpenAIRE

    麓, 博之; 杉井, 潤子

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, gender-equality activities have produced growing concern over gender, and only school education has been considered relatively gender equal. However, the presence of a hidden curriculum has been pointed out and it is said that gender is being reproduced unconsciously in the school education setting. In this research, we clarified various gender biases in school and the gender consciousness of junior-high students, and examined the reproductive structure of gender in school in...

  17. Analysis of Textile Composite Structures Subjected to High Temperature Oxidizing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    idealized material shown in the figure is exposed to oxygen and the oxidation propagates to the right. Zone III is the region of the material that is un... propagation Figure 3.5: Oxidation zones and corresponding values of the oxidation state variable 28 Assuming that the weight loss is proportional to...Oxidation of C/SiC Composites, Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference on Composites, Advanced Ceramics Materials and Structures, Cocoa Beach

  18. Femoral neck structure in adult female athletes subjected to different loading modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikander, Riku; Sievänen, Harri; Heinonen, Ari; Kannus, Pekka

    2005-03-01

    Loading modality is a strong external determinant of structure and concomitant strength of the femoral neck. Particularly effective seem to be loadings, which arise from high impacts or impacts from atypical loading directions. Physical loading plays an important role, not only in the process of bone modeling and remodeling, but also in shaping a mechanically appropriate bone structure. This study aimed at testing the hypothesis that the type of loading partly determines the femoral neck structure. A total of 255 premenopausal female athletes representing volleyball, hurdling, squash-playing, soccer, speed skating, step aerobics, weight-lifting, orienteering, cross-country skiing, cycling, and swimming and their 30 nonathletic counterparts were measured with DXA. Besides the conventional areal BMD (aBMD) of the femoral neck, the hip structure analysis (HSA) was used to estimate the cross-sectional area (CSA), subperiosteal width (W), and section modulus (Z, an index of bone strength) at the narrowest section of the femoral neck. Also, training history, muscle strength, and calcium intake were assessed. The above-mentioned sports were classified according to the type of loading they apparently produce at the hip region; that is, high-impact loading (volleyball, hurdling), odd-impact loading (squash-playing, soccer, speed-skating, step aerobics), high-magnitude loading (weightlifting), low-impact loading (orienteering, cross-country skiing), and nonimpact loading (swimming, cycling). High-impact and odd-impact loading sports were associated with the highest age-, weight-, and height-adjusted aBMD (23% and 29% higher values compared to nonathletic referents), CSA (22% and 27%), and Z (22% and 26%). In contrast, repetitive, nonimpact loading sports were not associated with any clear benefit in any bone value compared with the referents. The W at the narrowest femoral neck section was similar in all groups. Body height and weight accounted virtually for one-half of the

  19. A Study on External Fire Damage of Structures subjected to Aircraft Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sang Shup [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hahm, Daegi; Kim, Min Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    A large commercial aircraft consists of various components as fuselage, wings, fuel tank, engine etc. During a collision of the aircraft, the fuel tank with a large amount of jet fuel have a significant effect on the total load of the aircraft as well as causing explosive fire and smoke which affect the safety of the structure and equipment. US Sandia National Laboratories and Finland VTT etc. performed the test and simulation studies to evaluate the dispersion range of the fluid after the crash of liquid filled cylinder missiles. The test condition and results have been referred in this paper. The fluid modeling approach using SPH is applied to evaluate the dispersing range of the fluid, and is compared with the Brown's results. The jet fuel is idealized as particles contained in an aluminum cylinder missile, where those particles can be dispersed to the surrounding area after the missile crashes into a rigid target. The fluid model using the SPH method is briefly verified through comparison with test results, and then the modelling method is applied to a jet fuel model in an aircraft model. The dispersion analysis of jet fuel caused by aircraft impact is performed using an aircraft model for the determination of fire duration and fire affected zone in a nuclear power plant. Finally, the structural integrity of the roof of the structure during a jet fuel fire is evaluated. In this study, the filled jet fuel was modeled by using smooth particle hydrodynamics technique; jet fuel spread area following an aircraft crash was analyzed.

  20. Framingham coronary heart disease risk score can be predicted from structural brain images in elderly subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Maryam Rondina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent literature has presented evidence that cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF play an important role on cognitive performance in elderly individuals, both those who are asymptomatic and those who suffer from symptoms of neurodegenerative disorders. Findings from studies applying neuroimaging methods have increasingly reinforced such notion. Studies addressing the impact of CVRF on brain anatomy changes have gained increasing importance, as recent papers have reported gray matter loss predominantly in regions traditionally affected in Alzheimer’s disease (AD and vascular dementia in the presence of a high degree of cardiovascular risk. In the present paper, we explore the association between CVRF and brain changes using pattern recognition techniques applied to structural MRI and the Framingham score (a composite measure of cardiovascular risk largely used in epidemiological studies in a sample of healthy elderly individuals. We aim to answer the following questions: Is it possible to decode (i.e., to learn information regarding cardiovascular risk from structural brain images enabling individual predictions? Among clinical measures comprising the Framingham score, are there particular risk factors that stand as more predictable from patterns of brain changes? Our main findings are threefold: i we verified that structural changes in spatially distributed patterns in the brain enable statistically significant prediction of Framingham scores. This result is still significant when controlling for the presence of the APOE 4 allele (an important genetic risk factor for both AD and cardiovascular disease. ii When considering each risk factor singly, we found different levels of correlation between real and predicted factors; however, single factors were not significantly predictable from brain images when considering APOE4 allele presence as covariate. iii We found important gender differences, and the possible causes of that finding are discussed.

  1. Nonlinear time-domain soil–structure interaction analysis of embedded reactor structures subjected to earthquake loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solberg, Jerome M., E-mail: solberg2@llnl.gov [Methods Development Group, Lawrence Livermore Nat’l Lab, P.O. Box 808, Mailstop L-125, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Hossain, Quazi, E-mail: hossain1@llnl.gov [Structural and Applied Mechanics Group, Lawrence Livermore Nat’l Lab, P.O. Box 808, Mailstop L-129, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Mseis, George, E-mail: george.mseis@gmail.com [Structural and Applied Mechanics Group, Lawrence Livermore Nat’l Lab, P.O. Box 808, Mailstop L-129, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Highlights: • Derived modified version of Bielak’s SSI method for nonlinear time-domain analysis. • Utilized a Ramberg–Osgood material with parameters that can be fit to EPRI data. • Matched vertically propagating shear wave results from CARES. • Applied this technique to a representative SMR, compared well with SASSI. • The technique is extensible to other material models and nonlinear effects. - Abstract: A generalized time-domain method for soil–structure interaction analysis is developed, based upon an extension of the work of the domain reduction method of Bielak et al. The methodology is combined with the use of a simple hysteretic soil model based upon the Ramberg–Osgood formulation and applied to a notional Small Modular Reactor. These benchmark results compare well (with some caveats) with those obtained by using the industry-standard frequency-domain code SASSI. The methodology provides a path forward for investigation of other sources of nonlinearity, including those associated with the use of more physically-realistic material models incorporating pore-pressure effects, gap opening/closing, the effect of nonlinear structural elements, and 3D seismic inputs.

  2. Sex chromosomes and sex chromosome abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu

    2011-12-01

    This article focuses on constitutional sex chromosome abnormalities detected by conventional cytogenetics and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The author discusses the two general classifications of abnormalities: numerical and structural. Also included are descriptions of unique aspects of X and Y chromosomes, technological advances in detection, and future perspectives.

  3. First Trimester Ultrasound Screening for Congenital Abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    approach used, especially with the introduction of first trimester ultrasound as a reliable screening method. Objective: To give a comprehensive review of the basis for first trimester ultrasound screening for congenital abnormalities, it's utilization in the prenatal screening for chromosomal, structural and genetic abnormalities ...

  4. Structural differences in hippocampal subfields among schizophrenia patients, major depressive disorder patients, and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Miho; Sato, Noriko; Hidese, Shinsuke; Teraishi, Toshiya; Maikusa, Norihide; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Hattori, Kotaro; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2017-01-30

    Many MRI studies have reported a volume reduction of the hippocampus in psychiatric diseases. However, disease-related volume differences in hippocampus subfields remain unclear. Here we compared the volumes of hippocampus subfields in patients with schizophrenia, patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), and healthy subjects as controls. T2-weighted images were acquired in 20 patients with schizophrenia, 36 with MDD, and 35 healthy volunteers by 3-Tesla MRI. Hippocampal subfields were segmented using an automatic algorithm, Automatic Segmentation of Hippocampal Subfields (ASHS). Schizophrenia patients exhibited significant volume reductions in the cornu ammonis (CA)1 compared to the controls, and in the dentate gyrus compared to the controls and MDD patients without medication, whereas there was no significant difference between the MDD patients and controls. There was a nominal negative correlation between the perirhinal cortex volume and depression severity in the MDD patients without medication, whereas there were negative correlations between CA2 volume and both negative symptoms and the duration of illness in the schizophrenia patients. We identified differing volume reductions in hippocampal subfields and varying correlations between disease severity and subfield volumes depending on diagnosis, suggesting that volume differences in hippocampus subfields may provide important information regarding the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and MDD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Application of CCG Sensors to a High-Temperature Structure Subjected to Thermo-Mechanical Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weihua; Meng, Songhe; Jin, Hua; Du, Chong; Wang, Libin; Peng, Tao; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Xu, Chenghai

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a simple methodology to perform a high temperature coupled thermo-mechanical test using ultra-high temperature ceramic material specimens (UHTCs), which are equipped with chemical composition gratings sensors (CCGs). The methodology also considers the presence of coupled loading within the response provided by the CCG sensors. The theoretical strain of the UHTCs specimens calculated with this technique shows a maximum relative error of 2.15% between the analytical and experimental data. To further verify the validity of the results from the tests, a Finite Element (FE) model has been developed to simulate the temperature, stress and strain fields within the UHTC structure equipped with the CCG. The results show that the compressive stress exceeds the material strength at the bonding area, and this originates a failure by fracture of the supporting structure in the hot environment. The results related to the strain fields show that the relative error with the experimental data decrease with an increase of temperature. The relative error is less than 15% when the temperature is higher than 200 °C, and only 6.71% at 695 °C. PMID:27754356

  6. Numerical analysis of nuclear power plant structure subjected to aircraft crash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberi, Reza; Alinejad, Majid; Mahdavi, Mir Omid; Sepanloo, Kamran

    2017-12-01

    An aircraft crashing into a nuclear containment may induce a series of disasters related to containment capacity, including local penetration and perforation of the containment, intensive vibrations, and fire ignited after jet fuel leakage. In this study, structural safety of a reinforced concrete containment vessel (RCCV) has been studied against the direct hit of Airbus A320, Boeing 707-320 and Phantom F4 aircrafts. ABAQUS/explicit finite element code has been used to carry out the three-dimensional numerical simulations. The impact locations identified on the nuclear containment structure are mid height of containment, center of the cylindrical portion, junction of dome and cylinder, and over the cylindrical portion close to the foundation level. The loading of the aircraft has been assigned through the corresponding reaction-time response curve. The concrete damaged plasticity model was predicted to simulate the behavior of concrete while the behavior of steel reinforcement was incorporated using elastoplastic material model. Dynamic loading conditions were considered using dynamic increase factor. The mid height of containment and center of cylindrical portion have been found to experience most severe deformation against each aircraft crash. It has also been found that compression damage in concrete is not critical at none of the impact locations.

  7. Application of CCG Sensors to a High-Temperature Structure Subjected to Thermo-Mechanical Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Xie

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple methodology to perform a high temperature coupled thermo-mechanical test using ultra-high temperature ceramic material specimens (UHTCs, which are equipped with chemical composition gratings sensors (CCGs. The methodology also considers the presence of coupled loading within the response provided by the CCG sensors. The theoretical strain of the UHTCs specimens calculated with this technique shows a maximum relative error of 2.15% between the analytical and experimental data. To further verify the validity of the results from the tests, a Finite Element (FE model has been developed to simulate the temperature, stress and strain fields within the UHTC structure equipped with the CCG. The results show that the compressive stress exceeds the material strength at the bonding area, and this originates a failure by fracture of the supporting structure in the hot environment. The results related to the strain fields show that the relative error with the experimental data decrease with an increase of temperature. The relative error is less than 15% when the temperature is higher than 200 °C, and only 6.71% at 695 °C.

  8. Effect of temperature on composite sandwich structures subjected to low velocity impact. [aircraft construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A. V.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of low velocity projectile impact on sandwich-type structural components was investigated. The materials used in the fabrication of the impact surface were graphite-, Kevlar-, and boron-fibers with appropriate epoxy matrices. The testing of the specimens was performed at moderately low- and high-temperatures as well as at room temperature to assess the impact-initiated strength degradation of the laminates. Eleven laminates with different stacking sequences, orientations, and thicknesses were tested. The low energy projectile impact is considered to simulate the damage caused by runway debris, the dropping of the hand tools during servicing, etc., on the secondary aircraft structures fabricated with the composite materials. The results show the preload and the impact energy combinations necessary to cause catastrophic failure in the laminates tested. A set of faired curves indicating the failure thresholds is shown separately for the tension-and compression-loaded laminates. The specific-strengths and -modulii for the various laminates tested are also given.

  9. Numerical analysis of nuclear power plant structure subjected to aircraft crash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberi, Reza; Alinejad, Majid; Mahdavi, Mir Omid; Sepanloo, Kamran

    2017-10-01

    An aircraft crashing into a nuclear containment may induce a series of disasters related to containment capacity, including local penetration and perforation of the containment, intensive vibrations, and fire ignited after jet fuel leakage. In this study, structural safety of a reinforced concrete containment vessel (RCCV) has been studied against the direct hit of Airbus A320, Boeing 707-320 and Phantom F4 aircrafts. ABAQUS/explicit finite element code has been used to carry out the three-dimensional numerical simulations. The impact locations identified on the nuclear containment structure are mid height of containment, center of the cylindrical portion, junction of dome and cylinder, and over the cylindrical portion close to the foundation level. The loading of the aircraft has been assigned through the corresponding reaction-time response curve. The concrete damaged plasticity model was predicted to simulate the behavior of concrete while the behavior of steel reinforcement was incorporated using elastoplastic material model. Dynamic loading conditions were considered using dynamic increase factor. The mid height of containment and center of cylindrical portion have been found to experience most severe deformation against each aircraft crash. It has also been found that compression damage in concrete is not critical at none of the impact locations.

  10. ETHNOPSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURAL PECULIARITIES IN SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING(a case study of ethnic groups of the Saratov Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E E Bocharova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the data of the empirical study of the structural organization of ethnic groups subjective well-being on the territory of the Saratov Volga region conducted on proportionally selected samples ( N = 280, whose representatives identify themselves as Russians ( n = 70; city of Saratov, Armenians ( n = 70; city of Saratov, Kazakhs ( n = 70; village Alexandrov Ghay in the Saratov Region that borders on the West Kazakhstan Region of Kazakhstan with the ethnical composition represented primarily by Kazakhs, Tatars ( n = 70; village Yakovlevka in Bazarno-Karabulakskiy district of the Saratov Region with the Tatar dominant ethnical group, whose average age is 25.6 years old; SD = 9.7; sex ratio is female (52% and male (48%; respondents’ employment - 87%. It has been found that in contrast to the Russians, the sphere of social and socio-economic relations is the least “happy” area in the representatives of the Armenian, Kazakh, Tatar ethnic groups. The “happiest” is the sphere of family relations in the samples of Armenian, Kazakh and Tatar youth. The significant differences have been revealed in the structure of the subjective well-being both on the emotional and cognitive levels. A downward trend of the index of the subjective well-being of the ethnic groups from the remote areas of the region has been registered. The applied aspect of the research problem can be implemented in the development of ethno-national policy programmes of the Saratov region.

  11. Modifications of sleep structure induced by increasing levels of acoustic perturbation in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzano, M G; Parrino, L; Fioriti, G; Orofiamma, B; Depoortere, H

    1990-07-01

    In each non-REM (NREM) sleep stage, the aggregation of the arousal-related phasic events permits identification of periods of arousal fluctuation (cyclic alternating pattern or CAP) and periods of long-lasting arousal stability (non-CAP or NCAP). As the ratio CAP time to NREM sleep time (CAP/NREM) measures the instability of arousal during sleep, any perturbing event determines an increase of CAP/NREM. On the basis of these premises, 6 healthy volunteers underwent 5 sleep recordings at increasing intensities of sound pressure level (basal condition followed by continuous white noise at 45 dBA, 55 dBA, 65 dBA and 75 dBA, respectively). Besides a remarkable enhancement of CAP/NREM (P less than 0.00001), acoustic perturbation induced a significant linear increase of waking time after sleep onset, stage 2, NREM sleep, stage shifts and a significant linear decrease of stage 4, deep sleep, REM sleep and total sleep time. At each step of environmental disturbance, the values of the CAP ratio were consistent with the gradual changes of sleep organization. Although the Multiple Sleep Latency Test was unremarkable during the day following the sleep recording, CAP/NREM was significantly correlated with the personal evaluation of sleep quality (P less than 0.01). Through this model of transient situational insomnia it was possible to outline different degrees of subjective complaint depending on 3 ranges of CAP/NREM. A crucial role of CAP in the pathophysiological mechanisms of clinical insomnia is hypothesized.

  12. Image size invariant visual cryptography for general access structures subject to display quality constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kai-Hui; Chiu, Pei-Ling

    2013-10-01

    Conventional visual cryptography (VC) suffers from a pixel-expansion problem, or an uncontrollable display quality problem for recovered images, and lacks a general approach to construct visual secret sharing schemes for general access structures. We propose a general and systematic approach to address these issues without sophisticated codebook design. This approach can be used for binary secret images in non-computer-aided decryption environments. To avoid pixel expansion, we design a set of column vectors to encrypt secret pixels rather than using the conventional VC-based approach. We begin by formulating a mathematic model for the VC construction problem to find the column vectors for the optimal VC construction, after which we develop a simulated-annealing-based algorithm to solve the problem. The experimental results show that the display quality of the recovered image is superior to that of previous papers.

  13. Conceptual Terminological Structure of Pedagogy as the Subject of Historical Pedagogic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Koshkina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the formation and development of pedagogic terminology. The author theoretically substantiates the potential of the historical pedagogic research concerning the conceptual and terminological structure of the Russian pedagogy. The research is based on the following ideas: correlation between the scientific terminology formation and scientific knowledge genesis; philosophic concept as a form and result of reality reflection; linguistic concept of the term as a functional unit of a scientific language; specifics of pedagogic knowledge reflection in conceptual form. The main research findings include identifying methodological requirements for analyzing the conceptual scientific formation in historical context; substantiating the resource basis; revealing the investigation principles; describing the tools and their implementation peculiarities with regard to the specifics of pedagogical concepts and terms. The acquired results can be used while exploring the pedagogic history problems, pedagogic methodology and terminology. In conclusion, the actual research trends of pedagogic terminology formation are reviewed from the historical pedagogic perspective. 

  14. Conceptual Terminological Structure of Pedagogy as the Subject of Historical Pedagogic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Koshkina

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the formation and development of pedagogic terminology. The author theoretically substantiates the potential of the historical pedagogic research concerning the conceptual and terminological structure of the Russian pedagogy. The research is based on the following ideas: correlation between the scientific terminology formation and scientific knowledge genesis; philosophic concept as a form and result of reality reflection; linguistic concept of the term as a functional unit of a scientific language; specifics of pedagogic knowledge reflection in conceptual form. The main research findings include identifying methodological requirements for analyzing the conceptual scientific formation in historical context; substantiating the resource basis; revealing the investigation principles; describing the tools and their implementation peculiarities with regard to the specifics of pedagogical concepts and terms. The acquired results can be used while exploring the pedagogic history problems, pedagogic methodology and terminology. In conclusion, the actual research trends of pedagogic terminology formation are reviewed from the historical pedagogic perspective. 

  15. Structure and Spatial Distribution of Ge Nanocrystals Subjected to Fast Neutron Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Ionov

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of fast neutron irradiation on the structure and spatial distribution of Ge nanocrystals (NC embedded in an amorphous SiO2 matrix has been studied. The investigation was conducted by means of laser Raman Scattering (RS, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The irradiation of Ge- NC samples by a high dose of fast neutrons lead to a partial destruction of the nanocrystals. Full reconstruction of crystallinity was achieved after annealing the radiation damage at 8000C, which resulted in full restoration of the RS spectrum. HR-TEM images show, however, that the spatial distributions of Ge-NC changed as a result of irradiation and annealing. A sharp decrease in NC distribution towards the SiO2 surface has been observed. This was accompanied by XPS detection of Ge oxides and elemental Ge within both the surface and subsurface region.

  16. Design, fabrication and installation of irradiation facilities - Structural integrity evaluation of FTL subject to postulated pipe rupture-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jae Do; Lee, Yong Son; Lee, Chon Yeol [Yeungnam University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The report includes an evaluation of the FTL structural integrity subjected to a postulated pipe rupture. The rupture sections are determined based on NUREG-0800 and the static analysis performed in the report. If the results of stress analysis satisfy the requirements of NUREG-0800, then the postulated pipe rupture is assumed to be the hill tap connections. The rupture section in the report is considered at the hill tap connection in the= near pool penetration. when the section is subjected to described thrust force history, dynamic responses of the ruptured loop are evaluated. through the analysis it was found that maximum equivalent stress exceeds the FTL yielding stress and node 120 results into a plastic hinge. The possibility of the double ended guillotine can be investigated by using energy method or elasto-plastic dynamic analysis. (Author) 4 refs., 43 tabs., 35 figs.

  17. Genetic counseling for a prenatal diagnosis of structural chromosomal abnormality with high-resolution analysis using a single nucleotide polymorphism microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Takashima

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A 41-year old pregnant woman underwent amniocentesis to conduct a conventional karyotyping analysis; the analysis reported an abnormal karyotype: 46,XY,add(9(p24. Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA is utilized in prenatal diagnoses. A single nucleotide polymorphism microarray revealed a male fetus with balanced chromosomal translocations on 9p and balanced chromosomal rearrangements, but another chromosomal abnormality was detected. The fetus had microduplication. The child was born as a phenotypically normal male. CMA is a simple and informative procedure for prenatal genetic diagnosis. CMA is the detection of chromosomal variants of unknown clinical significance; therefore, genetic counseling is important during prenatal genetic testing.

  18. Performance Evaluation of Waterproofing Membrane Systems Subject to the Concrete Joint Load Behavior of Below-Grade Concrete Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyoung Song

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Below-grade structures such as parking lots, underground subway tunnels, and basements are growing in scale and reaching deeper below-ground levels. In this type of environment, they become subject to higher water pressure. The concrete material of the structures is exposed to wet conditions for longer periods of time, which makes the proper adhesion of waterproofing membranes difficult. Joint movements from increased structural settlement, thermal expansion/shrinkage, and physical loads from external sources (e.g., vehicles make securing durable waterproofing challenging. While ASTM Guides, Korean Codes, and BS Practice Codes on below-grade waterproofing stress the importance of manufacturer specification for quality control, ensuring high quality waterproofing for the ever-changing scale of construction remains a challenge. This study proposes a new evaluation method and criteria which allow for the selection of waterproofing membranes based on specific performance attributes and workmanship. It subjects six different waterproofing membrane systems (installed on dry and wet surface conditioned mortar slab specimens with an artificial joint to different cyclic movement widths to 300 cycles in water to demonstrate that inadequate material properties and workmanship are key causes for leakages.

  19. Pattern Analysis: The Question of Abnormality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, A. B.

    1984-01-01

    Addresses the question of abnormality when comparing a subject's score on each subtest with that subject's average subtest score on one of Weschler's scales. Suggests comparing each subtest score with the Verbal or Performance average rather than with the overall average. Provides tables estimating differences of standardization samples. (BH)

  20. Prediction of the structural response of the femoral shaft under dynamic loading using subject-specific finite element models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gwansik; Kim, Taewung; Forman, Jason; Panzer, Matthew B; Crandall, Jeff R

    2017-08-01

    The goal of this study was to predict the structural response of the femoral shaft under dynamic loading conditions using subject-specific finite element (SS-FE) models and to evaluate the prediction accuracy of the models in relation to the model complexity. In total, SS-FE models of 31 femur specimens were developed. Using those models, dynamic three-point bending and combined loading tests (bending with four different levels of axial compression) of bare femurs were simulated, and the prediction capabilities of five different levels of model complexity were evaluated based on the impact force time histories: baseline, mass-based scaled, structure-based scaled, geometric SS-FE, and heterogenized SS-FE models. Among the five levels of model complexity, the geometric SS-FE and the heterogenized SS-FE models showed statistically significant improvement on response prediction capability compared to the other model formulations whereas the difference between two SS-FE models was negligible. This result indicated the geometric SS-FE models, containing detailed geometric information from CT images with homogeneous linear isotropic elastic material properties, would be an optimal model complexity for prediction of structural response of the femoral shafts under the dynamic loading conditions. The average and the standard deviation of the RMS errors of the geometric SS-FE models for all the 31 cases was 0.46 kN and 0.66 kN, respectively. This study highlights the contribution of geometric variability on the structural response variation of the femoral shafts subjected to dynamic loading condition and the potential of geometric SS-FE models to capture the structural response variation of the femoral shafts.

  1. Large Deformation of an Elastic Rod with Structural Anisotropy Subjected to Fluid Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Masoud; Mureithi, Njuki; Gosselin, Frederick

    2015-11-01

    In the present work, we seek to understand the fundamental mechanisms of three-dimensional reconfiguration of plants by studying the large deformation of a flexible rod in fluid flow. Flexible rods made of Polyurethane foam and reinforced with Nylon fibers are tested in a wind tunnel. The rods have bending-torsion coupling which induces a torsional deformation during asymmetric bending. A mathematical model is also developed by coupling the Kirchhoff rod theory with a semi-empirical drag formulation. Different alignments of the material frame with respect to the flow direction and a range of structural properties are considered to study their effect on the deformation of the flexible rod and its drag scaling. Results show that twisting causes the flexible rods to reorient and bend with the minimum bending rigidity. It is also found that the drag scaling of the rod in the large deformation regime is not affected by torsion. Finally, using a proper set of dimensionless numbers, the state of a bending and twisting rod is characterized as a beam undergoing a pure bending deformation.

  2. Structural and functional social support in elderly objective and subjective health ratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Iglesias-Parro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the causes that explain the discrepancies between the effects of social relationships on health and wellness of the elderly people. Several disciplines of health sciences have developed different theories to explain the evidence that confirm the positive effects of social relations. Furthermore, there is acumuative evidence confirming most of the predictions derived from its principles. However, the empirical evidence has not always confirmed these beneficial relationships and sometimes these evidences contradict some of the theoretical predictions. Even, it is not difficult to find reversed effects. In this paper we follow some of the approaches developed from Social Psychology which analyze the different effects of social relationships on the health of older people. Two types of aspects of social relations have served to this purpose. First, the structural aspects (i.e., frequency of intercourse. Second, qualitative-functional aspects of great tradition in estudies of quality of life and wellbeing of older people (i.e. social support. Following the Convoy Model, we measured perceived social support and frecuency of relationships in 168 spaniards, men and women (aged 62 years old and more. We analyze these discrepancies in the light of the underlying mechanisms.

  3. [CHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALITIES IN PATIENTS WITH INFERTILITY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylyp, L Y; Spinenko, L O; Verhoglyad, N V; Kashevarova, O O; Zukin, V D

    2015-01-01

    To assess the frequency and structure of chromosomal abnormalities in patients with infertility, a retrospective analysis of cytogenetic studies of 3414 patients (1741 females and 1673 males), referred to the Clinic of reproductive medicine "Nadiya" from 2007 to 2012, was performed. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 2.37% patients: 2.79% in males and 1.95% in females. Balanced structural chromosomal abnormalities prevailed over numerical abnormalities and corresponded to 80.2% of all chromosomal abnormalities detected in the studied group. Sex chromosome abnormalities made up 23.5% of chromosomal pathology (19/81) and included gonosomal aneuploidies in 84% of cases (16/19) and structural abnormalities of chromosome Y in 16% of cases (3/19). The low level sex chromosome mosaicism was detected with the frequency of 0.55%. Our results highlight the importance of cytogenetic studies in patients seeking infertility treatment by assisted reproductive technologies, since an abnormal finding not only provide a firm diagnosis to couples with infertility, but also influences significantly the approach to infertility treatment in such patients.

  4. Identification of the Response of a Controlled Building Structure Subjected to Seismic Load by Using Nonlinear System Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosbeh R. Kaloop

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the prediction efficiency of nonlinear system-identification models, in assessing the behavior of a coupled structure-passive vibration controller. Two system-identification models, including Nonlinear AutoRegresive with eXogenous inputs (NARX and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS, are used to model the behavior of an experimentally scaled three-story building incorporated with a tuned mass damper (TMD subjected to seismic loads. The experimental study is performed to generate the input and output data sets for training and testing the designed models. The parameters of root-mean-squared error, mean absolute error and determination coefficient statistics are used to compare the performance of the aforementioned models. A TMD controller system works efficiently to mitigate the structural vibration. The results revealed that the NARX and ANFIS models could be used to identify the response of a controlled structure. The parameters of both two time-delays of the structure response and the seismic load were proven to be effective tools in identifying the performance of the models. A comparison based on the parametric evaluation of the two methods showed that the NARX model outperforms the ANFIS model in identifying structures response.

  5. The Structure and Contents of the English Written Entry Examination as a Major Subject at the Department of Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Светлана Евгеньевна Боброва

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article has been writing English entry examinations for PFUR for over a decade. In this article she analyses the structure and contents of the English language entry examination for prospective students of Linguistics at the Faculty of Philology. The requirements for the entry written test are set by the State standards of complete secondary education for foreign languages at the level of a major subject. The PFUR entry examination has always been written in accordance with recommendations of the Education and Science Ministry and the Federal Institute of Pedagogical Assessment.

  6. Next-generation sequencing of 100 candidate genes in young victims of suspected sudden cardiac death with structural abnormalities of the heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, C L; Christiansen, S L; Ferrero-Miliani, Laura

    2016-01-01

    SCD cases with non-diagnostic and diagnostic cardiac abnormalities, respectively. Although the interpretation of broad NGS screening is challenging, it can support the forensic investigation and help the cardiologist's decision to offer counselling and clinical evaluation to relatives of young SCD...

  7. Phenotype abnormality: 41 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 41 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u547i abnormal for trait of behavioral...ganelle ... abnormal ... anatomical structure arrangement ... behavioral quality

  8. Phenotype abnormality: 36 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 36 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u542i abnormal for trait of behavioral...tyledon ... abnormal ... anatomical structure arrangement ... behavioral quality

  9. Phenotype abnormality: 38 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 38 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u544i abnormal for trait of behavioral...idermis ... abnormal ... anatomical structure arrangement ... behavioral quality

  10. Non-linear modal analysis of structural components subjected to unilateral constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar, M.; Karrech, A.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we present a detailed numerical study of the non-linear dynamics in structural components under unilateral contact constraints. Here, the unilateral term characterises the constitutive law of the restoring force in the constraints as they only sustain elastic reactions in one direction, either compressive or tensile. Thus, the non-differentiability of the contact law at the discontinuity point is the only source of non-linearity. In our approach, the discrete lattice method (DLM) is used to treat the continuous system as a piecewise linear model. Thus, the trajectory of each node in the discrete model would be a sequence of smooth solutions with the switching times between them. The application of the one-step integration scheme allows us to detect the occurrence of contact (i.e. the instants that the lattice nodes cross the discontinuity boundary) and consequently update the active constraints. We also consider embedding the bisection algorithm into the time integration procedure to localise the instants at which the nodes cross the boundary and minimise the accumulative error. Subsequently, the resulting unconditionally stable integration scheme is utilised as the modelling tool in combination with the shooting technique to perform a novel non-smooth modal analysis. In analogy with the smooth non-linear systems, the evolution of non-smooth periodic motions is presented in the frequency-stiffness plots. We apply our method to obtain non-linear normal modes (NNMs) for a number of representative problems, including a bar-obstacle system, a beam-substrate system and a granular chain with tensionless interactions. These numerical examples demonstrate the efficiency of the solution procedure to trace the family of energy-independent non-linear modes across the range of contact stiffnesses. Moreover, the stability analysis of the modes on the plot backbone reveal that they may become unstable due to the interaction with the higher modes or bifurcation of

  11. Validation by numerical simulation of the behaviour of protective structures of machinery cabins subjected to standardized shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrache, P.; Goanţă, A. M.

    2017-08-01

    The ability of the cabins to insure the operator protection in the case of the shock loading that appears at the roll-over of the machine or when the cab is struck by the falling objects, it’s one of the most important performance criterions that it must comply by the machines and the mobile equipments. The experimental method provides the most accurate information on the behaviour of protective structures, but generates high costs due to experimental installations and structures which may be compromised during the experiments. In these circumstances, numerical simulation of the actual problem (mechanical shock applied to a strength structure) is a perfectly viable alternative, given that the hardware and software current performances provides the necessary support to obtain results with an acceptable level of accuracy. In this context, the paper proposes using FEA platforms for virtual testing of the actual strength structures of the cabins using their finite element models based on 3D models generated in CAD environments. In addition to the economic advantage above mentioned, although the results obtained by simulation using the finite element method are affected by a number of simplifying assumptions, the adequate modelling of the phenomenon can be a successful support in the design process of structures to meet safety performance criteria imposed by current standards. In the first section of the paper is presented the general context of the security performance requirements imposed by current standards on the cabins strength structures. The following section of the paper is dedicated to the peculiarities of finite element modelling in problems that impose simulation of the behaviour of structures subjected to shock loading. The final section of the paper is dedicated to a case study and to the future objectives.

  12. Optimization Design of Structures Subjected to Transient Loads Using First and Second Derivatives of Dynamic Displacement and Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qimao Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper developed an effective optimization method, i.e., gradient-Hessian matrix-based method or second order method, of frame structures subjected to the transient loads. An algorithm of first and second derivatives of dynamic displacement and stress with respect to design variables is formulated based on the Newmark method. The inequality time-dependent constraint problem is converted into a sequence of appropriately formed time-independent unconstrained problems using the integral interior point penalty function method. The gradient and Hessian matrixes of the integral interior point penalty functions are also computed. Then the Marquardt's method is employed to solve unconstrained problems. The numerical results show that the optimal design method proposed in this paper can obtain the local optimum design of frame structures and sometimes is more efficient than the augmented Lagrange multiplier method.

  13. Nail abnormalities in patients with vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topal, Ilteris Oguz; Gungor, Sule; Kocaturk, Ozgur Emek; Duman, Hatice; Durmuscan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary skin disorder affecting 0.1-4% of the general population. The nails may be affected in patients with an autoimmune disease such as psoriasis, and in those with alopecia areata. It has been suggested that nail abnormalities should be apparent in vitiligo patients. We sought to document the frequency and clinical presentation of nail abnormalities in vitiligo patients compared to healthy volunteers. We also examined the correlations between nail abnormalities and various clinical parameters. This study included 100 vitiligo patients and 100 healthy subjects. Full medical histories were collected from the subjects, who underwent thorough general and nail examinations. All nail changes were noted. In the event of clinical suspicion of a fungal infection, additional mycological investigations were performed. Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in the patients (78%) than in the controls (55%) (p=0.001). Longitudinal ridging was the most common finding (42%), followed by (in descending order): leukonychia, an absent lunula, onycholysis, nail bed pallor, onychomycosis, splinter hemorrhage and nail plate thinning. The frequency of longitudinal ridging was significantly higher in patients than in controls (pvitiligo patients than in controls. Systematic examination of the nails in such patients is useful because nail abnormalities are frequent. However, the causes of such abnormalities require further study. Longitudinal ridging and leukonychia were the most common abnormalities observed in this study.

  14. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Lucy; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common and debilitating condition with high direct and indirect costs. AUB frequently co-exists with fibroids, but the relationship between the two remains incompletely understood and in many women the identification of fibroids may be incidental to a menstrual bleeding complaint. A structured approach for establishing the cause using the Fédération International de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) PALM-COEIN (Polyp, Adenomyosis, Leiomyoma, Malignancy (and hyperplasia), Coagulopathy, Ovulatory disorders, Endometrial, Iatrogenic and Not otherwise classified) classification system will facilitate accurate diagnosis and inform treatment options. Office hysteroscopy and increasing sophisticated imaging will assist provision of robust evidence for the underlying cause. Increased availability of medical options has expanded the choice for women and many will no longer need to recourse to potentially complicated surgery. Treatment must remain individualised and encompass the impact of pressure symptoms, desire for retention of fertility and contraceptive needs, as well as address the management of AUB in order to achieve improved quality of life. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Left atrial mechanics strongly predict functional capacity assessed by cardiopulmonary exercise testing in subjects without structural heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Luís; Mendes, Sofia Lázaro; Baptista, Rui; Teixeira, Rogério; Oliveira-Santos, Manuel; Ribeiro, Nelson; Coutinho, Rosa; Monteiro, Victor; Martins, Rui; Castro, Graça; Ferreira, Maria João; Pego, Mariano

    2017-05-01

    Left atrium function is essential for cardiovascular performance and is evaluable by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (2D-STE). Our aim was to determine how echocardiographic parameters interrelate with exercise capacity and ventilatory efficiency in subjects with no structural heart disease. Asymptomatic volunteers, in sinus rhythm and with normal biventricular size and function, were recruited from a community-based population. Individuals with moderate-to-severe valvular disease, pulmonary hypertension, and history of cardiac disease were excluded. We performed a transthoracic echocardiogram and assessed left atrial (LA) and left ventricular (LV) mechanics via 2D-STE. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing by treadmill took place immediately thereafter. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2) served as measure of functional capacity and ventilation/carbon dioxide output (VE/VCO2) slope as surrogate of ventilation/perfusion mismatch. 20 subjects were included (age 51 ± 14 years, male gender 65%). Peak VO2 strongly correlated with age (r = -0.83; P mechanics, particularly with LA conduit strain rate (SR) (r = -0.82; P mechanics. A similar pattern of associations was identified for VE/VCO2 slope. In multivariate analysis, LA conduit SR (β = -0.69; P = 0.02) emerged as sole independent correlate of peak VO2, adjusted for age and for E/e' ratio (adjusted r 2  = 0.76; P mechanics displayed strong associations with peak VO2 and VE/VCO2 slope. LA conduit-phase SR seems best suited as echocardiographic marker of functional capacity in subjects with no structural heart disease.

  16. Calculation of a Tunnel Cross Section Subjected to Fire – with a New Advanced Transient Concrete Model for Reinforced Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Schneider

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the structural application of a new thermal induced strain model for concrete – the TIS-Model. An advanced transient concrete model (ATCM is applied with the material model of the TIS-Model. The non-linear model comprises thermal strain, elastic strain, plastic strain and transient temperature strains, and load history modelling of restraint concrete structures subjected to fire.The calculations by finite element analysis (FEA were done using the SAFIR structural code. The FEA software was basically new with respect to the material modelling derived to use the new TIS-Model (as a transient model considers thermal induced strain. The equations of the ATCM consider a lot of capabilities, especially for considering irreversible effects of temperature on some material properties. By considering the load history during heating up, increasing load bearing capacity may be obtained due to higher stiffness of the concrete. With this model, it is possible to apply the thermal-physical behaviour of material laws for calculation of structures under extreme temperature conditions.A tunnel cross section designed and built by the cut and cover method is calculated with a tunnel fire curve. The results are compared with the results of a calculation with the model of the Eurocode 2 (EC2-Model. The effect of load history in highly loaded structures under fire load will be investigated.A comparison of this model with the ordinary calculation system of Eurocode 2 (EC2 shows that a better evaluation of the safety level was achieved with the new model. This opens a space for optimizing concrete structure design with transient temperature conditions up to 1000 °C. 

  17. Structure, Texture and Phases in 3D Printed IN718 Alloy Subjected to Homogenization and HIP Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mostafa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing results in anisotropy in the microstructure and mechanical properties. The focus of this study is to investigate the structure, texture and phase evolution of the as-printed and heat treated IN718 superalloy. Cylindrical specimens, printed by powder-bed additive manufacturing technique, were subjected to two post-treatments: homogenization (1100 °C, 1 h, furnace cooling and hot isostatic pressing (HIP (1160 °C, 100 MPa, 4 h, furnace cooling. The Selective laser melting (SLM printed microstructure exhibited a columnar architecture, parallel to the building direction, due to the heat flow towards negative z-direction. Whereas, a unique structural morphology was observed in the x-y plane due to different cooling rates resulting from laser beam overlapping. Post-processing treatments reorganized the columnar structure of a strong {002} texture into fine columnar and/or equiaxed grains of random orientations. Equiaxed structure of about 150 µm average grain size, was achieved after homogenization and HIP treatments. Both δ-phase and MC-type brittle carbides, having rough morphologies, were formed at the grain boundaries. Delta-phase formed due to γ″-phase dissolution in the γ matrix, while MC-type carbides nucleates grew by diffusion of solute atoms. The presence of (Nb0.78Ti0.22C carbide phase, with an fcc structure having a lattice parameter a = 4.43 Å, was revealed using Energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS and X-ray diffractometer (XRD analysis. The solidification behavior of IN718 alloy was described to elucidate the evolution of different phases during selective laser melting and post-processing heat treatments of IN718.

  18. Effect of bidirectional internal flow on fluid–structure interaction dynamics of conveying marine riser model subject to shear current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Shou Chen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a numerical investigation concerning the effect of two kinds of axially progressing internal flows (namely, upward and downward on fluid–structure interaction (FSI dynamics about a marine riser model which is subject to external shear current. The CAE technology behind the current research is a proposed FSI solution, which combines structural analysis software with CFD technology together. Efficiency validation for the CFD software was carried out first. It has been proved that the result from numerical simulations agrees well with the observation from relating model test cases in which the fluidity of internal flow is ignorable. After verifying the numerical code accuracy, simulations are conducted to study the vibration response that attributes to the internal progressive flow. It is found that the existence of internal flow does play an important role in determining the vibration mode (/dominant frequency and the magnitude of instantaneous vibration amplitude. Since asymmetric curvature along the riser span emerges in the case of external shear current, the centrifugal and Coriolis accelerations owing to up- and downward internal progressive flows play different roles in determining the fluid–structure interaction response. The discrepancy between them becomes distinct, when the velocity ratio of internal flow against external shear current is relatively high.

  19. Chromosomal Abnormalities in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fragile X syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS, and other cytogenetic abnormalities among 100 children (64 boys with combined type ADHD and normal intelligence was assessed at the NIMH and Georgetown University Medical Center.

  20. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida El-Baz

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected in the studied autistic children, and so the relation between the genetics and autism still needs further work up with different study methods and techniques.

  1. Initial results of a study into the estimation of the development of frequency lock-in for offshore structures subjected to ice loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrikse, H.; Seidel, Marc; Metrikine, A.; Loset, Sveinung

    2017-01-01

    Ice-induced vibrations have to be considered in design of vertically sided offshore structures subjected to loading by sea ice, such as offshore wind turbines and oil- and gas platforms. The interaction between ice and structure may result in high global peak loads and the occurring structural

  2. Changes in the species composition and structure of the herb layer of a thermophilous oak forest subject to clear cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hieronim Andrzejewski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the herb layer of a thermophilous oak forest (Potentillo albae-Quercetum, subject to clear cutting and artificial reforestation with Scotch pine monoculture, were analysed by a comparative method. It was found that cutting of a tree stand and underbrush did not destroy phytocoenose totally. Floristically-rich clearance communities resembled in their composition and structure the ground layer of an natural form of an oak forest. The regress of the herb layer took place several years later in a young pine stand. Then, a compact tree canopy highly restricted light inflow to the bottom of a forest. Later, thinning of a forest stand enabled the herb layer to regenerate. Nevertheless, even 60 years after clear cutting it significantly differed from the herb layer of a natural oak forest.

  3. O sujeito do feminismo e o pós-estruturalismo The subject of feminism and post-structuralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Aparecida Mariano

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho aborda as críticas das teorias feministas pós-estruturalistas às teorizações do sujeito universal, rejeitando as noções de identidades essenciais de gênero. O ponto comum entre as pensadoras incluídas no trabalho é a necessidade de romper o esquema tradicional das tradições filosóficas ocidentais que se baseiam em esquemas dicotômicos de pensamento e assim desconstruir o pensamento binário. Suas diferenças, entretanto, situam-se especialmente no que diz respeito à re-construção do sujeito do feminismo. Esses debates envolvem, ao mesmo tempo, questões teóricas, metodológicas e políticas.This paper approaches the criticism of post-structural feminist theories as well as the theories of the universal subject, rejecting the notions of the essential identity of gender. The common point among the thinkers included in this work is the necessity to break with the traditional model of western philosophical traditions which are based upon dichotomous thinking models and thus deconstruct binary thinking. Their differences, however, lie especially in the area pertaining to the reconstruction of the subject of feminism. Such debates involve, at the same time, theoretical, methodological and political issues.

  4. The value of structured data elements from electronic health records for identifying subjects for primary care clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateya, Mohammad B; Delaney, Brendan C; Speedie, Stuart M

    2016-01-11

    An increasing number of clinical trials are conducted in primary care settings. Making better use of existing data in the electronic health records to identify eligible subjects can improve efficiency of such studies. Our study aims to quantify the proportion of eligibility criteria that can be addressed with data in electronic health records and to compare the content of eligibility criteria in primary care with previous work. Eligibility criteria were extracted from primary care studies downloaded from the UK Clinical Research Network Study Portfolio. Criteria were broken into elemental statements. Two expert independent raters classified each statement based on whether or not structured data items in the electronic health record can be used to determine if the statement was true for a specific patient. Disagreements in classification were discussed until 100 % agreement was reached. Statements were also classified based on content and the percentages of each category were compared to two similar studies reported in the literature. Eligibility criteria were retrieved from 228 studies and decomposed into 2619 criteria elemental statements. 74 % of the criteria elemental statements were considered likely associated with structured data in an electronic health record. 79 % of the studies had at least 60 % of their criteria statements addressable with structured data likely to be present in an electronic health record. Based on clinical content, most frequent categories were: "disease, symptom, and sign", "therapy or surgery", and "medication" (36 %, 13 %, and 10 % of total criteria statements respectively). We also identified new criteria categories related to provider and caregiver attributes (2.6 % and 1 % of total criteria statements respectively). Electronic health records readily contain much of the data needed to assess patients' eligibility for clinical trials enrollment. Eligibility criteria content categories identified by our study can be

  5. Chromosomal Abnormalities Associated with Neural Tube Defects (I): Full Aneuploidy

    OpenAIRE

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2007-01-01

    Fetuses with neural tube defects (NTDs) carry a risk of chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with other structural abnormalities, and family history of chromosome aberrations. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with NTDs in embryos, fetuses, and newborn patients, and a comprehensive review of numerical chromosomal abnormalities associated with NTDs, such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploi...

  6. Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes after Abnormal First Trimester Screening for Aneuploidy

    OpenAIRE

    Goetzl, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Women with abnormal first trimester screening but with a normal karyotype are at risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. A nuchal translucency >3.5mm is associated with an increased risk of subsequent pregnancy loss, fetal infection, fetal heart abnormalities and other structural abnormalities. Abnormal first trimester analytes are also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes but the predictive value is less impressive. As a single marker, PAPP-A

  7. Chromosomal abnormalities in patients with sperm disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Y. Pylyp

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal abnormalities are among the most common genetic causes of spermatogenic disruptions. Carriers of chromosomal abnormalities are at increased risk of infertility, miscarriage or birth of a child with unbalanced karyotype due to the production of unbalanced gametes. The natural selection against chromosomally abnormal sperm usually prevents fertilization with sperm barring in cases of serious chromosomal abnormalities. However, assisted reproductive technologies in general and intracytoplasmic sperm injection in particular, enable the transmission of chromosomal abnormalities to the progeny. Therefore, cytogenetic studies are important in patients with male factor infertility before assisted reproduction treatment. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the types and frequencies of chromosomal abnormalities in 724 patients with infertility and to estimate the risk of chromosomal abnormalities detection in subgroups of patients depending on the severity of spermatogenic disruption, aiming at identifying groups of patients in need of cytogenetic studies. Karyotype analysis was performed in 724 blood samples of men attending infertility clinic. Chromosomal preparation was performed by standard techniques. At least 20 GTG-banded metaphase plates with the resolution from 450 to 750 bands per haploid set were analysed in each case. When chromosomal mosaicism was suspected, this number was increased to 50. Abnormal karyotypes were observed in 48 (6.6% patients, including 67% of autosomal abnormalities and 33% of gonosomal abnormalities. Autosomal abnormalities were represented by structural rearrangements. Reciprocal translocations were the most common type of structural chromosomal abnormalities in the studied group, detected with the frequency of 2.6% (n = 19, followed by Robertsonian translocation, observed with the frequency of 1.2% (n = 9. The frequency of inversions was 0.6% (n = 4. Gonosomal abnormalities included 14 cases

  8. Neuroanatomical Abnormalities in Violent Individuals with and without a Diagnosis of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bene, Victor A; Foxe, John J; Ross, Lars A; Krakowski, Menahem I; Czobor, Pal; De Sanctis, Pierfilippo

    2016-01-01

    Several structural brain abnormalities have been associated with aggression in patients with schizophrenia. However, little is known about shared and distinct abnormalities underlying aggression in these subjects and non-psychotic violent individuals. We applied a region-of-interest volumetric analysis of the amygdala, hippocampus, and thalamus bilaterally, as well as whole brain and ventricular volumes to investigate violent (n = 37) and non-violent chronic patients (n = 26) with schizophrenia, non-psychotic violent (n = 24) as well as healthy control subjects (n = 24). Shared and distinct volumetric abnormalities were probed by analysis of variance with the factors violence (non-violent versus violent) and diagnosis (non-psychotic versus psychotic), adjusted for substance abuse, age, academic achievement and negative psychotic symptoms. Patients showed elevated vCSF volume, smaller left hippocampus and smaller left thalamus volumes. This was particularly the case for non-violent individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. Furthermore, patients had reduction in right thalamus size. With regard to left amygdala, we found an interaction between violence and diagnosis. More specifically, we report a double dissociation with smaller amygdala size linked to violence in non-psychotic individuals, while for psychotic patients smaller size was linked to non-violence. Importantly, the double dissociation appeared to be mostly driven by substance abuse. Overall, we found widespread morphometric abnormalities in subcortical regions in schizophrenia. No evidence for shared volumetric abnormalities in individuals with a history of violence was found. Finally, left amygdala abnormalities in non-psychotic violent individuals were largely accounted for by substance abuse. This might be an indication that the association between amygdala reduction and violence is mediated by substance abuse. Our results indicate the importance of structural abnormalities in aggressive individuals.

  9. Neuroanatomical Abnormalities in Violent Individuals with and without a Diagnosis of Schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor A Del Bene

    Full Text Available Several structural brain abnormalities have been associated with aggression in patients with schizophrenia. However, little is known about shared and distinct abnormalities underlying aggression in these subjects and non-psychotic violent individuals. We applied a region-of-interest volumetric analysis of the amygdala, hippocampus, and thalamus bilaterally, as well as whole brain and ventricular volumes to investigate violent (n = 37 and non-violent chronic patients (n = 26 with schizophrenia, non-psychotic violent (n = 24 as well as healthy control subjects (n = 24. Shared and distinct volumetric abnormalities were probed by analysis of variance with the factors violence (non-violent versus violent and diagnosis (non-psychotic versus psychotic, adjusted for substance abuse, age, academic achievement and negative psychotic symptoms. Patients showed elevated vCSF volume, smaller left hippocampus and smaller left thalamus volumes. This was particularly the case for non-violent individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. Furthermore, patients had reduction in right thalamus size. With regard to left amygdala, we found an interaction between violence and diagnosis. More specifically, we report a double dissociation with smaller amygdala size linked to violence in non-psychotic individuals, while for psychotic patients smaller size was linked to non-violence. Importantly, the double dissociation appeared to be mostly driven by substance abuse. Overall, we found widespread morphometric abnormalities in subcortical regions in schizophrenia. No evidence for shared volumetric abnormalities in individuals with a history of violence was found. Finally, left amygdala abnormalities in non-psychotic violent individuals were largely accounted for by substance abuse. This might be an indication that the association between amygdala reduction and violence is mediated by substance abuse. Our results indicate the importance of structural abnormalities in aggressive

  10. Single session imaging of cerebellum at 7 Tesla: obtaining structure and function of multiple motor subsystems in individual subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A Batson

    Full Text Available The recent increase in the use of high field MR systems is accompanied by a demand for acquisition techniques and coil systems that can take advantage of increased power and accuracy without being susceptible to increased noise. Physical location and anatomical complexity of targeted regions must be considered when attempting to image deeper structures with small nuclei and/or complex cytoarchitechtonics (i.e. small microvasculature and deep nuclei, such as the brainstem and the cerebellum (Cb. Once these obstacles are overcome, the concomitant increase in signal strength at higher field strength should allow for faster acquisition of MR images. Here we show that it is technically feasible to quickly and accurately detect blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal changes and obtain anatomical images of Cb at high spatial resolutions in individual subjects at 7 Tesla in a single one-hour session. Images were obtained using two high-density multi-element surface coils (32 channels in total placed beneath the head at the level of Cb, two channel transmission, and three-dimensional sensitivity encoded (3D, SENSE acquisitions to investigate sensorimotor activations in Cb. Two classic sensorimotor tasks were used to detect Cb activations. BOLD signal changes during motor activity resulted in concentrated clusters of activity within the Cb lobules associated with each task, observed consistently and independently in each subject: Oculomotor vermis (VI/VII and CrusI/II for pro- and anti-saccades; ipsilateral hemispheres IV-VI for finger tapping; and topographical separation of eye- and hand- activations in hemispheres VI and VIIb/VIII. Though fast temporal resolution was not attempted here, these functional patches of highly specific BOLD signal changes may reflect small-scale shunting of blood in the microvasculature of Cb. The observed improvements in acquisition time and signal detection are ideal for individualized investigations such as

  11. The structural changes of upper airway and newly developed sleep breathing disorders after surgical treatment in class III malocclusion subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ui Lyong; Oh, Hoon; Min, Sang Ki; Shin, Ji Ho; Kang, Yong Seok; Lee, Won Wook; Han, Young Eun; Choi, Young Jun; Kim, Hyun Jik

    2017-06-01

    Bimaxillary surgery is the traditional treatment of choice for correcting class III malocclusion which is reported to cause an alteration of oropharyngeal structures and upper airway narrowing that might be a predisposing factor for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This study aimed to analyze sleep parameters in class III malocclusion subjects and ascertain the prevalence of snoring or OSA following bimaxillary surgery.A total of 22 patients with Le Fort I osteotomy and mandibular setback for class III malocclusion were prospectively enrolled. All patients received endoscopic examination, cephalometry, 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT), and sleep study twice at 1 month before and 3 months after surgery.The patient population consisted of 5 males and 17 females with a mean body mass index of 22.5 kg/m and mean age of 22.1 years. No patients complained of sleep-related symptoms, and the results of sleep study showed normal values before surgery. Three patients (13%) were newly diagnosed with mild or moderate OSA and 6 patients (27%) showed increased loudness of snoring (over 40 dB) after bimaxillary surgery. According to cephalometric analysis and 3D-CT results, the retropalatal and retroglossal areas were significantly narrowed in class III malocclusion patients, showing snoring and sleep apnea after surgery. In addition, the total volume of the upper airway was considerably reduced following surgery in the same patients.Postoperative narrowing of the upper airway and a reduction of total upper airway volume can be induced, and causes snoring and OSA in class III malocclusion subjects following bimaxillary surgery.

  12. Single-subject voxel-based relaxometry for clinical assessment of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosior, Robert K; Lauzon, M Louis; Frayne, Richard; Federico, Paolo

    2009-09-01

    T2 relaxometry, quantitative assessment of T2 relaxation time in magnetic resonance (MR) data, typically uses manually drawn regions of interest (ROIs). This approach is limited by its subjectivity and its restricted scope of investigation. A recently developed approach called voxel-based relaxometry (VBR) provides an unbiased statistical analysis of the whole brain. Our objective was to assess the clinical utility of single-subject VBR for patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Forty-five patients with TLE confirmed by history, EEG, and structural MRI and 25 control subjects were scanned at 3T using a modified Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill MR sequence. ROIs were drawn for each patient and control subject, and measurements were made on unregistered T2 maps. VBR was performed on a single-subject basis at a significance level of alpha=0.05. Patients were grouped according to seizure focus (left mesial, right mesial, other), and whether structural MR imaging was normal or abnormal. Up to 85% of patients in the temporal lobe groups demonstrated T2 abnormalities. VBR detected abnormalities either in equal numbers or in more patients (up to 23% more) than ROI analysis for each group. The number of detected abnormalities per patient was higher using VBR (3.38 versus 2.04, p<0.05). VBR also identified abnormalities that were missed by ROI analysis. The rate of VBR detection of abnormalities was higher for patients than controls (76% versus 36%). VBR can be performed on single subjects with TLE and it detects considerably more abnormalities than ROI analysis. VBR may be a clinically useful tool for the detection of T2 abnormalities at the seizure focus and sites remote from it.

  13. Dynamic and static knee alignment at baseline predict structural abnormalities on MRI associated with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis after 2 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoudian, Armaghan; van Dieёn, Jaap H.; Bruijn, Sjoerd M.; Baert, Isabel A.C.; Faber, Gert S.; Luyten, Frank P.; Verschueren, Sabine M.P.

    2017-01-01

    Background Dynamic and static varus alignment, both, have been reported as risk factors associated with structural progression of knee osteoarthritis. However the association of none of the static and dynamic alignment with structural, clinical, and functional progression associated with knee

  14. Abnormal Head Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... non-ocular causes of an abnormal head position? Congenital shortening of the neck muscles (sternocleidomastoid) can cause a head tilt. This is ... amblyopia) are other treatment alternatives. Physical therapy helps congenital torticollis from tight neck muscles. Updated ... Terms & Conditions Most Common ...

  15. Flaxseed flour, compared to flaxseed oil, contributes to femoral structure in male rats subjected to early weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessanha, Carolina Ribeiro; da Camara Boueri, Bianca Ferolla; da Costa, Luanna Rodrigues; Ferreira, Maitê Rocha; de Abreu, Maíra Duque Coutinho; Pessoa, Letícia Rozeno; Pereira, Aline D'Avila; Ribeiro, Danielle Cavalcante; da Silva, Eduardo Moreira; da Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares; Boaventura, Gilson Teles

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze whether flaxseed flour or flaxseed oil treatment contributes to femoral structure in male rats subjected to early weaning. Pups were weaned for separation from mothers at 14 days (early weaning, EW) or 21 days (control, C). After 21 days, the control (C60) was fed with the control diet. The EW group was divided based on control (EWC60), flaxseed flour (EWFF60) and flaxseed oil (EWFO60) diets until 60 days. Femoral dimension, bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), area and biomechanical properties were determined. EWFO60 showed lower (P < 0.05) femur mass. EWC60 and EWFO60 showed lower (P < 0.05) distance between epiphyses, diaphysis width and BMD. BMC was lower (P < 0.05) in EWC60 (vs. C60 and EWFF60). EWC60 and EWFO60 showed lower (P < 0.05) maximum force (vs. C60). Breaking strength was lower (P < 0.05) in EWFO60 (vs. C60). EWFF60 showed higher (P < 0.05) rigidity. Flaxseed flour abbreviated the femoral fragility secondary to early weaning.

  16. Rare cytogenetic abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacher, Ulrike; Schanz, Julie; Braulke, Friederike; Haase, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    The karyotype represents one of the main cornerstones for the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) and the revised IPSS-R (IPSS-R) that are most widely used for prognostication in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). The most frequent cytogenetic abnormalities in MDS, i.e. del(5q), -7/del(7q), +8, complex karyotypes, or -Y have been extensively explored for their prognostic impact. The IPSS-R also considers some less frequent abnormalities such as del(11q), isochromosome 17, +19, or 3q abnormalities. However, more than 600 different cytogenetic categories had been identified in a previous MDS study. This review aims to focus interest on selected rare cytogenetic abnormalities in patients with MDS. Examples are numerical gains of the chromosomes 11 (indicating rapid progression), of chromosome 14 or 14q (prognostically intermediate to favorable), -X (in females, with an intermediate prognosis), or numerical abnormalities of chromosome 21. Structural abnormalities are also considered, e.g. del(13q) that is associated with bone marrow failure syndromes and favorable response to immunosuppressive therapy. These and other rare cytogenetic abnormalities should be integrated into existing prognostication systems such as the IPSS-R. However, due to the very low number of cases, this is clearly dependent on international collaboration. Hopefully, this article will help to inaugurate this process.

  17. RARE CYTOGENETIC ABNORMALITIES IN MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Schanz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The karyotype represents one of the main cornerstones for the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS and the revised IPSS-R (IPSS-R that are most widely used for prognostication in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS. The most frequent cytogenetic abnormalities in MDS, i.e. del(5q, -7/del(7q, +8, complex karyotypes, or –Y have been extensively explored for their prognostic impact. The IPSS-R considers also some less frequent abnormalities such as del(11q, isochromosome 17, +19, or 3q abnormalities. However, more than 600 different cytogenetic categories had been identified in a previous MDS study. This review aims to focus interest on selected rare cytogenetic abnormalities in patients with MDS. Examples are numerical gains of the chromosomes 11 (indicating rapid progression, of chromosome 14 or 14q (prognostically intermediate to favorable, -X (in females, with an intermediate prognosis, or numerical abnormalities of chromosome 21. Structural abnormalities are also considered, e.g. del(13q that is associated with bone marrow failure syndromes and favorable response to immunosuppressive therapy. These and other rare cytogenetic abnormalities should be integrated into existing prognostication systems such as the IPSS-R. However, due to the very low number of cases, this is clearly dependent on international collaboration. Hopefully, this article will help to inaugurate this process.

  18. [Neurocognitive and behavioural abnormalities in paediatric sleep-related breathing disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteller Moré, Eduard; Barceló Mongil, Mercé; Segarra Isern, Francesc; Piñeiro Aguín, Zenaida; Pujol Olmo, Albert; Soler, Eusebi Matiñó; Ademà Alcover, Joan Manel

    2009-01-01

    Behavioural and neurocognitive abnormalities in children may be a consequence of sleep-related breathing disorders. The effectiveness of assessments based on questioning parents is dubious and objective assessment tools are therefore required. To ascertain the impact of these abnormalities in children with sleep-related breathing disorders and compare the reliability of questioning parents in relation to validated psychological tests. A prospective study was performed on 20 children with sleep-related breathing disorders and 20 healthy control children between 3 and 12 years of age. Both groups were subjected to a battery of validated psychological tests. The results of both groups were compared with each other and with the response to clinical questionnaires given to parents in the problem group. More than 75% of the cases in the problem group presented abnormalities with regard to attention, anxiety, memory and spatial structuring. The percentage involvement in all concepts was higher in the problem group. Comparisons of attention (40% of children affected in the control group and 80% in the problem group), memory (50% and 84.2%), and spatial structuring (45% and 75%) were statistically significant. More abnormality was observed in the parameters assessed with psychological tests than the equivalent concept obtained from interviewing the parents. Comparison of abnormal concentration assessed from the questionnaires (40% of children affected) with attention during the psychological test (80%), memory (15% and 84.21%), and delayed language development (10%) compared to spatial structuring (75%) was statistically significant. A high prevalence of behavioural and neurocognitive abnormalities was observed in children with sleep-related breathing disorders compared to a control group of healthy children. The use of objective assessment such as psychological tests revealed more abnormalities than were expressed by parents in response to clinical interviews.

  19. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Fouad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1% individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8% at the second screening, (P <0.001. Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8% adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1% individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6% individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3% individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5% individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6% of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6% individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1% of them. Asymp- tomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9% of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6% of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8% indivi- duals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8% individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01 and (P <0.001, respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population.

  20. Subcortical biophysical abnormalities in patients with mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Yang, S; Ajilore, O; Wu, M; Charlton, R; Lamar, M

    2014-06-01

    Cortical-subcortical circuits have been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Structural and biochemical abnormalities have been identified in patients diagnosed with mood disorders using magnetic resonance imaging-related approaches. In this study, we used magnetization transfer (MT), an innovative magnetic resonance approach, to study biophysical changes in both gray and white matter regions in cortical-subcortical circuits implicated in emotional regulation and behavior. Our study samples comprised 28 patients clinically diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 31 non-depressed subjects of comparable age and gender. MT ratio (MTR), representing the biophysical integrity of macromolecular proteins within key components of cortical-subcortical circuits-the caudate, thalamic, striatal, orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate and dorsolateral regions-was the primary outcome measure. In our study, the MTR in the head of the right caudate nucleus was significantly lower in the MDD group when compared with the comparison group. MTR values showed an inverse relationship with age in both groups, with more widespread relationships observed in the MDD group. These data indicate that focal biophysical abnormalities in the caudate nucleus may be central to the pathophysiology of depression and critical to the cortical-subcortical abnormalities that underlie mood disorders. Depression may also accentuate age-related changes in the biophysical properties of cortical and subcortical regions. These observations have broad implications for the neuronal circuitry underlying mood disorders across the lifespan.

  1. Investigation of the Structural Relationships Between Social Support, Self-Compassion, and Subjective Well-Being in Korean Elite Student Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyunsoo; Lee, Keunchul; Kwon, Sungho

    2016-08-01

    The study examined whether self-compassion mediates the relationship between social support and subjective well-being, as perceived by athletes. It also investigated the structural relationships between these variables. Participants were 333 athletes attending high school or university. Structural equation analysis showed that self-compassion partially mediated the relationship between social support and subjective well-being. To test the stability of the model, a multiple group analysis was performed according to sex of participant and school level, and this demonstrated that the model had similar fit to the data regardless of group. The confirmation that self-compassion plays an intermediary role in the relationship between social support and subjective well-being demonstrates that self-compassionate attitudes can be fostered by social support, and that, in turn, has a positive effect on an individual's subjective well-being. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    OpenAIRE

    Benetti-Pinto, Cristina Laguna; Rosa-e-Silva, Ana Carolina Japur de Sá; Yela, Daniela Angerame; Soares Júnior,José Maria

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Abnormal uterine bleeding is a frequent condition in Gynecology. It may impact physical, emotional sexual and professional aspects of the lives of women, impairing their quality of life. In cases of acute and severe bleeding, women may need urgent treatment with volumetric replacement and prescription of hemostatic substances. In some specific cases with more intense and prolonged bleeding, surgical treatment may be necessary. The objective of this chapter is to describe the main evi...

  3. Decreased C-reactive protein induces abnormal vascular structure in a rat model of liver dysfunction induced by bile duct ligation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hye Jun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims Chronic liver disease leads to liver fibrosis, and although the liver does have a certain regenerative capacity, this disease is associated with dysfunction of the liver vessels. C-reactive protein (CRP is produced in the liver and circulated from there for metabolism. CRP was recently shown to inhibit angiogenesis by inducing endothelial cell dysfunction. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of CRP levels on angiogenesis in a rat model of liver dysfunction induced by bile duct ligation (BDL. Methods The diameter of the hepatic vein was analyzed in rat liver tissues using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining. The expression levels of angiogenic factors, albumin, and CRP were analyzed by real-time PCR and Western blotting. A tube formation assay was performed to confirm the effect of CRP on angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs treated with lithocholic acid (LCA and siRNA-CRP. Results The diameter of the hepatic portal vein increased significantly with the progression of cirrhosis. The expression levels of angiogenic factors were increased in the cirrhotic liver. In contrast, the expression levels of albumin and CRP were significantly lower in the liver tissue obtained from the BDL rat model than in the normal liver. The CRP level was correlated with the expression of albumin in hepatocytes treated with LCA and siRNA-CRP. Tube formation was significantly decreased in HUVECs when they were treated with LCA or a combination of LCA and siRNA-CRP. Conclusion CRP seems to be involved in the abnormal formation of vessels in hepatic disease, and so it could be a useful diagnostic marker for hepatic disease.

  4. The intelligent estimating of spinal column abnormalities by using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spinal column abnormities such as kyphosis and lordosis are the most common deformity that normally compare to the standard norms. To classify the subjects into the healthy and abnormal groups based on the angle values of the standard norms, the aim of this study was to use the artificial neural network method as a ...

  5. scMRI reveals large-scale brain network abnormalities in autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon A Zielinski

    Full Text Available Autism is a complex neurological condition characterized by childhood onset of dysfunction in multiple cognitive domains including socio-emotional function, speech and language, and processing of internally versus externally directed stimuli. Although gross brain anatomic differences in autism are well established, recent studies investigating regional differences in brain structure and function have yielded divergent and seemingly contradictory results. How regional abnormalities relate to the autistic phenotype remains unclear. We hypothesized that autism exhibits distinct perturbations in network-level brain architecture, and that cognitive dysfunction may be reflected by abnormal network structure. Network-level anatomic abnormalities in autism have not been previously described. We used structural covariance MRI to investigate network-level differences in gray matter structure within two large-scale networks strongly implicated in autism, the salience network and the default mode network, in autistic subjects and age-, gender-, and IQ-matched controls. We report specific perturbations in brain network architecture in the salience and default-mode networks consistent with clinical manifestations of autism. Extent and distribution of the salience network, involved in social-emotional regulation of environmental stimuli, is restricted in autism. In contrast, posterior elements of the default mode network have increased spatial distribution, suggesting a 'posteriorization' of this network. These findings are consistent with a network-based model of autism, and suggest a unifying interpretation of previous work. Moreover, we provide evidence of specific abnormalities in brain network architecture underlying autism that are quantifiable using standard clinical MRI.

  6. Abnormal Axon Reflex-Mediated Sweating Correlates with High State of Anxiety in Atopic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Kijima

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the number of study subjects was little, abnormal AXR sweating in patients with AD was observed. Correlative analysis suggests possible involvement of continuous anxiety and the immune system in such abnormal sudomotor function.

  7. Scrotal abnormalities and infertility in west African men: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine and compare the spectrum of scrotal abnormalities in fertile and sub-fertile west African men using scrotal US. Subjects and methods: The study examined 249 subjects over a period of 13 months. The subjects comprised 149 patients with diagnosis of male infertility, as well as 100 healthy ...

  8. Subjective cognitive impairment and brain structural networks in Chinese gynaecological cancer survivors compared with age-matched controls: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yingchun; Cheng, Andy S K; Song, Ting; Sheng, Xiujie; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Xiangyu; Chan, Chetwyn C H

    2017-11-28

    Subjective cognitive impairment can be a significant and prevalent problem for gynaecological cancer survivors. The aims of this study were to assess subjective cognitive functioning in gynaecological cancer survivors after primary cancer treatment, and to investigate the impact of cancer treatment on brain structural networks and its association with subjective cognitive impairment. This was a cross-sectional survey using a self-reported questionnaire by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cognitive Function (FACT-Cog) to assess subjective cognitive functioning, and applying DTI (diffusion tensor imaging) and graph theoretical analyses to investigate brain structural networks after primary cancer treatment. A total of 158 patients with gynaecological cancer (mean age, 45.86 years) and 130 age-matched non-cancer controls (mean age, 44.55 years) were assessed. Patients reported significantly greater subjective cognitive functioning on the FACT-Cog total score and two subscales of perceived cognitive impairment and perceived cognitive ability (all p values impairment (r = -0.388, p = 0.034). When compared with non-cancer controls, a considerable proportion of gynaecological cancer survivors may exhibit subjective cognitive impairment. This study provides the first evidence of brain structural network alteration in gynaecological cancer patients at post-treatment, and offers novel insights regarding the possible neurobiological mechanism of cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) in gynaecological cancer patients. As primary cancer treatment can result in a more random organisation of structural brain networks, this may reduce brain functional specificity and segregation, and have implications for cognitive impairment. Future prospective and longitudinal studies are needed to build upon the study findings in order to assess potentially relevant clinical and psychosocial variables and brain network measures, so as to more accurately understand the

  9. Imaging gastric structuring of lipid emulsions and its effect on gastrointestinal function: a randomized trial in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingoetter, Andreas; Radovic, Tijana; Buetikofer, Simon; Curcic, Jelena; Menne, Dieter; Fried, Michael; Schwizer, Werner; Wooster, Tim J

    2015-04-01

    Efficient fat digestion requires fat processing within the stomach and fat sensing in the intestine. Both processes also control gastric emptying and gastrointestinal secretions. We aimed to visualize the influence of the intragastric stability of fat emulsions on their dynamics of gastric processing and structuring and to assess the effect this has on gastrointestinal motor and secretory functions. Eighteen healthy subjects with normal body mass index (BMI) were studied on 4 separate occasions in a double-blind, randomized, crossover design. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of the gastrointestinal tract and blood triglycerides were recorded before and for 240 min after the consumption of the following 4 different fat emulsions: lipid emulsion 1 (LE1; acid stable, 0.33 μm), lipid emulsion 2 (LE2; acid stable, 52 μm), lipid emulsion 3 (LE3; acid unstable, solid fat, 0.32 μm), and lipid emulsion 4 (LE4; acid unstable, liquid fat, 0.38 μm). Intragastric emulsion instability was associated with a change in gastric emptying. Acid-unstable emulsions exhibited biphasic and faster emptying profiles than did the 2 acid-stable emulsions (P ≤ 0.0001). When combined with solid fat (LE3), different dynamics of postprandial gallbladder volume were induced (P ≤ 0.001). For acid-stable emulsions, a reduction of droplet size by 2 orders of magnitude [LE1 (0.33 μm) compared with LE2 (52 μm)] delayed gastric emptying by 38 min. Although acid-stable (LE1 and LE2) and redispersible (LE4) emulsions caused a constant increase in blood triglycerides, no increase was detectable for LE3 (P emulsions. The acute effects of lipid emulsions on gastric emptying, gallbladder volume, and triglyceride absorption are dependent on microstructural changes undergone during consumption. Gastric peristalsis and secretion were effective at redispersing pools of liquid fat in the stomach. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01253005. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Congenital genitourinary abnormalities in children with Williams-Beuren syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammour, Zein M; Gomes, Cristiano M; de Bessa, Jose; Pinheiro, Marcello S; Kim, Chong A E; Hisano, Marcelo; Bruschini, Homero; Srougi, Miguel

    2014-10-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by a gene deletion on chromosome 7q11.23. Patients with WBS usually show a group of features such as developmental delay, cardiovascular anomalies, mental retardation, and characteristic facial appearance. Abdominal wall defects, external genitalia anomalies, and structural abnormalities of the urinary tract have been scarcely evaluated and were the focus of our study. We prospectively evaluated 41 boys and 38 girls with WBS, with a mean age of 8.8 ± 4.1 (range 3-19 years). All patients were examined for the evaluation of inguinal and umbilical hernias and genital anomalies. All patients were offered a radiological evaluation, including urinary tract ultrasound, voiding cystourethrogram, and dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy (DMSA scan). Of the 41 boys, 30 (73.1%) had abnormalities on physical examination, including bilateral undescended testis in 13 (31.7%), retractile testis in four (9.7%), hypospadias in four (9.7%), and unilateral cryptorchidism in three (7.3%) patients. Of the 38 female subjects, 17 (44.7%) had at least one abnormality, including umbilical hernia in 11 (28.9%), unilateral inguinal hernia in four (10.5%), and bilateral inguinal hernia in three (7.8%) patients. Uroradiological abnormalities were found in 41 patients (51.9%). On sonography, six (7.6%) patients had unilateral hydronephrosis, three (3.8%) had a duplicated collecting system, and two (2.5%) had kidney stones. On DMSA, performed in 36 patients, four (11.1%) had unilateral renal scarring and two (5.5%) had bilateral renal scarring. Cystourethrography was obtained from 56 patients, of whom 27 (48.2%) had bladder diverticulum, 18 (32.1%) had bladder wall trabeculation, and three (5.3%) had vesicoureteral reflux. We found no association of urological abnormalities with cardiovascular defects. Patients with WBS have a high prevalence of abdominal wall, external genitalia, and urological abnormalities

  11. Prevalence of abnormalities in dental structure, position, and eruption pattern in a population of unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, Chiara; Meazzini, Maria C; Garattini, Giovanna; Brusati, Roberto

    2008-03-01

    To evaluate the dental characteristics of patients subjected to a protocol that included early secondary gingivoalveoloplasty (ESGAP). Panoramic radiographs of 87 patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and 29 with bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP) were evaluated. Missing and supernumerary teeth were also quantified on the cleft and noncleft side and in the maxilla and mandible. Crown and root malformations and tooth rotations were quantified. A subsample in permanent dentition was extrapolated to analyze canine eruption patterns. A total of 48.8% of the UCLP patients presented with missing permanent lateral incisors in the cleft area and 6.1% contralaterally. A total of 4.9% presented with missing second maxillary premolars on the cleft site and 1.2% contralaterally. A total of 7.3% presented with supernumerary lateral incisors, and 45% of the BCLP cleft sites presented with missing lateral incisors, while 25% of the cleft sites presented second maxillary premolars agenesis. Five percent of the cleft sites presented with supernumerary lateral incisors. Evaluation of the subsample in permanent dentition showed that 15.5% had a canine retention and 4.4% of the canines had to be surgically exposed. A significant association was observed between canine inclination and retention but not with absence of the lateral incisor. The frequency of dental anomalies in this sample was similar to other cleft populations. As surgical trauma has been suggested to damage forming teeth, the results of this study indicated that ESGAP has no detrimental influence on subsequent dental development.

  12. Temporal abnormalities in children with developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicario, Carmelo Mario; Rappo, Gaetano; Pepi, Annamaria; Pavan, Andrea; Martino, Davide

    2012-01-01

    Recent imaging studies have associated Developmental dyscalculia (DD) to structural and functional alterations corresponding Parietal and the Prefrontal cortex (PFC). Since these areas were shown also to be involved in timing abilities, we hypothesized that time processing is abnormal in DD. We compared time processing abilities between 10 children with pure DD (8 years old) and 11 age-matched healthy children. Results show that the DD group underestimated duration of a sub-second scale when asked to perform a time comparison task. The timing abnormality observed in our DD participants is consistent with evidence of a shared fronto-parietal neural network for representing time and quantity.

  13. "Ears of the lynx" sign in a marchiafava-bignami patient: structural basis and fiber-tracking DTI contribution to the understanding of this imaging abnormality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Felipe Torres; Rego, Milena Morais; do Rego, Jose Iram Mendonça; da Rocha, Antonio J

    2014-01-01

    The "ears of the lynx" sign was previously reported as a neuroimaging finding observed in patients with autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia in association with a thin corpus callosum (ARHSP-TCC). We report a patient with a chronic form of Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD) that presented with this imaging feature. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fiber-tracking data support that this finding is a consequence of the structural derangement, which enlarges a preexisting border zone of the bundles of fibers from the corpus callosum (CC) genu to the forceps minor and anterior corona radiata. Therefore, we assume that despite their pathological differences, damage to the anterior portion of the CC is responsible for the imaging similarities between MBD and ARHSP-TCC. Copyright © 2012 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  14. Abnormalities in structure and expression of the retinoblastoma gene in small cell lung cancer cell lines and xenografts in nude mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, K; Sorenson, G D; Pettengill, O S

    1990-01-01

    small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Absence of the 4.7 kilobase mRNA has been found to be frequent in SCLC, and it has been reported that the Rb Mr 110,000-116,000 protein product is always absent, even in tumors expressing Rb mRNA. Using Western blotting technique with a monoclonal antibody directed against...... the Rb protein, we investigated the expression of the Mr 110,000-116,000 Rb protein in SCLC tumors grown as xenografts in nude mice and/or as cell lines. Rb messenger RNA expression was determined by Northern blotting, and gross structural gene alterations were investigated by Southern blotting. Tumors...... established from 23 patients were studied. Seven of the tumors did not express Rb protein, whereas expression was detectable in 13. Three tumors were not investigated for protein expression. Only two tumors expressed Rb mRNA without detectable Rb protein expression. Gross DNA alterations were found in four...

  15. Skeletal muscle expression of the adhesion-GPCR CD97: CD97 deletion induces an abnormal structure of the sarcoplasmatic reticulum but does not impair skeletal muscle function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Zyryanova

    Full Text Available CD97 is a widely expressed adhesion class G-protein-coupled receptor (aGPCR. Here, we investigated the presence of CD97 in normal and malignant human skeletal muscle as well as the ultrastructural and functional consequences of CD97 deficiency in mice. In normal human skeletal muscle, CD97 was expressed at the peripheral sarcolemma of all myofibers, as revealed by immunostaining of tissue sections and surface labeling of single myocytes using flow cytometry. In muscle cross-sections, an intracellular polygonal, honeycomb-like CD97-staining pattern, typical for molecules located in the T-tubule or sarcoplasmatic reticulum (SR, was additionally found. CD97 co-localized with SR Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA, a constituent of the longitudinal SR, but not with the receptors for dihydropyridine (DHPR or ryanodine (RYR, located in the T-tubule and terminal SR, respectively. Intracellular expression of CD97 was higher in slow-twitch compared to most fast-twitch myofibers. In rhabdomyosarcomas, CD97 was strongly upregulated and in part more N-glycosylated compared to normal skeletal muscle. All tumors were strongly CD97-positive, independent of the underlying histological subtype, suggesting high sensitivity of CD97 for this tumor. Ultrastructural analysis of murine skeletal myofibers confirmed the location of CD97 in the SR. CD97 knock-out mice had a dilated SR, resulting in a partial increase in triad diameter yet not affecting the T-tubule, sarcomeric, and mitochondrial structure. Despite these obvious ultrastructural changes, intracellular Ca2+ release from single myofibers, force generation and fatigability of isolated soleus muscles, and wheel-running capacity of mice were not affected by the lack of CD97. We conclude that CD97 is located in the SR and at the peripheral sarcolemma of human and murine skeletal muscle, where its absence affects the structure of the SR without impairing skeletal muscle function.

  16. Symmetric and Asymmetric Patterns of Attraction Errors in Producing Subject-Predicate Agreement in Hebrew: An Issue of Morphological Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Avital; Dank, Maya

    2011-01-01

    A common characteristic of subject-predicate agreement errors (usually termed attraction errors) in complex noun phrases is an asymmetrical pattern of error distribution, depending on the inflectional state of the nouns comprising the complex noun phrase. That is, attraction is most likely to occur when the head noun is the morphologically…

  17. Single-subject independent component analysis-based intensity normalization in non-quantitative multi-modal structural MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazoglou, Sebastian; Würfel, Jens; Paul, Friedemann; Brandt, Alexander U; Scheel, Michael

    2017-04-22

    Non-quantitative MRI is prone to intersubject intensity variation rendering signal intensity level based analyses limited. Here, we propose a method that fuses non-quantitative routine T1-weighted (T1w), T2w, and T2w fluid-saturated inversion recovery sequences using independent component analysis and validate it on age and sex matched healthy controls. The proposed method leads to consistent and independent components with a significantly reduced coefficient-of-variation across subjects, suggesting potential to serve as automatic intensity normalization and thus to enhance the power of intensity based statistical analyses. To exemplify this, we show that voxelwise statistical testing on single-subject independent components reveals in particular a widespread sex difference in white matter, which was previously shown using, for example, diffusion tensor imaging but unobservable in the native MRI contrasts. In conclusion, our study shows that single-subject independent component analysis can be applied to routine sequences, thereby enhancing comparability in-between subjects. Unlike quantitative MRI, which requires specific sequences during acquisition, our method is applicable to existing MRI data. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Mídia e a figura do anormal na mira do sinóptico: a constituição discursiva de subjetividades femininas The media and the abnormal figure in the look of synoptic: the discursive constitution of feminine subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marluce Pereira da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, a partir de estudos foucaultianos, discutem-se as noções de masturbação, anomalia e práticas de confissão, associadas a investigações voltadas para as subjetividades femininas veiculadas pela mídia, cujas imagens apresentam modelos para a construção de novos sujeitos. Utilizam-se também como dispositivos analíticos os estudos de Zygmunt Bauman, apoiados em Thomas Mathiesen, acerca do sinóptico como novo mecanismo de poder em funcionamento na mídia, e alguns assinalados por Rosa Maria Bueno Fischer. O que se pretende é discutir a materialidade lingüístico-discursiva do depoimento-confissão de uma mulher negra, pobre e idosa, selecionado da novela Páginas da vida, exibida pela TV Globo, em 2006, a fim de se apreenderem os efeitos de sentido que poderiam construir um dos primeiros sinais de sua "anormalidade". Tal discussão aponta para a reinvenção de uma outra figura do "anormal", com implicações éticas, uma vez que a mulher subverte práticas discursivas advindas de certos saberes e poderes.Based on Foucault studies, this article discusses notions such as masturbation, anomaly and confession technique, associated to investigation related to the female subjectivities exposed by media, whose images present models for the construction of new subjects. It also uses as analytic dispositives the studies from Bauman, based on Thomas Mathiesen, about sinoptic as a new mechanism of power operated in the media, and some others pointed out by Rosa Maria Bueno Fischer. This study intends to discuss the linguistic-discursive materiality of the testimony-confession of a black, poor and aged woman, selected from the soap opera Páginas da vida, exhibited by TV Globo in 2006, with the purpose of apprehending the sense effects that might construct one of the first signs of her "abnormality". Such discussion points to the reinvention of another picture of "abnormal", what implies in an ethic attitude, once the woman breaks

  19. Analyzing the effect of large rotations on the seismic response of structures subjected to foundation local uplift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Abbas N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with seismic analysis of structures by taking into account soil-structure interaction where the structure is modeled by an equivalent flexible beam mounted on a rigid foundation that is supported by a Winkler like soil. The foundation is assumed to undergo local uplift and the rotations are considered to be large. The coupling of the system is represented by a series of springs and damping elements that are distributed over the entire width of the foundation. The non-linear equations of motion of the system were derived by taking into account the equilibrium of the coupled foundation-structure system where the structure was idealized as a single-degree-of-freedom. The seismic response of the structure was calculated under the occurrence of foundation uplift for both large and small rotations. The non-linear differential system of equations was integrated by using the Matlab command ode15s. The maximum response has been determined as function of the intensity of the earthquake, the slenderness of the structure and the damping ratio. It was found that considering local uplift with small rotations of foundation under seismic loading leads to unfavorable structural response in comparison with the case of large rotations.

  20. Abnormal functional-structural cingulum connectivity in mania: combined functional magnetic resonance imaging-diffusion tensor imaging investigation in different phases of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, M; Magioncalda, P; Saiote, C; Conio, B; Escelsior, A; Rocchi, G; Piaggio, N; Marozzi, V; Huang, Z; Ferri, F; Amore, M; Inglese, M; Northoff, G

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between structural connectivity (SC) and functional connectivity (FC) in the cingulum in bipolar disorder (BD) and its various phases. We combined resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and probabilistic tractographic diffusion tensor imaging to investigate FC and SC of the cingulum and its portions, the SC-FC relationship, and their correlations with clinical and neurocognitive measures on sustained attention in manic (n = 21), depressed (n = 20), and euthymic (n = 20) bipolar patients and healthy controls (HC) (n = 42). First, we found decreased FC between the anterior and posterior parts of the cingulum in manic patients when compared to depressed patients and HC. Second, we observed decreased SC of the cingulum bundle, particularly in its anterior part, in manic patients when compared to HC. Finally, alterations in the cingulum FC (but not SC) correlated with clinical severity scores while changes in the cingulum SC (but not FC) were related with neurocognitive deficits in sustained attention in BD. We demonstrate for the first time a reduction in FC and concomitantly in SC of the cingulum in mania, which correlated with psychopathological and neurocognitive parameters, respectively, in BD. This supports the central role of cingulum connectivity specifically in mania. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Three Unusual but Cytogenetically Similar Cases With up to Five Different Cell Lines Involving Structural and Numerical Abnormalities of Chromosome 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Isabel M.; Mascarenhas, Alexandra; Matoso, Eunice; Couceiro, Ana B.; Ramos, Lina; Dufke, Andreas; Mazauric, Marie; Stressig, Rüdiger; Kosyakova, Nadezda; Melo, Joana B.; Liehr, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    We report two prenatal and two postnatal diagnosed cases (the latter monozygotic twins) with ring chromosomes after GTG banding. All four, de novo r(18), cases turned out to be more complex after application of high-resolution molecular cytogenetics techniques such as use of fluorescence in situ hybridization, centromeric probes, multicolor banding, and locus-specific probes for chromosome 18. All four cases are mosaics involving chromosome 18 in up to five different cell lines, including 46,r(18); 46,dr(18); 47,r(18)x2; 46,mar(18); and 45,-18. Mosaicism sharing both numerical and structural anomalies is rare, but rings often appear as mosaics due to their mitotic instability. Overall, patients with ring chromosome 18 usually share clinical features of 18q- syndrome and, less frequently, those of 18p- syndrome. High-resolution molecular cytogenetics techniques were useful in the characterization of cases with dynamic mosaicism and in establishing the relationship between loss or gain of chromosomal material and the phenotype. PMID:17595336

  2. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Chuan-Bo, E-mail: send007@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); School of Neurosurgery, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishang Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Qian, Ruo-Bing, E-mail: rehomail@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Fu, Xian-Ming, E-mail: 506537677@qq.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Lin, Bin, E-mail: 274722758@qq.com [School of Neurosurgery, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishang Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Han, Xiao-Peng, E-mail: hanxiaopeng@163.com [Department of Psychology, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Niu, Chao-Shi, E-mail: niuchaoshi@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Wang, Ye-Han, E-mail: wangyehan@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China)

    2013-08-15

    Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA.

  3. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chuan-Bo; Qian, Ruo-Bing; Fu, Xian-Ming; Lin, Bin; Han, Xiao-Peng; Niu, Chao-Shi; Wang, Ye-Han

    2013-08-01

    Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Presurgical localization of abnormal parathyroid glands using a single injection of technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile: comparison of different techniques including factor analysis of dynamic structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blocklet, D. [Hopital Universitaire Erasme, Univ. Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium); Martin, P. [Hopital Universitaire Brugmann, Univ. Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium); Schoutens, A. [Hopital Universitaire Erasme, Univ. Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium); Verhas, M. [Hopital Universitaire Brugmann, Univ. Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium); Hooghe, L. [Hopital Universitaire Brugmann, Univ. Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium); Kinnaert, P. [Hopital Universitaire Erasme, Univ. Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)

    1997-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine which of the analytical techniques described for this method time-activity curves analysis of dynamic structures corresponds best with surgical findings, and to ascertain the potential overall contribution of presurgical scintigraphy. 55P patients were studied, 34 of whom presented with primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) and 21 with secondary HPT. After a 925 MBq injection of technetium-99m MIBI, a 40-min dynamic acquisition was performed and static images were acquired at 5, 20, 40 and 120 min using a gamma camera equipped with a pinhole collimator. Sensitivity was 84.4%, 74% and 65% in adenoma and 76%, 66.6% and 45% in hyperplasia for 15`-120`, FADS and TACs, respectively. Surgical accuracy was 72%, 56% and 59% in adenoma and 53%, 30% and 22% in hyperplasia for 15`-120`, FADS and TACs, respectively. The visual comparison method scored best in all cases. FADS was found to be sensitive in cases of adenoma but was handicapped by more false-positive localizations. TACs were particular inefficient in hyperplasia. With respect to the detection of adenomas, we found a relationship between the gland weight and scintigraphic positivity. This dependence was not found in hyperplasia. The poorer results obtained with all techniques for surgical accuracy can be explained by the need for a complete scintigraphic description of all pathological glands found by the surgeon in a patient. This study demonstrates that the 15`-120` visual comparison method is more efficient However, it was less efficient than neck exploration by an experienced surgeon. (orig./ vhe) (orig.). With 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Abnormal structure and functional connectivity of the anterior insula at pain-free periovulation is associated with perceived pain during menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dun, Wang-Huan; Yang, Jing; Yang, Ling; Ding, Dun; Ma, Xue-Ying; Liang, Feng-Li; von Deneen, Karen M; Ma, Shao-Hui; Xu, Xiao-Ling; Liu, Jixin; Zhang, Ming

    2017-12-01

    Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated the critical role of the insula in pain pathways and its close relation with the perceived intensity of nociceptive stimuli. We aimed to identify the structural and functional characteristics of the insula during periovulatory phase in women with primary dysmenorrhea (PDM), and further investigate its association with the intensity of perceived pain during menstruation. Optimized voxel-based morphometry and functional connectivity (FC) analyses were applied by using 3-dimensional T1-weighted and resting functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 36 patients at the peri-ovulation phase and 29 age-, education-, and gender-matched healthy controls (HC). A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to examine the intensity of the abdominal pain at periovulation and menstruation. In our results, PDM patients had significant higher VAS-rating during menstruaion than periovulation. Compared with the HC, PDM patients had lower gray matter density in the left anterior insula (aINS). Taken the left aINS as a seed region, we further found hypoconnectivity between aINS and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which showed negative relation with the VAS during menstruation. As the aINS is a key site of the salience network (SN) and the mPFC is a critical region in the default mode network (DMN), it's implicated a trait-related central-alteration that communications between pain attention and perception networks were disrupted without the ongoing menstrual pain. Moreover, result of correlation analysis, at least in part, suggested a possible role of altered FC (pain-free period) in predicting pain perception (menstruation).

  6. Comparison of Energy Dissipation, Stiffness, and Damage of Structural Oriented Strand Board (OSB, Conventional Gypsum, and Viscoelastic Gypsum Shearwalls Subjected to Cyclic Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S. Blasetti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A key element in the seismic load resisting system of a wood framed structure is the shear wall which is typically sheathed on one side with plywood or oriented strand board (OSB and gypsum on the other. The shear capacity of gypsum sheathed shear walls is typically neglected in high seismic areas due to the susceptibility of conventional drywall screw connections to damage caused by earthquakes. The earthquake resistance of an innovative viscoelastic (VE gypsum shearwall is evaluated and compared to conventional structural and non-structural walls. Ten 8 ft × 8 ft wood framed wall specimens of three configurations [nailed-OSB, screw-gypsum, and VE polymer-gypsum] were subjected to a cyclic test protocol. The energy dissipation, stiffness, and damage characteristics of all shearwalls are reported herein. Testing results indicate the VE-gypsum walls can dissipate more energy than the OSB structural panels and 500% more energy that the conventional gypsum sheathed walls and contains a constant source of energy dissipation not seen in the structural and non-structural walls. The wall stiffness of the OSB wall degrades at a far greater rate that the VE gypsum wall and at continued cycling degrades below the VE wall stiffness. Unlike both of the conventional wall types, the VE wall showed no visible or audible signs of damage when subjected to shear displacements up to 1.

  7. Quantitative Evaluation of Trabecular Bone Structure by Calcaneus MR Images Texture Analysis of Healthy Volunteers and Osteoporotic Subjects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herlidou, S

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate, in vivo, trabecular bone structure of the calcaneus of healthy volunteers and osteoporotic patients by texture analysis of MR images Automated methods of texture...

  8. Striatal morphology correlates with sensory abnormalities in unaffected relatives of cervical dystonia patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Richard A

    2012-02-01

    Structural grey matter abnormalities have been described in adult-onset primary torsion dystonia (AOPTD). Altered spatial discrimination thresholds are found in familial and sporadic AOPTD and in some unaffected relatives who may be non-manifesting gene carriers. Our hypothesis was that a subset of unaffected relatives with abnormal spatial acuity would have associated structural abnormalities. Twenty-eight unaffected relatives of patients with familial cervical dystonia, 24 relatives of patients with sporadic cervical dystonia and 27 control subjects were recruited. Spatial discrimination thresholds (SDTs) were determined using a grating orientation task. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images (1.5 T) were analysed using voxel-based morphometry. Unaffected familial relatives with abnormal SDTs had reduced caudate grey matter volume (GMV) bilaterally relative to those with normal SDTs (right Z = 3.45, left Z = 3.81), where there was a negative correlation between SDTs and GMV (r = -0.76, r(2) = 0.58, p < 0.0001). Familial relatives also had bilateral sensory cortical expansion relative to unrelated controls (right Z = 4.02, left Z = 3.79). Unaffected relatives of patients with sporadic cervical dystonia who had abnormal SDTs had reduced putaminal GMV bilaterally compared with those with normal SDTs (right Z = 3.96, left Z = 3.45). Sensory abnormalities in some unaffected relatives correlate with a striatal substrate and may be a marker of genetic susceptibility in these individuals. Further investigation of grey matter changes as a candidate endophenotype may assist future genetic studies of dystonia.

  9. Scope and selection of structures subject to aging management review; Alcance y seleccion de estructuras sujetas a revision de gestion de envejecimiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, G.; Diaz, A.; Viais, J.; Carmona, M. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Santander, L., E-mail: gonzalo.mendoza@inin.gob.mx [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Carretera Cardel-Nautla Km. 42.5, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    The purpose of this work is to determine the structures included within the scope of license renewal based on the performance of the functions and select those intended for aging management review; one purpose is to show the methodology used to establish the structure and structural components that are subject to a review of aging management, within the framework of license renewal rule. This is through the application of different types of structures and structural components related and unrelated to safety located in the rooms of the reactor building where there are components of the reactor core isolation cooling system (Rcic), these structures are poured concrete, concrete block, structural steel, shielding walls, attached metal, pile foundations, etc.; other non- security related , such as: 1) inherent characteristics not related to security that protect the equipment related to the safety of the missiles, that is, walls, low walls, dikes, doors, etc., which also provide flood barriers to structures, systems and components related to safety, 2 ) whipping restrictions on non- security, shields mitigation jet, vent panels , etc. that are designed and installed to protect equipment related with the safety of the effects of a broken line of high energy. Only rooms where there are components of the Rcic 68 structures within the scope were identified. (Author)

  10. Skeletal muscle abnormalities and genetic factors related to vertical talus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Laura J; Gurnett, Christina A; Connolly, Anne M; Pestronk, Alan; Dobbs, Matthew B

    2011-04-01

    Congenital vertical talus is a fixed dorsal dislocation of the talonavicular joint and fixed equinus contracture of the hindfoot, causing a rigid deformity recognizable at birth. The etiology and epidemiology of this condition are largely unknown, but some evidence suggests it relates to aberrations of skeletal muscle. Identifying the tissue abnormalities and genetic causes responsible for vertical talus has the potential to lead to improved treatment and preventive strategies. We therefore (1) determined whether skeletal muscle abnormalities are present in patients with vertical talus and (2) identified associated congenital anomalies and genetic abnormalities in these patients. We identified associated congenital anomalies and genetic abnormalities present in 61 patients affected with vertical talus. We obtained abductor hallucis muscle biopsy specimens from the affected limbs of 11 of the 61 patients and compared the histopathologic characteristics with those of age-matched control subjects. All muscle biopsy specimens (n = 11) had abnormalities compared with those from control subjects including combinations of abnormal variation in muscle fiber size (n = 7), type I muscle fiber smallness (n = 6), and abnormal fiber type predominance (n = 5). Isolated vertical talus occurred in 23 of the 61 patients (38%), whereas the remaining 38 patients had associated nervous system, musculoskeletal system, and/or genetic and genomic abnormalities. Ten of the 61 patients (16%) had vertical talus in one foot and clubfoot in the other. Chromosomal abnormalities, all complete or partial trisomies, were identified in three patients with vertical talus who had additional congenital abnormalities. Vertical talus is a heterogeneous birth defect resulting from many diverse etiologies. Abnormal skeletal muscle biopsies are common in patients with vertical talus although it is unclear whether this is primary or secondary to the joint deformity. Associated anomalies are present in 62

  11. Y chromosome haplogroups in autistic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamain, S; Quach, H; Quintana-Murci, L; Betancur, C; Philippe, A; Gillberg, C; Sponheim, E; Skjeldal, O H; Fellous, M; Leboyer, M; Bourgeron, T

    2002-01-01

    The male to female ratio in autism is 4:1 in the global autistic population, but increases to 23:1 in autistic subjects without physical or brain abnormalities.(1) Despite this well-recognised gender difference, male predisposition to autistic disorder remains unexplained and the role of sex chromosomes is still debated. Numerical and structural abnormalities of the sex chromosomes are among the most frequently reported chromosomal disorders associated with autism. However, genome scans have failed to detect linkage on the X chromosome(2,3,4) and this approach cannot study the non-recombining region of the Y chromosome. In this study, we searched for a specific Y chromosome effect in autistic subjects. Using informative Y-polymorphic markers, the Y chromosome haplotypes of 111 autistic subjects from France, Sweden and Norway were defined and compared with relevant control populations. No significant difference in Y-haplotype distribution between the affected and control groups was observed. Although this study cannot exclude the presence of a Y susceptibility gene, our results are not suggestive of a Y chromosome effect in autism.

  12. risk factors for abnormal tubal hysterosalpingographic findings in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    12,13,14 therapeutic also. The goal of this study is to check the tubal abnormalities of women with infertility as seen on. HSG in Jos and correlate it with some com .... abortions. Structural abnormalities of female reproductive system follow exposure to some of these risk factors. Women who had prior multiple sexual partners,.

  13. Sonographically determined anomalies and outcome in 170 chromosomally abnormal fetuses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Wladimiroff (Juriy); W.R. Bhaggoe (W.); M.J.E. Kristelijn (M. J E); T.E. Cohen-Overbeek (Titia); N.S. den Hollander (Nicolette); H. Brandenburg (Helen); F.J. Los

    1995-01-01

    textabstractStructural pathology and outcome were studied in 170 chromosomally abnormal fetuses. Numerical chromosomal abnormalities were established in 158 (93 per cent) cases, of which 110 (71 per cent) represented trisomies, 30 (18 per cent) Turner syndrome, and 18 (11 per cent) triploidy.

  14. Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes after Abnormal First Trimester Screening for Aneuploidy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetzl, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Women with abnormal first trimester screening but with a normal karyotype are at risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. A nuchal translucency >3.5mm is associated with an increased risk of subsequent pregnancy loss, fetal infection, fetal heart abnormalities and other structural abnormalities. Abnormal first trimester analytes are also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes but the predictive value is less impressive. As a single marker, PAPP-A screening with the possible addition of uterine artery PI assessment in the midtrimester. PMID:20638576

  15. Evaluation of nail abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Amber S; Trayes, Kathryn P; Studdiford, James S

    2012-04-15

    Knowledge of the anatomy and function of the nail apparatus is essential when performing the physical examination. Inspection may reveal localized nail abnormalities that should be treated, or may provide clues to an underlying systemic disease that requires further workup. Excessive keratinaceous material under the nail bed in a distal and lateral distribution should prompt an evaluation for onychomycosis. Onychomycosis may be diagnosed through potassium hydroxide examination of scrapings. If potassium hydroxide testing is negative for the condition, a nail culture or nail plate biopsy should be performed. A proliferating, erythematous, disruptive mass in the nail bed should be carefully evaluated for underlying squamous cell carcinoma. Longitudinal melanonychia (vertical nail bands) must be differentiated from subungual melanomas, which account for 50 percent of melanomas in persons with dark skin. Dystrophic longitudinal ridges and subungual hematomas are local conditions caused by trauma. Edema and erythema of the proximal and lateral nail folds are hallmark features of acute and chronic paronychia. Clubbing may suggest an underlying disease such as cirrhosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or celiac sprue. Koilonychia (spoon nail) is commonly associated with iron deficiency anemia. Splinter hemorrhages may herald endocarditis, although other causes should be considered. Beau lines can mark the onset of a severe underlying illness, whereas Muehrcke lines are associated with hypoalbuminemia. A pincer nail deformity is inherited or acquired and can be associated with beta-blocker use, psoriasis, onychomycosis, tumors of the nail apparatus, systemic lupus erythematosus, Kawasaki disease, and malignancy.

  16. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  17. Chromosomal Abnormalities in Offspring of Young Cancer Survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Betina Frydenlund; Schmidt, Anne Aarslev; Mulvihill, John J

    2018-01-01

    Danish cancer survivors and 40 859 offspring (40 794 live-born children and 65 fetuses) of 19 536 siblings. Chromosomal abnormalities include numeric and structural abnormalities. Odds ratios were estimated by multiple logistic regression models comparing the risk of chromosomal abnormalities among...... compared with their siblings' offspring (odds ratio = 0.99, 95% confidence interval = 0.67 to 1.44, two-sided P = .94), with similar risk between male and female survivors. Cancer survivors were not more likely than their siblings to have children with a chromosomal abnormality.......To examine whether cancer survivors diagnosed before age 35 years are more likely to have offspring with chromosomal abnormalities than their siblings, chromosomal abnormalities were determined in a population-based cohort of 14 611 offspring (14 580 live-born children and 31 fetuses) of 8945...

  18. Computer Program of SIE ASME-NH Code for Structural Integrity Evaluation of Next Generation Reactors Subjecting to Elevated Temperature Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Lee, J. H

    2006-03-15

    In this report, the SIE ASME (Structural Integrity Evaluations by ASME-NH), which has a computerized implementation of ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Code Section III Subsection NH rules, is developed to apply to the next generation reactor design subjecting to the elevated temperature operations over 500 .deg. C and over 30 years design lifetime, and the user's manual for this program is described in detail.

  19. A Multilevel Structural Equation Model of Within- and Between-Person Associations among Subjective Responses to Alcohol, Craving, and Laboratory Alcohol Self-Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardell, Jeffrey D.; Ramchandani, Vijay A.; Hendershot, Christian S.

    2017-01-01

    Subjective responses to alcohol are important determinants of drinking behavior and have been linked with risk for alcohol use disorders. However, few attempts have been made to examine proximal within-person associations among state changes in subjective responses and ongoing alcohol self-administration in the laboratory. This study disaggregated within- and between-person associations among subjective responses and alcohol self-administration, while also examining the mediating role of craving and the moderating role of trait impaired control over alcohol. Sixty young heavy drinkers (mean age=19.90, SD=0.86) completed self-report measures including the Impaired Control Scale, then participated in a 2-hour intravenous alcohol self-administration session using the Computer-Assisted Self-infusion of Ethanol (CASE) paradigm. Repeated assessments of subjective stimulation, subjective sedation, and craving were examined in relation to ongoing in-session self-administration, as indexed by breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) assessed 15 minutes later. Multilevel structural equation modeling was used to disentangle within-person and between-person associations. The results showed few significant associations at the between-person level, except for a direct negative association between sedation and BrAC. At the within-person level, state fluctuations in stimulation were positively associated with both craving and subsequent BrAC, whereas state changes in sedation were negatively associated with craving and positively associated with BrAC. Within-person indirect associations from subjective stimulation and sedation to subsequent BrAC mediated via craving were statistically significant. Also, participants higher on impaired control showed stronger within-person associations between craving and greater subsequent BrAC. The results suggest that subjective responses to alcohol and craving have proximal associations with self-administration behavior, the strength of which is

  20. Employment transitions in the Netherlands, 1980–2004: Are low educated men subject to structural or cyclical crowding out?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gesthuizen, M.J.W.; Wolbers, M.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses whether low educated men are displaced from their jobs by higher educated workers in the Netherlands in the period 1980–2004. In particular, we test whether structural or cyclical crowding out is predominant in the Dutch labor market. In order to do so, we try to explain the

  1. Employment transitions in the Netherlands, 1980-2004 : are low-educated men subject to structural or cyclical crowding out?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gesthuizen, M.; Wolbers, M.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses whether low educated men are displaced from their jobs by higher educated workers in the Netherlands in the period 1980–2004. In particular, we test whether structural or cyclical crowding out is predominant in the Dutch labor market. In order to do so, we try to explain the

  2. A semi-structured, phenomenologically oriented psychiatric interview: Descriptive congruens in assessing anomalous subjective experience and mental status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Julie Elisabeth Nordgaard; Parnas, Josef Stefan Stanislaw

    2012-01-01

    , phenomenological-oriented semi-structured interview. Limitations: The major limitation of the study is a relatively small sample size, conditioned by the time-consuming nature of the individual interviews. Second, we should have included a measurement of reliability in a less experiencedrecently EASE...

  3. Structure and Maintenance of a Mathematical Creative Lesson as a Mean of Pupils' Meta-Subject Results Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorev, Pavel M.; Aydar M. Kalimullin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the research is to study and change the structure of a mathematical lesson to improve quality of pupils' mathematical training and design mechanisms of inclusion the systems of open type tasks in educational process considering specifics of pupils' creative personality development. The leading method is modeling of a mathematical…

  4. A semi-structured, phenomenologically oriented psychiatric interview: Descriptive congruens in assessing anomalous subjective experience and mental status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Julie Elisabeth Nordgaard; Parnas, Josef Stefan Stanislaw

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The contemporary methodology in obtaining psychopathological information relies almost exclusively on the use of structured questionnaires and interview schedules. These interviews yield high interrater reliability and reduce cost. The assessments of anomalous self-experience and of me......-introduced rater, since it is that kind of researchers that are typically enrolled for the empirical data collections....

  5. Haplotype structure of the beta2-adrenergic receptor gene in 814 Danish Caucasian subjects and association with body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Kamp; Nielsen, Morten; Koefoed, Pernille

    2009-01-01

    Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified in the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2). By the use of five SNPs (G46A, C79G, C491T, C523A, G1053C) for identification of ADRB2 haplotypes in 814 Danish Caucasians, we investigated whether ADRB2 haplotypes are associated...... with body mass index (BMI). The SNPs showed organization into 13 distinct haplotypes and 41 haplotype pairs. The study identified four common haplotypes: ACCCC (10.1 +/- 0.3 %), ACCCG (27.9 +/- 0.3 %), GCCAC (10.8 +/- 0.1 %) and GGCCG (41.0 +/- 0.2 %) (frequencies (SD), seen in 91 % of the population....... In the total population (mean age +/- SD: 50 +/- 16 years), BMI was not related to haplotype pairs, individual SNPs or allelic haplotypes. However, in subjects haplotype groups (p = 0.014) but were not related...

  6. White matter abnormalities of microstructure and physiological noise in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hu; Newman, Sharlene D; Kent, Jerillyn S; Bolbecker, Amanda; Klaunig, Mallory J; O'Donnell, Brian F; Puce, Aina; Hetrick, William P

    2015-12-01

    White matter abnormalities in schizophrenia have been revealed by many imaging techniques and analysis methods. One of the findings by diffusion tensor imaging is a decrease in fractional anisotropy (FA), which is an indicator of white matter integrity. On the other hand, elevation of metabolic rate in white matter was observed from positron emission tomography (PET) studies. In this report, we aim to compare the two structural and functional effects on the same subjects. Our comparison is based on the hypothesis that signal fluctuation in white matter is associated with white matter functional activity. We examined the variance of the signal in resting state fMRI and found significant differences between individuals with schizophrenia and non-psychiatric controls specifically in white matter tissue. Controls showed higher temporal signal-to-noise ratios clustered in regions including temporal, frontal, and parietal lobes, cerebellum, corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and other major white matter tracts. These regions with higher temporal signal-to-noise ratio agree well with those showing higher metabolic activity reported by studies using PET. The results suggest that individuals with schizophrenia tend to have higher functional activity in white matter in certain brain regions relative to healthy controls. Despite some overlaps, the distinct regions for physiological noise are different from those for FA derived from diffusion tensor imaging, and therefore provide a unique angle to explore potential mechanisms to white matter abnormality.

  7. Complementary numerical–experimental benchmarking for shape optimization and validation of structures subjected to wave and current forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markus, D.; Ferri, Francesco; Wüchner, R.

    2015-01-01

    A new benchmark problem is proposed and evaluated targeting fluid related shape optimization problems, motivated by design related ocean engineering tasks. The analyzed test geometry is a bottom mounted, polygonal structure in a channel flow. The aim of the study is to analyze the effect of shape...... is to provide clear and thorough information for validation and verification of methods and codes used to analyze fluid related shape optimization problems....... variations of the structure on the resulting horizontal forces. Steady current conditions, dynamic loading due to waves, and combined wave–current scenarios are considered. A clear focus is put on simplicity and reproducibility, allowing for efficient testing of related methods and codes. This is achieved...

  8. Prediction of Global Damage and Reliability Based Upon Sequential Identification and Updating of RC Structures Subject to Earthquakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Skjærbæk, P. S.; Köylüoglu, H. U.

    The paper deals with the prediction of global damage and future structural reliability with special emphasis on sensitivity, bias and uncertainty of these predictions dependent on the statistically equivalent realizations of the future earthquake. The predictions are based on a modified Clough......-Johnston single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) oscillator with three parameters which are calibrated to fit the displacement response and the damage development in the past earthquake....

  9. [STRUCTURAL ABNORMALITIES OF THE OBSTRUCTED URETEROVESICAL JUNCTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkov, S M; Rusakov, A A; Semikina, E L; Jacyk, S P; Burkin, A G

    2015-01-01

    The article presents a morphological study of UVJ removed during surgery in 110 children with stage III hydronephrosis. Morphological changes in resected UVJs indicate a predominance of sclerotic transformation accompanied by different types of dysplasia.

  10. Structural Behaviour of Precast Reinforced Concrete Frames on a Non-Engineered Building Subjected to Lateral Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Teguh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Past earthquakes in Indonesia have caused loss of life and major damage to buildings and infrastructure. Most of the damage was experienced on non-engineered buildings, which were conventionally built with less consideration of earthquake resistant design. In this research, a precast system was introduced for non-engineered building structures to connect their practical beams and columns as a reinforced concrete frame. This paper presents experimental tests on precast reinforced concrete frames with and without infill masonry walls using local materials. All undamaged and repaired specimens were set up with the same loading arrangements where lateral loads were gradually applied to one side of the beam column joint until the ultimate load was reached. Simple retrofitting and strengthening techniques were applied to the damaged specimens were conducted. The results were compared based on the experimental tests, and showed that retrofitted and strengthened specimens significantly increased their strength, stiffness, and displacement ductility to improve the structural behaviour of non-engineered building structures.

  11. Hysterosalpingographic abnormalities in women with infertility in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Structural tubal abnormalities are responsible for infertility in significant proportion of infertile couples. Hysterosalpingography (HSG) being a simple, less invasive, relatively inexpensive, and reproducible rapid diagnostic test provides valuable information about the uterine cavity and tubal architecture.

  12. Structural analysis of tree trunks and branches: tapered cantilever beams subject to large deflections under complex loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J; Cannell, M G

    1987-12-01

    The dimensions, deflections and support costs of tree trunks and branches can be deduced using the structural theory for cantilever beams. However, elementary theory applies only as long as deflections are small, and complex analytical solutions are required to account for complex taper and patterns of loading. This paper describes a method that copes with large deflections, any patterns of taper, and any patterns of distributed loading, point loading or externally applied bending moments. A beam is considered to be composed of a series of short segments, such that each has only a small deflection, and each can have specified dimensions, Young's modulus and loading. The transport matrix method of structural analysis is used to determine the end conditions of each segment and of the whole beam. The method is verified by comparing predicted deflections with deflections (a) calculated using an analytical solution by Bisshopp and Drucker (1945), (b) calculated and measured for sapling tree trunks by Leiser and Kemper (1968), and (c) measured on tapered and untapered plastic rods.

  13. The Structure of Subjective Well-Being and Its Relation to Objective Well-Being Indicators: Evidence from EU-SILC for Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladisavljević, Marko; Mentus, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we examine the structure of the subjective well-being and its relation to objective well-being indicators using the data from the European Union's Survey on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) from Serbia. This is one of the first papers to analyze a new module on subjective well-being from EU-SILC micro-dataset (with over 20,000 respondents). We investigate the factor structure of the items and the differences in the association of subjective well-being dimensions with objective indicators of well-being within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Better Life Initiative framework. Three factors emerge from the principal components analysis: general life satisfaction, affective well-being, and satisfaction with the local environment. The analysis further reveals that life satisfaction is more related to the material living conditions, such as income, unemployment, and housing conditions, while affective well-being is more related to non-material indicators of well-being such as perceived health, personal security, and social connections. On the other hand, positive and negative affect within the affective well-being are not clearly separable, nor is the eudaimonic indicator from either life satisfaction or affective well-being.

  14. Voxelwise meta-analysis of gray matter abnormalities in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Emre; Fornito, Alex; Yücel, Murat; Pantelis, Christos

    2010-06-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of gray matter abnormalities in bipolar disorder (BD) using voxel-based morphometry studies to help clarify the structural abnormalities underpinning this condition. A systematic review was conducted for voxel-based morphometry studies of patients with BD. Meta-analyses of gray matter differences between BD and control subjects were undertaken using "signed differential mapping," a novel method that, in contrast to previously used techniques, allows inclusion of negative findings and ensures that single studies do not exert undue influence on the results. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses were used to examine the effect of moderator variables on gray matter abnormalities. A total of 21 studies comparing gray matter volumes of 660 BD patients and 770 healthy control subjects were included. Gray matter reduction in left rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and right fronto-insular cortex was associated with BD. Fronto-insular cortex abnormality was not evident in early phases of the illness. In chronic patients, longer duration of illness was associated with increased gray matter in a cluster that included basal ganglia, subgenual ACC, and amygdala. Lithium treatment was associated with enlargement of ACC gray matter volumes, which overlapped with the region where gray matter was reduced in BD. The most robust gray matter reductions in BD occur in anterior limbic regions, which may be related to the executive control and emotional processing abnormalities seen in this patient population. Clinical factors such as illness duration and lithium treatment also impact on case-control comparisons of gray matter volume. Copyright 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Cognitive abnormalities and cannabis use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solowij, Nadia; Pesa, Nicole

    2010-05-01

    Evidence that cannabis use impairs cognitive function in humans has been accumulating in recent decades. The purpose of this overview is to update knowledge in this area with new findings from the most recent literature. Literature searches were conducted using the Web of Science database up to February 2010. The terms searched were: "cannabi*" or "marijuana", and "cogniti*" or "memory" or "attention" or "executive function", and human studies were reviewed preferentially over the animal literature. Cannabis use impairs memory, attention, inhibitory control, executive functions and decision making, both during the period of acute intoxication and beyond, persisting for hours, days, weeks or more after the last use of cannabis. Pharmacological challenge studies in humans are elucidating the nature and neural substrates of cognitive changes associated with various cannabinoids. Long-term or heavy cannabis use appears to result in longer-lasting cognitive abnormalities and possibly structural brain alterations. Greater adverse cognitive effects are associated with cannabis use commencing in early adolescence. The endogenous cannabinoid system is involved in regulatory neural mechanisms that modulate processes underlying a range of cognitive functions that are impaired by cannabis. Deficits in human users most likely therefore reflect neuroadaptations and altered functioning of the endogenous cannabinoid system.

  16. Maternal attitude towards first trimester screening for fetal abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiz, Nerea; Burgos, Jorge; Barbazán, Maria José; Recio, Virginia; Martínez-Astorquiza, Txanton

    2016-05-01

    To explore the maternal attitude towards the screening for structural abnormalities at the 11-13-week scan, according to the severity of the abnormality. A secondary aim was to analyse which maternal characteristics influence in the maternal response. This is a descriptive study based on the responses to 300 self-administrated questionnaires completed immediately before routine ultrasounds scan. A totally of 296 (98.7%) women participated in the study. If the baby had any abnormality 93.9% would prefer to know at 12 weeks, 96.6% if the abnormality was lethal, 95.3% if the abnormality involves severe handicap, 91.2% if the abnormality can only be suspected, but not confirmed until the pregnancy is more advanced (16 or 20 weeks), 77.0% if the abnormality was minor and 79.4% women would like to know at 12 weeks if the baby appeared normal. Maternal age, gestational age at the time of the questionnaire and maternal attitude towards termination of pregnancy were the only factors affecting maternal responses. Pregnant women prefer to be informed in the first trimester about any abnormality in their fetuses, even in cases of minor or only suspected abnormalities. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Correlation of sole prenatal indication to fetal chromosomal karyotype abnormality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying XU

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To analysis the clinical high risk factors for fetal chromosomal abnormalities. Methods  Amniocentesis, chromosomal karyotype analysis and other related methods were performed on 4829 pregnant women, who presented sole indication of prenatal diagnosis such as advanced age, high risk factors and fetal ultrasound abnormalities, for analyzing the correlations of those women to the incidence of fetal chromosomal abnormalities. Results  The detection rates of abnormal karyotype were 5.0% (57/1143, 1.7% (40/2367 and 4.3% (57/1319 in the older women group (age>35, abnormal maternal serological screening group and abnormal fetal ultrasound finding group, respectively. The detection rats of karyotype abnormality were 6.9% (23/333 in women with fetal congenital heart diseases, 8.5% (20/234 in those with abnormal amniotic fluid, 1.1% (1/89 in those with fetal ventriculomegaly, 1.1% (10/898 in those with fetal intracardiac hyperechogenicity, 5.9% (2/34 in those with fetal choroid cyst and 5.6% (1/18 in those with fetal renal pelvis broadening. Conclusion  The pregnant women with age>35, fetal sonographic structural anomalies or two or more soft marker abnormalities should be prenatally diagnosed and doing the genetic counseling combined with the family history. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.02.14

  18. Dynamic Response Analysis of Storage Cask Lid Structure Subjected to Lateral Impact Load of Aircraft Engine Crash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almomania, Belal; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sanghoon [Keimyung Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Several numerical methods and tests have been carried out to measure the capability of storage cask to withstand extreme impact loads. Testing methods are often constrained by cost, and difficulty in preparation for several impact conditions with different applied loads, and areas of impact. Instead, analytic method is an acceptable process that can easily apply different impact conditions for the evaluation of cask integrity. The aircraft engine impact is considered as one of the most critical impact accidents on the storage cask that significantly affects onto the lid closure system and may cause a considerable release of radioactive materials. This paper presents a method for evaluating the dynamic responses of one upper metal cask lid closure without impact limiters subjected to lateral impact of an aircraft engine with respect to variation of the impact velocity. An assessment method to predict damage response due to the lateral engine impact onto metal storage cask has been studied by using computer code LS-DYNA. The dynamic behavior of the lid movements was successfully calculated by utilizing a simplified finite element cask model, which showed a good agreement with the previous research. The simulation analyses results showed that no significant plastic deformation for bolts, lid, and the cask body. In this study, the lid opening and sliding displacements are considered as the major factors in initiating the leakage path. This analysis may be useful for evaluating the instantaneous leakage rates in a connection with the sliding and opening displacements between the lid and the flange to ensure that the radiological consequences caused by an aircraft engine crash accident during the storage phase are within the permissible level.

  19. Correlation between arterial wall stiffness, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide, functional and structural myocardial abnormalities in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiac autonomic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriya Aleksandrovna Serhiyenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess arterial wall stiffness, plasma levels of of N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP, as well as functional state and structure of the myocardium in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN.Materials and Methods. The study involved a total of 65 patients with T2DM. 12 had no evidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD or CAN, 14 were diagnosed with subclinical stage of CAN, 18 – with functional stage, and 21 – with organic stage. We measured aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV, aortic augmentation index (AIx, brachial artery AIx, ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI and plasma levels of NT-proBNP. Clinical examination included ECG, Holter monitoring, ambulatory BP measurement and echocardiography.Results. Patients with isolated T2DM showed a trend for increased vascular wall stiffness. PWV was increased in patients with subclinical stage of CAN. Aortic and brachial AIx, PWV and AASI were elevated in patients with functional stage of CAN, PWV being significantly higher vs. subclinical CAN subgroup. Organic stage was characterized by pathologically increased values of all primary parameters; PWV and AASI were significantly higher compared with other groups. Development and progression of CAN was accompanied by an increase in NT-proBNP plasma levels. Concentration of NT-proBNP was in direct correlation with left ventricular mass (LVM and PWV. PWV and LVM values also directly correlated between themselves.Conclusion. Development and progression of CAN in patients with T2DM is accompanied by an increase in vascular wall stiffness. The elevation of plasma NT-proBNP in patients with T2DM correlates with the development of CAN and is significantly and independently associated with an increase in LVM and PWV. Our data suggests the pathophysiological interconnection between metabolic, functional and structural myocardial abnormalities in patients with T2DM and CAN.

  20. The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ): factorial structure, relations to global subjective memory ratings, and Swedish norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnlund, Michael; Mäntylä, Timo; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

    2008-02-01

    The factorial structure of the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ; Smith et al., 2000) was examined in a Swedish population based sample (N= 540, age range; 35-90 years). Concurrent validity was assessed by relating PRMQ to global ratings of memory. Confirmatory factor analyses of the PRMQ items indicated a superior fit of a three-factor model, with prospective and retrospective memory as orthogonal factors and episodic memory as a common factor. Furthermore, the PRMQ scales correlated with the global ratings of memory, suggesting that each rating contributed with unique variance in predicting PRMQ scores. Given differences in levels of complaints as compared with prior research (Crawford et al., 2003) norms for the Swedish version are provided. In conclusion, the present findings extend earlier work by providing additional support for the construct and concurrent validity of the PRMQ scales.

  1. Full-scale testing and numerical modeling of a multistory masonry structure subjected to internal blast loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Brian Jarvis

    As military and diplomatic representatives of the United States are deployed throughout the world, they must frequently make use of local, existing facilities; it is inevitable that some of these will be load bearing unreinforced masonry (URM) structures. Although generally suitable for conventional design loads, load bearing URM presents a unique hazard, with respect to collapse, when exposed to blast loading. There is therefore a need to study the blast resistance of load bearing URM construction in order to better protect US citizens assigned to dangerous locales. To address this, the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte conducted three blast tests inside a decommissioned, coal-fired, power plant prior to its scheduled demolition. The power plant's walls were constructed of URM and provided an excellent opportunity to study the response of URM walls in-situ. Post-test analytical studies investigated the ability of existing blast load prediction methodologies to model the case of a cylindrical charge with a low height of burst. It was found that even for the relatively simple blast chamber geometries of these tests, simplified analysis methods predicted blast impulses with an average net error of 22%. The study suggested that existing simplified analysis methods would benefit from additional development to better predict blast loads from cylinders detonated near the ground's surface. A hydrocode, CTH, was also used to perform two and three-dimensional simulations of the blast events. In order to use the hydrocode, Jones Wilkins Lee (JWL) equation of state (EOS) coefficients were developed for the experiment's Unimax dynamite charges; a novel energy-scaling technique was developed which permits the derivation of new JWL coefficients from an existing coefficient set. The hydrocode simulations were able to simulate blast impulses with an average absolute error of 34.5%. Moreover, the hydrocode simulations

  2. Physiological-biochemical parameters and characteristics of seed coat structure in lupin seeds subjected to long storage at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka I. Piotrowicz-Cieślak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed vigour, viability, the contents of soluble carbohydrates, total protein, albumins, and globulins, as well as seed coat structure, were analysed in yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L. cv. Iryd seeds stored for 20 years at -14oC, 0oC or at room temperature (approx. +20oC. Seed storage at room temperature reduced viability (to 2% and increased seed leachate electroconductivity. Determinations of total proteins showed that protein content was significantly reduced in seeds stored at +20oC compared to the other storage regimens. Raffinose family oligosaccharides were the main soluble carbohydrates in seeds stored at 0oC and -14oC, whereas sucrose dominated in seeds stored at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM of seed surface and seed coat sections revealed appearance of an amorphic layer on the surface of seeds stored at room temperature (not observed in other seeds and distinct shrinking of macrosclereid layer in seeds stored at -14oC. Macrosclereids layer in all seeds was 100 um thick and accounted for 60% of seed coat thickness. The obtained results suggest that for long term storage of lupin seeds at 0oC is the most advisable temperature if both costs of storage and seed storability are considered.

  3. The photoluminescence response to structural changes of Yb implanted ZnO crystals subjected to non-equilibrium processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, R.; Prucnal, S.; Guziewicz, E.; Mieszczynski, C.; Snigurenko, D.; Stachowicz, M.; Skorupa, W.; Turos, A.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we present the detailed study of optical and structural properties of Yb implanted single ZnO crystals. Hydrothermally grown wurtzite (0001) ZnO crystals were implanted with 150 keV Yb ions to fluencies of 5 × 1014 and 1 × 1015 at/cm2. After ion implantation, two different types of annealing were performed: rapid thermal annealing (RTA) and millisecond range flash lamp annealing (FLA). Crystalline quality, damage recovery, and Yb lattice site location were evaluated by the Channeling Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS/c). It is shown that independent of the used annealing technique, defects formed in ZnO during ion implantation can be removed. Upon RTA performed at the temperature higher than 800 °C, strong out-diffusion of implanted Yb atoms and precipitation on the surface takes place. Consequently, the degradation of the photoluminescence (PL) efficiency is observed. The diffusion of implanted Yb during millisecond range FLA does not occur for such experimental conditions. Moreover, FLA treatment for 20 ms leads to the formation of single crystalline ZnO layer with Yb incorporated in the substitutional lattice sites. According to RBS/c and PL data, Yb atoms substituted in the Zn sublattice are predominantly in the 2+ oxidation state. The most intensive PL has been observed after annealing at 800 °C for 20 min which is accompanied with the reduction of Yb substitutional fraction and formation of octahedron Yb-oxygen clusters within ZnO.

  4. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  5. A novel framework for fluid/structure interaction in rapid subject specific simulations of blood flow in coronary artery bifurcations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Milan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Practical difficulties, particularly long model development time, have limited the types and applicability of computational fluid dynamics simulations in numerical modeling of blood flow in serial manner. In these simulations, the most revealing flow parameters are the endothelial shear stress distribution and oscillatory shear index. The aim of this study was analyze their role in the diagnosis of the occurrence and prognosis of plaque development in coronary artery bifurcations. Methods. We developed a novel modeling technique for rapid cardiovascular hemodynamic simulations taking into account interactions between fluid domain (blood and solid domain (artery wall. Two numerical models that represent the observed subdomains of an arbitrary patient-specific coronary artery bifurcation were created using multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT coronagraphy and ultrasound measurements of blood velocity. Coronary flow using an in-house finite element solver PAK-FS was solved. Results. Overall behavior of coronary artery bifurcation during one cardiac cycle is described by: velocity, pressure, endothelial shear stress, oscillatory shear index, stress in arterial wall and nodal displacements. The places where (a endothelial shear stress is less than 1.5, and (b oscillatory shear index is very small (close or equal to 0 are prone to plaque genesis. Conclusion. Finite element simulation of fluid-structure interaction was used to investigate patient-specific flow dynamics and wall mechanics at coronary artery bifurcations. Simulation model revealed that lateral walls of the main branch and lateral walls distal to the carina are exposed to low endothelial shear stress which is a predilection site for development of atherosclerosis. This conclusion is confirmed by the low values of oscillatory shear index in those places.

  6. Shotgun metagenomic analysis of metabolic diversity and microbial community structure in experimental vernal pools subjected to nitrate pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrino-Kyker, Sarah R; Smemo, Kurt A; Burke, David J

    2013-04-10

    Human activities have greatly increased nitrogen (N) levels in natural habitats through atmospheric N deposition and nutrient leaching, which can have large effects on N cycling and other ecosystem processes. Because of the significant role microorganisms play in N cycling, high inputs of nitrogenous compounds, such as nitrate (NO3-), into natural ecosystems could have cascading effects on microbial community structure and the metabolic processes that microbes perform. To investigate the multiple effects of NO3- pollution on microbial communities, we created two shotgun metagenomes from vernal pool microcosms that were either enriched with a solution of 10 mg NO3--N (+NO3-) or received distilled water as a control (-N). After only 20 hours of exposure to NO3-, the initial microbial community had shifted toward one containing a higher proportional abundance of stress tolerance and fermentation environmental gene tags (EGTs). Surprisingly, we found no changes to N metabolism EGTs, even though large shifts in denitrification rates were seen between the +NO3- and -N microcosms. Thus, in the absence of NO3- addition, it is plausible that the microbes used other respiratory pathways for energy. Respiratory pathways involving iron may have been particularly important in our -N microcosms, since iron acquisition EGTs were proportionally higher in the -N metagenome. Additionally, we noted a proportional increase in Acidobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria EGTs in response to NO3- addition. These community shifts in were not evident with TRFLP, suggesting that metagenomic analyses may detect fine-scale changes not possible with community profiling techniques. Our results suggest that the vernal pool microbial communities profiled here may rely on their metabolic plasticity for growth and survival when certain resources are limiting. The creation of these metagenomes also highlights how little is known about the effects of NO3- pollution on microbial communities, and the

  7. Abnormalities of hippocampal signal intensity in patients with familial mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coan A.C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE is associated with hippocampal atrophy and hippocampal signal abnormalities. In our series of familial MTLE (FMTLE, we found a high proportion of hippocampal abnormalities. To quantify signal abnormalities in patients with FMTLE we studied 152 individuals (46 of them asymptomatic with FMTLE. We used NIH-Image® for volumetry and signal quantification in coronal T1 inversion recovery and T2 for all cross-sections of the hippocampus. Values diverging by 2 or more SD from the control mean were considered abnormal. T2 hippocampal signal abnormalities were found in 52% of all individuals: 54% of affected subjects and 48% of asymptomatic subjects. T1 hippocampal signal changes were found in 34% of all individuals: 42.5% of affected subjects and 15% of asymptomatic subjects. Analysis of the hippocampal head (first three slices revealed T2 abnormalities in 73% of all individuals (74% of affected subjects and 72% of asymptomatic subjects and T1 abnormalities in 59% (67% of affected subjects and 41% of asymptomatic subjects. Affected individuals had smaller volumes than controls (P < 0.0001. There was no difference in hippocampal volumes between asymptomatic subjects and controls, although 39% of asymptomatic patients had hippocampal atrophy. Patients with an abnormal hippocampal signal (133 individuals had smaller ipsilateral volume, but no linear correlation could be determined. Hippocampal signal abnormalities in FMTLE were more frequently found in the hippocampal head in both affected and asymptomatic family members, including those with normal volumes. These results indicate that subtle abnormalities leading to an abnormal hippocampal signal in FMTLE are not necessarily related to seizures and may be determined by genetic factors.

  8. Chromosomal Abnormality in Men with Impaired Spermatogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Mierla

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletions are regarded as two most frequent genetic causes associated with failure of spermatogenesis in the Caucasian population. Materials and Methods: To investigate the distribution of genetic defects in the Romanian population with azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia, karyotype analysis by G-banding was carried out in 850 idiopathic infertile men and in 49 fertile men with one or more children. Screening for microdeletions in the azoospermia factor (AZF region of Y chromosome was performed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR on a group of 67 patients with no detectable chromosomal abnormality. The results of the two groups were compared by a two-tailed Fisher’s exact test. Results: In our study chromosomal abnormalities were observed in 12.70% and 8.16% of infertile and fertile individuals respectively. Conclusion: Our data suggests that infertile men with severe azoospermia have higher incidences of genetic defects than fertile men and also patients from any other group. Infertile men with normal sperm present a higher rate of polymorphic variants. It is important to know whether there is a genetic cause of male infertility before patients are subjected to intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI or testicular sperm extraction (TESE/ICSI treatment.

  9. Chromosomal Abnormalities Associated with Neural Tube Defects (I: Full Aneuploidy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Fetuses with neural tube defects (NTDs carry a risk of chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with other structural abnormalities, and family history of chromosome aberrations. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with NTDs in embryos, fetuses, and newborn patients, and a comprehensive review of numerical chromosomal abnormalities associated with NTDs, such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy, trisomy 9, trisomy 2, trisomy 21, trisomy 7, trisomy 8, trisomy 14, trisomy 15, trisomy 16, trisomy 5 mosaicism, trisomy 11 mosaicism, trisomy 20 mosaicism, monosomy X, and tetraploidy. NTDs may be associated with aneuploidy. Perinatal identification of NTDs should alert one to the possibility of chromosomal abnormalities and prompt a thorough cytogenetic investigation and genetic counseling.

  10. Quantitative evaluation of the structure and function of the common carotid artery in hypertriglyceridemic subjects using ultrasound radiofrequency-data technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan, Hai-Jun, E-mail: danhaijun@163.com [Department of Physical Examination, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050000, Hebei (China); Wang, Yan [Department of Ultrasound in Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai 200233 (China); Sha, Hai-Jing [Second Department of Geriatrics, The Central Hospital of Handan, Handan 056001, Hebei (China); Wen, Shu-Bin [Department of Physical Examination, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050000, Hebei (China)

    2012-11-15

    Assessment of the properties of blood-vessel walls by ultrasound radiofrequency (RF)-data technology is an innovative technique. We quantitatively evaluated the intima-media thickness (IMT) and arterial elasticity of the common carotid artery (CCA) in asymptomatic subjects with hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) using RF-data technology. Thirty HTG subjects and 30 matched controls were enrolled in the study. The common carotid arterial systolic diameter, diastolic diameter, IMT, carotid distensibility (CD), local pulse wave velocity (PWV{beta}), and stiffness ({beta}) were compared between the two groups, as was the correlation between triglyceride level and the parameters mentioned above. The HTG group had significantly higher values of CCA-IMT compared with the control group (p < 0.001). There were significant differences between the HTG group and controls in terms of higher values of PWV{beta} and {beta}, and lower values of CD (all p < 0.05). No difference was observed in terms of the systolic and diastolic diameter of the CCA (p > 0.05). The level of triglycerides had significant positive correlations with CCA-IMT (r = 0.493, p < 0.001), whereas significant correlations with CD, PWV{beta}, and {beta} were not observed in the HTG group. Ultrasound RF-data technology can be used to non-invasively and quantitatively detect the change in the structure and function of the CCA in asymptomatic HTG subjects for evaluating preclinical atherosclerosis.

  11. Is Abnormal Urine Protein/Osmolality Ratio Associated with Abnormal Renal Function in Patients Receiving Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine R Marcelin

    Full Text Available Risk factors for and optimal surveillance of renal dysfunction in patients on tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF remain unclear. We investigated whether a urine protein-osmolality (P/O ratio would be associated with renal dysfunction in HIV-infected persons on TDF.This retrospective, single-center study investigated the relationship between parameters of renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and P/O-ratio and risk factors for development of kidney dysfunction. Subjects were HIV-infected adults receiving TDF with at least one urinalysis and serum creatinine performed between 2010 and 2013. Regression analyses were used to analyze risk factors associated with abnormal P/O-ratio and abnormal eGFR during TDF therapy.Patients were predominately male (81%; (65% were Caucasian. Mean age was 45.1(±11.8 years; median [IQR] TDF duration was 3.3 years. [1.5-7.6]. Median CD4+ T cell count and HIV viral load were 451 cells/μL [267.5-721.5] and 62 copies/mL [0-40,150], respectively. Abnormal P/O-ratio was not associated with low eGFR. 68% of subjects had an abnormal P/O-ratio and 9% had low eGFR. Duration of TDF use, age, diabetes and hypertension were associated with renal dysfunction in this study. After adjustment for age, subjects on TDF > 5 years had almost a four-fold increased likelihood of having an abnormal P/O-ratio than subjects on TDF for < 1yr (OR 3.9; 95% CI 1.2-14.0; p = 0.024.Abnormal P/O-ratio is common in HIV-infected patients on TDF but was not significantly associated with low eGFR, suggesting that abnormal P/O-ratio may be a very early biomarker of decreased renal function in HIV infected patients.

  12. Genetic aspects of human male infertility: the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletions in severe male factor infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicdan, Arzu; Vicdan, Kubilay; Günalp, Serdar; Kence, Aykut; Akarsu, Cem; Işik, Ahmet Zeki; Sözen, Eran

    2004-11-10

    The main purpose of this study is to detect the frequency and type of both chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletions in patients with severe male factor infertility and fertile control subjects. The association between the genetic abnormality and clinical parameters was also evaluated. This study was carried out in 208 infertile and 20 fertile men. Results of 208 patients, 119 had non-obstructive azoospermia and 89 had severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT). Seventeen out of 119 (14.3%) azoospermic patients and two out of 89 (2.2%) patients with OAT had Y chromosome microdeletions. In total, 19 cases with deletions were detected in 208 infertile men, with a frequency of 9.1%. The AZFc locus, mainly DAZ gene cluster was the most frequently deleted region. Five other cases with azoospermia (4.2%) and two cases with OAT (2.2%) had a chromosomal abnormality, with a total number of seven (3.4%). Including Y chromosome deletions and structural chromosome abnormalities, the rate of genetic abnormalities was 12.5% (26/208) in our patients. On the other hand, 20 men with proven fertility and fathers of five cases with microdeletions were genetically normal. Y chromosome deletions and chromosomal abnormalities were associated with various histological alterations in testis. Sertoli cell-only (SCO) syndrome and maturation arrest predominated in these cases, whereas hypospermatogenesis occurred more frequently in genetically normal patients. Various chromosomal abnormalities and deletions of Y chromosome can cause spermatogenic breakdown resulting in chromosomally derived infertility. All these findings strongly support the recommendation of genetic screening of infertile patients.

  13. Factor structure and measurement invariance of the Health Education Impact Questionnaire: Does the subjectivity of the response perspective threaten the contextual validity of inferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsworth, Gerald R; Nolte, Sandra; Osborne, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    On-going evidence is required to support the validity of inferences about change and group differences in the evaluation of health programs, particularly when self-report scales requiring substantial subjectivity in response generation are used as outcome measures. Following this reasoning, the aim of this study was to replicate the factor structure and investigate the measurement invariance of the latest version of the Health Education Impact Questionnaire, a widely used health program evaluation measure. An archived dataset of responses to the most recent version of the English-language Health Education Impact Questionnaire that uses four rather than six response options (N = 3221) was analysed using exploratory structural equation modelling and confirmatory factor analysis appropriate for ordered categorical data. Metric and scalar invariance were studied following recent recommendations in the literature to apply fully invariant unconditional models with minimum constraints necessary for model identification. The original eight-factor structure was replicated and all but one of the scales (Self Monitoring and Insight) was found to consist of unifactorial items with reliability of ⩾0.8 and satisfactory discriminant validity. Configural, metric and scalar invariance were established across pre-test to post-test and population sub-groups (sex, age, education, ethnic background). The results support the high level of interest in the Health Education Impact Questionnaire, particularly for use as a pre-test/post-test measure in experimental studies, other pre-post evaluation designs and system-level monitoring and evaluation.

  14. Radiographic Abnormalities in the Feet of Diabetic Patients with Neuropathy and Foot Ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Vijay; Kumpatla, Satyavani; Rao, V Narayan

    2014-11-01

    People with diabetic neuropathy are frequently prone to several bone and joint abnormalities. Simple radiographic findings have been proven to be quite useful in the detection of such abnormalities, which might be helpful not only for early diagnosis but also in following the course of diabetes through stages of reconstruction of the ulcerated foot.The present study was designed to identify the common foot abnormalities in south Indian diabetic subjects with and without neuropathy using radiographic imaging. About 150 (M:F 94:56) subjects with type 2 diabetes were categorised into three groups: Group I (50 diabetic patients), Group II (50 patients with neuropathy), and Group III (50 diabetic patients with both neuropathy and foot ulceration). Demographic details, duration of diabetes and HbA1c values were recorded. Vibration perception threshold was measured for assessment of neuropathy. Bone and joint abnormalities in the feet and legs of the study subjects were identified using standardised dorsi-plantar and lateral weight-bearing radiographs. Radiographic findings of the study subjects revealed that those with both neuropathy and foot ulceration and a longer duration of diabetes had more number of bone and joint abnormalities. Subjects with neuropathy alone also showed presence of several abnormalities, including periosteal reaction, osteopenia, and Charcot changes. The present findings highlight the impact of neuropathy and duration of diabetes on the development of foot abnormalities in subjects with diabetes. Using radiographic imaging can help in early identification of abnormalities and better management of the diabetic foot.

  15. Prosodic abnormalities in schizotypal personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Chandlee C; Vu, Mai-Anh T; Voglmaier, Martina M; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A; McCarley, Robert W; Panych, Lawrence P

    2012-12-01

    Patients with schizophrenia speak with blunted vocal affect but little is known regarding the prosody of persons with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD). This work examined expressive prosody in SPD, its relationship to brain structure, and outlined a framework for measuring elements of prosody in clinical populations. Twenty-eight antipsychotic-naïve SPD subjects were matched with 27 healthy comparison (HC) subjects. Subjects read aloud short sentences and responded to probes to record both predetermined and self-generated speech samples. Samples were analyzed acoustically (pause proportion, duration, attack, and pitch variability) and subjectively by raters (amount of pauses, degree of emotion portrayed, and how much they wanted to hear more from the subjects) on paragraph, sentence, word, word-fragment, and syllable levels. Alexithymia and ability to self-monitor behavior were compared between groups. The pars opercularis was manually traced on structural MRI data. SPD subjects' speech had significantly more pauses, was slower, had less pitch variability, and expressed less emotion than HC subjects. Pitch variability correlated with socio-economic status achievement. There was no difference between groups in left or right pars opercularis volumes. A statistically significant correlation suggested that smaller left pars opercularis volumes in SPD subjects correlated with more pauses and less emotion. SPD subjects reported more alexithymia and difficulty self-monitoring their behavior compared with controls. In SPD subjects the high alexithymia correlated with raters not wanting to hear more from them and SPD subjects' inability to modulate their social behavior correlated with their having fewer friends. Thus, the SPD subjects exhibited insight. SPD subjects displayed significant prosodic deficits that were measurable in speech samples as brief as a word-fragment. The determinants of these deficits are not known although these may include a dysfunctional

  16. Recurrent Cytogenetic Abnormalities in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, John J; Park, Tae Sung; Wan, Thomas S K

    2017-01-01

    The spectrum of chromosomal abnormality associated with leukemogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is broad and heterogeneous when compared to chronic myeloid leukemia and other myeloid neoplasms. Recurrent chromosomal translocations such as t(8;21), t(15;17), and inv(16) are frequently detected, but hundreds of other uncommon chromosomal aberrations from AML also exist. This chapter discusses 22 chromosomal abnormalities that are common structural, numerical aberrations, and other important but infrequent (less than 1 %) translocations emphasized in the WHO classification. Brief morphologic, cytogenetic, and clinical characteristics are summarized, so as to provide a concise reference to cancer cytogenetic laboratories. Morphology based on FAB classification is used together with the current WHO classification due to frequent mentioning in a vast number of reference literatures. Characteristic chromosomal aberrations of other myeloid neoplasms such as myelodysplastic syndrome and myeloproliferative neoplasm will be discussed in separate chapters-except for certain abnormalities such as t(9;22) in de novo AML. Gene mutations detected in normal karyotype AML by cutting edge next generation sequencing technology are also briefly mentioned.

  17. Prevalence of abnormal electrocardiograms in a large, unselected population undergoing pre-participation cardiovascular screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelliccia, Antonio; Culasso, Franco; Di Paolo, Fernando M; Accettura, Domenico; Cantore, Rocco; Castagna, Walter; Ciacciarelli, Alberto; Costini, Gioberto; Cuffari, Biagio; Drago, Enrico; Federici, Vittorio; Gribaudo, Carlo Gabriele; Iacovelli, Giancarlo; Landolfi, Luigi; Menichetti, Giuseppe; Atzeni, Umberto Olla; Parisi, Attilio; Pizzi, Angelo R; Rosa, Michele; Santelli, Fabio; Santilio, Franco; Vagnini, Alberto; Casasco, Maurizio; Di Luigi, Luigi

    2007-08-01

    The implementation of 12-lead ECG in the pre-participation screening of young athletes is still controversial and number of issues are largely debated, including the prevalence and spectrum of ECG abnormalities found in individuals undergoing pre-participation screening. We assessed a large, unselected population of 32,652 subjects [26 050 (80%) males], prospectively examined in 19 clinics associated to Italian Sports Medicine Federation. Most were young amateur athletes, aged 8-78 years (median 17), predominantly students (68%), engaged predominantly in soccer (39%), volleyball or basketball (8% each), athletics (6%), cycling (5%), swimming (4%). The ECG patterns were evaluated according to commonly used clinical criteria. The 12-lead ECG patterns were considered normal in 28 799 of the 32 652 athletes (88.2%) and abnormal in 3853 (11.8%). The most frequent abnormalities included prolonged PR interval, incomplete right bundle branch block (RBBB) and early repolarization pattern (total 2280, 7.0%). Distinct ECG abnormalities included deeply inverted T-waves in > 2 precordial and/or standard leads (751, 2.3%), increased R/S wave voltages suggestive of LV hypertrophy (247, 0.8%), conduction disorders, i.e. RBBB (351, 1.0%), left anterior fascicular block (162, 0.5%), and left bundle branch block (19, 0.1%). Rarely, cardiac pre-excitation pattern (42, 0.1%) and prolonged QTc interval (1, 0.03%) were found. In a large, unselected population of young athletes undergoing pre-participation screening, the prevalence of markedly abnormal ECG patterns, suggestive for structural cardiac disease, is low (<5% of the overall population) and should not represent obstacle for implementation of 12-lead ECG in the pre-participation screening program.

  18. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  19. Abnormal glucose tolerance and lipid abnormalities in Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    quency of abnormal glucose tolerance (impaired glucose tole- rance and diabetes mellitus) in Indian patients with CAD is similar to that in White patients.9 However, with respect to the lipid profile there have been conflicting reports; hypercholeste- rolaemia was present in 37% ofthe series described by McKech- nie' and ...

  20. Student Assessment of Teaching as a Source of Information about Aspects of Teaching Quality in Multiple Subject Domains: An Application of Multilevel Bifactor Structural Equation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny eScherer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on educational effectiveness most often uses student assessments of classroom instruction for measuring aspects of teaching quality. Given that crucial inferences on the success of education are based on these assessments, it is essential to ensure that they provide valid indicators. In this study, we illustrate the application of an innovative application of a multilevel bifactor structural equation model (ML-BFSEM to examine the validity of student assessments. Analyzing a large-scale data set of 12,077 fourth-grade students in three countries (Finland, Norway, and Sweden, we find that (a three aspects of teaching quality and subject domain factors can be established; (b metric and scalar invariance could be established for the ML-BFSEM approach across countries; (c significant relations between students’ assessments of how easy the teacher is to understand and achievement in all subjects exist. In support of substantive research, we demonstrate a methodological approach for representing the complex nature of student assessments of teaching quality. We finally encourage substantive and methodological researchers to advance the ML-BFSEM.

  1. Exploration of Human Salivary Microbiomes--Insights into the Novel Characteristics of Microbial Community Structure in Caries and Caries-Free Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianye Zhou

    Full Text Available Recently, high-throughput sequencing has improved the understanding of the microbiological etiology of caries, but the characteristics of the microbial community structure in the human oral cavity with and without caries are not completely clear. To better understand these characteristics, Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing was utilized to analyze 20 salivary samples (10 caries-free and 10 caries from subjects from the same town in Dongxiang, Gansu, China. A total of 5,113 OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units, 97% cutoff were characterized in all of the salivary samples obtained from the 20 subjects. A comparison of the two groups revealed that (i the predominant phyla were constant between the two groups; (ii the relative abundance of the genera Veillonella, Bifidobacterium, Selenomonas, Olsenella, Parascardovia, Scardovia, Chryseobacterium, Terrimonas, Burkholderia and Sporobacter was significantly higher in the group with caries (P < 0.05; and (iii four genera with low relative abundance (< 0.01% on average, including two characteristic genera in caries (Chryseobacterium and Scardovia, significantly influenced the microbial community structure at the genus and OTU levels. Moreover, via co-occurrence and principal component analyses, the co-prevalence of the pathogenic genera was detected in the caries samples, but in the caries-free samples, the function of clustered genera was more random. This result suggests that a synergistic effect may be influencing the assembly of the caries microbial community, whereas competition may play a more dominant role in governing the microbial community in the caries-free group. Our findings regarding the characteristics of the microbial communities of the groups with and without caries might improve the understanding of the microbiological etiology of caries and might improve the prevention and cure of caries in the future.

  2. Chromagen lenses and abnormal colour perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Matthew Oriowo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Chromagen lens system comprises of tinted spectacle or contact lenses, each with a specific colour wavelength filter which controls the spectra of the light entering the eye. This study investigated whether spectacle-mounted Chromagen lenses would enhance colour perception in individuals with abnormal colour vision.Methods: The Ishihara colour test was used to test for colour vision deficiency (CVD and also to evaluate the effect of the Chromagen spectacle lens on colour perception in 13 subjects. An Oculus Anomaloscope was used to confirm and sub-classify the types of CVD. Subjects comprised of school age children from the Riyadh area in Saudi Arabia.Results: The distribution amongst the male participants comprised two subjects with protanomaly, two with protanopia, five with deuteranomaly, and two with deuteranopia. Amongst the two female participants, one subject showed deuteranomaly, and one showed protanomaly. Different types of Chromagen spectacle lenses displayed some levels of colour vision enhancement depending on type of CVD.Conclusion: The findings support the notion that chromagen lenses could enhance colour vision perception in some cases of red-green colour vision defects. Clients with CVD should be managed on an individual case basis. (S Afr Optom 2011 70(2 69-74 

  3. Cerebral metabolic abnormalities in children with congenital oculomotor apraxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Sung June; Kim, Yu Kyoong; Oh, Yeong Mi; Song, Yoo Sung; Kim, Ji Soo; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Congenital ocular motor apraxia (COMA) is a rare impairment of saccadic eye movement in horizontal direction. The typical symptom is poor vision or compensatory head thrusting movement. In this study, we investigate the brain metabolic changes in children with COMA using FDG PET. Brain FDG PET studies were performed in 6 children (mean age: 5.82.1 years, M: F=5: 1) with typical COMA by clinical diagnosis. For comparison purpose, age-matched healthy subjects (mean age: 6.42.2 years, M: F = 4: 1) were selected among sibling. Measures of significant difference in cerebral metabolism between the patients and control group were determined using statistical parametric mapping (SPM2). Four of six had the structural abnormalities limited in the cerebellar vermis, and the other two had no structural lesion. FDG PET of patients revealed the significant regional hypometabolism in the left inferior parietal lobule (BA 40) and the bilateral occipital cortices as well as cerebellar vermis (P < 0.005, k=100) in comparison with healthy control group. Meanwhile, hypermetabolism was observed in the right precentral gyrus (BA 6), bilateral frontal gyri (BA 8/BA 10). FDG PET could demonstrate the regional metabolic changes in patients with congenital motor apraxia, which may indicate the functional disturbance in the brain regions related with saccadic eye movement and the compensatory hyperfunction in their head motion.

  4. Proposal for standardised ultrasound descriptors of abnormally invasive placenta (AIP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collins, Sally L; Ashcroft, Anna; Braun, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Abnormally invasive placenta (AIP) is a clinical term used to describe a placenta that does not separate spontaneous during normal delivery and cannot be removed without causing high blood loss. Maternal outcome in cases with AIP is improved by antenatal diagnosis that currently relies on subject...

  5. Use of Drama Students as "Clients" in Teaching Abnormal Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Kirby

    1982-01-01

    Describes the use of drama students to role play subjects of case studies in simulations of standard interviews in a college-level abnormal psychology class. Graduate drama students role-played clients in interviews with instructors or student panels. After the interviews, class discussion covered alternative possible diagnoses and possible…

  6. Neurological abnormalities predict disability: the LADIS (Leukoaraiosis And DISability) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poggesi, A.; Gouw, A.; van der Flier, W.M.; Pracucci, G.; Chabriat, H.; Erkinjuntti, T.; Fazekas, F.; Ferro, J.M.; Blahak, C.; Langhorne, P.; O'Brien, J.; Schmidt, R.; Visser, M.C.; Wahlund, L.O.; Waldemar, G.; Wallin, A.; Scheltens, P.; Inzitari, D.; Pantoni, L.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of neurological abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in predicting global functional decline in a cohort of initially independent-living elderly subjects. The Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study, involving 11 European centres, was primarily aimed

  7. Lentiginosis, Deafness and Cardiac Abnormalities*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1973-01-06

    Jan 6, 1973 ... The familia:l form is milder. The cardiac lesion commonly consists of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy of either ventricle or abnor- malities of the ECG.' The obstructive lesion may be pro- gressive and cause cardiac failure. The ECG features include conduction abnormalities, such as left hemiblock,.

  8. Chromosomal Abnormalities Associated With Omphalocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Fetuses with omphalocele have an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with umbilical cord cysts, complexity of associated anomalies, and the contents of omphalocele. There is considerable evidence that genetics contributes to the etiology of omphalocele. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele and a comprehensive review of associated full aneuploidy such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy, trisomy 21, 45,X, 47,XXY, and 47,XXX, partial aneuploidy such as dup(3q, dup(11p, inv(11, dup(1q, del(1q, dup(4q, dup(5p, dup(6q, del(9p, dup(15q, dup(17q, Pallister-Killian syndrome with mosaic tetrasomy 12p and Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome with deletion of 17p13.3, and uniparental disomy (UPD such as UPD 11 and UPD 14. Omphalocele is a prominent marker for chromosomal abnormalities. Perinatal identification of omphalocele should alert chromosomal abnormalities and familial unbalanced translocations, and prompt thorough cytogenetic investigations and genetic counseling.

  9. Interpreting chromosomal abnormalities using Prolog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, G; Friedman, J M

    1990-04-01

    This paper describes an expert system for interpreting the standard notation used to represent human chromosomal abnormalities, namely, the International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature. Written in Prolog, this program is very powerful, easy to maintain, and portable. The system can be used as a front end to any database that employs cytogenetic notation, such as a patient registry.

  10. Admission haematological abnormalities and postoperative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admission haematological abnormalities and postoperative outcomes in neonates with acute surgical conditions in Alexandria, Egypt. HL Wella, SMM Farahat. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals ...

  11. A structural equation model relating objective and subjective masticatory function and oral health-related quality of life in patients with removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fueki, K; Yoshida, E; Igarashi, Y

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between objective masticatory function with respect to masticatory performance and food mixing ability, patients' perception of chewing ability and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Partially dentate patients with removable partial dentures (n = 131, mean age 67·1 year) participated in the study. Four tests were performed to evaluate objective and subjective masticatory function and OHRQoL. Masticatory performance and food mixing ability were assessed using peanuts or a two-coloured wax cube as test items. Patients' perception of chewing ability was rated using a food intake questionnaire. OHRQoL was measured using the Japanese version of the oral health impact profile. A structural equation model was constructed based on hypothesis in which objective masticatory function would be related to OHRQoL via perceived chewing ability as a mediator. Structural equation modelling analysis found a statistically significant medium effect of perceived chewing ability on OHRQoL and statistically significant medium or small effects of masticatory performance on perceived chewing ability and OHRQoL (P 0·05). A fit index indicated that the model fitted well to the data (Goodness-of-fit index = 0·99). These results suggest that perceived chewing ability is a critical factor for OHRQoL and that masticatory performance rather than food mixing ability is important for perceived chewing ability and OHRQoL in patients with removable partial dentures. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Incidence of abnormal liver biochemical tests in hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tiffany Y; Shekar, Anshula O; Li, Ning; Yeh, Michael W; Saab, Sammy; Wilson, Mark; Leung, Angela M

    2017-05-01

    Abnormal serum liver function tests are common in patients with untreated thyrotoxicosis, even prior to the initiation of antithyroidal medications that may worsen the severity of the abnormal serum liver biochemistries. There is a wide range of the incidence of these abnormalities in the published literature. The aim of this study was to assess the risks factors and threshold of thyrotoxicosis severity for developing an abnormal liver biochemical test upon the diagnosis of new thyrotoxicosis. Single-institution retrospective cohort study. Patients of ≥18 years old receiving medical care at a large, academic, urban US medical centre between 2002-2016. Inclusion criteria were a serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration of biochemical test(s) within 6 months of thyrotoxicosis. The biochemical liver tests assessed were serum aspartate transaminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), total bilirubin, and conjugated bilirubin concentrations. In this cohort of 1514 subjects, the overall incidence of any biochemical liver test abnormality within 6 months of thyrotoxicosis was 39%. An initial serum TSH concentration biochemical test within 6 months of the diagnosis of new-onset untreated thyrotoxicosis. This study identifies risk factors for patients who develop an abnormal serum liver biochemical test result within 6 months of a diagnosis of untreated thyrotoxicosis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Aspirin Dose and Prevention of Coronary Abnormalities in Kawasaki Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaire, Frederic; Fortier-Morissette, Zoe; Blais, Samuel; Dhanrajani, Anita; Basodan, Dania; Renaud, Claudia; Mathew, Mathew; De Souza, Astrid M; Dionne, Audrey; Blanchard, Joel; Saulnier, Harrison; Kaspy, Kimberley; Rached-d'Astous, Soha; Dahdah, Nagib; McCrindle, Brian W; Human, Derek G; Scuccimarri, Rosie

    2017-06-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is part of the recommended treatment of Kawasaki disease (KD). Controversies remain regarding the optimal dose of ASA to be used. We aimed to evaluate the noninferiority of ASA at an antiplatelet dose in acute KD in preventing coronary artery (CA) abnormalities. This is a multicenter, retrospective, nonrandomized cohort study including children 0 to 10 years of age with acute KD between 2004 and 2015 from 5 institutions, of which 2 routinely use low-dose ASA (3-5 mg/kg per day) and 3 use high-dose ASA (80 mg/kg per day). Outcomes were CA abnormalities defined as a CA diameter with a z score ≥2.5. We assessed the risk difference of CA abnormalities according to ASA dose. All subjects received ASA and intravenous immunoglobulin within 10 days of fever onset. There were 1213 subjects included, 848 in the high-dose and 365 in the low-dose ASA group. There was no difference in the risk of CA abnormalities in the low-dose compared with the high-dose ASA group (22.2% vs 20.5%). The risk difference adjusted for potential confounders was 0.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: -4.5% to 5.0%). The adjusted risk difference for CA abnormalities persisting at the 6-week follow-up was -1.9% (95% CI: -5.3% to 1.5%). The 95% CI of the risk difference of CA abnormalities adjusted for confounders was within the prespecified 5% margin considered to be noninferior. In conjunction with intravenous immunoglobulin, low-dose ASA in acute KD is not inferior to high-dose ASA for reducing the risk of CA abnormalities. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. DNA methylation abnormalities in congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Juhé, Clara; Cuscó, Ivon; Homs, Aïda; Flores, Raquel; Torán, Núria; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    Congenital heart defects represent the most common malformation at birth, occurring also in ∼50% of individuals with Down syndrome. Congenital heart defects are thought to have multifactorial etiology, but the main causes are largely unknown. We have explored the global methylation profile of fetal heart DNA in comparison to blood DNA from control subjects: an absolute correlation with the type of tissue was detected. Pathway analysis revealed a significant enrichment of differential methylation at genes related to muscle contraction and cardiomyopathies in the developing heart DNA. We have also searched for abnormal methylation profiles on developing heart-tissue DNA of syndromic and non-syndromic congenital heart defects. On average, 3 regions with aberrant methylation were detected per sample and 18 regions were found differentially methylated between groups. Several epimutations were detected in candidate genes involved in growth regulation, apoptosis and folate pathway. A likely pathogenic hypermethylation of several intragenic sites at the MSX1 gene, involved in outflow tract morphogenesis, was found in a fetus with isolated heart malformation. In addition, hypermethylation of the GATA4 gene was present in fetuses with Down syndrome with or without congenital heart defects, as well as in fetuses with isolated heart malformations. Expression deregulation of the abnormally methylated genes was detected. Our data indicate that epigenetic alterations of relevant genes are present in developing heart DNA in fetuses with both isolated and syndromic heart malformations. These epimutations likely contribute to the pathogenesis of the malformation by cis-acting effects on gene expression.

  15. Epilepsy and chromosome 18 abnormalities: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrotti, Alberto; Carelli, Alessia; di Genova, Lorenza; Striano, Pasquale

    2015-11-01

    To analyze the various types of epilepsy in subjects with chromosome 18 aberrations in order to define epilepsy and its main clinical, electroclinical and prognostic aspects in chromosome 18 anomalies. A careful overview of recent works concerning chromosome 18 aberrations and epilepsy has been carried out considering the major groups of chromosomal 18 aberrations, identified using MEDLINE and EMBASE database from 1980 to 2015. Epilepsy seems to be particularly frequent in patients with trisomy or duplication of chromosome 18 with a prevalence of up to 65%. Approximately, over half of the patients develop epilepsy during the first year of life. Epilepsy can be focal or generalized; infantile spasms have also been reported. Brain imagines showed anatomical abnormalities in 38% of patients. Some antiepileptic drugs as valproic acid and carbamazepine were useful for treating seizures although a large majority of patients need polytherapy. Children with chromosomal 18 abnormalities can present different types of epilepsy, more frequently focal seizures in individuals with 18q- deletion syndrome, while both complex partial seizures and generalized tonic-clonic seizures have been described in patients who suffer for trisomy 18. Outcome in term of seizures frequency and duration seems to be variable and epilepsy is drug resistant in half of the children, especially in children with trisomy 18 and generalized epilepsy. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Abnormal Fixational Eye Movements in Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Aasef G; Otero-Millan, Jorge; Kumar, Priyanka; Ghasia, Fatema F

    2016-01-01

    Fixational saccades shift the foveal image to counteract visual fading related to neural adaptation. Drifts are slow eye movements between two adjacent fixational saccades. We quantified fixational saccades and asked whether their changes could be attributed to pathologic drifts seen in amblyopia, one of the most common causes of blindness in childhood. Thirty-six pediatric subjects with varying severity of amblyopia and eleven healthy age-matched controls held their gaze on a visual target. Eye movements were measured with high-resolution video-oculography during fellow eye-viewing and amblyopic eye-viewing conditions. Fixational saccades and drifts were analyzed in the amblyopic and fellow eye and compared with controls. We found an increase in the amplitude with decreased frequency of fixational saccades in children with amblyopia. These alterations in fixational eye movements correlated with the severity of their amblyopia. There was also an increase in eye position variance during drifts in amblyopes. There was no correlation between the eye position variance or the eye velocity during ocular drifts and the amplitude of subsequent fixational saccade. Our findings suggest that abnormalities in fixational saccades in amblyopia are independent of the ocular drift. This investigation of amblyopia in pediatric age group quantitatively characterizes the fixation instability. Impaired properties of fixational saccades could be the consequence of abnormal processing and reorganization of the visual system in amblyopia. Paucity in the visual feedback during amblyopic eye-viewing condition can attribute to the increased eye position variance and drift velocity.

  17. OneD: increasing reproducibility of Hi-C samples with abnormal karyotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Enrique; le Dily, François; Quilez, Javier; Stadhouders, Ralph; Cuartero, Yasmina; Graf, Thomas; Marti-Renom, Marc A; Beato, Miguel; Filion, Guillaume J

    2018-01-31

    The three-dimensional conformation of genomes is an essential component of their biological activity. The advent of the Hi-C technology enabled an unprecedented progress in our understanding of genome structures. However, Hi-C is subject to systematic biases that can compromise downstream analyses. Several strategies have been proposed to remove those biases, but the issue of abnormal karyotypes received little attention. Many experiments are performed in cancer cell lines, which typically harbor large-scale copy number variations that create visible defects on the raw Hi-C maps. The consequences of these widespread artifacts on the normalized maps are mostly unexplored. We observed that current normalization methods are not robust to the presence of large-scale copy number variations, potentially obscuring biological differences and enhancing batch effects. To address this issue, we developed an alternative approach designed to take into account chromosomal abnormalities. The method, called OneD, increases reproducibility among replicates of Hi-C samples with abnormal karyotype, outperforming previous methods significantly. On normal karyotypes, OneD fared equally well as state-of-the-art methods, making it a safe choice for Hi-C normalization. OneD is fast and scales well in terms of computing resources for resolutions up to 5 kb. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Creative research in the chemical industry – Four decades in retrospect. 291. Crystal structure. Two new polyoxovanadate clusters templated through cysteamine. 159. A chiral Mn(IV) complex and its supramolecular as- sembly: Synthesis, characterization and properties 311 meso-Tetrathienylporphyrins: Steady-state ...

  19. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Water purification (12) 1330 (GA). Water structure (12) 1307 (GA). Weak interactions (9) 802 (GA). Weierstrass approximation (4) 341 (GA). What is Science? (9) 860 (RF). Why the Universe is Expanding (5) 480 (CL). Wiles (10) 950 (SA). Wiesel Torsten (1) 88 (FF). Woodward–Hoffmann rules (12) 1211 (GA). World War I (7) ...

  20. Do abnormal responses show utilitarian bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy; Shackel, Nicholas

    2008-03-20

    Neuroscience has recently turned to the study of utilitarian and non-utilitarian moral judgement. Koenigs et al. examine the responses of normal subjects and those with ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex (VMPC) damage to moral scenarios drawn from functional magnetic resonance imaging studies by Greene et al., and claim that patients with VMPC damage have an abnormally "utilitarian" pattern of moral judgement. It is crucial to the claims of Koenigs et al. that the scenarios of Greene et al. pose a conflict between utilitarian consequence and duty: however, many of them do not meet this condition. Because of this methodological problem, it is too early to claim that VMPC patients have a utilitarian bias.

  1. Regional Abnormality of Grey Matter in Schizophrenia: Effect from the Illness or Treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yue

    Full Text Available Both schizophrenia and antipsychotic treatment are known to modulate brain morphology. However, it is difficult to establish whether observed structural brain abnormalities are due to disease or the effects of treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of illness and antipsychotic treatment on brain structures in antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia based on a longitudinal short-term design. Twenty antipsychotic-naïve subjects with first-episode schizophrenia and twenty-four age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent 3T MRI scans. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM was used to examine the brain structural abnormality in patients compared to healthy controls. Nine patients were included in the follow-up examination after 8 weeks of treatment. Tensor-based morphometry (TBM was used to identify longitudinal brain structural changes. We observed significantly reduced grey matter volume in the right superior temporal gyrus in antipsychotic-naïve patients with schizophrenia compared with healthy controls. After 8 weeks of treatment, patients showed significantly increased grey matter volume primarily in the bilateral prefrontal cortex, insula, right thalamus, left superior occipital cortex and the bilateral cerebellum. In addition, a greater enlargement of the prefrontal cortex is associated with the improvement in negative symptoms, and a more enlarged thalamus is associated with greater improvement in positive symptoms. Our results suggest the following: (1 the abnormality in the right superior temporal gyrus is present in the early stages of schizophrenia, possibly representing the core region related to schizophrenia; and (2 atypical antipsychotics could modulate brain morphology involving the thalamus, cortical grey matter and cerebellum. In addition, examination of the prefrontal cortex and thalamus might facilitate an efficient response to atypical antipsychotics in terms of symptom improvement.

  2. Mastoid abnormalities in Down syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, R.B.J.; Yousefzadeh, D.K.; Roizen, N.J.

    1989-06-01

    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child's hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors which are important for learning and maximum development.

  3. Normal and abnormal skin color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortonne, J P

    2012-12-01

    The varieties of normal skin color in humans range from people of "no color" (pale white) to "people of color" (light brown, dark brown, and black). Skin color is a blend resulting from the skin chromophores red (oxyhaemoglobin), blue (deoxygenated haemoglobin), yellow-orange (carotene, an exogenous pigment), and brown (melanin). Melanin, however, is the major component of skin color ; it is the presence or absence of melanin in the melanosomes in melanocytes and melanin in keratinocytes that is responsible for epidermal pigmentation, and the presence of melanin in macrophages or melanocytes in the dermis that is responsible for dermal pigmentation. Two groups of pigmentary disorders are commonly distinguished: the disorders of the quantitative and qualitative distribution of normal pigment and the abnormal presence of exogenous or endogenous pigments in the skin. The first group includes hyperpigmentations, which clinically manifest by darkening of the skin color, and leukodermia, which is characterized by lightening of the skin. Hypermelanosis corresponds to an overload of melanin or an abnormal distribution of melanin in the skin. Depending on the color, melanodermia (brown/black) and ceruloderma (blue/grey) are distinguished. Melanodermia correspond to epidermal hypermelanocytosis (an increased number of melanocytes) or epidermal hypermelanosis (an increase in the quantity of melanin in the epidermis with no modification of the number of melanocytes). Ceruloderma corresponds to dermal hypermelanocytosis (abnormal presence in the dermis of cells synthesizing melanins) ; leakage in the dermis of epidermal melanin also exists, a form of dermal hypermelanosis called pigmentary incontinence. Finally, dyschromia can be related to the abnormal presence in the skin of a pigment of exogenous or endogenous origin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. [Normal and abnormal skin color].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortonne, J-P

    2012-11-01

    The varieties of normal skin color in humans range from people of "no color" (pale white) to "people of color" (light brown, dark brown, and black). Skin color is a blend resulting from the skin chromophores red (oxyhaemoglobin), blue (deoxygenated haemoglobin), yellow-orange (carotene, an exogenous pigment), and brown (melanin). Melanin, however, is the major component of skin color ; it is the presence or absence of melanin in the melanosomes in melanocytes and melanin in keratinocytes that is responsible for epidermal pigmentation, and the presence of melanin in macrophages or melanocytes in the dermis that is responsible for dermal pigmentation. Two groups of pigmentary disorders are commonly distinguished: the disorders of the quantitative and qualitative distribution of normal pigment and the abnormal presence of exogenous or endogenous pigments in the skin. The first group includes hyperpigmentations, which clinically manifest by darkening of the skin color, and leukodermia, which is characterized by lightening of the skin. Hypermelanosis corresponds to an overload of melanin or an abnormal distribution of melanin in the skin. Depending on the color, melanodermia (brown/black) and ceruloderma (blue/grey) are distinguished. Melanodermia correspond to epidermal hypermelanocytosis (an increased number of melanocytes) or epidermal hypermelanosis (an increase in the quantity of melanin in the epidermis with no modification of the number of melanocytes). Ceruloderma correspond to dermal hypermelanocytosis (abnormal presence in the dermis of cells synthesizing melanins) ; leakage in the dermis of epidermal melanin also exists, a form of dermal hypermelanosis called pigmentary incontinence. Finally, dyschromia can be related to the abnormal presence in the skin of a pigment of exogenous or endogenous origin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Goldenhar syndrome and urogenital abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Marulaiah

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Goldenhar syndrome (oculo-auriculo-vertebral syn-drome or 1st and 2nd branchial arch syndrome is a com-plex of craniofacial anomalies. It has been associated with anomalies in other systems and with abnormalities of the urogenital system. We present a case of Goldenhar syn-drome with multiple renal anomalies and a urogenital si-nus, which has not been reported before.

  6. Incidental sinus abnormalities in 256 patients referred for brain MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanaati H

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Imaging abnormalities in the paranasal sinuses are regularly noted as incidental findings on MRI, however, little is known about their prevalence in the Iranian population. The purpose of this study was to classify these findings in the paranasal sinuses as seen on MRI and to investigate the prevalence, according to site and type of paranasal abnormality. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the T2-weighted axial MRI of 256 patients with diseases unrelated to their paranasal sinuses were reviewed between May 2002 and June 2003. The findings were categorized according to the anatomic location and the imaging characteristics of the abnormality. The abnormalities recorded included total sinus opacification, mucoperiosteal thickening >5mm, air fluid levels and retention cysts or polyps. Unilateral or bilateral involvement and septal deviation were also noted. A sinus was considered normal if it was fully aerated and no soft-tissue density was apparent within the cavity. Results: Among our cases, 111 (43.5% were male and 145 (56.5% were female. Of these patients, abnormalities in one or more of the sinus groups were found in 110 subjects (42.9%, 55.5% of which were male and 44.5% were female (P=0.001. Maxillary sinus abnormalities were observed in 66.4% of the patients, while ethmoid sinus abnormalities were found in 63.6%. Of the ethmoid abnormalities, 21% were found in the anterior section, 9% in the middle ethmoid, and 8% in the posterior ethmoid. The most common abnormality found was mucosal thickening. Among our cases, 23.4% had septal deviation, which was significantly higher among those with sinusitis (29% versus 19.1%; P<0.01. Of those patients with sinus involvement, 16% were involved in the sphenoid sinus and 5% in the frontal sinus. The results obtained from the patients with sinus abnormality revealed that 85% suffered from cough, nasal obstruction, runny nose, facial pain and post nasal discharge and 24% had been diagnosed

  7. The Role of Life-Space, Social Activity, and Depression on the Subjective Memory Complaints of Community-Dwelling Filipino Elderly: A Structural Equation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Lagdaan, Lovely France M.; Lagoy, Marie Lauren V.

    2015-01-01

    Subjective memory complaints are one of the major concerns of the elderly and remain a challenging area in gerontology. There are previous studies that identify different factors affecting subjective memory complaints. However, an extended model that correlates life-space on subjective memory complaints remains a blank spot. The objective of this…

  8. Centrosome abnormalities in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Rudolf; Gais, Peter; Steuer-Vogt, Miriam K; Boulesteix, Anne-Laure; Deutschle, Tom; Hampel, Regina; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Rauser, Sandra; Walch, Axel; Bink, Karin; Jutting, Uta; Neff, Frauke; Arnold, Wolfgang; Hofler, Heinz; Pickhard, Anja

    2009-02-01

    Numerical and structural centrosome abnormalities play a critical role in the tumor progression of in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and may provide useful information as a prognostic factor for these patients. Centrosome alterations are often linked with aneuploidy, cell transformation, and tumor progress. We investigated centrosome abnormalities in HNSCC and correlated these variables to clinicopathological parameters and clinical follow up data of the patients. Retrospective analysis of numerical and structural alterations of centrosomes in tumor tissues and corresponding normal epithelium (n=50 and 31, respectively). Immunohistochemistry was performed using an anti-gamma-tubulin antibody. Image acquisition was done by an Orthoplan microscope, centrosomes were segmented interactively, and area as well as mean optical density was measured. Aneuploidy was evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization in a subset of cases (n=29). Numerical and structural centrosome abnormalities differed significantly between normal squamous epithelium and tumor cells (both P<0.0001). Especially numerical centrosome abnormalities were significantly associated with T category and tumor stage (both P<0.0001) and the occurrence of distant metastasis (P=0.002 and P=0.019, respectively). Numerical centrosome abnormalities correlated also with disease free survival of the patients (P=0.032) as well as shorter overall survival (P=0.003).

  9. The structure and properties of filler metal-free laser beam welded joints in steel S700MC subjected to TMCP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górka, Jacek; Stano, Sebastian

    2016-12-01

    The research-related tests aimed to determine the effect of filer-metal free laser beam welding on the structure and properties of 10 mm thick steel S700MC subjected to the Thermo-Mechanical Control Process (TMCP). The nondestructive tests revealed that the welded joints represented quality level B according to the requirements of standard 13919-1. The destructive tests revealed that the joints were characterised by tensile strength being by approximately 5% lower than that of the base material. The tests of thin foils performed using a high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscope revealed that filler metal-free welding led to the increased amount of alloying microagents (Ti and Nb) in the weld (particularly near fusion line) in comparison with welding performed using a filler metal. The significant content of hardening phases in the welds during cooling resulted in considerable precipitation hardening through finedispersive (Ti,Nb)(C,N) type precipitates (several nm in size) leading to the deterioration of plastic properties. The destructive tests revealed that the joints were characterised by tensile strength being by approximately 5% lower than that of the base material. The increase in the concentration of microagents responsible for steel hardening (Ti and Nb) also contributed to the decrease in weld toughness being below the allowed value of 25 J/cm2.

  10. Chromosome abnormalities in primary ovarian cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonescu, R.; Currie, J.; Griffin, C.A. [John Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Chromosome abnormalities that are specific and recurrent may occur in regions of the genome that are involved in the conversion of normal cells to those with tumorigenic potential. Ovarian cancer is the primary cause of death among patients with gynecological malignancies. We have performed cytogenetic analysis of 16 ovarian tumors from women age 28-82. Three tumors of low malignant potential and three granulosa cell tumors had normal karyotypes. To look for the presence of trisomy 12, which has been suggested to be a common aberration in this group of tumors, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on direct preparations from three of these tumors using a probe for alpha satellite sequences of chromosome 12. In the 3 preparations, 92-98 percent of the cells contained two copies of chromosome 12, indicating that trisomy 12 is not a universal finding in low grade ovarian tumors. Endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary is histologically indistinguishable from endometial carcinoma of the uterus. We studied 10 endometrioid tumors to determine the degree of genetic similarity between these two carcinomas. Six out of ten endometrioid tumors showed a near-triploid modal number, and one presented with a tetraploid modal number. Eight of the ten contained structural chromosome abnormalities, of which the most frequent were 1p- (5 tumors), 19q+ (3 tumors), 6q- or ins(6) (4 tumors), 3q- or 3q+ (4 tumors). These cytogenetic results resemble those reported for papillary ovarian tumors and differ from those of endometrial carcinoma of the uterus. We conclude that despite the histologic similarities between the endometrioid and endometrial carcinomas, the genetic abnormalities in the genesis of these tumors differ significantly.

  11. The subject, it is here! The varying structural positions of preverbal subjects O Sujeito, ele está aqui! A posição variável dos sujeitos preverbais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acrisio Pires

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes preverbal overt subjects, comparing Brazilian Portuguese to (other null-subject languages, especially within Romance. It explores syntactic and semantic properties, including resumption, ellipsis, quantifiers and scope, variable binding, ordering restrictions, pronominal distinctions, minimality violations, bare nouns and definiteness. It concludes that preverbal subjects in Brazilian Portuguese can be realized both in argumental positions (Specifier of the Inflectional or Tense Phrase and non-argumental positions (Topic Phrase specifiers, with the possibility that both types of positions are filled by the subject in the same clause, incorporating properties that have been argued not to be found together in other languages.Esse artigo analiza sujeitos preverbais manifestos, comparando o português do Brasil com (outras línguas de sujeitos nulos. O artigo investiga propriedades sintáticas e semânticas, incluindo pronomes resumptivos, elipse, quantificadores e escopo, ligação de variáveis, restrições de ordem, distinções pronominais, violações de minimalidade, nomes sem determinantes, e definitude. Concluo que esses sujeitos preverbais podem realizar-se tanto em posição argumental (especificador do sintagma flexional ou temporal quanto em posições não-argumentais (posições de tópico, com a possibilidade de os dois tipos de posições serem preenchidos pelo sujeito na mesma oração, incorporando propriedades que são tidas como não ocorrendo juntas em outras línguas.

  12. Time-domain parameter identification of aeroelastic loads by forced-vibration method for response of flexible structures subject to transient wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bochao

    Slender structures representing civil, mechanical and aerospace systems such as long-span bridges, high-rise buildings, stay cables, power-line cables, high light mast poles, crane-booms and aircraft wings could experience vortex-induced and buffeting excitations below their design wind speeds and divergent self-excited oscillations (flutter) beyond a critical wind speed because these are flexible. Traditional linear aerodynamic theories that are routinely applied for their response prediction are not valid in the galloping, or near-flutter regime, where large-amplitude vibrations could occur and during non-stationary and transient wind excitations that occur, for example, during hurricanes, thunderstorms and gust fronts. The linear aerodynamic load formulation for lift, drag and moment are expressed in terms of aerodynamic functions in frequency domain that are valid for straight-line winds which are stationary or weakly-stationary. Application of the frequency domain formulation is restricted from use in the nonlinear and transient domain because these are valid for linear models and stationary wind. The time-domain aerodynamic force formulations are suitable for finite element modeling, feedback-dependent structural control mechanism, fatigue-life prediction, and above all modeling of transient structural behavior during non-stationary wind phenomena. This has motivated the developing of time-domain models of aerodynamic loads that are in parallel to the existing frequency-dependent models. Parameters defining these time-domain models can be now extracted from wind tunnel tests, for example, the Rational Function Coefficients defining the self-excited wind loads can be extracted using section model tests using the free vibration technique. However, the free vibration method has some limitations because it is difficult to apply at high wind speeds, in turbulent wind environment, or on unstable cross sections with negative aerodynamic damping. In the current

  13. The genomic landscape of balanced cytogenetic abnormalities associated with human congenital anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redin, Claire; Brand, Harrison; Collins, Ryan L.; Kammin, Tammy; Mitchell, Elyse; Hodge, Jennelle C.; Hanscom, Carrie; Pillalamarri, Vamsee; Seabra, Catarina M.; Abbott, Mary-Alice; Abdul-Rahman, Omar A.; Aberg, Erika; Adley, Rhett; Alcaraz-Estrada, Sofia L.; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.; An, Yu; Anderson, Mary-Anne; Antolik, Caroline; Anyane-Yeboa, Kwame; Atkin, Joan F.; Bartell, Tina; Bernstein, Jonathan A.; Beyer, Elizabeth; Blumenthal, Ian; Bongers, Ernie M. H. F.; Brilstra, Eva H.; Brown, Chester W.; Bruggenwirth, Hennie T.; Callewaert, Bert; Chiang, Colby; Corning, Ken; Cox, Helen; Cuppen, Edwin; Currall, Benjamin B.; Cushing, Tom; David, Dezso; Deardorff, Matthew A.; Dheedene, Annelies; D'Hooghe, Marc; de Vries, Bert B. A.; Earl, Dawn L.; Ferguson, Heather L.; Fisher, Heather; FitzPatrick, David R.; Gerrol, Pamela; Giachino, Daniela; Glessner, Joseph T.; Gliem, Troy; Grady, Margo; Graham, Brett H.; Griffis, Cristin; Gripp, Karen W.; Gropman, Andrea L.; Hanson-Kahn, Andrea; Harris, David J.; Hayden, Mark A.; Hill, Rosamund; Hochstenbach, Ron; Hoffman, Jodi D.; Hopkin, Robert J.; Hubshman, Monika W.; Innes, A. Micheil; Irons, Mira; Irving, Melita; Jacobsen, Jessie C.; Janssens, Sandra; Jewett, Tamison; Johnson, John P.; Jongmans, Marjolijn C.; Kahler, Stephen G.; Koolen, David A.; Korzelius, Jerome; Kroisel, Peter M.; Lacassie, Yves; Lawless, William; Lemyre, Emmanuelle; Leppig, Kathleen; Levin, Alex V.; Li, Haibo; Li, Hong; Liao, Eric C.; Lim, Cynthia; Lose, Edward J.; Lucente, Diane; Macera, Michael J.; Manavalan, Poornima; Mandrile, Giorgia; Marcelis, Carlo L.; Margolin, Lauren; Mason, Tamara; Masser-Frye, Diane; McClellan, Michael W.; Mendoza, Cinthya J. Zepeda; Menten, Bjorn; Middelkamp, Sjors; Mikami, Liya R.; Moe, Emily; Mohammed, Shehla; Mononen, Tarja; Mortenson, Megan E.; Moya, Graciela; Nieuwint, Aggie W.; Ordulu, Zehra; Parkash, Sandhya; Pauker, Susan P.; Pereira, Shahrin; Perrin, Danielle; Phelan, Katy; Pina Aguilar, Raul E.; Poddighe, Pino J.; Pregno, Giulia; Raskin, Salmo; Reis, Linda; Rhead, William; Rita, Debra; Renkens, Ivo; Roelens, Filip; Ruliera, Jayla; Rump, Patrick; Schilit, Samantha L. P.; Shaheen, Ranad; Sparkes, Rebecca; Spiegel, Erica; Stevens, Blair; Stone, Matthew R.; Tagoe, Julia; Thakuria, Joseph V.; van Bon, Bregje W.; van de Kamp, Jiddeke; van Der Burgt, Ineke; van Essen, Ton; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M.; van Roosmalen, Markus J.; Vergult, Sarah; Volker-Touw, Catharina M. L.; Warburton, Dorothy P.; Waterman, Matthew J.; Wiley, Susan; Wilson, Anna; Yerena-de Vega, Maria de la Concepcion A.; Zori, Roberto T.; Levy, Brynn; Brunner, Han G.; de Leeuw, Nicole; Kloosterman, Wigard P.; Thorland, Erik C.; Morton, Cynthia C.; Gusella, James F.; Talkowski, Michael E.

    Despite the clinical significance of balanced chromosomal abnormalities (BCAs), their characterization has largely been restricted to cytogenetic resolution. We explored the landscape of BCAs at nucleotide resolution in 273 subjects with a spectrum of congenital anomalies. Whole-genome sequencing

  14. Regional heart motion abnormality detection: an information theoretic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punithakumar, Kumaradevan; Ben Ayed, Ismail; Islam, Ali; Goela, Aashish; Ross, Ian G; Chong, Jaron; Li, Shuo

    2013-04-01

    Tracking regional heart motion and detecting the corresponding abnormalities play an essential role in the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. Based on functional images, which are subject to noise and segmentation/registration inaccuracies, regional heart motion analysis is acknowledged as a difficult problem and, therefore, incorporation of prior knowledge is desirable to enhance accuracy. Given noisy data and a nonlinear dynamic model to describe myocardial motion, an unscented Kalman smoother is proposed in this study to estimate the myocardial points. Due to the similarity between the statistical information of normal and abnormal heart motions, detecting and classifying abnormality is a challenging problem. We use the Shannon's differential entropy of the distributions of potential classifier features to detect and locate regional heart motion abnormality. A naive Bayes classifier algorithm is constructed from the Shannon's differential entropy of different features to automatically detect abnormal functional regions of the myocardium. Using 174 segmented short-axis magnetic resonance cines obtained from 58 subjects (21 normal and 37 abnormal), the proposed method is quantitatively evaluated by comparison with ground truth classifications by radiologists over 928 myocardial segments. The proposed method performed significantly better than other recent methods, and yielded an accuracy of 86.5% (base), 89.4% (mid-cavity) and 84.5% (apex). The overall classification accuracy was 87.1%. Furthermore, standard kappa statistic comparisons between the proposed method and visual wall motion scoring by radiologists showed that the proposed algorithm can yield a kappa measure of 0.73. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The incidence, embryology, and oculofacial abnormalities associated with eyelid colobomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H B; Verity, D H; Collin, J R O

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe a cohort of patients with congenital eyelid coloboma, to identify associated ocular and craniofacial abnormalities, and to establish any correlation between the size and location of eyelid colobomas and the presence of such abnormalities. Methods An observational case series of 55 patients with eyelid coloboma treated by a single surgeon (JROC) between 1985 and 2005. Results Eyelid colobomas predominantly affected the upper lids (93%), and were typically unilateral (76%). About a third (29%) were an isolated finding, with the remainder associated with other ocular (62%) and/or craniofacial (53%) abnormalities. Of those with ocular abnormalities; 19 (56%) had conjunctival traction bands, 16 (47%) choristomas, and 8 (24%) an abnormal globe. Of those with craniofacial abnormalities; 13 (45%) had Goldenhar Syndrome, 10 (35%) clefting disorders, and 4 (14%) Fraser Syndrome. Clefting disorders were typically associated with more severe colobomas and a higher incidence of conjunctival traction bands, first arch syndromes with smaller colobomas and more choristomas. Overall large colobomas were significantly associated with the presence of other craniofacial defects compared with small colobomas (P<0.01, χ2), but coloboma size did not correspond with the presence of other ocular abnormalities. Conclusions Coloboma size, location, and associations in this series are consistent with our current understanding of eyelid embryogenesis. It is likely that those colobomas associated with other craniofacial and ocular abnormalities are those which result from errors earlier in embryogenesis during eyelid specification, growth, and closure, whereas isolated colobomas arise later during eyelid separation, and after codependent structures have developed. PMID:25613848

  16. Clustered metabolic abnormalities blunt regression of hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy: the LIFE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Simone, G; Okin, P M; Gerdts, E

    2009-01-01

    or more metabolic abnormalities (MetAb, including obesity, high plasma glucose without diabetes, low HDL-cholesterol) in addition to hypertension were associated to levels of ECG LVH reduction comparable to that obtained in hypertensive subjects without or with only one additional metabolic abnormality...... of metabolic abnormalities resembling phenotypes of metabolic syndrome are related to greater initial ECG LVH in hypertensive patients with value of blood pressure similar to individuals without metabolic abnormalities, and are associated with less reduction of ECG LVH during antihypertensive therapy...

  17. Functional neuroimaging abnormalities in idiopathic generalized epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L. McGill

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques have been used to quantitatively assess focal and network abnormalities. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE is characterized by bilateral synchronous spike–wave discharges on electroencephalography (EEG but normal clinical MRI. Dysfunctions involving the neocortex, particularly the prefrontal cortex, and thalamus likely contribute to seizure activity. To identify possible morphometric and functional differences in the brains of IGE patients and normal controls, we employed measures of thalamic volumes, cortical thickness, gray–white blurring, fractional anisotropy (FA measures from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF in thalamic subregions from resting state functional MRI. Data from 27 patients with IGE and 27 age- and sex-matched controls showed similar thalamic volumes, cortical thickness and gray–white contrast. There were no differences in FA values on DTI in tracts connecting the thalamus and prefrontal cortex. Functional analysis revealed decreased fALFF in the prefrontal cortex (PFC subregion of the thalamus in patients with IGE. We provide minimum detectable effect sizes for each measure used in the study. Our analysis indicates that fMRI-based methods are more sensitive than quantitative structural techniques for characterizing brain abnormalities in IGE.

  18. Abnormal thermography in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio-Rubio, I; Madrid-Navarro, C J; Salazar-López, E; Pérez-Navarro, M J; Sáez-Zea, C; Gómez-Milán, E; Mínguez-Castellanos, A; Escamilla-Sevilla, F

    2015-08-01

    An autonomic denervation and abnormal vasomotor reflex in the skin have been described in Parkinson's disease (PD) and might be evaluable using thermography with cold stress test. A cross-sectional pilot study was undertaken in 35 adults: 15 patients with PD and abnormal [(123)I]-metaiodobenzylguanidine cardiac scintigraphy and 20 healthy controls. Baseline thermography of both hands was obtained before immersing one in cold water (3 ± 1 °C) for 2 min. Continuous thermography was performed in: non-immersed hand (right or with lesser motor involvement) during immersion of the contralateral hand and for 6 min afterward; and contralateral immersed hand for 6 min post-immersion. The region of interest was the dorsal skin of the third finger, distal phalanx. PD patients showed a lower mean baseline hand temperature (p = 0.037) and greater thermal difference between dorsum of wrist and third finger (p = 0.036) and between hands (p = 0.0001) versus controls, regardless of the motor laterality. Both tests evidenced an adequate capacity to differentiate between groups: in the non-immersed hand, the PD patients did not show the normal cooling pattern or final thermal overshoot observed in controls (F = 5.29; p = 0.001), and there was an AUC of 0.897 (95%CI 0.796-0.998) for this cooling; in the immersed hand, thermal recovery at 6 min post-immersion was lesser in patients (29 ± 17% vs. 55 ± 28%, p = 0.002), with an AUC of 0.810 (95%CI 0.662-0.958). PD patients reveal abnormal skin thermal responses in thermography with cold stress test, suggesting cutaneous autonomic dysfunction. This simple technique may be useful to evaluate autonomic dysfunction in PD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Abnormal cerebral effective connectivity during explicit emotional processing in adults with autism spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonlupt, Pierre; Hubert, Bénédicte; Tardif, Carole; Gepner, Bruno; Deruelle, Christine

    2008-01-01

    Several recent studies suggest that autism may result from abnormal communication between brain regions. We directly assessed this hypothesis by testing the presence of abnormalities in a model of the functional cerebral network engaged during explicit emotion processing in adults with high functioning autism or Asperger syndrome. Comparison of structural equation models revealed abnormal patterns of effective connectivity, with the prefrontal cortex as a key site of dysfunction. These findings provide evidence that abnormal long-range connectivity between structures of the ‘social brain’ could explain the socio-emotional troubles that characterize the autistic pathology. PMID:19015104

  20. [Heart rhythm abnormalities in middle-aged veteran elite athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharashdze, N S; Pagava, Z T; Saatashvili, G A; Agladze, R A

    2008-06-01

    Disrrhythmia is frequent finding in high competitive athletes. Majority of heart rhythm abnormalities in athletes, suggested being benign, however, prognostic value of it is not yet well established. Purpose of the present study was to investigate heart rhythm and relationship of heart rhythm abnormalities with LV mass in veteran elite athletes. 30 veteran elite athletes (16 soccer players and 14 water-polo players) aged 30-50 were studied. They formed main group. >10 years of active sports activity and >5 years after competitive sports cessation. All athletes were symptom free. Control group consists of 30 age - matched sedentary healthy individuals. In all study subjects ambulatory 24 hour ECG was recorded and, LV mass, dimensions and function by ultrasound-Doppler technique was evaluated. LV mass by Devereux formula was calculated and indexed to body surface area. Student's t-test for continuous variables, Descriptive statistics and Fisher's exact test for categorical variables were used. A P-value of conductivity abnormalities as well as complex arrhythmias were more frequent findings in athletes as compared with healthy sedentary subjects. Heart Rhythm abnormalities were associated with enhanced LV mass in Veteran athletes. Hence, veteran elite athletes may be at increased risk of life threatening arrhythmias. However, prognostic value of heart rhythm disturbances in veteran athletes has to be studied.

  1. Stand structure, composition and illegal logging in selectively logged production forests of Myanmar: Comparison of two compartments subject to different cutting frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tual Cin Khai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate cutting cycles and annual allowable cuts are crucial to ensure sustainability of tropical selective logging, but there have been limited field data to verify long-term effects of different cutting cycles. This study reveals some evidence of forest degradation in selectively logged production forests of Myanmar, which are subject to inappropriate cutting frequency. We compared stand structure, commercial species composition, and incidence of illegal logging between two compartments with low (LCF; 1 time and high (HCF; 5 times cutting frequency over a recent 18 years. Prior to the latest cutting, LCF had 176 trees ha−1 with an inverted-J shape distribution of diameter at breast height (DBH, including a substantial amount of teak (Tectona grandis and other commercially important species in each DBH class. HCF prior to the latest cut had only 41 trees ha−1 without many commercially important species. At HCF, nearly half the standing trees of various species and size were illegally cut following legal operations; this was for charcoal making in nearby kilns. At LCF, two species, teak and Xylia xylocarpa, were cut illegally and sawn for timber on the spot. More extensive and systematic surveys are needed to generalize the findings of forest degradation and illegal logging. However, our study calls for urgent reconsideration of logging practices with high cutting frequency, which can greatly degrade forests with accompanying illegal logging, and for rehabilitating strongly degraded, bamboo-dominated forests. To reduce illegal logging, it would be important to pay more attention on a MSS regulation stating that logging roads should be destroyed after logging operations.

  2. Chromosomal abnormalities are associated with aging and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two new studies have found that large structural abnormalities in chromosomes, some of which have been associated with increased risk of cancer, can be detected in a small fraction of people without a prior history of cancer. The studies found that these

  3. Cortical thickness as a contributor to abnormal oscillations in schizophrenia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Christopher Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Discussion: Left STG low-frequency and steady-state gamma abnormalities distinguish SZ and HC. Disease-associated damage to STG gray matter in schizophrenia may disrupt the age-related left STG gamma-band function–structure relationships observed in controls.

  4. Risk factors for abnormal tubal hysterosalpingographic findings in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Acquired structural abnormalities of the female reproductive tract contributes to the aetiology of female infertility. So many presumed risk factors for female tubal infertility are seen among Nigerian women. However, reports on the relationship between these factors and tubal pathology as seen on ...

  5. Morphometric Brain Abnormalities in Boys with Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Thomas; Vloet, Timo D.; Marx, Ivo; Konrad, Kerstin; Fink, Gereon R.; Herpertz, Sabine C.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2008-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is associated with antisocial personality behavior that violates the basic rights of others. Results, on examining the structural brain aberrations in boys' CD, show that boys with CD and cormobid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder showed abnormalities in frontolimbic areas that could contribute to antisocial…

  6. MRI reveals brain abnormalities in drug-naive Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planetta, Peggy J; McFarland, Nikolaus R; Okun, Michael S; Vaillancourt, David E

    2014-01-01

    Most brain studies of Parkinson's disease (PD) focus on patients who are already taking antiparkinsonian medication. This makes it difficult to isolate the effects of disease from those of treatment. We review magnetic resonance imaging evidence supporting the hypothesis that early-stage untreated PD patients have structural and functional abnormalities in the brain, some of which are related to motor symptoms.

  7. Abnormal visuomotor processing in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siân E. Robson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subtle disturbances of visual and motor function are known features of schizophrenia and can greatly impact quality of life; however, few studies investigate these abnormalities using simple visuomotor stimuli. In healthy people, electrophysiological data show that beta band oscillations in sensorimotor cortex decrease during movement execution (event-related beta desynchronisation (ERBD, then increase above baseline for a short time after the movement (post-movement beta rebound (PMBR; whilst in visual cortex, gamma oscillations are increased throughout stimulus presentation. In this study, we used a self-paced visuomotor paradigm and magnetoencephalography (MEG to contrast these responses in patients with schizophrenia and control volunteers. We found significant reductions in the peak-to-peak change in amplitude from ERBD to PMBR in schizophrenia compared with controls. This effect was strongest in patients who made fewer movements, whereas beta was not modulated by movement in controls. There was no significant difference in the amplitude of visual gamma between patients and controls. These data demonstrate that clear abnormalities in basic sensorimotor processing in schizophrenia can be observed using a very simple MEG paradigm.

  8. Lower Extremity Abnormalities in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rerucha, Caitlyn M; Dickison, Caleb; Baird, Drew C

    2017-08-15

    Leg and foot problems in childhood are common causes of parental concern. Rotational problems include intoeing and out-toeing. Intoeing is most common in infants and young children. Intoeing is caused by metatarsus adductus, internal tibial torsion, and femoral anteversion. Out-toeing is less common than intoeing and occurs more often in older children. Out-toeing is caused by external tibial torsion and femoral retroversion. Angular problems include genu varum (bowleg) and genu valgum (knock knee). With pes planus (flatfoot), the arch of the foot is usually flexible rather than rigid. A history and physical examination that include torsional profile tests and angular measurements are usually sufficient to evaluate patients with lower extremity abnormalities. Most children who present with lower extremity problems have normal rotational and angular findings (i.e., within two standard deviations of the mean). Lower extremity abnormalities that are within normal measurements resolve spontaneously as the child grows. Radiologic studies are not routinely required, except to exclude pathologic conditions. Orthotics are not beneficial. Orthopedic referral is often not necessary. Rarely, surgery is required in patients older than eight years who have severe deformities that cause dysfunction.

  9. Submicroscopic chromosomal abnormalities in fetuses with increased nuchal translucency and normal karyotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Li, Ru; Fu, Fang; Zhang, Yongling; Li, Dongzhi; Liao, Can

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the submicroscopic chromosomal abnormalities in fetuses with increased nuchal translucency (NT) and normal karyotype. Total of 296 fetuses with increased NT (≥3.0 mm) were tested by conventional karyotyping. When cytogenetic analysis showed normal chromosome, the pregnancies were then consulted for array-comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis and received subsequent morphology scan between 20 and 24 weeks gestation. Submicroscopic chromosomal abnormalities were assessed and compared between the fetuses with and without structural defects. Chromosomal abnormality was identified in 19.9% (59/296) fetuses. Two hundred and twenty samples were tested by array CGH. Submicroscopic chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 9.1% (20/220) fetuses. For the fetuses with abnormal morphology scan, the detection rate of submicroscopic chromosomal abnormalities was higher than those with normal morphology scan (26.9% versus 6.7%, p karyotype, especially when the structural defects were found at second or third trimester.

  10. [Karyotype analysis of amniotic fluid cells and comparison of chromosomal abnormality rate during second trimester].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue-ping; Wu, Jun-ping; Li, Xiao-tian; Lei, Cai-xia; Xu, Jian-Zhong; Yin, Min

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the karyotypes of amniotic fluid cells and compare the incidence of chromosomal abnormality as well as to evaluate the clinical significance of abnormal karyotypes. A total of 13 648 pregnant women came to Shanghai Jiai Genetics and IVF Institute, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Fudan University to do amniocentesis from September 1998 to November 2010, and 13 795 amniotic fluid specimens were successfully extracted and cultured, thus 13 795 fetuses received karyotype diagnosis. These fetuses were grouped according to different indications. If maternal age was ≥ 35, the fetuses were grouped into the advanced maternal age group (4065); and if maternal serum screening test revealed high-risk of trisomy 18 or trisomy 21, the fetuses were grouped into the high-risk serum screening group (6462); and those with abnormal signs of ultrasound screening were grouped into the abnormal ultrasound signs group (1539); and if either of the parents was with chromosome abnormalities, the fetus was grouped into the paternal/maternal abnormality group (108); whereas the remainder were grouped in other factors group (1621). The amniotic fluid cells were in-situ cultured on coverslips, harvested by conventional G-banded methods, and then analyzed by two doctors. In order to get rapid diagnosis, some pregnant women whose gestational age ≥ 26 weeks accepted fluorescense in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH was done on 78 uncultured amniotic fluid specimens using probes located at chromosome 13, 18, 21, X, Y. Some parents were required to analyze lymphocyte karyotype to help judging the origin of abnormal karyotype. (1) Classification and composition of abnormal karyotypes in each group: a total of 388 abnormal karyotypes were found among 13 795 fetuses, and the abnormal rate was 2.813% (388/13 795). Of the 388 fetuses, aneuploidy was the most common pattern which was up to 59.8% (232/388); autosomal structural abnormality rate was 24.7% (96/388); mosaicism was 12

  11. Nonspastic hemifacial spasm confirmed by abnormal muscle responses

    OpenAIRE

    Tani, Shigeru; Inazuka, Mayuko; Maegawa, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Yuichi; Kikuchi, Asami; Yokosako, Suguru; Yoshimura, Chika; Koseki, Hirokazu; Ohbuchi, Hidenori; Hirota, Kengo; Hagiwara, Shinji; Hirasawa, Motohiro; Sasahara, Atsushi; Kasuya, Hidetoshi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hemifacial spasm is usually diagnosed by inspection which mainly identifies involuntary movements of orbicularis oculi. Assessing abnormal muscle responses (AMR) is another diagnostic method. Case Description: We report a case of left hemifacial spasm without detectable involuntary facial movements. The patient was a 48-year-old man with a long history of subjective left facial twitching. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the left VIIth cranial nerve was compressed by the left ...

  12. Chromosome abnormalities in squamous cell carcinoma of the urethra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadl-Elmula, I; Gorunova, L; Mandahl, N; Elfving, P; Heim, S

    1998-09-01

    Cytogenetic analysis of short-term cultured cells from a urethral squamous cell carcinoma showed the tumor to have an abnormal, karyotypically complex near-diploid clone as well as its near-tetraploid duplicate. This is the first urethral carcinoma with chromosomal abnormalities to be reported. Chromosomes Y, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 11, and 20 were all involved in numerical and/or structural rearrangements. Of particular interest was the fact that no rearrangements of chromosomes 9 and 17, both almost ubiquitously involved in transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary tract, were seen.

  13. Oxidation of 1020 steel in the abnormal glow discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Zúñiga, J. A.; Sarmiento Santos, A.; Gómez, E. Y. Soto

    2017-01-01

    1020 steel is a material very used for surface treatment in the abnormal glow discharge. Because the composition of the gaseous atmosphere has an important influence on the results of plasma treatment, in this work the oxidation process of 1020 steel is verified on the abnormal glow discharge under different concentrations of air (20% to 100%) at temperatures of 600°C and 900°C. For each atmosphere used mass variation is measured during the process of surface oxidation, the structure and microstructure of the oxide film formed is observed and also its mechanical properties through its microhardness.

  14. CHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALITIES IN PATIENTS WITH RECURRENT MISCARRIAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mierla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal abnormalities are involved in the etiology of recurrent spontaneous pregnancy loss and sub-fertility. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and contribution of chromosomal abnormalities in recurrent miscarriages. The results obtained and literature review are helpful in understanding the importance of cytogenetics analysis of female infertility. To investigate the distribution of chromosomal abnormalities in the Romanian population with recurrent miscarriage, karyotype analysis by G-banding was performed from peripheral blood in 967 women infertility. Results: Chromosomal abnormalities were found to 79 women (8,17%. The percentage of chromosomal abnormalities in the studied population correlates with the data in the literature. Chromosomal abnormalities could play the important role in etiology of infertility and are more frequently detected in this group of patients compared to general population. In the infertile couples balanced chromosomal abnormalities are the main cause of spontaneous abortions.

  15. Frequencies of fetal chromosomal abnormalities at prenatal diagnosis: 10 years experiences in a single institution.

    OpenAIRE

    Park, S. Y.; Kim, J. W.; Kim, Y. M.; Kim, J. M.; Lee, M. H.; Lee, B. Y.; Han, J. Y.; Kim, M. Y.; Yang, J. H.; Ryu, H. M.

    2001-01-01

    We present frequencies of fetal chromosomal abnormalities in 4,907 prenatal cytogenetic examinations at Samsung Cheil Hospital from 1988 to 1997 for 10 yr duration. Prenatal karyotypes were undertaken in 3,913 amniotic fluid samples, 800 chorionic villi samples, and 194 percutaneous umbilical blood samples. The frequency of fetal abnormal karyotypes was 3.1% (150 cases). Numerical chromosome abnormalities were 87 cases (1.8%) and structural aberrations of chromosomes were 63 cases (1.3%). In ...

  16. Epileptiform electroencephalogram abnormality in children with congenital sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Badry, Mohamed Mohamed; Hamdy, Nermin Aly; Sobhy, Sayed; Gamal, Reham

    2014-04-01

    This work was designed to study electroencephalogram findings in children with congenital sensorineural hearing loss and correlate these findings with the SNHL parameters as duration, etiology, severity, and type. Ninety children with bilateral congenital sensorineural hearing loss served as the study group. They were free from any neurological disorders or symptoms that are commonly associated with abnormal electroencephalogram as convulsions or loss of consciousness. Twenty ch