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Sample records for subjects structural abnormality

  1. Abnormal Metabolite in Alcoholic Subjects,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    this study included alcoholic hepatitis or cirrhosis of the liver in 29. of the alcoholic subjects; diabetes mellitus in 8 and Korsakoff’s syndrome in 6...evidence of -7- Korsakoff’s syndrome and the presence or absence of 2,3-butanediol. There was, however, a suggestive correlation with independently...Gamma GT 193, SGPT 29 b 0 0.023 0.05 51a F.B. 22 M 28 0.029 0.14 b 0 ɘ.01 0.12 77 J.N.S. 52 M 0 0.027 0.11 57 JJ.S 45 m 4. 0.25 .35 Korsakoff ’s

  2. A comparative study of EEG abnormalities among subjects with inter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Electrophysiological investigation is an integral part in the management of neuropsychiatric disorders; but this is rare in developing countries including Nigeria. Objectives: The study aims to determine EEG abnormalities among subjects with inter-ictal psychosis in comparison to those with schizophrenia.

  3. Migraine and structural abnormalities in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Ashina, Messoud

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim is to provide an overview of recent studies of structural brain abnormalities in migraine and to discuss the potential clinical significance of their findings. RECENT FINDINGS: Brain structure continues to be a topic of extensive research in migraine. Despite advances...... in neuroimaging techniques, it is not yet clear if migraine is associated with grey matter changes. Recent large population-based studies sustain the notion of increased prevalence of white matter abnormalities in migraine, and possibly of silent infarct-like lesions. The clinical relevance of this association...

  4. Structural brain abnormalities in Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauduin, Stephanie E E C; van der Wee, Nic J A; van der Werff, Steven J A

    2018-05-08

    Alongside various physical symptoms, patients with Cushing's disease and Cushing's syndrome display a wide variety of neuropsychiatric and cognitive symptoms, which are indicative of involvement of the central nervous system. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the structural brain abnormalities that are associated with Cushing's disease and Cushing's syndrome and their relation to behavioral and cognitive symptomatology. In this review, we discuss the gray matter structural abnormalities found in patients with active Cushing's disease and Cushing's syndrome, the reversibility and persistence of these changes and the white matter structural changes related to Cushing's syndrome. Recent findings are of particular interest because they provide more detailed information on localization of the structural changes as well as possible insights into the underlying biological processes. Active Cushing's disease and Cushing's syndrome is related to volume reductions of the hippocampus and in a prefrontal region involving the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and medial frontal gyrus (MFG). Whilst there are indications that the reductions in hippocampal volume are partially reversible, the changes in the ACC and MFG appear to be more persistent. In contrast to the volumetric findings, changes in white matter connectivity are typically widespread involving multiple tracts.

  5. Structural Pituitary Abnormalities Associated With CHARGE Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Louise C.; Gevers, Evelien F.; Baker, Joanne; Kasia, Tessa; Chong, Kling; Josifova, Dragana J.; Caimari, Maria; Bilan, Frederic; McCabe, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: CHARGE syndrome is a multisystem disorder that, in addition to Kallmann syndrome/isolated hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, has been associated with anterior pituitary hypoplasia (APH). However, structural abnormalities such as an ectopic posterior pituitary (EPP) have not yet been described in such patients. Objective: The aims of the study were: 1) to describe the association between CHARGE syndrome and a structurally abnormal pituitary gland; and 2) to investigate whether CHD7 variants, which are identified in 65% of CHARGE patients, are common in septo-optic dysplasia /hypopituitarism. Methods: We describe 2 patients with features of CHARGE and EPP. CHD7 was sequenced in these and other patients with septo-optic dysplasia/hypopituitarism. Results: EPP, APH, and GH, TSH, and probable LH/FSH deficiency were present in 1 patient, and EPP and APH with GH, TSH, LH/FSH, and ACTH deficiency were present in another patient, both of whom had features of CHARGE syndrome. Both had variations in CHD7 that were novel and undetected in control cohorts or in the international database of CHARGE patients, but were also present in their unaffected mothers. No CHD7 variants were detected in the patients with septo-optic dysplasia/hypopituitarism without additional CHARGE features. Conclusion: We report a novel association between CHARGE syndrome and structural abnormalities of the pituitary gland in 2 patients with variations in CHD7 that are of unknown significance. However, CHD7 mutations are an uncommon cause of septo-optic dysplasia or hypopituitarism. Our data suggest the need for evaluation of pituitary function/anatomy in patients with CHARGE syndrome. PMID:23526466

  6. Ecosecent:: Essence, Subject and Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozachenko Hanna V.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that due to multi-laterality the knowledge about security is distributed by various branches, one of which is ecosestate, within which conditions of secure functioning of socio-economic systems and methods of their provision are studied. It shows the essence of ecosecent as a component of the “state – region (branch – subject of economic activity” ecosestate vertical – a set of knowledge about economic security of subjects of economic activity. It considers reasons that cause establishment of ecosecent: practical needs and a necessity to reconsider basic concepts of the essence, limits and factors of economy. It formulates the subject of ecosecent. It considers the status of the “economic security of the subject of economic activity” notion as its state, described with a set of parameters or characteristic features as characteristics of the subject of economic activity as a condition of its activity and as a set of actions that allow ensuring or preservation of the state of security, in other words, protection of the subject of economic activity. It presents general approaches to structuring of ecosecent by activity, functional and branch features.

  7. Prognostic implications of fasting plasma glucose in subjects with echocardiographic abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Bhatt, Deepak L

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To examine whether baseline fasting plasma glucose (FPG) modifies the prognostic role of left ventricular (LV) mass, geometric pattern, and diastolic function, for prediction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Population-based cohort study comprising of 1047 men and 456 women...... proportional-hazards regression with interaction analysis was used to evaluate the risk associated with FPG and LV structure and function. RESULTS: Median age was 67years, and 31% had impaired fasting glucose, 31% diabetes, 17% LV hypertrophy, and 40% diastolic dysfunction. During a median follow-up duration.......001), and with the association between diastolic dysfunction and event risk (P=0.02), including grade 2 or 3 dysfunction (P=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Echocardiographic abnormalities were more strongly associated with an adverse prognosis among subjects with impaired fasting glucose or diabetes....

  8. Structural white matter abnormalities in patients with idiopathic dystonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonilha, Leonardo; de Vries, Paulien M.; Vincent, Diana J.; Rorden, Chris; Morgan, Paul S.; Hurd, Mark W.; Besenski, Nada; Bergmann, Kenneth J.; Hinson, Vanessa K.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether structural white matter abnormalities, in the form of disruption of axonal coherence and integrity as measured with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), constitute an underlying pathological mechanism of idiopathic dystonia (ID), independent of genotype status. We studied seven

  9. Radiologic evaluation of structural abnormalities of the foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, Y.T.; Tolliver, R.A.; Stern, D.S.; Fruin, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    This exhibit concentrates on often overlooked, unfamiliar biomechanical or structural abnormalities of the foot. Pericalcaneal pathology and its correlation with the presence of heel spurs is illustrated. In the tarsal area, coalitions, prehallux, and their relationships to abnormalities of the longitudinal arch are discussed. Distally, medial, dorsal and tailor's bunions are demonstrated. Pain and disability often precede obvious deformity, and a radiologist familiar with the early findings on x-ray studies may be the first member of the medical team to identify structural abnormalities. Diagnosis allows prompt institution of appropriate therapy, reducing the period of patient discomfort and disability

  10. A functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study of neurohemodynamic abnormalities during emotion processing in subjects at high risk for schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Puthumana, Dawn Thomas K.; Jayakumar, Peruvumba N.; Gangadhar, B. N.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Emotion processing abnormalities are considered among the core deficits in schizophrenia. Subjects at high risk (HR) for schizophrenia also show these deficits. Structural neuroimaging studies examining unaffected relatives at high risk for schizophrenia have demonstrated neuroanatomical abnormalities involving neo-cortical and sub-cortical brain regions related to emotion processing. The brain functional correlates of emotion processing in these HR subjects in the context of ecologically valid, real-life dynamic images using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has not been examined previously. Aim: To examine the neurohemodynamic abnormalities during emotion processing in unaffected subjects at high risk for schizophrenia in comparison with age-, sex-, handedness- and education-matched healthy controls, using fMRI. Materials and Methods: HR subjects for schizophrenia (n=17) and matched healthy controls (n=16) were examined. The emotion processing of fearful facial expression was examined using a culturally appropriate and valid tool for Indian subjects. The fMRI was performed in a 1.5-T scanner during an implicit emotion processing paradigm. The fMRI analyses were performed using the Statistical Parametric Mapping 2 (SPM2) software. Results: HR subjects had significantly reduced brain activations in left insula, left medial frontal gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus, right cingulate gyrus, right precentral gyrus and right inferior parietal lobule. Hypothesis-driven region-of-interest analysis revealed hypoactivation of right amygdala in HR subjects. Conclusions: Study findings suggest that neurohemodynamic abnormalities involving limbic and frontal cortices could be potential indicators for increased vulnerability toward schizophrenia. The clinical utility of these novel findings in predicting the development of psychosis needs to be evaluated. PMID:21267363

  11. Abnormalities in structural covariance of cortical gyrification in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Palaniyappan, Lena; Park, Bert; Balain, Vijender; Dangi, Raj; Liddle, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The highly convoluted shape of the adult human brain results from several well-coordinated maturational events that start from embryonic development and extend through the adult life span. Disturbances in these maturational events can result in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, resulting in abnormal patterns of morphological relationship among cortical structures (structural covariance). Structural covariance can be studied using graph theory-based approaches that evaluate topol...

  12. How does structured sparsity work in abnormal event detection?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Pan, Hong; Olsen, Søren Ingvor

    the training, which is the due to the fact that abnormal videos are limited or even unavailable in advance in most video surveillance applications. As a result, there could be only one label in the training data which hampers supervised learning; 2) Even though there are multiple types of normal behaviors, how...... many normal patterns lie in the whole surveillance data is still unknown. This is because there is huge amount of video surveillance data and only a small proportion is used in algorithm learning, consequently, the normal patterns in the training data could be incomplete. As a result, any sparse...... structure learned from the training data could have a high bias and ruin the precision of abnormal event detection. Therefore, we in the paper propose an algorithm to solve the abnormality detection problem by sparse representation, in which local structured sparsity is preserved in coefficients. To better...

  13. Abnormalities of cortical structures in adolescent-onset conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y; Guo, X; Zhang, J; Gao, J; Wang, X; Situ, W; Yi, J; Zhang, X; Zhu, X; Yao, S; Huang, B

    2015-12-01

    Converging evidence has revealed both functional and structural abnormalities in adolescents with early-onset conduct disorder (EO-CD). The neurological abnormalities underlying EO-CD may be different from that of adolescent-onset conduct disorder (AO-CD) patients. However, the cortical structure in AO-CD patients remains largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cortical alterations in AO-CD patients. We investigated T1-weighted brain images from AO-CD patients and age-, gender- and intelligence quotient-matched controls. Cortical structures including thickness, folding and surface area were measured using the surface-based morphometric method. Furthermore, we assessed impulsivity and antisocial symptoms using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) and the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD). Compared with the controls, we found significant cortical thinning in the paralimbic system in AO-CD patients. For the first time, we observed cortical thinning in the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in AO-CD patients which has not been reported in EO-CD patients. Prominent folding abnormalities were found in the paralimbic structures and frontal cortex while diminished surface areas were shown in the precentral and inferior temporal cortex. Furthermore, cortical thickness of the paralimbic structures was found to be negatively correlated with impulsivity and antisocial behaviors measured by the BIS and APSD, respectively. The present study indicates that AO-CD is characterized by cortical structural abnormalities in the paralimbic system, and, in particular, we highlight the potential role of deficient structures including the precuneus and PCC in the etiology of AO-CD.

  14. Connectivity and functional profiling of abnormal brain structures in pedophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeppl, Timm B; Eickhoff, Simon B; Fox, Peter T; Laird, Angela R; Rupprecht, Rainer; Langguth, Berthold; Bzdok, Danilo

    2015-06-01

    Despite its 0.5-1% lifetime prevalence in men and its general societal relevance, neuroimaging investigations in pedophilia are scarce. Preliminary findings indicate abnormal brain structure and function. However, no study has yet linked structural alterations in pedophiles to both connectional and functional properties of the aberrant hotspots. The relationship between morphological alterations and brain function in pedophilia as well as their contribution to its psychopathology thus remain unclear. First, we assessed bimodal connectivity of structurally altered candidate regions using meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) and resting-state correlations employing openly accessible data. We compared the ensuing connectivity maps to the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) maps of a recent quantitative meta-analysis of brain activity during processing of sexual stimuli. Second, we functionally characterized the structurally altered regions employing meta-data of a large-scale neuroimaging database. Candidate regions were functionally connected to key areas for processing of sexual stimuli. Moreover, we found that the functional role of structurally altered brain regions in pedophilia relates to nonsexual emotional as well as neurocognitive and executive functions, previously reported to be impaired in pedophiles. Our results suggest that structural brain alterations affect neural networks for sexual processing by way of disrupted functional connectivity, which may entail abnormal sexual arousal patterns. The findings moreover indicate that structural alterations account for common affective and neurocognitive impairments in pedophilia. The present multimodal integration of brain structure and function analyses links sexual and nonsexual psychopathology in pedophilia. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Abnormal uterine bleeding unrelated to structural uterine abnormalities: management in the perimenopausal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbioni, Lorenzo; Zanetti, Isabella; Orlandini, Cinzia; Petraglia, Felice; Luisi, Stefano

    2017-02-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is one of the commonest health problems encountered by women and a frequent phenomenon during menopausal transition. The clinical management of AUB must follow a standardized classification system to obtain the better diagnostic pathway and the optimal therapy. The PALM-COEIN classification system has been approved by the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO); it recognizes structural causes of AUB, which can be measured visually with imaging techniques or histopathology, and non-structural entities such as coagulopathies, ovulatory dysfunctions, endometrial and iatrogenic causes and disorders not yet classified. In this review we aim to evaluate the management of nonstructural causes of AUB during the menopausal transition, when commonly women experience changes in menstrual bleeding patterns and unexpected bleedings which affect their quality of life.

  16. Abnormal responses of ejection fraction to exercise, in healthy subjects, caused by region-of-interest selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorenson, S.G.; Caldwell, J.; Ritchie, J.; Hamilton, G.

    1981-01-01

    We performed serial exercise equilibrium radionuclide angiography in eight normal subjects with each subject executing three tests: control, after nitroglycerin, and after propranolol. The left-ventricular ejection fraction (EF) was calculated by two methods: (a) fixed region-of-interest (FROI) using a single end-diastolic ROI, and (b) variable region-of-interest (VROI) where an end-diastolic and end-systolic region of interest were used. Abnormal maximal EF responses occurred in five of eight subjects during control using FROI but in zero of eight employing VROI (p < 0.05). After nitroglycerin, three of eight subjects had abnormal responses by FROI, but zero of eight were abnormal by VROI (p < 0.05). After propranolol, blunted EF responses occurred in three of seven by both methods. Falsely abnormal EF responses to exercise RNA may occur due to the method of region-of-interest selection in normal subjects with normal or high ejection fractions

  17. [Monilethrix--rare syndrome of structural hair abnormalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezińska-Wcisło, L; Bogdanowski, T; Szeremeta-Bazylewicz, G; Pierzchała, E

    1999-11-01

    Monilethrix is a rare structural disorder of hair. Characteristic abnormalities in the form of alternating thinning and fusiform thickening are observed in most of hair shafts that we call beaded hair. Macroscopic estimation shows lustreless, dry, rough, fragile hair. Trichological examination usually reveals a considerable percentage of anagenic hair. According to our own experiences and literature data systemic therapy (vitamins) and topical treatment (desquamative ointments) are not effective sufficiently. Spontaneous regression of symptoms often appears with time. Five cases of familial occurrence of monilethrix have been presented.

  18. Abnormalities in Structural Covariance of Cortical Gyrification in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinping; Zhang, Jiuquan; Zhang, Jinlei; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Yanling; Wang, Jian; Li, Guanglin; Hu, Qingmao; Zhang, Yuanchao

    2017-01-01

    Although abnormal cortical morphology and connectivity between brain regions (structural covariance) have been reported in Parkinson's disease (PD), the topological organizations of large-scale structural brain networks are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated large-scale structural brain networks in a sample of 37 PD patients and 34 healthy controls (HC) by assessing the structural covariance of cortical gyrification with local gyrification index (lGI). We demonstrated prominent small-world properties of the structural brain networks for both groups. Compared with the HC group, PD patients showed significantly increased integrated characteristic path length and integrated clustering coefficient, as well as decreased integrated global efficiency in structural brain networks. Distinct distributions of hub regions were identified between the two groups, showing more hub regions in the frontal cortex in PD patients. Moreover, the modular analyses revealed significantly decreased integrated regional efficiency in lateral Fronto-Insula-Temporal module, and increased integrated regional efficiency in Parieto-Temporal module in the PD group as compared to the HC group. In summary, our study demonstrated altered topological properties of structural networks at a global, regional and modular level in PD patients. These findings suggests that the structural networks of PD patients have a suboptimal topological organization, resulting in less effective integration of information between brain regions.

  19. Structural Brain Abnormalities of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder With Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordermeer, Siri D S; Luman, Marjolein; Greven, Corina U; Veroude, Kim; Faraone, Stephen V; Hartman, Catharina A; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2017-11-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with structural abnormalities in total gray matter, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Findings of structural abnormalities in frontal and temporal lobes, amygdala, and insula are less consistent. Remarkably, the impact of comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (comorbidity rates up to 60%) on these neuroanatomical differences is scarcely studied, while ODD (in combination with conduct disorder) has been associated with structural abnormalities of the frontal lobe, amygdala, and insula. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of comorbid ODD on cerebral volume and cortical thickness in ADHD. Three groups, 16 ± 3.5 years of age (mean ± SD; range 7-29 years), were studied on volumetric and cortical thickness characteristics using structural magnetic resonance imaging (surface-based morphometry): ADHD+ODD (n = 67), ADHD-only (n = 243), and control subjects (n = 233). Analyses included the moderators age, gender, IQ, and scan site. ADHD+ODD and ADHD-only showed volumetric reductions in total gray matter and (mainly) frontal brain areas. Stepwise volumetric reductions (ADHD+ODD attention, (working) memory, and decision-making. Volumetric reductions of frontal lobes were largest in the ADHD+ODD group, possibly underlying observed larger impairments in neurocognitive functions. Previously reported striatal abnormalities in ADHD may be caused by comorbid conduct disorder rather than ODD. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Structural Brain Abnormalities of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder With Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordermeer, Siri D. S.; Luman, Marjolein; Greven, Corina U.; Veroude, Kim; Faraone, Stephen V.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with structural abnormalities in total gray matter, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Findings of structural abnormalities in frontal and temporal lobes, amygdala, and insula are less consistent. Remarkably, the impact of

  1. A population study of the association between thyroid autoantibodies in serum and abnormalities in thyroid function and structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, I.B.; Laurberg, P.; Knudsen, N.

    2005-01-01

    autoantibodies in serum and abnormalities in thyroid function and structure, and to study the thyroid volume in subjects with subclinical autoimmune hypothyroidism. Design A population study including 4649 randomly selected subjects. Measurements Blood tests were used to analyse for thyroid peroxidase...

  2. Swallowing abnormalities in multiple sclerosis: correlation between videofluoroscopy and subjective symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesner, W.; Steinbrich, W. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital of Basel (Switzerland); Wetzel, S.G.; Radue, E.W. [Institute of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Basel (Switzerland); Kappos, L.; Hoshi, M.M. [Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Basel (Switzerland); Witte, U. [Section of Logopedia, University Hospital of Basel (Switzerland)

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if subjective symptoms indicating an impaired deglutition correlate with videofluoroscopic findings in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Videofluoroscopic examinations of 18 MS patients were analyzed by a radiologist and a logopedist and compared with the symptoms of these patients. Four patients complained about permanent dysphagia. Six patients reported mild and intermittent difficulties in swallowing, but were asymptomatic at the time of videofluoroscopy. Eight patients had no symptoms regarding their deglutition. All patients (n=4) who complained of permanent dysphagia showed aspiration. All patients (n=6) with mild and intermittent difficulties in swallowing showed undercoating of the epiglottis and/or laryngeal penetration. Of those 8 patients without any swallowing symptoms, only 2 had a normal videofluoroscopy. Swallowing abnormalities seem to be much more frequent in patients with MS than generally believed and they may easily be missed clinically as long as the patients do not aspirate. (orig.)

  3. Abnormalities in structural covariance of cortical gyrification in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniyappan, Lena; Park, Bert; Balain, Vijender; Dangi, Raj; Liddle, Peter

    2015-07-01

    The highly convoluted shape of the adult human brain results from several well-coordinated maturational events that start from embryonic development and extend through the adult life span. Disturbances in these maturational events can result in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, resulting in abnormal patterns of morphological relationship among cortical structures (structural covariance). Structural covariance can be studied using graph theory-based approaches that evaluate topological properties of brain networks. Covariance-based graph metrics allow cross-sectional study of coordinated maturational relationship among brain regions. Disrupted gyrification of focal brain regions is a consistent feature of schizophrenia. However, it is unclear if these localized disturbances result from a failure of coordinated development of brain regions in schizophrenia. We studied the structural covariance of gyrification in a sample of 41 patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy controls by constructing gyrification-based networks using a 3-dimensional index. We found that several key regions including anterior insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex show increased segregation in schizophrenia, alongside reduced segregation in somato-sensory and occipital regions. Patients also showed a lack of prominence of the distributed covariance (hubness) of cingulate cortex. The abnormal segregated folding pattern in the right peri-sylvian regions (insula and fronto-temporal cortex) was associated with greater severity of illness. The study of structural covariance in cortical folding supports the presence of subtle deviation in the coordinated development of cortical convolutions in schizophrenia. The heterogeneity in the severity of schizophrenia could be explained in part by aberrant trajectories of neurodevelopment.

  4. The structural neural substrate of subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Kubota, Yasutaka; Sawada, Reiko; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-11-20

    Happiness is a subjective experience that is an ultimate goal for humans. Psychological studies have shown that subjective happiness can be measured reliably and consists of emotional and cognitive components. However, the neural substrates of subjective happiness remain unclear. To investigate this issue, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging and questionnaires that assessed subjective happiness, the intensity of positive and negative emotional experiences, and purpose in life. We found a positive relationship between the subjective happiness score and gray matter volume in the right precuneus. Moreover, the same region showed an association with the combined positive and negative emotional intensity and purpose in life scores. Our findings suggest that the precuneus mediates subjective happiness by integrating the emotional and cognitive components of happiness.

  5. Natural History of the Central Structural Abnormalities in Choroideremia: A Prospective Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Tomas S; Han, Grace; Serrano, Leona W; Fuerst, Nicole M; Charlson, Emily S; Pearson, Denise J; Chung, Daniel C; Traband, Anastasia; Pan, Wei; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Bennett, Jean; Maguire, Albert M; Morgan, Jessica I W

    2017-03-01

    To describe in detail the central retinal structure of a large group of patients with choroideremia (CHM). A prospective, cross-sectional, descriptive study. Patients (n = 97, age 6-71 years) with CHM and subjects with normal vision (n = 44; ages 10-50 years) were included. Subjects were examined with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) and near-infrared reflectance imaging. Visual acuity (VA) was measured during their encounter or obtained from recent ophthalmic examinations. Visual thresholds were measured in a subset of patients (n = 24) with automated static perimetry within the central regions (±15°) examined with SD OCT. Visual acuity and visual thresholds; total nuclear layer, inner nuclear layer (INL), and outer nuclear layer (ONL) thicknesses; and horizontal extent of the ONL and the photoreceptor outer segment (POS) interdigitation zone (IZ). Earliest abnormalities in regions with normally appearing retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) were the loss of the POS and ellipsoid zone associated with rod dysfunction. Transition zones (TZs) from relatively preserved retina to severe ONL thinning and inner retinal thickening moved centripetally with age. Most patients (88%) retained VAs better than 20/40 until their fifth decade of life. The VA decline coincided with migration of the TZ near the foveal center. There were outer retinal tubulations in degenerated, nonatrophic retina in the majority (69%) of patients. In general, RPE abnormalities paralleled photoreceptor degeneration, although there were regions with detectable but abnormally thin ONL co-localizing with severe RPE depigmentation and choroidal thinning. Abnormalities of the POS and rod dysfunction are the earliest central abnormalities observed in CHM. Foveal function is relatively preserved until the fifth decade of life. Migration of the TZs to the foveal center with foveal thinning and structural disorganization heralded central VA loss. The relationships established may help

  6. Reliability of structural systems subject to fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rackwitz, R.

    1984-01-01

    Concepts and computational procedures for the reliability calculation of structural systems subject to fatigue are outlined. Systems are dealt with by approximately computing componential times to first failure. So-called first-order reliability methods are then used to formulate dependencies between componential failures and to evaluate the system failure probability. (Author) [pt

  7. Assessment of abnormal brain structures and networks in major depressive disorder using morphometric and connectome analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung; Shen, Chao-Yu; Liang, Sophie Hsin-Yi; Li, Zhen-Hui; Tyan, Yeu-Sheng; Liao, Yin-To; Huang, Yin-Chen; Lee, Yena; McIntyre, Roger S; Weng, Jun-Cheng

    2016-11-15

    It is hypothesized that the phenomenology of major depressive disorder (MDD) is subserved by disturbances in the structure and function of brain circuits; however, findings of structural abnormalities using MRI have been inconsistent. Generalized q-sampling imaging (GQI) methodology provides an opportunity to assess the functional integrity of white matter tracts in implicated circuits. The study population was comprised of 16 outpatients with MDD (mean age 44.81±2.2 years) and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (mean age 45.03±1.88 years). We excluded participants with any other primary mental disorder, substance use disorder, or any neurological illnesses. We used T1-weighted 3D MRI with voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and vertex-wise shape analysis, and GQI with voxel-based statistical analysis (VBA), graph theoretical analysis (GTA) and network-based statistical (NBS) analysis to evaluate brain structure and connectivity abnormalities in MDD compared to healthy controls correlates with clinical measures of depressive symptom severity, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 17-item (HAMD) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Using VBM and vertex-wise shape analyses, we found significant volumetric decreases in the hippocampus and amygdala among subjects with MDD (pdisorder with abnormal circuit structure and connectivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Deficits in Neurite Density Underlie White Matter Structure Abnormalities in First-Episode Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Charlotte L; Davies, Geoff; Garfinkel, Sarah N; Gabel, Matt C; Dowell, Nicholas G; Cercignani, Mara; Seth, Anil K; Greenwood, Kathryn E; Medford, Nick; Critchley, Hugo D

    2017-11-15

    Structural abnormalities across multiple white matter tracts are recognized in people with early psychosis, consistent with dysconnectivity as a neuropathological account of symptom expression. We applied advanced neuroimaging techniques to characterize microstructural white matter abnormalities for a deeper understanding of the developmental etiology of psychosis. Thirty-five first-episode psychosis patients, and 19 healthy controls, participated in a quantitative neuroimaging study using neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging, a multishell diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging technique that distinguishes white matter fiber arrangement and geometry from changes in neurite density. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity images were also derived. Tract-based spatial statistics compared white matter structure between patients and control subjects and tested associations with age, symptom severity, and medication. Patients with first-episode psychosis had lower regional FA in multiple commissural, corticospinal, and association tracts. These abnormalities predominantly colocalized with regions of reduced neurite density, rather than aberrant fiber bundle arrangement (orientation dispersion index). There was no direct relationship with active symptoms. FA decreased and orientation dispersion index increased with age in patients, but not control subjects, suggesting accelerated effects of white matter geometry change. Deficits in neurite density appear fundamental to abnormalities in white matter integrity in early psychosis. In the first application of neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging in psychosis, we found that processes compromising axonal fiber number, density, and myelination, rather than processes leading to spatial disruption of fiber organization, are implicated in the etiology of psychosis. This accords with a neurodevelopmental origin of aberrant brain-wide structural connectivity predisposing individuals to

  9. durog tylen structural abnormalities and reproductive failure* marie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    devotes a chapter to evidence-based medicine and its use in this field which is helpful. He then, over the next 14 chapters, systematically discusses abnormalities of various parts of the genital tract. These abnormalities include problems of the ovary such as polycystic ovarian disease and endometriosis and pelvic adhesive.

  10. Glial activation colocalizes with structural abnormalities in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshikho, Mohamad J; Zürcher, Nicole R; Loggia, Marco L; Cernasov, Paul; Chonde, Daniel B; Izquierdo Garcia, David; Yasek, Julia E; Akeju, Oluwaseun; Catana, Ciprian; Rosen, Bruce R; Cudkowicz, Merit E; Hooker, Jacob M; Atassi, Nazem

    2016-12-13

    In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to evaluate brain structural abnormalities in relation to glial activation in the same cohort of participants. Ten individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and 10 matched healthy controls underwent brain imaging using integrated MR/PET and the radioligand [ 11 C]-PBR28. Diagnosis history and clinical assessments including Upper Motor Neuron Burden Scale (UMNB) were obtained from patients with ALS. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analyses including tract-based spatial statistics and tractography were applied. DTI metrics including fractional anisotropy (FA) and diffusivities (mean, axial, and radial) were measured in regions of interest. Cortical thickness was assessed using surface-based analysis. The locations of structural changes, measured by DTI and the areas of cortical thinning, were compared to regional glial activation measured by relative [ 11 C]-PBR28 uptake. In this cohort of individuals with ALS, reduced FA and cortical thinning colocalized with regions demonstrating higher radioligand binding. [ 11 C]-PBR28 binding in the left motor cortex was correlated with FA (r = -0.68, p < 0.05) and cortical thickness (r = -0.75, p < 0.05). UMNB was correlated with glial activation (r = +0.75, p < 0.05), FA (r = -0.77, p < 0.05), and cortical thickness (r = -0.75, p < 0.05) in the motor cortex. Increased uptake of the glial marker [ 11 C]-PBR28 colocalizes with changes in FA and cortical thinning. This suggests a link between disease mechanisms (gliosis and inflammation) and structural changes (cortical thinning and white and gray matter changes). In this multimodal neuroimaging work, we provide an in vivo model to investigate the pathogenesis of ALS. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  11. Structural genomic abnormalities in autism and schizophrenia. With a focus on the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorstman, J.A.S.

    2008-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis is centered around one question: What can we learn from the study of psychiatric phenotypes related to structural genomic abnormalities? In this thesis this subject is examined, with most studies focused on the clinical and genetic aspects of the 22q11.2

  12. Structural brain abnormalities in the frontostriatal system and cerebellum in pedophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Boris; Peschel, Thomas; Paul, Thomas; Gizewski, Elke; Forsting, Michael; Leygraf, Norbert; Schedlowski, Manfred; Krueger, Tillmann H C

    2007-11-01

    Even though previous neuropsychological studies and clinical case reports have suggested an association between pedophilia and frontocortical dysfunction, our knowledge about the neurobiological mechanisms underlying pedophilia is still fragmentary. Specifically, the brain morphology of such disorders has not yet been investigated using MR imaging techniques. Whole brain structural T1-weighted MR images from 18 pedophile patients (9 attracted to males, 9 attracted to females) and 24 healthy age-matched control subjects (12 hetero- and 12 homosexual) from a comparable socioeconomic stratum were processed by using optimized automated voxel-based morphometry within multiple linear regression analyses. Compared to the homosexual and heterosexual control subjects, pedophiles showed decreased gray matter volume in the ventral striatum (also extending into the nucl. accumbens), the orbitofrontal cortex and the cerebellum. These observations further indicate an association between frontostriatal morphometric abnormalities and pedophilia. In this respect these findings may support the hypothesis that there is a shared etiopathological mechanism in all obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders.

  13. Functional and structural abnormalities associated with empathy in patients with schizophrenia: An fMRI and VBM study

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Sadhana; Modi, Shilpi; Goyal, Satnam; Kaur, Prabhjot; Singh, Namita; Bhatia, Triptish; Deshpande, Smita N; Khushu, Subash

    2015-01-01

    Empathy deficit is a core feature of schizophrenia which may lead to social dysfunction. The present study was carried out to investigate functional and structural abnormalities associated with empathy in patients with schizophrenia using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). A sample of 14 schizophrenia patients and 14 healthy control subjects matched for age, sex and education were examined with structural high-resolution T1-weighted MRI; fMRI image...

  14. Relationship between structural abnormalities in the cerebellum and dementia, posttraumatic stress disorder and bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Baldaçara

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. New evidence suggests that the cerebellum has structural and functional abnormalities in psychiatric disorders. Objective: In this research, the goal was to measure the volume of the cerebellum and its subregions in individuals with psychiatric disorders and to relate these findings to their symptoms. Methods: Patients with different degrees of cognitive impairment (Epidemiology of the Elderly - UNIFESP and patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD from population studies were analyzed. Also, patients with bipolar disorder from an outpatient clinic (Center for the Study of Mood and Anxiety Disorders, Universidade Federal da Bahia were recruited for this study. All subjects underwent a 1.5T structural magnetic resonance scan. Volumetric measures and symptom measurements, by psychometric scales, were performed and compared between patients and controls. Results: The cerebellum volume was reduced in patients with cognitive impairment without dementia and with dementia, in patients with PTSD, and in patients with bipolar disorder compared to controls. In dementia and PTSD, the left cerebellar hemisphere and vermis volume were reduced. In bipolar disorder, volumes of both hemispheres and the vermis were reduced. In the first two studies, these cerebellar volumetric reductions correlated with symptoms of the disease. Conclusion: The exact nature of cerebellar involvement in mental processes is still not fully understood. However, abnormalities in cerebellar structure and its functions have been reported in some of these diseases. Future studies with larger samples are needed to clarify these findings and investigate whether they are important for treatment and prognosis.

  15. Relationship between structural abnormalities in the cerebellum and dementia, posttraumatic stress disorder and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldaçara, Leonardo; Borgio, João Guilherme Fiorani; Araújo, Célia; Nery-Fernandes, Fabiana; Lacerda, Acioly Luiz Taveres; Moraes, Walter André Dos Santos; Montaño, Maria Beatriz Marcondes Macedo; Rocha, Marlos; Quarantini, Lucas C; Schoedl, Aline; Pupo, Mariana; Mello, Marcelo F; Andreoli, Sergio B; Miranda-Scippa, Angela; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Mari, Jair J; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin

    2012-01-01

    New evidence suggests that the cerebellum has structural and functional abnormalities in psychiatric disorders. In this research, the goal was to measure the volume of the cerebellum and its subregions in individuals with psychiatric disorders and to relate these findings to their symptoms. Patients with different degrees of cognitive impairment (Epidemiology of the Elderly - UNIFESP) and patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from population studies were analyzed. Also, patients with bipolar disorder from an outpatient clinic (Center for the Study of Mood and Anxiety Disorders, Universidade Federal da Bahia) were recruited for this study. All subjects underwent a 1.5T structural magnetic resonance scan. Volumetric measures and symptom measurements, by psychometric scales, were performed and compared between patients and controls. The cerebellum volume was reduced in patients with cognitive impairment without dementia and with dementia, in patients with PTSD, and in patients with bipolar disorder compared to controls. In dementia and PTSD, the left cerebellar hemisphere and vermis volume were reduced. In bipolar disorder, volumes of both hemispheres and the vermis were reduced. In the first two studies, these cerebellar volumetric reductions correlated with symptoms of the disease. The exact nature of cerebellar involvement in mental processes is still not fully understood. However, abnormalities in cerebellar structure and its functions have been reported in some of these diseases. Future studies with larger samples are needed to clarify these findings and investigate whether they are important for treatment and prognosis.

  16. MR imaging after rotator cuff repair: full-thickness defects and bursitis-like subacromial abnormalities in asymptomatic subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanetti, M.; Hodler, J.; Jost, B.; Gerber, C.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence and extent of residual defects or retears and bursitis-like subacromial abnormalities on MR images after rotator cuff repair in asymptomatic subjects, and to define the clinical relevance of these findings.Design and patients. Fourteen completely asymptomatic patients and 32 patients with residual symptoms were investigated 27-53 months (mean 39 months) after open transosseous reinsertion of the rotator cuff. Coronal T2-weighted turbo spin-echo and turbo STIR or T2-weighted fat-suppressed MR images were obtained. The prevalence and extent of residual defects or retears of the rotator cuff and bursitis-like subacromial abnormalities were determined.Results. Residual defects or retears were detected in three (21%) and bursitis-like abnormalities in 14 (100%) of the 14 asymptomatic patients. Fifteen (47%) residual defects or retears and 31 (97%) bursitis-like abnormalities were diagnosed in the 32 patients with residual symptoms. The size of the residual defects/retears was significantly smaller in the asymptomatic group (mean 8 mm, range 6-11 mm) than in the symptomatic group (mean 32 mm, range 7-50 mm) (t-test, P=0.001). The extent of the bursitis-like subacromial abnormalities did not significantly differ (t-test, P>0.05) between asymptomatic (mean 28 x 3 mm) and symptomatic patients (mean 32 x 3 mm).Conclusion. Small residual defects or retears (<1 cm) of the rotator cuff are not necessarily associated with clinical symptoms. Subacromial bursitis-like MR abnormalities are almost always seen after rotator cuff repair even in patients without residual complaints. They may persist for several years after rotator cuff repair and appear to be clinically irrelevant. (orig.)

  17. MR imaging after rotator cuff repair: full-thickness defects and bursitis-like subacromial abnormalities in asymptomatic subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanetti, M.; Hodler, J. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital Balgrist, Zurich (Switzerland); Jost, B.; Gerber, C. [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, University Hospital Balgrist, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2000-06-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence and extent of residual defects or retears and bursitis-like subacromial abnormalities on MR images after rotator cuff repair in asymptomatic subjects, and to define the clinical relevance of these findings.Design and patients. Fourteen completely asymptomatic patients and 32 patients with residual symptoms were investigated 27-53 months (mean 39 months) after open transosseous reinsertion of the rotator cuff. Coronal T2-weighted turbo spin-echo and turbo STIR or T2-weighted fat-suppressed MR images were obtained. The prevalence and extent of residual defects or retears of the rotator cuff and bursitis-like subacromial abnormalities were determined.Results. Residual defects or retears were detected in three (21%) and bursitis-like abnormalities in 14 (100%) of the 14 asymptomatic patients. Fifteen (47%) residual defects or retears and 31 (97%) bursitis-like abnormalities were diagnosed in the 32 patients with residual symptoms. The size of the residual defects/retears was significantly smaller in the asymptomatic group (mean 8 mm, range 6-11 mm) than in the symptomatic group (mean 32 mm, range 7-50 mm) (t-test, P=0.001). The extent of the bursitis-like subacromial abnormalities did not significantly differ (t-test, P>0.05) between asymptomatic (mean 28 x 3 mm) and symptomatic patients (mean 32 x 3 mm).Conclusion. Small residual defects or retears (<1 cm) of the rotator cuff are not necessarily associated with clinical symptoms. Subacromial bursitis-like MR abnormalities are almost always seen after rotator cuff repair even in patients without residual complaints. They may persist for several years after rotator cuff repair and appear to be clinically irrelevant. (orig.)

  18. A Prospective Study of Overuse Knee Injuries Among Female Athletes With Muscle Imbalances and Structural Abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devan, Michelle R; Pescatello, Linda S; Faghri, Pouran; Anderson, Jeffrey

    2004-09-01

    OBJECTIVE: To prospectively examine the influence of hamstring-to-quadriceps (H:Q) ratio and structural abnormalities on the prevalence of overuse knee injuries among female collegiate athletes. DESIGN AND SETTING: We used chi-square 2 x 2 contingency tables and the Fischer exact test to examine associations among H:Q ratios, structural abnormalities, and overuse knee injuries. SUBJECTS: Fifty-three apparently healthy women (age = 19.4 +/- 1.3 years, height = 167.6 +/- 10.1 cm, mass = 65.0 +/- 10.0 kg) from National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I women's field hockey (n = 23), soccer (n = 20), and basketball teams (n = 10) volunteered. MEASUREMENTS: The H:Q ratio was determined from a preseason isokinetic test on a Biodex system at 60 degrees /s and 300 degrees /s. We measured athletes for genu recurvatum and Q-angles with a 14-in (35.56-cm) goniometer. Iliotibial band flexibility was assessed via the Ober test. RESULTS: Ten overuse knee injuries (iliotibial band friction syndromes = 5, patellar tendinitis = 3, patellofemoral syndrome = 1, pes anserine tendinitis = 1) occurred in 9 athletes. The H:Q ratio below the normal range at 300 degrees /s (P = 0.047) was associated with overuse knee injuries, as was the presence of genu recurvatum (P = 0.004). In addition, athletes possessing lower H:Q ratios at 300 degrees /s and genu recurvatum incurred more overuse knee injuries than athletes without these abnormalities (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of genu recurvatum and an H: Q ratio below normal range was associated with an increased prevalence of overuse knee injuries among female collegiate athletes. Further investigation is needed to clarify which preseason screening procedures may identify collegiate athletes who are susceptible to overuse knee injuries.

  19. Structural brain abnormalities in early onset first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagsberg, A K; Baaré, W F C; Raabjerg Christensen, A M

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brain morphometry in children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis offer a unique opportunity for pathogenetic investigations. METHODS: We compared high-resolution 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance images of the brain in 29 patients (schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder......, delusional disorder or other non-organic psychosis), aged 10-18 to those of 29 matched controls, using optimized voxel-based morphometry. RESULTS: Psychotic patients had frontal white matter abnormalities, but expected (regional) gray matter reductions were not observed. Post hoc analyses revealed...

  20. Periventricular Nodular Heterotopia: Detection of Abnormal Microanatomic Fiber Structures with Whole-Brain Diffusion MR Imaging Tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Shawna; Tournier, J-Donald; Calamante, Fernando; Mandelstam, Simone; Burgess, Rosemary; Schneider, Michal E; Berkovic, Samuel F; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Jackson, Graeme D; Connelly, Alan

    2016-12-01

    Purpose To investigate whether it is possible in patients with periventricular nodular heterotopia (PVNH) to detect abnormal fiber projections that have only previously been reported in the histopathology literature. Materials and Methods Whole-brain diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging data from 14 patients with bilateral PVNH and 14 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects were prospectively acquired by using 3.0-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging between August 1, 2008, and December 5, 2012. All participants provided written informed consent. The DW imaging data were processed to generate whole-brain constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD)-based tractography data and super-resolution track-density imaging (TDI) maps. The tractography data were overlaid on coregistered three-dimensional T1-weighted images to visually assess regions of heterotopia. A panel of MR imaging researchers independently assessed each case and indicated numerically (no = 1, yes = 2) as to the presence of abnormal fiber tracks in nodular tissue. The Fleiss κ statistical measure was applied to assess the reader agreement. Results Abnormal fiber tracks emanating from one or more regions of heterotopia were reported by all four readers in all 14 patients with PVNH (Fleiss κ = 1). These abnormal structures were not visible on the tractography data from any of the control subjects and were not discernable on the conventional T1-weighted images of the patients with PVNH. Conclusion Whole-brain CSD-based fiber tractography and super-resolution TDI mapping reveals abnormal fiber projections in nodular tissue suggestive of abnormal organization of white matter (with abnormal fibers both within nodules and projecting to the surrounding white matter) in patients with bilateral PVNH. © RSNA, 2016.

  1. Clinical significance of normal exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy in subjects with abnormal exercise electrocardiographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Takeshi; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshiisa; Hayashida, Kohei; Chiba, Hiroshi; Mitani, Isao; Saito, Muneyasu; Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between exercise thallium-201 scintigraphic findings and clinical features (chest pain, risk factors, resting electrocardiography, exercise electrocardiography and prognosis) was studied in the 234 patients with profound ST-segment depression (J 80 ≥ -2 mm) or negative U wave in exercise electrocardiography. We classified these cases into two groups by exercise thallium perfusion; (I) normal thallium-201 perfusion (n = 24), (II) abnormal thallium-201 perfusion (n = 210). The incidence of female in group I was larger than that in group II. In resting electrocardiography, left ventricular hypertrophy was found more frequent in group I. In exercise electrocardiography, most of ST-segment depression in group I revealed up-slope type and a rapid recovery to baseline. Group I had lower incidence of cardiac events (cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, coronary artery bypass grafting). In conclusion, normal thallium-201 perfusion in exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy was more useful indicator for prognosis, even if the patients had the findings of profound ST-segment depression or negative U wave in exercise electrocardiography. (author)

  2. Structural Brain Abnormalities in Successfully Treated HIV Infection: Associations With Disease and Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoest, Rosan A.; Underwood, Jonathan; de Francesco, Davide; Sabin, Caroline A.; Cole, James H.; Wit, Ferdinand W.; Caan, Matthan W. A.; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; Fuchs, Dietmar; Zetterberg, Henrik; Majoie, Charles B. L. M.; Portegies, Peter; Winston, Alan; Sharp, David J.; Gisslén, Magnus; Reiss, Peter; Winston, A.; Prins, M.; Schim van der Loeff, M. F.; Schouten, J.; Schmand, B.; Geurtsen, G. J.; Sharp, D. J.; Villaudy, J.; Berkhout, B.; Gisslén, M.; Pasternak, A.; Sabin, C. A.; Guaraldi, G.; Bürkle, A.; Libert, C.; Franceschi, C.; Kalsbeek, A.; Fliers, E.; Hoeijmakers, J.; Pothof, J.; van der Valk, M.; Bisschop, P. H.; Zaheri, S.; Burger, D.; Cole, J. H.; Zikkenheiner, W.; Janssen, F. R.; Underwood, J.; Kooij, K. W.; Doyle, N.; Verbraak, F.; Demirkaya, N.; Weijer, K.; Boeser-Nunnink, B.

    2018-01-01

    Background. Brain structural abnormalities have been reported in persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; PLWH) who are receiving suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), but their pathophysiology remains unclear. Methods. We investigated factors associated with brain

  3. A structural abnormality associated with graded levels of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A large number of environmental contaminants reduce circulating levels of thyroid hormone (TH), but clear markers of neurological insult associated with modest TH insufficiency are lacking. We have previously identified the presence of an abnormal cluster of misplaced neurons in the corpus callosum (CC), a heterotopia, in adult rats following hypothyroidism induced by the hormone synthesis inhibitor, propylthiouracil (PTU). In this report we have investigated the dose- response relationships to administered dose of PTU, the magnitude of reductions in circulating TH, and the incidence and volume of the heterotopia in adult offspring of PTU-treated dams. Pregnant rat dams were administered 0, 1, 2, 3 or 10 ppm of PTU in the drinking water from gestational day 6 until pups were weaned on postnatal day 21 (PN2 1). Serum hormones in the dams were reduced in a dose-dependent manner, but at the lower dose levels (1, 2 and 3ppm) reductions were limited to T4 with no change in serum T3. At higher PTU concentrations, serum T3 was reduced in dams (1 Oppm) and pups on PN14 and 21 (3 and 10 ppm). All hormone levels returned to control levels in adulthood. On PN 130, female offspring were perfused with paraformaldehyde and sections prepared for immunohistochemistry for the neuron-specific antibody NeuN. All sections (40-45 50u through the hippocampus) were examined for the presence of a heterotopia in the CC. A dose-dependent increase in incidence and volume of heterotopic re

  4. Sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprout extract improves hepatic abnormalities in male subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Ushida, Yusuke; Shiozawa, Hirokazu; Umeda, Rumiko; Tsuruya, Kota; Aoki, Yudai; Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Nishizaki, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate effects of dietary supplementation of sulforaphane (SF)-rich broccoli sprout (BS) extract on hepatic abnormalities in Japanese male participants. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind trial, male participants with fatty liver received either BS capsules containing glucoraphanin [GR; a precursor of SF (n = 24)] or placebo (n = 28) for 2 mo. Liver function markers, serum levels of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT, respectively) and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GTP) and an oxidative stress marker, urinary levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), were measured and compared in participants before and after the trial period. In an animal model, chronic liver failure was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by successive intraperitoneal injection with N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) for 4 wk. Concomitantly, rats received AIN-76 diets supplemented with or without BS extract. Thereafter, rats were sacrificed, and their sera and livers were collected to measure serum liver function markers and hepatic levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels and hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, a prototypical phase 2 antioxidant enzyme. RESULTS: Dietary supplementation with BS extract containing SF precursor GR for 2 mo significantly decreased serum levels of liver function markers, ALT [median (interquartile range), before: 54.0 (34.5-79.0) vs after supplementation: 48.5 (33.3-65.3) IU/L, P NDMA-induced chronic liver failure in rats, which was attributable to the suppression of the increase in TBARS through induction of hepatic phase 2 antioxidant enzymes including hepatic GST (86.6 ± 95.2 vs 107.8 ± 7.7 IU/g, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Dietary supplementation with BS extract containing the SF precursor GR is likely to be highly effective in improving liver function through reduction of oxidative stress. PMID:26604653

  5. Cluster structure in the correlation coefficient matrix can be characterized by abnormal eigenvalues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Chun-Xiao

    2018-02-01

    In a large number of previous studies, the researchers found that some of the eigenvalues of the financial correlation matrix were greater than the predicted values of the random matrix theory (RMT). Here, we call these eigenvalues as abnormal eigenvalues. In order to reveal the hidden meaning of these abnormal eigenvalues, we study the toy model with cluster structure and find that these eigenvalues are related to the cluster structure of the correlation coefficient matrix. In this paper, model-based experiments show that in most cases, the number of abnormal eigenvalues of the correlation matrix is equal to the number of clusters. In addition, empirical studies show that the sum of the abnormal eigenvalues is related to the clarity of the cluster structure and is negatively correlated with the correlation dimension.

  6. Autonomic abnormalities demonstrable in young normotensive subjects who are children of hypertensive parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes H.F.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a slightly elevated office blood pressure (BP has been reported in several studies, little is known about the prolonged resting blood pressure, heart rate (HR and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS of prehypertensive subjects with a family history of hypertension. Office blood pressure, prolonged resting (1 h BP and HR were measured in 25 young normotensives with a positive family history of hypertension (FH+ and 25 young normotensives with a negative family history of hypertension (FH-, matched for age, sex, and body mass index. After BP and HR measurements, blood samples were collected for the determination of norepinephrine, plasma renin activity and aldosterone levels, and baroreflex sensitivity was then tested. Casual BP, prolonged resting BP and heart rate were significantly higher in the FH+ group (119.9 ± 11.7/78.5 ± 8.6 mmHg, 137.3 ± 12.3/74.4 ± 7.9 mmHg, 68.5 ± 8.4 bpm compared to the FH- group (112.9 ± 11.4/71.2 ± 8.3 mmHg, 128.0 ± 11.8/66.5 ± 7.4 mmHg, 62.1 ± 6.0 bpm. Plasma norepinephrine level was significantly higher in the FH+ group (220.1 ± 104.5 pg/ml than in the FH- group (169.1 ± 63.3 pg/ml. Baroreflex sensitivity to tachycardia (0.7 ± 0.3 vs 1.0 ± 0.5 bpm/mmHg was depressed in the FH+ group (P<0.05. The FH+ group exhibited higher casual blood pressure, prolonged resting blood pressure, heart rate and plasma norepinephrine levels than the FH- group (P<0.05, suggesting an increased sympathetic tone in these subjects. The reflex tachycardia was depressed in the FH+ group.

  7. Brain Structure Abnormalities in Adolescent Girls with Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Graeme; Hagan, Cindy C.; Walsh, Nicholas D.; Passamonti, Luca; Calder, Andrew J.; Goodyer, Ian M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Conduct disorder (CD) in female adolescents is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including teenage pregnancy and antisocial personality disorder. Although recent studies have documented changes in brain structure and function in male adolescents with CD, there have been no neuroimaging studies of female adolescents with CD.…

  8. Delineating the Structure of Normal and Abnormal Personality: An Integrative Hierarchical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Kristian E.; Krueger, Robert F.; Watson, David

    2008-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that normal and abnormal personality can be treated within a single structural framework. However, identification of a single integrated structure of normal and abnormal personality has remained elusive. Here, a constructive replication approach was used to delineate an integrative hierarchical account of the structure of normal and abnormal personality. This hierarchical structure, which integrates many Big Trait models proposed in the literature, replicated across a meta-analysis as well as an empirical study, and across samples of participants as well as measures. The proposed structure resembles previously suggested accounts of personality hierarchy and provides insight into the nature of personality hierarchy more generally. Potential directions for future research on personality and psychopathology are discussed. PMID:15631580

  9. Delineating the structure of normal and abnormal personality: an integrative hierarchical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Kristian E; Krueger, Robert F; Watson, David

    2005-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that normal and abnormal personality can be treated within a single structural framework. However, identification of a single integrated structure of normal and abnormal personality has remained elusive. Here, a constructive replication approach was used to delineate an integrative hierarchical account of the structure of normal and abnormal personality. This hierarchical structure, which integrates many Big Trait models proposed in the literature, replicated across a meta-analysis as well as an empirical study, and across samples of participants as well as measures. The proposed structure resembles previously suggested accounts of personality hierarchy and provides insight into the nature of personality hierarchy more generally. Potential directions for future research on personality and psychopathology are discussed.

  10. HFE gene: Structure, function, mutations, and associated iron abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, James C; Edwards, Corwin Q; Acton, Ronald T

    2015-12-15

    The hemochromatosis gene HFE was discovered in 1996, more than a century after clinical and pathologic manifestations of hemochromatosis were reported. Linked to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromosome 6p, HFE encodes the MHC class I-like protein HFE that binds beta-2 microglobulin. HFE influences iron absorption by modulating the expression of hepcidin, the main controller of iron metabolism. Common HFE mutations account for ~90% of hemochromatosis phenotypes in whites of western European descent. We review HFE mapping and cloning, structure, promoters and controllers, and coding region mutations, HFE protein structure, cell and tissue expression and function, mouse Hfe knockouts and knockins, and HFE mutations in other mammals with iron overload. We describe the pertinence of HFE and HFE to mechanisms of iron homeostasis, the origin and fixation of HFE polymorphisms in European and other populations, and the genetic and biochemical basis of HFE hemochromatosis and iron overload. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Orthodontic and dysfunctional abnormalities of stomatognatic apparatus: radiographic analysis of 204 subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scutellari, P.N.; Capurso, V.; Rotolo, R.; Calura, G.; Orzincolo, C.

    1990-01-01

    Two hundred and four subjects (86 males and 118 females), aged 8 to 35 years, with different types of malocclusion, underwent panoramic dental radiography and skull teleradiography. This study was aimed at investigating advantages and limitations of the two radiographic techniques, in view of their use as screening methods. On orthopan-tomography, inferior interincisive point, menthon (Me), and, bilaterally, gonion (Go) and condilion (Co), were localized so as to allow a model of the right and left jaws to be made. On teleradiography of the skull, in lateral view, Steiner's cephalometric analysis allowed skeletal classes to be evaluated according to ANB angle values. More-over, major postural parameters relative to the relationship between skull and cervical spine were analyzed: atlanto-occipital distance, cranio-vertebral angle, cervical lordosis, and hyoid triangle. Orthopan-tomography, though not a reproducible technique, can be considered as a valuable screening method for it allows right and left hemi-jaws to be comparatively measured. Cephalometric analysis of postural data confirmed the frequency of wrong postures in orthodontic patients. From the correlation of mandibular asymmetries and cranio-cervical parameters, the authors observed that asymmetrical patients have many postural problems, just like class II skeletal and dolico-facial types. This findings seems to confirm the mixed (functional and skeletal) etiopathogenesis of mandibular asymmetries

  12. Abnormal Cell Properties and Down-Regulated FAK-Src Complex Signaling in B Lymphoblasts of Autistic Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hongen; Malik, Mazhar; Sheikh, Ashfaq M.; Merz, George; Ted Brown, W.; Li, Xiaohong

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that one of the major pathways to the pathogenesis of autism is reduced cell migration. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) has an important role in neural migration, dendritic morphological characteristics, axonal branching, and synapse formation. The FAK-Src complex, activated by upstream reelin and integrin β1, can initiate a cascade of phosphorylation events to trigger multiple intracellular pathways, including mitogen-activated protein kinase–extracellular signal–regulated kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase–Akt signaling. In this study, by using B lymphoblasts as a model, we tested whether integrin β1 and FAK-Src signaling are abnormally regulated in autism and whether abnormal FAK-Src signaling leads to defects in B-lymphoblast adhesion, migration, proliferation, and IgG production. To our knowledge, for the first time, we show that protein expression levels of both integrin β1 and FAK are significantly decreased in autistic lymphoblasts and that Src protein expression and the phosphorylation of an active site (Y416) are also significantly decreased. We also found that lymphoblasts from autistic subjects exhibit significantly decreased migration, increased adhesion properties, and an impaired capacity for IgG production. The overexpression of FAK in autistic lymphoblasts countered the adhesion and migration defects. In addition, we demonstrate that FAK mediates its effect through the activation of Src, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase–Akt, and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascades and that paxillin is also likely involved in the regulation of adhesion and migration in autistic lymphoblasts. PMID:21703394

  13. Abnormal brain structure in youth who commit homicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, L.M.; Ermer, E.; Gaudet, L.M.; Steele, V.R.; Eckhardt, A.L.; Arbabshirani, M.R.; Caldwell, M.F.; Calhoun, V.D.; Kiehl, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Violence that leads to homicide results in an extreme financial and emotional burden on society. Juveniles who commit homicide are often tried in adult court and typically spend the majority of their lives in prison. Despite the enormous costs associated with homicidal behavior, there have been no serious neuroscientific studies examining youth who commit homicide. Methods Here we use neuroimaging and voxel-based morphometry to examine brain gray matter in incarcerated male adolescents who committed homicide (n = 20) compared with incarcerated offenders who did not commit homicide (n = 135). Two additional control groups were used to understand further the nature of gray matter differences: incarcerated offenders who did not commit homicide matched on important demographic and psychometric variables (n = 20) and healthy participants from the community (n = 21). Results Compared with incarcerated adolescents who did not commit homicide (n = 135), incarcerated homicide offenders had reduced gray matter volumes in the medial and lateral temporal lobes, including the hippocampus and posterior insula. Feature selection and support vector machine learning classified offenders into the homicide and non-homicide groups with 81% overall accuracy. Conclusions Our results indicate that brain structural differences may help identify those at the highest risk for committing serious violent offenses. PMID:24936430

  14. ODS alloys for structures subjected to irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlan, Y. de

    2010-01-01

    ODS (oxide-dispersion-strengthened) materials are considered for cladding purposes for the fourth-generation sodium-cooled fast reactors. ODS materials afford many benefits. Indeed, these high-performance materials combine, at the same time, remarkable mechanical strength, in hot conditions, and outstanding irradiation behavior. New ODS steel grades, exhibiting better performance levels than the last-generation austenitic steels, afford not only negligible swelling under irradiation, owing to their 'ferritic' body-centered cubic structure - by contrast to austenitic grades, which feature a face-centered cubic structure - but equally outstanding creep properties, owing to the nano-reinforcements present in the matrix. ODS materials are obtained by powder metallurgy, the first fabrication step involves co-grinding a metal powder together with yttrium oxide (Y 2 O 3 ) powder. At this stage, an iron oxide may also be added, or an yttrium-rich intermetallic compound in order to provide the amounts of yttrium, and oxygen required for the formation of nano-oxides. The metal powder consists of a powder pre-alloyed to the chemical composition of the desired material. Once the powder has been obtained, consolidation of the ODS materials is achieved either by hot extrusion, or by hot isostatic pressing. (A.C.)

  15. Abnormal auditory mismatch response in tinnitus sufferers with high-frequency hearing loss is associated with subjective distress level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berg Patrick

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tinnitus is an auditory sensation frequently following hearing loss. After cochlear injury, deafferented neurons become sensitive to neighbouring intact edge-frequencies, guiding an enhanced central representation of these frequencies. As psychoacoustical data 123 indicate enhanced frequency discrimination ability for edge-frequencies that may be related to a reorganization within the auditory cortex, the aim of the present study was twofold: 1 to search for abnormal auditory mismatch responses in tinnitus sufferers and 2 relate these to subjective indicators of tinnitus. Results Using EEG-mismatch negativity, we demonstrate abnormalities (N = 15 in tinnitus sufferers that are specific to frequencies located at the audiometrically normal lesion-edge as compared to normal hearing controls (N = 15. Groups also differed with respect to the cortical locations of mismatch responsiveness. Sources in the 90–135 ms latency window were generated in more anterior brain regions in the tinnitus group. Both measures of abnormality correlated with emotional-cognitive distress related to tinnitus (r ~ .76. While these two physiological variables were uncorrelated in the control group, they were correlated in the tinnitus group (r = .72. Concerning relationships with parameters of hearing loss (depth and slope, slope turned out to be an important variable. Generally, the steeper the hearing loss is the less distress related to tinnitus was reported. The associations between slope and the relevant neurophysiological variables are in agreement with this finding. Conclusions The present study is the first to show near-to-complete separation of tinnitus sufferers from a normal hearing control group based on neurophysiological variables. The finding of lesion-edge specific effects and associations with slope of hearing loss corroborates the assumption that hearing loss is the basis for tinnitus development. It is likely that some central

  16. Structural abnormalities and altered regional brain activity in multiple sclerosis with simple spinal cord involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ping; Liu, Yi; Xiong, Hua; Han, Yongliang; Sah, Shambhu Kumar; Zeng, Chun; Wang, Jingjie; Li, Yongmei

    2018-02-01

    To assess the changes of the structural and functional abnormalities in multiple sclerosis with simple spinal cord involvement (MS-SSCI) by using resting-state functional MRI (RS-fMRI), voxel based morphology (VBM) and diffusion tensor tractography. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) of 22 patients with MS-SSCI and 22 healthy controls (HCs) matched for age, gender and education were compared by using RS-fMRI. We also compared the volume, fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient of the brain regions in baseline brain activity by using VBM and diffusion tensor imaging. The relationships between the expanded disability states scale (EDSS) scores, changed parameters of structure and function were further explored. (1) Compared with HCs, the ALFF of the bilateral hippocampus and right middle temporal gyrus in MS-SSCI decreased significantly. However, patients exhibited increased ALFF in the left middle frontal gyrus, left posterior cingulate gyrus and right middle occipital gyrus ( two-sample t-test, after AlphaSim correction, p 40). The volume of right middle frontal gyrus reduced significantly (p right hippocampus, the FA of left hippocampus and right middle temporal gyrus were significantly different. (2) A significant correlation between EDSS scores and ALFF was noted only in the left posterior cingulate gyrus. Our results detected structural and functional abnormalities in MS-SSCI and functional parameters were associated with clinical abnormalities. Multimodal imaging plays an important role in detecting structural and functional abnormalities in MS-SSCI. Advances in knowledge: This is the first time to apply RS-fMRI, VBM and diffusion tensor tractography to study the structural and functional abnormalities in MS-SSCI, and to explore its correlation with EDSS score.

  17. The incidence of chromosome abnormalities in neonates with structural heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykes, John C; Al-mousily, Mohammad F; Abuchaibe, Eda-Cristina; Silva, Jennifer N; Zadinsky, Jennifer; Duarte, Daniel; Welch, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of chromosomal anomalies in newborns with structural heart disease admitted to the cardiac intensive care unit (CICU) at Nicklaus Children's Hospital (NCH). A retrospective review identified newborns age 30 days or less admitted to NCH CICU between 2004 and 2010. Patients with structural heart disease who required admission to our CICU and received karyotype or karyotype and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) testing were included in the study. All patients were examined for the presence of dysmorphic features. Four hundred and eighty-two patients met the criteria for the study; 405 (84%) received both karyotype and FISH. Chromosome abnormalities were present in 86 (17.8%) patients. Syndromes accounted for 20 (5.1%) of those with normal chromosomes. Dysmorphic features were seen in 79.1% of patients with abnormal chromosomes and 25.5% of those with normal chromosomes. All patients with syndromes were dysmorphic. Race and gender did not significantly affect the incidence of genetic abnormalities. Chromosome abnormalities, including syndromes, are prevalent in newborns with congenital heart disease. Further research is needed to evaluate the utility of cytogenetic screening in all children with congenital heart disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Structured imaging technique in the gynecologic office for the diagnosis of abnormal uterine bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueholm, Margit; Hjorth, Ina Marie D

    2017-04-01

    The aim in the diagnosis of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is to identify the bleeding cause, which can be classified by the PALM-COEIN (Polyp, Adenomyosis, Leiomyoma, Malignancy (and hyperplasia), Coagulopathy, Ovulatory disorders, Endometrial, Iatrogenic and Not otherwise classified) classification system. In a gynecologic setting, the first step is most often to identify structural abnormalities (PALM causes). Common diagnostic options for the identification of the PALM include ultrasonography, endometrial sampling, and hysteroscopy. These options alone or in combination are sufficient for the diagnosis of most women with AUB. Contrast sonography with saline or gel infusion, three-dimensional ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging may be included. The aim of this article is to describe how a simple structured transvaginal ultrasound can be performed and implemented in the common gynecologic practice to simplify the diagnosis of AUB and determine when additional invasive investigations are required. Structured transvaginal ultrasound for the identification of the most common endometrial and myometrial abnormalities and the most common ultrasound features are described. Moreover, situations where magnetic resonance imaging may be included are described. This article proposes a diagnostic setup in premenopausal women for the classification of AUB according to the PALM-COEIN system. Moreover, a future diagnostic setup for fast-track identification of endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women based on a structured evaluation of the endometrium is described. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Improved detection rate of structural abnormalities in the first trimester using an extended examination protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliescu, D; Tudorache, S; Comanescu, A; Antsaklis, P; Cotarcea, S; Novac, L; Cernea, N; Antsaklis, A

    2013-09-01

    To assess the potential of first-trimester sonography in the detection of fetal abnormalities using an extended protocol that is achievable with reasonable resources of time, personnel and ultrasound equipment. This was a prospective two-center 2-year study of 5472 consecutive unselected pregnant women examined at 12 to 13 + 6 gestational weeks. Women were examined using an extended morphogenetic ultrasound protocol that, in addition to the basic evaluation, involved a color Doppler cardiac sweep and identification of early contingent markers for major abnormalities. The prevalence of lethal and severe malformations was 1.39%. The first-trimester scan identified 40.6% of the cases detected overall and 76.3% of major structural defects. The first-trimester detection rate (DR) for major congenital heart disease (either isolated or associated with extracardiac abnormalities) was 90% and that for major central nervous system anomalies was 69.5%. In fetuses with increased nuchal translucency (NT), the first-trimester DR for major anomalies was 96%, and in fetuses with normal NT it was 66.7%. Most (67.1%) cases with major abnormalities presented with normal NT. A detailed first-trimester anomaly scan using an extended protocol is an efficient screening method to detect major fetal structural abnormalities in low-risk pregnancies. It is feasible at 12 to 13 + 6 weeks with ultrasound equipment and personnel already used for routine first-trimester screening. Rate of detection of severe malformations is greater in early- than in mid-pregnancy and on postnatal evaluation. Early heart investigation could be improved by an extended protocol involving use of color Doppler. Copyright © 2013 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Structural and functional brain abnormalities place phenocopy frontotemporal dementia (FTD in the FTD spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M.E. Steketee

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: PhFTD and bvFTD show overlapping cortical structural abnormalities indicating a continuum of changes especially in the frontotemporal regions. Together with functional changes suggestive of a compensatory response to incipient pathology in the left prefrontal regions, these findings are the first to support a possible neuropathological etiology of phFTD and suggest that phFTD may be a neurodegenerative disease on the FTD spectrum.

  1. Capital structure and value firm: an empirical analysis of abnormal returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris Nasif AL-SHUBIRI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates whether capital structure is value relevant for the equity investor. In this sense, the paper links empirical corporate finance issues with investment analysis. This study also integrates the Miller-Modigliani (MM framework (1958 into an investment approach by estimating abnormal returns on leverage portfolios in the time-series for different risk classes. For most risk classes, abnormal returns decline in firm leverage. Descriptive statistics, simple and multiple regressions are used to test the hold indicator significance. The results reflect that the designed measures are the negative relationship between returns and leverage could also be due to the market’s pricing of the firm’s ability to raise funds if need be. Further avenues for research in this area include examining the stock return performance of companies based on the changes in leverage of the firms relative to their risk classes. It would be particularly noteworthy to examine the rate at which the information content of said changes is incorporated in the share prices of companies as well as in their long run returns This study encompasses all non-financial firms across the five sectors that cover all the various classes of risk. This study investigates neither the determinants of multiple capital structure choices nor changes in capital structures over time. Our main goal is to explore the effect of capital structure on cumulative abnormal returns. This study also examine a firm’s cumulative average abnormal returns by measuring leverage at the firm level and at the average level for the firm’s industry. And also examine other factors, such as size, price earnings, market-to-book and betas.

  2. Structural Brain Abnormalities in Successfully Treated HIV Infection: Associations With Disease and Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zoest, Rosan A; Underwood, Jonathan; De Francesco, Davide; Sabin, Caroline A; Cole, James H; Wit, Ferdinand W; Caan, Matthan W A; Kootstra, Neeltje A; Fuchs, Dietmar; Zetterberg, Henrik; Majoie, Charles B L M; Portegies, Peter; Winston, Alan; Sharp, David J; Gisslén, Magnus; Reiss, Peter

    2017-12-27

    Brain structural abnormalities have been reported in persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; PLWH) who are receiving suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), but their pathophysiology remains unclear. We investigated factors associated with brain tissue volumes and white matter microstructure (fractional anisotropy) in 134 PLWH receiving suppressive cART and 79 comparable HIV-negative controls, aged ≥45 years, from the Comorbidity in Relation to AIDS cohort, using multimodal neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers. Compared with controls, PLWH had lower gray matter volumes (-13.7 mL; 95% confidence interval, -25.1 to -2.2) and fractional anisotropy (-0.0073; 95% confidence interval, -.012 to -.0024), with the largest differences observed in those with prior clinical AIDS. Hypertension and the soluble CD14 concentration in cerebrospinal fluid were associated with lower fractional anisotropy. These associations were independent of HIV serostatus (Pinteraction = .32 and Pinteraction = .59, respectively) and did not explain the greater abnormalities in brain structure in relation to HIV infection. The presence of lower gray matter volumes and more white matter microstructural abnormalities in well-treated PLWH partly reflect a combination of historical effects of AIDS, as well as the more general influence of systemic factors, such as hypertension and ongoing neuroinflammation. Additional mechanisms explaining the accentuation of brain structure abnormalities in treated HIV infection remain to be identified. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Recurrent abnormalities in conifer cones and the evolutionary origins of flower-like structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudall, Paula J; Hilton, Jason; Vergara-Silva, Francisco; Bateman, Richard M

    2011-03-01

    Conifer cones are reproductive structures that are typically of restricted growth and either exclusively pollen-bearing (male) or exclusively ovule-bearing (female). Here, we review two common spontaneous developmental abnormalities of conifer cones: proliferated cones, in which the apex grows vegetatively, and bisexual cones, which possess both male and female structures. Emerging developmental genetic data, combined with evidence from comparative morphology, ontogeny and palaeobotany, provide new insights into the evolution of both cones and flowers, and prompt novel strategies for understanding seed-plant evolution. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Structural Brain Abnormalities in Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy Patients: Volumetry and Voxel-Based Morphometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tae, Woo Suk; Hong, Seung Bong; Joo, Eun Yun

    2006-01-01

    We aimed to find structural brain abnormalities in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) patients. The volumes of the cerebrum, hippocampus and frontal lobe and the area of the corpus callosum's subdivisions were all semiautomatically measured, and then optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was performed in 19 JME patients and 19 age/gender matched normal controls. The rostrum and rostral body of the corpus callosum and the left hippocampus were significantly smaller than those of the normal controls, whereas the volume of the JME's left frontal lobe was significantly larger than that of the controls. The area of the rostral body had a significant positive correlation with the age of seizure onset (r=0.56, p=0.012), and the volume of the right frontal lobe had a significant negative correlation with the duration of disease (r=-0.51, p=0.025). On the VBM, the gray matter concentration of the prefrontal lobe (bilateral gyri rectus, anterior orbital gyri, left anterior middle frontal gyrus and right anterior superior frontal gyrus) was decreased in the JME group (corrected p<0.05). The JME patients showed complex structural abnormalities in the corpus callosum, frontal lobe and hippocampus, and also a decreased gray matter concentration of the prefrontal region, which all suggests there is an abnormal neural network in the JME brain

  5. Structural Brain Abnormalities in Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy Patients: Volumetry and Voxel-Based Morphometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tae, Woo Suk; Hong, Seung Bong [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Eun Yun [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    We aimed to find structural brain abnormalities in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) patients. The volumes of the cerebrum, hippocampus and frontal lobe and the area of the corpus callosum's subdivisions were all semiautomatically measured, and then optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was performed in 19 JME patients and 19 age/gender matched normal controls. The rostrum and rostral body of the corpus callosum and the left hippocampus were significantly smaller than those of the normal controls, whereas the volume of the JME's left frontal lobe was significantly larger than that of the controls. The area of the rostral body had a significant positive correlation with the age of seizure onset (r=0.56, p=0.012), and the volume of the right frontal lobe had a significant negative correlation with the duration of disease (r=-0.51, p=0.025). On the VBM, the gray matter concentration of the prefrontal lobe (bilateral gyri rectus, anterior orbital gyri, left anterior middle frontal gyrus and right anterior superior frontal gyrus) was decreased in the JME group (corrected p<0.05). The JME patients showed complex structural abnormalities in the corpus callosum, frontal lobe and hippocampus, and also a decreased gray matter concentration of the prefrontal region, which all suggests there is an abnormal neural network in the JME brain.

  6. THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF STRUCTURES SUBJECTED TO EARTHQUAKES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soubirou, A.

    1967-12-31

    The object of the study was the investigation of the behaviour of structures subject to earthquakes. After .describing and analysing seismic movements, useful concepts for earthquake-proofing structures are lintroduced. Then, the dynamic behaviour of systems with n degrees of freedom was studied in order to evolve the theoretical computation of seismic behaviour, a typical application being reticulated structures. The next stage was showing the computational procedure for seismic spectra and the natural frequencies of buildings, an attempt being made to define earthquake-proofing criteria for a special type of reinforced-concrete construction. . The last matter dealt with is elastoplastic behaviour of structures, a study of increasingly growing importance.

  7. Sensory migraine aura is not associated with structural grey matter abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Arngrim, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    Migraine with aura (MA) is characterized by cortical dysfunction. Frequent aura attacks may alter cerebral cortical structure in patients, or structural grey matter abnormalities may predispose MA patients to aura attacks. In the present study we aimed to investigate cerebral grey matter structure...... sensory aura regularly. We analysed high-resolution structural MR images using two complimentary approaches and compared patients with and without sensory aura. Patients were also compared to controls. We found no differences of grey matter density or cortical thickness between patients with and without...... sensory aura and no differences for the cortical visual areas between patients and controls. The somatosensory cortex was thinner in patients (1.92 mm vs. 1.96 mm, P = 0.043) and the anterior cingulate cortex of patients had a decreased grey matter density (P = 0.039) compared to controls...

  8. Structural magnetic resonance imaging can identify trigeminal system abnormalities in classical trigeminal neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle DeSouza

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Classical trigeminal neuralgia (TN is a chronic pain disorder that has been described as one ofthe most severe pains one can suffer. The most prevalent theory of TN etiology is that the trigeminal nerve is compressed at the root entry zone (REZ by blood vessels. However, there is significant evidence showing a lack of neurovascular compression (NVC for many cases of classical TN. Furthermore, a considerable number of patients who are asymptomatic have MR evidence of NVC. Since there is no validated animal model that reproduces the clinical features of TN, our understanding of TN pathology mainly comes from biopsy studies that have limitations. Sophisticated structural MRI techniques including diffusion tensor imaging provide new opportunities to assess the trigeminal nerves and CNS to provide insight into TN etiology and pathogenesis. Specifically, studies have used high-resolution structural MRI methods to visualize patterns of trigeminal nerve-vessel relationships and to detect subtle pathological features at the trigeminal REZ. Structural MRI has also identified CNS abnormalities in cortical and subcortical gray matter and white matter and demonstrated that effective neurosurgical treatment for TN is associated with a reversal of specific nerve and brain abnormalities. In conclusion, this review highlights the advanced structural neuroimaging methods that are valuable tools to assess the trigeminal system in TN and may inform our current understanding of TN pathology. These methods may in the future have clinical utility for the development of neuroimaging-based biomarkers of TN.

  9. Is there an association with constitutional structural chromosomal abnormalities and hematologic neoplastic process? A short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panani, Anna D

    2009-04-01

    The occasional observation of constitutional chromosomal abnormalities in patients with a malignant disease has led to a number of studies on their potential role in cancer development. Investigations of families with hereditary cancers and constitutional chromosomal abnormalities have been key observations leading to the molecular identification of specific genes implicated in tumorigenesis. Large studies have been reported on the incidence of constitutional chromosomal aberrations in patients with hematologic malignancies, but they could not confirm an increased risk for hematologic malignancy among carriers of structural chromosomal changes. However, it is of particular interest that constitutional structural aberrations with breakpoints similar to leukemia-associated specific breakpoints have been reported in patients with hematologic malignancies. Because of insufficient data, it remains still unclear if these aberrations represent random events or are associated with malignancy. There has been a substantial discussion about mechanisms involved in constitutional structural chromosomal changes in the literature. The documentation of more patients with constitutional structural chromosomal changes could be of major importance. Most importantly, the molecular investigation of chromosomal regions involved in rearrangements could give useful information on the genetic events underlying constitutional anomalies, contributing to isolation of genes important in the development of the neoplastic process. Regarding constitutional anomalies in patients with hematologic disorders, a survey of the cytogenetic data of our cytogenetics unit is herein also presented.

  10. Abnormal rich club organization and impaired correlation between structural and functional connectivity in migraine sufferers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kang; Liu, Lijun; Yin, Qin; Dun, Wanghuan; Xu, Xiaolin; Liu, Jixin; Zhang, Ming

    2017-04-01

    Because of the unique position of the topologically central role of densely interconnected brain hubs, our study aimed to investigate whether these regions and their related connections would be particularly vulnerable to migraine. In our study, we explored the rich club structure and its role in global functional dynamics in 30 patients with migraine without aura and 30 healthy controls. DTI and resting fMRI were used to construct structural connectivity (SC) and functional connectivity (FC) networks. An independent replication data set of 26 patients and 26 controls was included to replicate and validate significant findings. As compared with the controls, the structural networks of patients exhibited altered rich club organization with higher level of feeder connection density, abnormal small-world organization with increased global efficiency and decreased strength of SC-FC coupling. As these abnormal topological properties and headache attack duration exhibited a significant association with increased density of feeder connections, our results indicated that migraine may be characterized by a selective alteration of the structural connectivity of the rich club regions, tending to have higher 'bridgeness' with non-rich club regions, which may increase the integration among pain-related brain circuits with more excitability but less inhibition for the modulation of migraine.

  11. Abnormalities in the structural covariance of emotion regulation networks in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huawang; Sun, Hui; Wang, Chao; Yu, Lin; Li, Yilan; Peng, Hongjun; Lu, Xiaobing; Hu, Qingmao; Ning, Yuping; Jiang, Tianzi; Xu, Jinping; Wang, Jiaojian

    2017-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common psychiatric disorder that is characterized by cognitive deficits and affective symptoms. To date, an increasing number of neuroimaging studies have focused on emotion regulation and have consistently shown that emotion dysregulation is one of the central features and underlying mechanisms of MDD. Although gray matter morphological abnormalities in regions within emotion regulation networks have been identified in MDD, the interactions and relationships between these gray matter structures remain largely unknown. Thus, in this study, we adopted a structural covariance method based on gray matter volume to investigate the brain morphological abnormalities within the emotion regulation networks in a large cohort of 65 MDD patients and 65 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. A permutation test with p covariance connectivity strengths between MDD patients and healthy controls. The structural covariance analysis revealed an increased correlation strength of gray matter volume between the left angular gyrus and the left amygdala and between the right angular gyrus and the right amygdala, as well as a decreased correlation strength of the gray matter volume between the right angular gyrus and the posterior cingulate cortex in MDD. Our findings support the notion that emotion dysregulation is an underlying mechanism of MDD by revealing disrupted structural covariance patterns in the emotion regulation network. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Asymmetry of cerebral glucose metabolism in very low-birth-weight infants without structural abnormalities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hyun Park

    Full Text Available Thirty-six VLBW infants who underwent F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG brain PET and MRI were prospectively enrolled, while infants with evidence of parenchymal brain injury on MRI were excluded. The regional glucose metabolic ratio and asymmetry index were calculated. The asymmetry index more than 10% (right > left asymmetry or less than -10% (left > right asymmetry were defined as abnormal. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism were compared between right and left cerebral hemispheres, and between the following subgroups: multiple gestations, premature rupture of membrane, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and low-grade intraventricular hemorrhage.In the individual analysis, 21 (58.3% of 36 VLBW infants exhibited asymmetric cerebral glucose metabolism. Fifteen infants (41.7% exhibited right > left asymmetry, while six (16.7% exhibited left > right asymmetry. In the regional analysis, right > left asymmetry was more extensive than left > right asymmetry. The metabolic ratio in the right frontal, temporal, and occipital cortices and right thalamus were significantly higher than those in the corresponding left regions. In the subgroup analyses, the cerebral glucose metabolism in infants with multiple gestations, premature rupture of membrane, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or low-grade intraventricular hemorrhage were significantly lower than those in infants without these.VLBW infants without structural abnormalities have asymmetry of cerebral glucose metabolism. Decreased cerebral glucose metabolism are noted in infants with neurodevelopmental risk factors. F-18 FDG PET could show microstructural abnormalities not detected by MRI in VLBW infants.

  13. [Neurological and neuropsychological comparison between subjects with learning disorder and those suffering from learning difficulties when eeg abnormalities are detected at pediatric age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsetti, L; Viberti, B; Ariano, C; Isocrono, A

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the study is to compare data and investigate the points of overlap between the two clinical conditions. The hypothesis is to observe a similar cognitive and neuropsychological profile in LD children and subjects with electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities. The present study consists of a descriptive analysis of 35 children who have been tested for suspected learning disorder (LD). The diagnostic protocol includes a detailed cognitive and neuropsychological evaluation, as well as logopedic and neuropsychomotor assessment. Children carried neurological visit, EEG in waking and encephalic nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In this study, anamnestic data and the results of some of the neuropsychological tests were administrated to children and subsequently were analyzed. Depending on EEG report (positive or negative), subjects were split in two subsample: subjects with "pure" LD and subjects who showed significant paroxysmal abnormalities at the EEG. This comparison shows that the profile of the two subsamples matches for many aspects. The only statistically significant differences are the increased impairment of meta-phonological skills and reading speed in children with EEG abnormalities. On the other hand, children with "pure" LD are inclined to manifest more frequently difficulties in highly-modularized processes, such as counting. In conclusion, the substantial overlap of the two profiles causes a reflection about the difficulty in making differential diagnosis in children who show a suspected LD, in absence of an accurate neurophysiological and neuroradiological investigation. The study did not find out useful markers to select subjects who should carry EEG and encephalic NMR. Our team established to keep EEG in waking in the diagnostic protocol, for all children with LD diagnosis. Only in case of abnormalities at the track, we prescribed EEG in sleeping and encephalic NMR.

  14. Functional and structural abnormalities associated with empathy in patients with schizophrenia: An fMRI and VBM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sadhana; Modi, Shilpi; Goyal, Satnam; Kaur, Prabhjot; Singh, Namita; Bhatia, Triptish; Deshpande, Smita N; Khushu, Subash

    2015-06-01

    Empathy deficit is a core feature of schizophrenia which may lead to social dysfunction. The present study was carried out to investigate functional and structural abnormalities associated with empathy in patients with schizophrenia using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). A sample of 14 schizophrenia patients and 14 healthy control subjects matched for age, sex and education were examined with structural highresolution T1-weighted MRI; fMRI images were obtained during empathy task in the same session. The analysis was carried out using SPM8 software. On behavioural assessment, schizophrenic patients (83.00+-29.04) showed less scores for sadness compared to healthy controls (128.70+-22.26) (p less than 0.001). fMRI results also showed reduced clusters of activation in the bilateral fusiform gyrus, left lingual gyrus, left middle and inferior occipital gyrus in schizophrenic subjects as compared to controls during empathy task. In the same brain areas, VBM results also showed reduced grey and white matter volumes. The present study provides an evidence for an association between structural alterations and disturbed functional brain activation during empathy task in persons affected with schizophrenia. These findings suggest a biological basis for social cognition deficits in schizophrenics.

  15. Telomere dysfunction and chromosome structure modulate the contribution of individual chromosomes in abnormal nuclear morphologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pampalona, J.; Soler, D.; Genesca, A. [Department of Cell Biology, Physiology and Immunology, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra E-08193 (Spain); Tusell, L., E-mail: laura.tusell@uab.es [Department of Cell Biology, Physiology and Immunology, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra E-08193 (Spain)

    2010-01-05

    The cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay has emerged as a biomarker of chromosome damage relevant to cancer. Although it was initially developed to measure micronuclei, it is also useful for measuring nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds. Abnormal nuclear morphologies are frequently observed in malignant tissues and short-term tumour cell cultures. Changes in chromosome structure and number resulting from chromosome instability are important factors in oncogenesis. Telomeres have become key players in the initiation of chromosome instability related to carcinogenesis by means of breakage-fusion-bridge cycles. To better understand the connection between telomere dysfunction and the appearance of abnormal nuclear morphologies, we have characterised the presence of micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds in human mammary primary epithelial cells. These cells can proliferate beyond the Hayflick limit by spontaneously losing expression of the p16{sup INK4a} protein. Progressive telomere shortening leads to the loss of the capping function, and the appearance of end-to-end chromosome fusions that can enter into breakage-fusion-bridge cycles generating massive chromosomal instability. In human mammary epithelial cells, different types of abnormal nuclear morphologies were observed, however only nucleoplasmatic bridges and buds increased significantly with population doublings. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation using centromeric and painting specific probes for chromosomes with eroded telomeres has revealed that these chromosomes are preferentially included in the different types of abnormal nuclear morphologies observed, thus reflecting their common origin. Accordingly, real-time imaging of cell divisions enabled us to determine that anaphase bridge resolution was mainly through chromatin breakage and the formation of symmetric buds in daughter nuclei. Few micronuclei emerged in this cell system thus validating the scoring of nucleoplasmic bridges and

  16. Telomere dysfunction and chromosome structure modulate the contribution of individual chromosomes in abnormal nuclear morphologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pampalona, J.; Soler, D.; Genesca, A.; Tusell, L.

    2010-01-01

    The cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay has emerged as a biomarker of chromosome damage relevant to cancer. Although it was initially developed to measure micronuclei, it is also useful for measuring nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds. Abnormal nuclear morphologies are frequently observed in malignant tissues and short-term tumour cell cultures. Changes in chromosome structure and number resulting from chromosome instability are important factors in oncogenesis. Telomeres have become key players in the initiation of chromosome instability related to carcinogenesis by means of breakage-fusion-bridge cycles. To better understand the connection between telomere dysfunction and the appearance of abnormal nuclear morphologies, we have characterised the presence of micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds in human mammary primary epithelial cells. These cells can proliferate beyond the Hayflick limit by spontaneously losing expression of the p16 INK4a protein. Progressive telomere shortening leads to the loss of the capping function, and the appearance of end-to-end chromosome fusions that can enter into breakage-fusion-bridge cycles generating massive chromosomal instability. In human mammary epithelial cells, different types of abnormal nuclear morphologies were observed, however only nucleoplasmatic bridges and buds increased significantly with population doublings. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation using centromeric and painting specific probes for chromosomes with eroded telomeres has revealed that these chromosomes are preferentially included in the different types of abnormal nuclear morphologies observed, thus reflecting their common origin. Accordingly, real-time imaging of cell divisions enabled us to determine that anaphase bridge resolution was mainly through chromatin breakage and the formation of symmetric buds in daughter nuclei. Few micronuclei emerged in this cell system thus validating the scoring of nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear

  17. Telomere dysfunction and chromosome structure modulate the contribution of individual chromosomes in abnormal nuclear morphologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampalona, J; Soler, D; Genescà, A; Tusell, L

    2010-01-05

    The cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay has emerged as a biomarker of chromosome damage relevant to cancer. Although it was initially developed to measure micronuclei, it is also useful for measuring nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds. Abnormal nuclear morphologies are frequently observed in malignant tissues and short-term tumour cell cultures. Changes in chromosome structure and number resulting from chromosome instability are important factors in oncogenesis. Telomeres have become key players in the initiation of chromosome instability related to carcinogenesis by means of breakage-fusion-bridge cycles. To better understand the connection between telomere dysfunction and the appearance of abnormal nuclear morphologies, we have characterised the presence of micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds in human mammary primary epithelial cells. These cells can proliferate beyond the Hayflick limit by spontaneously losing expression of the p16(INK4a) protein. Progressive telomere shortening leads to the loss of the capping function, and the appearance of end-to-end chromosome fusions that can enter into breakage-fusion-bridge cycles generating massive chromosomal instability. In human mammary epithelial cells, different types of abnormal nuclear morphologies were observed, however only nucleoplasmatic bridges and buds increased significantly with population doublings. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation using centromeric and painting specific probes for chromosomes with eroded telomeres has revealed that these chromosomes are preferentially included in the different types of abnormal nuclear morphologies observed, thus reflecting their common origin. Accordingly, real-time imaging of cell divisions enabled us to determine that anaphase bridge resolution was mainly through chromatin breakage and the formation of symmetric buds in daughter nuclei. Few micronuclei emerged in this cell system thus validating the scoring of nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear

  18. Structural and Functional Coronary Artery Abnormalities in Patients With Vasospastic Angina Pectoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ong, Peter; Aziz, Ahmed; Hansen, Henrik Steen

    2015-01-01

    Coronary spasm is involved in many clinical scenarios, such as stable angina, acute coronary syndrome, sudden cardiac death, non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia and syncope. In recent years, imaging tools such as computerized tomographic angiography, intravascular ultrasound or optical...... coherence tomography have been applied to study the coronary pathology in patients with vasospastic angina. Patients with vasospastic angina represent a heterogeneous cohort of patients with regard to the extent of concomitant coronary atherosclerosis. They share the common pathophysiological phenomenon...... of this article is to review structural and functional coronary artery abnormalities in patients with vasospastic angina....

  19. Ultrasound evidence of altered lumbar connective tissue structure in human subjects with chronic low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouffard Nicole A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the connective tissues forming the fascial planes of the back have been hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic low back pain (LBP, there have been no previous studies quantitatively evaluating connective tissue structure in this condition. The goal of this study was to perform an ultrasound-based comparison of perimuscular connective tissue structure in the lumbar region in a group of human subjects with chronic or recurrent LBP for more than 12 months, compared with a group of subjects without LBP. Methods In each of 107 human subjects (60 with LBP and 47 without LBP, parasagittal ultrasound images were acquired bilaterally centered on a point 2 cm lateral to the midpoint of the L2-3 interspinous ligament. The outcome measures based on these images were subcutaneous and perimuscular connective tissue thickness and echogenicity measured by ultrasound. Results There were no significant differences in age, sex, body mass index (BMI or activity levels between LBP and No-LBP groups. Perimuscular thickness and echogenicity were not correlated with age but were positively correlated with BMI. The LBP group had ~25% greater perimuscular thickness and echogenicity compared with the No-LBP group (ANCOVA adjusted for BMI, p Conclusion This is the first report of abnormal connective tissue structure in the lumbar region in a group of subjects with chronic or recurrent LBP. This finding was not attributable to differences in age, sex, BMI or activity level between groups. Possible causes include genetic factors, abnormal movement patterns and chronic inflammation.

  20. Scope and selection of structures subject to aging management review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, G.; Diaz, A.; Viais, J.; Carmona, M.; Santander, L.

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this work is to determine the structures included within the scope of license renewal based on the performance of the functions and select those intended for aging management review; one purpose is to show the methodology used to establish the structure and structural components that are subject to a review of aging management, within the framework of license renewal rule. This is through the application of different types of structures and structural components related and unrelated to safety located in the rooms of the reactor building where there are components of the reactor core isolation cooling system (Rcic), these structures are poured concrete, concrete block, structural steel, shielding walls, attached metal, pile foundations, etc.; other non- security related , such as: 1) inherent characteristics not related to security that protect the equipment related to the safety of the missiles, that is, walls, low walls, dikes, doors, etc., which also provide flood barriers to structures, systems and components related to safety, 2 ) whipping restrictions on non- security, shields mitigation jet, vent panels , etc. that are designed and installed to protect equipment related with the safety of the effects of a broken line of high energy. Only rooms where there are components of the Rcic 68 structures within the scope were identified. (Author)

  1. Integrating normal and abnormal personality structure: a proposal for DSM-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiger, Thomas A

    2011-06-01

    The personality disorders section of the American Psychiatric Association's fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) is currently being developed. The purpose of the current paper is to encourage the authors of DSM-V to integrate normal and abnormal personality structure within a common, integrative model, and to suggest that the optimal choice for such an integration would be the five-factor model (FFM) of general personality structure. A proposal for the classification of personality disorder from the perspective of the FFM is provided. Discussed as well are implications and issues associated with an FFM of personality disorder, including validity, coverage, feasibility, clinical utility, and treatment implications.

  2. A CROSS-SECTIONAL SURVEY ON LIPID ABNORMALITIES ASSOCIATED WITH NONDIABETIC SUBJECTS WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE, STAGE III-V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibi N. S

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Chronic kidney disease is a worldwide public health problem. The adverse outcomes of chronic kidney disease, such as kidney failure, cardiovascular disease and premature death can be prevented or delayed. Chronic renal disease is accompanied by characteristic abnormalities of lipid metabolism. High cholesterol and triglyceride plasma levels have been demonstrated to be independent risk factors for progression of renal disease in humans. The pattern of lipid abnormalities in chronic renal disease patients in Kerala, India, has not been studied. The primary aim of the study is to describe the pattern of lipid profile in nondiabetic chronic kidney disease patients. The secondary objective is to determine the proportion of patients with nondiabetic chronic kidney disease who have lipid abnormalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS Our study is a cross-sectional study conducted in Department of Internal Medicine, Government Medical College, Trivandrum, during the time period of 22-08-2014 to 22-08-2015. The study was conducted after clearance from Institutional Ethics Committee and written informed consent was obtained from all study participants. 134 nondiabetic patients who were diagnosed to have Chronic Kidney disease (CKD according to KDOQI and NKF criteria with a GFR 70 years showed significantly higher serum creatinine value and lower EGFR. Significantly, higher values of Total Cholesterol (TC, Low-Density Lipoproteins (LDL, Triglycerides (TG and Very Low-Density Lipoproteins (VLDL were seen in the age group >70 years and in stage V CKD compared to other groups. CONCLUSION Dyslipidaemia is common in nondiabetic CKD patients (67.91%. Higher stages of CKD were associated with more dyslipidaemia.

  3. Metabolic Abnormalities Are Common among South American Hispanics Subjects with Normal Weight or Excess Body Weight: The CRONICAS Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benziger, Catherine P; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Gilman, Robert H; Checkley, William; Smeeth, Liam; Málaga, Germán; Miranda, J Jaime

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to characterize metabolic status by body mass index (BMI) status. The CRONICAS longitudinal study was performed in an age-and-sex stratified random sample of participants aged 35 years or older in four Peruvian settings: Lima (Peru's capital, costal urban, highly urbanized), urban and rural Puno (both high-altitude), and Tumbes (costal semirural). Data from the baseline study, conducted in 2010, was used. Individuals were classified by BMI as normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m2), and obese (≥30 kg/m2), and as metabolically healthy (0-1 metabolic abnormality) or metabolically unhealthy (≥2 abnormalities). Abnormalities included individual components of the metabolic syndrome, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and insulin resistance. A total of 3088 (age 55.6±12.6 years, 51.3% females) had all measurements. Of these, 890 (28.8%), 1361 (44.1%) and 837 (27.1%) were normal weight, overweight and obese, respectively. Overall, 19.0% of normal weight in contrast to 54.9% of overweight and 77.7% of obese individuals had ≥3 risk factors (poverweight and 3.9% of obese individuals were metabolically healthy and, compared to Lima, the rural and urban sites in Puno were more likely to have a metabolically healthier profile. Most Peruvians with overweight and obesity have additional risk factors for cardiovascular disease, as well as a majority of those with a healthy weight. Prevention programs aimed at individuals with a normal BMI, and those who are overweight and obese, are urgently needed, such as screening for elevated fasting cholesterol and glucose.

  4. Structural airway abnormalities contribute to dysphagia in children with esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Katherine J; Baxter, Lauren M; Landry, April M; Wulkan, Mark L; Bhatia, Amina M

    2018-01-31

    Long-term dysphagia occurs in up to 50% of repaired esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula (EA/TEF) patients. The underlying factors are unclear and may include stricture, esophageal dysmotility, or associated anomalies. Our purpose was to determine whether structural airway abnormalities (SAA) are associated with dysphagia in EA/TEF. We conducted a retrospective chart review of children who underwent EA/TEF repair in our hospital system from 2007 to 2016. Children with identified SAA (oropharyngeal abnormalities, laryngeal clefts, laryngomalacia, vocal cord paralysis, and tracheomalacia) were compared to those without airway abnormalities. Dysphagia outcomes were determined by the need for tube feeding and the modified pediatric Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS) at 1 year. SAA was diagnosed in 55/145 (37.9%) patients with EA/TEF. Oropharyngeal aspiration was more common in children with SAA (58.3% vs. 36.4%, p=0.028). Children with SAA were more likely to require tube feeding both at discharge (79.6% vs. 48.3%, pesophageal stricture, the presence of SAA remained a significant risk factor for dysphagia (OR 4.17 (95% CI 1.58-11.03)). SAA are common in children with EA/TEF and are associated with dysphagia, even after accounting for gestational age, esophageal gap and stricture. This study highlights the need for a multidisciplinary approach, including early laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy, in the evaluation of the EA/TEF child with dysphagia. Level II retrospective prognostic study. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. First-Trimester Crown-Rump Length and Embryonic Volume of Fetuses with Structural Congenital Abnormalities Measured in Virtual Reality: An Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Baken

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. With the introduction of three-dimensional (3D ultrasound it has become possible to measure volumes. The relative increase in embryonic volume (EV is much larger than that of the crown-rump length (CRL over the same time period. We examined whether EV is a better parameter to determine growth restriction in fetuses with structural congenital abnormalities. Study Design, Subjects, and Outcome Measures. CRL and EV were measured using a Virtual Reality (VR system in prospectively collected 3D ultrasound volumes of 56 fetuses diagnosed with structural congenital abnormalities in the first trimester of pregnancy (gestational age 7+5 to 14+5 weeks. Measured CRL and EV were converted to z-scores and to percentages of the expected mean using previously published reference curves of euploid fetuses. The one-sample t-test was performed to test significance. Results. The EV was smaller than expected for GA in fetuses with structural congenital abnormalities (−35%  p<0.001, z-score −1.44  p<0.001, whereas CRL was not (−6.43%  p=0.118, z-score −0.43  p=0.605. Conclusions. CRL is a less reliable parameter to determine growth restriction in fetuses with structural congenital abnormalities as compared with EV. By measuring EV, growth restriction in first-trimester fetuses with structural congenital abnormalities becomes more evident and enables an earlier detection of these cases.

  6. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  7. Effects prediction guidelines for structures subjected to ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-07-01

    Part of the planning for an underground nuclear explosion (UNE) is determining the effects of expected ground motion on exposed structures. Because of the many types of structures and the wide variation in ground motion intensity typically encountered, no single prediction method is both adequate and feasible for a complete evaluation. Furthermore, the nature and variability of ground motion and structure damage prescribe effects predictions that are made probabilistically. Initially, prediction for a UNE involves a preliminary assessment of damage to establish overall project feasibility. Subsequent efforts require more detailed damage evaluations, based on structure inventories and analyses of specific structures, so that safety problems can be identified and safety and remedial measures can be recommended. To cover this broad range of effects prediction needs for a typical UNE project, three distinct but interrelated methods have been developed and are described. First, the fundamental practical and theoretical aspects of predicting the effects of dynamic ground motion on structures are summarized. Next, experimentally derived and theoretically determined observations of the behavior of typical structures subjected to ground motion are presented. Then, based on these fundamental considerations and on the observed behavior of structures, the formulation of the three effects prediction procedures is described, along with guidelines regarding their applicability. Example damage predictions for hypothetical UNEs demonstrate these procedures. To aid in identifying the vibration properties of complex structures, one chapter discusses alternatives in vibration testing, instrumentation, and data analysis. Finally, operational guidelines regarding data acquisition procedures, safety criteria, and remedial measures involved in conducting structure effects evaluations are discussed. (U.S.)

  8. Abnormal transient rise in hepatic glucose production after oral glucose in non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorburn, A; Litchfield, A; Fabris, S; Proietto, J

    1995-05-01

    A transient rise in hepatic glucose production (HGP) after an oral glucosa load has been reported in some insulin-resistant states such as in obese fa/fa Zucker rats. The aim of this study was to determine whether this rise in HGP also occurs in subjects with established non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Glucose kinetics were measured basally and during a double-label oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in 12 NIDDM subjects and 12 non-diabetic 'control' subjects. Twenty minutes after the glucose load, HGP had increased 73% above basal in the NIDDM subjects (7.29 +/- 0.52 to 12.58 +/- 1.86 mumol/kg/min, P < 0.02). A transient rise in glucagon (12 pg/ml above basal, P < 0.004) occurred at a similar time. In contrast, the control subjects showed no rise in HGP or plasma glucagon. HGP began to suppress 40-50 min after the OGTT in both the NIDDM and control subjects. A 27% increase in the rate of gut-derived glucose absorption was also observed in the NIDDM group, which could be the result of increased gut glucose absorption or decreased first pass extraction of glucose by the liver. Therefore, in agreement with data in animal models of NIDDM, a transient rise in HGP partly contributes to the hyperglycemia observed after an oral glucose load in NIDDM subjects.

  9. Swimming exercise reverses aging-related contractile abnormalities of female heart by improving structural alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Nihal; Olgar, Yusuf; Er, Hakan; Kucuk, Murathan; Ozdemir, Semir

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of swimming exercise on aging-related Ca2+ handling alterations and structural abnormalities of female rat heart. For this purpose, 4-month and 24-month old female rats were used and divided into three following groups: sedentary young (SY), sedentary old (SO), and exercised old (Ex-O). Swimming exercise was performed for 8 weeks (60 min/day, 5 days/week). Myocyte shortening, L-type Ca2+ currents and associated Ca2+ transients were measured from ventricular myocytes at 36 ± 1°C. NOX-4 levels, aconitase activity, glutathione measurements and ultrastructural examination by electron microscopy were conducted in heart tissue. Swimming exercise reversed the reduced shortening and slowed kinetics of aged cardiomyocytes. Although the current density was similar for all groups, Ca2+ transients were higher in SO and Ex-O myocytes with respect to the SY group. Caffeine-induced Ca2+ transients and the integrated NCX current were lower in cardiomyocytes of SY rats compared with other groups, suggesting an increased sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ content in an aged heart. Aging led to upregulated cardiac NOX-4 along with declined aconitase activity. Although it did not reverse these oxidative parameters, swimming exercise achieved a significant increase in glutathione levels and improved structural alterations of old rats' hearts. We conclude that swimming exercise upregulates antioxidant defense capacity and improves structural abnormalities of senescent female rat heart, although it does not change Ca2+ handling alterations further. Thereby, it improves contractile function of aged myocardium by mitigating detrimental effects of oxidative stress.

  10. An overview of optimization of structures subjected to transient loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Byung Soo; Park, Gyung Jin

    2005-01-01

    Various aspects of structural optimization techniques under transient loads are extensively reviewed. The main themes of the paper are treatment of time dependent constraints, calculation of design sensitivity, and approximation. Each subject is reviewed with the corresponding papers that have been published since 1970s. The treatment of time dependent constraints in both the direct method and the transformation method is discussed. Two ways of calculating design sensitivity of a structure under transient loads are discussed-direct differentiation method and adjoint variable method. The approximation concept mainly focuses on response surface method in crashworthiness and local approximation with the intermediate variable. Especially, as an approximated optimization technique, equivalent static load method which takes advantage of the well-established static response optimization technique is introduced. And as an application area of dynamic response optimization technique, the structural optimization in flexible multibody dynamic system is reviewed in the viewpoint of the above three themes

  11. Anormalidades de fluxo sangüíneo cerebral em indivíduos dependentes de cocaína Cerebral blood flow abnormalities in cocaine dependent subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Nicastri

    2000-06-01

    emission tomography (SPECT. This abnormal pattern of brain perfusion has been associated with cognitive impairments but not with changes that could be seen by the use of structural neuroimaging techniques. One of the problems with most of the published papers on the subject is the inclusion of a large number of heroin users in the studied samples. Heroin also seems to affect the pattern of brain perfusion, particularly during withdrawal states. METHODS: Fourteen cocaine-dependent inpatients (none of them under the use of opiates and 14 healthy volunteers (control group were submitted to 99m-technetium ethyl-cysteinate dimer SPECT. The analysis of SPECT exams was made by visual qualitative analysis of the reconstructed images (standard method in clinical practice, performed by a radiologist unaware of the subjects' diagnoses. RESULTS: Visual analysis showed a pattern suggestive of irregularities in the cerebral blood flow in nine patients, but in only two controls (p = 0.018; two tailed Fisher's exact test. CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal brain circulation may be related to cognitive impairments reported in cocaine dependent subjects. Although brain perfusion deficits associated with cocaine use may be irreversible, there have been reports in the literature of treatments for these blood flow changes. There are abnormalities in the cerebral blood flow associated with cocaine dependence even in the absence of opiate abuse or dependence.

  12. Enhanced diffusion with abnormal temperature dependence in underdamped space-periodic systems subject to time-periodic driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchenko, I. G.; Marchenko, I. I.; Zhiglo, A. V.

    2018-01-01

    We present a study of the diffusion enhancement of underdamped Brownian particles in a one-dimensional symmetric space-periodic potential due to external symmetric time-periodic driving with zero mean. We show that the diffusivity can be enhanced by many orders of magnitude at an appropriate choice of the driving amplitude and frequency. The diffusivity demonstrates abnormal (decreasing) temperature dependence at the driving amplitudes exceeding a certain value. At any fixed driving frequency Ω normal temperature dependence of the diffusivity is restored at low enough temperatures, T oscillation frequency at the potential minimum, the diffusivity is shown to decrease with Ω according to a power law, with the exponent related to the transient superdiffusion exponent. This behavior is found similar for the cases of sinusoidal in time and piecewise constant periodic ("square") driving.

  13. Abnormally Small Neuromuscular Junctions in the Extraocular Muscles From Subjects With Idiopathic Nystagmus and Nystagmus Associated With Albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoon, Linda K; Willoughby, Christy L; Anderson, Jill S; Bothun, Erick D; Stager, David; Felius, Joost; Lee, Helena; Gottlob, Irene

    2016-04-01

    Infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) is often associated with abnormalities of axonal outgrowth and connectivity. To determine if this manifests in extraocular muscle innervation, specimens from children with idiopathic INS or INS and albinism were examined and compared to normal age-matched control extraocular muscles. Extraocular muscles removed during normal surgery on children with idiopathic INS or INS and albinism were immunostained for neuromuscular junctions, myofiber type, the immature form of the acetylcholine receptor, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and compared to age-matched controls. Muscles from both the idiopathic INS and INS and albinism groups had neuromuscular junctions that were 35% to 71% smaller based on myofiber area and myofiber perimeter than found in age-matched controls, and this was seen on both fast and slow myosin heavy chain isoform-expressing myofibers (all P albinism showed a 7-fold increase in neuromuscular junction numbers on fast myofibers expressing the immature gamma subunit of the acetylcholine receptor. The extraocular muscles from both INS subgroups showed a significant increase in the number and size of slow myofibers compared to age-matched controls. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor was expressed in control muscle but was virtually absent in the INS muscles. These studies suggest that, relative to the final common pathway, INS is not the same between different patient etiologies. It should be possible to modulate these final common pathway abnormalities, via exogenous application of appropriate drugs, with the hope that this type of treatment may reduce the involuntary oscillatory movements in these children.

  14. Cleft lip and palate subjects prevalence of abnormal stylohyoid complex and tonsilloliths on cone beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazas-Duran, Eymi Valery; Fischer Rubira-Bullen, Izabel Regina; Pagin, Otávio; Stuchi Centurion-Pagin, Bruna

    Tonsilloliths and abnormal stylohyoid complex may have similar symptoms to others of different aetiology. Individuals with cleft lip and palate describe similar symptoms because of the anatomical implications that are peculiar to this anomaly. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of abnormal stylohyoid complex and tonsilloliths on cone beam computed tomography in individuals with cleft lip and palate. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 66 CT scans out of of 2,794 were analysed, on i- Cat ® vision software with 0.8 index Kappa intra-examiner. The total prevalence of ossification of the incomplete stylohyoid complex in individuals with cleft lip and palate was 66.6%; the prevalence of these findings in females was 75% and 61.9% in males. The total prevalence of tonsilloliths was 7.5%. It is important to ascertain calcification of the stylohyoid complex and tonsilloliths in the radiological report, due to the anatomical proximity and similarsymptomatology to other orofacial impairments inindividuals with cleft lip and palate, focusing on females with oral cleft formation, patients with incisive trans foramen cleft and incisive post foramen cleft because they are more prevalent. Greater knowledge of the anatomical morphometry of individuals with cleft lip and palate greatly contributes towards the selection of clinical behaviours and the quality of life of these patients, since cleft lip and palateis one of the most common anomalies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  15. Structural Integrity Assessment of Reactor Containment Subjected to Aircraft Crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Junyong; Chang, Yoonsuk

    2013-01-01

    When an accident occurs at the NPP, containment building which acts as the last barrier should be assessed and analyzed structural integrity by internal loading or external loading. On many occasions that can occur in the containment internal such as LOCA(Loss Of Coolant Accident) are already reflected to design. Likewise, there are several kinds of accidents that may occur from the outside of containment such as earthquakes, hurricanes and strong wind. However, aircraft crash that at outside of containment is not reflected yet in domestic because NPP sites have been selected based on the probabilistic method. After intentional aircraft crash such as World Trade Center and Pentagon accident in US, social awareness for safety of infrastructure like NPP was raised world widely and it is time for assessment of aircraft crash in domestic. The object of this paper is assessment of reactor containment subjected to aircraft crash by FEM(Finite Element Method). In this paper, assessment of structural integrity of containment building subjected to certain aircraft crash was carried out. Verification of structure integrity of containment by intentional severe accident. Maximum stress 61.21MPa of horizontal shell crash does not penetrate containment. Research for more realistic results needed by steel reinforced concrete model

  16. Importance of Calibration Method in Central Blood Pressure for Cardiac Structural Abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, Kazuaki; Yang, Hong; Wang, Ying; Nolan, Mark T; Negishi, Tomoko; Pathan, Faraz; Marwick, Thomas H; Sharman, James E

    2016-09-01

    Central blood pressure (CBP) independently predicts cardiovascular risk, but calibration methods may affect accuracy of central systolic blood pressure (CSBP). Standard central systolic blood pressure (Stan-CSBP) from peripheral waveforms is usually derived with calibration using brachial SBP and diastolic BP (DBP). However, calibration using oscillometric mean arterial pressure (MAP) and DBP (MAP-CSBP) is purported to provide more accurate representation of true invasive CSBP. This study sought to determine which derived CSBP could more accurately discriminate cardiac structural abnormalities. A total of 349 community-based patients with risk factors (71±5years, 161 males) had CSBP measured by brachial oscillometry (Mobil-O-Graph, IEM GmbH, Stolberg, Germany) using 2 calibration methods: MAP-CSBP and Stan-CSBP. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and left atrial dilatation (LAD) were measured based on standard guidelines. MAP-CSBP was higher than Stan-CSBP (149±20 vs. 128±15mm Hg, P curve analyses, MAP-CSBP significantly better discriminated LVH compared with Stan-CSBP (area under the curve (AUC) 0.66 vs. 0.59, P = 0.0063) and brachial SBP (0.62, P = 0.027). Continuous net reclassification improvement (NRI) (P AUC 0.63 vs. 0.56, P = 0.005) and conventional brachial SBP (0.58, P = 0.006), whereas Stan-CSBP provided no better discrimination than conventional brachial BP (P = 0.09). CSBP is calibration dependent and when oscillometric MAP and DBP are used, the derived CSBP is a better discriminator for cardiac structural abnormalities. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2016. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Increased parietal circuit-breaker activity in delta frequency band and abnormal delta/theta band connectivity in salience network in hyperacusis subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Joon Han

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested that hyperacusis, an abnormal hypersensitivity to ordinary environmental sounds, may be characterized by certain resting-state cortical oscillatory patterns, even with no sound stimulus. However, previous studies are limited in that most studied subjects with other comorbidities that may have affected cortical activity. In this regard, to assess ongoing cortical oscillatory activity in idiopathic hyperacusis patients with no comorbidities, we compared differences in resting-state cortical oscillatory patterns between five idiopathic hyperacusis subjects and five normal controls. The hyperacusis group demonstrated significantly higher electrical activity in the right auditory-related cortex for the gamma frequency band and left superior parietal lobule (SPL for the delta frequency band versus the control group. The hyperacusis group also showed significantly decreased functional connectivity between the left auditory cortex (AC and left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, between the left AC and left subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC for the gamma band, and between the right insula and bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC and between the left AC and left sgACC for the theta band versus the control group. The higher electrical activity in the SPL may indicate a readiness of "circuit-breaker" activity to shift attention to forthcoming sound stimuli. Also, because of the disrupted salience network, consisting of the dACC and insula, abnormally increased salience to all sound stimuli may emerge, as a consequence of decreased top-down control of the AC by the dACC and dysfunctional emotional weight attached to auditory stimuli by the OFC. Taken together, abnormally enhanced attention and salience to forthcoming sound stimuli may render hyperacusis subjects hyperresponsive to non-noxious auditory stimuli.

  18. Popliteal cysts and subgastrocnemius bursitis are associated with knee symptoms and structural abnormalities in older adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuelong; Jones, Graeme; Han, Weiyu; Antony, Benny; Wang, Xia; Cicuttini, Flavia; Ding, Changhai

    2014-03-03

    The role of popliteal cysts and subgastrocnemius bursitis in knee joint homeostasis is uncertain. The aim of this study is to describe cross-sectional associations between popliteal cysts, subgastrocnemius bursitis, knee symptoms and structural abnormalities in older adults. A cross-sectional sample of 900 randomly-selected subjects (mean age 63 years, 48% female) were studied. Knee pain, stiffness and dysfunction were assessed by self-administered Western Ontario McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire. Radiographic knee osteophyte and joint space narrowing (JSN) were recorded. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was utilized to assess popliteal cysts, subgastrocnemius bursitis, cartilage defects and bone marrow lesions (BMLs). Popliteal cysts were present in 11.7% and subgastrocnemius bursitis in 12.7% of subjects. Subgastrocnemius bursitis was more common in those with popliteal cyst (36.2% versus 9.7%, P bursitis was associated with increased osteophytes and JSN in the medial tibiofemoral compartment. Both were significantly associated with cartilage defects in all compartments, and with BMLs in the medial tibiofemoral compartment. Furthermore, both popliteal cysts and subgastrocnemius bursitis were significantly associated with increased weight-bearing knee pain but these associations became non-significant after adjustment for cartilage defects and BMLs. Popliteal cysts and subgastrocnemius bursitis are associated with increased symptoms as well as radiographic and MRI-detected joint structural abnormalities. Longitudinal data will help resolve if they are a consequence or a cause of knee joint abnormalities.

  19. Chromosome 15 structural abnormalities: effect on IGF1R gene expression and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Cannarella

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R, mapping on the 15q26.3 chromosome, is required for normal embryonic and postnatal growth. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the IGF1R gene expression and function in three unrelated patients with chromosome 15 structural abnormalities. We report two male patients with the smallest 15q26.3 chromosome duplication described so far, and a female patient with ring chromosome 15 syndrome. Patient one, with a 568 kb pure duplication, had overgrowth, developmental delay, mental and psychomotor retardation, obesity, cryptorchidism, borderline low testis volume, severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia and gynecomastia. We found a 1.8-fold increase in the IGF1R mRNA and a 1.3-fold increase in the IGF1R protein expression (P < 0.05. Patient two, with a 650 kb impure duplication, showed overgrowth, developmental delay, mild mental retardation, precocious puberty, low testicular volume and severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. The IGF1R mRNA and protein expression was similar to that of the control. Patient three, with a 46,XX r(15 (p10q26.2 karyotype, displayed intrauterine growth retardation, developmental delay, mental and psychomotor retardation. We found a <0.5-fold decrease in the IGF1R mRNA expression and an undetectable IGF1R activity. After reviewing the previously 96 published cases of chromosome 15q duplication, we found that neurological disorders, congenital cardiac defects, typical facial traits and gonadal abnormalities are the prominent features in patients with chromosome 15q duplication. Interestingly, patients with 15q deletion syndrome display similar features. We speculate that both the increased and decreased IGF1R gene expression may play a role in the etiology of neurological and gonadal disorders.

  20. Regional brain structural abnormality in ischemic stroke patients: a voxel-based morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous study used regional homogeneity analysis and found that activity in some brain areas of patients with ischemic stroke changed significantly. In the current study, we examined structural changes in these brain regions by taking structural magnetic resonance imaging scans of 11 ischemic stroke patients and 15 healthy participants, and analyzing the data using voxel-based morphometry. Compared with healthy participants, patients exhibited higher gray matter density in the left inferior occipital gyrus and right anterior white matter tract. In contrast, gray matter density in the right cerebellum, left precentral gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, and left middle temporal gyrus was less in ischemic stroke patients. The changes of gray matter density in the middle frontal gyrus were negatively associated with the clinical rating scales of the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment (r = -0.609, P = 0.047 and the left middle temporal gyrus was negatively correlated with the clinical rating scales of the nervous functional deficiency scale (r = -0.737, P = 0.010. Our findings can objectively identify the functional abnormality in some brain regions of ischemic stroke patients.

  1. Structural brain abnormalities in the common epilepsies assessed in a worldwide ENIGMA study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Andre; Botía, Juan A; Jahanshad, Neda; Hibar, Derrek P; Absil, Julie; Alhusaini, Saud; Alvim, Marina K M; Auvinen, Pia; Bartolini, Emanuele; Bergo, Felipe P G; Bernardes, Tauana; Blackmon, Karen; Braga, Barbara; Caligiuri, Maria Eugenia; Calvo, Anna; Carr, Sarah J; Chen, Jian; Chen, Shuai; Cherubini, Andrea; David, Philippe; Domin, Martin; Foley, Sonya; França, Wendy; Haaker, Gerrit; Isaev, Dmitry; Keller, Simon S; Kotikalapudi, Raviteja; Kowalczyk, Magdalena A; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Langner, Soenke; Lenge, Matteo; Leyden, Kelly M; Liu, Min; Loi, Richard Q; Martin, Pascal; Mascalchi, Mario; Morita, Marcia E; Pariente, Jose C; Rodríguez-Cruces, Raul; Rummel, Christian; Saavalainen, Taavi; Semmelroch, Mira K; Severino, Mariasavina; Thomas, Rhys H; Tondelli, Manuela; Tortora, Domenico; Vaudano, Anna Elisabetta; Vivash, Lucy; von Podewils, Felix; Wagner, Jan; Weber, Bernd; Yao, Yi; Yasuda, Clarissa L; Zhang, Guohao; Bargalló, Nuria; Bender, Benjamin; Bernasconi, Neda; Bernasconi, Andrea; Bernhardt, Boris C; Blümcke, Ingmar; Carlson, Chad; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L; Cendes, Fernando; Concha, Luis; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Devinsky, Orrin; Doherty, Colin P; Focke, Niels K; Gambardella, Antonio; Guerrini, Renzo; Hamandi, Khalid; Jackson, Graeme D; Kälviäinen, Reetta; Kochunov, Peter; Kwan, Patrick; Labate, Angelo; McDonald, Carrie R; Meletti, Stefano; O'Brien, Terence J; Ourselin, Sebastien; Richardson, Mark P; Striano, Pasquale; Thesen, Thomas; Wiest, Roland; Zhang, Junsong; Vezzani, Annamaria; Ryten, Mina; Thompson, Paul M

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Progressive functional decline in the epilepsies is largely unexplained. We formed the ENIGMA-Epilepsy consortium to understand factors that influence brain measures in epilepsy, pooling data from 24 research centres in 14 countries across Europe, North and South America, Asia, and Australia. Structural brain measures were extracted from MRI brain scans across 2149 individuals with epilepsy, divided into four epilepsy subgroups including idiopathic generalized epilepsies (n =367), mesial temporal lobe epilepsies with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE; left, n = 415; right, n = 339), and all other epilepsies in aggregate (n = 1026), and compared to 1727 matched healthy controls. We ranked brain structures in order of greatest differences between patients and controls, by meta-analysing effect sizes across 16 subcortical and 68 cortical brain regions. We also tested effects of duration of disease, age at onset, and age-by-diagnosis interactions on structural measures. We observed widespread patterns of altered subcortical volume and reduced cortical grey matter thickness. Compared to controls, all epilepsy groups showed lower volume in the right thalamus (Cohen’s d = −0.24 to −0.73; P left, but not right, MTLE (d = −0.29 to −0.54; P right, but not left, MTLE (d = −0.27 to −0.51; P right MTLE groups (beta, b brain measures that can be further targeted for study in genetic and neuropathological studies. This worldwide initiative identifies patterns of shared grey matter reduction across epilepsy syndromes, and distinctive abnormalities between epilepsy syndromes, which inform our understanding of epilepsy as a network disorder, and indicate that certain epilepsy syndromes involve more widespread structural compromise than previously assumed. PMID:29365066

  2. Structural brain abnormalities in women with subclinical depression, as revealed by voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Yayoi K; Sasaki, Hiroki; Takao, Hidemasa; Mori, Harushi; Hayashi, Naoto; Kunimatsu, Akira; Aoki, Shigeki; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2013-01-25

    Brain structural changes accompany major depressive disorder, but whether subclinical depression is accompanied by similar changes in brain volume and white matter integrity is unknown. By using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of the gray matter and tract-specific analysis based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the white matter, we explored the extent to which abnormalities could be identified in specific brain structures of healthy adults with subclinical depression. The subjects were 21 community-dwelling adults with subclinical depression, as measured by their Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) scores. They were not demented and had no neurological or psychiatric history. We collected brain magnetic resonance images of the patients and of 21 matched control subjects, and we used VBM to analyze the differences in regional gray matter volume between the two groups. Moreover, we examined the white matter integrity by using tract-specific analysis based on the gray matter volume changes revealed by VBM. VBM revealed that the volumes of both anterior cingulate gyri and the right rectal gyrus were smaller in subclinically depressed women than in control women. Calculation of DTI measures in the anterior cingulum bundle revealed a positive correlation between CES-D scale score and radial diffusivity in the right anterior cingulum in subclinically depressed women. The small sample size limits the stability of the reported findings. Gray matter volume reduction and white matter integrity change in specific frontal brain regions may be associated with depressive symptoms in women, even at a subclinical level. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Structural abnormalities and persistent complaints after an ankle sprain are not associated: an observational case control study in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ochten, John M; Mos, Marinka C E; van Putte-Katier, Nienke; Oei, Edwin H G; Bindels, Patrick J E; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A; van Middelkoop, Marienke

    2014-09-01

    Persistent complaints are very common after a lateral ankle sprain. To investigate possible associations between structural abnormalities on radiography and MRI, and persistent complaints after a lateral ankle sprain. Observational case control study on primary care patients in general practice. Patients were selected who had visited their GP with an ankle sprain 6-12 months before the study; all received a standardised questionnaire, underwent a physical examination, and radiography and MRI of the ankle. Patients with and without persistent complaints were compared regarding structural abnormalities found on radiography and MRI; analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index. Of the 206 included patients, 98 had persistent complaints and 108 did not. No significant differences were found in structural abnormalities between patients with and without persistent complaints. In both groups, however, many structural abnormalities were found on radiography in the talocrural joint (47.2% osteophytes and 45.1% osteoarthritis) and the talonavicular joint (36.5% sclerosis). On MRI, a high prevalence was found of bone oedema (33.8%) and osteophytes (39.5) in the talocrural joint; osteophytes (54.4%), sclerosis (47.2%), and osteoarthritis (55.4%, Kellgren and Lawrence grade >1) in the talonavicular joint, as well as ligament damage (16.4%) in the anterior talofibular ligament. The prevalence of structural abnormalities is high on radiography and MRI in patients presenting in general practice with a previous ankle sprain. There is no difference in structural abnormalities, however, between patients with and without persistent complaints. Using imaging only will not lead to diagnosis of the explicit reason for the persistent complaint. © British Journal of General Practice 2014.

  4. Modeling of crack in concrete structures subjected to severe loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.G.

    2012-01-01

    Concrete is a construction materials are prevalent in the world. However, in many industries, it is becoming more common to study the safety margins of a structure with respect to solicitations. It becomes important to predict the failure mode of the structure. Much work has already been made in the world on this subject, leading to operational models in computer codes using finite elements. Nevertheless, difficulties remain, mainly related to concrete cracking. These difficulties lead to open problems concerning the location, initiation and crack propagation. The thesis explores two ways of improving methods of numerical simulation of crack propagation. The first possibility of improvement is the use of the extended finite element method, XFEM. A modeling of mechanical behavior of crack is introduced and leads to a description of crack propagation from one element to another. The second possibility is based on damage mechanics. As part of the modeling of damage generalized standard type, the localization phenomenon has been studied numerically for various behaviors: viscous or damage fragile. These behaviors are described in the same spirit that the laws of the visco-elastic or visco-plasticity or plasticity classics, from a general thermodynamic interpretation. In particular, the laws gradient of damage are also considered in conjunction with recent results from the literature. It is well known that a gradient model for interpreting the effects of scale structures under mechanical loading. It also plays an interesting role in the effects of strain localization. (author)

  5. Single-subject-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Xiong Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a leading cause of sustained impairment in military and civilian populations. However, mild TBI (mTBI can be difficult to detect using conventional MRI or CT. Injured brain tissues in mTBI patients generate abnormal slow-waves (1–4 Hz that can be measured and localized by resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG. In this study, we develop a voxel-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mTBI on a single-subject basis. A normative database of resting-state MEG source magnitude images (1–4 Hz from 79 healthy control subjects was established for all brain voxels. The high-resolution MEG source magnitude images were obtained by our recent Fast-VESTAL method. In 84 mTBI patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms (36 from blasts, and 48 from non-blast causes, our method detected abnormalities at the positive detection rates of 84.5%, 86.1%, and 83.3% for the combined (blast-induced plus with non-blast causes, blast, and non-blast mTBI groups, respectively. We found that prefrontal, posterior parietal, inferior temporal, hippocampus, and cerebella areas were particularly vulnerable to head trauma. The result also showed that MEG slow-wave generation in prefrontal areas positively correlated with personality change, trouble concentrating, affective lability, and depression symptoms. Discussion is provided regarding the neuronal mechanisms of MEG slow-wave generation due to deafferentation caused by axonal injury and/or blockages/limitations of cholinergic transmission in TBI. This study provides an effective way for using MEG slow-wave source imaging to localize affected areas and supports MEG as a tool for assisting the diagnosis of mTBI.

  6. T1rho, T{sub 2} and focal knee cartilage abnormalities in physically active and sedentary healthy subjects versus early OA patients - a 3.0-Tesla MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, Robert [University of California, San Francisco, Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); University Hospitals-Campus Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Luke, Anthony; Ma, C.B. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA (United States); Li, Xiaojuan; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M. [University of California, San Francisco, Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2009-01-15

    (1) To assess the degree of focal cartilage abnormalities in physically active and sedentary healthy subjects as well as in patients with early osteoarthritis (OA). (2) To determine the diagnostic value of T2 and T1rho measurements in identifying asymptomatic physically active subjects with focal cartilage lesions. Thirteen asymptomatic physically active subjects, 7 asymptomatic sedentary subjects, and 17 patients with mild OA underwent 3.0-T MRI of the knee joint. T1rho and T2 values, cartilage volume and thickness, as well as the WORMS scores were obtained. Nine out of 13 active healthy subjects had focal cartilage abnormalities. T1rho and T2 values in active subjects with and without focal cartilage abnormalities differed significantly (p<0.05). T1rho and T2 values were significantly higher (p<0.05) in early OA patients compared to healthy subjects. T1rho measurements were superior to T2 in differentiating OA patients from healthy subjects, yet T1rho was moderately age-dependent. (1) Active subjects showed a high prevalence of focal cartilage abnormalities and (2) active subjects with and without focal cartilage abnormalities had different T1rho and T2 composition of cartilage. Thus, T1rho and T2 could be a parameter suited to identify active healthy subjects at higher risk for developing cartilage pathology. (orig.)

  7. Two patterns of cerebral metabolite abnormalities are detected on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in HIV-infected subjects commencing antiretroviral therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winston, Alan; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D.; Duncombe, Chris; Li, Patrick C.K.; Gill, John M.; Kerr, Stephen J.; Puls, Rebekah L.; Emery, Sean; Cooper, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral function impairment remains problematic in subjects with chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection despite effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Using cerebral proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS), we aimed to determine if abnormalities could be detected in neurologically asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects electively commencing cART. Therapy-naive, HIV-infected individuals and HIV-uninfected controls underwent 1 H MRS in several anatomical voxels including the mid-frontal grey matter (FGM) and right basal ganglia (RBG). Differences in cerebral metabolite ratios between groups and correlations between immune and virological status were assessed. Forty-six subjects were recruited (26 HIV-infected and 20 control subjects). In the HIV-infected group, mean CD4+ count (SD, cells per microlitre) and plasma HIV RNA (SD, log10 copies per millilitre) were 192 (86) and 4.71 (0.64), respectively. Choline (Cho)/Creatine (Cr) and myoinositol (MI)/Cr ratios were significantly lower in the FGM in HIV-infected subjects compared to controls (0.67 (0.14) versus 0.88 (0.49), p = 0.036, and 0.94 (0.28) and 1.17 (0.26), p = 0.008, for Cho/Cr and MI/Cr, respectively) and Cho/Cr ratio associated with CD4+ lymphocyte count (p = 0.041). N-Acetyl-aspartate (NAA)/Cho ratio was significantly lower in the RBG in HIV-infected subjects compared to controls (2.27 (0.54) versus 2.63 (0.68), p = 0.002), and this was associated with greater plasma HIV RNA load (p = 0.014). Two patterns of cerebral metabolite abnormalities were observed in HIV-infected subjects electively commencing cART. Greater inflammatory metabolite ratios (Cho/Cr and MI/Cr) associated with lower markers of peripheral immune markers (CD4+ lymphocyte count) in the FGM and lower neuronal metabolite ratios (NAA/Cho) associated with greater HIV viraemia in the RBG were present in HIV-infected subjects. (orig.)

  8. Two patterns of cerebral metabolite abnormalities are detected on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in HIV-infected subjects commencing antiretroviral therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winston, Alan; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D. [Imperial College London, St. Mary' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Duncombe, Chris [HIV-NAT, Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre, Bangkok (Thailand); Li, Patrick C.K. [Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong (China); Gill, John M. [Calgary Regional Health Authority, Calgary (Canada); Kerr, Stephen J. [HIV-NAT, Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre, Bangkok (Thailand); University of New South Wales, National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Puls, Rebekah L.; Emery, Sean; Cooper, David A. [University of New South Wales, National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Collaboration: for the Altair Study Group

    2012-12-15

    Cerebral function impairment remains problematic in subjects with chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection despite effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Using cerebral proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS), we aimed to determine if abnormalities could be detected in neurologically asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects electively commencing cART. Therapy-naive, HIV-infected individuals and HIV-uninfected controls underwent {sup 1}H MRS in several anatomical voxels including the mid-frontal grey matter (FGM) and right basal ganglia (RBG). Differences in cerebral metabolite ratios between groups and correlations between immune and virological status were assessed. Forty-six subjects were recruited (26 HIV-infected and 20 control subjects). In the HIV-infected group, mean CD4+ count (SD, cells per microlitre) and plasma HIV RNA (SD, log10 copies per millilitre) were 192 (86) and 4.71 (0.64), respectively. Choline (Cho)/Creatine (Cr) and myoinositol (MI)/Cr ratios were significantly lower in the FGM in HIV-infected subjects compared to controls (0.67 (0.14) versus 0.88 (0.49), p = 0.036, and 0.94 (0.28) and 1.17 (0.26), p = 0.008, for Cho/Cr and MI/Cr, respectively) and Cho/Cr ratio associated with CD4+ lymphocyte count (p = 0.041). N-Acetyl-aspartate (NAA)/Cho ratio was significantly lower in the RBG in HIV-infected subjects compared to controls (2.27 (0.54) versus 2.63 (0.68), p = 0.002), and this was associated with greater plasma HIV RNA load (p = 0.014). Two patterns of cerebral metabolite abnormalities were observed in HIV-infected subjects electively commencing cART. Greater inflammatory metabolite ratios (Cho/Cr and MI/Cr) associated with lower markers of peripheral immune markers (CD4+ lymphocyte count) in the FGM and lower neuronal metabolite ratios (NAA/Cho) associated with greater HIV viraemia in the RBG were present in HIV-infected subjects. (orig.)

  9. Differing patterns of brain structural abnormalities between black and white patients with their first episode of psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morgan, K D

    2010-07-01

    African-Caribbean and black African people living in the UK are reported to have a higher incidence of diagnosed psychosis compared with white British people. It has been argued that this may be a consequence of misdiagnosis. If this is true they might be less likely to show the patterns of structural brain abnormalities reported in white British patients. The aim of this study therefore was to investigate whether there are differences in the prevalence of structural brain abnormalities in white and black first-episode psychosis patients.

  10. An OMERACT reliability exercise of inflammatory and structural abnormalities in patients with knee osteoarthritis using ultrasound assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruyn, George Aw; Naredo, Esperanza; Damjanov, Nemanja

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether ultrasonography (US) is reliable for the evaluation of inflammatory and structural abnormalities in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Thirteen patients with early knee OA were examined by 11 experienced sonographers during 2 days. Dichotomous and semiqu......OBJECTIVE: To assess whether ultrasonography (US) is reliable for the evaluation of inflammatory and structural abnormalities in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Thirteen patients with early knee OA were examined by 11 experienced sonographers during 2 days. Dichotomous...

  11. Ischemic ECG abnormalities are associated with an increased risk for death among subjects with COPD, also among those without known heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Ulf; Blomberg, Anders; Johansson, Bengt; Backman, Helena; Eriksson, Berne; Lindberg, Anne

    2017-01-01

    An abstract, including parts of the results, has been presented at an oral session at the European Respiratory Society International Conference, London, UK, September 2016. Cardiovascular comorbidity contributes to increased mortality among subjects with COPD. However, the prognostic value of ECG abnormalities in COPD has rarely been studied in population-based surveys. To assess the impact of ischemic ECG abnormalities (I-ECG) on mortality among individuals with COPD, compared to subjects with normal lung function (NLF), in a population-based study. During 2002-2004, all subjects with FEV 1 /VC ECG in COPD (n=635) and referents [n=991, whereof 786 had NLF]. All ECGs were Minnesota-coded. Mortality data were collected until December 31, 2010. I-ECG was equally common in COPD and NLF. The 5-year cumulative mortality was higher among subjects with I-ECG in both groups (29.6% vs 10.6%, P ECG had increased risk for death assessed as the mortality risk ratio [95% confidence interval (CI)] when compared with NLF without I-ECG, 2.36 (1.45-3.85) and 1.65 (0.94-2.90) when adjusted for common confounders. When analyzed separately among the COPD cohort, the increased risk for death associated with I-ECG persisted after adjustment for FEV 1 % predicted, 1.89 (1.20-2.99). A majority of those with I-ECG had no previously reported heart disease (74.2% in NLF and 67.3% in COPD) and the pattern was similar among them. I-ECG was associated with an increased risk for death in COPD, independent of common confounders and disease severity. I-ECG was of prognostic value also among those without previously known heart disease.

  12. Abnormal white matter structural connectivity in treatment-naïve young adults with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, J; Yi, J; Zhong, M; Cao, X; Jin, X; Liu, W; Zhu, X

    2016-12-01

    The pathogenesis of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is not well understood. We examined the microstructure of white matter in patients with BPD. Treatment-naïve young adult with BPD (N = 30) and young-adult healthy controls (HCs; N = 31) were subjected diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Microstructural parameters were analyzed via tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and post hoc tractography. TBSS analysis revealed that, relative to the HC group, the BPD group had significantly lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the genu and body of the corpus callosum (CC), right superior corona radiate, right anterior corona radiate, as well as higher radial diffusivity (RD) in the left anterior thalamic radiation. Tractography showed that FA values of fiber bundles passing through the fornix were significantly reduced in BPD group relative to HCs. No significant correlations were observed between clinical symptom and DTI indices in BPD group (FDR corrected). Focal microstructural alterations were found in BPD group, mainly in the limbic system and CC. The present findings support the fronto-limbic disconnectivity hypothesis and suggest that abnormal maturation of white matter structures may play an important role in mechanism of BPD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Abnormal white matter structural connectivity in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, J; Zhong, M; Fan, J; Liu, W; Niu, C; Cai, S; Zou, L; Wang, Ya; Wang, Yi; Tan, C; Chan, R C K; Zhu, X

    2017-03-14

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a complex and severe psychiatric disorder whose pathogenesis is not fully understood. Recent studies have shown white matter (WM) alterations in adults with OCD, but the results have been inconsistent. The present study investigated WM structure in OCD patients with the hypothesis that large-scale brain networks may be disrupted in OCD. A total of 24 patients with OCD and 23 healthy controls (HCs) were scanned with diffusion tensor imaging. A tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) approach was used to detect differences across the whole brain in patients with OCD vs HCs; post hoc fiber tractography was applied to characterize developmental differences between the two groups. Relative to HCs, patients with OCD had lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the corpus callosum (CC), left anterior corona radiata (ACR), left superior corona radiata (SCR) and left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), and higher radial diffusivity in the genu and body of CC. Among the TBSS de-projected region of interest results, compared with HCs, patients with OCD showed lower of the mean FA values of fiber bundles passing though the SLF, and shorter lengths of ACR, SCR and CC. In conclusion, this study provides novel evidence of widespread microstructural alterations in OCD and suggests that OCD may involve abnormalities affecting a broader network of regions than commonly believed.

  14. Neurological abnormalities and neurocognitive functions in healthy elder people: A structural equation modeling analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Raymond CK

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Aims Neurological abnormalities have been reported in normal aging population. However, most of them were limited to extrapyramidal signs and soft signs such as motor coordination and sensory integration have received much less attention. Very little is known about the relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognitive function in healthy elder people. The current study aimed to examine the underlying relationships between neurological soft signs and neurocognition in a group of healthy elderly. Methods One hundred and eighty healthy elderly participated in the current study. Neurological soft signs were evaluated with the subscales of Cambridge Neurological Inventory. A set of neurocognitive tests was also administered to all the participants. Structural equation modeling was adopted to examine the underlying relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognition. Results No significant differences were found between the male and female elder people in neurocognitive function performances and neurological soft signs. The model fitted well in the elderly and indicated the moderate associations between neurological soft signs and neurocognition, specifically verbal memory, visual memory and working memory. Conclusions The neurological soft signs are more or less statistically equivalent to capture the similar information done by conventional neurocognitive function tests in the elderly. The implication of these findings may serve as a potential neurological marker for the early detection of pathological aging diseases or related mental status such as mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

  15. High-resolution Anorectal Manometry for Identifying Defecatory Disorders and Rectal Structural Abnormalities in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, David O; Lee, Taehee; Parthasarathy, Gopanandan; Fletcher, Joel G; Zinsmeister, Alan R; Bharucha, Adil E

    2017-03-01

    Contrary to conventional wisdom, the rectoanal gradient during evacuation is negative in many healthy people, undermining the utility of anorectal high-resolution manometry (HRM) for diagnosing defecatory disorders. We aimed to compare HRM and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for assessing rectal evacuation and structural abnormalities. We performed a retrospective analysis of 118 patients (all female; 51 with constipation, 48 with fecal incontinence, and 19 with rectal prolapse; age, 53 ± 1 years) assessed by HRM, the rectal balloon expulsion test (BET), and MRI at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, from February 2011 through March 2013. Thirty healthy asymptomatic women (age, 37 ± 2 years) served as controls. We used principal components analysis of HRM variables to identify rectoanal pressure patterns associated with rectal prolapse and phenotypes of patients with prolapse. Compared with patients with normal findings from the rectal BET, patients with an abnormal BET had lower median rectal pressure (36 vs 22 mm Hg, P = .002), a more negative median rectoanal gradient (-6 vs -29 mm Hg, P = .006) during evacuation, and a lower proportion of evacuation on the basis of MRI analysis (median of 40% vs 80%, P < .0001). A score derived from rectal pressure and anorectal descent during evacuation and a patulous anal canal was associated (P = .005) with large rectoceles (3 cm or larger). A principal component (PC) logistic model discriminated between patients with and without prolapse with 96% accuracy. Among patients with prolapse, there were 2 phenotypes, which were characterized by high (PC1) or low (PC2) anal pressures at rest and squeeze along with higher rectal and anal pressures (PC1) or a higher rectoanal gradient during evacuation (PC2). In a retrospective analysis of patients assessed by HRM, measurements of rectal evacuation by anorectal HRM, BET, and MRI were correlated. HRM alone and together with anorectal descent during evacuation may identify

  16. Prevalence of lung structure abnormalities in patients with acromegaly and their relationship with gas exchange: cross-sectional analytical study with a control group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Palmeira Rodrigues

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Different functional respiratory alterations have been described in acromegaly, but their relationship with pulmonary tissue abnormalities is unknown. The objective of this study was to observe possible changes in lung structure and explain their relationship with gas exchange abnormalities. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional analytical study with a control group, conducted at a university hospital. METHODS: The study included 36 patients with acromegaly and 24 controls who were all assessed through high-resolution computed tomography of the thorax (CT. Arterial blood gas, effort oximetry and serum growth hormone (GH and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1 were also assessed in the patients with acromegaly. RESULTS: The abnormalities found in the CT scan were not statistically different between the acromegaly and control groups: mild cylindrical bronchiectasis (P = 0.59, linear opacity (P = 0.29, nodular opacity (P = 0.28, increased attenuation (frosted glass; P = 0.48 and decreased attenuation (emphysema; P = 0.32. Radiographic abnormalities were not associated with serum GH and IGF-1. Hypoxemia was present in seven patients; however, in six of them, the hypoxemia could be explained by underlying clinical conditions other than acromegaly: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in two, obesity in two, bronchial infection in one and asthma in one. CONCLUSION: No changes in lung structure were detected through thorax tomography in comparison with the control subjects. The functional respiratory alterations found were largely explained by alternative diagnoses or had subclinical manifestations, without any plausible relationship with lung structural factors.

  17. Creep rupture of structures subjected to variable loading and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojewodzki, W.

    1975-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to show on the basis of equations and the analysis of creep mechanisms the possibilities of a description of the creep behavior of material under variable temperature and loading conditions. Also the influence of cyclic proportional loading and temperature gradient upon the rupture life and strains of a thick cylinder is investigated in detail. The obtained theoretical creep curves coincide with the experimental results for investigated steel in the temperature range from 500 0 C to 575 0 C. The constitutive equations together with the functions determined previously are applied to solve the problem of thick cylinder subjected to cyclic proportional pressure and temperature gradient. Numerical results for the thick steel cylinder are presented both in diagrammatical and tabular form. The obtained new results clearly show the significant influence of temperature gradient, cyclic temperature gradient, and cyclic pressure upon the stress redistribution, the magnitude of deformation, the propagation of the front damage and the rupture life. It was found that small temperature fluctuations at elevated temperature can shorten the rupture life very considerably. The introduced description of the creep rupture behavior of material under variable temperature and loading conditions together with the results for the thick cylinder indicate the possibilities of solutions of practical problems encountered in structural mechanics of reactor technology

  18. Left hemisphere structural connectivity abnormality in pediatric hydrocephalus patients following surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihong Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Edition (ABAS-II]. However, one global network measure (global efficiency and two regional network measures in the insula (local efficiency and between centrality tested at 3-month post-surgery were found to correlate with GAC score tested at 12-month post-surgery with statistical significance (all p < 0.05, corrected. Our data showed that the structural connectivity analysis based on DTI and graph theory was sensitive in detecting both global and regional network abnormality when the analysis was conducted in the left hemisphere only. This approach provides a new avenue enabling the application of advanced neuroimaging analysis methods in quantifying brain damage in children with hydrocephalus surgically treated with programmable shunts.

  19. Obesity increases the prevalence and severity of focal knee abnormalities diagnosed using 3T MRI in middle-aged subjects - data from the osteoarthritis initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laberge, Marc A.; Baum, Thomas; Virayavanich, Warapat; Nardo, Lorenzo; Link, Thomas M.; Nevitt, M.C.; Lynch, J.; McCulloch, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    To study the effect of BMI on the prevalence, severity, and 36-month progression of early degenerative changes in the knee by using 3T MRI in middle-aged subjects without radiographic osteoarthritis (OA). We examined baseline and 36-month follow-up MR studies from 137 middle-aged individuals (45-55 years old) with risk factors for knee OA but no radiographic OA from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Subjects were grouped into three categories: normal BMI (BMI 2 , n = 38), overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m 2 , n = 37), and obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m 2 , n = 62). Using 3T MRI, cartilage, meniscus, and bone marrow abnormalities were graded using the OA Whole-organ MR Imaging Score (WORMS). The statistical analysis was corrected as necessary for differences in age, sex, and OA risk factors other than BMI. The overall prevalence of lesions was 64% for meniscus and 79% for cartilage (including low grade lesions). At baseline, the prevalence and severity of knee lesions was positively associated with BMI, with a nearly fourfold increase in meniscal tears and more than twofold increase in high-grade cartilage defects in obese individuals relative to normal-weight subjects. Over the 36-month follow-up period, the number of new or worsening cartilage lesions of any grade was significantly higher in obese subjects (p = 0.039), while there was no significant difference in meniscal lesion progression. Obesity was associated with both higher prevalence and severity of early degenerative changes in the knee in middle-aged individuals without radiographic OA and with significantly increased cartilage lesion progression (of any grade) over 36 months. (orig.)

  20. Obesity increases the prevalence and severity of focal knee abnormalities diagnosed using 3T MRI in middle-aged subjects - data from the osteoarthritis initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laberge, Marc A.; Baum, Thomas; Virayavanich, Warapat; Nardo, Lorenzo; Link, Thomas M. [University of California San Francisco, Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Research, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Nevitt, M.C.; Lynch, J.; McCulloch, C.E. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2012-06-15

    To study the effect of BMI on the prevalence, severity, and 36-month progression of early degenerative changes in the knee by using 3T MRI in middle-aged subjects without radiographic osteoarthritis (OA). We examined baseline and 36-month follow-up MR studies from 137 middle-aged individuals (45-55 years old) with risk factors for knee OA but no radiographic OA from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Subjects were grouped into three categories: normal BMI (BMI < 25 kg/m{sup 2}, n = 38), overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m{sup 2}, n = 37), and obese (BMI {>=} 30 kg/m{sup 2}, n = 62). Using 3T MRI, cartilage, meniscus, and bone marrow abnormalities were graded using the OA Whole-organ MR Imaging Score (WORMS). The statistical analysis was corrected as necessary for differences in age, sex, and OA risk factors other than BMI. The overall prevalence of lesions was 64% for meniscus and 79% for cartilage (including low grade lesions). At baseline, the prevalence and severity of knee lesions was positively associated with BMI, with a nearly fourfold increase in meniscal tears and more than twofold increase in high-grade cartilage defects in obese individuals relative to normal-weight subjects. Over the 36-month follow-up period, the number of new or worsening cartilage lesions of any grade was significantly higher in obese subjects (p = 0.039), while there was no significant difference in meniscal lesion progression. Obesity was associated with both higher prevalence and severity of early degenerative changes in the knee in middle-aged individuals without radiographic OA and with significantly increased cartilage lesion progression (of any grade) over 36 months. (orig.)

  1. Patterns of brain structural connectivity differentiate normal weight from overweight subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpana Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: 1. An increased BMI (i.e., overweight subjects is associated with distinct changes in gray-matter and fiber density of the brain. 2. Classification algorithms based on white-matter connectivity involving regions of the reward and associated networks can identify specific targets for mechanistic studies and future drug development aimed at abnormal ingestive behavior and in overweight/obesity.

  2. Structural analysis of the CAREM-25 nuclear power plant subjected to the design basis accident and seismic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosini, Daniel; Codina, Ramón H.; Curadelli, Oscar; Martínez, Carlos A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Structural analysis of CAREM-25 NPP is presented. • Full 3D numerical model was developed. • Transient thermal and static structural analyses were performed. • Modeling guidelines for numerical structural analysis of NPP are recommended. • Envelope condition of DBA dominates the structural behavior. - Abstract: In this paper, a numerical study about the structural response of the Argentine nuclear power plant CAREM-25 subjected to the design basis accident (DBA) and seismic loads is presented. Taking into account the hardware capabilities available, a full 3D finite element model was adopted. A significant part of the building was modeled using more than 2 M solid elements. In order to take into account the foundation flexibility, linear springs were used. The springs and the model were calibrated against a greater model used to study the soil-structure interaction. The structure was subjected to the DBA and seismic loads as combinations defined by ASME international code. First, a transient thermal analysis was performed with the conditions defined by DBA and evaluating the time history of the temperature of the model, each 1 h until 36 h. The final results of this stage were considered as initial conditions of a static structural analysis including the pressure defined by DBA. Finally, an equivalent static analysis was performed to analyze the seismic response considering the design basis spectra for the site. The different loads were combined and the abnormal/extreme environmental combination was the most unfavorable for the structure, defining the design.

  3. GABA receptor subunit distribution and FMRP-mGluR5 signaling abnormalities in the cerebellum of subjects with schizophrenia, mood disorders, and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, S Hossein; Folsom, Timothy D

    2015-09-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. GABAergic receptor abnormalities have been documented in several major psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, mood disorders, and autism. Abnormal expression of mRNA and protein for multiple GABA receptors has also been observed in multiple brain regions leading to alterations in the balance between excitatory/inhibitory signaling in the brain with potential profound consequences for normal cognition and maintenance of mood and perception. Altered expression of GABAA receptor subunits has been documented in fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) knockout mice, suggesting that loss of its protein product, fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), impacts GABAA subunit expression. Recent postmortem studies from our laboratory have shown reduced expression of FMRP in the brains of subjects with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression, and autism. FMRP acts as a translational repressor and, under normal conditions, inhibits metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5)-mediated signaling. In fragile X syndrome (FXS), the absence of FMRP is hypothesized to lead to unregulated mGluR5 signaling, ultimately resulting in the behavioral and intellectual impairments associated with this disorder. Our laboratory has identified changes in mGluR5 expression in autism, schizophrenia, and mood disorders. In the current review article, we discuss our postmortem data on GABA receptors, FMRP, and mGluR5 levels and compare our results with other laboratories. Finally, we discuss the interactions between these molecules and the potential for new therapeutic interventions that target these interconnected signaling systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Disruption of Ah Receptor Signaling during Mouse Development Leads to Abnormal Cardiac Structure and Function in the Adult.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius S Carreira

    Full Text Available The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD Theory proposes that the environment encountered during fetal life and infancy permanently shapes tissue physiology and homeostasis such that damage resulting from maternal stress, poor nutrition or exposure to environmental agents may be at the heart of adult onset disease. Interference with endogenous developmental functions of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR, either by gene ablation or by exposure in utero to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, a potent AHR ligand, causes structural, molecular and functional cardiac abnormalities and altered heart physiology in mouse embryos. To test if embryonic effects progress into an adult phenotype, we investigated whether Ahr ablation or TCDD exposure in utero resulted in cardiac abnormalities in adult mice long after removal of the agent. Ten-months old adult Ahr-/- and in utero TCDD-exposed Ahr+/+ mice showed sexually dimorphic abnormal cardiovascular phenotypes characterized by echocardiographic findings of hypertrophy, ventricular dilation and increased heart weight, resting heart rate and systolic and mean blood pressure, and decreased exercise tolerance. Underlying these effects, genes in signaling networks related to cardiac hypertrophy and mitochondrial function were differentially expressed. Cardiac dysfunction in mouse embryos resulting from AHR signaling disruption seems to progress into abnormal cardiac structure and function that predispose adults to cardiac disease, but while embryonic dysfunction is equally robust in males and females, the adult abnormalities are more prevalent in females, with the highest severity in Ahr-/- females. The findings reported here underscore the conclusion that AHR signaling in the developing heart is one potential target of environmental factors associated with cardiovascular disease.

  5. Modal Testing of Mechanical Structures subject to Operational Excitation Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, N.; Brincker, Rune; Herlufsen, H.

    2001-01-01

    Operational Modal Analysis also known as Output Only Modal Analysis has in the recent years been used for extracting modal parameters of civil engineering structures and is now becoming popular for mechanical structures. The advantage of the method is that no artificial excitation need to be appl......Operational Modal Analysis also known as Output Only Modal Analysis has in the recent years been used for extracting modal parameters of civil engineering structures and is now becoming popular for mechanical structures. The advantage of the method is that no artificial excitation need...

  6. On the modal characteristics of damaging structures subjected to earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo Ponzo, Felice; Ditommaso, Rocco; Auletta, Gianluca; Iacovino, Chiara; Mossucca, Antonello; Nigro, Antonella; Nigro, Domenico

    2015-04-01

    Structural Health Monitoring, especially for structures located in seismic prone areas, has assumed a meaning of great importance in last years, for the possibility to make a more objective and more rapid estimation of the damage occurred on buildings after a seismic event. In the last years many researchers are working to set-up new methodologies for Non-destructive Damage Evaluation based on the variation of the dynamic behaviour of structures under seismic loads. The NDE methods for damage detection and evaluation can be classified into four levels, according to the specific criteria provided by the Rytter. Each level of identification is correlated with specific information related to monitored structure. In fact, by increasing the level it is possible to obtain more information about the state of the health of the structures, to know if damage occurred on the structures, to quantify and localize the damage and to evaluate its impact on the monitored structure. Several authors discussed on the possibility to use the mode shape curvature to localize damage on structural elements, for example, by applying the curvature-based method to frequency response function instead of mode shape, and demonstrated the potential of this approach by considering real data. Damage detection approach based on dynamic monitoring of structural properties over time has received a considerable attention in recent scientific literature. In earthquake engineering field, the recourse to experimental research is necessary to understand the mechanical behaviour of the various structural and non-structural components. In this paper a new methodology to detect and localize a possible damage occurred on a framed structure after an earthquake is presented and discussed. The main outcomes retrieved from many numerical non linear dynamic models of reinforced concrete framed structures characterized by 3, 5 and 8 floors with different geometric configurations and designed for gravity loads only

  7. [Non-structural abnormalities of CNS function resulting in coincidence of endocrinopathies, epilepsy and psychoneurologic disorders in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starzyk, Jerzy; Pituch-Noworolska, Anna; Pietrzyk, Jacek A; Urbanik, Andrzej; Kroczka, Sławomir; Drozdz, Ryszard; Wójcik, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    In the population of children and adolescents, epilepsy affects approximately 1% of cases, nonepileptic seizures are seen in approximately 3%, and endocrine disorders are several times more common. For this reason, coincidence of endocrine disorders and epilepsy and psychoneurologic disorders is frequent. Much less common are structural abnormalities (tumors, developmental abnormalities), and especially non-structural CNS abnormalities, resulting in coincidence of both disorders. There are no reports available in the literature that would address the problem. 1) Assessment of the frequency of coincidental epilepsy and endocrine disorders in patients without structural CSN abnormalities treated as outpatients and inpatients of Department of Endocrinology University Children's Hospital of Krakow. 2) Presentation of diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties in these patients, and 3) An attempt at defining the common etiology of both disorders. On the basis of ICD code patients with coincidance of endocrine disorders, epilepsy and psychoneurologic disorders were selected from several thousands of children treated between 2000 and 2009 in Pediatric Endocrinology Department. The neurologic disorders were diagnosed and treated in Chair and Department of Children's and Adolescents Neurology or in another pediatric neurology center. Various forms of epilepsy (symptomatic or idiopathic) and other psychoneurological disorders (disorders of behavior and emotions, obsession-compulsion syndromes, stereotypias, aggression, autoaggression, or hypothalamic obesity) coincident with one or more endocrine disorders, such as growth disorders, disorders of pubertal development, obesity, thyroid diseases, adrenal diseases, hyperprolactinemia, hypoparathyroidism and ion metabolism disorders were diagnosed in 49 patients. The group included: i) children after cranial irradiation and chemotherapy due to medulloblastoma (3 patients), oligodenroglioma (1 patient), ependymoma (1 patient), optic

  8. Scale modeling of reinforced concrete structures subjected to seismic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dove, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    Reinforced concrete, Category I structures are so large that the possibility of seismicly testing the prototype structures under controlled conditions is essentially nonexistent. However, experimental data, from which important structural properties can be determined and existing and new methods of seismic analysis benchmarked, are badly needed. As a result, seismic experiments on scaled models are of considerable interest. In this paper, the scaling laws are developed in some detail so that assumptions and choices based on judgement can be clearly recognized and their effects discussed. The scaling laws developed are then used to design a reinforced concrete model of a Category I structure. Finally, how scaling is effected by various types of damping (viscous, structural, and Coulomb) is discussed

  9. Security evaluation and design of structures subjected to blast loading

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, João Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Engenharia Civil The work presented in this thesis was developed at the Department of Civil Engineering of University of Minho. This work involves experimental and numerical campaigns and intends to give a contribution for a better understanding of the effect of explosions. Blast loading is a subject of much actuality and considerable lack of expertise. Europe has never been so rich and safe, where the violent years of the first half of the 20th centu...

  10. State Confessional Relations: Problem of the Subject Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra A. Dorskaya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article various existing definitions of the concept "state and confessional relations" are analyzed, also author's definition is offered. Three levels of the state and confessional relations are revealed: conceptual, legislative and administrative-managerial. In the article it is shown that in Russia a tradition of only two subjects of the state and confessional relations – government bodies and the religious organizations allocation exists. It is revealed that at the present stage many researchers are dissatisfied with such situation. Scientific sources of the problem of the state and church relations within the psychological school of the law, which are addressed to the personality and experiences in the legal sphere are studied and revealed. Special attention is paid to scientific heritage of the M.A. Reysner, who was one of the first to begin study of this problem. In the article the question of the school of three subjects of the state and confessional relations allocation formation, what adds the faithful or faithless personality in addition to two traditional subjects is analyzed. The state and confessional relations are considered in the context of the human rights development. The question of new type of the believer possessing high education level and knowledge formation is considered. In the article it is shown that at the present stage relations of any regulation between the state and religious organizations is based on the basis of international legal standards, domestic legislation and norms of canon law.

  11. Altered structure of cortical sulci in gilles de la Tourette syndrome: Further support for abnormal brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muellner, Julia; Delmaire, Christine; Valabrégue, Romain; Schüpbach, Michael; Mangin, Jean-François; Vidailhet, Marie; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Hartmann, Andreas; Worbe, Yulia

    2015-04-15

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by the presence of motor and vocal tics. We hypothesized that patients with this syndrome would present an aberrant pattern of cortical formation, which could potentially reflect global alterations of brain development. Using 3 Tesla structural neuroimaging, we compared sulcal depth, opening, and length and thickness of sulcal gray matter in 52 adult patients and 52 matched controls. Cortical sulci were automatically reconstructed and identified over the whole brain, using BrainVisa software. We focused on frontal, parietal, and temporal cortical regions, in which abnormal structure and functional activity were identified in previous neuroimaging studies. Partial correlation analysis with age, sex, and treatment as covariables of noninterest was performed amongst relevant clinical and neuroimaging variables in patients. Patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome showed lower depth and reduced thickness of gray matter in the pre- and post-central as well as superior, inferior, and internal frontal sulci. In patients with associated obsessive-compulsive disorder, additional structural changes were found in temporal, insular, and olfactory sulci. Crucially, severity of tics and of obsessive-compulsive disorder measured by Yale Global Tic severity scale and Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive scale, respectively, correlated with structural sulcal changes in sensorimotor, temporal, dorsolateral prefrontal, and middle cingulate cortical areas. Patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome displayed an abnormal structural pattern of cortical sulci, which correlated with severity of clinical symptoms. Our results provide further evidence of abnormal brain development in GTS. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  12. Modal Testing of Mechanical Structures Subject to Operational Excitation Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, N.; Brincker, Rune; Herlufsen, H.

    2000-01-01

    to the Operational Modal Analysis. For Operational Modal Analysis two different estimation techniques are used: a non-parametric technique based on Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD), and a parametric technique working on the raw data in time domain, a data driven Stochastic Subspace Identification (SSI) algorithm......Operational Modal Analysis also known as Output Only Modal Analysis has in the recent years been used for extracting modal parameters of civil engineering structures and is now becoming popular for mechanical structures. The advantage of the method is that no artificial excitation need...

  13. Shaking of reinforced concrete structures subjected to transient dynamic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouzaud, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    In the design of nuclear engineering structures security and safety present a crucial aspect. Civil engineering design and the qualification of materials to dynamic loads must consider the accelerations which they undergo. These accelerations could integrate seismic activity and shaking movements consecutive to aircraft impact with higher cut-off frequency. Current methodologies for assessing this shock are based on transient analyses using classical finite element method associated with explicit numerical schemes or projection on modal basis, often linear. In both cases, to represent in meaningful way a medium-frequency content, it should implement a mesh refinement which is hardly compatible with the size of models of the civil engineering structures. In order to extend industrial methodologies used and to allow a better representation of the behavior of the structure in medium-frequency, an approach coupling a temporal and non-linear analysis for shock area with a frequency approach to treatment of shaking with VTCR (Variational Theory of Complex Rays) has been used. The aim is to use the computational efficiency of the implemented strategy, including medium frequency to describe the nuclear structures to aircraft impact. (author)

  14. Patterns of brain structural connectivity differentiate normal weight from overweight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arpana; Mayer, Emeran A; Sanmiguel, Claudia P; Van Horn, John D; Woodworth, Davis; Ellingson, Benjamin M; Fling, Connor; Love, Aubrey; Tillisch, Kirsten; Labus, Jennifer S

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in the hedonic component of ingestive behaviors have been implicated as a possible risk factor in the pathophysiology of overweight and obese individuals. Neuroimaging evidence from individuals with increasing body mass index suggests structural, functional, and neurochemical alterations in the extended reward network and associated networks. To apply a multivariate pattern analysis to distinguish normal weight and overweight subjects based on gray and white-matter measurements. Structural images (N = 120, overweight N = 63) and diffusion tensor images (DTI) (N = 60, overweight N = 30) were obtained from healthy control subjects. For the total sample the mean age for the overweight group (females = 32, males = 31) was 28.77 years (SD = 9.76) and for the normal weight group (females = 32, males = 25) was 27.13 years (SD = 9.62). Regional segmentation and parcellation of the brain images was performed using Freesurfer. Deterministic tractography was performed to measure the normalized fiber density between regions. A multivariate pattern analysis approach was used to examine whether brain measures can distinguish overweight from normal weight individuals. 1. White-matter classification: The classification algorithm, based on 2 signatures with 17 regional connections, achieved 97% accuracy in discriminating overweight individuals from normal weight individuals. For both brain signatures, greater connectivity as indexed by increased fiber density was observed in overweight compared to normal weight between the reward network regions and regions of the executive control, emotional arousal, and somatosensory networks. In contrast, the opposite pattern (decreased fiber density) was found between ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the anterior insula, and between thalamus and executive control network regions. 2. Gray-matter classification: The classification algorithm, based on 2 signatures with 42 morphological features, achieved 69

  15. Patterns of brain structural connectivity differentiate normal weight from overweight subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arpana; Mayer, Emeran A.; Sanmiguel, Claudia P.; Van Horn, John D.; Woodworth, Davis; Ellingson, Benjamin M.; Fling, Connor; Love, Aubrey; Tillisch, Kirsten; Labus, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alterations in the hedonic component of ingestive behaviors have been implicated as a possible risk factor in the pathophysiology of overweight and obese individuals. Neuroimaging evidence from individuals with increasing body mass index suggests structural, functional, and neurochemical alterations in the extended reward network and associated networks. Aim To apply a multivariate pattern analysis to distinguish normal weight and overweight subjects based on gray and white-matter measurements. Methods Structural images (N = 120, overweight N = 63) and diffusion tensor images (DTI) (N = 60, overweight N = 30) were obtained from healthy control subjects. For the total sample the mean age for the overweight group (females = 32, males = 31) was 28.77 years (SD = 9.76) and for the normal weight group (females = 32, males = 25) was 27.13 years (SD = 9.62). Regional segmentation and parcellation of the brain images was performed using Freesurfer. Deterministic tractography was performed to measure the normalized fiber density between regions. A multivariate pattern analysis approach was used to examine whether brain measures can distinguish overweight from normal weight individuals. Results 1. White-matter classification: The classification algorithm, based on 2 signatures with 17 regional connections, achieved 97% accuracy in discriminating overweight individuals from normal weight individuals. For both brain signatures, greater connectivity as indexed by increased fiber density was observed in overweight compared to normal weight between the reward network regions and regions of the executive control, emotional arousal, and somatosensory networks. In contrast, the opposite pattern (decreased fiber density) was found between ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the anterior insula, and between thalamus and executive control network regions. 2. Gray-matter classification: The classification algorithm, based on 2 signatures with 42

  16. Structural characterization and magnetic properties of steels subjected to fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C.C.H.; Tang, F.; Biner, S.B.; Jiles, D.C.

    2000-01-01

    Studies have been made on the effects of residual stress and microstructure on the variations of magnetic properties of steels during fatigue. Strain-controlled fatigue tests have been conducted on 0.2wt% C steel samples which were (1) cold-worked (2) cold-worked and annealed at 500 deg. C to relieve residual stress, and (3) annealed at 905 deg. C to produce a ferrite/pearlite structure. The changes of surface microstructure were studied by SEM replica technique. The dislocation structures of samples fatigued for different numbers of cycle were studied by TEM. In the initial stage of fatigue coercivity was found to behave differently for samples which have different residual stress levels. In the intermediate stage the magnetic hysteresis parameters became stable as the dislocation cell structure developed in the samples. In the final stage the magnetic parameters decreased dramatically. The decrease rate is related to the propagation rate of fatigue cracks observed in the SEM study, which was found to be dependent on the sample microstructure. The present results indicate that the magnetic inspection technique is able to differentiate the residual stress effects from the fatigue damage induced by cyclic loading, and therefore it is possible to detect the onset of fatigue failure in steel components via measurements of the changes in magnetic properties.--This work was sponsored by the National Science Foundation, under grant number CMS-9532056

  17. Forecasting Long Memory Series Subject to Structural Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Gustavo Fruet; Papailias, Fotis

    A two-stage forecasting approach for long memory time series is introduced. In the first step we estimate the fractional exponent and, applying the fractional differencing operator, we obtain the underlying weakly dependent series. In the second step, we perform the multi-step ahead forecasts...... for the weakly dependent series and obtain their long memory counterparts by applying the fractional cumulation operator. The methodology applies to stationary and nonstationary cases. Simulations and an application to seven time series provide evidence that the new methodology is more robust to structural...... change and yields good forecasting results....

  18. Analysis of reinforced concrete structures subjected to aircraft impact loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, J.; Scharpf, F.; Schwarz, R.

    1983-01-01

    Concerning the evaluation of the effects of aircraft impact loading on the reactor building and the contained equipment special interest belongs to both the characteristic of loading conditions and the consideration of the nonlinear behaviour of the local impacted area as well as the overall behaviour of the structure. To cover this extensive scope of problems the fully 3-dimensional code DYSMAS/L was prepared for the analysis of highly dynamic continuum mechanics problems. For this totally Lagrangian description, derived and tested in the field of the simulation of impact phenomena and penetration of armoured structures, an extension was made for the reasonable modelling of the material behaviour of reinforced concrete. Conforming the available experimental data a nonlinear stress-strain curve is given and a continuous triaxial failure-surface is composed which allows cracking of concrete in the tensile region and its crushing in the compressive mode. For the separately modeled reinforcement an elastic-plastic stress-strain relationship with kinematic hardening is used. (orig./RW)

  19. Reliability Assessment of a Bridge Structure Subjected to Chloride Attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leira, Bernt J.; Thöns, Sebastian; Nielsen, Michael Havbro Faber

    2018-01-01

    Prediction of the service lifetime of concrete structures with respect to chloride ingress involves a number of parameters that are associated with large uncertainties. Hence, full-scale measurements are strongly in demand. This paper begins by summarizing statistical distributions based on measu......Prediction of the service lifetime of concrete structures with respect to chloride ingress involves a number of parameters that are associated with large uncertainties. Hence, full-scale measurements are strongly in demand. This paper begins by summarizing statistical distributions based...... on measurements taken from the Gimsøystraumen Bridge in Norway. A large number of chloride profiles are available based on concrete coring samples, and for each of these profiles the diffusion coefficient and surface concentration (due to sea spray) are estimated. Extensive measurements of the concrete cover...... depth are also performed. The probability distributions are input into a prediction model for chloride concentration at the steel reinforcement. By also introducing the critical chloride concentration as a random variable, the probability of exceeding the critical threshold is determined as a function...

  20. Damping of cylindrical structures subject to annular flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobson, D.E.; Dolding, M.

    1989-01-01

    In previous reports theoretical methods have been described for estimating the aerodynamic forces acting on cylinders vibrating laterally when surrounded by an annulus carrying high velocity gas. For a certain restricted set of geometries it is possible to predict whether a particular structure is stable or unstable and to determine the level of aerodynamic damping positive or negative due to the presence of the gas. This report describes experimental work which validates the computer program in which the theoretical methods are embodied; in particular the damping, inertial and decentralising forces acting on a cylinder in an annulus are measured and compared with theory over a range of frequencies from 0 to 25 Hz, and of Reynolds numbers from zero to 10 4 . In addition a summary of simple relationships is provided which can be used to provide credible initial estimates of both the positive and negative damping of cylinders in a range of annular geometries. (author)

  1. Response of a shell structure subject to distributed harmonic excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Rui; Bolton, J. Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Previously, a coupled, two-dimensional structural-acoustic ring model was constructed to simulate the dynamic and acoustical behavior of pneumatic tires. Analytical forced solutions were obtained and were experimentally verified through laser velocimeter measurement made using automobile tires. However, the two-dimensional ring model is incapable of representing higher order, in-plane modal motion in either the circumferential or axial directions. Therefore, in this paper, a three-dimensional pressurized circular shell model is proposed to study the in-plane shearing motion and the effect of different forcing conditions. Closed form analytical solutions were obtained for both free and forced vibrations of the shell under simply supported boundary conditions. Dispersion relations were calculated and different wave types were identified by their different speeds. Shell surface mobility results under various input distributions were also studied and compared. Spatial Fourier series decompositions were also performed on the spatial mobility results to give the forced dispersion relations, which illustrate clearly the influence of input force spatial distribution. Such a model has practical application in identifying the sources of noise and vibration problems in automotive tires. (paper)

  2. Nuclear containment structure subjected to commercial and fighter aircraft crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadique, M.R.; Iqbal, M.A.; Bhargava, P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Nuclear containment response has been studied against aircraft crash. • Concrete damaged plasticity and Johnson–Cook elasto-viscoplastic models were employed. • Boeing 747-400 and Boeing 767-400 aircrafts caused global failure of containment. • Airbus A320 and Boeing 707-320 aircrafts caused local damage. • Tension damage of concrete was found more prominent compared to compression damage. -- Abstract: The response of a boiling water reactor (BWR) nuclear containment vessel has been studied against commercial and fighter aircraft crash using a nonlinear finite element code ABAQUS. The aircrafts employed were Boeing 747-400, Boeing 767-400, Airbus A-320, Boeing 707-320 and Phantom F4. The containment was modeled as a three-dimensional deformable reinforced concrete structure while the loading of aircraft was assigned using the respective reaction–time curve. The location of strike was considered near the junction of dome and cylinder, and the angle of incidence, normal to the containment surface. The material behavior of the concrete was incorporated using the damaged plasticity model while that of the reinforcement, the Johnson–Cook elasto-viscoplastic model. The containment could not sustain the impact of Boeing 747-400 and Boeing 767-400 aircrafts and suffered rupture of concrete around the impact region leading to global failure. On the other hand, the maximum local deformation at the point of impact was found to be 0.998 m, 0.099 m, 0.092 m, 0.089 m, and 0.074 m against Boeing 747-400, Phantom F4, Boeing 767, Boeing 707-320 and Airbus A-320 aircrafts respectively. The results of the present study were compared with those of the previous analytical and numerical investigations with respect to the maximum deformation and overall behavior of the containment

  3. Nuclear containment structure subjected to commercial and fighter aircraft crash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadique, M.R., E-mail: rehan.sadique@gmail.com; Iqbal, M.A., E-mail: iqbalfce@iitr.ernet.in; Bhargava, P., E-mail: bhpdpfce@iitr.ernet.in

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: • Nuclear containment response has been studied against aircraft crash. • Concrete damaged plasticity and Johnson–Cook elasto-viscoplastic models were employed. • Boeing 747-400 and Boeing 767-400 aircrafts caused global failure of containment. • Airbus A320 and Boeing 707-320 aircrafts caused local damage. • Tension damage of concrete was found more prominent compared to compression damage. -- Abstract: The response of a boiling water reactor (BWR) nuclear containment vessel has been studied against commercial and fighter aircraft crash using a nonlinear finite element code ABAQUS. The aircrafts employed were Boeing 747-400, Boeing 767-400, Airbus A-320, Boeing 707-320 and Phantom F4. The containment was modeled as a three-dimensional deformable reinforced concrete structure while the loading of aircraft was assigned using the respective reaction–time curve. The location of strike was considered near the junction of dome and cylinder, and the angle of incidence, normal to the containment surface. The material behavior of the concrete was incorporated using the damaged plasticity model while that of the reinforcement, the Johnson–Cook elasto-viscoplastic model. The containment could not sustain the impact of Boeing 747-400 and Boeing 767-400 aircrafts and suffered rupture of concrete around the impact region leading to global failure. On the other hand, the maximum local deformation at the point of impact was found to be 0.998 m, 0.099 m, 0.092 m, 0.089 m, and 0.074 m against Boeing 747-400, Phantom F4, Boeing 767, Boeing 707-320 and Airbus A-320 aircrafts respectively. The results of the present study were compared with those of the previous analytical and numerical investigations with respect to the maximum deformation and overall behavior of the containment.

  4. Structural and functional abnormalities of default mode network in minimal hepatic encephalopathy: a study combining DTI and fMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongfeng Qi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Live failure can cause brain edema and aberrant brain function in cirrhotic patients. In particular, decreased functional connectivity within the brain default-mode network (DMN has been recently reported in overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE patients. However, so far, little is known about the connectivity among the DMN in the minimal HE (MHE, the mildest form of HE. Here, we combined diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI to test our hypothesis that both structural and functional connectivity within the DMN were disturbed in MHE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty MHE patients and 20 healthy controls participated in the study. We explored the changes of structural (path length, tracts count, fractional anisotropy [FA] and mean diffusivity [MD] derived from DTI tractography and functional (temporal correlation coefficient derived from rs-fMRI connectivity of the DMN in MHE patients. Pearson correlation analysis was performed between the structural/functional indices and venous blood ammonia levels/neuropsychological tests scores of patients. All thresholds were set at P<0.05, Bonferroni corrected. RESULTS: Compared to the healthy controls, MHE patients showed both decreased FA and increased MD in the tract connecting the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PCUN to left parahippocampal gyrus (PHG, and decreased functional connectivity between the PCC/PCUN and left PHG, and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC. MD values of the tract connecting PCC/PCUN to the left PHG positively correlated to the ammonia levels, the temporal correlation coefficients between the PCC/PCUN and the MPFC showed positive correlation to the digital symbol tests scores of patients. CONCLUSION: MHE patients have both disturbed structural and functional connectivity within the DMN. The decreased functional connectivity was also detected between some regions without abnormal structural connectivity, suggesting that the

  5. Neonatal seizures: the overlap between diagnosis of metabolic disorders and structural abnormalities. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freitas Alessandra

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Inborn metabolic errors (IME and cortical developmental malformations are uncommon etiologies of neonatal seizures, however they may represent treatable causes of refractory epilepsy and for this reason must be considered as possible etiological factors. This case report aims to demonstrate the importance of neuroimaging studies in one patient with neonatal seizures, even when there are clues pointing to a metabolic disorder. CASE REPORT: A previously healthy 14 day-old child started presenting reiterated focal motor seizures (FMS which evolved to status epilepticus. Exams showed high serum levels of ammonia and no other abnormalities. A metabolic investigation was conducted with normal results. During follow-up, the patient presented developmental delay and left side hemiparesia. Seizures remained controlled with anti-epileptic drugs for four months, followed by relapse with repetitive FMS on the left side. Temporary improvement was obtained with anti-epileptic drug adjustment. At the age of 6 months, during a new episode of status epilepticus, high ammonia levels were detected. Other metabolic exams remained normal. The child was referred to a video-electroencephalographic monitoring and continuous epileptiform discharges were recorded over the right parasagittal and midline regions, with predominance over the posterior quadrant. A new neuroimaging study was performed and displayed a malformation of cortical development. Our case illustrates that because newborns are prone to present metabolic disarrangement, an unbalance such as hyperammonemia may be a consequence of acute events and conduct to a misdiagnosis of IME.

  6. Sensitivity of Reliability Estimates in Partially Damaged RC Structures subject to Earthquakes, using Reduced Hysteretic Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwankiewicz, R.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Skjærbæk, P. S.

    The subject of the paper is the investigation of the sensitivity of structural reliability estimation by a reduced hysteretic model for a reinforced concrete frame under an earthquake excitation.......The subject of the paper is the investigation of the sensitivity of structural reliability estimation by a reduced hysteretic model for a reinforced concrete frame under an earthquake excitation....

  7. [Structural CNS abnormalities responsible for coincidental occurrence of endocrine disorders, epilepsy and psychoneurologic disorders in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starzyk, Jerzy; Kwiatkowski, Stanisław; Kaciński, Marek; Kroczka, Sławomir; Wójcik, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    In the population of children and adolescents, epilepsy affects 0.5-1% of individuals; approximately 3% of general population suffer from non-epileptic seizures, while endocrine disorders are several times more frequent. All of the above factors result in a relatively common non-accidental occurrence of endocrine disorders, epilepsy and neuropsychiatric disorders. However, structural central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities that cause both endocrine and neurologic disorders seem to be markedly less common. No reports addressing this problem are available in the literature. 1) Assessment of the frequency of non-coincidental occurrence of epilepsy and endocrine disorders in inpatients and outpatients with structural CSN abnormalities managed in Department Endocrinology. 2) Presentation of diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties in these patients, and 3) An attempt at defining a common etiology of both disorders. A retrospective analysis of the medical records of the patients with coincidence of endocrine disorders and epilepsy and psycho-neurologic disorders (treated in Chair and Department of Children's and Adolescents Neurology, University Children's Hospital of Krakow or in another pediatric neurology center) and with organic CNS abnormalities (treated or followed up as inpatients and outpatient of Department of Pediatric Surgery, Children's University Hospital of Krakow, was performed. The patients were selected from among several thousands of children treated as inpatients and outpatients of the Department. Various forms of symptomatic and idiopathic epilepsy and other psychoneurological disorders (disorders of behavior and emotions, obsession-compulsion syndromes, stereotypias, aggression, compulsive ideas and movements, anorexia or hypothalamic obesity) coincident with one or more endocrine disorders such as precocious or delayed puberty, multihormonal pituitary deficiency, panhypopituitarism and secondary hypothyroidism were detected in 42 patients with

  8. Morphological Abnormalities of Thalamic Subnuclei in Migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magon, Stefano; May, Arne; Stankewitz, Anne

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The thalamus contains third-order relay neurons of the trigeminal system, and animal models as well as preliminary imaging studies in small cohorts of migraine patients have suggested a role of the thalamus in headache pathophysiology. However, larger studies using advanced imaging te...... is a disorder of the CNS in which not only is brain function abnormal, but also brain structure is undergoing significant remodeling....... a fully automated multiatlas approach. Deformation-based shape analysis was performed to localize surface abnormalities. Differences between patients with migraine and healthy subjects were assessed using an ANCOVA model. After correction for multiple comparisons, performed using the false discovery rate.......9) was observed in patients. This large-scale study indicates structural thalamic abnormalities in patients with migraine. The thalamic nuclei with abnormal volumes are densely connected to the limbic system. The data hence lend support to the view that higher-order integration systems are altered in migraine...

  9. Running in the family? : structural brain abnormalities in first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boos, H.B.M.

    2011-01-01

    The studies conducted in this thesis explored brain structures in first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia. The meta-analysis that Boos and colleagues performed showed that relatives of patients with schizophrenia had smaller hippocampal volumes, smaller gray matter volumes and larger

  10. Co-Localisation of Abnormal Brain Structure and Function in Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badcock, Nicholas A.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Hardiman, Mervyn J.; Barry, Johanna G.; Watkins, Kate E.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the relationship between brain structure and function in 10 individuals with specific language impairment (SLI), compared to six unaffected siblings, and 16 unrelated control participants with typical language. Voxel-based morphometry indicated that grey matter in the SLI group, relative to controls, was increased in the left inferior…

  11. Brain structural abnormalities in behavior therapy-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder revealed by voxel-based morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashimoto N

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nobuhiko Hashimoto,1 Shutaro Nakaaki,2 Akiko Kawaguchi,1 Junko Sato,1 Harumasa Kasai,3 Takashi Nakamae,4 Jin Narumoto,4 Jun Miyata,5 Toshi A Furukawa,6,7 Masaru Mimura2 1Department of Psychiatry and Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan; 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Central Radiology, Nagoya City University Hospital, Nagoya, Japan; 4Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 5Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan; 6Department of Health Promotion and Human Behavior, 7Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine/School of Public Health, Kyoto, Japan Background: Although several functional imaging studies have demonstrated that behavior therapy (BT modifies the neural circuits involved in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, the structural abnormalities underlying BT-resistant OCD remain unknown. Methods: In this study, we examined the existence of regional structural abnormalities in both the gray matter and the white matter of patients with OCD at baseline using voxel-based morphometry in responders (n=24 and nonresponders (n=15 to subsequent BT. Three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed before the completion of 12 weeks of BT. Results: Relative to the responders, the nonresponders exhibited significantly smaller gray matter volumes in the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the right orbitofrontal cortex, the right precentral gyrus, and the left anterior cingulate cortex. In addition, relative to the responders, the nonresponders exhibited significantly smaller white matter volumes in the left cingulate bundle and the left superior frontal white matter. Conclusion: These results suggest that the brain

  12. Divergent structural brain abnormalities between different genetic subtypes of children with Prader–Willi syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lukoshe, Akvile; White, Tonya; Schmidt, Marcus N; van der Lugt, Aad; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C

    2013-01-01

    Background Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex neurogenetic disorder with symptoms that indicate not only hypothalamic, but also a global, central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. However, little is known about developmental differences in brain structure in children with PWS. Thus, our aim was to investigate global brain morphology in children with PWS, including the comparison between different genetic subtypes of PWS. In addition, we performed exploratory cortical and subcortical foc...

  13. Structural and functional changes associated with normal and abnormal fundus autofluorescence in patients with retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, Vivienne C; Duncker, Tobias; Holopigian, Karen; Carr, Ronald E; Greenberg, Jonathan P; Tsang, Stephen H; Hood, Donald C

    2012-02-01

    To analyze the structure and visual function of regions bordering the hyperautofluorescent ring/arcs in retinitis pigmentosa. Twenty-one retinitis pigmentosa patients (21 eyes) with rings/arcs and 21 normal individuals (21 eyes) were studied. Visual sensitivity in the central 10° was measured with microperimetry. Retinal structure was evaluated with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. The distance from the fovea to disruption/loss of the inner outer segment (IS/OS) junction and thicknesses of the total receptor plus retinal pigment epithelial complex and outer segment plus retinal pigment epithelial complex layers were measured. Results were compared with measurements of the distance from the fovea to the inner and outer borders of the ring/arc seen on fundus autofluorescence. Disruption/loss of the inner outer segment junction occurred closer to the inner border of the ring/arc and it was closer to the fovea in eight eyes. For 19 eyes, outer segment plus and receptor plus RPE complex thicknesses were significantly decreased at locations closer to the fovea than the appearance of the inner border of hyperautofluorescence. Mean visual sensitivity was decreased inside, across, and outside the ring/arc by 3.5 ± 3.8, 8.9 ± 4.8, and 17.0 ± 2.4 dB, respectively. Structural and functional changes can occur inside the hyperfluorescent ring/arc in retinitis pigmentosa.

  14. Radiation-induced brain structural and functional abnormalities in presymptomatic phase and outcome prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhongxiang; Zhang, Han; Lv, Xiao-Fei; Xie, Fei; Liu, Lizhi; Qiu, Shijun; Li, Li; Shen, Dinggang

    2018-01-01

    Radiation therapy, a major method of treatment for brain cancer, may cause severe brain injuries after many years. We used a rare and unique cohort of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with normal-appearing brains to study possible early irradiation injury in its presymptomatic phase before severe, irreversible necrosis happens. The aim is to detect any structural or functional imaging biomarker that is sensitive to early irradiation injury, and to understand the recovery and progression of irradiation injury that can shed light on outcome prediction for early clinical intervention. We found an acute increase in local brain activity that is followed by extensive reductions in such activity in the temporal lobe and significant loss of functional connectivity in a distributed, large-scale, high-level cognitive function-related brain network. Intriguingly, these radiosensitive functional alterations were found to be fully or partially recoverable. In contrast, progressive late disruptions to the integrity of the related far-end white matter structure began to be significant after one year. Importantly, early increased local brain functional activity was predictive of severe later temporal lobe necrosis. Based on these findings, we proposed a dynamic, multifactorial model for radiation injury and another preventive model for timely clinical intervention. Hum Brain Mapp 39:407-427, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Left hemisphere structural connectivity abnormality in pediatric hydrocephalus patients following surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Weihong; Meller, Artur; Shimony, Joshua S; Nash, Tiffany; Jones, Blaise V; Holland, Scott K; Altaye, Mekibib; Barnard, Holly; Phillips, Jannel; Powell, Stephanie; McKinstry, Robert C; Limbrick, David D; Rajagopal, Akila; Mangano, Francesco T

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging research in surgically treated pediatric hydrocephalus patients remains challenging due to the artifact caused by programmable shunt. Our previous study has demonstrated significant alterations in the whole brain white matter structural connectivity based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and graph theoretical analysis in children with hydrocephalus prior to surgery or in surgically treated children without programmable shunts. This study seeks to investigate the impact of brain injury on the topological features in the left hemisphere, contratelateral to the shunt placement, which will avoid the influence of shunt artifacts and makes further group comparisons feasible for children with programmable shunt valves. Three groups of children (34 in the control group, 12 in the 3-month post-surgery group, and 24 in the 12-month post-surgery group, age between 1 and 18 years) were included in the study. The structural connectivity data processing and analysis were performed based on DTI and graph theoretical analysis. Specific procedures were revised to include only left brain imaging data in normalization, parcellation, and fiber counting from DTI tractography. Our results showed that, when compared to controls, children with hydrocephalus in both the 3-month and 12-month post-surgery groups had significantly lower normalized clustering coefficient, lower small-worldness, and higher global efficiency (all p  hydrocephalus surgically treated with programmable shunts.

  16. Abnormal white matter integrity as a structural endophenotype for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarıçiçek, A; Zorlu, N; Yalın, N; Hıdıroğlu, C; Çavuşoğlu, B; Ceylan, D; Ada, E; Tunca, Z; Özerdem, A

    2016-05-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with white matter (WM) pathology. Investigation of unaffected first-degree relatives of BD patients may help to distinguish structural biomarkers of genetic risk without the confounding effects of burden of illness, medication or clinical state. In the present study, we applied tract-based spatial statistics to study WM changes in patients with BD, unaffected siblings and controls. A total of 27 euthymic patients with BD type I, 20 unaffected siblings of bipolar patients and 29 healthy controls who did not have any current or past diagnosis of Axis I psychiatric disorders were enrolled in the study. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was significantly lower in BD patients than in the control group in the corpus callosum, fornix, bilateral superior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, anterior thalamic radiation, posterior thalamic radiation, cingulum, uncinate fasciculus, superior corona radiata, anterior corona radiata and left external capsule. In region-of-interest (ROI) analyses, we found that both unaffected siblings and bipolar patients had significantly reduced FA in the left posterior thalamic radiation, the left sagittal stratum, and the fornix compared with healthy controls. Average FA for unaffected siblings was intermediate between the healthy controls and bipolar patients within these ROIs. Decreased FA in the fornix, left posterior thalamic radiation and left sagittal stratum in both bipolar patients and unaffected siblings may represent a potential structural endophenotype or a trait-based marker for BD.

  17. Structural brain abnormalities in a single gene disorder associated with epilepsy, language impairment and intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Bathelt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood speech and language deficits are highly prevalent and are a common feature of neurodevelopmental disorders. However, it is difficult to investigate the underlying causal pathways because many diagnostic groups have a heterogeneous aetiology. Studying disorders with a shared genetic cause and shared cognitive deficits can provide crucial insight into the cellular mechanisms and neural systems that give rise to those impairments. The current study investigated structural brain differences of individuals with mutations in ZDHHC9, which is associated with a specific neurodevelopmental phenotype including prominent speech and language impairments and intellectual disability. We used multiple structural neuroimaging methods to characterise neuroanatomy in this group, and observed bilateral reductions in cortical thickness in areas surrounding the temporo-parietal junction, parietal lobule, and inferior frontal lobe, and decreased microstructural integrity of cortical, subcortical-cortical, and interhemispheric white matter projections. These findings are compared to reports for other genetic groups and genetically heterogeneous disorders with a similar presentation. Overlap in the neuroanatomical phenotype suggests a common pathway that particularly affects the development of temporo-parietal and inferior frontal areas, and their connections.

  18. Does abnormal glycogen structure contribute to increased susceptibility to seizures in epilepsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNuzzo, Mauro; Mangia, Silvia; Maraviglia, Bruno; Giove, Federico

    2015-02-01

    Epilepsy is a family of brain disorders with a largely unknown etiology and high percentage of pharmacoresistance. The clinical manifestations of epilepsy are seizures, which originate from aberrant neuronal synchronization and hyperexcitability. Reactive astrocytosis, a hallmark of the epileptic tissue, develops into loss-of-function of glutamine synthetase, impairment of glutamate-glutamine cycle and increase in extracellular and astrocytic glutamate concentration. Here, we argue that chronically elevated intracellular glutamate level in astrocytes is instrumental to alterations in the metabolism of glycogen and leads to the synthesis of polyglucosans. Unaccessibility of glycogen-degrading enzymes to these insoluble molecules compromises the glycogenolysis-dependent reuptake of extracellular K(+) by astrocytes, thereby leading to increased extracellular K(+) and associated membrane depolarization. Based on current knowledge, we propose that the deterioration in structural homogeneity of glycogen particles is relevant to disruption of brain K(+) homeostasis and increased susceptibility to seizures in epilepsy.

  19. Divergent structural brain abnormalities between different genetic subtypes of children with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukoshe, Akvile; White, Tonya; Schmidt, Marcus N; van der Lugt, Aad; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C

    2013-10-22

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex neurogenetic disorder with symptoms that indicate not only hypothalamic, but also a global, central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. However, little is known about developmental differences in brain structure in children with PWS. Thus, our aim was to investigate global brain morphology in children with PWS, including the comparison between different genetic subtypes of PWS. In addition, we performed exploratory cortical and subcortical focal analyses. High resolution structural magnetic resonance images were acquired in 20 children with genetically confirmed PWS (11 children carrying a deletion (DEL), 9 children with maternal uniparental disomy (mUPD)), and compared with 11 age- and gender-matched typically developing siblings as controls. Brain morphology measures were obtained using the FreeSurfer software suite. Both children with DEL and mUPD showed smaller brainstem volume, and a trend towards smaller cortical surface area and white matter volume. Children with mUPD had enlarged lateral ventricles and larger cortical cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume. Further, a trend towards increased cortical thickness was found in children with mUPD. Children with DEL had a smaller cerebellum, and smaller cortical and subcortical grey matter volumes. Focal analyses revealed smaller white matter volumes in left superior and bilateral inferior frontal gyri, right cingulate cortex, and bilateral precuneus areas associated with the default mode network (DMN) in children with mUPD. Children with PWS show signs of impaired brain growth. Those with mUPD show signs of early brain atrophy. In contrast, children with DEL show signs of fundamentally arrested, although not deviant brain development and presented few signs of cortical atrophy. Our results of global brain measurements suggest divergent neurodevelopmental patterns in children with DEL and mUPD.

  20. Abnormalities in the basement membrane structure promote basal keratinocytes in the epidermis of hypertrophic scars to adopt a proliferative phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaowei; Sun, Yexiao; Geng, Zhijun; Ma, Kui; Sun, Xiaoyan; Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-05-01

    The majority of studies on scar formation have mainly focused on the dermis and little is known of the involvement of the epidermis. Previous research has demonstrated that the scar tissue-derived keratinocytes are different from normal cells at both the genetic and cell biological levels; however, the mechanisms responsible for the fundamental abnormalities in keratinocytes during scar development remain elusive. For this purpose, in this study, we used normal, wound edge and hypertrophic scar tissue to examine the morphological changes which occur during epidermal regeneration as part of the wound healing process and found that the histological structure of hypertrophic scar tissues differed from that of normal skin, with a significant increase in epidermal thickness. Notably, staining of the basement membrane (BM) appeared to be absent in the scar tissues. Moreover, immunofluorescence staining for cytokeratin (CK)10, CK14, CK5, CK19 and integrin-β1 indicated the differential expression of cell markers in the epidermal keratinocytes among the normal, wound edge and hypertrophic scar tissues, which corresponded with the altered BM structures. By using a panel of proteins associated with BM components, we validated our hypothesis that the BM plays a significant role in regulating the cell fate decision of epidermal keratinocytes during skin wound healing. Alterations in the structure of the BM promote basal keratinocytes to adopt a proliferative phenotype both in vivo and in vitro.

  1. A Fourth KLK4 Mutation Is Associated with Enamel Hypomineralisation and Structural Abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire E. L. Smith

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available “Amelogenesis imperfecta” (AI describes a group of genetic conditions that result in defects in tooth enamel formation. Mutations in many genes are known to cause AI, including the gene encoding the serine protease, kallikrein related peptidase 4 (KLK4, expressed during the maturation stage of amelogenesis. In this study we report the fourth KLK4 mutation to be identified in autosomal recessively-inherited hypomaturation type AI, c.632delT, p.(L211Rfs*37 (NM_004917.4, NP_004908.4. This homozygous variant was identified in five Pakistani AI families and is predicted to result in a transcript with a premature stop codon that escapes nonsense mediated decay. However, the protein may misfold, as three of six disulphide bonds would be disrupted, and may be degraded or non-functional as a result. Primary teeth were obtained from one affected individual. The enamel phenotype was characterized using high-resolution computerized X-ray tomography (CT, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, and microhardness testing (MH. Enamel from the affected individual (referred to as KLK4 enamel was hypomineralised in comparison with matched control enamel. Furthermore, KLK4 inner enamel was hypomineralised compared with KLK4 outer enamel. SEM showed a clear structural demarcation between KLK4 inner and outer enamel, although enamel structure was similar to control tissue overall. EDX showed that KLK4 inner enamel contained less calcium and phosphorus and more nitrogen than control inner enamel and KLK4 outer enamel. MH testing showed that KLK4 inner enamel was significantly softer than KLK4 outer enamel (p < 0.001. However, the hardness of control inner enamel was not significantly different to that of control outer enamel. Overall, these findings suggest that the KLK4 c.632delT mutation may be a common cause of autosomal recessive AI in the Pakistani population. The phenotype data obtained mirror findings in the Klk4

  2. Abnormalities in brain structure and behavior in GSK-3alpha mutant mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaidanovich-Beilin Oksana

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3 is a widely expressed and highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase encoded by two genes that generate two related proteins: GSK-3α and GSK-3β. Mice lacking a functional GSK-3α gene were engineered in our laboratory; they are viable and display insulin sensitivity. In this study, we have characterized brain functions of GSK-3α KO mice by using a well-established battery of behavioral tests together with neurochemical and neuroanatomical analysis. Results Similar to the previously described behaviours of GSK-3β+/-mice, GSK-3α mutants display decreased exploratory activity, decreased immobility time and reduced aggressive behavior. However, genetic inactivation of the GSK-3α gene was associated with: decreased locomotion and impaired motor coordination, increased grooming activity, loss of social motivation and novelty; enhanced sensorimotor gating and impaired associated memory and coordination. GSK-3α KO mice exhibited a deficit in fear conditioning, however memory formation as assessed by a passive avoidance test was normal, suggesting that the animals are sensitized for active avoidance of a highly aversive stimulus in the fear-conditioning paradigm. Changes in cerebellar structure and function were observed in mutant mice along with a significant decrease of the number and size of Purkinje cells. Conclusion Taken together, these data support a role for the GSK-3α gene in CNS functioning and possible involvement in the development of psychiatric disorders.

  3. Growth and Age-Related Abnormalities in Cortical Structure and Fracture Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ego Seeman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vertebral fractures and trabecular bone loss have dominated thinking and research into the pathogenesis and the structural basis of bone fragility during the last 70 years. However, 80% of all fractures are non-vertebral and occur at regions assembled using large amounts of cortical bone; only 20% of fractures are vertebral. Moreover, ~80% of the skeleton is cortical and ~70% of all bone loss is cortical even though trabecular bone is lost more rapidly than cortical bone. Bone is lost because remodelling becomes unbalanced after midlife. Most cortical bone loss occurs by intracortical, not endocortical remodelling. Each remodelling event removes more bone than deposited enlarging existing canals which eventually coalesce eroding and thinning the cortex from 'within.' Thus, there is a need to study the decay of cortical as well as trabecular bone, and to develop drugs that restore the strength of both types of bone. It is now possible to accurately quantify cortical porosity and trabecular decay in vivo. The challenges still to be met are to determine whether measurement of porosity identifies persons at risk for fracture, whether this approach is compliments information obtained using bone densitometry, and whether changes in cortical porosity and other microstructural traits have the sensitivity to serve as surrogates of treatment success or failure.

  4. CARDIAC STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL ABNORMALITIES IN FEMALES WITH UNTREATED HYPOPITUITARISM DUE TO SHEEHAN SYNDROME: RESPONSE TO HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laway, Bashir Ahmad; Ramzan, Mahroosa; Allai, Mohd Sultan; Wani, Arshad Iqbal; Misgar, Raiz Ahmad

    2016-09-01

    Data on cardiac abnormalities in females with untreated hypopituitarism are limited. We investigated echocardiographic abnormalities in females with untreated hypopituitarism and their response to treatment. Twenty-three females with treatment-naïve hypopituitarism and 30 matched healthy controls were evaluated for cardiac structure and function. Echocardiographic evaluation was done at presentation and after achieving a euthyroid and eucortisol state. Fourteen (61%) patients had mitral regurgitation, and 11 (48%) had pericardial effusion as against none among controls. Indices of left ventricular (LV) size like LV end diastolic dimension (LVEDD; 44.5 ± 3.5 mm in cases vs. 47.6 ± 3.8 mm in controls, P = .004), and LV diastolic volume (LVEDV; 91.8 ± 18.0 mL versus 106.5 ± 20.4 mL, P = .009) were significantly lower in the SS group compared with controls. LV mass (LVM) was 70.8 ± 19.2 g in cases and 108.0 ± 33.2 g in controls (P = .02). Similarly, indices of LV systolic function like stroke volume (SV; 59.1 ± 12.0 mL in cases and 74.4 ± 15.8 mL in controls; P = .000), ejection fraction (EF; 64.3 ± 6.2 % in cases against 69.9 ± 9.2 % in controls; P = .03), and fractional shortening (FS; 34.9 ± 4.7% versus 40.1 ± 4.4%, P = .000) were significantly decreased in patients compared with controls. Cardiac abnormalities normalized with restoration of a euthyroid and eucortisol state. Pericardial effusion, mitral regurgitation, and diminished LVM are common in females with untreated hypopituitarism. ACTH = adrenocorticotrophic hormone BMI = body mass index DT = deceleration time EDV = end-diastolic volume EF = ejection fraction FS = fractional shortening GH = growth hormone IGF-1 = insulin growth factor-1 ITT = insulin tolerance test IVSd = interventricular septal diameter LH = luteinizing hormone LV = left ventricular LVEDD = LV end diastolic dimension LVEDV = LV end diastolic volume LVM = LV mass MRI = magnetic resonance imaging MVP = mitral value prolapse PPH

  5. Fractal structure formation on the surfaces of solids subjected to high intensity electron and ion treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altajskij, M.V.; Ivanov, V.V.; Korenev, S.A.; Orelovich, O.L.; Puzynin, I.V.; Chernik, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the results of scanning electron microscopy of surfaces of the solids subjected to high intensity electron and ion beam treatment. The appearance of fractal structures on the modified surfaces is shown. The fractal dimensions of these structures were estimated by box-counting algorithm

  6. Nonlinear Analysis and Scaling Laws for Noncircular Composite Structures Subjected to Combined Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburger, Mark W.; Rose, Cheryl A.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Results from an analytical study of the response of a built-up, multi-cell noncircular composite structure subjected to combined internal pressure and mechanical loads are presented. Nondimensional parameters and scaling laws based on a first-order shear-deformation plate theory are derived for this noncircular composite structure. The scaling laws are used to design sub-scale structural models for predicting the structural response of a full-scale structure representative of a portion of a blended-wing-body transport aircraft. Because of the complexity of the full-scale structure, some of the similitude conditions are relaxed for the sub-scale structural models. Results from a systematic parametric study are used to determine the effects of relaxing selected similitude conditions on the sensitivity of the effectiveness of using the sub-scale structural model response characteristics for predicting the full-scale structure response characteristics.

  7. Agency, structure and subjectivity: Towards a new metaphorical model of the mind

    OpenAIRE

    Fittipaldi, Luis Antonio Egidio

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London. The current thesis is based on the research of the psychoanalytical concepts of agency, subject and structure while it correlates the same notions with the clinical observations of patients with personality disorder in crisis [patient group]. It also proposes an answer to the problem of agency and structure, incorporating structuration theory and recursivity. This is done by the co...

  8. Disrupted functional and structural networks in cognitively normal elderly subjects with the APOE ɛ4 allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yaojing; Chen, Kewei; Zhang, Junying; Li, Xin; Shu, Ni; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Zhanjun; Reiman, Eric M

    2015-03-13

    As the Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ɛ4 allele is a major genetic risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD), which has been suggested as a disconnection syndrome manifested by the disruption of white matter (WM) integrity and functional connectivity (FC), elucidating the subtle brain structural and functional network changes in cognitively normal ɛ4 carriers is essential for identifying sensitive neuroimaging based biomarkers and understanding the preclinical AD-related abnormality development. We first constructed functional network on the basis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and a structural network on the basis of diffusion tensor image. Using global, local and nodal efficiencies of these two networks, we then examined (i) the differences of functional and WM structural network between cognitively normal ɛ4 carriers and non-carriers simultaneously, (ii) the sensitivity of these indices as biomarkers, and (iii) their relationship to behavior measurements, as well as to cholesterol level. For ɛ4 carriers, we found reduced global efficiency significantly in WM and marginally in FC, regional FC dysfunctions mainly in medial temporal areas, and more widespread for WM network. Importantly, the right parahippocampal gyrus (PHG.R) was the only region with simultaneous functional and structural damage, and the nodal efficiency of PHG.R in WM network mediates the APOE ɛ4 effect on memory function. Finally, the cholesterol level correlated with WM network differently than with the functional network in ɛ4 carriers. Our results demonstrated ɛ4-specific abnormal structural and functional patterns, which may potentially serve as biomarkers for early detection before the onset of the disease.

  9. Subjective Happiness of Lebanese College Youth in Lebanon: Factorial Structure and Invariance of the Arabic Subjective Happiness Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghnie, Lamia; Kazarian, Shahe S.

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluated the subjective happiness of Lebanese college youth using a multi-item rather than a single-item subjective happiness measure. An Arabic translation of the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) was administered to 273 Lebanese college youth from state- and private-run higher institutions of learning, as was the Arabic Adult…

  10. Normal and abnormal growth plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Madewell, J.E.; Swischuk, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Skeletal growth is a dynamic process. A knowledge of the structure and function of the normal growth plate is essential in order to understand the pathophysiology of abnormal skeletal growth in various diseases. In this well-illustrated article, the authors provide a radiographic classification of abnormal growth plates and discuss mechanisms that lead to growth plate abnormalities

  11. Quantification of structural cerebral abnormalities on MRI 18 months after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in patients who received endovascular treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresser, Jeroen de [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Schaafsma, Joanna D.; Luitse, Merel J.A.; Rinkel, Gabriel J.E.; Biessels, Geert Jan [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht (Netherlands); Viergever, Max A. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-03-01

    Volume measurements performed on brain MRI after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) may provide insight into the structural abnormalities that underlie the commonly occurring and persistent long-term functional deficits after aSAH. We examined the pattern of long-term cerebral structural changes on MRI in relation to known risk factors for poor functional outcome. We studied MRI scans from 38 patients who received endovascular treatment and were not dependent for activities of daily life at 18 months after aSAH. Risk factors for poor functional outcome (clinical condition, Hijdra score, and bicaudate index on admission; occurrence of hydrocephalus or delayed cerebral infarction during hospitalization) were related to supratentorial cerebral parenchymal and lateral ventricular volumes on MRI with linear regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, and intracranial volume. Clinical condition, Hijdra score, and bicaudate index on admission were not related to cerebral parenchymal volume at 18 months. A higher bicaudate index on admission was related to lateral ventricular enlargement at 18 months after aSAH (Beta; 95%CI: 0.51; 0.14<->0.88). Delayed cerebral infarction was related to smaller cerebral parenchymal volumes (-0.14; -0.25<->-0.04) and to lateral ventricular enlargement (0.49; 0.16<->0.83) at 18 months. Volume measurements of the brain are able to quantify patterns of long-term cerebral damage in relation to different risk factors after aSAH. Application of volumetric techniques may provide more insight into the heterogeneous underlying pathophysiological processes. After confirmation of these results in larger studies, volumetric measures might even be used as outcome measures in future treatment studies. (orig.)

  12. Evaluation of soil-structure interaction for structures subjected to earthquake loading with different types of foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwi Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available However though the structures are supported on soil, most of the designers do not consider the soil structure interaction and its subsequent effect on structure during an earthquake. Different soil properties can affect seismic waves as they pass through a soil layer. When a structure is subjected to an earthquake excitation, it interacts the foundation and soil, and thus changes the motion of the ground. It means that the movement of the whole ground structure system is influenced by type of soil as well as by the type of structure. Tall buildings are supposed to be of engineered construction in sense that they might have been analyzed and designed to meet the provision of relevant codes of practice and building bye-laws. IS 1893: 2002 “Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures” gives response spectrum for different types of soil such as hard, medium and soft. An attempt has been made in this paper to study the effect of Soil-structure interaction on multi storeyed buildings with various foundation systems. Also to study the response of buildings subjected to seismic forces with Rigid and Flexible foundations. Multi storeyed buildings with fixed and flexible support subjected to seismic forces were analyzed under different soil conditions like hard, medium and soft. The buildings were analyzed by Response spectrum method using software SAP2000. The response of building frames such as Lateral deflection, Story drift, Base shear, Axial force and Column moment values for all building frames were presented in this paper.

  13. A structural abnormality associated with graded levels of thyroid hormone insufficiency: Dose dependent increases in heterotopia volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    A large number of environmental contaminants reduce circulating levels of thyroid hormone (TH), but clear markers of neurological insult associated with modest TH insufficiency are lacking. We have previously identified the presence of an abnormal cluster of misplaced neurons in ...

  14. Pole placement algorithm for control of civil structures subjected to earthquake excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Pnevmatikos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the control algorithm for controlled civil structures subjected to earthquake excitation is thoroughly investigated. The objective of this work is the control of structures by means of the pole placement algorithm, in order to improve their response against earthquake actions. Successful application of the algorithm requires judicious placement of the closed-loop eigenvalues from the part of the designer. The pole placement algorithm was widely applied to control mechanical systems. In this paper, a modification in the mathematical background of the algorithm in order to be suitable for civil fixed structures is primarily presented. The proposed approach is demonstrated by numerical simulations for the control of both single and multi-degree of freedom systems subjected to seismic actions. Numerical results have shown that the control algorithm is efficient in reducing the response of building structures, with small amount of required control forces.

  15. Structural Changes in Cattle Immature Oocytes Subjected to Slow Freezing and Vitrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wahid*, M. Thein1, E.A. El-Hafez2, M.O. Abas3, K. Mohd Azam4, O. Fauziah5, Y. Rosnina and H. Hajarian

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different cryopreservation methods (slow-freezing and vitrification on structural changes of bovine immature oocytes. Bovine ovaries were collected from local abattoirs. Cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COCs were retrieved using aspiration method from 2-6 mm follicles. In Experiment 1, selected oocytes were randomly divided into 4 treatment groups namely freezing solution-exposed, frozen-thawed, vitrification solution-exposed and vitrified-thawed and then oocytes abnormalities were examined under a stereomicroscope. In Experiment 2, oocytes were randomly allocated to the same grouping as experiment 1 plus control group. Following freezing or vitrification, all oocytes were fixed in glutaraldehyde and processed for transmission electron microscopy. In experiment 1, there was a higher incidence of abnormalities in the frozen-thawed and vitrified-warmed oocytes compared to those in freezing solution and vitrification solution-exposed groups (P<0.05. In experiment 2, there were marked alterations in the perivitelline space, microvilli and vesicles of frozen-thawed and vitrified-warmed oocytes characterized by loss of elasticity and integrity of cytoplasmic processes and microvilli following cooling and warming. In conclusion, ethylene glycol-based freezing and vitrification solutions are suitable choices for cryopreservation of immature oocytes and most organelles are able to retain their normal morphology following cryopreservation and thawing processes.

  16. Congenital Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tube defects. However, there is also a genetic influence to this type of congenital anomaly. Unknown Causes The vast majority of congenital abnormalities have no known cause. This is particularly troubling for parents who plan to have more children, because there is no way to predict if ...

  17. Optical study on the dependence of breast tissue composition and structure on subject anamnesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taroni, Paola; Quarto, Giovanna; Pifferi, Antonio; Abbate, Francesca; Balestreri, Nicola; Menna, Simona; Cassano, Enrico; Cubeddu, Rinaldo

    2015-07-01

    Time domain multi-wavelength (635 to 1060 nm) optical mammography was performed on 200 subjects to estimate their average breast tissue composition in terms of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin, water, lipid and collagen, and structural information, as provided by scattering parameters (amplitude and power). Significant (and often marked) dependence of tissue composition and structure on age, menopausal status, body mass index, and use of oral contraceptives was demonstrated.

  18. Abnormal short-latency synaptic plasticity in the motor cortex of subjects with Becker muscular dystrophy: a rTMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golaszewski, Stefan; Schwenker, Kerstin; Bergmann, Jürgen; Brigo, Francesco; Christova, Monica; Trinka, Eugen; Nardone, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    We used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to further investigate motor cortex excitability in 13 patients with Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), six of them with slight mental retardation. RTMS delivered at 5Hz frequency and suprathreshold intensity progressively increases the size of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in healthy subjects; the rTMS-induced facilitation of MEPs was significantly reduced in the BMD patients mentally retarded or classified as borderline when compared with age-matched control subjects and the BMD patients with normal intelligence. The increase in the duration of the cortical silent period was similar in both patient groups and controls. These findings suggest an altered cortical short-term synaptic plasticity in glutamate-dependent excitatory circuits within the motor cortex in BMD patients with intellectual disabilities. RTMS studies may shed new light on the physiological mechanisms of cortical involvement in dystrophinopathies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Neurologic abnormalities in murderers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, P Y; Pincus, J H; Buckner, C

    1995-09-01

    Thirty-one individuals awaiting trial or sentencing for murder or undergoing an appeal process requested a neurologic examination through legal counsel. We attempted in each instance to obtain EEG, MRI or CT, and neuropsychological testing. Neurologic examination revealed evidence of "frontal" dysfunction in 20 (64.5%). There were symptoms or some other evidence of temporal lobe abnormality in nine (29%). We made a specific neurologic diagnosis in 20 individuals (64.5%), including borderline or full mental retardation (9) and cerebral palsy (2), among others. Neuropsychological testing revealed abnormalities in all subjects tested. There were EEG abnormalities in eight of the 20 subjects tested, consisting mainly of bilateral sharp waves with slowing. There were MRI or CT abnormalities in nine of the 19 subjects tested, consisting primarily of atrophy and white matter changes. Psychiatric diagnoses included paranoid schizophrenia (8), dissociative disorder (4), and depression (9). Virtually all subjects had paranoid ideas and misunderstood social situations. There was a documented history of profound, protracted physical abuse in 26 (83.8%) and of sexual abuse in 10 (32.3%). It is likely that prolonged, severe physical abuse, paranoia, and neurologic brain dysfunction interact to form the matrix of violent behavior.

  20. Inner ear manifestations in CHARGE: Abnormalities, treatments, animal models, and progress toward treatments in auditory and vestibular structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Daniel I; Tawfik, Kareem O; Martin, Donna M; Raphael, Yehoash

    2017-12-01

    The inner ear contains the sensory organs for hearing and balance. Both hearing and balance are commonly affected in individuals with CHARGE syndrome (CS), an autosomal dominant condition caused by heterozygous pathogenic variants in the CHD7 gene. Semicircular canal dysplasia or aplasia is the single most prevalent feature in individuals with CHARGE leading to deficient gross motor skills and ambulation. Identification of CHD7 as the major gene affected in CHARGE has enabled acceleration of research in this field. Great progress has been made in understanding the role of CHD7 in the development and function of the inner ear, as well as in related organs such as the middle ear and auditory and vestibular neural pathways. The goals of current research on CHD7 and CS are to (a) improve our understanding of the pathology caused by CHD7 pathogenic variants and (b) to provide better tools for prognosis and treatment. Current studies utilize cells and whole animals, from flies to mammals. The mouse is an excellent model for exploring mechanisms of Chd7 function in the ear, given the evolutionary conservation of ear structure, function, Chd7 expression, and similarity of mutant phenotypes between mice and humans. Newly recognized developmental functions for mouse Chd7 are shedding light on how abnormalities in CHD7 might lead to CS symptoms in humans. Here we review known human inner ear phenotypes associated with CHD7 pathogenic variants and CS, summarize progress toward diagnosis and treatment of inner ear-related pathologies, and explore new avenues for treatment based on basic science discoveries. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Structural abnormalities in early Tourette syndrome children: a combined voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Liu

    Full Text Available Tourette Syndrome (TS is characterized with chronic motor and vocal tics beginning in childhood. Abnormality of both gray (GM and white matter (WM has been observed in cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits and sensory-motor cortex of adult TS patient. It is not clear if these morphological changes are also present in TS children and if there are any microstructural changes of WM. To understand the developmental cause of such changes, we investigated volumetric changes of GM and WM using VBM and microstructural changes of WM using DTI, and correlated these changes with tic severity and duration. T1 images and Diffusion Tensor Images (DTI from 21 TS children were compared with 20 age and gender matched health control children using a 1.5T Philips scanner. All of the 21 TS children met the DSM-IV-TR criteria. T1 images were analyzed using DARTEL-VBM in conjunction with statistical parametric mapping (SPM. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI analysis was performed using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS. Brain volume changes were found in left superior temporal gyrus, left and right paracentral gyrus, right precuneous cortex, right pre- and post-central gyrus, left temporal occipital fusiform cortex, right frontal pole, and left lingual gyrus. Significant axial diffusivity (AD and mean diffusivity (MD increases were found in anterior thalamic radiation, right cingulum bundle projecting to the cingulate gurus and forceps minor. Decreases in white matter volume (WMV in the right frontal pole were inversely related with tic severity (YGTSS, and increases in AD and MD were positively correlated with tic severity and duration, respectively. These changes in TS children can be interpreted as signs of neural plasticity in response to the experiential demand. Our findings may suggest that the morphological and microstructural measurements from structural MRI and DTI can potentially be used as a biomarker of the pathophysiologic pattern of early TS children.

  2. Sequencing of a patient with balanced chromosome abnormalities and neurodevelopmental disease identifies disruption of multiple high risk loci by structural variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon Blake

    Full Text Available Balanced chromosome abnormalities (BCAs occur at a high frequency in healthy and diseased individuals, but cost-efficient strategies to identify BCAs and evaluate whether they contribute to a phenotype have not yet become widespread. Here we apply genome-wide mate-pair library sequencing to characterize structural variation in a patient with unclear neurodevelopmental disease (NDD and complex de novo BCAs at the karyotype level. Nucleotide-level characterization of the clinically described BCA breakpoints revealed disruption of at least three NDD candidate genes (LINC00299, NUP205, PSMD14 that gave rise to abnormal mRNAs and could be assumed as disease-causing. However, unbiased genome-wide analysis of the sequencing data for cryptic structural variation was key to reveal an additional submicroscopic inversion that truncates the schizophrenia- and bipolar disorder-associated brain transcription factor ZNF804A as an equally likely NDD-driving gene. Deep sequencing of fluorescent-sorted wild-type and derivative chromosomes confirmed the clinically undetected BCA. Moreover, deep sequencing further validated a high accuracy of mate-pair library sequencing to detect structural variants larger than 10 kB, proposing that this approach is powerful for clinical-grade genome-wide structural variant detection. Our study supports previous evidence for a role of ZNF804A in NDD and highlights the need for a more comprehensive assessment of structural variation in karyotypically abnormal individuals and patients with neurocognitive disease to avoid diagnostic deception.

  3. Sequencing of a Patient with Balanced Chromosome Abnormalities and Neurodevelopmental Disease Identifies Disruption of Multiple High Risk Loci by Structural Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Jonathon; Riddell, Andrew; Theiss, Susanne; Gonzalez, Alexis Perez; Haase, Bettina; Jauch, Anna; Janssen, Johannes W. G.; Ibberson, David; Pavlinic, Dinko; Moog, Ute; Benes, Vladimir; Runz, Heiko

    2014-01-01

    Balanced chromosome abnormalities (BCAs) occur at a high frequency in healthy and diseased individuals, but cost-efficient strategies to identify BCAs and evaluate whether they contribute to a phenotype have not yet become widespread. Here we apply genome-wide mate-pair library sequencing to characterize structural variation in a patient with unclear neurodevelopmental disease (NDD) and complex de novo BCAs at the karyotype level. Nucleotide-level characterization of the clinically described BCA breakpoints revealed disruption of at least three NDD candidate genes (LINC00299, NUP205, PSMD14) that gave rise to abnormal mRNAs and could be assumed as disease-causing. However, unbiased genome-wide analysis of the sequencing data for cryptic structural variation was key to reveal an additional submicroscopic inversion that truncates the schizophrenia- and bipolar disorder-associated brain transcription factor ZNF804A as an equally likely NDD-driving gene. Deep sequencing of fluorescent-sorted wild-type and derivative chromosomes confirmed the clinically undetected BCA. Moreover, deep sequencing further validated a high accuracy of mate-pair library sequencing to detect structural variants larger than 10 kB, proposing that this approach is powerful for clinical-grade genome-wide structural variant detection. Our study supports previous evidence for a role of ZNF804A in NDD and highlights the need for a more comprehensive assessment of structural variation in karyotypically abnormal individuals and patients with neurocognitive disease to avoid diagnostic deception. PMID:24625750

  4. Distributed Piezoelectric Sensor System for Damage Identification in Structures Subjected to Temperature Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitola, Jaime; Pozo, Francesc; Tibaduiza, Diego A; Anaya, Maribel

    2017-05-31

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) is a very important area in a wide spectrum of fields and engineering applications. With an SHM system, it is possible to reduce the number of non-necessary inspection tasks, the associated risk and the maintenance cost in a wide range of structures during their lifetime. One of the problems in the detection and classification of damage are the constant changes in the operational and environmental conditions. Small changes of these conditions can be considered by the SHM system as damage even though the structure is healthy. Several applications for monitoring of structures have been developed and reported in the literature, and some of them include temperature compensation techniques. In real applications, however, digital processing technologies have proven their value by: (i) offering a very interesting way to acquire information from the structures under test; (ii) applying methodologies to provide a robust analysis; and (iii) performing a damage identification with a practical useful accuracy. This work shows the implementation of an SHM system based on the use of piezoelectric (PZT) sensors for inspecting a structure subjected to temperature changes. The methodology includes the use of multivariate analysis, sensor data fusion and machine learning approaches. The methodology is tested and evaluated with aluminum and composite structures that are subjected to temperature variations. Results show that damage can be detected and classified in all of the cases in spite of the temperature changes.

  5. Distributed Piezoelectric Sensor System for Damage Identification in Structures Subjected to Temperature Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Vitola

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Structural health monitoring (SHM is a very important area in a wide spectrum of fields and engineering applications. With an SHM system, it is possible to reduce the number of non-necessary inspection tasks, the associated risk and the maintenance cost in a wide range of structures during their lifetime. One of the problems in the detection and classification of damage are the constant changes in the operational and environmental conditions. Small changes of these conditions can be considered by the SHM system as damage even though the structure is healthy. Several applications for monitoring of structures have been developed and reported in the literature, and some of them include temperature compensation techniques. In real applications, however, digital processing technologies have proven their value by: (i offering a very interesting way to acquire information from the structures under test; (ii applying methodologies to provide a robust analysis; and (iii performing a damage identification with a practical useful accuracy. This work shows the implementation of an SHM system based on the use of piezoelectric (PZT sensors for inspecting a structure subjected to temperature changes. The methodology includes the use of multivariate analysis, sensor data fusion and machine learning approaches. The methodology is tested and evaluated with aluminum and composite structures that are subjected to temperature variations. Results show that damage can be detected and classified in all of the cases in spite of the temperature changes.

  6. Model-based active control of a continuous structure subjected to moving loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancioiu, D.; Ouyang, H.

    2016-09-01

    Modelling of a structure is an important preliminary step of structural control. The main objectives of the modelling, which are almost always antagonistic are accuracy and simplicity of the model. The first part of this study focuses on the experimental and theoretical modelling of a structure subjected to the action of one or two decelerating moving carriages modelled as masses. The aim of this part is to obtain a simple but accurate model which will include not only the structure-moving load interaction but also the actuators dynamics. A small scale rig is designed to represent a four-span continuous metallic bridge structure with miniature guiding rails. A series of tests are run subjecting the structure to the action of one or two minicarriages with different loads that were launched along the structure at different initial speeds. The second part is dedicated to model based control design where a feedback controller is designed and tested against the validated model. The study shows that a positive position feedback is able to improve system dynamics but also shows some of the limitations of state- space methods for this type of system.

  7. Theoretical, methodological and methodical bases of structural policy of territorial subjects of the russian federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Sergeevna Antonyuk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the maintenance of the various points of view on a category «the structural policy» is revealed. The sight of authors of the article is reflected: the structural policy is understood as a subsystem of a social and economic policy of the state, called to carry out function managing by development of branches of the economy together with private business, distributions of financial resources between sectors, control over use of the given money resources with a view of, actual for a certain historical stage, by use of administrative, standard and financial tools of regulation. The methodological basis of a structural policy is defined, functions with that end in view reveal, the target system, subjects and objects, and also are specified principles and classification of tools of a structural policy. By sight authors, regional branch shifts which promote progressivechanges of branch structure of a region in directions of formation V and VI technological ways, increase of a diversification of manufacture by stimulation of innovative changes should become a target reference point of a structural policy. The most sensitiveto tactical both technological fluctuations and vulnerablein the economic plan are monospecialized regions. In this connection, the technique of carrying out of a structural policy in monospecialized subjects of the Russian Federation taking into account shifts in branches of their industrial specializations is offered.

  8. Abnormal topological organization in white matter structural networks revealed by diffusion tensor tractography in unmedicated patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhaoxi; Zhao, Tengda; Luo, Jia; Guo, Zhihua; Guo, Meng; Li, Ping; Sun, Jing; He, Yong; Li, Zhanjiang

    2014-06-03

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder defined by recurrent thoughts, intrusive and distressing impulses, or images and ritualistic behaviors. Although focal diverse regional abnormalities white matter integrity in specific brain regions have been widely studied in populations with OCD, alterations in the structural connectivities among them remain poorly understood. The aim was to investigate the abnormalities in the topological efficiency of the white matter networks and the correlation between the network metrics and Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale scores in unmedicated OCD patients, using diffusion tensor tractography and graph theoretical approaches. This study used diffusion tensor imaging and deterministic tractography to map the white matter structural networks in 26 OCD patients and 39 age- and gender-matched healthy controls; and then applied graph theoretical methods to investigate abnormalities in the global and regional properties of the white matter network in these patients. The patients and control participants both showed small-world organization of the white matter networks. However, the OCD patients exhibited significant abnormal global topology, including decreases in global efficiency (t = -2.32, p = 0.02) and increases in shortest path length, Lp (t = 2.30, p = 0.02), the normalized weighted shortest path length, λ (t = 2.08, p=0.04), and the normalized clustering coefficient, γ (t = 2.26, p = 0.03), of their white matter structural networks compared with healthy controls. Further, the OCD patients showed a reduction in nodal efficiency predominately in the frontal regions, the parietal regions and caudate nucleus. The normalized weighted shortest path length of the network metrics was significantly negatively correlated with obsessive subscale of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (r = -0.57, p = 0.0058). These findings demonstrate the abnormal topological efficiency in the white matter networks

  9. Abnormal brain structure as a potential biomarker for venous erectile dysfunction: evidence from multimodal MRI and machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingli; Fan, Wenliang; Li, Jun; Li, Quanlin; Wang, Jin; Fan, Yang; Ye, Tianhe; Guo, Jialun; Li, Sen; Zhang, Youpeng; Cheng, Yongbiao; Tang, Yong; Zeng, Hanqing; Yang, Lian; Zhu, Zhaohui

    2018-03-29

    To investigate the cerebral structural changes related to venous erectile dysfunction (VED) and the relationship of these changes to clinical symptoms and disorder duration and distinguish patients with VED from healthy controls using a machine learning classification. 45 VED patients and 50 healthy controls were included. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM), tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and correlation analyses of VED patients and clinical variables were performed. The machine learning classification method was adopted to confirm its effectiveness in distinguishing VED patients from healthy controls. Compared to healthy control subjects, VED patients showed significantly decreased cortical volumes in the left postcentral gyrus and precentral gyrus, while only the right middle temporal gyrus showed a significant increase in cortical volume. Increased axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD) and mean diffusivity (MD) values were observed in widespread brain regions. Certain regions of these alterations related to VED patients showed significant correlations with clinical symptoms and disorder durations. Machine learning analyses discriminated patients from controls with overall accuracy 96.7%, sensitivity 93.3% and specificity 99.0%. Cortical volume and white matter (WM) microstructural changes were observed in VED patients, and showed significant correlations with clinical symptoms and dysfunction durations. Various DTI-derived indices of some brain regions could be regarded as reliable discriminating features between VED patients and healthy control subjects, as shown by machine learning analyses. • Multimodal magnetic resonance imaging helps clinicians to assess patients with VED. • VED patients show cerebral structural alterations related to their clinical symptoms. • Machine learning analyses discriminated VED patients from controls with an excellent performance. • Machine learning classification provided a preliminary demonstration of DTI

  10. An adjoint method of sensitivity analysis for residual vibrations of structures subject to impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Kun; Cheng, Gengdong

    2018-03-01

    For structures subject to impact loads, the residual vibration reduction is more and more important as the machines become faster and lighter. An efficient sensitivity analysis of residual vibration with respect to structural or operational parameters is indispensable for using a gradient based optimization algorithm, which reduces the residual vibration in either active or passive way. In this paper, an integrated quadratic performance index is used as the measure of the residual vibration, since it globally measures the residual vibration response and its calculation can be simplified greatly with Lyapunov equation. Several sensitivity analysis approaches for performance index were developed based on the assumption that the initial excitations of residual vibration were given and independent of structural design. Since the resulting excitations by the impact load often depend on structural design, this paper aims to propose a new efficient sensitivity analysis method for residual vibration of structures subject to impacts to consider the dependence. The new method is developed by combining two existing methods and using adjoint variable approach. Three numerical examples are carried out and demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method. The numerical results show that the dependence of initial excitations on structural design variables may strongly affects the accuracy of sensitivities.

  11. Evaluation of CANDU NPP containment structure subjected to aging and internal pressure increase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xu [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 1A4 (Canada); Kwon, Oh-Sung, E-mail: os.kwon@utoronto.ca [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 1A4 (Canada); Bentz, Evan [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 1A4 (Canada); Tcherner, Julia [Candu Energy Inc. a member of SNC-Lavalin Group, Mississauga L5K 1B1 (Canada)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • The aging effects on the performance of a nuclear containment structure is evaluated. • A numerical model of the structure is subjected to increasing internal pressure. • No through-thickness cracks are predicted under the design level internal pressure. • The structure is predicted to be ductile up to large internal pressure levels. - Abstract: The objective of this study is to investigate the long-term performance of a typical CANDU® containment structure. A three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model was built to realistically evaluate the performance of the structure under service load as well as a hypothetical beyond-design level internal pressure. Consideration is given to the time-dependent effects, such as shrinkage, creep, and relaxation of prestressing tendons, over a 60-year timeframe. In addition, the sensitivity of the response of the containment structure against support condition, internal temperature profile and temporary construction openings was also investigated. The accuracy of the numerical model was validated against structural measurements made during a routine leak rate test. The analysis results show that the containment structure would develop a ductile mechanism if the internal pressure significantly exceeded the design pressure. The pressure-deformation relationship of the structure is sensitive to the considered time-dependent parameters.

  12. Next-generation sequencing of 100 candidate genes in young victims of suspected sudden cardiac death with structural abnormalities of the heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, C L; Christiansen, S L; Ferrero-Miliani, Laura

    2016-01-01

    with non-diagnostic structural abnormalities of the heart. METHODS AND RESULTS: We screened 72 suspected SCD cases (HaloPlex Target Enrichment System (Agilent) and NGS (Illumina MiSeq) for 100 genes previously associated with inherited cardiomyopathies and channelopathies. Fifty......-two cases had non-diagnostic structural cardiac abnormalities and 20 cases, diagnosed with a cardiomyopathy post-mortem (ARVC = 14, HCM = 6), served as comparators. Fifteen (29 %) of the deceased individuals with non-diagnostic findings had variants with likely functional effects based on conservation......, computational prediction, allele-frequency and supportive literature. The corresponding frequency in deceased individuals with cardiomyopathies was 35 % (p = 0.8). CONCLUSION: The broad genetic screening revealed variants with likely functional effects at similar high rates, i.e. in 29 and 35 % of the suspected...

  13. Multi-subject Manifold Alignment of Functional Network Structures via Joint Diagonalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenning, Karl-Heinz; Kollndorfer, Kathrin; Schöpf, Veronika; Prayer, Daniela; Langs, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging group studies rely on the ability to establish correspondence across individuals. This enables location specific comparison of functional brain characteristics. Registration is often based on morphology and does not take variability of functional localization into account. This can lead to a loss of specificity, or confounds when studying diseases. In this paper we propose multi-subject functional registration by manifold alignment via coupled joint diagonalization. The functional network structure of each subject is encoded in a diffusion map, where functional relationships are decoupled from spatial position. Two-step manifold alignment estimates initial correspondences between functionally equivalent regions. Then, coupled joint diagonalization establishes common eigenbases across all individuals, and refines the functional correspondences. We evaluate our approach on fMRI data acquired during a language paradigm. Experiments demonstrate the benefits in matching accuracy achieved by coupled joint diagonalization compared to previously proposed functional alignment approaches, or alignment based on structural correspondences.

  14. Seismic response analysis of structural system subjected to multiple support excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, R.W.; Hussain, F.A.; Liu, L.K.

    1978-01-01

    In the seismic analysis of a multiply supported structural system subjected to nonuniform excitations at each support point, the single response spectrum, the time history, and the multiple response spectrum are the three commonly employed methods. In the present paper the three methods are developed, evaluated, and the limitations and advantages of each method assessed. A numerical example has been carried out for a typical piping system. Considerably smaller responses have been predicted by the time history method than that by the single response spectrum method. This is mainly due to the fact that the phase and amplitude relations between the support excitations are faithfully retained in the time history method. The multiple response spectrum prediction has been observed to compare favourably with the time history method prediction. Based on the present evaluation, the multiple response spectrum method is the most efficient method for seismic response analysis of structural systems subjected to multiple support excitation. (Auth.)

  15. Prediction of elastic-plastic response of structural elements subjected to cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Haddad, M.H.; Samaan, S.

    1985-01-01

    A simplified elastic-plastic analysis is developed to predict stress strain and force deformation response of structural metallic elements subjected to irregular cyclic loadings. In this analysis a simple elastic-plastic method for predicting the skeleton force deformation curve is developed. In this method, elastic and fully plastic solutions are first obtained for unknown quantities, such as deflection or local strains. Elastic and fully plastic contributions are then combined to obtain an elastic-plastic solution. The skeleton curve is doubled to establish the shape of the hysteresis loop. The complete force deformation response can therefore be simulated through reversal by reversal in accordance with hysteresis looping and material memory. Several examples of structural elements with various cross sections made from various materials and subjected to irregular cyclic loadings, are analysed. A close agreement is obtained between experimental results found in the literature and present predictions. (orig.)

  16. Concrete model for finite element analysis of structures subjected to severe damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamet, Ph.; Millard, A.; Hoffmann, A.; Nahas, G.; Barbe, B.

    1984-01-01

    A specific concrete model has been developed, in order to perform mechanical analysis of civil engineering structures, when subjected to accidental loadings, leading to severe damages. Its formulation is based on the physical mechanisms, which have been observed on laboratory specimens. The model has been implemented into the CASTEM finite element system, and the case of a concrete slab perforation by a rigid missile has been considered. The qualitative behaviour of the structure is well predicted by the model. Comparison between numerical and experimental results is also performed, using two main curves: missile velocity versus penetration depth; reaction forces versus time. (Author) [pt

  17. Advances in the analysis of NPP and other critical structures subjected to aircraft impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riera, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    A brief overview of analysis and design criteria of structures subjected to aircraft impact was presented, focusing attention on factors considered of relevance for NPP design. One of these factors is related to model uncertainty, i.e. to the degree of belief of the designer in the numerical or analytical model employed to determine the structural response. Note that uncertainty grows as we approach the limits of past experience, region in which the analyst and design engineer find themselves when assessing the effects of aircraft impact

  18. Structural Change of Gross Regional Product in the Subjects of Ural Federal District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Vladimirovich Gamukin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The important factor of the stability of the national economy is the adaptive capability of regional economies to damping of external and internal factors of risk. It occurs thanks to the variety of the developed industry structures of the economy in regions as well as to the constant process of their transformation that finds reflection in the structure of the gross regional product (GRP. It is possible to consider three main strategies of the development of the structure of regional economy: 1 the reduction of the economies of regions to the balanced condition; 2 the emphasis on the individualization of the structure of regional economy; 3 the combined strategy, when regions with various structure of economy are integrated into macro-regions in which there is a compilation of structure. In the latter case, this can result in both the leveling of the GRP structure of the territorial subjects of the Russian Federation included in the region and its convergence to macro-region indicators, in general (for example, to the federal district’s indicators. For the confirmation of this hypothesis, the analysis of GRP of the subjects included in the Ural Federal District for the period of 2005–2014 is carried out. As a result, a number of conclusions are formulated. Thus, the measurements with the use of the Ryabtsev Index and Szalai Index have shown that the GRP structure of autonomous areas is most close to the GRP structure of the federal district. At the same time, during the analyzed period, there was a reducing in a share of mining operations along with the increase in a share of GRP types referred to the auxiliary and social component of economic activity. In the federal district, there is a slow movement to a more balanced participation of regions of the district in the generation of GRP total amount. When using the author’s index of the structure determined by the double calculation of the sum of squared deviations, the tendency towards

  19. Structural and functional associations of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex with subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Koike, Takahiko; Yoshihara, Kazufumi; Yoshida, Yumiko; Takahashi, Haruka K; Nakagawa, Eri; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-07-01

    Happiness is one of the most fundamental human goals, which has led researchers to examine the source of individual happiness. Happiness has usually been discussed regarding two aspects (a temporary positive emotion and a trait-like long-term sense of being happy) that are interrelated; for example, individuals with a high level of trait-like subjective happiness tend to rate events as more pleasant. In this study, we hypothesized that the interaction between the two aspects of happiness could be explained by the interaction between structure and function in certain brain regions. Thus, we first assessed the association between gray matter density (GMD) of healthy participants and trait-like subjective happiness using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Further, to assess the association between the GMD and brain function, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using the task of positive emotion induction (imagination of several emotional life events). VBM indicated that the subjective happiness was positively correlated with the GMD of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC). Functional MRI demonstrated that experimentally induced temporal happy feelings were positively correlated with subjective happiness level and rACC activity. The rACC response to positive events was also positively correlated with its GMD. These results provide convergent structural and functional evidence that the rACC is related to happiness and suggest that the interaction between structure and function in the rACC may explain the trait-state interaction in happiness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Neurological abnormalities predict disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggesi, Anna; Gouw, Alida; van der Flier, Wiesje

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of neurological abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in predicting global functional decline in a cohort of initially independent-living elderly subjects. The Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study, involving 11 European centres, was primarily aimed...... at evaluating age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) as an independent predictor of the transition to disability (according to Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale) or death in independent elderly subjects that were followed up for 3 years. At baseline, a standardized neurological examination.......0 years, 45 % males), 327 (51.7 %) presented at the initial visit with ≥1 neurological abnormality and 242 (38 %) reached the main study outcome. Cox regression analyses, adjusting for MRI features and other determinants of functional decline, showed that the baseline presence of any neurological...

  1. Statistics of the Von Mises Stress Response For Structures Subjected To Random Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-Tsang Chen

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite element-based random vibration analysis is increasingly used in computer aided engineering software for computing statistics (e.g., root-mean-square value of structural responses such as displacements, stresses and strains. However, these statistics can often be computed only for Cartesian responses. For the design of metal structures, a failure criterion based on an equivalent stress response, commonly known as the von Mises stress, is more appropriate and often used. This paper presents an approach for computing the statistics of the von Mises stress response for structures subjected to random excitations. Random vibration analysis is first performed to compute covariance matrices of Cartesian stress responses. Monte Carlo simulation is then used to perform scatter and failure analyses using the von Mises stress response.

  2. Nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete structures subjected to high temperature and external load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, Y.; Goto, M.; Saito, K.; Suzuki, N.; Muto, A.; Ueda, M.

    1993-01-01

    A quarter of a century has passed since the finite element method was first applied to nonlinear problems concerning reinforced concrete structures, and the reliability of the analysis at ordinary temperature has been enhanced accordingly. By contrast, few studies have tried to deal with the nonlinear behavior of reinforced concrete structures subjected to high temperature and external loads simultaneously. It is generally known that the mechanical properties of concrete and steel are affected greatly by temperature. Therefore, in order to analyze the nonlinear behavior of reinforced concrete subjected to external loads at high temperature, it is necessary to construct constitutive models of the materials reflecting the influence of temperature. In this study, constitutive models of concrete and reinforcement that can express decreases in strength and stiffness at high temperature have been developed. A two-dimensional nonlinear finite element analysis program has been developed by use of these material models. The behavior of reinforced concrete beams subjected simultaneously to high temperature and shear forces were simulated using the developed analytical method. The results of the simulation agreed well with the experimental results, evidencing the validity of the developed material models and the finite element analysis program

  3. Impedance measures in analysis and characterization of multistable structures subjected to harmonic excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harne, Ryan L.; Goodpaster, Benjamin A.

    2018-01-01

    Structural components susceptible to adverse, post-buckled dynamic behaviors have long challenged the success of applications requiring lightweight, slender curved structures, while researchers have begun to leverage such bistable systems in emerging applications for novel energy attenuation and shape-changing properties. To expedite development and deployment of these built-up platforms containing post-buckled constituents, efficient approaches are required to complement time-consuming full-field models in the prediction of the near- and far-from-equilibrium dynamics. This research meets the need by introducing a semi-analytical model framework to enable the characterization of steady-state responses in multi degree-of-freedom (DOF) and multistable structural systems subjected to harmonic excitation. In so doing, the pathway for assessing impedance measures is created here so as to identify how energy travels and returns within built-up multistable structures. Verified by simulations and qualitatively validated by experiments, the analysis is shown to accurately reproduce both near- and far-from-equilibrium responses including different classes of energetic snap-through dynamics that only exist in such multistable structures. A first look at the impedance measures of different dynamic regimes reveals a connection between damping in multistable structures and the sustainability of far-from-equilibrium oscillations.

  4. Glucose metabolism, gray matter structure, and memory decline in subjective memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheef, Lukas; Spottke, Annika; Daerr, Moritz; Joe, Alexius; Striepens, Nadine; Kölsch, Heike; Popp, Julius; Daamen, Marcel; Gorris, Dominik; Heneka, Michael T; Boecker, Henning; Biersack, Hans J; Maier, Wolfgang; Schild, Hans H; Wagner, Michael; Jessen, Frank

    2012-09-25

    To identify biological evidence for Alzheimer disease (AD) in individuals with subjective memory impairment (SMI) and unimpaired cognitive performance and to investigate the longitudinal cognitive course in these subjects. [¹⁸F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose PET (FDG-PET) and structural MRI were acquired in 31 subjects with SMI and 56 controls. Cognitive follow-up testing was performed (average follow-up time: 35 months). Differences in baseline brain imaging data and in memory decline were assessed between both groups. Associations of memory decline with brain imaging data were tested. The SMI group showed hypometabolism in the right precuneus and hypermetabolism in the right medial temporal lobe. Gray matter volume was reduced in the right hippocampus in the SMI group. At follow-up, subjects with SMI showed a poorer performance than controls on measures of episodic memory. Longitudinal memory decline in the SMI group was associated with reduced glucose metabolism in the right precuneus at baseline. The cross-sectional difference in 2 independent neuroimaging modalities indicates early AD pathology in SMI. The poorer memory performance at follow-up and the association of reduced longitudinal memory performance with hypometabolism in the precuneus at baseline support the concept of SMI as the earliest manifestation of AD.

  5. Left ventricular structure and diastolic function in subjects with two hypertensive parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, U B; Steensgaard-Hansen, F; Rokkedal, J

    2001-01-01

    hypertension and 26 matched controls with normotensive parents. Families with non-insulin-dependent diabetes or morbid obesity were excluded. (i) Echocardiography; (ii) plasma concentrations of renin, angiotensin-II, aldosterone, epinephrine and norepinephrine; (iii) euglycaemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp study......PURPOSE: To examine the influence of (i) strong predisposition to essential hypertension and (ii) insulin sensitivity and plasma levels of cardiomyotrophic hormones on echocardiographic parameters of left ventricular structure and function. METHODS: 26 normotensive subjects (age 18-35) with bi-parental....... RESULTS (means +/- SD): Hypertension-prone subjects vs controls had (i) higher resting systolic (117.0 +/- 14.0 vs 107.1 +/- 11.9 mmHg), and 24-h diastolic blood pressure (77.9 +/- 7.1 vs 72.9 +/- 7.2 mmHg), (ii) higher relative wall thickness (RWT) (0.39 +/- 0.09 vs 0.34 +/- 0.06). They had similar left...

  6. Soil structure interaction analysis of buried tank subjected to vertical excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.K.; Stine, M.; Wagenblast, G.; Farnworth, S.

    1995-09-01

    Underground High Level Waste Storage Tanks are subjected to strigent seismic requirements At some DOE sites, many existing waste storage tanks are of the double-shell tank design. In this configuration, the concrete outer structure acts as the vault and provides secondary confinement for the primary steel waste storage tank. To ensure the safety of the design and a good understanding of the seismic response of the concrete confinement structure, seismic analysis, including the effects of Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI), is generally performed with special purpose SSI computer analysis programs. Generally, the seismic SSI response due to vertical excitation is considered to be secondary to those of the horizontal excitation. In this paper, a detailed evaluation of the SSI response due to vertical excitation is presented and is shown to merit equal consideration relative to the horizontal excitation. The geometry and relative dimensions (i.e. flexibility) of the structure can have significant influence on the vertical seismic SSI response in local region(s) of the concrete structure

  7. Solution Methods for Structures with Random Properties Subject to Random Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köylüoglu, H. U.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Cakmak, A. S.

    This paper deals with the lower order statistical moments of the response of structures with random stiffness and random damping properties subject to random excitation. The arising stochastic differential equations (SDE) with random coefficients are solved by two methods, a second order...... the SDE with random coefficients with deterministic initial conditions to an equivalent nonlinear SDE with deterministic coefficient and random initial conditions. In both methods, the statistical moment equations are used. Hierarchy of statistical moments in the markovian approach is closed...... by the cumulant neglect closure method applied at the fourth order level....

  8. Random lock-in intervals for tubular structural elements subject to simulated natural wind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus F.; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    1999-01-01

    The paper reports on wind tunnel experiments with an elastically suspended circular cylinder vibrating under the excitation of natural wind of high turbulence degree. The natural wind turbulence was simulated bysuperposing the low frequency part of the natural wind turbulence on the background high...... structural elements subject to thenatural wind. The engineering relevance of the investigation is supported by comparing with the unrealistic highlyconservative rules of wind induced fatique commonly given in codes of practice. The stochastic lock-in model aswell as the related fatigue calculation procedure...

  9. Lysyl Oxidase Induces Vascular Oxidative Stress and Contributes to Arterial Stiffness and Abnormal Elastin Structure in Hypertension: Role of p38MAPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Revelles, Sonia; García-Redondo, Ana B; Avendaño, María S; Varona, Saray; Palao, Teresa; Orriols, Mar; Roque, Fernanda R; Fortuño, Ana; Touyz, Rhian M; Martínez-González, Jose; Salaices, Mercedes; Rodríguez, Cristina; Briones, Ana M

    2017-09-01

    Vascular stiffness, structural elastin abnormalities, and increased oxidative stress are hallmarks of hypertension. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an elastin crosslinking enzyme that produces H 2 O 2 as a by-product. We addressed the interplay between LOX, oxidative stress, vessel stiffness, and elastin. Angiotensin II (Ang II)-infused hypertensive mice and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) showed increased vascular LOX expression and stiffness and an abnormal elastin structure. Mice over-expressing LOX in vascular smooth muscle cells (TgLOX) exhibited similar mechanical and elastin alterations to those of hypertensive models. LOX inhibition with β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) attenuated mechanical and elastin alterations in TgLOX mice, Ang II-infused mice, and SHR. Arteries from TgLOX mice, Ang II-infused mice, and/or SHR exhibited increased vascular H 2 O 2 and O 2 .- levels, NADPH oxidase activity, and/or mitochondrial dysfunction. BAPN prevented the higher oxidative stress in hypertensive models. Treatment of TgLOX and Ang II-infused mice and SHR with the mitochondrial-targeted superoxide dismutase mimetic mito-TEMPO, the antioxidant apocynin, or the H 2 O 2 scavenger polyethylene glycol-conjugated catalase (PEG-catalase) reduced oxidative stress, vascular stiffness, and elastin alterations. Vascular p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) activation was increased in Ang II-infused and TgLOX mice and this effect was prevented by BAPN, mito-TEMPO, or PEG-catalase. SB203580, the p38MAPK inhibitor, normalized vessel stiffness and elastin structure in TgLOX mice. We identify LOX as a novel source of vascular reactive oxygen species and a new pathway involved in vascular stiffness and elastin remodeling in hypertension. LOX up-regulation is associated with enhanced oxidative stress that promotes p38MAPK activation, elastin structural alterations, and vascular stiffness. This pathway contributes to vascular abnormalities in hypertension. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27

  10. Exploratory analysis of diffusion tensor imaging in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: evidence of abnormal white matter structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastura, Giuseppe; Doering, Thomas; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Mattos, Paulo; Araújo, Alexandra Prüfer

    2016-06-01

    Abnormalities in the white matter microstructure of the attentional system have been implicated in the aetiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a promising magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology that has increasingly been used in studies of white matter microstructure in the brain. The main objective of this work was to perform an exploratory analysis of white matter tracts in a sample of children with ADHD versus typically developing children (TDC). For this purpose, 13 drug-naive children with ADHD of both genders underwent MRI using DTI acquisition methodology and tract-based spatial statistics. The results were compared to those of a sample of 14 age- and gender-matched TDC. Lower fractional anisotropy was observed in the splenium of the corpus callosum, right superior longitudinal fasciculus, bilateral retrolenticular part of the internal capsule, bilateral inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, left external capsule and posterior thalamic radiation (including right optic radiation). We conclude that white matter tracts in attentional and motor control systems exhibited signs of abnormal microstructure in this sample of drug-naive children with ADHD.

  11. Nonparametric Monitoring for Geotechnical Structures Subject to Long-Term Environmental Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Bum Yun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonparametric, data-driven methodology of monitoring for geotechnical structures subject to long-term environmental change is discussed. Avoiding physical assumptions or excessive simplification of the monitored structures, the nonparametric monitoring methodology presented in this paper provides reliable performance-related information particularly when the collection of sensor data is limited. For the validation of the nonparametric methodology, a field case study was performed using a full-scale retaining wall, which had been monitored for three years using three tilt gauges. Using the very limited sensor data, it is demonstrated that important performance-related information, such as drainage performance and sensor damage, could be disentangled from significant daily, seasonal and multiyear environmental variations. Extensive literature review on recent developments of parametric and nonparametric data processing techniques for geotechnical applications is also presented.

  12. T174. STRUCTURAL ABNORMALITIES IN THE CINGULATE CORTEX IN ADOLESCENTS AT ULTRA-HIGH RISK WHO LATER DEVELOP PSYCHOSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortea, Adriana; van Eindhjoven, Phillip; Pariente, Jose; Calvo, Anna; Batalla, Albert; de la Serna, Elena; Ilzarbe, Daniel; Tor, Jordina; Dolz, Montserrat; Baeza, Inmaculada; Sugranyes, Gisela

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Identification of biomarkers of transition to psychosis in individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) has the potential to improve future outcomes (McGorry, 2008). Structural MRI studies with UHR samples have revealed steeper rates of cortical thinning in temporal, prefrontal and cingulate cortices in individuals who later develop psychosis in both baseline and longitudinal comparisons (Fusar-Poli, 2011; Cannon, 2014). However, little is known about how onset of prodromal symptoms during adolescence impacts on changes in cortical thickness (CTH) (Ziermans, 2012). Methods Multicentre cross-sectional case-control study, including youth aged 10–17 years, recruited from two child and adolescent mental health centres. UHR individuals were identified using the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes criteria with some modifications. Healthy controls (HC) were recruited from the same geographical area. Exclusion criteria comprised personal history of psychotic symptoms, IQ.6) for CTH measures. Images were pre-processed employing automated procedures implemented in FreeSurfer 5.3.0, cortical parcellation employed the Desikan-Killiany brain atlas. Analyses: First, mean global and lobar (frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, insula and cingulate) CTH measurements were computed. Then, within lobes showing group effects, CTH was measured for each parcellation. ANCOVA was performed to test differences between groups in SPSS 22.0, including gender, age, total intracranial volume and site as covariates. Significance was set at p<.05, corrected using the false discovery rate (FDR). Results 122 subjects were included (59 UHR-NP vs. 18 UHR-P vs. 45 HC, mean ages: 15.2 ± 1.5 vs. 15.0 ± 1.8 vs. 15.8 ± 1.5, F=1.9, p=.15; gender (%female): 61.0% vs 61.1% vs 68.9%, χ2=.76, p=.68). There were no significant differences in case-control proportion between centres: χ2=1.3, p=.25. No significant differences in global CTH in UHR-P (2.57 ± 0.13mm) relative to UHR

  13. The structural behavior of a bolted flanged connection subjected to a cyclic load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesari, F.

    1981-01-01

    In the vessel of BWR nuclear plants, the bolted flanged connection is subjected to a cyclic load, consisting of four steps: the bolt load, the pressure load with decreasing of bolt load, depressurization with increasing bold load, and at the end, unbolting. In the case of rigid, bolted flange, the elastic behavior is essentially correct, but if the height of the flange is decreased, then the stress gradients are so high that the strains move into the plastic range. In addition, the design of pressure vessels is not complete without an appraisal of failure by progressive distortion or stress ratchteing. There is therefore a need for numerical results for the structures subjected to well-known loading. The aim of this paper is to follow the stress and strain of a bolted flange subjected to the cyclic load, progressively varying the height of the flange, so that the maximum stress intensity becomes 3 Ssub(m). The number of cycles was sufficient to verify the conditions of shakedown or ratcheting. The numerical analysis, using finite element technique and the Adina code, is well established and frequently used. (orig.)

  14. Inelastic response of piping systems subjected to in-structure seismic excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, R.D.; Kennedy, R.P.; Trasher, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the inelastic response of single-degree-of-freedom systems and a simple piping system to varying levels of earthquake loading with superimposed static loading. The objective was to examine the conservatism inherent in ASME code rules for the design of piping systems by quantifying the ratio of the dynamic margin to the static margin for various degrees of inelastic strain, system frequencies and instructure time histories. Previous studies of elastic, perfectly-plastic and bilinear strain-hardening, single-degree-of-freedom models subjected to earthquake ground motion records have demonstrated the conservatism in current design methodology and design codes for earthquake resistant design of structures. This study compares response of single degree of freedom and simple piping system subjected to typical in-structure earthquake time histories and focuses on the excess margin inherent in current design criteria for piping systems. It is shown that the factor of safety against failure is variable and is dependent upon the frequency content of the loading, the dynamic characteristics of the piping system and the allowable system ductility. A recommendation is made for revision to current criteria on the basis of maintaining a constant factor of safety for dynamic and static loading

  15. Gratitude mediates the effect of emotional intelligence on subjective well-being: A structural equation modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yuan

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the relationship among emotional intelligence, gratitude, and subjective well-being in a sample of university students. A total of 365 undergraduates completed the emotional intelligence scale, the gratitude questionnaire, and the subjective well-being measures. The results of the structural equation model showed that emotional intelligence is positively associated with gratitude and subjective well-being, that gratitude is positively associated with subjective well-being, and that gratitude partially mediates the positive relationship between emotional intelligence and subjective well-being. Bootstrap test results also revealed that emotional intelligence has a significant indirect effect on subjective well-being through gratitude.

  16. Structural integrity analysis of an Ignalina nuclear power plant building subjected to an airplane crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dundulis, Gintautas; Kulak, Ronald F.; Marchertas, Algirdas; Uspuras, Eugenijus

    2007-01-01

    Recent terrorist attacks using commandeered commercial airliners on civil structures have raised the issue of the ability of nuclear power plants to survive the consequences of an airliner crash. The structural integrity analysis due to the effects of an aircraft crash on an Ignalina nuclear power plant (INPP) accident localization system (ALS) building is the subject of this paper. A combination of the finite element method and empirical relationships were used for the analysis. A global structural integrity analysis was performed for a portion of the ALS building using the dynamic loading from an aircraft crash impact model. The local effects caused by impact of the aircraft's engine on the building wall were evaluated independently by using an empirical formula. The results from the crash analysis of a twin engine commercial aircraft show that the impacted reinforced concrete wall of the ALS building will not have through-the-wall concrete failure, and the reinforcement will not fail. Strain-rate effects were found to delay the onset of cracking. Therefore, the structural integrity of the impacted wall of the INPP ALS building will be maintained during the crash event studied

  17. Structural integrity analysis of an Ignalina nuclear power plant building subjected to an airplane crash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dundulis, Gintautas [Laboratory of Nuclear Installation Safety, Lithuanian Energy Institute, 3 Breslaujos, 44403 Kaunas-35 (Lithuania)]. E-mail: gintas@isag.lei.lt; Kulak, Ronald F. [RFK Engineering Mechanics Consultants (United States); Marchertas, Algirdas [Northern Illinois University (United States); Uspuras, Eugenijus [Laboratory of Nuclear Installation Safety, Lithuanian Energy Institute, 3 Breslaujos, 44403 Kaunas-35 (Lithuania)

    2007-08-15

    Recent terrorist attacks using commandeered commercial airliners on civil structures have raised the issue of the ability of nuclear power plants to survive the consequences of an airliner crash. The structural integrity analysis due to the effects of an aircraft crash on an Ignalina nuclear power plant (INPP) accident localization system (ALS) building is the subject of this paper. A combination of the finite element method and empirical relationships were used for the analysis. A global structural integrity analysis was performed for a portion of the ALS building using the dynamic loading from an aircraft crash impact model. The local effects caused by impact of the aircraft's engine on the building wall were evaluated independently by using an empirical formula. The results from the crash analysis of a twin engine commercial aircraft show that the impacted reinforced concrete wall of the ALS building will not have through-the-wall concrete failure, and the reinforcement will not fail. Strain-rate effects were found to delay the onset of cracking. Therefore, the structural integrity of the impacted wall of the INPP ALS building will be maintained during the crash event studied.

  18. Matrix metalloproteinases and left ventricular function and structure in spinal cord injured subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Roberto; Paim, Layde R; de Rossi, Guilherme; Matos-Souza, José R; Costa E Silva, Anselmo de A; Souza, Cristiane M; Borges, Mariane; Azevedo, Eliza R; Alonso, Karina C; Gorla, José I; Cliquet, Alberto; Nadruz, Wilson

    2014-11-01

    Subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) exhibit impaired left ventricular (LV) diastolic function, which has been reported to be attenuated by regular physical activity. This study investigated the relationship between circulating matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) and echocardiographic parameters in SCI subjects and the role of physical activity in this regard. Forty-two men with SCI [19 sedentary (S-SCI) and 23 physically-active (PA-SCI)] were evaluated by clinical, anthropometric, laboratory, and echocardiographic analysis. Plasmatic pro-MMP-2, MMP-2, MMP-8, pro-MMP-9, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and zymography. PA-SCI subjects presented lower pro-MMP-2 and pro-MMP-2/TIMP-2 levels and improved markers of LV diastolic function (lower E/Em and higher Em and E/A values) than S-SCI ones. Bivariate analysis showed that pro-MMP-2 correlated inversely with Em and directly with E/Em, while MMP-9 correlated directly with LV mass index and LV end-diastolic diameter in the whole sample. Following multiple regression analysis, pro-MMP-2, but not physical activity, remained associated with Em, while MMP-9 was associated with LV mass index in the whole sample. These findings suggest differing roles for MMPs in LV structure and function regulation and an interaction among pro-MMP-2, diastolic function and physical activity in SCI subjects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Positive identification by a skull with multiple epigenetic traits and abnormal structure of the neurocranium, viscerocranium, and the skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuharić, Josip; Kovacic, Natasa; Marusic, Petar; Marusic, Ana; Petrovecki, Vedrana

    2011-05-01

    Wormian bones are small ossicles appearing within the cranial sutures in more than 40% of skulls, most commonly at the lambdoid suture and pterion. During the skeletal analysis of an unidentified male war victim, we observed multiple wormian bones and a patent metopic suture. Additionally, the right elbow was deformed, probably as a consequence of an old trauma. The skull was analyzed by cranial measurements and computerized tomography, revealing the presence of cranial deformities including hyperbrachicrania, localized reduction in hemispheral widths, increased cranial capacity, and sclerosis of the viscerocranium. Besides unique anatomical features and their anthropological value, such skeletal abnormalities also have a forensic value as the evidence to support the final identification of the victim. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. Spent nuclear fuel structural response when subject to an end impact accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, D.T.; Guttmann, J. [United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Rockville, MD (United States)]|[United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Koeppel, B.J.; Adkins, H.E.

    2004-07-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) is responsible for licensing spent fuel storage and transportation systems. A subset of this responsibility is to investigate and understand the structural performance of these systems. Studies have shown that the fuel rods of intact spent fuel assemblies with burn-ups up to 45 gigawatt days per metric ton of uranium (Gwd/MTU) are capable of resisting the normally expected impact loads subjected during drop accident conditions. However, effective cladding thickness for intact spent fuel assemblies with burn ups greater than 45 Gwd/MTU can be reduced due to corrosion. The capability of the fuel rod to withstand the expected loads encountered under normal and accident conditions may also be reduced, given degradation of the material properties under extended use, such as decrease in ductility. The USNRC and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNNL) performed computational studies to predict the structural response of spent nuclear fuel in a transport system that is subjected to a hypothetical regulatory impact accident, as defined in 10 CFR71.73. This study performs a structural analysis of a typical high burn up Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel assembly using the ANSYS {sup registered} ANSYS {sup registered} /LS- DYNA {sup registered} finite element analysis (FEA) code. The material properties used in the analyses were based on expert judgment and included uncertainties. Ongoing experimental programs will reduce the uncertainties. The current evaluations include the pins, spacer grids, and tie plates to assess possible cladding failure/rupture under hypothetical impact accident loading. This paper describes the USNRC and PNNL staff's analytical approach, provides details on the single pin model developed for this assessment, and presents the results.

  1. A general symplectic method for the response analysis of infinitely periodic structures subjected to random excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available A general symplectic method for the random response analysis of infinitely periodic structures subjected to stationary/non-stationary random excitations is developed using symplectic mathematics in conjunction with variable separation and the pseudo-excitation method (PEM. Starting from the equation of motion for a single loaded substructure, symplectic analysis is firstly used to eliminate the dependent degrees of the freedom through condensation. A Fourier expansion of the condensed equation of motion is then applied to separate the variables of time and wave number, thus enabling the necessary recurrence scheme to be developed. The random response is finally determined by implementing PEM. The proposed method is justified by comparison with results available in the literature and is then applied to a more complicated time-dependent coupled system.

  2. Dynamic response of tertiary systems in structures subjected to base excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernried, A.G.; Kai-sing Lau

    1988-01-01

    The dynamic response of very lightweight equipment (tertiary subsystem) attached to light equipment (secondary subsystem) which in turn is attached to a heavier structure (primary subsystem) that is subjected to ground shock or earthquake excitation is investigated. Both the single-degree-of-freedom and multi-degree-of-freedom subsystem models are considered. The systems are damped as well as undamped, completely detuned (all natural frequencies of the subsystems well spaced), singly tuned (one natural frequency of each subsystem equal or close to one another), or multiply tuned (more than one natural frequency of the subsystems close to each other). Efficient techniques for the determination of the tertiary subsystem response that avoid a computationally intensive numerical integration of the combined system equations are presented. (author)

  3. Effects of strain history on structural reliability analysis of pipes subjected to reeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Hugo A.; Bravo, Richard E. [TENARIS Group, Campana (Argentina). Center for Industrial Research; Daguerre, Federico [TENARIS Group (Mexico). TAMSA

    2005-07-01

    In this work a method to perform a Structural Reliability Analysis (SRA) for a tube subject to reeling is considered in detail. A fracture mechanics based methodology is reviewed and the points that need to be resolved before extending the methods to include reeling are clearly identified. The effect of the strain history on the applied and material fracture mechanics parameters were studied. A theoretical model was developed to describe the crack driving force evolution through strain cycles. A criterion was proposed and corroborated to represent material fracture resistance behavior. An experimental program was carried out. The material analyzed was a X65 grade. Monotonic and cyclic fracture mechanic tests were performed on single edge notch in tension specimens. The material fracture resistance curve was determined based on the monotonic tests. The cyclic tests were used to determine experimentally the applied fracture mechanic parameters evolution. A very good agreement between predicted and measured CTOD values was obtained for the cases analyzed. A methodology to perform a SRA for tube subjected to reeling is proposed. (author)

  4. 24 CFR 1000.160 - Are non-dwelling structures developed, acquired or assisted under the IHBG program subject to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are non-dwelling structures...-dwelling structures developed, acquired or assisted under the IHBG program subject to limitations on cost or design standards? Yes. Non-dwelling structures must be of a design, size and with features or...

  5. Fyn kinase genetic ablation causes structural abnormalities in mature retina and defective Müller cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Solano, Marbella; Ibarra-Sanchez, Alfredo; Treviño, Mario; Gonzalez-Espinosa, Claudia; Lamas, Monica

    2016-04-01

    Fyn kinase is widely expressed in neuronal and glial cells of the brain, where it exerts multiple functional roles that affect fundamental physiological processes. The aim of our study was to investigate the, so far unknown, functional role of Fyn in the retina. We report that Fyn is expressed, in vivo, in a subpopulation of Müller glia. We used a mouse model of Fyn genetic ablation and Müller-enriched primary cultures to demonstrate that Fyn deficiency induces morphological alterations in the mature retina, a reduction in the thickness of the outer and inner nuclear layers and alterations in postnatal Müller cell physiology. These include shortening of Müller cell processes, a decrease in cell proliferation, inactivation of the Akt signal transduction pathway, a reduced number of focal adhesions points and decreased adhesion of these cells to the ECM. As abnormalities in Müller cell physiology have been previously associated to a compromised retinal function we evaluated behavioral responses to visual stimulation. Our results associate Fyn deficiency with impaired visual optokinetic responses under scotopic and photopic light conditions. Our study reveals novel roles for Fyn kinase in retinal morphology and Müller cell physiology and suggests that Fyn is required for optimal visual processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A two-stage model for in vivo assessment of brain tumor perfusion and abnormal vascular structure using arterial spin labeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick W Hales

    Full Text Available The ability to assess brain tumor perfusion and abnormalities in the vascular structure in vivo could provide significant benefits in terms of lesion diagnosis and assessment of treatment response. Arterial spin labeling (ASL has emerged as an increasingly viable methodology for non-invasive assessment of perfusion. Although kinetic models have been developed to describe perfusion in healthy tissue, the dynamic behaviour of the ASL signal in the brain tumor environment has not been extensively studied. We show here that dynamic ASL data acquired in brain tumors displays an increased level of 'biphasic' behaviour, compared to that seen in healthy tissue. A new two-stage model is presented which more accurately describes this behaviour, and provides measurements of perfusion, pre-capillary blood volume fraction and transit time, and capillary bolus arrival time. These biomarkers offer a novel contrast in the tumor and surrounding tissue, and provide a means for measuring tumor perfusion and vascular structural abnormalities in a fully non-invasive manner.

  7. Cell death in neural precursor cells and neurons before neurite formation prevents the emergence of abnormal neural structures in the Drosophila optic lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Yusuke; Sudo, Tatsuya; Togane, Yu; Akagawa, Hiromi; Tsujimura, Hidenobu

    2018-04-01

    Programmed cell death is a conserved strategy for neural development both in vertebrates and invertebrates and is recognized at various developmental stages in the brain from neurogenesis to adulthood. To understand the development of the central nervous system, it is essential to reveal not only molecular mechanisms but also the role of neural cell death (Pinto-Teixeira et al., 2016). To understand the role of cell death in neural development, we investigated the effect of inhibition of cell death on optic lobe development. Our data demonstrate that, in the optic lobe of Drosophila, cell death occurs in neural precursor cells and neurons before neurite formation and functions to prevent various developmental abnormalities. When neuronal cell death was inhibited by an effector caspase inhibitor, p35, multiple abnormal neuropil structures arose during optic lobe development-e.g., enlarged or fused neuropils, misrouted neurons and abnormal neurite lumps. Inhibition of cell death also induced morphogenetic defects in the lamina and medulla development-e.g., failures in the separation of the lamina and medulla cortices and the medulla rotation. These defects were reproduced in the mutant of an initiator caspase, dronc. If cell death was a mechanism for removing the abnormal neuropil structures, we would also expect to observe them in mutants defective for corpse clearance. However, they were not observed in these mutants. When dead cell-membranes were visualized with Apoliner, they were observed only in cortices and not in neuropils. These results suggest that the cell death occurs before mature neurite formation. Moreover, we found that inhibition of cell death induced ectopic neuroepithelial cells, neuroblasts and ganglion mother cells in late pupal stages, at sites where the outer and inner proliferation centers were located at earlier developmental stages. Caspase-3 activation was observed in the neuroepithelial cells and neuroblasts in the proliferation centers

  8. Experimental Research on the Dynamic Response of Floating Structures with Coatings Subjected to Underwater Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental investigation into the dynamic response of three free floating stiffened metal boxes with protective coatings subjected to underwater explosion (UNDEX. One box was kept intact while the other two were, respectively, covered with monolithic coatings and chiral honeycomb coatings. Three groups of live fire tests with different attack angles and stand-off distances were conducted. The acceleration on the stiffener and strain peak on the bottom hull were selected as the major comparative criterions. Test results show that the impulse transmitted to the structure at the initial stage can be reduced, owing to the coating flexibility and fluid-structure interaction mechanism. Consequently, the acceleration peaks induced by both shock wave and bubble pulse were reduced. The shock environment can be more effectively improved by honeycomb coating when compared with monolithic coating. Most of the strain peaks decreased to a certain extent, but some of them were notably manifested, especially for honeycomb coating. The test affirms the fact that soft coating can cause stress concentration on the shell that is in direct contact with the coating due to the impedance mismatch between the interfaces of materials. A softer rubber coating induces a greater magnitude of strain.

  9. Fluid-structure interaction analysis for pressurizer surge line subjected to thermal stratification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dong Gu; Jhung, Myung Jo; Chang, Soon Heung

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Temperature of surge line due to stratified flow is defined using CFD analysis. → Fluid-structure interaction analysis is performed to investigate the response characteristics due to thermal stress. → Fatigue usage factors due to thermal stratification are relatively low. → Simplifying temperature distribution in surge line is not always conservative. - Abstract: Serious mechanical damages such as cracks and plastic deformations due to excessive thermal stress caused by thermal stratification have been experienced in several nuclear power plants. In particular, the thermal stratification in the pressurizer surge line has been addressed as one of the significant safety and technical issues. In this study, a detailed unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis involving conjugate heat transfer analysis is performed to obtain the transient temperature distributions in the wall of the pressurizer surge line subjected to stratified internal flows either during out-surge or in-surge operation. The thermal loads from CFD calculations are transferred to the structural analysis code which is employed for the thermal stress analysis to investigate the response characteristics, and the fatigue analysis is ultimately performed. In addition, the thermal stress and fatigue analysis results obtained by applying the realistic temperature distributions from CFD calculations are compared with those by assuming the simplified temperature distributions to identify some requirements for a realistic and conservative thermal stress analysis from a safety point of view.

  10. Comparison study of inelastic analyses for high temperature structure subjected to cyclic creep loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. B.; Lee, H. Y.; Lee, J. H.

    2002-01-01

    It is necessary to develop a reliable numerical analysis method to simulate the plasticity and creep behavior of LMR high temperature structures. Since general purpose finite element analysis codes such as ABAQUS and ANSYS provide various models for plastic hardening and creep equation of Norton's power law, it is possible to perform the separate iscoplasticity analysis. In this study, the high temperature structural analysis program(NONSTA-VP) implementing Chaboche's unified visco plasticity equation into ABAQUS has been developed and the viscoplastic response of the 316 SS plate having a circular hole subjected to a cyclic creep loading has been analyzed. The results among the separate visco plasticity analyses and the unified visco plasticity analysis using NONSTA-VP have been compared and the results from NONSTA-VP shows remarkable responses of stress relaxation and creep behavior during hold time compared to those from separate visco plasticity analyses. Also, it is anticipated to reduce the conservatism arising from using elastic approach for creep-fatigue damage analysis since the stress range and the strain range from the unified visco plasticity analysis has been greatly reduced compared to those from separate visco plasticity analyses and elastic analysis

  11. Structural analysis of porous rock reservoirs subjected to conditions of compressed air energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friley, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Investigations are described which were performed to assess the structural behavior of porous rock compressed air energy storage (CAES) reservoirs subjected to loading conditions of temperature and pressure felt to be typical of such an operation. Analyses performed addressed not only the nominal or mean reservoir response but also the cyclic response due to charge/discharge operation. The analyses were carried out by assuming various geometrical and material related parameters of a generic site. The objective of this study was to determine the gross response of a generic porous reservoir. The site geometry for this study assumed a cylindrical model 122 m in dia and 57 m high including thicknesses for the cap, porous, and base rock formations. The central portion of the porous zone was assumed to be at a depth of 518 m and at an initial temperature of 20/sup 0/C. Cyclic loading conditions of compressed air consisted of pressure values in the range of 4.5 to 5.2 MPa and temperature values between 143 and 204/sup 0/C.Various modes of structural behavior were studied. These response modes were analyzed using loading conditions of temperature and pressure (in the porous zone) corresponding to various operational states during the first year of simulated site operation. The results of the structural analyses performed indicate that the most severely stressed region will likely be in the wellbore vicinity and hence highly dependent on the length of and placement technique utilized in the well production length. Analyses to address this specific areas are currently being pursued.

  12. Effect of web openings on the structural behavior of RC beams subjected to pure torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdo Taha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the construction of modern buildings, the presence of openings became a necessity nowadays in order to accommodate the many pipes and ducts required for the different services. On the other hand, the presence of these openings in RC beams affects their structural behavior. One important behavior that needs further study would be torsion. Currently, there are no guide lines available to analyze or design RC beams with web openings under pure torsion. Thus, the main objective of this research is to investigate the behavior of simply supported RC beams with openings subjected to pure torsion. In the first part of this paper, an experimental study is conducted on seven beams subjected to pure torsion loading in order to investigate the effect of the number of openings, the spacing between stirrups, and beam depth. All beams have a constant clear span length of 1800 mm and a constant beam width of 150 mm. The beams have varying opening number and stirrups arrangement as well as varying beam depth in order to investigate the effect of these parameters on the behavior of the beams. Systematic measurements such as the cracking torque, the ultimate torque, the angle of rotation of the beam at cracking, and the angle of rotation of the beam at the ultimate load are conducted for further understanding of the beam behavior under torsion. In the second part of the paper, the experimental results are compared with the numerical results obtained using the non-linear finite element analysis program, ANSYS. Good agreement between the experimental and numerical results is found.

  13. Learning Discloses Abnormal Structural and Functional Plasticity at Hippocampal Synapses in the APP23 Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middei, Silvia; Roberto, Anna; Berretta, Nicola; Panico, Maria Beatrice; Lista, Simone; Bernardi, Giorgio; Mercuri, Nicola B.; Ammassari-Teule, Martine; Nistico, Robert

    2010-01-01

    B6-Tg/Thy1APP23Sdz (APP23) mutant mice exhibit neurohistological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease but show intact basal hippocampal neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. Here, we examine whether spatial learning differently modifies the structural and electrophysiological properties of hippocampal synapses in APP23 and wild-type mice. While…

  14. Plastic damage induced fracture behaviors of dental ceramic layer structures subjected to monotonic load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Raorao; Lu, Chenglin; Arola, Dwayne; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare failure modes and fracture strength of ceramic structures using a combination of experimental and numerical methods. Twelve specimens with flat layer structures were fabricated from two types of ceramic systems (IPS e.max ceram/e.max press-CP and Vita VM9/Lava zirconia-VZ) and subjected to monotonic load to fracture with a tungsten carbide sphere. Digital image correlation (DIC) and fractography technology were used to analyze fracture behaviors of specimens. Numerical simulation was also applied to analyze the stress distribution in these two types of dental ceramics. Quasi-plastic damage occurred beneath the indenter in porcelain in all cases. In general, the fracture strength of VZ specimens was greater than that of CP specimens. The crack initiation loads of VZ and CP were determined as 958 ± 50 N and 724 ± 36 N, respectively. Cracks were induced by plastic damage and were subsequently driven by tensile stress at the elastic/plastic boundary and extended downward toward to the veneer/core interface from the observation of DIC at the specimen surface. Cracks penetrated into e.max press core, which led to a serious bulk fracture in CP crowns, while in VZ specimens, cracks were deflected and extended along the porcelain/zirconia core interface without penetration into the zirconia core. The rupture loads for VZ and CP ceramics were determined as 1150 ± 170 N and 857 ± 66 N, respectively. Quasi-plastic deformation (damage) is responsible for crack initiation within porcelain in both types of crowns. Due to the intrinsic mechanical properties, the fracture behaviors of these two types of ceramics are different. The zirconia core with high strength and high elastic modulus has better resistance to fracture than the e.max core. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  15. CT virtual endoscopy: a study of the capability to display the structures and abnormalities in nasal cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Ping; Brambs, H.J.; Sokiranski, R.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate display ability of virtual endoscopy and its clinical application in comparison with fiberoptic nasal endoscopy. Methods: 11 patients (22 nasal cavities) were examined by virtual endoscopy after axial spiral CT scanning was performed. Virtual endoscopy was performed by Explorer software package in a computer workstation. 9 patients (18 nasal cavities) underwent fiberoptic endoscopy. Results: Virtual endoscopy could clearly demonstrate the anatomical structures in nasal cavity, septal deviation, nasal meatus narrowing and obstruction, turbinate hyperplasia, and pathological masses larger than 3 mm in diameter. However, 'false adhesions' may appear in virtual endoscopy. The main limitation of virtual endoscopy was inability to evaluate mucosa and lack of histological diagnosis. Conclusions: Virtual endoscopy is a new, non-invasive method for demonstrating anatomical structures and diseases in nasal cavity. Its display ability is comparable with fiberoptic nasal endoscopy and is a supplement to fiberoptic nasal endoscopy

  16. Structural changes in chromosomes of peripheral blood lymphocytes in monkeys subjected to long-term daily irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosichenko, L.P.

    1976-01-01

    During the period that lasted from 4 to 11 years after the cessation of the long-term daily gamma-irradiation the frequency of chromosome rearrangements in peripheral blood lymphocytes of monkeys exceeded the control level. The number of rearrangements did not change significantly with different total irradiation doses (from 826 to 3677r). The main type of structural chromosome rearrangements were symmetrical chromosome exchanges. Abnormal cell clones in peripheral lymphocytes in monkeys irradiated with low doses exhibited no selective advantages during the periods of investigation

  17. Toward validation of a structural approach to conceptualizing psychopathology: A special section of the Journal of Abnormal Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Robert F; Tackett, Jennifer L; MacDonald, Angus

    2016-11-01

    Traditionally, psychopathology has been conceptualized in terms of polythetic categories derived from committee deliberations and enshrined in authoritative psychiatric nosologies-most notably the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013). As the limitations of this form of classification have become evident, empirical data have been increasingly relied upon to investigate the structure of psychopathology. These efforts have borne fruit in terms of an increasingly consistent set of psychopathological constructs closely connected with similar personality constructs. However, the work of validating these constructs using convergent sources of data is an ongoing enterprise. This special section collects several new efforts to use structural approaches to study the validity of this empirically based organizational scheme for psychopathology. Inasmuch as a structural approach reflects the natural organization of psychopathology, it has great potential to facilitate comprehensive organization of information on the correlates of psychopathology, providing evidence for the convergent and discriminant validity of an empirical approach to classification. Here, we highlight several themes that emerge from this burgeoning literature. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. An evaluation of the effects of eyeball structure on ocular pulse amplitude in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kotaro; Mori, Mikiro; Oshika, Tetsuro

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of eyeball structure on ocular pulse amplitude (OPA) measured using dynamic contour tonometer (DCT). In 86 eyes of 43 healthy subjects, we measured OPA and intraocular pressure (IOP) with DCT (DCT-IOP), IOP with Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT-IOP), central corneal thickness (CCT), corneal thickness 2 mm (2 mmCT) and 4 mm (4 mmCT) apart from the center, corneal volume within a 3.5-mm radius from the corneal center, corneal curvature, anterior chamber depth, anterior chamber volume, and axial length (AL). OPA had a significant positive correlation with GAT-IOP (Pearson's r = 0.412, p < 0.001), DCT-IOP (r = 0.350, p < 0.001), and 4 mmCT (r = 0.244, p = 0.0231), and had a significant negative correlation with AL (r = -0.268, p = 0.0122). In a multiple linear regression analysis, AL and GAT-IOP were significantly associated with OPA. OPA measured with DCT is significantly influenced by several factors, such as IOP, peripheral corneal thickness (4 mmCT), and AL.

  19. Biomechanical and structural parameters of tendons in rats subjected to swimming exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, M A; Santos de Lira, K D; Coutinho, M P G; de Mesquita, G N; Novaes, K A; da Silva, R T B; de Brito Nascimento, A K; Inácio Teixeira, M F H B; Moraes, S R A

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of swimming exercise, without overloading, on the biomechanical parameters of the calcaneal tendon of rats. 27 male Wistar rats (70 days) were distributed randomly into 2 groups, Control Group (CG; n=15) with restricted movements inside the cage and Swimming Group (SG; n=12), subjected to exercise training in a tank with a water temperature of 30±1°C, for 1 h/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks. All animals were kept in a reversed light/dark cycle of 12 h with access to food and water ad libitum. After that, they were anesthetized and had their calcaneus tendons collected from their left rear paws. The tendon was submitted to a mechanical test on a conventional test machine. From the stress vs. strain curve, the biomechanical data were analyzed. For the statistical analysis, the Student-T test was used (penergy of deformation/tendon cross sectional area (p=0.017) and elastic modulus of the tendon (p=0.013) showed positive outcomes in SG. There was no difference in the other parameters. The results indicate that the swimming exercise training, without overloading, was an important stimulus for improving the biomechanical parameters and structural properties of the calcaneal tendon. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Studies on the structure of zirconium carbide powders subjected to vibration grinding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravchik, A.E.; Neshpor, V.S.

    1976-01-01

    The present work is a study of zirconium carbide powders subjected to vibratory milling in various media. The powders were comminuted in air (dry milling), benzene, trichloroethylene, and distilled water. The milling time was 10-160 h. The chemical compositions, specific surfaces, and crystal lattice parameters of the powder in the initial condition and after milling for 100 h in the various media are given. Vibratory milling of zirconium carbide powder can be successfully performed in benzene. Comminution in benzene enables a large specific surface to be attained, with practically no chemical reaction between the medium and the milling products. In milling in trichloroethylene the latter decomposes, with the formation of hydrochloric acid which reacts with the milling products. In a study of the fine structure parameters of zirconium carbide in the , , and directions the smallest crystal lattice strains and block sizes were observed in the direction. This may be taken as evidence that under such disintegration conditions the (110) planes constitute cleavage planes. An evaluation of internal and surface energies established that the strained crystal lattice energy reaches values which must be allowed for in any subsequent uses of the powder

  1. Numerical modeling of liquefaction-induced failure of geo-structures subjected to earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapti, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    and coupled hydro-mechanical conditions. Two criteria are used to define the onset of the structure's collapse. The second order work is used to describe the local instability at specific instants of the ground motion, while the estimation of a local safety factor is proposed by calculating soil's residual strength. Concerning the failure mode, the effect of excess pore water pressure is of great importance, as an otherwise stable structure-foundation system in dry and fully drained conditions becomes unstable during coupled analysis. Finally, a levee-foundation system is simulated and the influence of soil's permeability, depth of the liquefiable layer, as well as, characteristics of input ground motion on the liquefaction-induced failure is evaluated. For the current levee model, its induced damage level (i.e. settlements and deformations) is strongly related to both liquefaction apparition and dissipation of excess pore water pressure on the foundation. A circular collapse surface is generated inside the liquefied region and extends towards the crest in both sides of the levee. Even so, when the liquefied layer is situated in depth, no effect on the levee response is found. This research work can be considered as a reference case study for seismic assessment of embankment-type structures subjected to earthquake and provides a high-performance computational framework accessible to engineers. (author)

  2. Cerebral small-resistance artery structure and cerebral blood flow in normotensive subjects and hypertensive patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Ciuceis, Carolina; Porteri, Enzo; Rizzoni, Damiano; Boari, Gianluca E.M.; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti [University of Brescia, Clinica Medica, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Brescia (Italy); Cornali, Claudio; Mardighian, Dikran; Fontanella, Marco M. [University of Brescia, Section of Neurosurgery, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy); Pinardi, Chiara [Spedali Civili, Medical Physics Unit, Brescia (Italy); University of Brescia, Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy); Rodella, Luigi F.; Rezzani, Rita [University of Brescia, Section of Anatomy, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Brescia (Italy); Gasparotti, Roberto [University of Brescia, Section of Neurosurgery, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy); University of Brescia, Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate whether the structure of cerebral small-resistance arteries is related to cerebral perfusion parameters as measured with dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) in a selected cohort of hypertensive and normotensive patients. Ten hypertensive and 10 normotensive patients were included in the study. All patients underwent neurosurgical intervention for an intracranial tumor and were investigated with DSC-MRI at 1.5 T. Cerebral small-resistance arteries were dissected from a small portion of morphologically normal cerebral tissue and mounted on an isometric myograph for the measurement of the media-to-lumen (M/L) ratio. A quantitative assessment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and volume (CBV) was performed with a region-of-interest approach. Correlation coefficients were calculated for normally distributed variables. The institutional review board approved the study, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Compared with normotensive subjects, hypertensive patients had significantly lower regional CBF (mL/100 g/min) in the cortical grey matter (55.63 ± 1.90 vs 58.37 ± 2.19, p < 0.05), basal ganglia (53.34 ± 4.39 vs 58.22. ± 4.33, p < 0.05), thalami (50.65 ± 3.23 vs 57.56 ± 4.45, p < 0.01), subcortical white matter (19.32 ± 2.54 vs 22.24 ± 1.9, p < 0.05), greater M/L ratio (0.099 ± 0.013 vs 0.085 ± 0.012, p < 0.05), and lower microvessel density (1.66 ± 0.67 vs 2.52 ± 1.28, p < 0.05). A statistically significant negative correlation was observed between M/L ratio of cerebral arteries and CBF in the cortical grey matter (r = -0.516, p < 0.05), basal ganglia (r = -0.521, p < 0.05), thalami (r = -0.527 p < 0.05), and subcortical white matter (r = -0.612, p < 0.01). Our results indicate that microvascular structure might play a role in controlling CBF, with possible clinical consequences. (orig.)

  3. Using tensor-based morphometry to detect structural brain abnormalities in rats with adolescent intermittent alcohol exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Beatriz; Ehlers, Cindy; Crews, Fulton; Budin, Francois; Larson, Garrett; Styner, Martin; Oguz, Ipek

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the effects of adolescent binge drinking that persist into adulthood is a crucial public health issue. Adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure (AIE) is an animal model that can be used to investigate these effects in rodents. In this work, we investigate the application of a particular image analysis technique, tensor-based morphometry, for detecting anatomical differences between AIE and control rats using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). Deformation field analysis is a popular method for detecting volumetric changes analyzing Jacobian determinants calculated on deformation fields. Recent studies showed that computing deformation field metrics on the full deformation tensor, often referred to as tensor-based morphometry (TBM), increases the sensitivity to anatomical differences. In this paper we conduct a comprehensive TBM study for precisely locating differences between control and AIE rats. Using a DTI RARE sequence designed for minimal geometric distortion, 12-directional images were acquired postmortem for control and AIE rats (n=9). After preprocessing, average images for the two groups were constructed using an unbiased atlas building approach. We non-rigidly register the two atlases using Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping, and analyze the resulting deformation field using TBM. In particular, we evaluate the tensor determinant, geodesic anisotropy, and deformation direction vector (DDV) on the deformation field to detect structural differences. This yields data on the local amount of growth, shrinkage and the directionality of deformation between the groups. We show that TBM can thus be used to measure group morphological differences between rat populations, demonstrating the potential of the proposed framework.

  4. The Dimensions of Subjective Well-Being among Black Americans: A Structural Model Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thanh V.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of data from 668 black adult respondents to the 1980 National Survey of Black Americans suggests that subjective well-being among black Americans is multidimensional. A three-factor model of subjective well-being encompassing strain (depressive symptoms), life satisfaction, and self-esteem was empirically supported and consistently…

  5. Structural health monitoring in end-of-life prediction for steel bridges subjected to fatigue cracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Attema, T.; Courage, W.M.G.; Maljaars, J.; Meerveld, H. van; Paulissen, J.H.; Pijpers, R.J.M.; Slobbe, A.T.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a monitoring and modelling methodology to assess the current and future conditions of steel bridges subjected to fatigue cracking. Steel bridges are subjected to fatigue cracking as a result of fluctuating stresses caused by the crossing of heavy vehicles. Specifically for

  6. Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle) Polyphenol-rich Extract Averts Cardiac Functional and Structural Abnormalities in Type 1 Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed Yusof, Nur Liyana; Zainalabidin, Satirah; Mohd Fauzi, Norsyahida; Budin, Siti Balkis

    2018-05-04

    Diabetes mellitus is often associated with cardiac functional and structural alteration, an initial event leading to cardiovascular complications. Hibiscus sabdariffa or roselle has been widely proven as an antioxidant and recently has incited research interest for its potential in treating cardiovascular disease. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the cardioprotective effects of H. sabdariffa (roselle) polyphenol-rich extract (HPE) in type-1 induced diabetic rats. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups (n=6/group): non-diabetic (NDM), diabetic alone (DM), diabetic supplemented with HPE (DM+HPE) and metformin (DM+MET). Type-1 diabetes was induced with streptozotocin (55 mg/kg/i.p). Rats were forced-fed HPE (100 mg/kg) and metformin (150 mg/kg) daily for eight weeks. Results showed that HPE supplementation improved hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia significantly (p<0.05) in DM+HPE compared to DM group. HPE supplementation attenuated cardiac oxidative damage in DM group, indicated by low malondialdehyde and advanced oxidation protein product. As for the antioxidant status, HPE significantly (p<0.05) increased glutathione level, as well as catalase and superoxide dismutase 1 and 2 activities. These findings correlate with cardiac function, whereby HPE supplementation improved left ventricle developed pressure, coronary flow, cardiac contractility and relaxation rate significantly (p<0.05). Histological analysis showed a marked decrease in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and fibrosis in DM+HPE compared to DM group. Ultrastructural changes and impairment of mitochondria induced by diabetes were minimized by HPE supplementation. Collectively, these findings suggest that HPE is a potential cardioprotective agent in a diabetic setting through its hypoglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemia and antioxidant properties.

  7. The hypertriglyceridemic clamp technique. Studies using long-chain and structured triglyceride emulsions in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenström, Jörgen; Thörne, Anders; Aberg, Wiveca; Carneheim, Claes; Olivecrona, Thomas

    2006-11-01

    In a randomized crossover study, plasma kinetics of 2 different types of fat emulsions were studied in 8 healthy volunteers by using a hypertriglyceridemic clamp technique. The method involves the stabilization of serum triglyceride (TG) concentration during 180 minutes at a predetermined level (4 mmol/L) by adjustment of TG infusion rate by repeated online measurements of serum TG concentration. The fat emulsions under study were a long-chain fatty acid triglyceride (LCT) emulsion (Intralipid 20%, Fresenius Kabi, Sweden) and a structured triglyceride (STG) emulsion (Structolipid 20%, Fresenius Kabi) where medium- and long-chain fatty acids have been interesterified within a TG molecule. The hypertriglyceridemic clamp was found to have acceptable reproducibility when tested in 3 healthy individuals on 2 different occasions, as similar steady-state TG levels were obtained by infusing similar amounts of fat. The average (+/-SEM) TG concentration during the 180-minute clamp was similar for STGs and LCTs (4.0 +/- 0.1 vs 3.9 +/- 0.1 mmol/L; not significant), but the amount of fat that had to be infused was significantly higher during STG than during LCT clamping (0.31 +/- 0.04 vs 0.21 +/- 0.02 g TG per minute; P < .05). Higher serum levels of free fatty acids (1.80 +/- 0.13 vs 0.96 +/- 0.09 mmol/L; P < .05), free glycerol (1.30 +/- 0.07 vs 0.76 +/- 0.08 mmol/L; P < .001), and beta-OH butyrate (1.61 +/- 0.44 vs 1.17 +/- 0.23 mmol/L; not significant) were obtained at the end of the clamp during infusion of STGs compared with LCTs. During infusion of STGs the medium-chain fatty acids octanoic (C:8) and decanoic acid (C:10) constituted approximately half of circulating fatty acids that correspond to the compositional ratio of the emulsion. Plasma lipoprotein lipase (LPL) concentration was higher during STG than during LCT clamping (6.06 +/- 0.62 vs 3.15 +/- 0.40 mU/mL; P < .05), and there was a positive correlation between the mean LPL concentration and the amount of

  8. Near-surface structural examination of human tooth enamel subject to in vitro demineralization and remineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Carmen Veronica

    The early stages of chemical tooth decay are governed by dynamic processes of demineralization and remineralization of dental enamel that initiates along the surface of the tooth. Conventional diagnostic techniques lack the spatial resolution required to analyze near-surface structural changes in enamel at the submicron level. In this study, slabs of highly-polished, decay-free human enamel were subjected to 0.12M EDTA and buffered lactic acid demineralizing agents and MI Paste(TM) and calcifying (0.1 ppm F) remineralizing treatments in vitro. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXD), a technique typically used for thin film analysis, provided depth profiles of crystallinity changes in surface enamel with a resolution better than 100 nm. In conjunction with nanoindentation, a technique gaining acceptance as a means of examining the mechanical properties of sound enamel, these results were corroborated with well-established microscopy and Raman techniques to assess the nanohardness, morphologies and chemical nature of treated enamel. Interestingly, the average crystallite size of surface enamel along its c-axis dimension increased by nearly 40% after a 60 min EDTA treatment as detected by GIXD. This result was in direct contrast to the obvious surface degradation observed by microscopic and confocal Raman imaging. A decrease in nanohardness from 4.86 +/- 0.44 GPa to 0.28 +/- 0.10 GPa was observed. Collective results suggest that mineral dissolution characteristics evident on the micron scale may not be fully translated to the nanoscale in assessing the integrity of chemically-modified tooth enamel. While an intuitive decrease in enamel crystallinity was observed with buffered lactic acid-treated samples, demineralization was too slow to adequately quantify the enamel property changes seen. MI Paste(TM) treatment of EDTA-demineralized enamel showed preferential growth along the a-axis direction. Calcifying solution treatments of both demineralized sample types

  9. Single-subject structural networks with closed-form rotation invariant matching mprove power in developmental studies of the cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Benjamin M; Wang, Danny J J; Gee, James C; Avants, Brian B

    2014-01-01

    Although much attention has recently been focused on single-subject functional networks, using methods such as resting-state functional MRI, methods for constructing single-subject structural networks are in their infancy. Single-subject cortical networks aim to describe the self-similarity across the cortical structure, possibly signifying convergent developmental pathways. Previous methods for constructing single-subject cortical networks have used patch-based correlations and distance metrics based on curvature and thickness. We present here a method for constructing similarity-based cortical structural networks that utilizes a rotation-invariant representation of structure. The resulting graph metrics are closely linked to age and indicate an increasing degree of closeness throughout development in nearly all brain regions, perhaps corresponding to a more regular structure as the brain matures. The derived graph metrics demonstrate a four-fold increase in power for detecting age as compared to cortical thickness. This proof of concept study indicates that the proposed metric may be useful in identifying biologically relevant cortical patterns.

  10. White matter abnormalities of microstructure and physiological noise in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Hu; Newman, Sharlene D.; Kent, Jerillyn S.; Bolbecker, Amanda; Klaunig, Mallory J.; O'Donnell, Brian F.; Puce, Aina; Hetrick, William P.

    2015-01-01

    White matter abnormalities in schizophrenia have been revealed by many imaging techniques and analysis methods. One of the findings by diffusion tensor imaging is a decrease in fractional anisotropy (FA), which is an indicator of white matter integrity. On the other hand, elevation of metabolic rate in white matter was observed from positron emission tomography (PET) studies. In this report, we aim to compare the two structural and functional effects on the same subjects. Our comparison is ba...

  11. Structural Relations of Personal and Collective Self-Esteem to Subjective Well-Being: Attachment as Moderator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Omer Faruk

    2013-01-01

    A model indicating that the relationship between collective self-esteem and indicators of subjective well-being, happiness and life satisfaction, was mediated by personal self-esteem was tested by structural equation modeling. The model, including all participants, fitted well to the data. The results suggested that the relationship of collective…

  12. An Analysis of Prospective Chemistry Teachers' Cognitive Structures through Flow Map Method: The Subject of Oxidation and Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, Senar

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to analyse prospective chemistry teachers' cognitive structures related to the subject of oxidation and reduction through a flow map method. Purposeful sampling method was employed in this study, and 8 prospective chemistry teachers from a group of students who had taken general chemistry and analytical chemistry courses were…

  13. Reliability assessment of aging structures subjected to gradual and shock deteriorations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Cao; Zhang, Hao; Li, Quanwang

    2017-01-01

    Civil structures and infrastructure facilities are susceptible to deterioration posed by the effects of natural hazards and aggressive environmental conditions. These factors may increase the risk of service interruption of infrastructures, and should be taken into account when assessing the structural reliability during an infrastructure's service life. Modeling the resistance deterioration process reasonably is the basis for structural reliability analysis. In this paper, a novel model is developed for describing the deterioration of aging structures. The deterioration is a combination of two stochastic processes: the gradual deterioration posed by environmental effects and the shock deterioration caused by severe load attacks. The dependency of the deterioration magnitude on the load intensity is considered. The Gaussian copula function is employed to help construct the joint distribution of correlated random variables. Semi-analytical methods are developed to assess the structural failure time and the number of significant load events (shocks) to failure. Illustrative examples are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model in structural reliability analysis. Parametric studies are performed to investigate the role of deterioration-load correlation in structural reliability. - Highlights: • A new resistance deterioration model for aging structures is proposed. • Time-dependent reliability analysis methods incorporating the proposed deterioration model are developed. • Parametric studies are performed to investigate the role of deterioration-load correlation in structural reliability.

  14. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  15. Tooth - abnormal colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  16. Abnormal uterine bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anovulatory bleeding; Abnormal uterine bleeding - hormonal; Polymenorrhea - dysfunctional uterine bleeding ... ACOG committee opinion no. 557: Management of acute abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant reproductive-aged women. Reaffirmed 2015. www. ...

  17. Investigating the Predictive Role of Authenticity on Subjective Vitality with Structural Equation Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Umran; Akin, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Authenticity is a basic personality characteristic that has an important influence on both the psychological and social lives of individuals. Subjective vitality also assumes a facilitative role regarding positive mental health indicators. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the predictive role of authenticity on subjective…

  18. Revisiting the Structure of Subjective Well-Being in Middle-Aged Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Magda; Brunner, Martin; Martin, Romain; Schalke, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Subjective well-being is a broad, multifaceted construct comprising general satisfaction with life, satisfaction with life domains (health, family, people, free time, self, housing, work, and finances), positive affect, and negative affect. Drawing on representative data from middle-aged adults (N = 738), the authors used three different…

  19. The Relationship of Coping, Self-Worth, and Subjective Well-Being: A Structural Equation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedema, Susan Miller; Catalano, Denise; Ebener, Deborah J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between various coping-related variables and the evaluation of self-worth and subjective well-being among persons with spinal cord injury. Positive coping variables included hope, proactive coping style, and sense of humor, whereas negative coping variables included perceptions of stress,…

  20. The structural properties of Zr-based bulk metallic glasses subjected to high pressure torsion at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boltynjuk, E. V., E-mail: boltynjuk@gmail.com; Ubyivovk, E. V.; Kshumanev, A. M. [Saint Petersburg State University, 28 Universitetskiy pr., Saint Petersburg, 198504 (Russian Federation); Gunderov, D. V.; Lukianov, A. V. [Ufa State Aviation Technical University, K. Marks 12, Ufa, 450000 (Russian Federation); Bednarz, A. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics, Department of Aircraft and Aircraft Engines, Rzeszow University of Technology, Al. Powstancow Warszawy 8, 35-959 Rzeszow (Poland); Valiev, R. Z. [Saint Petersburg State University, 28 Universitetskiy pr., Saint Petersburg, 198504 (Russian Federation); Ufa State Aviation Technical University, K. Marks 12, Ufa, 450000 (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-17

    The structural properties of a Zr{sub 62}Cu{sub 22}Al{sub 10}Fe{sub 5}Dy{sub 1} bulk metallic glasses were investigated. Cylindrical rods of the Zr{sub 62}Cu{sub 22}Al{sub 10}Fe{sub 5}Dy{sub 1} BMG were subjected to high pressure torsion at temperatures of 20°C and 150°C. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy were used to determine peculiarities of the modified structure. Analysis of fracture surfaces, nanohardness measurements were conducted to investigate the influence of structural changes on mechanical behavior of processed samples.

  1. The structural properties of Zr-based bulk metallic glasses subjected to high pressure torsion at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boltynjuk, E. V.; Ubyivovk, E. V.; Kshumanev, A. M.; Gunderov, D. V.; Lukianov, A. V.; Bednarz, A.; Valiev, R. Z.

    2016-01-01

    The structural properties of a Zr_6_2Cu_2_2Al_1_0Fe_5Dy_1 bulk metallic glasses were investigated. Cylindrical rods of the Zr_6_2Cu_2_2Al_1_0Fe_5Dy_1 BMG were subjected to high pressure torsion at temperatures of 20°C and 150°C. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy were used to determine peculiarities of the modified structure. Analysis of fracture surfaces, nanohardness measurements were conducted to investigate the influence of structural changes on mechanical behavior of processed samples.

  2. Measuring subjective meaning structures by the laddering method: Theoretical considerations and methodological problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Grunert, Suzanne C.

    1995-01-01

    Starting from a general model of measuring cognitive structures for predicting consumer behaviour, we discuss laddering as a possible method to obtain estimates of consumption-relevant cognitive structures which will have predictive validity. Four criteria for valid measurement are derived and ap...

  3. Voice, Post-Structural Representation and the Subjectivity of "Included" Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitburn, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Aligned with the broader movement from structuralism to the post-structuralisms [Lather, P. 2013. "Methodology-21: What Do We Do in the Afterward?" "International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education" 26 (6): 634-645; St. Pierre, E. A. 2009. "Afterword: Decentering Voice in Qualitative Inquiry." In "Voice…

  4. Dowel-type fastener connections in timber structures subjected to short-term loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen Jensen, J.

    Design of dowel-type fastener connections in framed timber structures usually involves a two-step analysis: determination of the distribution of the sectional forces, and design of the eccentrically loaded connections. This report presents an integrated model for design of framed timber structures...

  5. Abnormal mineral metabolism and mortality in hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism: evidence from marginal structural models used to adjust for time-dependent confounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukagawa, Masafumi; Kido, Ryo; Komaba, Hirotaka; Onishi, Yoshihiro; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Kurita, Noriaki; Fukuma, Shingo; Akizawa, Tadao; Fukuhara, Shunichi

    2014-06-01

    Hemodialysis patients with mineral and bone disorders (MBDs) have an abnormally high relative risk of death, but their absolute risk of death is unknown. Further, previous studies have not accounted for possible time-dependent confounding of the association between MBD markers and death due to the effect of markers of MBD on treatments, which subsequently may affect MBD markers. Multicenter, 3-year, prospective, case-cohort study. 8,229 hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism (parathyroid hormone level ≥180 pg/mL and/or receiving vitamin D receptor activators) at 86 facilities in Japan. Serum phosphorus, calcium, and parathyroid hormone levels. All-cause mortality. Marginal structural models were used to compute absolute differences in all-cause mortality associated with different levels of predictors while accounting for time-dependent confounding. The association between phosphorus level and mortality appeared U-shaped, although only higher phosphorus level categories reached statistical significance: compared to those with phosphorus levels of 5.0-5.9 mg/dL (1.61-1.93 mmol/L), patients with the highest (≥9.0 mg/dL [≥2.90 mmol/L]) phosphorus levels had 9.4 excess deaths/100 person-years (rate ratio, 2.79 [95% CI, 1.26-6.15]), whereas no association was found for the lowest phosphorus category (secondary hyperparathyroidism. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of Risks and Factors of Formation of the Structure of Financial Capital of Subject of Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubaha Mariya V.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to analysis of the structure of sources of financing economic subjects, study of commercial and financial risks of formation of the structure of financial capital of subjects of entrepreneurship. The article pays significant attention to calculation of the weighted average cost of capital, degrees of financial and operational leverages and also to assessment of their mutual influence upon results of financial and economic activity of an enterprise. It studies impact of factors of external environment on the structure of sources of financing subjects of entrepreneurship, these factors include specific features of operational activity, quality and liquidity of assets, concentration of own capital, stages of the life cycle, level of profitability of operational activity, credit history of a borrower and a necessity to ensure the prospective repayment capacity, and financial mentality of owners and managers of an enterprise. The article also analyses factors of external environment of an enterprise (cost of attraction of financing from different sources, commodity and financial markets situations, state regulation and control over business processes, level of taxation of profit of enterprises and also income of physical persons and legal entities – investors from owning securities that influence the possibilities to attract financial capital and, consequently, prospects of efficient functioning of a subject of entrepreneurship in a long-term prospect.

  7. A study on dynamic soil-nuclear structure interaction subjected to seismic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Mo; Kim, Yong Jin; Song, Tae Won

    1989-01-01

    The uncertainties of Dynamic Soil-Structure Interaction (DSSI) are studied in this paper. Among the various uncertainties, we concentrate on studying the random error and the systematic error of the DSSI. The one-dimensional theory, Elsabee-Morray theory and FEM method that can account for the effect of free field and scattering field, and the elastic half space analysis are used to get the reponses of structures as well as the input ground motions. The main conclusions of this study are as follows: 1) The responses of structures obtained by the one-dimensional theoy are mostlu larger than those obtained by the FEM method because of scattering field effect. 2) The responses of structures obtained by the direct method are larger than those obtained by the half space analysis. (Author)

  8. Elastic buckling analysis for composite stiffened panels and other structures subjected to biaxial inplane loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, A. V.; Tamekuni, M.

    1973-01-01

    An exact linear analysis method is presented for predicting buckling of structures with arbitrary uniform cross section. The structure is idealized as an assemblage of laminated plate-strip elements, curved and planar, and beam elements. Element edges normal to the longitudinal axes are assumed to be simply supported. Arbitrary boundary conditions may be specified on any external longitudinal edge of plate-strip elements. The structure or selected elements may be loaded in any desired combination of inplane transverse compression or tension side load and axial compression load. The analysis simultaneously considers all possible modes of instability and is applicable for the buckling of laminated composite structures. Numerical results correlate well with the results of previous analysis methods.

  9. Hysteretic Energy Demand in SDOF Structures Subjected to an Earthquake Excitation: Analytical and Empirical Results

    OpenAIRE

    Taner UÇAR; Onur MERTER

    2018-01-01

    In energy-based seismic design approach, earthquake ground motion is considered as an energy input to structures. The earthquake input energy is the total of energy components such as kinetic energy, damping energy, elastic strain energy and hysteretic energy, which contributes the most to structural damage. In literature, there are many empirical formulas based on the hysteretic model, damping ratio and ductility in order to estimate hysteretic energy, whereas they do not directly consider t...

  10. Components interaction in timber framed masonry structures subjected to lateral forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea DUTU

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Structures with timber framed masonry represent a special typology that is frequently found in Europe and other countries of the world. They are traditional buildings, non-engineered, which showed an unexpected redundancy during earthquakes where reinforced concrete buildings (improperly constructed collapsed. In the paper, aspects regarding the interaction between timber elements and masonry are mainly addressed, that were observed both in experimental studies, but also in the in situ seismic behavior of this type of structure during important earthquakes.

  11. Analysis of an NPP Structure subjected to Vibrations Induced from Airplane Crashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Sang Hoon; Kim, Yong Soo; Kim, Chong Hak

    2009-01-01

    After the terrorists' attacks with civilian airplanes on September 11, 2001, special attention has been paid to the potential for an airplane crash into a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) as a man-made hazard. An airplane crash (APC) into an NPP has the potential to damage the roofs and walls of these structures, as well as other systems and components such as pipelines, electric motors, power supplies, power cables of electricity transmission that are important for safety. Therefore, an evaluation of the structural response to an APC is important for the safety of NPPs to be confirmed. A structural integrity analysis was carried out focusing on the vibration effects of an APC on an NPP structure. The NPP structure under consideration has been conceptually redesigned based on APR1400 to have double containments for the purpose of a feasibility study to meet European requirements. The finite element method was used for the structural analysis of the NPP, and the computer code ABAQUS was employed for this analysis

  12. Seismic response analysis of Wolsung NPP structure and equipment subjected to scenario earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, In Kil; Ahn, Seong Moon; Choun, Young Sun; Seo, Jeong Moon

    2005-03-15

    The standard response spectrum proposed by US NRC has been used as a design earthquake for the design of Korean nuclear power plant structures. However, it does not reflect the characteristic of seismological and geological of Korea. In this study, the seismic response analysis of Wolsung NPP structure and equipment were performed. Three types of input motions, artificial time histories that envelop the US NRC Regulatory Guide 1.60 spectrum and the probability based scenario earthquake spectra developed for the Korean NPP site and a typical near-fault earthquake recorded at thirty sites, were used as input motions. The acceleration, displacement and shear force responses of Wolsung containment structure due to the design earthquake were larger than those due to the other input earthquakes. But, considering displacement response increases abruptly as Wolsung NPP structure does nonlinear behavior, the reassessment of the seismic safety margin based on the displacement is necessary if the structure does nonlinear behavior; although it has adequate the seismic safety margin within elastic limit. Among the main safety-related devices, electrical cabinet and pump showed the large responses on the scenario earthquake which has the high frequency characteristic. This has great effects of the seismic capacity of the main devices installed inside of the building. This means that the design earthquake is not so conservative for the safety of the safety related nuclear power plant equipments.

  13. An Investigation of dynamic characteristics of structures subjected to dynamic load from the viewpoint of design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Ah; Kim, Yong Il; Park, Gyung Jin; Kang, Byung Soo; Kim, Joo Sung

    2006-01-01

    All the loads in the real world are dynamic loads and structural optimization under dynamic loads is very difficult. Thus the dynamic loads are often transformed to static loads by dynamic factors, which are believed equivalent to the dynamic loads. However, due to the difference of load characteristics, there can be considerable differences between the results from static and dynamic analyses. When the natural frequency of a structure is high, the dynamic analysis result is similar to that of static analysis due to the small inertia effect on the behavior of the structure. However, if the natural frequency of the structure is low, the inertia effect should not be ignored. then, the behavior of the dynamic system is different from that of the static system. The difference of the two cases can be explained from the relationship between the homogeneous and the particular solutions of the differential equation that governs the behavior of the structure. Through various examples, the difference between the dynamic analysis and the static analysis are shown. Also dynamic response optimization results are compared with the results with static loads transformed from dynamic loads by dynamic factors, which show the necessity of the design considering dynamic loads

  14. Seismic response analysis of Wolsung NPP structure and equipment subjected to scenario earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, In Kil; Ahn, Seong Moon; Choun, Young Sun; Seo, Jeong Moon

    2005-03-01

    The standard response spectrum proposed by US NRC has been used as a design earthquake for the design of Korean nuclear power plant structures. However, it does not reflect the characteristic of seismological and geological of Korea. In this study, the seismic response analysis of Wolsung NPP structure and equipment were performed. Three types of input motions, artificial time histories that envelop the US NRC Regulatory Guide 1.60 spectrum and the probability based scenario earthquake spectra developed for the Korean NPP site and a typical near-fault earthquake recorded at thirty sites, were used as input motions. The acceleration, displacement and shear force responses of Wolsung containment structure due to the design earthquake were larger than those due to the other input earthquakes. But, considering displacement response increases abruptly as Wolsung NPP structure does nonlinear behavior, the reassessment of the seismic safety margin based on the displacement is necessary if the structure does nonlinear behavior; although it has adequate the seismic safety margin within elastic limit. Among the main safety-related devices, electrical cabinet and pump showed the large responses on the scenario earthquake which has the high frequency characteristic. This has great effects of the seismic capacity of the main devices installed inside of the building. This means that the design earthquake is not so conservative for the safety of the safety related nuclear power plant equipments

  15. Micro-structural integrity of dental enamel subjected to two tooth whitening regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Reina; Shibata, Yo; Manabe, Atsufumi; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2010-04-01

    Colour modification of tooth enamel has proven successful, but it is unclear how various bleaching applications affect micro-structural integrity of the whitened enamel. To investigate the internal structural integrity of human intact tooth enamel with the application of two commonly used whitening regimes (in-office power bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide and home bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide), evaluations were performed on teeth of identical colour classification. After the bleaching applications, the enamel mineral density was quantified and visualised with micro-computed tomography. The micro-structural differences between the whitened tooth enamel samples were distinctive, though the colour parameter changes within the samples were equivalent. Home bleaching achieved colour modification by demineralisation, whereas in-office bleaching depended on redistribution of the minerals after treatment and subsequent enhanced mineralisation.

  16. The Subject in the Structure: Issues of Procedure in Contemporary American Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène AJI

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available One may argue that it all started with Gertrude Stein and her focus on the constraints imposed by language on perception and the subsequent grammar of infinite repetitivity and minute variation that informs her poetic texts. This notion of a subject permanently and irredeemably caught in the very “structure” of his expressive modes opens up a multiplicity of debates centred around the attempts at assessing and gaining control over these restrictions.One of them lies in the impulse to free poe...

  17. Prediction of Global and Localized Damage and Future Reliability for RC Structures subject to Earthquakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köyluoglu, H.U.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Cakmak, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    the arrival of the first earthquake from non-destructive vibration tests or via structural analysis. The previous excitation and displacement response time series is employed for the identification of the instantaneous softening using an ARMA model. The hysteresis parameters are updated after each earthquake....... The proposed model is next generalized for the MDOF system. Using the adapted models for the structure and the global damage state, the global damage in a future earthquake can then be estimated when a suitable earthquake model is applied. The performance of the model is illustrated on RC frames which were...

  18. Prediction of Global and Localized Damage and Future Reliability for RC Structures subject to Earthquakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köyluoglu, H.U.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Cakmak, A.S.

    1994-01-01

    the arrival of the first earthquake from non-destructive vibration tests or via structural analysis. The previous excitation and displacement response time series is employed for the identification of the instantaneous softening using an ARMA model. The hysteresis parameters are updated after each earthquake....... The proposed model is next generalized for the MDOF system. Using the adapted models for the structure and the global damage state, the global damage in a future earthquake can then be estimated when a suitable earthquake model is applied. The performance of the model is illustrated on RC frames which were...

  19. Computed tomography of thymic abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnyder, P.; Candardjis, G.

    1987-05-01

    Computed tomographic examinations of 38 patients with surgically and histologically proven diagnosis were reviewed. Twenty subjects (52%) had an invasive thymoma and 16% an hyperplastic thymus. Myasthenia gravis was present in 6 cases (16%) of thymic abnormalities, four (10,5%) with invasive thymoma and two (5%) with thymic hyperplasia. Graves' disease was also present in one case of thymic hyperplasia. We emphasize the contribution of CT to the diagnosis and the prognosis.

  20. Computed tomography of thymic abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnyder, P.; Candardjis, G.

    1987-01-01

    Computed tomographic examinations of 38 patients with surgically and histologically proven diagnosis were reviewed. Twenty subjects (52%) had an invasive thymoma and 16% an hyperplastic thymus. Myasthenia gravis was present in 6 cases (16%) of thymic abnormalities, four (10,5%) with invasive thymoma and two (5%) with thymic hyperplasia. Graves' disease was also present in one case of thymic hyperplasia. We emphasize the contribution of CT to the diagnosis and the prognosis. (orig.)

  1. Estimating Modal Parameters of Civil Engineering Structures subject to Ambient and Harmonic Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Brincker, Rune; Ventura, Carlos

    In this paper addresses the problems of separating structural modes and harmonics arising from sinusoidal excitation. Though the problem is mostly know in mechanical engineering applications such as rotating machinery, some civil engineering applications experiences the same challenges. A robust...... and fast harmonic detection procedure is presented and illustrated on a civil engineering case....

  2. Modal Estimation of Civil Structures Subject to Ambient and Harmonic Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Brincker, Rune; Ventura, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    In this paper addresses the problems of separating structural modes and harmonics arising from sinusoidal excitation. Though the problem is mostly know in mechanical engineering applications such as rotating machinery, some civil engineering applications experiences the same challenges. A robust...... and fast harmonic detection procedure is presented and illustrated on a civil engineering case....

  3. Structural response of reactor-core hexcan subassemblies subjected to dynamic overpressurization under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, P.A.; Kulak, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a two-dimensional structural analysis for the evaluation of a single core subassembly due to internal overpressure associated with possible failure of fuel pins having high fission gas plenum pressure. Structural models are developed for the subassemblies and their surroundings with emphasis on the critical physical aspects of the problem. With these models the strains, deformations and the extent of permanent damage (plastic strain) to the subassemblies can be assessed. The nonlinear structural analyses was performed with a finite element program called STRAW (Structural Transient Response of Assembly Wrappers). This finite element program is applicable to nonlinear large displacement problems. The results of this study indicate that the permanent deformation (damage) is strongly influenced by the rise time (time to reach peak pressure) of the pressure pulse and the pressure in the fuel pin. The rise time is influenced by the opening time of the flow path for release of gas from the fuel pin plenum. Several examples are illustrated with various rise times and pressure magnitudes and the resulting permanent deformation of the hexcan wall

  4. Life prediction of simple structures subject to cyclic primary and secondary loading resulting in creep and platicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otter, N.R.; Jones, R.T.

    1979-01-01

    High temperature reactors are subject to cyclic mechanical and thermal loadings resulting from start up and shut down operations. The design must therefore guard against structural failure resulting from excessive deformation and creep-fatigue damage. Before any simplified inelastic analysis techniques can be applied, their validity needs to be examined under situations representative of the reactor. For this to be carried out it is necessary to determine the behaviour of components, initially geometrically simple, subject to loadings, cyclic primary and secondary in nature, which result in creep and plasticity. Beam-like structures have been investigated on a finite element basis with the aim of determining how cyclic plasticity, creep enhancement and plastic ratchetting vary in relationship with modified shakedown criteria, magnitude of loading and hold time. (orig.)

  5. Acoustic emission energy b-value for local damage evaluation in reinforced concrete structures subjected to seismic loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagasta, Francisco; Zitto, Miguel E.; Piotrkowski, Rosa; Benavent-Climent, Amadeo; Suarez, Elisabet; Gallego, Antolino

    2018-03-01

    A modification of the original b-value (Gutenberg-Richter parameter) is proposed to evaluate local damage of reinforced concrete structures subjected to dynamical loads via the acoustic emission (AE) method. The modification, shortly called energy b-value, is based on the use of the true energy of the AE signals instead of its peak amplitude, traditionally used for the calculation of b-value. The proposal is physically supported by the strong correlation between the plastic strain energy dissipated by the specimen and the true energy of the AE signals released during its deformation and cracking process, previously demonstrated by the authors in several publications. AE data analysis consisted in the use of guard sensors and the Continuous Wavelet Transform in order to separate primary and secondary emissions as much as possible according to particular frequency bands. The approach has been experimentally applied to the AE signals coming from a scaled reinforced concrete frame structure, which was subjected to sequential seismic loads of incremental acceleration peak by means of a 3 × 3 m2 shaking table. For this specimen two beam-column connections-one exterior and one interior-were instrumented with wide band low frequency sensors properly attached on the structure. Evolution of the energy b-value along the loading process accompanies the evolution of the severe damage at the critical regions of the structure (beam-column connections), thus making promising its use for structural health monitoring purposes.

  6. Genetic structure and genetic diversity of Swietenia macrophylla in areas subjected to selective logging in Quintana Roo, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Alcalá, Raúl Ernesto; Cruz, Silvia De la; Gutiérrez-Granados, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis that selective logging has a negative effect by altering the genetic parameters of tropical tree species was evaluated. The genetic diversity and genetic structure between adult trees (N = 47) and saplings (N = 50) of Swietenia macrophylla were contrasted within an area subjected to selective logging in the Mayan zone. Although differences in the number of alleles and in their frequencies were detected between both groups, the observed and expected heterozygosity and the coeffi...

  7. Prospects of application structural mathematical constructs as bases tool conceptualization the subject domain of sociology (statement of a problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Maslennikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the approach to the decision of a problem of conceptual integration of sociology as the set of theoretical knowledge belonging to type - conceptually difficult - the big theories. Development of theoretical sociology with use of forms of the mathematical theory is considered as a private problem in relation to more general problem of development of theoretical knowledge with use of forms of the mathematical theory. Development the theoretical sociology is offered to carry out with use of forms of the mathematical theory on the basis of properties structural mathematical constructs and with application the mathematical methods developed in a scientific direction “The Conceptual analysis and designing”[40] . In the given direction it is used not only a paradigm of structuralism, but also a principle of an ascention from abstract to concrete in the knowledge, realized in procedure of synthesis of formal theories with use of the device of structural mathematics. The system analysis, the theory of systems and the theory of structures of N. Burbaki concerns to sources of occurrence of a method of the conceptual analysis. The method is intended for the analysis of subject domains of a high level of complexity, realization of conceptual modeling of objects from these subject domains and reception of new knowledge about essence of subject domains and their relations. Conceptual complexity of phenomena is understood as complexity of the structures expressing the relations and interrelations between concepts, describing interesting area from the point of view of solved tasks. For a subject domain conceptual complexity is potentially established by quantity of basic sets on which scales of sets and the steps belonging to them representing definitions of developed theory of a subject domain are constructed. In article is exposed to the analysis role structural mathematical constructs device in expansion integrating tool conceptualization

  8. Perturbation Solutions for Random Linear Structural Systems subject to Random Excitation using Stochastic Differential Equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köyluoglu, H.U.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Cakmak, A.S.

    1994-01-01

    perturbation method using stochastic differential equations. The joint statistical moments entering the perturbation solution are determined by considering an augmented dynamic system with state variables made up of the displacement and velocity vector and their first and second derivatives with respect......The paper deals with the first and second order statistical moments of the response of linear systems with random parameters subject to random excitation modelled as white-noise multiplied by an envelope function with random parameters. The method of analysis is basically a second order...... to the random parameters of the problem. Equations for partial derivatives are obtained from the partial differentiation of the equations of motion. The zero time-lag joint statistical moment equations for the augmented state vector are derived from the Itô differential formula. General formulation is given...

  9. Optimization of structures subjected to dynamic load: deterministic and probabilistic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élcio Cassimiro Alves

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper deals with the deterministic and probabilistic optimization of structures against bending when submitted to dynamic loads. The deterministic optimization problem considers the plate submitted to a time varying load while the probabilistic one takes into account a random loading defined by a power spectral density function. The correlation between the two problems is made by one Fourier Transformed. The finite element method is used to model the structures. The sensitivity analysis is performed through the analytical method and the optimization problem is dealt with by the method of interior points. A comparison between the deterministic optimisation and the probabilistic one with a power spectral density function compatible with the time varying load shows very good results.

  10. Efficiency of fiber reinforced concrete application in structures subjected to dynamic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morozov Valeriy Ivanovich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fiber reinforced concretes possess high strength under dynamic loadings, which include impact loads, thanks to their high structural viscosity. This is the reason for using them in difficult operating conditions, where increasing the performance characteristics and the structure durability is of prime importance, and the issues of the cost become less significant. Applying methods of disperse reinforcement is most challenging in case of subtle high-porous materials on mineral binders, for example foamed concrete. At the same time, the experiments conducted in Russia and abroad show, that also in other cases the concrete strength resistance several times increases as a result of disperse reinforcement. This doesn't depend on average density of the concrete and type of fiber used. In the article the fibre reinforced concrete impact resistance is analysed. Recommendations are given in regard to fibre concrete application in manufacture of monolithic floor units for industrial buildings and precast piles.

  11. Validating a Finite Element Model of a Structure Subjected to Mine Blast with Experimental Modal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Howle, Dmitriy Krayterman, Justin E Pritchett, and Ryan Sorenson 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING...The Under-body Blast Methodology (UBM) for the Test and Evaluation (T&E) program was established to provide a capability for the US Army Test and...and must be validated. The UBM for the T&E program has completed efforts to validate soil models but not structural dynamics models. Modal testing

  12. Analysis of Textile Composite Structures Subjected to High Temperature Oxidizing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    process in a polymer is a combination of the diffusion of oxygen and its consumption by reaction, which also results in the creation of by-products...based on the work by Pochiraju et al[24-26] in which they used the conservation of mass law for diffusion with a term to model the rate of consumption ...Oxidation of C/SiC Composites, Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference on Composites, Advanced Ceramics Materials and Structures, Cocoa Beach

  13. Inelastic response evaluation of steel frame structure subjected to near-fault ground motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, In Kil; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Choun, Young Sun; Seo, Jeong Moon

    2004-04-01

    A survey on some of the Quaternary fault segments near the Korean nuclear power plants is ongoing. It is likely that these faults would be identified as active ones. If the faults are confirmed as active ones, it will be necessary to reevaluate the seismic safety of nuclear power plants located near the fault. This study was performed to acquire overall knowledge of near-fault ground motions and evaluate inealstic response characteristics of near-fault ground motions. Although Korean peninsular is not located in the strong earthquake region, it is necessary to evaluate seismic safety of NPP for the earthquakes occurred in near-fault area with characteristics different from that of general far-fault earthquakes in order to improve seismic safety of existing NPP structures and equipment. As a result, for the seismic safety evaluation of NPP structures and equipment considering near-fault effects, this report will give many valuable information. In order to improve seismic safety of NPP structures and equipment against near-fault ground motions, it is necessary to consider inelastic response characteristics of near-fault ground motions in current design code. Also in Korea where these studies are immature yet, in the future more works of near-fault earthquakes must be accomplished.

  14. CONCRETE MIX DESIGN FOR STRUCTURES SUBJECTED TO EXPOSURE CLASS XC1 DEPENDING ON CONCRETE COVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Cherniakevich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The reinforced steel corrosion which is the most important problem of reinforced concrete structures durability is generally stipulated for carbonization of concrete surrounding it. Concrete cover calculation at the design stage is predicated one because of the differences in manufacturing conditions and use of constructions. The applying of the probabilistic approaches to the carbonation process modeling allows to get predicated grade of the depth of carbonization of concrete and, thus, to settle minimum concrete cover thickness for a given projected service life of a construction. The procedures for concrete mix design for different strength classes of concrete are described in the article. Current recommendations on assignment of concrete strength class as well as concrete cover are presented. The European Standard EN 206:2013 defines the content requirements for the concrete structures operated in the exposure class XC1, including the minimum values of water-cement ratio, minimum cement content, and minimum strength class of concrete. Since the standard does not include any basis or explanations of the requirements, we made an effort to develop a scientific justification for the mentioned requirements. We developed the probabilistic models for the process of carbonation of concrete based on the concrete mix which was designed using the software VTK-Korroziya. The reinforced concrete structures with concrete cover 20–35 mm operated in the most unfavorable conditions within the exposure class XC1 were analyzed. The corresponding probabilistic calculations of the depth of carbonated concrete are described in the article. 

  15. Plant abnormality inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Toshio.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns a plant abnormality inspection device for conducting remote or automatic patrolling inspection in a plant and, more particularly, relates to such a device as capable of detecting abnormal odors. That is, the device comprises a moving device for moving to a predetermined position in the plant, a plurality of gas sensors for different kind of gases to be inspected mounted thereon, a comparator for comparing the concentration of a gas detected by the gas sensor with the normal gas concentration at the predetermined position and a judging means for judging the absence or presence of abnormality depending on the combination of the result of the comparison and deliverying a signal if the state is abnormal. As a result, a slight amount of gas responsible to odors released upon abnormality of the plant can be detected by a plurality of gas sensors for different kinds gases to rapidly and easily find abnormal portions in the plant. (I.S.)

  16. Framingham coronary heart disease risk score can be predicted from structural brain images in elderly subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Maryam Rondina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent literature has presented evidence that cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF play an important role on cognitive performance in elderly individuals, both those who are asymptomatic and those who suffer from symptoms of neurodegenerative disorders. Findings from studies applying neuroimaging methods have increasingly reinforced such notion. Studies addressing the impact of CVRF on brain anatomy changes have gained increasing importance, as recent papers have reported gray matter loss predominantly in regions traditionally affected in Alzheimer’s disease (AD and vascular dementia in the presence of a high degree of cardiovascular risk. In the present paper, we explore the association between CVRF and brain changes using pattern recognition techniques applied to structural MRI and the Framingham score (a composite measure of cardiovascular risk largely used in epidemiological studies in a sample of healthy elderly individuals. We aim to answer the following questions: Is it possible to decode (i.e., to learn information regarding cardiovascular risk from structural brain images enabling individual predictions? Among clinical measures comprising the Framingham score, are there particular risk factors that stand as more predictable from patterns of brain changes? Our main findings are threefold: i we verified that structural changes in spatially distributed patterns in the brain enable statistically significant prediction of Framingham scores. This result is still significant when controlling for the presence of the APOE 4 allele (an important genetic risk factor for both AD and cardiovascular disease. ii When considering each risk factor singly, we found different levels of correlation between real and predicted factors; however, single factors were not significantly predictable from brain images when considering APOE4 allele presence as covariate. iii We found important gender differences, and the possible causes of that finding are discussed.

  17. A Study on External Fire Damage of Structures subjected to Aircraft Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sang Shup; Hahm, Daegi; Kim, Min Kyu

    2015-01-01

    A large commercial aircraft consists of various components as fuselage, wings, fuel tank, engine etc. During a collision of the aircraft, the fuel tank with a large amount of jet fuel have a significant effect on the total load of the aircraft as well as causing explosive fire and smoke which affect the safety of the structure and equipment. US Sandia National Laboratories and Finland VTT etc. performed the test and simulation studies to evaluate the dispersion range of the fluid after the crash of liquid filled cylinder missiles. The test condition and results have been referred in this paper. The fluid modeling approach using SPH is applied to evaluate the dispersing range of the fluid, and is compared with the Brown's results. The jet fuel is idealized as particles contained in an aluminum cylinder missile, where those particles can be dispersed to the surrounding area after the missile crashes into a rigid target. The fluid model using the SPH method is briefly verified through comparison with test results, and then the modelling method is applied to a jet fuel model in an aircraft model. The dispersion analysis of jet fuel caused by aircraft impact is performed using an aircraft model for the determination of fire duration and fire affected zone in a nuclear power plant. Finally, the structural integrity of the roof of the structure during a jet fuel fire is evaluated. In this study, the filled jet fuel was modeled by using smooth particle hydrodynamics technique; jet fuel spread area following an aircraft crash was analyzed

  18. Ultrasonic assessment of service life of concrete structures subject to reinforcing steel corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udegbunam, Ogechukwu Christian

    Over half of the bridges in the United States were built before 1970. Such bridges and the network of roads that they carry include the Inter State system, which was built as part of the great public works program, following the end of the Second World War. During that era, the emphasis was on strength design and economical construction of new structures, and not much premium was placed on durability and maintainability concerns. Since the end of this construction boom in the early 1970s, the concern for the durability of transportation infrastructure has steadily gained prominence among those agencies that must secure, program and administer funds for maintaining highway networks. The objective of this research was to develop a nondestructive method of assessing the durability of concrete bridge decks susceptible to damage from corrosion of embedded reinforcing steel. This was accomplished by formulating a holistic approach that accounts for the major factors that influence corrosion based deterioration of reinforced concrete. In this approach, the assessment of the durability of concrete bridge decks is based on a model that estimates the time it takes for the cover concrete to fail a result of stresses caused by expansion of reinforcing steel bars, due to corrosion activities. This time to failure is comprised of two distinct periods that must be evaluated before the problem can be solved. The research consisted of an experimental program and an analytical study. In the experimental program concrete specimens were cast and tested to determine their diffusivity and mechanical properties. The diffusivity was used to evaluate the period it takes for corrosion of the reinforcing bars to commence. In the analytical study, the resistance of the concrete structure against the internal forces caused by corrosion was evaluated with the finite element techniques. This resistance was used to evaluate the period defining the failure of the cover concrete. These two periods

  19. A Study on External Fire Damage of Structures subjected to Aircraft Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sang Shup [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hahm, Daegi; Kim, Min Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    A large commercial aircraft consists of various components as fuselage, wings, fuel tank, engine etc. During a collision of the aircraft, the fuel tank with a large amount of jet fuel have a significant effect on the total load of the aircraft as well as causing explosive fire and smoke which affect the safety of the structure and equipment. US Sandia National Laboratories and Finland VTT etc. performed the test and simulation studies to evaluate the dispersion range of the fluid after the crash of liquid filled cylinder missiles. The test condition and results have been referred in this paper. The fluid modeling approach using SPH is applied to evaluate the dispersing range of the fluid, and is compared with the Brown's results. The jet fuel is idealized as particles contained in an aluminum cylinder missile, where those particles can be dispersed to the surrounding area after the missile crashes into a rigid target. The fluid model using the SPH method is briefly verified through comparison with test results, and then the modelling method is applied to a jet fuel model in an aircraft model. The dispersion analysis of jet fuel caused by aircraft impact is performed using an aircraft model for the determination of fire duration and fire affected zone in a nuclear power plant. Finally, the structural integrity of the roof of the structure during a jet fuel fire is evaluated. In this study, the filled jet fuel was modeled by using smooth particle hydrodynamics technique; jet fuel spread area following an aircraft crash was analyzed.

  20. Forecasting long memory series subject to structural change: A two-stage approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papailias, Fotis; Dias, Gustavo Fruet

    2015-01-01

    A two-stage forecasting approach for long memory time series is introduced. In the first step, we estimate the fractional exponent and, by applying the fractional differencing operator, obtain the underlying weakly dependent series. In the second step, we produce multi-step-ahead forecasts...... for the weakly dependent series and obtain their long memory counterparts by applying the fractional cumulation operator. The methodology applies to both stationary and nonstationary cases. Simulations and an application to seven time series provide evidence that the new methodology is more robust to structural...

  1. Fluid-Structure Interaction of a Reed Type Valve Subjected to Piston Displacement

    OpenAIRE

    Estruch, Olga; Lehmkuhl, Oriol; Rigola, Joaquim; Pérez-Segarra, Carles David

    2014-01-01

    In the field of reciprocating compressors, the developing of reed type valves is a challenging task. The understanding of the fluid flow behaviour through the valve reed is essential to improve the valve design. Hence, this work attempts the dynamic simulation of this fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problem, taking into account valve movement due to piston displacement. In this work attends the in-house implemented CFD&HT and moving mesh coupled code TermoFluids [1]. The CFD&HT solver consi...

  2. Physical aging and structural recovery in a colloidal glass subjected to volume-fraction jump conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaoguang; McKenna, Gregory B.

    2016-04-01

    Three important kinetic phenomena have been cataloged by Kovacs in the investigation of molecular glasses during structural recovery or physical aging. These are responses to temperature-jump histories referred to as intrinsic isotherms, asymmetry of approach, and memory effect. Here we use a thermosensitive polystyrene-poly (N -isopropylacrylamide)-poly (acrylic acid) core-shell particle-based dispersion as a colloidal model and by working at a constant number concentration of particles we use temperature changes to create volume-fraction changes. This imposes conditions similar to those defined by Kovacs on the colloidal system. We use creep experiments to probe the physical aging and structural recovery behavior of colloidal glasses in the Kovacs-type histories and compare the results with those seen in molecular glasses. We find that there are similarities in aging dynamics between molecular glasses and colloidal glasses, but differences also persist. For the intrinsic isotherms, the times teq needed for relaxing or evolving into the equilibrium (or stationary) state are relatively insensitive to the volume fraction and the values of teq are longer than the α -relaxation time τα at the same volume fraction. On the other hand, both of these times grow at least exponentially with decreasing temperature in molecular glasses. For the asymmetry of approach, similar nonlinear behavior is observed for both colloidal and molecular glasses. However, the equilibration time teq is the same for both volume-fraction up-jump and down-jump experiments, different from the finding in molecular glasses that it takes longer for the structure to evolve into equilibrium for the temperature up-jump condition than for the temperature down-jump condition. For the two-step volume-fraction jumps, a memory response is observed that is different from observations of structural recovery in two-step temperature histories in molecular glasses. The concentration dependence of the dynamics

  3. Super Phenix. Monitoring of structures subject to irradiation. Neutron dosimetry measurement and calculation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrillat, J.C.; Arnaud, G.; Calamand, D.; Manent, G.; Tavassoli, A.A.

    1984-09-01

    For the Super Phenix reactor, the evolution, versus the irradiation of the mechanical properties of the core diagrid steel is the object of studies and is particularly monitored. The specimens irradiated, now in PHENIX and will be later irradiated in SUPER PHENIX as soon as the first operating cycles. An important dosimetry program coupling calculation and measurement, is parallely carried out. This paper presents the reasons, the definition of the structure, of the development and of materials used in this program of dosimetry, as also the first results of a calculation-measurement comparison [fr

  4. Nonlinear time-domain soil–structure interaction analysis of embedded reactor structures subjected to earthquake loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solberg, Jerome M., E-mail: solberg2@llnl.gov [Methods Development Group, Lawrence Livermore Nat’l Lab, P.O. Box 808, Mailstop L-125, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Hossain, Quazi, E-mail: hossain1@llnl.gov [Structural and Applied Mechanics Group, Lawrence Livermore Nat’l Lab, P.O. Box 808, Mailstop L-129, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Mseis, George, E-mail: george.mseis@gmail.com [Structural and Applied Mechanics Group, Lawrence Livermore Nat’l Lab, P.O. Box 808, Mailstop L-129, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Highlights: • Derived modified version of Bielak’s SSI method for nonlinear time-domain analysis. • Utilized a Ramberg–Osgood material with parameters that can be fit to EPRI data. • Matched vertically propagating shear wave results from CARES. • Applied this technique to a representative SMR, compared well with SASSI. • The technique is extensible to other material models and nonlinear effects. - Abstract: A generalized time-domain method for soil–structure interaction analysis is developed, based upon an extension of the work of the domain reduction method of Bielak et al. The methodology is combined with the use of a simple hysteretic soil model based upon the Ramberg–Osgood formulation and applied to a notional Small Modular Reactor. These benchmark results compare well (with some caveats) with those obtained by using the industry-standard frequency-domain code SASSI. The methodology provides a path forward for investigation of other sources of nonlinearity, including those associated with the use of more physically-realistic material models incorporating pore-pressure effects, gap opening/closing, the effect of nonlinear structural elements, and 3D seismic inputs.

  5. Instantaneous structure of a boundary layer subjected to free-stream turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearst, R. Jason; de Silva, Charitha; Dogan, Eda; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram

    2017-11-01

    A canonical turbulent boundary layer (TBL) has a distinct turbulent/non-turbulent interface (TNTI) separating the rotational wall-bounded fluid from the irrotational free-stream. If an intermittency profile is constructed separating the flow above and below the TNTI, this profile can be described by an error-function. Within the turbulent region, the flow is separated by interfaces that demarcate uniform momentum zones (UMZs). We observe that these characteristics of a TBL change if there is free-stream turbulence (FST). First, the entire flow is rotational, and thus a distinct TNTI does not exist. Nonetheless, it is possible to identify an interface that approximately separates the flow with mean zero vorticity from the distinctly wall-signed vorticity. This turbulent/turbulent interface is shown to be closer to the wall than the traditional TNTI, and the resulting intermittency profile is not an error-function. Also, UMZs appear to be masked by the free-stream perturbations. Despite these differences, a velocity field of a TBL with homogeneous, isotropic turbulence superimposed and weighted with the empirical intermittency profile, qualitatively reproduces the 1st and 2nd-order statistics. These findings suggest that a TBL subjected to FST may be described by a simple model. EPSRC, ERC, NSERC, Zonta International.

  6. Application of CCG Sensors to a High-Temperature Structure Subjected to Thermo-Mechanical Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Xie

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple methodology to perform a high temperature coupled thermo-mechanical test using ultra-high temperature ceramic material specimens (UHTCs, which are equipped with chemical composition gratings sensors (CCGs. The methodology also considers the presence of coupled loading within the response provided by the CCG sensors. The theoretical strain of the UHTCs specimens calculated with this technique shows a maximum relative error of 2.15% between the analytical and experimental data. To further verify the validity of the results from the tests, a Finite Element (FE model has been developed to simulate the temperature, stress and strain fields within the UHTC structure equipped with the CCG. The results show that the compressive stress exceeds the material strength at the bonding area, and this originates a failure by fracture of the supporting structure in the hot environment. The results related to the strain fields show that the relative error with the experimental data decrease with an increase of temperature. The relative error is less than 15% when the temperature is higher than 200 °C, and only 6.71% at 695 °C.

  7. Structural evaluation method study and procedure development for pressurizer surge line subjected to thermal stratification phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yixiong; Yu Xiaofei; Ai Honglei

    2014-01-01

    Thermal stratification phenomenon of pressurizer surge line can lead potential threaten to plant safety. Base on the mechanism of thermal stratification occurrence, Fr number is used to judge whether the stratification occurs or not. Also the method of calculating heat transfer coefficient is investigated. Theoretically the 3-dimension thermal stress induced by thermal stratification is decoupled to 1-dimension global stress and 2-dimension local stress, and the complex 3-dimension problem is simplified into a combination of 1-dimension and 2-dimension to compute the stress. Comply with criterion RCC-M, the complete structure integrity evaluation is accomplished after combining the stress produced by thermal stratification and the stresses produced by the other loadings. In order to match the above combined analysis method, Code SYSTUS and ROCOCO are developed. By means of aforesaid evaluation method and corresponding analysis program, surge line thermal stratification of Qinshan Phase II Extension project is investigated in this paper. And the results show that structural integrity of the pressurizer surge line affected by thermal stratification still satisfies criterion RCC-M. (authors)

  8. Analysis of an age structured model for tick populations subject to seasonal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaihui; Lou, Yijun; Wu, Jianhong

    2017-08-01

    We investigate an age-structured hyperbolic equation model by allowing the birth and death functions to be density dependent and periodic in time with the consideration of seasonal effects. By studying the integral form solution of this general hyperbolic equation obtained through the method of integration along characteristics, we give a detailed proof of the uniqueness and existence of the solution in light of the contraction mapping theorem. With additional biologically natural assumptions, using the tick population growth as a motivating example, we derive an age-structured model with time-dependent periodic maturation delays, which is quite different from the existing population models with time-independent maturation delays. For this periodic differential system with seasonal delays, the basic reproduction number R0 is defined as the spectral radius of the next generation operator. Then, we show the tick population tends to die out when R0 1. When there is no intra-specific competition among immature individuals due to the sufficient availability of immature tick hosts, the global stability of the positive periodic state for the whole model system of four delay differential equations can be obtained with the observation that a scalar subsystem for the adult stage size can be decoupled. The challenge for the proof of such a global stability result can be overcome by introducing a new phase space, based on which, a periodic solution semiflow can be defined which is eventually strongly monotone and strictly subhomogeneous.

  9. Prediction of peak response values of structures with and without TMD subjected to random pedestrian flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, Klaus; Van Nimmen, Katrien; Lombaert, Geert; De Roeck, Guido; Van den Broeck, Peter

    2016-09-01

    In civil engineering and architecture, the availability of high strength materials and advanced calculation techniques enables the construction of slender footbridges, generally highly sensitive to human-induced excitation. Due to the inherent random character of the human-induced walking load, variability on the pedestrian characteristics must be considered in the response simulation. To assess the vibration serviceability of the footbridge, the statistics of the stochastic dynamic response are evaluated by considering the instantaneous peak responses in a time range. Therefore, a large number of time windows are needed to calculate the mean value and standard deviation of the instantaneous peak values. An alternative method to evaluate the statistics is based on the standard deviation of the response and a characteristic frequency as proposed in wind engineering applications. In this paper, the accuracy of this method is evaluated for human-induced vibrations. The methods are first compared for a group of pedestrians crossing a lightly damped footbridge. Small differences of the instantaneous peak value were found by the method using second order statistics. Afterwards, a TMD tuned to reduce the peak acceleration to a comfort value, was added to the structure. The comparison between both methods in made and the accuracy is verified. It is found that the TMD parameters are tuned sufficiently and good agreements between the two methods are found for the estimation of the instantaneous peak response for a strongly damped structure.

  10. Effect of temperature on composite sandwich structures subjected to low velocity impact. [aircraft construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A. V.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of low velocity projectile impact on sandwich-type structural components was investigated. The materials used in the fabrication of the impact surface were graphite-, Kevlar-, and boron-fibers with appropriate epoxy matrices. The testing of the specimens was performed at moderately low- and high-temperatures as well as at room temperature to assess the impact-initiated strength degradation of the laminates. Eleven laminates with different stacking sequences, orientations, and thicknesses were tested. The low energy projectile impact is considered to simulate the damage caused by runway debris, the dropping of the hand tools during servicing, etc., on the secondary aircraft structures fabricated with the composite materials. The results show the preload and the impact energy combinations necessary to cause catastrophic failure in the laminates tested. A set of faired curves indicating the failure thresholds is shown separately for the tension-and compression-loaded laminates. The specific-strengths and -modulii for the various laminates tested are also given.

  11. Structure and Spatial Distribution of Ge Nanocrystals Subjected to Fast Neutron Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Ionov

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of fast neutron irradiation on the structure and spatial distribution of Ge nanocrystals (NC embedded in an amorphous SiO2 matrix has been studied. The investigation was conducted by means of laser Raman Scattering (RS, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The irradiation of Ge- NC samples by a high dose of fast neutrons lead to a partial destruction of the nanocrystals. Full reconstruction of crystallinity was achieved after annealing the radiation damage at 8000C, which resulted in full restoration of the RS spectrum. HR-TEM images show, however, that the spatial distributions of Ge-NC changed as a result of irradiation and annealing. A sharp decrease in NC distribution towards the SiO2 surface has been observed. This was accompanied by XPS detection of Ge oxides and elemental Ge within both the surface and subsurface region.

  12. Image size invariant visual cryptography for general access structures subject to display quality constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kai-Hui; Chiu, Pei-Ling

    2013-10-01

    Conventional visual cryptography (VC) suffers from a pixel-expansion problem, or an uncontrollable display quality problem for recovered images, and lacks a general approach to construct visual secret sharing schemes for general access structures. We propose a general and systematic approach to address these issues without sophisticated codebook design. This approach can be used for binary secret images in non-computer-aided decryption environments. To avoid pixel expansion, we design a set of column vectors to encrypt secret pixels rather than using the conventional VC-based approach. We begin by formulating a mathematic model for the VC construction problem to find the column vectors for the optimal VC construction, after which we develop a simulated-annealing-based algorithm to solve the problem. The experimental results show that the display quality of the recovered image is superior to that of previous papers.

  13. Structural properties of calcogenic thin films and alloys subjected to synchrotron light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, P.R.; Almeida, D.P.; Lima, J.C. de; Campos, C.E.M.; Ponciano, C.R.

    2009-01-01

    Results on structural characterization of Sb 50 Te 50 and Te 24 In 38 Sb 38 alloys prepared as powder and after deposited as a thin films are presented. For that x ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence were used. The nanocrystalline phases Sb 2 Te 2 and Sb 24 Te 9 were nucleated in both Sb 50 Te 50 and Te 24 In 38 Sb 38 alloys, respectively. The thin films of both binary and ternary alloys are mainly amorphous. According to X-ray fluorescence results the chemical composition inside the ultraviolet irradiated region on one of the binary thin film become different than that outside irradiation marks, suggesting Sb migration. (author)

  14. X-ray diffraction study on the evaluation of the damage of steel structures subjected to earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneta, Kiyoshi; Nishizawa, Hidekazu; Koshika, Norihide.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the behavior of steel structures subjected to a strong earthquake and to evaluate the damage from a microscopic point of view. For this purpose, the authors have adopted two kinds of research techniques. The first is the ''ON-LINE EARTHQUAKE RESPONSE SIMULATION SYSTEM (ON-LINE SIMULATION SYSTEM)'', which is composed of an electro-hydrauric testing machine controled by a computer and a full scale specimen. Since a term of restoring force in the equation of motion is to be substituted by the actual reaction of a specimen under test, we can obtain the non-linear response of structure without any assumption about the hysteretic characteristics. Based on this method, the dynamic behavior of simple steel structures subjected to an intense earthquakes were simulated. The second technique is the ''X-RAY DIFFRACTION METHOD''. Although this method is usually regarded an experimental technique particular to the material science, we have realized the good applicability for the study of structural engineering. Because X-ray diffraction method is advantageous in investigating the microscopic behavior of steel member such as the plastic deformation and the low cycle fatigue. From the view point stated above, we have adopted this method for the evaluation of low cycle fatigue damage of steel member subjected to an earthquake. The experiment has been performed by radiating the X-ray at several stages of the ON-LINE SIMULATION. As has been expected, the X-ray diffraction patterns have changed in a regular manner depending on the degree of fatigue damage, and the results have shown a good possibility that the X-ray diffraction approach can offer a powerful tool for the detection of the earthquake damage of steel members. (author)

  15. Structured health care for subjects with diabetic foot ulcers results in a reduction of major amputation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objective We tested the effects of structured health care for the diabetic foot in one region in Germany aiming to reduce the number of major amputations. Research design and methods In a prospective study we investigated patients with diabetic foot in a structured system of outpatient, in-patient and rehabilitative treatment. Subjects were recruited between January 1st, 2000 and December 31, 2007. All participants underwent a two-year follow-up. The modified University of Texas Wound Classification System (UT) was the basis for documentation and data analysis. We evaluated numbers of major amputations, rates of ulcer healing and mortality. In order to compare the effect of the structured health care program with usual care in patients with diabetic foot we evaluated the same parameters at another regional hospital without interdisciplinary care of diabetic foot (controls). Results 684 patients with diabetic foot and 508 controls were investigated. At discharge from hospital 28.3% (structured health care program, SHC) vs. 23.0% (controls) of all ulcers had healed completely. 51.5% (SHC) vs. 49.8% (controls) were in UT grade 1. Major amputations were performed in 32 subjects of the structured health care program group (4.7%) vs. 110 (21.7%) in controls (p<0.0001). Mortality during hospitalization was 2.5% (SHC) vs. 9.4% in controls (p<0.001). Conclusions With the structured health care program we achieved a significant reduction of major amputation rates by more than 75% as compared to standard care. PMID:23497152

  16. ETHNOPSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURAL PECULIARITIES IN SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING(a case study of ethnic groups of the Saratov Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E E Bocharova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the data of the empirical study of the structural organization of ethnic groups subjective well-being on the territory of the Saratov Volga region conducted on proportionally selected samples ( N = 280, whose representatives identify themselves as Russians ( n = 70; city of Saratov, Armenians ( n = 70; city of Saratov, Kazakhs ( n = 70; village Alexandrov Ghay in the Saratov Region that borders on the West Kazakhstan Region of Kazakhstan with the ethnical composition represented primarily by Kazakhs, Tatars ( n = 70; village Yakovlevka in Bazarno-Karabulakskiy district of the Saratov Region with the Tatar dominant ethnical group, whose average age is 25.6 years old; SD = 9.7; sex ratio is female (52% and male (48%; respondents’ employment - 87%. It has been found that in contrast to the Russians, the sphere of social and socio-economic relations is the least “happy” area in the representatives of the Armenian, Kazakh, Tatar ethnic groups. The “happiest” is the sphere of family relations in the samples of Armenian, Kazakh and Tatar youth. The significant differences have been revealed in the structure of the subjective well-being both on the emotional and cognitive levels. A downward trend of the index of the subjective well-being of the ethnic groups from the remote areas of the region has been registered. The applied aspect of the research problem can be implemented in the development of ethno-national policy programmes of the Saratov region.

  17. Brain structural abnormalities and mental health sequelae in South Vietnamese ex-political detainees who survived traumatic head injury and torture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollica, Richard F; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Chernoff, Miriam C; Bui, Hoan X; Lavelle, James; Yoon, Sujung J; Kim, Jieun E; Renshaw, Perry F

    2009-11-01

    A pilot study of South Vietnamese ex-political detainees who had been incarcerated in Vietnamese reeducation camps and resettled in the United States disclosed significant mental health problems associated with torture and traumatic head injury (THI). To identify structural brain alterations associated with THI and to investigate whether these deficits are associated with posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. Cross-sectional neuroimaging study. Massachusetts General Hospital and McLean Hospital. A subsample of Vietnamese ex-political detainees (n = 42) and comparison subjects (n = 16) selected from a community study of 337 ex-political detainees and 82 comparison subjects. Scores on the Vietnamese versions of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL) and Harvard Trauma Questionnaire for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder, respectively; cerebral regional cortical thickness; and manual volumetric morphometry of the amygdala, hippocampus, and thalamus. Ex-political detainees exposed to THI (n = 16) showed a higher rate of depression (odds ratio, 10.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-90.0) than those without THI exposure (n = 26). Ex-political detainees with THI had thinner prefrontotemporal cortices than those without THI exposure (P brain map) in the left dorsolateral prefrontal and bilateral superior temporal cortices, controlling for age, handedness, and number of trauma/torture events (left superior frontal cortex [SFC], P = .006; left middle frontal cortex, P = .01; left superior temporal cortex [STC], P = .007; right STC, P = .01). Trauma/torture events were associated with bilateral amygdala volume loss (left, P = .045; right, P = .003). Cortical thinning associated with THI in the left SFC and bilateral STC was related to HSCL depression scores in THI-exposed (vs non-THI-exposed) ex-political detainees (left SFC, P for interaction = .007; left STC, P for interaction = .03; right STC, P for interaction = .02). Structural deficits in

  18. Parcellating an individual subject's cortical and subcortical brain structures using snowball sampling of resting-state correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wig, Gagan S; Laumann, Timothy O; Cohen, Alexander L; Power, Jonathan D; Nelson, Steven M; Glasser, Matthew F; Miezin, Francis M; Snyder, Abraham Z; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Petersen, Steven E

    2014-08-01

    We describe methods for parcellating an individual subject's cortical and subcortical brain structures using resting-state functional correlations (RSFCs). Inspired by approaches from social network analysis, we first describe the application of snowball sampling on RSFC data (RSFC-Snowballing) to identify the centers of cortical areas, subdivisions of subcortical nuclei, and the cerebellum. RSFC-Snowballing parcellation is then compared with parcellation derived from identifying locations where RSFC maps exhibit abrupt transitions (RSFC-Boundary Mapping). RSFC-Snowballing and RSFC-Boundary Mapping largely complement one another, but also provide unique parcellation information; together, the methods identify independent entities with distinct functional correlations across many cortical and subcortical locations in the brain. RSFC parcellation is relatively reliable within a subject scanned across multiple days, and while the locations of many area centers and boundaries appear to exhibit considerable overlap across subjects, there is also cross-subject variability-reinforcing the motivation to parcellate brains at the level of individuals. Finally, examination of a large meta-analysis of task-evoked functional magnetic resonance imaging data reveals that area centers defined by task-evoked activity exhibit correspondence with area centers defined by RSFC-Snowballing. This observation provides important evidence for the ability of RSFC to parcellate broad expanses of an individual's brain into functionally meaningful units. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. Vertical responses of nuclear power plant structures subject to seimic ground motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.P.; Chen, C.

    1975-01-01

    In the seismic analysis of Nuclear Power Plant Structures, it is generally assumed that the floor slab is 'rigid' in its own plane. However, the slab may be quite flexible in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the slab. There are several methods available to treat the problem related to extra amplification due to floor flexibility. The first method is to use the cascade approach. The second method is to model the flexible floor with plate bending elements and combine them with the rest of the building. The third alternative is to represent the building by a composite lumped model in which the floor is also represented by lumped masses. The stiffness of the interconnecting spring between mass points is computed from the physical properties of the corresponding floor slab. The advantages of the method are that the feedback effect is properly included and the computer cost is significantly reduced. Techniques to model the building and the methods used to obtain the spring constants are presented and discussed. The results obtained using the composite lumped mass model approach and those obtained using the finite element method are compared. Various composite lumped mass models and modeling technique are recommended for future engineering applications

  20. Large Deformation of an Elastic Rod with Structural Anisotropy Subjected to Fluid Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Masoud; Mureithi, Njuki; Gosselin, Frederick

    2015-11-01

    In the present work, we seek to understand the fundamental mechanisms of three-dimensional reconfiguration of plants by studying the large deformation of a flexible rod in fluid flow. Flexible rods made of Polyurethane foam and reinforced with Nylon fibers are tested in a wind tunnel. The rods have bending-torsion coupling which induces a torsional deformation during asymmetric bending. A mathematical model is also developed by coupling the Kirchhoff rod theory with a semi-empirical drag formulation. Different alignments of the material frame with respect to the flow direction and a range of structural properties are considered to study their effect on the deformation of the flexible rod and its drag scaling. Results show that twisting causes the flexible rods to reorient and bend with the minimum bending rigidity. It is also found that the drag scaling of the rod in the large deformation regime is not affected by torsion. Finally, using a proper set of dimensionless numbers, the state of a bending and twisting rod is characterized as a beam undergoing a pure bending deformation.

  1. Behavior and evaluation of an existing underground structure subjected to impulsive loads from an internal explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, M.D.; Khan, P.K.

    1997-12-01

    An explosion is the result of a rapid chemical reaction which generates transient air pressure waves called blast waves. There has been much research on the processes of blast wave formation, propagation of blast waves, and quantification of the incident and reflected blast overpressures. The magnitude of blast overpressure, in a partially vented environment, is mainly a function of the type and quantity of detonating material, the amount of available venting, and the orientation and configuration of the reflecting surfaces. In addition to blast overpressure, an explosion can also generate high energy missiles (such as fragments), shock loads, and rapid rise of temperature in the confined space. This study concentrates on the effects of blast overpressure on a 40 feet diameter reinforced concrete cylinder with a hemispherical dome roof, supported on a 3 feet thick reinforced concrete pad, and buried under a minimum of 15 feet of soil used for radiation shielding at the top of the dome. The scope of this study is to determine whether the structure can withstand the blast overpressure generated by the postulated explosion without exceeding allowable design criteria

  2. Performance Evaluation of Waterproofing Membrane Systems Subject to the Concrete Joint Load Behavior of Below-Grade Concrete Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyoung Song

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Below-grade structures such as parking lots, underground subway tunnels, and basements are growing in scale and reaching deeper below-ground levels. In this type of environment, they become subject to higher water pressure. The concrete material of the structures is exposed to wet conditions for longer periods of time, which makes the proper adhesion of waterproofing membranes difficult. Joint movements from increased structural settlement, thermal expansion/shrinkage, and physical loads from external sources (e.g., vehicles make securing durable waterproofing challenging. While ASTM Guides, Korean Codes, and BS Practice Codes on below-grade waterproofing stress the importance of manufacturer specification for quality control, ensuring high quality waterproofing for the ever-changing scale of construction remains a challenge. This study proposes a new evaluation method and criteria which allow for the selection of waterproofing membranes based on specific performance attributes and workmanship. It subjects six different waterproofing membrane systems (installed on dry and wet surface conditioned mortar slab specimens with an artificial joint to different cyclic movement widths to 300 cycles in water to demonstrate that inadequate material properties and workmanship are key causes for leakages.

  3. Defining Abnormally Low Tenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard; Nyström, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The concept of an abnormally low tender is not defined in EU public procurement law. This article takes an interdisciplinary law and economics approach to examine a dataset consisting of Swedish and Danish judgments and verdicts concerning the concept of an abnormally low tender. The purpose...

  4. Identification of the Response of a Controlled Building Structure Subjected to Seismic Load by Using Nonlinear System Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosbeh R. Kaloop

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the prediction efficiency of nonlinear system-identification models, in assessing the behavior of a coupled structure-passive vibration controller. Two system-identification models, including Nonlinear AutoRegresive with eXogenous inputs (NARX and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS, are used to model the behavior of an experimentally scaled three-story building incorporated with a tuned mass damper (TMD subjected to seismic loads. The experimental study is performed to generate the input and output data sets for training and testing the designed models. The parameters of root-mean-squared error, mean absolute error and determination coefficient statistics are used to compare the performance of the aforementioned models. A TMD controller system works efficiently to mitigate the structural vibration. The results revealed that the NARX and ANFIS models could be used to identify the response of a controlled structure. The parameters of both two time-delays of the structure response and the seismic load were proven to be effective tools in identifying the performance of the models. A comparison based on the parametric evaluation of the two methods showed that the NARX model outperforms the ANFIS model in identifying structures response.

  5. Behavior and ultimate strength of an inner concrete structure of a nuclear reactor building subjected to thermal and seismic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omatsuzawa, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Sato, M.; Takeda, T.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yoshioka, K.; Nakayama, T.; Furuya, N.; Kawaguchi, T.; Koike, K.; Naganuma, K.

    1987-01-01

    Heating tests and heating-plus-seismic-loading tests at high temperature (T max = 175 0 C) were conducted using various concrete structural members such as beams, cylindrical walls, H-section walls, and 1/10-scale models of the inner concrete (I/C) structure in a fast breeder reactor (FBR) building. Concrete subjected to high temperature exceeding 100 0 C has a tendency to have lower Young's modulus and to shrink. As these material constants are temperature-dependent, the thermal stress occurring within the concrete structure is smaller than the values usually obtained by normal crack analysis methods. Although thermal stresses and cracks exert marked influences on the behaviors of the structures during the earlier stages of loading, they hardly affect the ultimate bending and shear strengths. Specifically, as a result of I/C model tests, it was made clear that the ultimate strength of the structure is considerably greater than the design loads under combined thermal and seismic loading conditions. (orig./HP)

  6. The Structure and Contents of the English Written Entry Examination as a Major Subject at the Department of Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Светлана Евгеньевна Боброва

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article has been writing English entry examinations for PFUR for over a decade. In this article she analyses the structure and contents of the English language entry examination for prospective students of Linguistics at the Faculty of Philology. The requirements for the entry written test are set by the State standards of complete secondary education for foreign languages at the level of a major subject. The PFUR entry examination has always been written in accordance with recommendations of the Education and Science Ministry and the Federal Institute of Pedagogical Assessment.

  7. Validation by numerical simulation of the behaviour of protective structures of machinery cabins subjected to standardized shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrache, P.; Goanţă, A. M.

    2017-08-01

    The ability of the cabins to insure the operator protection in the case of the shock loading that appears at the roll-over of the machine or when the cab is struck by the falling objects, it’s one of the most important performance criterions that it must comply by the machines and the mobile equipments. The experimental method provides the most accurate information on the behaviour of protective structures, but generates high costs due to experimental installations and structures which may be compromised during the experiments. In these circumstances, numerical simulation of the actual problem (mechanical shock applied to a strength structure) is a perfectly viable alternative, given that the hardware and software current performances provides the necessary support to obtain results with an acceptable level of accuracy. In this context, the paper proposes using FEA platforms for virtual testing of the actual strength structures of the cabins using their finite element models based on 3D models generated in CAD environments. In addition to the economic advantage above mentioned, although the results obtained by simulation using the finite element method are affected by a number of simplifying assumptions, the adequate modelling of the phenomenon can be a successful support in the design process of structures to meet safety performance criteria imposed by current standards. In the first section of the paper is presented the general context of the security performance requirements imposed by current standards on the cabins strength structures. The following section of the paper is dedicated to the peculiarities of finite element modelling in problems that impose simulation of the behaviour of structures subjected to shock loading. The final section of the paper is dedicated to a case study and to the future objectives.

  8. Optimization Design of Structures Subjected to Transient Loads Using First and Second Derivatives of Dynamic Displacement and Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qimao Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper developed an effective optimization method, i.e., gradient-Hessian matrix-based method or second order method, of frame structures subjected to the transient loads. An algorithm of first and second derivatives of dynamic displacement and stress with respect to design variables is formulated based on the Newmark method. The inequality time-dependent constraint problem is converted into a sequence of appropriately formed time-independent unconstrained problems using the integral interior point penalty function method. The gradient and Hessian matrixes of the integral interior point penalty functions are also computed. Then the Marquardt's method is employed to solve unconstrained problems. The numerical results show that the optimal design method proposed in this paper can obtain the local optimum design of frame structures and sometimes is more efficient than the augmented Lagrange multiplier method.

  9. Progressive buckling analysis for a cylindrical shell structure with the free edge subjected to moving thermal cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Gyeong-Hoi; Lee, Jae-Han

    2004-01-01

    In the KALIMER (Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor) design, the reactor baffle structure is adopted to prevent the hot pool sodium from directly contacting the reactor vessel and to guide the hot sodium overflow in severe transient operating conditions. The parts in the vicinity of the hot pool free surface region could be repeatedly subjected to a moving axial temperature gradient and this might result in thermal ratcheting deformation. In this paper, the progressive thermal buckling behaviour following thermal ratcheting due to the moving axial temperature gradients in a cylindrical shell structure with an open free edge is investigated using numerical inelastic analysis with Chaboche's model. To do this, the analyses of the moving temperature distribution are carried out with a simple model and the severe moving axial temperature gradients are assumed to be sufficient for the evolution of thermal ratcheting

  10. Inter-subject FDG PET Brain Networks Exhibit Multi-scale Community Structure with Different Normalization Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, Megan M; Kartha, Sonia; Granquist, Eric J; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2018-07-01

    Inter-subject networks are used to model correlations between brain regions and are particularly useful for metabolic imaging techniques, like 18F-2-deoxy-2-(18F)fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Since FDG PET typically produces a single image, correlations cannot be calculated over time. Little focus has been placed on the basic properties of inter-subject networks and if they are affected by group size and image normalization. FDG PET images were acquired from rats (n = 18), normalized by whole brain, visual cortex, or cerebellar FDG uptake, and used to construct correlation matrices. Group size effects on network stability were investigated by systematically adding rats and evaluating local network connectivity (node strength and clustering coefficient). Modularity and community structure were also evaluated in the differently normalized networks to assess meso-scale network relationships. Local network properties are stable regardless of normalization region for groups of at least 10. Whole brain-normalized networks are more modular than visual cortex- or cerebellum-normalized network (p network resolutions where modularity differs most between brain and randomized networks. Hierarchical analysis reveals consistent modules at different scales and clustering of spatially-proximate brain regions. Findings suggest inter-subject FDG PET networks are stable for reasonable group sizes and exhibit multi-scale modularity.

  11. Multi-functional smart aggregate-based structural health monitoring of circular reinforced concrete columns subjected to seismic excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Haichang; Song, Gangbing; Moslehy, Yashar; Mo, Y L; Sanders, David

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a recently developed multi-functional piezoceramic-based device, named the smart aggregate, is used for the health monitoring of concrete columns subjected to shake table excitations. Two circular reinforced concrete columns instrumented with smart aggregates were fabricated and tested with a recorded seismic excitation at the structural laboratory at the University of Nevada—Reno. In the tests, the smart aggregates were used to perform multiple monitoring functions that included dynamic seismic response detection, structural health monitoring and white noise response detection. In the proposed health monitoring approach, a damage index was developed on the basis of the comparison of the transfer function with the baseline function obtained in the healthy state. A sensor-history damage index matrix is developed to monitor the damage evolution process. Experimental results showed that the acceleration level can be evaluated from the amplitude of the dynamic seismic response; the damage statuses at different locations were evaluated using a damage index matrix; the first modal frequency obtained from the white noise response decreased with increase of the damage severity. The proposed multi-functional smart aggregates have great potential for use in the structural health monitoring of large-scale concrete structures

  12. Calculation of a Tunnel Cross Section Subjected to Fire – with a New Advanced Transient Concrete Model for Reinforced Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Schneider

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the structural application of a new thermal induced strain model for concrete – the TIS-Model. An advanced transient concrete model (ATCM is applied with the material model of the TIS-Model. The non-linear model comprises thermal strain, elastic strain, plastic strain and transient temperature strains, and load history modelling of restraint concrete structures subjected to fire.The calculations by finite element analysis (FEA were done using the SAFIR structural code. The FEA software was basically new with respect to the material modelling derived to use the new TIS-Model (as a transient model considers thermal induced strain. The equations of the ATCM consider a lot of capabilities, especially for considering irreversible effects of temperature on some material properties. By considering the load history during heating up, increasing load bearing capacity may be obtained due to higher stiffness of the concrete. With this model, it is possible to apply the thermal-physical behaviour of material laws for calculation of structures under extreme temperature conditions.A tunnel cross section designed and built by the cut and cover method is calculated with a tunnel fire curve. The results are compared with the results of a calculation with the model of the Eurocode 2 (EC2-Model. The effect of load history in highly loaded structures under fire load will be investigated.A comparison of this model with the ordinary calculation system of Eurocode 2 (EC2 shows that a better evaluation of the safety level was achieved with the new model. This opens a space for optimizing concrete structure design with transient temperature conditions up to 1000 °C. 

  13. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida El-Baz

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected in the studied autistic children, and so the relation between the genetics and autism still needs further work up with different study methods and techniques.

  14. Chromosomal Abnormalities in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fragile X syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS, and other cytogenetic abnormalities among 100 children (64 boys with combined type ADHD and normal intelligence was assessed at the NIMH and Georgetown University Medical Center.

  15. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  16. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... especially the progestin-only pill (also called the “mini-pill”) can actually cause abnormal bleeding for some ... Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality ...

  17. SYSTEM-COGNITIVE MODEL OF FORECASTING THE DEVELOPMENT OF DIVERSIFIED AGRO-INDUSTRIAL CORPORATIONS. PART I. COGNITIVE STRUCTURING AND FORMALIZATION OF THE SUBJECT AREA

    OpenAIRE

    Lutsenko Y. V.; Loyko V. I.; Baranovskaya T. P.; Makarevich O. A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, in accordance with the methodology of the Automated system-cognitive analysis (ASCanalysis), we examine the implementation of the 1st and 2nd stages of ASC-analysis: cognitive structuring and formalization of the subject area. At the stage of cognitive structurization of subject area, researchers decide what to consider as the object of modeling, the factors affecting it and the results of their actions. In accordance with the results of the cognitive structurization, we prep...

  18. Subjective Cognitive Decline: Mapping Functional and Structural Brain Changes-A Combined Resting-State Functional and Structural MR Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Dai, Zhengjia; Li, Yuxia; Sheng, Can; Li, Hongyan; Wang, Xiaoni; Chen, Xiaodan; He, Yong; Han, Ying

    2016-10-01

    Purpose To determine whether individuals with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) exhibit functional and structural brain alterations by using resting-state functional and structural magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods This study received institutional review board approval, and all participants gave informed consent. Resting-state functional MR imaging and structural MR imaging techniques were used to measure amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and regional gray matter volume in 25 subjects with SCD (mean age, 65.52 years ± 6.12) and 61 control subjects (mean age, 64.11 years ± 8.59). Voxel-wise general linear model analyses were used to examine between-group differences in ALFF or in gray matter volume and to further determine the brain-behavioral relationship. Results Subjects with SCD exhibited higher ALFF values than did control subjects in the bilateral inferior parietal lobule (left: 0.44 ± 0.25 vs 0.27 ± 0.18, respectively; P = .0003; right: 1.46 ± 0.45 vs 1.10 ± 0.37, respectively; P = .0015), right inferior (0.45 ± 0.15 vs 0.37 ± 0.08, repectively; P = .0106) and middle (1.03 ± 0.32 vs 0.83 ± 0.20, respectively; P = .0008) occipital gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus (0.11 ± 0.07 vs 0.07 ± 0.04, respectively; P = .0016), and right cerebellum posterior lobe (0.51 ± 0.27 vs 0.39 ± 0.15, respectively; P = .0010). In the SCD group, significant correlations were found between Auditory Verbal Learning Test recognition scores and ALFF in the left inferior parietal lobe (r = -0.79, P Learning Test immediate recall scores and ALFF values in the right middle occipital gyrus (r = -0.64, P = .002). Nonsignificant group differences were found in gray matter volume (P > .05, corrected). Conclusion Individuals with SCD had altered spontaneous functional activity, suggesting that resting-state functional MR imaging may be a noninvasive method for characterizing SCD. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for

  19. Abnormal sound detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Izumi; Matsui, Yuji.

    1995-01-01

    Only components synchronized with rotation of pumps are sampled from detected acoustic sounds, to judge the presence or absence of abnormality based on the magnitude of the synchronized components. A synchronized component sampling means can remove resonance sounds and other acoustic sounds generated at a synchronously with the rotation based on the knowledge that generated acoustic components in a normal state are a sort of resonance sounds and are not precisely synchronized with the number of rotation. On the other hand, abnormal sounds of a rotating body are often caused by compulsory force accompanying the rotation as a generation source, and the abnormal sounds can be detected by extracting only the rotation-synchronized components. Since components of normal acoustic sounds generated at present are discriminated from the detected sounds, reduction of the abnormal sounds due to a signal processing can be avoided and, as a result, abnormal sound detection sensitivity can be improved. Further, since it is adapted to discriminate the occurrence of the abnormal sound from the actually detected sounds, the other frequency components which are forecast but not generated actually are not removed, so that it is further effective for the improvement of detection sensitivity. (N.H.)

  20. Structure, Texture and Phases in 3D Printed IN718 Alloy Subjected to Homogenization and HIP Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mostafa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing results in anisotropy in the microstructure and mechanical properties. The focus of this study is to investigate the structure, texture and phase evolution of the as-printed and heat treated IN718 superalloy. Cylindrical specimens, printed by powder-bed additive manufacturing technique, were subjected to two post-treatments: homogenization (1100 °C, 1 h, furnace cooling and hot isostatic pressing (HIP (1160 °C, 100 MPa, 4 h, furnace cooling. The Selective laser melting (SLM printed microstructure exhibited a columnar architecture, parallel to the building direction, due to the heat flow towards negative z-direction. Whereas, a unique structural morphology was observed in the x-y plane due to different cooling rates resulting from laser beam overlapping. Post-processing treatments reorganized the columnar structure of a strong {002} texture into fine columnar and/or equiaxed grains of random orientations. Equiaxed structure of about 150 µm average grain size, was achieved after homogenization and HIP treatments. Both δ-phase and MC-type brittle carbides, having rough morphologies, were formed at the grain boundaries. Delta-phase formed due to γ″-phase dissolution in the γ matrix, while MC-type carbides nucleates grew by diffusion of solute atoms. The presence of (Nb0.78Ti0.22C carbide phase, with an fcc structure having a lattice parameter a = 4.43 Å, was revealed using Energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS and X-ray diffractometer (XRD analysis. The solidification behavior of IN718 alloy was described to elucidate the evolution of different phases during selective laser melting and post-processing heat treatments of IN718.

  1. Effect of bidirectional internal flow on fluid–structure interaction dynamics of conveying marine riser model subject to shear current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Shou Chen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a numerical investigation concerning the effect of two kinds of axially progressing internal flows (namely, upward and downward on fluid–structure interaction (FSI dynamics about a marine riser model which is subject to external shear current. The CAE technology behind the current research is a proposed FSI solution, which combines structural analysis software with CFD technology together. Efficiency validation for the CFD software was carried out first. It has been proved that the result from numerical simulations agrees well with the observation from relating model test cases in which the fluidity of internal flow is ignorable. After verifying the numerical code accuracy, simulations are conducted to study the vibration response that attributes to the internal progressive flow. It is found that the existence of internal flow does play an important role in determining the vibration mode (/dominant frequency and the magnitude of instantaneous vibration amplitude. Since asymmetric curvature along the riser span emerges in the case of external shear current, the centrifugal and Coriolis accelerations owing to up- and downward internal progressive flows play different roles in determining the fluid–structure interaction response. The discrepancy between them becomes distinct, when the velocity ratio of internal flow against external shear current is relatively high.

  2. Changes in the species composition and structure of the herb layer of a thermophilous oak forest subject to clear cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hieronim Andrzejewski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the herb layer of a thermophilous oak forest (Potentillo albae-Quercetum, subject to clear cutting and artificial reforestation with Scotch pine monoculture, were analysed by a comparative method. It was found that cutting of a tree stand and underbrush did not destroy phytocoenose totally. Floristically-rich clearance communities resembled in their composition and structure the ground layer of an natural form of an oak forest. The regress of the herb layer took place several years later in a young pine stand. Then, a compact tree canopy highly restricted light inflow to the bottom of a forest. Later, thinning of a forest stand enabled the herb layer to regenerate. Nevertheless, even 60 years after clear cutting it significantly differed from the herb layer of a natural oak forest.

  3. Experiments in a boundary layer subjected to free stream turbulence. Part 1: Boundary layer structure and receptivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westin, K.J.A.; Boiko, A.V.; Klingmann, B.G.B.; Kozlov, V.V.; Alfredsson, P.H.

    1993-12-01

    The modification of the mean and fluctuating characteristics of a flat plate boundary layer subjected to nearly isotropic free stream turbulence (FST) is studied experimentally using hot-wire anemometry. The study is focussed on the region upstream of the transition onset, where the fluctuations inside the boundary layer are dominated by elongated flow structures which grow downstream both in amplitude and length. Their downstream development and scaling is investigated, and the results are compared to those obtained by previous authors. This allows some conclusions about the parameters which are relevant for the modelling of the transition process. The mechanisms underlying the transition process and the relative importance of the Tollmien-Schlichting wave instability in this flow are treated in an accompanying paper. 25 refs

  4. Re-centering variable friction device for vibration control of structures subjected to near-field earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbulut, Osman E.; Hurlebaus, Stefan

    2011-11-01

    This paper proposes a re-centering variable friction device (RVFD) for control of civil structures subjected to near-field earthquakes. The proposed hybrid device has two sub-components. The first sub-component of this hybrid device consists of shape memory alloy (SMA) wires that exhibit a unique hysteretic behavior and full recovery following post-transformation deformations. The second sub-component of the hybrid device consists of variable friction damper (VFD) that can be intelligently controlled for adaptive semi-active behavior via modulation of its voltage level. In general, installed SMA devices have the ability to re-center structures at the end of the motion and VFDs can increase the energy dissipation capacity of structures. The full realization of these devices into a singular, hybrid form which complements the performance of each device is investigated in this study. A neuro-fuzzy model is used to capture rate- and temperature-dependent nonlinear behavior of the SMA components of the hybrid device. An optimal fuzzy logic controller (FLC) is developed to modulate voltage level of VFDs for favorable performance in a RVFD hybrid application. To obtain optimal controllers for concurrent mitigation of displacement and acceleration responses, tuning of governing fuzzy rules is conducted by a multi-objective heuristic optimization. Then, numerical simulation of a multi-story building is conducted to evaluate the performance of the hybrid device. Results show that a re-centering variable friction device modulated with a fuzzy logic control strategy can effectively reduce structural deformations without increasing acceleration response during near-field earthquakes.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal and abnormal pulmonary hila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, W.R.; Gamsu, G.; Stark, D.D.; Moore, E.H.

    1984-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of the hila were reviewed in 25 normal subjects and 12 patients with unilateral or bilateral hilar masses. On spin echo MR images in normal patients, collections of soft tissue large enough to be confused with an abnormally enlarged lymph node were seen in three locations. In patients with a hilar mass, the mass was differentiated from hilar vasculature more easily using MR than contrast-enhanced CT. However, because the spatial resolution of MR is inferior to that of CT, bronchi were difficult to evaulate using MR. Electrocardiographic-gated images showed better resolution of hilar structures but may not be necessary for large masses

  6. The value of structured data elements from electronic health records for identifying subjects for primary care clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateya, Mohammad B; Delaney, Brendan C; Speedie, Stuart M

    2016-01-11

    An increasing number of clinical trials are conducted in primary care settings. Making better use of existing data in the electronic health records to identify eligible subjects can improve efficiency of such studies. Our study aims to quantify the proportion of eligibility criteria that can be addressed with data in electronic health records and to compare the content of eligibility criteria in primary care with previous work. Eligibility criteria were extracted from primary care studies downloaded from the UK Clinical Research Network Study Portfolio. Criteria were broken into elemental statements. Two expert independent raters classified each statement based on whether or not structured data items in the electronic health record can be used to determine if the statement was true for a specific patient. Disagreements in classification were discussed until 100 % agreement was reached. Statements were also classified based on content and the percentages of each category were compared to two similar studies reported in the literature. Eligibility criteria were retrieved from 228 studies and decomposed into 2619 criteria elemental statements. 74 % of the criteria elemental statements were considered likely associated with structured data in an electronic health record. 79 % of the studies had at least 60 % of their criteria statements addressable with structured data likely to be present in an electronic health record. Based on clinical content, most frequent categories were: "disease, symptom, and sign", "therapy or surgery", and "medication" (36 %, 13 %, and 10 % of total criteria statements respectively). We also identified new criteria categories related to provider and caregiver attributes (2.6 % and 1 % of total criteria statements respectively). Electronic health records readily contain much of the data needed to assess patients' eligibility for clinical trials enrollment. Eligibility criteria content categories identified by our study can be

  7. Non-Fourier thermal transport induced structural hierarchy and damage to collagen ultrastructure subjected to laser irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Nilamani; Narasimhan, Arunn; Dhar, Purbarun; Das, Sarit K

    2018-05-01

    Comprehending the mechanism of thermal transport through biological tissues is an important factor for optimal ablation of cancerous tissues and minimising collateral tissue damage. The present study reports detailed mapping of the rise in internal temperature within the tissue mimics due to NIR (1064 nm) laser irradiation, both for bare mimics and with gold nanostructures infused. Gold nanostructures such as mesoflowers and nanospheres have been synthesised and used as photothermal converters to enhance the temperature rise, resulting in achieving the desired degradation of malignant tissue in targeted region. Thermal history was observed experimentally and simulated considering non-Fourier dual phase lag (DPL) model incorporated Pennes bio-heat transfer equation using COMSOL Multiphysics software. The gross deviation in temperature i.e. rise from the classical Fourier model for bio-heat conduction suggests additional effects of temperature rise on the secondary structures and morphological and physico-chemical changes to the collagen ultrastructures building the tissue mass. The observed thermal denaturation in the collagen fibril morphologies have been explained based on the physico-chemical structure of collagen and its response to thermal radiation. The large shift in frequency of amides A and B is pronounced at a depth of maximum temperature rise compared with other positions in tissue phantom. Observations for change in band of amide I, amide II, and amide III are found to be responsible for damage to collagen ultra-structure. Variation in the concentration of gold nanostructures shows the potentiality of localised hyperthermia treatment subjected to NIR radiation through a proposed free radical mechanism.

  8. Orthodontic and dysfunctional abnormalities of stomatognatic apparatus: radiographic analysis of 204 subjects. Radiodiagnostica delle anomalie ortodontiche e disfunzionali dell'apparato stomatognatico: analisi di un campione di 204 soggetti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scutellari, P N [Ferrara Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia; Capurso, V; Rotolo, R; Calura, G [Ferrara Univ. (Italy). Clinica Odontoiatrica; Orzincolo, C [Arcispedale S.Anna, Ferrara (Italy). Serv. di Radiologia

    1990-01-01

    Two hundred and four subjects (86 males and 118 females), aged 8 to 35 years, with different types of malocclusion, underwent panoramic dental radiography and skull teleradiography. This study was aimed at investigating advantages and limitations of the two radiographic techniques, in view of their use as screening methods. On orthopan-tomography, inferior interincisive point, menthon (Me), and, bilaterally, gonion (Go) and condilion (Co), were localized so as to allow a model of the right and left jaws to be made. On teleradiography of the skull, in lateral view, Steiner's cephalometric analysis allowed skeletal classes to be evaluated according to ANB angle values. More-over, major postural parameters relative to the relationship between skull and cervical spine were analyzed: atlanto-occipital distance, cranio-vertebral angle, cervical lordosis, and hyoid triangle. Orthopan-tomography, though not a reproducible technique, can be considered as a valuable screening method for it allows right and left hemi-jaws to be comparatively measured. Cephalometric analysis of postural data confirmed the frequency of wrong postures in orthodontic patients. From the correlation of mandibular asymmetries and cranio-cervical parameters, the authors observed that asymmetrical patients have many postural problems, just like class II skeletal and dolico-facial types. This findings seems to confirm the mixed (functional and skeletal) etiopathogenesis of mandibular asymmetries. 33 Refs.

  9. Single session imaging of cerebellum at 7 Tesla: obtaining structure and function of multiple motor subsystems in individual subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A Batson

    Full Text Available The recent increase in the use of high field MR systems is accompanied by a demand for acquisition techniques and coil systems that can take advantage of increased power and accuracy without being susceptible to increased noise. Physical location and anatomical complexity of targeted regions must be considered when attempting to image deeper structures with small nuclei and/or complex cytoarchitechtonics (i.e. small microvasculature and deep nuclei, such as the brainstem and the cerebellum (Cb. Once these obstacles are overcome, the concomitant increase in signal strength at higher field strength should allow for faster acquisition of MR images. Here we show that it is technically feasible to quickly and accurately detect blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal changes and obtain anatomical images of Cb at high spatial resolutions in individual subjects at 7 Tesla in a single one-hour session. Images were obtained using two high-density multi-element surface coils (32 channels in total placed beneath the head at the level of Cb, two channel transmission, and three-dimensional sensitivity encoded (3D, SENSE acquisitions to investigate sensorimotor activations in Cb. Two classic sensorimotor tasks were used to detect Cb activations. BOLD signal changes during motor activity resulted in concentrated clusters of activity within the Cb lobules associated with each task, observed consistently and independently in each subject: Oculomotor vermis (VI/VII and CrusI/II for pro- and anti-saccades; ipsilateral hemispheres IV-VI for finger tapping; and topographical separation of eye- and hand- activations in hemispheres VI and VIIb/VIII. Though fast temporal resolution was not attempted here, these functional patches of highly specific BOLD signal changes may reflect small-scale shunting of blood in the microvasculature of Cb. The observed improvements in acquisition time and signal detection are ideal for individualized investigations such as

  10. CT of pleural abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    Briefly discussed were CT diagnosis of pleural thickening, CT technique for examining the pleura or pleuro-pulmonary disease, diagnosis of pleural collections, diagnosis of pleural fluid abnormalities in patients with pneumonia, pleural neoplasms, malignant (diffuse) mesothelioma, metastases, local fibrous tumor of the pleura (benign mesothelioma) (21 refs.)

  11. CT of pleural abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, W R [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    Briefly discussed were CT diagnosis of pleural thickening, CT technique for examining the pleura or pleuro-pulmonary disease, diagnosis of pleural collections, diagnosis of pleural fluid abnormalities in patients with pneumonia, pleural neoplasms, malignant (diffuse) mesothelioma, metastases, local fibrous tumor of the pleura (benign mesothelioma) (21 refs.).

  12. Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.

    1986-07-01

    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease.

  13. Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease

  14. Inconspicuous insertion 22;12 in myxoid/round cell liposarcoma accompanied by the secondary structural abnormality der(16)t(1;16).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Nathan C; Antonescu, Cristina R; Nelson, Marilu; Sarran, Lisa; Neff, James R; Seemayer, Thomas; Bridge, Julia A

    2003-08-01

    In myxoid/round cell liposarcoma, the t(12;16)(q13;p11) and its associated fusion transcript, FUS-CHOP, characterize greater than 95% of cases. The variant translocation t(12;22)(q13;q12) and associated EWS-CHOP fusion transcript are rare. A second non-random aberration observed in roughly 20% of Ewing's sarcomas, and to a lesser extent other select sarcomas, is the unbalanced 1;16 translocation. Recognition of this secondary aberration in the absence of an obvious primary karyotypic abnormality strongly suggests that the use of other genetic approaches will be informative in uncovering a clinically suspected primary anomaly. The following case illustrates the utility of molecular cytogenetic and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction techniques in diagnosing an ins(22;12)(q12;q13q14) and associated EWS-CHOP fusion transcript in a myxoid/round cell liposarcoma exhibiting a der(16)t(1;16)(q11;q11).

  15. Esophageal intraluminal baseline impedance is associated with severity of acid reflux and epithelial structural abnormalities in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chanjuan; Duan, Liping; Wang, Kun; Xu, Zhijie; Ge, Ying; Yang, Changqing; Han, Yajing

    2013-05-01

    The esophageal intraluminal baseline impedance may be used to evaluate the status of mucosa integrity. Esophageal acid exposure decreases the baseline impedance. We aimed to compare baseline impedance in patients with various reflux events and with different acid-related parameters, and investigate the relationships between epithelial histopathologic abnormalities and baseline impedance. A total of 229 GERD patients and 34 controls underwent 24-h multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring (MII-pH monitoring), gastroendoscopy, and completed a GERD questionnaire (GerdQ). We quantified epithelial intercellular spaces (ICSs) and expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins by histologic techniques. Mean baseline values in reflux esophagitis (RE) (1752 ± 1018 Ω) and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) (2640 ± 1143 Ω) were significantly lower than in controls (3360 ± 1258 Ω; p acid reflux group (2510 ± 1239 Ω) and mixed acid/weakly acidic reflux group (2393 ± 1009 Ω) were much lower than in controls (3360 ± 1258 Ω; p = 0.020 and p acid exposure time (AET) (r = -0.41, p acid reflux events and with longer AET have low baseline impedance. Baseline values are correlated with esophageal mucosal histopathologic changes such as dilated ICS and TJ alteration.

  16. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Fouad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1% individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8% at the second screening, (P <0.001. Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8% adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1% individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6% individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3% individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5% individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6% of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6% individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1% of them. Asymp- tomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9% of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6% of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8% indivi- duals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8% individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01 and (P <0.001, respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population.

  17. Nitrofurantoin and congenital abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2001-01-01

    or fetuses with Down’s syndrome (patient controls), 23 (2.8%) pregnant women were treated with nitrofurantoin. The above differences between population controls and cases may be connected with recall bias, because the case-control pair analysis did not indicate a teratogenic potential of nitrofurantoin use......Objective: To study human teratogenic potential of oral nitrofurantoin treatment during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: Pair analysis of cases with congenital abnormalities and matched population controls in the population-based dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital...... during the second and the third months of gestation, i.e. in the critical period for major congenital abnormalities. Conclusion: Treatment with nitrofurantoin during pregnancy does not present detectable teratogenic risk to the fetus....

  18. Equipment abnormality monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yasumasa

    1991-01-01

    When an operator hears sounds in a plantsite, the operator compares normal sounds of equipment which he previously heard and remembered with sounds he actually hears, to judge if they are normal or abnormal. According to the method, there is a worry that abnormal conditions can not be appropriately judged in a case where the number of objective equipments is increased and in a case that the sounds are changed gradually slightly. Then, the device of the present invention comprises a plurality of monitors for monitoring the operation sound of equipments, a recording/reproducing device for recording and reproducing the signals, a selection device for selecting the reproducing signals among the recorded signals, an acoustic device for converting the signals to sounds, a switching device for switching the signals to be transmitted to the acoustic device between to signals of the monitor and the recording/reproducing signals. The abnormality of the equipments can be determined easily by comparing the sounds representing the operation conditions of equipments for controlling the plant operation and the sounds recorded in their normal conditions. (N.H.)

  19. Nonpathologizing trauma interventions in abnormal psychology courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Stephanie M; Luchner, Andrew F; Pickett, Rachel F

    2016-01-01

    Because abnormal psychology courses presuppose a focus on pathological human functioning, nonpathologizing interventions within these classes are particularly powerful and can reach survivors, bystanders, and perpetrators. Interventions are needed to improve the social response to trauma on college campuses. By applying psychodynamic and feminist multicultural theory, instructors can deliver nonpathologizing interventions about trauma and trauma response within these classes. We recommend class-based interventions with the following aims: (a) intentionally using nonpathologizing language, (b) normalizing trauma responses, (c) subjectively defining trauma, (d) challenging secondary victimization, and (e) questioning the delineation of abnormal and normal. The recommendations promote implications for instructor self-reflection, therapy interventions, and future research.

  20. Decreased C-reactive protein induces abnormal vascular structure in a rat model of liver dysfunction induced by bile duct ligation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hye Jun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims Chronic liver disease leads to liver fibrosis, and although the liver does have a certain regenerative capacity, this disease is associated with dysfunction of the liver vessels. C-reactive protein (CRP is produced in the liver and circulated from there for metabolism. CRP was recently shown to inhibit angiogenesis by inducing endothelial cell dysfunction. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of CRP levels on angiogenesis in a rat model of liver dysfunction induced by bile duct ligation (BDL. Methods The diameter of the hepatic vein was analyzed in rat liver tissues using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining. The expression levels of angiogenic factors, albumin, and CRP were analyzed by real-time PCR and Western blotting. A tube formation assay was performed to confirm the effect of CRP on angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs treated with lithocholic acid (LCA and siRNA-CRP. Results The diameter of the hepatic portal vein increased significantly with the progression of cirrhosis. The expression levels of angiogenic factors were increased in the cirrhotic liver. In contrast, the expression levels of albumin and CRP were significantly lower in the liver tissue obtained from the BDL rat model than in the normal liver. The CRP level was correlated with the expression of albumin in hepatocytes treated with LCA and siRNA-CRP. Tube formation was significantly decreased in HUVECs when they were treated with LCA or a combination of LCA and siRNA-CRP. Conclusion CRP seems to be involved in the abnormal formation of vessels in hepatic disease, and so it could be a useful diagnostic marker for hepatic disease.

  1. Decreased C-reactive protein induces abnormal vascular structure in a rat model of liver dysfunction induced by bile duct ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Ji Hye; Choi, Jong Ho; Bae, Si Hyun; Oh, Seh Hoon; Kim, Gi Jin

    2016-09-01

    Chronic liver disease leads to liver fibrosis, and although the liver does have a certain regenerative capacity, this disease is associated with dysfunction of the liver vessels. C-reactive protein (CRP) is produced in the liver and circulated from there for metabolism. CRP was recently shown to inhibit angiogenesis by inducing endothelial cell dysfunction. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of CRP levels on angiogenesis in a rat model of liver dysfunction induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). The diameter of the hepatic vein was analyzed in rat liver tissues using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. The expression levels of angiogenic factors, albumin, and CRP were analyzed by real-time PCR and Western blotting. A tube formation assay was performed to confirm the effect of CRP on angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) treated with lithocholic acid (LCA) and siRNA-CRP. The diameter of the hepatic portal vein increased significantly with the progression of cirrhosis. The expression levels of angiogenic factors were increased in the cirrhotic liver. In contrast, the expression levels of albumin and CRP were significantly lower in the liver tissue obtained from the BDL rat model than in the normal liver. The CRP level was correlated with the expression of albumin in hepatocytes treated with LCA and siRNA-CRP. Tube formation was significantly decreased in HUVECs when they were treated with LCA or a combination of LCA and siRNA-CRP. CRP seems to be involved in the abnormal formation of vessels in hepatic disease, and so it could be a useful diagnostic marker for hepatic disease.

  2. Interhemispheric motor networks are abnormal in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäumer, Tobias; Thomalla, Götz; Kroeger, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Brain imaging has shown altered corpus callosum (CC) morphology in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS). Yet it is unclear whether these morphological changes are associated with altered interhemispheric interactions. Here, we combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with di...... in control subjects but not in patients. Our combined TMS-DTI approach demonstrates abnormal functional interhemispheric connectivity in GTS accompanied by an altered structure-function relationship in the motor CC....

  3. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  4. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  5. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner of how a ...

  6. Pregnancy Complications: Umbilical Cord Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Umbilical cord abnormalities Umbilical cord abnormalities Now playing: E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. ... blood supply) to the baby. The two arteries transport waste from the baby to the placenta (where ...

  7. Abnormal arrangement of a collagen/apatite extracellular matrix orthogonal to osteoblast alignment is constructed by a nanoscale periodic surface structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsugaki, Aira; Aramoto, Gento; Ninomiya, Takafumi; Sawada, Hiroshi; Hata, Satoshi; Nakano, Takayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Morphological and directional alteration of cells is essential for structurally appropriate construction of tissues and organs. In particular, osteoblast alignment is crucial for the realization of anisotropic bone tissue microstructure. In this article, the orientation of a collagen/apatite extracellular matrix (ECM) was established by controlling osteoblast alignment using a surface geometry with nanometer-sized periodicity induced by laser ablation. Laser irradiation induced self-organized periodic structures (laser-induced periodic surface structures; LIPSS) with a spatial period equal to the wavelength of the incident laser on the surface of biomedical alloys of Ti-6Al-4V and Co-Cr-Mo. Osteoblast orientation was successfully induced parallel to the grating structure. Notably, both the fibrous orientation of the secreted collagen matrix and the c-axis of the produced apatite crystals were orientated orthogonal to the cell direction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that bone tissue anisotropy is controllable, including the characteristic organization of a collagen/apatite composite orthogonal to the osteoblast orientation, by controlling the cell alignment using periodic surface geometry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Abnormal Axon Reflex-Mediated Sweating Correlates with High State of Anxiety in Atopic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Kijima

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the number of study subjects was little, abnormal AXR sweating in patients with AD was observed. Correlative analysis suggests possible involvement of continuous anxiety and the immune system in such abnormal sudomotor function.

  9. Scrotal abnormalities and infertility in west African men: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    K.H. Tijani

    Conclusion: Male sub-fertility was associated with a higher prevalence of scrotal abnormalities. Apart ... ultrasonography (scrotal US) serving multiple purposes in the sub- ..... testicular tumors in sub-fertile subjects with rates between 0.3 and.

  10. Scrotal abnormalities and infertility in west African men: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine and compare the spectrum of scrotal abnormalities in fertile and sub-fertile west African men using scrotal US. Subjects and methods: The study examined 249 subjects over a period of 13 months. The subjects comprised 149 patients with diagnosis of male infertility, as well as 100 healthy ...

  11. Subjective cognitive impairment and brain structural networks in Chinese gynaecological cancer survivors compared with age-matched controls: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yingchun; Cheng, Andy S K; Song, Ting; Sheng, Xiujie; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Xiangyu; Chan, Chetwyn C H

    2017-11-28

    Subjective cognitive impairment can be a significant and prevalent problem for gynaecological cancer survivors. The aims of this study were to assess subjective cognitive functioning in gynaecological cancer survivors after primary cancer treatment, and to investigate the impact of cancer treatment on brain structural networks and its association with subjective cognitive impairment. This was a cross-sectional survey using a self-reported questionnaire by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cognitive Function (FACT-Cog) to assess subjective cognitive functioning, and applying DTI (diffusion tensor imaging) and graph theoretical analyses to investigate brain structural networks after primary cancer treatment. A total of 158 patients with gynaecological cancer (mean age, 45.86 years) and 130 age-matched non-cancer controls (mean age, 44.55 years) were assessed. Patients reported significantly greater subjective cognitive functioning on the FACT-Cog total score and two subscales of perceived cognitive impairment and perceived cognitive ability (all p values impairment (r = -0.388, p = 0.034). When compared with non-cancer controls, a considerable proportion of gynaecological cancer survivors may exhibit subjective cognitive impairment. This study provides the first evidence of brain structural network alteration in gynaecological cancer patients at post-treatment, and offers novel insights regarding the possible neurobiological mechanism of cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) in gynaecological cancer patients. As primary cancer treatment can result in a more random organisation of structural brain networks, this may reduce brain functional specificity and segregation, and have implications for cognitive impairment. Future prospective and longitudinal studies are needed to build upon the study findings in order to assess potentially relevant clinical and psychosocial variables and brain network measures, so as to more accurately understand the

  12. [Penile congenital abnormalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boillot, B; Teklali, Y; Moog, R; Droupy, S

    2013-07-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the penis are usually diagnosed at birth and pose aesthetic and functional problems sometimes requiring surgical management. A literature review was conducted on Medline considering the articles listed until January 2012. Hypospadias is the most common malformation (1 in 250 boys. Familial forms: 7%). The causes remain hypothetical but the doubling of the incidence in 30 years could be linked to fetal exposure to endocrine disruptors "estrogen-like" used in the food industry in particular. Surgical treatment is usually intended to improve the aesthetic appearance but sometimes, in case of significant curvature or posterior meatus, necessary for normal sexual life and fertility. Other malformations (epispades, buried penis, transpositions, twists and preputial abnormalities) as well as management for functional or aesthetic consequences of these malformations in adulthood require complex surgical care in a specialized environment. The improvement of surgical techniques and pediatric anesthesia allows an early and effective specialized surgical approach of penile malformations. Management of sequelae in adulthood must be discussed and requires experience of surgical techniques on pediatric and adult penis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. An abnormal carbohydrate tolerance in acromegaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Jinwu

    1988-01-01

    An abnormal secretion of plasma human growth hormore (hGH) and insulin in 67 acromegalic patients had been previously treated by external pituitary radiation were studied. All subjects, following an overnight fast, a standard 100 g oral glucose tolerance test, were performed and venous blood samples were taken at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min. They were measured for blood glucose, plasma insulin and hGH. The results of this study have shown that, of the 67 subjects, 23 cases had an abnormal glucose tolerance(34.32%). Diabetes was detected in 17 cases (23.37%) and 6 patients had decreased glucose tolerance(8.69%). In all, hGH levels were consistantly above 5 ng/ml and were not suppressed after an oral glucose load. In these patients, however, about one-third had abnormal glucose tolerance. Low plasma insulin response to glucose and that of the releasing were evident in them than the normal glucose tolerance and a healthy control group. In addition, the mechanism of the abnormal secretion of hGH and insulin were disscussed

  14. Dynamic behavior structural response and capacity evaluation of the standardized WWER-1000 nuclear power plants subjected to severe loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambriashvili, Y.K.; Krutzik, N.J.

    1993-01-01

    In order to verify the structural capacity of standardized WWER-1000 MW nuclear power plants, comprehensive static and dynamic analyses were performed in cooperation between Siemens and Atomenergoprojekt. The main goal of these investigations was to perform of a number of seismic analyses of standardized WWER-1000 reactor buildings on the basis of 13 given seismological inputs, taking into account the local soil conditions at 17 different sites defined by in-situ investigations. The analyses were based on appropriate mathematical models (equivalent beam models as well as detailed spatial surface element models) of the coupled vibrating structures (base structure, outer structure, containment, inner structure) and of the layered soil. The analyses were mainly performed using the indirect method (substructure method). Based on the results of the seismic analysis as well as the results of static analysis (pressure and temperature due to LOCA, dead weight, prestressing) an assessment was made of the seismic safety of the containment and the reactor building. Using a complex 3-dimensional model of the structure and the soil, the influence of the flexibility of the basement structure on the structural response was also studied. The structural analyses of the WWER-1000 reactor building led to the conclusion that its design accounts well for the main factors governing the dynamic behavior of the building. The assessment of the forces acting in the structures shows that the bearing capacity of the analyzed building structure corresponds to an earthquake intensity of about 0.2 g to 0.25 g

  15. Roentgenologic abnormalities in Down's syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Takehiko; Russell, W J; Komatsuda, Michio; Neriishi, Shotaro

    1968-07-25

    Roentgenograms of 28 patients with Down's syndrome were reviewed with emphasis on all previously reported abnormalities and any possible additional ones. Most of the abnormalities occurred with the same frequency as previously reported, but some less frequently reported findings were also seen. One abnormal vertebral measurement found in this series may be an additional stigma of Down's syndrome. All of the 27 cases studied cytogenetically had chromosomal abnormalities consistent with this disease. This study emphasizes the need for roentgenologic norms for the Japanese, and the desirability of combining chromosome studies with roentgenological abnormalities and clinical observations in diagnosing Down's syndrome. 19 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  16. Temporal abnormalities in children with developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicario, Carmelo Mario; Rappo, Gaetano; Pepi, Annamaria; Pavan, Andrea; Martino, Davide

    2012-01-01

    Recent imaging studies have associated Developmental dyscalculia (DD) to structural and functional alterations corresponding Parietal and the Prefrontal cortex (PFC). Since these areas were shown also to be involved in timing abilities, we hypothesized that time processing is abnormal in DD. We compared time processing abilities between 10 children with pure DD (8 years old) and 11 age-matched healthy children. Results show that the DD group underestimated duration of a sub-second scale when asked to perform a time comparison task. The timing abnormality observed in our DD participants is consistent with evidence of a shared fronto-parietal neural network for representing time and quantity.

  17. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy.

  18. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Kanona

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50 dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively.

  19. Major Superficial White Matter Abnormalities in Huntington's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Owen R.; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Squitieri, Ferdinando; Sanchez-Castaneda, Cristina; Narr, Katherine; Shattuck, David W.; Caltagirone, Carlo; Sabatini, Umberto; Di Paola, Margherita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The late myelinating superficial white matter at the juncture of the cortical gray and white matter comprising the intracortical myelin and short-range association fibers has not received attention in Huntington's disease. It is an area of the brain that is late myelinating and is sensitive to both normal aging and neurodegenerative disease effects. Therefore, it may be sensitive to Huntington's disease processes. Methods: Structural MRI data from 25 Pre-symptomatic subjects, 24 Huntington's disease patients and 49 healthy controls was run through a cortical pattern-matching program. The surface corresponding to the white matter directly below the cortical gray matter was then extracted. Individual subject's Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data was aligned to their structural MRI data. Diffusivity values along the white matter surface were then sampled at each vertex point. DTI measures with high spatial resolution across the superficial white matter surface were then analyzed with the General Linear Model to test for the effects of disease. Results: There was an overall increase in the axial and radial diffusivity across much of the superficial white matter (p < 0.001) in Pre-symptomatic subjects compared to controls. In Huntington's disease patients increased diffusivity covered essentially the whole brain (p < 0.001). Changes are correlated with genotype (CAG repeat number) and disease burden (p < 0.001). Conclusions: This study showed broad abnormalities in superficial white matter even before symptoms are present in Huntington's disease. Since, the superficial white matter has a unique microstructure and function these abnormalities suggest it plays an important role in the disease. PMID:27242403

  20. Mídia e a figura do anormal na mira do sinóptico: a constituição discursiva de subjetividades femininas The media and the abnormal figure in the look of synoptic: the discursive constitution of feminine subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marluce Pereira da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, a partir de estudos foucaultianos, discutem-se as noções de masturbação, anomalia e práticas de confissão, associadas a investigações voltadas para as subjetividades femininas veiculadas pela mídia, cujas imagens apresentam modelos para a construção de novos sujeitos. Utilizam-se também como dispositivos analíticos os estudos de Zygmunt Bauman, apoiados em Thomas Mathiesen, acerca do sinóptico como novo mecanismo de poder em funcionamento na mídia, e alguns assinalados por Rosa Maria Bueno Fischer. O que se pretende é discutir a materialidade lingüístico-discursiva do depoimento-confissão de uma mulher negra, pobre e idosa, selecionado da novela Páginas da vida, exibida pela TV Globo, em 2006, a fim de se apreenderem os efeitos de sentido que poderiam construir um dos primeiros sinais de sua "anormalidade". Tal discussão aponta para a reinvenção de uma outra figura do "anormal", com implicações éticas, uma vez que a mulher subverte práticas discursivas advindas de certos saberes e poderes.Based on Foucault studies, this article discusses notions such as masturbation, anomaly and confession technique, associated to investigation related to the female subjectivities exposed by media, whose images present models for the construction of new subjects. It also uses as analytic dispositives the studies from Bauman, based on Thomas Mathiesen, about sinoptic as a new mechanism of power operated in the media, and some others pointed out by Rosa Maria Bueno Fischer. This study intends to discuss the linguistic-discursive materiality of the testimony-confession of a black, poor and aged woman, selected from the soap opera Páginas da vida, exhibited by TV Globo in 2006, with the purpose of apprehending the sense effects that might construct one of the first signs of her "abnormality". Such discussion points to the reinvention of another picture of "abnormal", what implies in an ethic attitude, once the woman breaks

  1. Venous abnormalities demonstrated by computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, T; Tsukune, Y; Ashida, H; Tokuda, M; Oyama, Y [St. Marianna Univ., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine

    1980-05-01

    CT is capable of demonstrating various venous changes. However, little have been described on this subject in the literature. Examples of various venous abnormalities such as obstructed jugular vein, superior and inferior vena cava (IVC), tumor invasion of IVC and renal vein and venous changes in portal hypertension were presented. It was stressed that noninvasive CT is a good tool in diagnosis of some of venous changes and may be able to eliminate angiography in such cases.

  2. Electronic structures and abnormal phonon behaviors of cobalt-modified Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-6%BaTiO3 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T.; Zhang, P.; Xu, L. P.; Chen, C.; Zhang, J. Z.; Hu, Z. G.; Luo, H. S.; Chu, J. H.

    2016-10-01

    Optical properties, electronic structures, and structural variations of x wt% cobalt (Co) doped Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-6%BaTiO3 (x=0%, 0.5%, 0.8%) single crystals have been studied by temperature-dependent optical ellipsometry and Raman spectra from 250 to 650 K. Based on the temperature evolution of electronic transitions (Ecp1 and Ecp2) and the phonon modes involving Ti-O vibrations, two critical temperature points exhibit an increasing trend with Co dopants, which are related to structural variations for ferroelectric to anti-ferroelectric, and anti-ferroelectric to paraelectric transition, respectively. Additionally, distinguishing abnormal phonon behaviors can be observed from Raman spectra for the crystal of x=0.5% and 0.8%, which show reverse frequency shift of the modes involving Ti-O vibration. It can be ascribed to different relative concentration of Co2+ and Co3+ in the crystals, which has been confirmed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy data.

  3. Electronic structures and abnormal phonon behaviors of cobalt-modified Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-6%BaTiO3 single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Huang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Optical properties, electronic structures, and structural variations of x wt% cobalt (Co doped Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-6%BaTiO3 (x=0%, 0.5%, 0.8% single crystals have been studied by temperature-dependent optical ellipsometry and Raman spectra from 250 to 650 K. Based on the temperature evolution of electronic transitions (Ecp1 and Ecp2 and the phonon modes involving Ti-O vibrations, two critical temperature points exhibit an increasing trend with Co dopants, which are related to structural variations for ferroelectric to anti-ferroelectric, and anti-ferroelectric to paraelectric transition, respectively. Additionally, distinguishing abnormal phonon behaviors can be observed from Raman spectra for the crystal of x=0.5% and 0.8%, which show reverse frequency shift of the modes involving Ti-O vibration. It can be ascribed to different relative concentration of Co2+ and Co3+ in the crystals, which has been confirmed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy data.

  4. Symmetric and Asymmetric Patterns of Attraction Errors in Producing Subject-Predicate Agreement in Hebrew: An Issue of Morphological Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Avital; Dank, Maya

    2011-01-01

    A common characteristic of subject-predicate agreement errors (usually termed attraction errors) in complex noun phrases is an asymmetrical pattern of error distribution, depending on the inflectional state of the nouns comprising the complex noun phrase. That is, attraction is most likely to occur when the head noun is the morphologically…

  5. Distribution of causes of abnormal uterine bleeding using the new FIGO classification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, F.U.; Yusuf, A.W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To categorise all women with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding attending a tertiary care centre according to new classification system by the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO). Methods: The descriptive cross-sectional study comprised all non-gravid women of reproductive age with unpredictable, excessive duration, abnormal volume, and/or abnormal frequency of menses for at least 3 months coming to the outpatient department of Lady Willingdon Hospital, Lahore, from August 2010 to July 2011. The subjects underwent structured history, physical examination and pelvic ultrasonography. Endometrium and hysterectomy specimen were obtained for histopathology where applicable. Possible underlying causes were categorised according to the new classification system. Results: A total of 2109 women comprised 19.6% of total of the 10712 woman who visited the gynecological outpatients clinic, 2109(19.6%) had abnormal uterine bleeding. PALM-COEIN categorization done in 991(47%) cases that showed 30(3%) polyp, 15(15%) adenomyosis, 250(25%) leiomyoma, 66(6.6%) malignancy and hyperplasia, 3(0.3%) coagulopathy, 236(24%) ovulatory dysfunction, 48(5%) endometritis, and 53(6%) iatrogenic. The remaining 155(15%) cases were uncategorised. Conclusion: The classification should facilitate multi-institutional investigation into the epidemiology, etiology and treatment of women with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding. (author)

  6. Analyzing the effect of large rotations on the seismic response of structures subjected to foundation local uplift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Abbas N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with seismic analysis of structures by taking into account soil-structure interaction where the structure is modeled by an equivalent flexible beam mounted on a rigid foundation that is supported by a Winkler like soil. The foundation is assumed to undergo local uplift and the rotations are considered to be large. The coupling of the system is represented by a series of springs and damping elements that are distributed over the entire width of the foundation. The non-linear equations of motion of the system were derived by taking into account the equilibrium of the coupled foundation-structure system where the structure was idealized as a single-degree-of-freedom. The seismic response of the structure was calculated under the occurrence of foundation uplift for both large and small rotations. The non-linear differential system of equations was integrated by using the Matlab command ode15s. The maximum response has been determined as function of the intensity of the earthquake, the slenderness of the structure and the damping ratio. It was found that considering local uplift with small rotations of foundation under seismic loading leads to unfavorable structural response in comparison with the case of large rotations.

  7. Macrostructural abnormalities in Korsakoff syndrome compared with uncomplicated alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitel, A-L; Chételat, G; Le Berre, A P; Desgranges, B; Eustache, F; Beaunieux, H

    2012-04-24

    To distinguish, in patients with Korsakoff syndrome (KS), the structural brain abnormalities shared with alcoholic patients without KS (AL), from those specific to KS. MRI data were collected in 11 alcoholic patients with KS, 34 alcoholic patients without KS, and 25 healthy control subjects (CS). Gray and white matter volumes were compared in the 3 groups using a voxel-based approach. A conjunction analysis indicated a large pattern of shared gray and white matter volume deficits in AL and KS. There were graded effects of volume deficits (KS < AL < CS) in the medial portion of the thalami, hypothalamus (mammillary bodies), left insula, and genu of the corpus callosum. Abnormalities in the left thalamic radiation were observed only in KS. Our results indicate considerable similarities in the pattern of gray and white matter damage in AL and KS. This finding confirms the widespread neurotoxic effect of chronic alcohol consumption. Only a few cerebral regions, including the medial thalami, mammillary bodies, and corpus callosum, were more severely damaged in KS than in AL. The continuum of macrostructural damage from AL to KS is therefore restricted to key brain structures. Longitudinal investigations are required to determine whether alcoholic patients with medial thalamic volumes that are comparable to those of patients with KS are at increased risk of developing KS.

  8. Osseous temporomandibular joint abnormalities in rheumatic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larheim, T.A.; Kolbenstvedt, A.; Rikshospitalet, Oslo

    1990-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) was compared with hypocycloidal tomography in 30 joints of 15 adults with rheumatic disease. CT included 1.5 mm thick axial scans (at 1.0 mm intervals) with reformatted oblique sagittal and oblique coronal sections. Multisection (at 2.0 mm intervals) tomography included oblique sagittal and occasionally, oblique coronal sections. CT demonstrated bone abnormalities in 21 and tomography in 20 joints, indicating high agreement between the imaging modalities regarding number of abnormal TMJs. Bone structures were, however, better visualized by multiplanar CT due to superior contrast and spatial resolution particularly in the most lateral and medial parts of the joint, indicating superiority of CT for depicting subtle bony TMJ abnormalities in patients with rheumatic disease. (orig.)

  9. Abnormal functional-structural cingulum connectivity in mania: combined functional magnetic resonance imaging-diffusion tensor imaging investigation in different phases of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, M; Magioncalda, P; Saiote, C; Conio, B; Escelsior, A; Rocchi, G; Piaggio, N; Marozzi, V; Huang, Z; Ferri, F; Amore, M; Inglese, M; Northoff, G

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between structural connectivity (SC) and functional connectivity (FC) in the cingulum in bipolar disorder (BD) and its various phases. We combined resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and probabilistic tractographic diffusion tensor imaging to investigate FC and SC of the cingulum and its portions, the SC-FC relationship, and their correlations with clinical and neurocognitive measures on sustained attention in manic (n = 21), depressed (n = 20), and euthymic (n = 20) bipolar patients and healthy controls (HC) (n = 42). First, we found decreased FC between the anterior and posterior parts of the cingulum in manic patients when compared to depressed patients and HC. Second, we observed decreased SC of the cingulum bundle, particularly in its anterior part, in manic patients when compared to HC. Finally, alterations in the cingulum FC (but not SC) correlated with clinical severity scores while changes in the cingulum SC (but not FC) were related with neurocognitive deficits in sustained attention in BD. We demonstrate for the first time a reduction in FC and concomitantly in SC of the cingulum in mania, which correlated with psychopathological and neurocognitive parameters, respectively, in BD. This supports the central role of cingulum connectivity specifically in mania. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Effects of a synthetic retinoid on skin structure, matrix metalloproteinases, and procollagen in healthy and high-risk subjects with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Tahrani, Abd; Shakher, Jayadave; Varani, James; Hughes, Sharon; Dubb, Kiran; Stevens, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    In diabetes, foot ulceration may result from increased skin fragility. Retinoids can reverse some diabetes-induced deficits of skin structure and function, but their clinical utility is limited by skin irritation. The effects of diabetes and MDI 301, a nonirritating synthetic retinoid, and retinoic acid have been evaluated on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), procollagen expression, and skin structure in skin biopsies from nondiabetic volunteers and diabetic subjects at risk of foot ulceration using organ culture techniques. Zymography and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were utilized for analysis of MMP-1, -2, and -9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and immunohistochemistry for type I procollagen protein abundance. Collagen structure parameters were assessed in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections. The % of active MMP-1 and -9 was higher and TIMP-1 abundance was lower in subjects with diabetes. Type 1 procollagen abundance was reduced and skin structural deficits were increased in diabetes. Three μM MDI 301 reduced active MMP-1 and -9 abundance by 29% (P structural deficit scores. Two μM retinoic acid reduced MMP-1 but did not significantly affect skin structure. These data indicate that diabetic patients at risk of foot ulceration have deficits of skin structure and function. MDI 301 offers potential for repairing this skin damage complicating diabetes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. MRI assessment of the alar ligaments in the late stage of whiplash injury - a study of structural abnormalities and observer agreement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakenes, J.; Moen, G.; Nordli, H. [Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Haukeland University Hospital, University of Bergen Medical School (Norway); Kaale, B.R. [Firda Medical Centre, Sandane (Norway); Gilhus, N.E. [Department of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital, University of Bergen Medical School (Norway); Rorvik, J. [Department of Radiology, Haukeland University Hospital, University of Bergen Medical School (Norway)

    2002-07-01

    Our aim was to characterise and classify structural changes in the alar ligaments in the late stage of whiplash injuries by use of a new MRI protocol, and to evaluate the reliability and the validity of this classification. We studied 92 whiplash-injured and 30 uninjured individuals who underwent proton density-weighted MRI of the craniovertebral junction in three orthogonal planes. Changes in the alar ligaments (grades 0-3) based on the ratio between the high signal area and the total cross-sectional area were rated twice at a 4-month interval, independently by three radiologists. Inter- and intraobserver statistics were calculated by ordinary and weighted kappa. Cases classified differently were reviewed to identify potential causes for disagreement. The alar ligaments were satisfactorily demonstrated in all cases (244 ligaments in 122 individuals). The lesions, 2-9 years after the injury, varied from small high-signal spots to high signal throughout the cross-sectional area. Signal was highest near the condylar insertion in 82 of 94 ligaments, indicating a lesion near that insertion, and near the dental insertion in eight, indicating a medial lesion. No grade 2 or 3 lesion was found in the control group. At least two observers assigned the same grade to 214 ligaments (87.7%) on the second occasion. In 30 ligaments (12.3%) this agreement was not obtained. Pair-wise interobserver agreement (weighted kappa) was fair to moderate (0.31-0.54) in the first grading, improving to moderate (0.49-0.57) in the second. Intraobserver agreement (weighted kappa) was moderate to good (0.43-0.70). Whiplash trauma can cause permanent damage to the alar ligaments, which can be shown by high-resolution proton density-weighted MRI. Reliability of classification of alar ligament lesions needs to be improved. (orig.)

  12. MRI assessment of the alar ligaments in the late stage of whiplash injury - a study of structural abnormalities and observer agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakenes, J.; Moen, G.; Nordli, H.; Kaale, B.R.; Gilhus, N.E.; Rorvik, J.

    2002-01-01

    Our aim was to characterise and classify structural changes in the alar ligaments in the late stage of whiplash injuries by use of a new MRI protocol, and to evaluate the reliability and the validity of this classification. We studied 92 whiplash-injured and 30 uninjured individuals who underwent proton density-weighted MRI of the craniovertebral junction in three orthogonal planes. Changes in the alar ligaments (grades 0-3) based on the ratio between the high signal area and the total cross-sectional area were rated twice at a 4-month interval, independently by three radiologists. Inter- and intraobserver statistics were calculated by ordinary and weighted kappa. Cases classified differently were reviewed to identify potential causes for disagreement. The alar ligaments were satisfactorily demonstrated in all cases (244 ligaments in 122 individuals). The lesions, 2-9 years after the injury, varied from small high-signal spots to high signal throughout the cross-sectional area. Signal was highest near the condylar insertion in 82 of 94 ligaments, indicating a lesion near that insertion, and near the dental insertion in eight, indicating a medial lesion. No grade 2 or 3 lesion was found in the control group. At least two observers assigned the same grade to 214 ligaments (87.7%) on the second occasion. In 30 ligaments (12.3%) this agreement was not obtained. Pair-wise interobserver agreement (weighted kappa) was fair to moderate (0.31-0.54) in the first grading, improving to moderate (0.49-0.57) in the second. Intraobserver agreement (weighted kappa) was moderate to good (0.43-0.70). Whiplash trauma can cause permanent damage to the alar ligaments, which can be shown by high-resolution proton density-weighted MRI. Reliability of classification of alar ligament lesions needs to be improved. (orig.)

  13. Abnormal structure and functional connectivity of the anterior insula at pain-free periovulation is associated with perceived pain during menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dun, Wang-Huan; Yang, Jing; Yang, Ling; Ding, Dun; Ma, Xue-Ying; Liang, Feng-Li; von Deneen, Karen M; Ma, Shao-Hui; Xu, Xiao-Ling; Liu, Jixin; Zhang, Ming

    2017-12-01

    Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated the critical role of the insula in pain pathways and its close relation with the perceived intensity of nociceptive stimuli. We aimed to identify the structural and functional characteristics of the insula during periovulatory phase in women with primary dysmenorrhea (PDM), and further investigate its association with the intensity of perceived pain during menstruation. Optimized voxel-based morphometry and functional connectivity (FC) analyses were applied by using 3-dimensional T1-weighted and resting functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 36 patients at the peri-ovulation phase and 29 age-, education-, and gender-matched healthy controls (HC). A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to examine the intensity of the abdominal pain at periovulation and menstruation. In our results, PDM patients had significant higher VAS-rating during menstruaion than periovulation. Compared with the HC, PDM patients had lower gray matter density in the left anterior insula (aINS). Taken the left aINS as a seed region, we further found hypoconnectivity between aINS and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which showed negative relation with the VAS during menstruation. As the aINS is a key site of the salience network (SN) and the mPFC is a critical region in the default mode network (DMN), it's implicated a trait-related central-alteration that communications between pain attention and perception networks were disrupted without the ongoing menstrual pain. Moreover, result of correlation analysis, at least in part, suggested a possible role of altered FC (pain-free period) in predicting pain perception (menstruation).

  14. Defective cancellous bone structure and abnormal response to PTH in cortical bone of mice lacking Cx43 cytoplasmic C-terminus domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Costa, Rafael; Davis, Hannah M.; Sorenson, Chad; Hon, Mary C.; Hassan, Iraj; Reginato, Rejane D.; Allen, Matthew R.; Bellido, Teresita; Plotkin, Lilian I.

    2015-01-01

    Connexin43 (Cx43) forms gap junction channels and hemichannels that allow the communication among osteocytes, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts. Cx43 carboxy-terminal (CT) domain regulates channel opening and intracellular signaling by acting as a scaffold for structural and signaling proteins. To determine the role of Cx43 CT domain in bone, mice in which one allele of full length Cx43 was replaced by a mutant lacking the CT domain (Cx43ΔCT/fl) were studied. Cx43ΔCT/fl mice exhibit lower cancellous bone volume but higher cortical thickness than Cx43fl/fl controls, indicating that the CT domain is involved in normal cancellous bone gain but opposes cortical bone acquisition. Further, Cx43ΔCT is able to exert the functions of full length osteocytic Cx43 on cortical bone geometry and mechanical properties, demonstrating that domains other than the CT are responsible for Cx43 function in cortical bone. In addition, parathyroid hormone (PTH) failed to increase endocortical bone formation or energy to failure, a mechanical property that indicates resistance to fracture, in cortical bone in Cx43ΔCT mice with or without osteocytic full length Cx43. On the other hand, bone mass and bone formation markers were increased by the hormone in all mouse models, regardless of whether full length or Cx43ΔCT were or not expressed. We conclude that Cx43 CT domain is involved in proper bone acquisition; and that Cx43 expression in osteocytes is dispensable for some but not all PTH anabolic actions. PMID:26409319

  15. Chinese inpatients' subjective experiences of the helping process as viewed through examination of a nurses' focused, structured therapy group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Fei-Hsiu; Lin, Shu-Mei; Liao, Hsiao-Yuan; Lai, Mei-Chih

    2004-10-01

    This study examined Chinese inpatients' views on what aspects of a nurses' focused, structured therapy group worked to help their psychological and interpersonal problems and what traditional Chinese cultural values influenced their viewpoints. Nine Chinese inpatients with mental illness participated in the four-session nurses' focused, structured therapy group. After they completed the last session of therapy, they were invited to participate in a structured interview and a semi-structured interview regarding their perceptions of the change mechanisms in nurses' focused, structured group therapy. The semi-structured interviews were recorded and transcribed to be further analysed according to the principal of content analysis. The results indicate that (i) all patients believed that a nurses' focused, structured group psychotherapy enhanced their interpersonal learning and improved the quality of their lives, (ii) traditional Chinese cultural values--those emphasizing the importance of maintaining harmonious interpersonal relationships--influenced the Chinese inpatients' expression of negative emotions in the group and their motivation on interpersonal learning. In conclusion, we found that transcultural modification for applying Western group psychotherapy in Chinese culture was needed. The modification included establishing a 'pseudo-kin' or 'own people' relationship among group members and the therapists, organizing warm-up exercises and structured activities, applying projective methods and focusing on the issues of interpersonal relationships and interpersonal problems. The small sample size of the present study raises questions regarding how representative the views of the sample are with respect to the majority of Chinese inpatients. Nevertheless, this preliminary study revealed a cultural aspect in nursing training that requires significant consideration in order to work effectively with Chinese patients. Copyright 2004 Blackwell Publishing Ltd

  16. Management of abnormal radioactive wastes at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    As with any other industrial activity, a certain level of risk is associated with the operation of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities. That is, on occasions nuclear power plants or nuclear facilities may operate under conditions which were not specifically anticipated during the design and construction of the plant. These abnormal conditions and situations may cause the production of abnormal waste, which can differ in character or quantity from waste produced during normal routine operation of nuclear facilities. Abnormal waste can also occur during decontamination programmes, replacement of a reactor component, de-sludging of storage ponds, etc. The management of such kinds of waste involves the need to evaluate existing waste management systems in order to determine how abnormal wastes should best be handled and processed. There are no known publications on this subject, and the IAEA believes that the development and exchange of such information among its Member States would be useful for specialists working in the waste management area. The main objective of this report is to review existing waste management practices which can be applied to abnormal waste and provide assistance in the selection of appropriate technologies and processes that can be used when abnormal situations occur. Naturally, the subject of abnormal waste is complex and this report can only be considered as a guide for the management of abnormal waste. Refs, figs and tabs.

  17. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Chuan-Bo; Qian, Ruo-Bing; Fu, Xian-Ming; Lin, Bin; Han, Xiao-Peng; Niu, Chao-Shi; Wang, Ye-Han

    2013-01-01

    Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA

  18. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Chuan-Bo, E-mail: send007@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); School of Neurosurgery, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishang Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Qian, Ruo-Bing, E-mail: rehomail@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Fu, Xian-Ming, E-mail: 506537677@qq.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Lin, Bin, E-mail: 274722758@qq.com [School of Neurosurgery, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishang Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Han, Xiao-Peng, E-mail: hanxiaopeng@163.com [Department of Psychology, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Niu, Chao-Shi, E-mail: niuchaoshi@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Wang, Ye-Han, E-mail: wangyehan@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China)

    2013-08-15

    Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA.

  19. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chuan-Bo; Qian, Ruo-Bing; Fu, Xian-Ming; Lin, Bin; Han, Xiao-Peng; Niu, Chao-Shi; Wang, Ye-Han

    2013-08-01

    Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of Energy Dissipation, Stiffness, and Damage of Structural Oriented Strand Board (OSB, Conventional Gypsum, and Viscoelastic Gypsum Shearwalls Subjected to Cyclic Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S. Blasetti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A key element in the seismic load resisting system of a wood framed structure is the shear wall which is typically sheathed on one side with plywood or oriented strand board (OSB and gypsum on the other. The shear capacity of gypsum sheathed shear walls is typically neglected in high seismic areas due to the susceptibility of conventional drywall screw connections to damage caused by earthquakes. The earthquake resistance of an innovative viscoelastic (VE gypsum shearwall is evaluated and compared to conventional structural and non-structural walls. Ten 8 ft × 8 ft wood framed wall specimens of three configurations [nailed-OSB, screw-gypsum, and VE polymer-gypsum] were subjected to a cyclic test protocol. The energy dissipation, stiffness, and damage characteristics of all shearwalls are reported herein. Testing results indicate the VE-gypsum walls can dissipate more energy than the OSB structural panels and 500% more energy that the conventional gypsum sheathed walls and contains a constant source of energy dissipation not seen in the structural and non-structural walls. The wall stiffness of the OSB wall degrades at a far greater rate that the VE gypsum wall and at continued cycling degrades below the VE wall stiffness. Unlike both of the conventional wall types, the VE wall showed no visible or audible signs of damage when subjected to shear displacements up to 1.

  1. Autoshaping of abnormal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckner, C W; Wilcox, L M; Maisto, S A; Blanton, R L

    1980-09-01

    Three experimentally naive abnormal children were exposed to a terminal operant contingency, i.e., reinforcement was delivered only if the children pressed a panel during intervals when it was lighted. Despite the absence of both successive approximation and manual shaping, it was found that each child began to respond discriminatively within a small number of trials. These data replicated previous animal studies concerned with the phenomena of autoshaping and signal-controlled responding. It was also found, however, that one type of autoshaping, the classical conditioning procedure, had a powerful suppressive effect on the discriminative responding. An experimental analysis that consisted procedure, had a powerful suppressive effect on discriminative responding. An experimental analysis that consisted of intrasubject reversal an multiple baseline designs established the internal validity of the findings. The finding of rapid acquisition of signal-controlled responding obtained with the initial procedure is suggessted to have practical significance. The disruptive effects of the classical form of autoshaping are discussed in terms of negative behavioral contrast.

  2. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  3. Abnormally dark or light skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperpigmentation; Hypopigmentation; Skin - abnormally light or dark ... Normal skin contains cells called melanocytes. These cells produce melanin , the substance that gives skin its color. Skin with ...

  4. Coupling of electromagnetics and structural/fluid dynamics - application to the dual coolant blanket subjected to plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, T.

    1996-01-01

    Some aspects concerning the coupling of quasi-stationary electromagnetics and the dynamics of structure and fluid are investigated. The necessary equations are given in a dimensionless form. The dimensionless parameters in these equations are used to evaluate the importance of the different coupling effects. A finite element formulation of the eddy-current damping in solid structures is developed. With this formulation, an existing finite element method (FEM) structural dynamics code is extended and coupled to an FEM eddy-current code. With this program system, the influence of the eddy-current damping on the dynamic loading of the dual coolant blanket during a centered plasma disruption is determined. The analysis proves that only in loosely fixed or soft structures will eddy-current damping considerably reduce the resulting stresses. Additionally, the dynamic behavior of the liquid metal in the blankets' poloidal channels is described with a simple two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic approach. The analysis of the dimensionless parameters shows that for small-scale experiments, which are designed to model the coupled electromagnetic and structural/fluid dynamic effects in such a blanket, the same magnetic fields must be applied as in the real fusion device. This will be the easiest way to design experiments that produce transferable results. 10 refs., 7 figs

  5. Striatal morphology correlates with sensory abnormalities in unaffected relatives of cervical dystonia patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Richard A

    2012-02-01

    Structural grey matter abnormalities have been described in adult-onset primary torsion dystonia (AOPTD). Altered spatial discrimination thresholds are found in familial and sporadic AOPTD and in some unaffected relatives who may be non-manifesting gene carriers. Our hypothesis was that a subset of unaffected relatives with abnormal spatial acuity would have associated structural abnormalities. Twenty-eight unaffected relatives of patients with familial cervical dystonia, 24 relatives of patients with sporadic cervical dystonia and 27 control subjects were recruited. Spatial discrimination thresholds (SDTs) were determined using a grating orientation task. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images (1.5 T) were analysed using voxel-based morphometry. Unaffected familial relatives with abnormal SDTs had reduced caudate grey matter volume (GMV) bilaterally relative to those with normal SDTs (right Z = 3.45, left Z = 3.81), where there was a negative correlation between SDTs and GMV (r = -0.76, r(2) = 0.58, p < 0.0001). Familial relatives also had bilateral sensory cortical expansion relative to unrelated controls (right Z = 4.02, left Z = 3.79). Unaffected relatives of patients with sporadic cervical dystonia who had abnormal SDTs had reduced putaminal GMV bilaterally compared with those with normal SDTs (right Z = 3.96, left Z = 3.45). Sensory abnormalities in some unaffected relatives correlate with a striatal substrate and may be a marker of genetic susceptibility in these individuals. Further investigation of grey matter changes as a candidate endophenotype may assist future genetic studies of dystonia.

  6. Scope and selection of structures subject to aging management review; Alcance y seleccion de estructuras sujetas a revision de gestion de envejecimiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, G.; Diaz, A.; Viais, J.; Carmona, M. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Santander, L., E-mail: gonzalo.mendoza@inin.gob.mx [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Carretera Cardel-Nautla Km. 42.5, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    The purpose of this work is to determine the structures included within the scope of license renewal based on the performance of the functions and select those intended for aging management review; one purpose is to show the methodology used to establish the structure and structural components that are subject to a review of aging management, within the framework of license renewal rule. This is through the application of different types of structures and structural components related and unrelated to safety located in the rooms of the reactor building where there are components of the reactor core isolation cooling system (Rcic), these structures are poured concrete, concrete block, structural steel, shielding walls, attached metal, pile foundations, etc.; other non- security related , such as: 1) inherent characteristics not related to security that protect the equipment related to the safety of the missiles, that is, walls, low walls, dikes, doors, etc., which also provide flood barriers to structures, systems and components related to safety, 2 ) whipping restrictions on non- security, shields mitigation jet, vent panels , etc. that are designed and installed to protect equipment related with the safety of the effects of a broken line of high energy. Only rooms where there are components of the Rcic 68 structures within the scope were identified. (Author)

  7. Efficient approach for simulating response of multi-body structure in reactor core subjected to seismic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongkun; Cen Song; Wang Haitao; Cheng Huanyu

    2012-01-01

    An efficient 3D approach is proposed for simulating the complicated responses of the multi-body structure in reactor core under seismic loading. By utilizing the rigid-body and connector functions of the software Abaqus, the multi-body structure of the reactor core is simplified as a mass-point system interlinked by spring-dashpot connectors. And reasonable schemes are used for determining various connector coefficients. Furthermore, a scripting program is also complied for the 3D parametric modeling. Numerical examples show that, the proposed method can not only produce the results which satisfy the engineering requirements, but also improve the computational efficiency more than 100 times. (authors)

  8. A Structured Review of Generic and Specific Instruments for Measuring the Subjectively Assessed Quality of Life of Seniors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kacmarova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to offer a review of the instruments designed for measuring the subjectively assessed quality of life of seniors. At present it is possible to notice an increase of interest in the issue of the quality of life of specific groups of population; in addition, there is a large number of tools for its measuring. The aim of the present study is to provide a systematic review of generic and specific instruments for measuring quality of life of seniors which have been published in peer-reviewed journals and whose psychometric parameters have been verified. The search procedure formed a part of a larger retrieval search in which we analyzed 4829 abstracts in EBSCO and ProQuest Central full-text databases. We found 831 instruments which claimed to be measuring quality of life and were verified their reliability or validity. We identified 3 groups of instruments suitable for use in the senior age-group: generic methodologies applicable to adults in general, 7 generic tools and 9 specific tools designed exclusively for the senior age. The paper presents the measures designed for seniors who were analyzed and compared with regard to their psychometric parameters, purpose and theoretical framework utilized for their construction. In conclusion the authors of the study provide recommendations for the use of the selected methodologies for measuring the subjectively assessed quality of life of seniors.

  9. Complementary numerical–experimental benchmarking for shape optimization and validation of structures subjected to wave and current forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markus, D.; Ferri, Francesco; Wüchner, R.

    2015-01-01

    A new benchmark problem is proposed and evaluated targeting fluid related shape optimization problems, motivated by design related ocean engineering tasks. The analyzed test geometry is a bottom mounted, polygonal structure in a channel flow. The aim of the study is to analyze the effect of shape...

  10. Shaking Table Tests on the Seismic Behavior of Steel Frame Structures Subjected to Various Earthquake Ground Motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, In Kil; Kim, Min Kyu; Choun, Young Sun; Seo, Jeong Moon

    2004-05-01

    The standard response spectrum proposed by US NRC has been used as a design earthquake for the design of Korean nuclear power plant structures. Recent large earthquakes occurred in near-fault zone have done significant damage and loss of life to earthquake area. A survey on some of the Quaternary fault segments near the Korean nuclear power plants is ongoing. If the faults are confirmed as active ones, it will be necessary to reevaluate the seismic safety of the nuclear power plants located near the fault. In this study, the shaking table tests of three steel frame structures were performed. Three types of input motions, artificial time histories that envelop the US NRC Regulatory Guide 1.60 spectrum and the probability based scenario earthquake spectra developed for the Korean nuclear power plant site and a typical near-fault earthquake recorded at Chi-Chi earthquake, were used as input motions. The acceleration and displacement responses of the structure due to the design earthquake were larger than those due to the other input earthquakes. It seems that the design earthquake for the Korean nuclear power plants is conservative, and that the near-fault earthquake and scenario earthquake are not so damageable for the nuclear power plant structures, because the fundamental frequencies of the nuclear power plant structures are generally greater than 5 Hz. The high frequency ground motions that appeared in the scenario earthquake can be more damageable for the equipment installed on the high floors in a building. This means that the design earthquake is not so conservative for the safety of the safety related nuclear power plant equipment

  11. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool......-Saxon and continental traditions, this special issue provides examples of the use of researcher subjectivity, informed by psychoanalytic thinking, in expanding research understanding....

  12. SUBJECTIVITIES OF SURVIVAL: CONCEPTUALISING JUST RESPONSES TO DISPLACEMENT, CROSS-BORDER MIGRATION AND STRUCTURAL VIOLENCE IN SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holscher, Dorothee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the implications for social work of displacement, migration and structural violence in urban South Africa. To this end, I explore the life stories of five cross-border migrants. I find that all five form part of South Africa’s larger pool of surplus populations but face additional, citizenship-based forms of exclusion. Even though generally self-reliant, all of them experienced cumulative agency constraints and felt vulnerable. Against this background, I propose that current, refugee-centred services should be expanded and that interventions should be carefully balanced to attend to structural issues, inter-group conflict and the range of vulnerabilities articulated by cross-border migrants.

  13. Prediction of Global Damage and Reliability Based Upon Sequential Identification and Updating of RC Structures Subject to Earthquakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Skjærbæk, P. S.; Köylüoglu, H. U.

    The paper deals with the prediction of global damage and future structural reliability with special emphasis on sensitivity, bias and uncertainty of these predictions dependent on the statistically equivalent realizations of the future earthquake. The predictions are based on a modified Clough......-Johnston single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) oscillator with three parameters which are calibrated to fit the displacement response and the damage development in the past earthquake....

  14. A probabilistic physics-of-failure model for prognostic health management of structures subject to pitting and corrosion-fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chookah, M.; Nuhi, M.; Modarres, M.

    2011-01-01

    A combined probabilistic physics-of-failure-based model for pitting and corrosion-fatigue degradation mechanisms is proposed to estimate the reliability of structures and to perform prognosis and health management. A mechanistic superposition model for corrosion-fatigue mechanism was used as a benchmark model to propose the simple model. The proposed model describes the degradation of the structures as a function of physical and critical environmental stresses, such as amplitude and frequency of mechanical loads (for example caused by the internal piping pressure) and the concentration of corrosive chemical agents. The parameters of the proposed model are represented by the probability density functions and estimated through a Bayesian approach based on the data taken from the experiments performed as part of this research. For demonstrating applications, the proposed model provides prognostic information about the reliability of aging of structures and is helpful in developing inspection and replacement strategies. - Highlights: ► We model an inventory system under static–dynamic uncertainty strategy. ► The demand is stochastic and non-stationary. ► The optimal ordering policy is proven to be a base stock policy. ► A solution algorithm for finding an optimal solution is provided. ► Two heuristics developed produce high quality solutions and scale-up efficiently.

  15. White matter abnormalities of microstructure and physiological noise in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hu; Newman, Sharlene D; Kent, Jerillyn S; Bolbecker, Amanda; Klaunig, Mallory J; O'Donnell, Brian F; Puce, Aina; Hetrick, William P

    2015-12-01

    White matter abnormalities in schizophrenia have been revealed by many imaging techniques and analysis methods. One of the findings by diffusion tensor imaging is a decrease in fractional anisotropy (FA), which is an indicator of white matter integrity. On the other hand, elevation of metabolic rate in white matter was observed from positron emission tomography (PET) studies. In this report, we aim to compare the two structural and functional effects on the same subjects. Our comparison is based on the hypothesis that signal fluctuation in white matter is associated with white matter functional activity. We examined the variance of the signal in resting state fMRI and found significant differences between individuals with schizophrenia and non-psychiatric controls specifically in white matter tissue. Controls showed higher temporal signal-to-noise ratios clustered in regions including temporal, frontal, and parietal lobes, cerebellum, corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and other major white matter tracts. These regions with higher temporal signal-to-noise ratio agree well with those showing higher metabolic activity reported by studies using PET. The results suggest that individuals with schizophrenia tend to have higher functional activity in white matter in certain brain regions relative to healthy controls. Despite some overlaps, the distinct regions for physiological noise are different from those for FA derived from diffusion tensor imaging, and therefore provide a unique angle to explore potential mechanisms to white matter abnormality.

  16. Accumulation of lipid peroxidation products in eye structures of mice subjected to whole-body X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakina, N.L.; Dontsov, A.E.; Afanas'ev, G.G.; Ostrovskij, M.A.; Pelevina, I.I.

    1990-01-01

    In studying the effect of whole-body X-irradiation on the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products (conjugated dienes, TBA-active products, and Sciff bases) in retina and retinal pigmented epithelium of pigmented and nonpigmented mice it was shown that irradiation of dark-pigmented mice does not cause even a slight accumulation of lipid peroxidation products as compared to that in the controls. Albino mice exhibited a marked increase in the level of lipid peroxidation products which was manifested soon after irradiation and persisted for at least 3 months after irradiation. Melanine is suggested to participate in protecting eye structures against pro-oxidizing action of ionizing radiation

  17. Laryngopharyngeal abnormalities in hospitalized patients with dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Gregory N; McGuirt, W Frederick; Butler, Susan G; Rees, Catherine J; Crandall, Heather L; Tansavatdi, Kristina

    2007-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of laryngopharyngeal (LP) abnormalities in hospitalized patients with dysphagia referred for flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). Retrospective, blinded review by two otolaryngologists of 100 consecutive FEES studies performed and video-recorded by a speech-language pathologist (SLP). Two otolaryngologists reviewed videos of 100 consecutive FEES studies on hospitalized patients with dysphagia for the presence of abnormal LP findings. Sixty-one male and 38 female patients comprised the hospital dysphagia cohort. The mean age was 62. One subject could not be evaluated because of the severity of the retained secretions, leaving 99 subjects in the cohort. Seventy-six percent had been previously intubated, with a mean intubation duration of 13 days. The overall prevalence of abnormal LP findings was 79%. Forty-five percent of the patients presented with two or more findings, which included arytenoid edema (33%), granuloma (31%), vocal fold paresis (24%), mucosal lesions (17%), vocal fold bowing (14%), diffuse edema (11%), airway stenosis (3%), and ulcer (6%). There was a significant difference in LP findings between those individuals who had or had not been intubated. Hospitalized patients with dysphagia are at high risk for LP abnormalities, particularly if they have been intubated, and may benefit from either 1) an initial joint examination by the SLP and otolaryngologist or 2) an otolaryngologist's review of the recorded examination conducted by the SLP. Such otolaryngology involvement could identify airway stenosis patients at an earlier stage, initiate granuloma treatment sooner, enable earlier biopsy of unexpected lesions, and allow follow-up of mucosal and neuromuscular findings that do not respond to medical management.

  18. Hysterosalpingographic abnormalities in women with infertility in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Structural tubal abnormalities are responsible for infertility in significant proportion of infertile couples. Hysterosalpingography (HSG) being a simple, less invasive, relatively inexpensive, and reproducible rapid diagnostic test provides valuable information about the uterine cavity and tubal architecture.

  19. Structural integrity evaluation of X52 gas pipes subjected to external corrosion defects using the SINTAP procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib-Ramezani, H.; Jeong, J.; Pluvinage, G.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, the SINTAP procedure has been proposed as a general structural integrity tool for semi-spherical, semi-elliptical and long blunt notch defects. The notch stress intensity factor concept and SINTAP structural integrity procedure are employed to assess gas pipelines integrity. The external longitudinal defects have been investigated via elastic-plastic finite element method results. The notch stress intensity concept is implemented into SINTAP procedure. The safety factor is calculated via SINTAP procedure levels 0B and 1B. The extracted evaluations are compared with the limit load analysis based on ASME B31G, modified ASME B31G, DNV RP-F101 and recent proposed formulation [Choi JB, Goo BK, Kim JC, Kim YJ, Kim WS. Development of limit load solutions for corroded gas pipelines. Int J Pressure Vessel Piping 2003;80(2):121-128]. The comparison among extracted safety factors exhibits that SINTAP predictions are located between lower and upper safety factor bounds. The SINTAP procedure including notch-based assessment diagram or so-called 'NFAD' involves wide range of defect geometries with low, moderate and high stress concentrations and relative stress gradients. Finally, some inspired and advanced viewpoints have been investigated

  20. Structural integrity evaluation of X52 gas pipes subjected to external corrosion defects using the SINTAP procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adib-Ramezani, H. [Ecole Polytechnique de l' Universite d' Orleans, CNRS-CRMD, 8 rue Leonard de Vinci, 45072 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)]. E-mail: hradib_2000@yahoo.com; Jeong, J. [Ecole Polytechnique de l' Universite d' Orleans, CNRS-CRMD, 8 rue Leonard de Vinci, 45072 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Pluvinage, G. [Laboratoire de Fiabilite Mecanique (LFM), Universite de Metz-ENIM, 57045 Metz (France)

    2006-06-15

    In the present study, the SINTAP procedure has been proposed as a general structural integrity tool for semi-spherical, semi-elliptical and long blunt notch defects. The notch stress intensity factor concept and SINTAP structural integrity procedure are employed to assess gas pipelines integrity. The external longitudinal defects have been investigated via elastic-plastic finite element method results. The notch stress intensity concept is implemented into SINTAP procedure. The safety factor is calculated via SINTAP procedure levels 0B and 1B. The extracted evaluations are compared with the limit load analysis based on ASME B31G, modified ASME B31G, DNV RP-F101 and recent proposed formulation [Choi JB, Goo BK, Kim JC, Kim YJ, Kim WS. Development of limit load solutions for corroded gas pipelines. Int J Pressure Vessel Piping 2003;80(2):121-128]. The comparison among extracted safety factors exhibits that SINTAP predictions are located between lower and upper safety factor bounds. The SINTAP procedure including notch-based assessment diagram or so-called 'NFAD' involves wide range of defect geometries with low, moderate and high stress concentrations and relative stress gradients. Finally, some inspired and advanced viewpoints have been investigated.

  1. High resolution bone material property assignment yields robust subject specific finite element models of complex thin bone structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakdel, Amirreza; Fialkov, Jeffrey; Whyne, Cari M

    2016-06-14

    Accurate finite element (FE) modeling of complex skeletal anatomy requires high resolution in both meshing and the heterogeneous mapping of material properties onto the generated mesh. This study introduces Node-based elastic Modulus Assignment with Partial-volume correction (NMAP) as a new approach for FE material property assignment to thin bone structures. The NMAP approach incorporates point spread function based deblurring of CT images, partial-volume correction of CT image voxel intensities and anisotropic interpolation and mapping of CT intensity assignment to FE mesh nodes. The NMAP procedure combined with a derived craniomaxillo-facial skeleton (CMFS) specific density-isotropic elastic modulus relationship was applied to produce specimen-specific FE models of 6 cadaveric heads. The NMAP procedure successfully generated models of the complex thin bone structures with surface elastic moduli reflective of cortical bone material properties. The specimen-specific CMFS FE models were able to accurately predict experimental strains measured under in vitro temporalis and masseter muscle loading (r=0.93, slope=1.01, n=5). The strength of this correlation represents a robust validation for CMFS FE modeling that can be used to better understand load transfer in this complex musculoskeletal system. The developed methodology offers a systematic process-flow able to address the complexity of the CMFS that can be further applied to create high-fidelity models of any musculoskeletal anatomy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Cognitive abnormalities and cannabis use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solowij, Nadia; Pesa, Nicole

    2010-05-01

    Evidence that cannabis use impairs cognitive function in humans has been accumulating in recent decades. The purpose of this overview is to update knowledge in this area with new findings from the most recent literature. Literature searches were conducted using the Web of Science database up to February 2010. The terms searched were: "cannabi*" or "marijuana", and "cogniti*" or "memory" or "attention" or "executive function", and human studies were reviewed preferentially over the animal literature. Cannabis use impairs memory, attention, inhibitory control, executive functions and decision making, both during the period of acute intoxication and beyond, persisting for hours, days, weeks or more after the last use of cannabis. Pharmacological challenge studies in humans are elucidating the nature and neural substrates of cognitive changes associated with various cannabinoids. Long-term or heavy cannabis use appears to result in longer-lasting cognitive abnormalities and possibly structural brain alterations. Greater adverse cognitive effects are associated with cannabis use commencing in early adolescence. The endogenous cannabinoid system is involved in regulatory neural mechanisms that modulate processes underlying a range of cognitive functions that are impaired by cannabis. Deficits in human users most likely therefore reflect neuroadaptations and altered functioning of the endogenous cannabinoid system.

  3. The structure of a three-dimensional boundary layer subjected to streamwise-varying spanwise-homogeneous pressure gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentaleb, Y.; Leschziner, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We study a spatially-evolving three-dimensional boundary layer. • We impose a streamwise-varying spanwise-homogeneous pressure gradient. • A collateral flow is formed close to the wall, and this is investigated alongside the skewed upper part of the boundary layer. • A wide range of flow-physical properties have been studied. -- Abstract: A spatially-evolving three-dimensional boundary layer, subjected to a streamwise-varying spanwise-homogeneous pressure gradient, equivalent to a body force, is investigated by way of direct numerical simulation. The pressure gradient, prescribed to change its sign half-way along the boundary layer, provokes strong skewing of the velocity vector, with a layer of nearly collateral flow forming close to the wall up to the position of maximum spanwise velocity. A wide range of flow-physical properties have been studied, with particular emphasis on the near-wall layer, including second-moments, major budget contributions and wall-normal two-point correlations of velocity fluctuations and their angles, relative to wall-shear fluctuations. The results illustrate the complexity caused by skewing, including a damping in turbulent mixing and a significant lag between strains and stresses. The study has been undertaken in the context of efforts to develop and test novel hybrid LES–RANS schemes for non-equilibrium near-wall flows, with an emphasis on three-dimensional near-wall straining. Fundamental flow-physical issues aside, the data derived should be of particular relevance to a priori studies of second-moment RANS closure and the development and validation of RANS-type near-wall approximations implemented in LES schemes for high-Reynolds-number complex flows

  4. Dynamic Response Analysis of Storage Cask Lid Structure Subjected to Lateral Impact Load of Aircraft Engine Crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almomania, Belal; Kang, Hyun Gook; Lee, Sanghoon

    2015-01-01

    Several numerical methods and tests have been carried out to measure the capability of storage cask to withstand extreme impact loads. Testing methods are often constrained by cost, and difficulty in preparation for several impact conditions with different applied loads, and areas of impact. Instead, analytic method is an acceptable process that can easily apply different impact conditions for the evaluation of cask integrity. The aircraft engine impact is considered as one of the most critical impact accidents on the storage cask that significantly affects onto the lid closure system and may cause a considerable release of radioactive materials. This paper presents a method for evaluating the dynamic responses of one upper metal cask lid closure without impact limiters subjected to lateral impact of an aircraft engine with respect to variation of the impact velocity. An assessment method to predict damage response due to the lateral engine impact onto metal storage cask has been studied by using computer code LS-DYNA. The dynamic behavior of the lid movements was successfully calculated by utilizing a simplified finite element cask model, which showed a good agreement with the previous research. The simulation analyses results showed that no significant plastic deformation for bolts, lid, and the cask body. In this study, the lid opening and sliding displacements are considered as the major factors in initiating the leakage path. This analysis may be useful for evaluating the instantaneous leakage rates in a connection with the sliding and opening displacements between the lid and the flange to ensure that the radiological consequences caused by an aircraft engine crash accident during the storage phase are within the permissible level

  5. Dynamic Response Analysis of Storage Cask Lid Structure Subjected to Lateral Impact Load of Aircraft Engine Crash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almomania, Belal; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sanghoon [Keimyung Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Several numerical methods and tests have been carried out to measure the capability of storage cask to withstand extreme impact loads. Testing methods are often constrained by cost, and difficulty in preparation for several impact conditions with different applied loads, and areas of impact. Instead, analytic method is an acceptable process that can easily apply different impact conditions for the evaluation of cask integrity. The aircraft engine impact is considered as one of the most critical impact accidents on the storage cask that significantly affects onto the lid closure system and may cause a considerable release of radioactive materials. This paper presents a method for evaluating the dynamic responses of one upper metal cask lid closure without impact limiters subjected to lateral impact of an aircraft engine with respect to variation of the impact velocity. An assessment method to predict damage response due to the lateral engine impact onto metal storage cask has been studied by using computer code LS-DYNA. The dynamic behavior of the lid movements was successfully calculated by utilizing a simplified finite element cask model, which showed a good agreement with the previous research. The simulation analyses results showed that no significant plastic deformation for bolts, lid, and the cask body. In this study, the lid opening and sliding displacements are considered as the major factors in initiating the leakage path. This analysis may be useful for evaluating the instantaneous leakage rates in a connection with the sliding and opening displacements between the lid and the flange to ensure that the radiological consequences caused by an aircraft engine crash accident during the storage phase are within the permissible level.

  6. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in opiate addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Christina; Stöllberger, Claudia; Hlavin, Anton; Finsterer, Josef; Hager, Isabella; Hermann, Peter

    2008-12-01

    To determine in a cross-sectional study the prevalence of electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities in opiate addicts who were therapy-seeking and its association with demographic, clinical and drug-specific parameters. In consecutive therapy-seeking opiate addicts, a 12-lead ECG was registered within 24 hours after admission and evaluated according to a pre-set protocol between October 2004 and August 2006. Additionally, demographic, clinical and drug-specific parameters were recorded. Included were 511 opiate-addicts, 25% female, with a mean age of 29 years (range 17-59 years). One or more ECG abnormalities were found in 314 patients (61%). In the 511 patients we found most commonly ST abnormalities (19%), QTc prolongation (13%), tall R- and/or S-waves (11%) and missing R progression (10%). ECG abnormalities were more common in males than in females (64 versus 54%, P seizures less often (16 versus 27%, P opiate addicts. The most frequent ECG abnormalities are ST abnormalities, QTc prolongation and tall R- and/or S-waves. ST abnormalities are associated with cannabis, and QTc prolongation with methadone and benzodiazepines.

  7. Correlation between arterial wall stiffness, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide, functional and structural myocardial abnormalities in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiac autonomic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriya Aleksandrovna Serhiyenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess arterial wall stiffness, plasma levels of of N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP, as well as functional state and structure of the myocardium in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN.Materials and Methods. The study involved a total of 65 patients with T2DM. 12 had no evidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD or CAN, 14 were diagnosed with subclinical stage of CAN, 18 – with functional stage, and 21 – with organic stage. We measured aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV, aortic augmentation index (AIx, brachial artery AIx, ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI and plasma levels of NT-proBNP. Clinical examination included ECG, Holter monitoring, ambulatory BP measurement and echocardiography.Results. Patients with isolated T2DM showed a trend for increased vascular wall stiffness. PWV was increased in patients with subclinical stage of CAN. Aortic and brachial AIx, PWV and AASI were elevated in patients with functional stage of CAN, PWV being significantly higher vs. subclinical CAN subgroup. Organic stage was characterized by pathologically increased values of all primary parameters; PWV and AASI were significantly higher compared with other groups. Development and progression of CAN was accompanied by an increase in NT-proBNP plasma levels. Concentration of NT-proBNP was in direct correlation with left ventricular mass (LVM and PWV. PWV and LVM values also directly correlated between themselves.Conclusion. Development and progression of CAN in patients with T2DM is accompanied by an increase in vascular wall stiffness. The elevation of plasma NT-proBNP in patients with T2DM correlates with the development of CAN and is significantly and independently associated with an increase in LVM and PWV. Our data suggests the pathophysiological interconnection between metabolic, functional and structural myocardial abnormalities in patients with T2DM and CAN.

  8. Correlation between arterial wall stiffness, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide, functional and structural myocardial abnormalities in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiac autonomic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriya Alexandrovna Serhiyenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess arterial wall stiffness, plasma levels of of N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP, as well as functional state and structure of the myocardium in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN. Materials and Methods. The study involved a total of 65 patients with T2DM. 12 had no evidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD or CAN, 14 were diagnosed with subclinical stage of CAN, 18 ? with functional stage, and 21 ? with organic stage. We measured aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV, aortic augmentation index (AIx, brachial artery AIx, ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI and plasma levels of NT-proBNP. Clinical examination included ECG, Holter monitoring, ambulatory BP measurement and echocardiography. Results.  Patients with isolated T2DM showed a trend for increased vascular wall stiffness. PWV was increased in patients with subclinical stage of CAN. Aortic and brachial AIx, PWV and AASI were elevated in patients with functional stage of CAN, PWV being significantly higher vs. subclinical CAN subgroup. Organic stage was characterized by pathologically increased values of all primary parameters; PWV and AASI were significantly higher compared with other groups. Development and progression of CAN was accompanied by an increase in NT-proBNP plasma levels. Concentration of NT-proBNP was in direct correlation with left ventricular mass (LVM and PWV. PWV and LVM values also directly correlated between themselves. Conclusion. Development and progression of CAN in patients with T2DM is accompanied by an increase in vascular wall stiffness. The elevation of plasma NT-proBNP in patients with T2DM correlates with the development of CAN and is significantly and independently associated with an increase in LVM and PWV. Our data suggests the pathophysiological interconnection between metabolic, functional and structural myocardial abnormalities in patients with T2DM and CAN.

  9. The impact of the CACNA1C risk allele on limbic structures and facial emotions recognition in bipolar disorder subjects and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeiro-de-Souza, Márcio Gerhardt; Otaduy, Maria Concepción Garcia; Dias, Carolina Zadres; Bio, Danielle S; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Moreno, Ricardo Alberto

    2012-12-01

    Impairments in facial emotion recognition (FER) have been reported in bipolar disorder (BD) during all mood states. FER has been the focus of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies evaluating differential activation of limbic regions. Recently, the α1-C subunit of the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (CACNA1C) gene has been described as a risk gene for BD and its Met allele found to increase CACNA1C mRNA expression. In healthy controls, the CACNA1C risk (Met) allele has been reported to increase limbic system activation during emotional stimuli and also to impact on cognitive function. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of CACNA1C genotype on FER scores and limbic system morphology in subjects with BD and healthy controls. Thirty-nine euthymic BD I subjects and 40 healthy controls were submitted to a FER recognition test battery and genotyped for CACNA1C. Subjects were also examined with a 3D 3-Tesla structural imaging protocol. The CACNA1C risk allele for BD was associated to FER impairment in BD, while in controls nothing was observed. The CACNA1C genotype did not impact on amygdala or hippocampus volume neither in BD nor controls. Sample size. The present findings suggest that a polymorphism in calcium channels interferes FER phenotype exclusively in BD and doesn't interfere on limbic structures morphology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Imaging findings of sternal abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franquet, T.; Gimenez, A.; Alegret, X.; Sanchis, E.; Rivas, A.

    1997-01-01

    Radiographic findings in the sternal abnormalities are often nonspecific, showing appearances from a localized benign lesion to an aggressive lesion as seen with infections and malignant neoplasms. A specific diagnosis of sternal abnormalities can be suggested on the basis of CT and MR characteristics. Familiarity with the presentation and variable appearance of sternal abnormalities may aid the radiologist is suggesting a specific diagnosis. We present among others characteristic radiographic findings of hemangioma, chondrosarcoma, hydatid disease, and SAPHO syndrome. In those cases in which findings are not specific, cross-sectional imaging modalities may help the clinician in their management. (orig.)

  11. Emollient product design: objective measurements of formulation structure, texture and performance, and subjective assessments of user acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonijević, M D; Owusu-Ware, S; Sanchon-Lopez, B

    2018-06-01

    The choice of prescribed emollients is usually based on cost and patient preference. Differences in formulations can affect user acceptability. To compare the physical performance, user acceptability and various product design features of two emollient gels that are prescribed in the UK and alleged to be therapeutically interchangeable because their formulations are described as having the same contents of oily ingredients. We found that here are in fact significant measurable differences between the structure and performance of the two formulations, which materially affect their user acceptability. These differences are attributed to the use of different types of gelling agents and other ingredients of differing grades/quality and concentrations, and probably due to the formulations being made by different manufacturing processes. We also identified other product design features that are important to user appeal, including the type of container in which the formulations are presented, the type of dispensing devices provided, and the nature and form of the supplied user instructions. Patients and prescribers should be aware that there can be important differences in performance and user appeal between emollients, even between products that, superficially, may appear to be very similar. These important performance aspects should be characterized for new emollient introductions to encourage better informed product selection. © 2018 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Association of Dermatologists, North American Clinical Dermatologic Society and St Johns Dermatological Society.

  12. The significance of ultrastructural abnormalities of human cilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, B; Bull, T B; Makey, A R; Rawbone, R

    1981-12-01

    The electronmicroscopic structure of cilia was studied from the inferior turbinate of the nose in 22 adults, and in 84 biopsies from the bronchial tree of 40 adults. The incidence of compound cilia and abnormal microtubular structures was assessed. There were significant variations in the incidence of abnormalities in different parts of the airways and even within different areas of the same electronmicroscopic section. The focal nature of differences in structure of cilia indicate that abnormalities found in a single biopsy do not necessarily reflect a generalized change in the bronchial tree. Thus, such a finding should not be used as evidence that the abnormalities of cilia are the cause of decrease in mucociliary clearance or that they play a role in the pathogenesis of bronchiectasis and sinusitis.

  13. Hair Shaft Abnormality in Children: a Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Rahmatpour Rokni

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Hair is an ectodermal structure, and its formation is regulated by master genes important in embryology. Hair shaft consists of three major regions: the medulla, cortex and cuticle. Hair shaft abnormality will divide structural hair abnormalities into two broad categories - those associated with increased hair fragility and those not associated with increased hair fragility. We conducted a review study to assess hair shaft abnormality in children. Materials and Methods We conducted a review of all papers published on hair shaft abnormalities. A literature search was performed using PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar on papers publish from 1990 to 2016. The search terms were: hair shaft abnormality, Hair loss, Hair fragility. All abstracts and full text English-language articles were studied. Results While common developmental and structural features are shared in hair follicles and hair shafts. Anomalies of the hair shaft are separated into those with and those without increased hair fragility. Conclusion Although hair has no vital function, it may serve as an indicator for human health. Clinical and morphological hair abnormalities can be clues to specific complex disorders. Hair shaft abnormalities can be inherited or acquired, can reflect a local problem or a systemic disease.

  14. Somatosensory abnormalities in knee OA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylde, Vikki; Palmer, Shea; Learmonth, Ian D; Dieppe, Paul

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to use quantitative sensory testing (QST) to explore the range and prevalence of somatosensory abnormalities demonstrated by patients with advanced knee OA. One hundred and seven knee OA patients and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy participants attended a 1-h QST session. Testing was performed on the medial side of the knee and the pain-free forearm. Light-touch thresholds were assessed using von Frey filaments, pressure pain thresholds using a digital pressure algometer, and thermal sensation and pain thresholds using a Thermotest MSA. Significant differences in median threshold values from knee OA patients and healthy participants were identified using Mann-Whitney U-tests. The z-score transformations were used to determine the prevalence of the different somatosensory abnormalities in knee OA patients. Testing identified 70% of knee OA patients as having at least one somatosensory abnormality. Comparison of median threshold values between knee OA patients and healthy participants revealed that patients had localized thermal and tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia at the osteoarthritic knee. Tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia were also present at the pain-free forearm. The most prevalent somatosensory abnormalities were tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia, evident in between 20 and 34% of patients. This study found that OA patients demonstrate an array of somatosensory abnormalities, of which the most prevalent were tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia. Further research is now needed to establish the clinical implications of these somatosensory abnormalities.

  15. Chromosomal Abnormalities Associated with Neural Tube Defects (I: Full Aneuploidy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Fetuses with neural tube defects (NTDs carry a risk of chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with other structural abnormalities, and family history of chromosome aberrations. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with NTDs in embryos, fetuses, and newborn patients, and a comprehensive review of numerical chromosomal abnormalities associated with NTDs, such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy, trisomy 9, trisomy 2, trisomy 21, trisomy 7, trisomy 8, trisomy 14, trisomy 15, trisomy 16, trisomy 5 mosaicism, trisomy 11 mosaicism, trisomy 20 mosaicism, monosomy X, and tetraploidy. NTDs may be associated with aneuploidy. Perinatal identification of NTDs should alert one to the possibility of chromosomal abnormalities and prompt a thorough cytogenetic investigation and genetic counseling.

  16. Abnormalities of hippocampal signal intensity in patients with familial mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coan A.C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE is associated with hippocampal atrophy and hippocampal signal abnormalities. In our series of familial MTLE (FMTLE, we found a high proportion of hippocampal abnormalities. To quantify signal abnormalities in patients with FMTLE we studied 152 individuals (46 of them asymptomatic with FMTLE. We used NIH-Image® for volumetry and signal quantification in coronal T1 inversion recovery and T2 for all cross-sections of the hippocampus. Values diverging by 2 or more SD from the control mean were considered abnormal. T2 hippocampal signal abnormalities were found in 52% of all individuals: 54% of affected subjects and 48% of asymptomatic subjects. T1 hippocampal signal changes were found in 34% of all individuals: 42.5% of affected subjects and 15% of asymptomatic subjects. Analysis of the hippocampal head (first three slices revealed T2 abnormalities in 73% of all individuals (74% of affected subjects and 72% of asymptomatic subjects and T1 abnormalities in 59% (67% of affected subjects and 41% of asymptomatic subjects. Affected individuals had smaller volumes than controls (P < 0.0001. There was no difference in hippocampal volumes between asymptomatic subjects and controls, although 39% of asymptomatic patients had hippocampal atrophy. Patients with an abnormal hippocampal signal (133 individuals had smaller ipsilateral volume, but no linear correlation could be determined. Hippocampal signal abnormalities in FMTLE were more frequently found in the hippocampal head in both affected and asymptomatic family members, including those with normal volumes. These results indicate that subtle abnormalities leading to an abnormal hippocampal signal in FMTLE are not necessarily related to seizures and may be determined by genetic factors.

  17. Quantitative evaluation of the structure and function of the common carotid artery in hypertriglyceridemic subjects using ultrasound radiofrequency-data technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, Hai-Jun; Wang, Yan; Sha, Hai-Jing; Wen, Shu-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of the properties of blood-vessel walls by ultrasound radiofrequency (RF)-data technology is an innovative technique. We quantitatively evaluated the intima-media thickness (IMT) and arterial elasticity of the common carotid artery (CCA) in asymptomatic subjects with hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) using RF-data technology. Thirty HTG subjects and 30 matched controls were enrolled in the study. The common carotid arterial systolic diameter, diastolic diameter, IMT, carotid distensibility (CD), local pulse wave velocity (PWVβ), and stiffness (β) were compared between the two groups, as was the correlation between triglyceride level and the parameters mentioned above. The HTG group had significantly higher values of CCA-IMT compared with the control group (p 0.05). The level of triglycerides had significant positive correlations with CCA-IMT (r = 0.493, p < 0.001), whereas significant correlations with CD, PWVβ, and β were not observed in the HTG group. Ultrasound RF-data technology can be used to non-invasively and quantitatively detect the change in the structure and function of the CCA in asymptomatic HTG subjects for evaluating preclinical atherosclerosis.

  18. Memetics clarification of abnormal behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: Biological medicine is hard to fully and scientifically explain the etiological factor and pathogenesis of abnormal behaviors; while, researches on philosophy and psychology (including memetics) are beneficial to better understand and explain etiological factor and pathogenesis of abnormal behaviors. At present, the theory of philosophy and psychology is to investigate the entity of abnormal behavior based on the views of memetics.METHODS: Abnormal behavior was researched in this study based on three aspects, including instinctive behavior disorder, poorly social-adapted behavior disorder and mental or body disease associated behavior disorder. Most main viewpoints of memetics were derived from "The Meme Machine", which was written by Susan Blackmore. When questions about abnormal behaviors induced by mental and psychological diseases and conduct disorder of teenagers were discussed, some researching achievements which were summarized by authors previously were added in this study, such as aggressive behaviors, pathologically aggressive behaviors, etc.RESULTS: The abnormal behaviors mainly referred to a part of people's substandard behaviors which were not according with the realistic social environment, culture background and the pathologic behaviors resulted from people's various psychological diseases. According to the theory of "meme", it demonstrated that the relevant behavioral obstacles of various psychological diseases, for example, the unusual behavior of schizophrenia, were caused, because the old meme was destroyed thoroughly but the new meme was unable to establish; psychoneurosis and personality disorder were resulted in hard establishment of meme; the behavioral obstacles which were ill-adapted to society, for example, various additional and homosexual behaviors, were because of the selfish replications and imitations of "additional meme" and "homosexual meme"; various instinct behavioral and congenital intelligent obstacles were not significance

  19. Microstructure abnormalities in adolescents with internet addiction disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yuan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that internet addiction disorder (IAD is associated with structural abnormalities in brain gray matter. However, few studies have investigated the effects of internet addiction on the microstructural integrity of major neuronal fiber pathways, and almost no studies have assessed the microstructural changes with the duration of internet addiction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the morphology of the brain in adolescents with IAD (N = 18 using an optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM technique, and studied the white matter fractional anisotropy (FA changes using the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI method, linking these brain structural measures to the duration of IAD. We provided evidences demonstrating the multiple structural changes of the brain in IAD subjects. VBM results indicated the decreased gray matter volume in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, the supplementary motor area (SMA, the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, the cerebellum and the left rostral ACC (rACC. DTI analysis revealed the enhanced FA value of the left posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC and reduced FA value in the white matter within the right parahippocampal gyrus (PHG. Gray matter volumes of the DLPFC, rACC, SMA, and white matter FA changes of the PLIC were significantly correlated with the duration of internet addiction in the adolescents with IAD. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that long-term internet addiction would result in brain structural alterations, which probably contributed to chronic dysfunction in subjects with IAD. The current study may shed further light on the potential brain effects of IAD.

  20. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ187 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results • What is cervical cancer screening? • What causes abnormal cervical cancer screening test ...

  1. Transvaginal Ultrasound for the Diagnosis of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Karen C; Goldstein, Steven R

    2017-03-01

    Transvaginal ultrasound is the first-line imaging test for the evaluation of abnormal uterine bleeding in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Transvaginal ultrasound can be used to diagnose structural causes of abnormal bleeding such as polyps, adenomyosis, leiomyomas, hyperplasia, and malignancy, and can also be beneficial in making the diagnosis of ovulatory dysfunction. Traditional 2-dimensional imaging is often enhanced by the addition of 3-dimension imaging with coronal reconstruction and saline infusion sonohysterography. In this article we discuss specific ultrasound findings and technical considerations useful in the diagnosis of abnormal uterine bleeding.

  2. Structure and Properties of Ti-19.7Nb-5.8Ta Shape Memory Alloy Subjected to Thermomechanical Processing Including Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinskiy, S.; Brailovski, Vladimir; Prokoshkin, S.; Pushin, V.; Inaekyan, K.; Sheremetyev, V.; Petrzhik, M.; Filonov, M.

    2013-09-01

    In this work, the ternary Ti-19.7Nb-5.8Ta (at.%) alloy for biomedical applications was studied. The ingot was manufactured by vacuum arc melting with a consumable electrode and then subjected to hot forging. Specimens were cut from the ingot and processed by cold rolling with e = 0.37 of logarithmic thickness reduction and post-deformation annealing (PDA) between 400 and 750 °C (1 h). Selected samples were subjected to aging at 300 °C (10 min to 3 h). The influence of the thermomechanical processing on the alloy's structure, phase composition, and mechanical and functional properties was studied. It was shown that thermomechanical processing leads to the formation of a nanosubgrained structure (polygonized with subgrains below 100 nm) in the 500-600 °C PDA range, which transforms to a recrystallized structure of β-phase when PDA temperature increases. Simultaneously, the phase composition and the β → α″ transformation kinetics vary. It was found that after conventional cold rolling and PDA, Ti-Nb-Ta alloy manifests superelastic and shape memory behaviors. During aging at 300 °C (1 h), an important quantity of randomly scattered equiaxed ω-precipitates forms, which results in improved superelastic cyclic properties. On the other hand, aging at 300 °C (3 h) changes the ω-precipitates' particle morphology from equiaxed to elongated and leads to their coarsening, which negatively affects the superelastic and shape memory functional properties of Ti-Nb-Ta alloy.

  3. Abnormality diagnostic technology for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Satoshi

    1986-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, it is feared that the failure of the installations containing radioactive substances may inflict serious damage on public and workers. Therefore in nuclear power plants, the ensuring of safety is planned by supposing hypothetical accidents which are not likely to occur from engineering viewpoint, and multiple protection measures are taken in the plant constitution. In addition to the safety measures from such hardware aspect, recently in order to prevent the occurrence of accidents by using various safety-confirming means, and to detect early when any accident occurred, the development and putting in practical use of many monitoring equipments have been promoted. In such background, the development of nuclear power generation supporting system was carried out for five years since fiscal year 1980, subsidized by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, and in this report, the technology of equipment abnormality diagnosis developed as a part of that project and the diagnostic techniques for actual plants are described. The technology of diagnosing nuclear reactor abnormality includes the diagnosis of loose metal pieces and the abnormal vibration of in-core structures. The detection and diagnosis of valve leak and the diagnosis of the deterioration of detectors are also explained. (Kako, I.)

  4. Dietary quality and its structural relationships among equivalent income, emotional well-being, and a five-year subjective health in Japanese middle-aged urban dwellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Sayuri; Fujii, Nobuya; Furuhata, Tadashi; Sakurai, Naoko; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Hoshi, Tanji

    2015-01-01

    Although dietary quality in middle-age and the prime age of a person's work career might be determined by positive emotional well-being based on socioeconomic status (SES), causation among determinants of dietary quality still remains unclear. Our purpose was to elucidate the structural relationships among five-year prior dietary quality, equivalent income, emotional well-being, and a five-year subjective health by sex and age group separately. In 2003, 10,000 middle-aged urban dwellers aged 40-64 years, who lived in ward A in the Tokyo metropolitan area, were randomly selected and a questionnaire survey was conducted by mail. In 2008, we made a follow-up survey for dwellers, and were able to gather their survival status. A total of 2507, middle-aged men (n = 1112) and women (n = 1395), were examined at baseline. We created three latent variables for a structural equation modeling (SEM), five-year subjective health reported in 2003 and in 2008, dietary quality of principle food groups diversity and eating behavior in 2003, and emotional well-being constructed by enjoyment & ikigai (meaning of life) and by close people in 2003. Equivalent income in 2003 was calculated as SES indicator. In the SEM analysis of both men and women, there was an indirect effect of the equivalent income on dietary quality and on five-year subjective health, via emotional well-being explained by ikigai and having comforting people close to the individuals, significantly. There tended to be a larger direct effect of emotional well-being on the dietary quality in men than in women, and also a larger effect accompanying with aging. In women, there was a large direct effect of equivalent income on dietary quality than in men. When examined comprehensively, there appeared to be a larger effect of five-year prior equivalent income on subjective health during five-year in men than in women. This study suggests that it is necessary to support the improvement of dietary quality in middle

  5. Abnormal mitochondrial respiration in failed human myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharov, V G; Todor, A V; Silverman, N; Goldstein, S; Sabbah, H N

    2000-12-01

    Chronic heart failure (HF) is associated with morphologic abnormalities of cardiac mitochondria including hyperplasia, reduced organelle size and compromised structural integrity. In this study, we examined whether functional abnormalities of mitochondrial respiration are also present in myocardium of patients with advanced HF. Mitochondrial respiration was examined using a Clark electrode in an oxygraph cell containing saponin-skinned muscle bundles obtained from myocardium of failed explanted human hearts due to ischemic (ICM, n=9) or idiopathic dilated (IDC, n=9) cardiomyopathy. Myocardial specimens from five normal donor hearts served as controls (CON). Basal respiratory rate, respiratory rate after addition of the substrates glutamate and malate (V(SUB)), state 3 respiration (after addition of ADP, V(ADP)) and respiration after the addition of atractyloside (V(AT)) were measured in scar-free muscle bundles obtained from the subendocardial (ENDO) and subepicardial (EPI) thirds of the left ventricular (LV) free wall, interventricular septum and right ventricular (RV) free wall. There were no differences in basal and substrate-supported respiration between CON and HF regardless of etiology. V(ADP)was significantly depressed both in ICM and IDC compared to CON in all the regions studied. The respiratory control ratio, V(ADP)/V(AT), was also significantly decreased in HF compared to CON. In both ICM and IDC, V(ADP)was significantly lower in ENDO compared to EPI. The results indicate that mitochondrial respiration is abnormal in the failing human heart. The findings support the concept of low myocardial energy production in HF via oxidative phosphorylation, an abnormality with a potentially impact on global cardiac performance. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  6. Perceived functional impact of abnormal facial appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Marlene; Borah, Gregory L

    2003-06-01

    Functional facial deformities are usually described as those that impair respiration, eating, hearing, or speech. Yet facial scars and cutaneous deformities have a significant negative effect on social functionality that has been poorly documented in the scientific literature. Insurance companies are declining payments for reconstructive surgical procedures for facial deformities caused by congenital disabilities and after cancer or trauma operations that do not affect mechanical facial activity. The purpose of this study was to establish a large, sample-based evaluation of the perceived social functioning, interpersonal characteristics, and employability indices for a range of facial appearances (normal and abnormal). Adult volunteer evaluators (n = 210) provided their subjective perceptions based on facial physical appearance, and an analysis of the consequences of facial deformity on parameters of preferential treatment was performed. A two-group comparative research design rated the differences among 10 examples of digitally altered facial photographs of actual patients among various age and ethnic groups with "normal" and "abnormal" congenital deformities or posttrauma scars. Photographs of adult patients with observable congenital and posttraumatic deformities (abnormal) were digitally retouched to eliminate the stigmatic defects (normal). The normal and abnormal photographs of identical patients were evaluated by the large sample study group on nine parameters of social functioning, such as honesty, employability, attractiveness, and effectiveness, using a visual analogue rating scale. Patients with abnormal facial characteristics were rated as significantly less honest (p = 0.007), less employable (p = 0.001), less trustworthy (p = 0.01), less optimistic (p = 0.001), less effective (p = 0.02), less capable (p = 0.002), less intelligent (p = 0.03), less popular (p = 0.001), and less attractive (p = 0.001) than were the same patients with normal facial

  7. Radiographic Abnormalities in the Feet of Diabetic Patients with Neuropathy and Foot Ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Vijay; Kumpatla, Satyavani; Rao, V Narayan

    2014-11-01

    People with diabetic neuropathy are frequently prone to several bone and joint abnormalities. Simple radiographic findings have been proven to be quite useful in the detection of such abnormalities, which might be helpful not only for early diagnosis but also in following the course of diabetes through stages of reconstruction of the ulcerated foot.The present study was designed to identify the common foot abnormalities in south Indian diabetic subjects with and without neuropathy using radiographic imaging. About 150 (M:F 94:56) subjects with type 2 diabetes were categorised into three groups: Group I (50 diabetic patients), Group II (50 patients with neuropathy), and Group III (50 diabetic patients with both neuropathy and foot ulceration). Demographic details, duration of diabetes and HbA1c values were recorded. Vibration perception threshold was measured for assessment of neuropathy. Bone and joint abnormalities in the feet and legs of the study subjects were identified using standardised dorsi-plantar and lateral weight-bearing radiographs. Radiographic findings of the study subjects revealed that those with both neuropathy and foot ulceration and a longer duration of diabetes had more number of bone and joint abnormalities. Subjects with neuropathy alone also showed presence of several abnormalities, including periosteal reaction, osteopenia, and Charcot changes. The present findings highlight the impact of neuropathy and duration of diabetes on the development of foot abnormalities in subjects with diabetes. Using radiographic imaging can help in early identification of abnormalities and better management of the diabetic foot.

  8. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    2- and 4-mercaptopyridines and their application as corrosion ... ring: Synthesis, structures, stability and utility. 23. Amide ..... HPLC. Isolation and characterization of higher metallo- fullerenes Ca@C92 and Ca@C94. 297 .... m-aminophenol.

  9. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chitosan-based Schiff base-metal complexes (Mn, Cu, Co) as heterogeneous ... Acid concentration dependence ... Adsorption ..... Polymer supported nickel complex: Synthesis, structure ... Eco-friendly kinetic separation of trans-limonene and.

  10. Evaluation criteria for uranium potential of sedimentary basins based on analysis of host sand body and structurally reworking pattern host sand body has been subject to

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zuyi; Guo Qingyin; Liu Hongxu

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of the introduction and the analysis of regional evaluation criteria for sandstone-type uranium deposits summarized by uranium geologists of USA and former Soviet Union, and by introducing new scientific progress in the field of sedimentology of clastic rocks, and basin geodynamics, main evaluation criteria composed of host sand body criterion and the criterion of structurally reworking pattern the host sand body has been subject to, are proposed, and the evaluation model based on analyzing the regional tectonic history and the evolution of prototype basin is set up. Finally, taking the Chaoshui basin as an example, the possibility for hosting epigenetic uranium mineralization in each horizon of the basin cover is discussed, then the main prospecting target horizon is discriminated, and potential ore-formation areas are proposed. (authors)

  11. The structural-phenomenological description of plastic anisotropy of H-1 and H-2.5 alloys, subjected to reactors irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamshchikov, N.V.; Prasolov, P.F.; Lebedinskij, K.B.

    1990-01-01

    The structural-phenomenological model of anisotropic single hpc textured polycrystals is described. The formulation of the present model is assumed that the polycrystal is continuous three-dimensional collection of transversal crystallites, the plastic properties which Hill's yield criteria are described. This model is allowed to determine six parameters in the Hill's yield criteria for ortho tropic materials based on only of uniaxial tension test in three directions and crystallographic texture. Yield surfaces of zircaloy alloys at 293 K and 623 K, subjected to irradiation in the reactor with total exposition dose 10 20 n/cm 2 are determined. Strongly influence of irradiation on the plastic behaviour of H-1 and H-2,5 alloys is observed. 2 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tables. (author)

  12. Development of methods to predict both the dynamic and the pseudo-static response of secondary structures subjected to seismic excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subudhi, M.; Bezler, P.

    1984-01-01

    Multiple independent support excitation time history formulations have been used to investigate simplified methods to predict the inertial (or dynamic) component of response as well as the pseudo-static (or static) component of response of secondary structures subjected to seismic excitations. For the dynamic component the independent response spectrum method is used with current industry practice for the modal and direction of excitation combinations being adopted and various procedures for the group combination and sequence being investigated. SRSS combination between support groups is found to yield satisfactory results. For the static component, support grouping by elevation for preliminary design followed by support grouping by attachment point for final design assure overall safety in the design

  13. Layer-by-layer composition and structure of silicon subjected to combined gallium and nitrogen ion implantation for the ion synthesis of gallium nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korolev, D. S.; Mikhaylov, A. N.; Belov, A. I.; Vasiliev, V. K.; Guseinov, D. V.; Okulich, E. V. [Nizhny Novgorod State University (Russian Federation); Shemukhin, A. A. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Surodin, S. I.; Nikolitchev, D. E.; Nezhdanov, A. V.; Pirogov, A. V.; Pavlov, D. A.; Tetelbaum, D. I., E-mail: tetelbaum@phys.unn.ru [Nizhny Novgorod State University (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    The composition and structure of silicon surface layers subjected to combined gallium and nitrogen ion implantation with subsequent annealing have been studied by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering, electron spin resonance, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. A slight redistribution of the implanted atoms before annealing and their substantial migration towards the surface during annealing depending on the sequence of implantations are observed. It is found that about 2% of atoms of the implanted layer are replaced with gallium bonded to nitrogen; however, it is impossible to detect the gallium-nitride phase. At the same time, gallium-enriched inclusions containing ∼25 at % of gallium are detected as candidates for the further synthesis of gallium-nitride inclusions.

  14. Lentiginosis, Deafness and Cardiac Abnormalities*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1973-01-06

    Jan 6, 1973 ... His height. mass. intelligence and genitalia were normal. The aSSOCiatIOn between deafness and disturbance of cardiac conduction and between pigmented skin lesions and cardiac abnormalities, has been well described. Should. ~I patient present with multiple lentigines and/or familial sensineural ...

  15. Cardiac abnormalities after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilt, I.A.C. van der

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage(aSAH) is a devastating neurological disease. During the course of the aSAH several neurological and medical complications may occur. Cardiac abnormalities after aSAH are observed often and resemble stress cardiomyopathy or Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy(Broken Heart

  16. Chromosomal Abnormalities Associated With Omphalocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Fetuses with omphalocele have an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with umbilical cord cysts, complexity of associated anomalies, and the contents of omphalocele. There is considerable evidence that genetics contributes to the etiology of omphalocele. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele and a comprehensive review of associated full aneuploidy such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy, trisomy 21, 45,X, 47,XXY, and 47,XXX, partial aneuploidy such as dup(3q, dup(11p, inv(11, dup(1q, del(1q, dup(4q, dup(5p, dup(6q, del(9p, dup(15q, dup(17q, Pallister-Killian syndrome with mosaic tetrasomy 12p and Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome with deletion of 17p13.3, and uniparental disomy (UPD such as UPD 11 and UPD 14. Omphalocele is a prominent marker for chromosomal abnormalities. Perinatal identification of omphalocele should alert chromosomal abnormalities and familial unbalanced translocations, and prompt thorough cytogenetic investigations and genetic counseling.

  17. Admission haematological abnormalities and postoperative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admission haematological abnormalities and postoperative outcomes in neonates with acute surgical conditions in Alexandria, Egypt. HL Wella, SMM Farahat. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals ...

  18. Neurological abnormalities predict disability: the LADIS (Leukoaraiosis And DISability) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poggesi, A.; Gouw, A.; van der Flier, W.M.; Pracucci, G.; Chabriat, H.; Erkinjuntti, T.; Fazekas, F.; Ferro, J.M.; Blahak, C.; Langhorne, P.; O'Brien, J.; Schmidt, R.; Visser, M.C.; Wahlund, L.O.; Waldemar, G.; Wallin, A.; Scheltens, P.; Inzitari, D.; Pantoni, L.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of neurological abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in predicting global functional decline in a cohort of initially independent-living elderly subjects. The Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study, involving 11 European centres, was primarily aimed

  19. Altering Attitudes toward Suicide in an Abnormal Psychology Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, George

    1980-01-01

    The article describes a report stemming from the development and application of a Suicide Opinion Questionnaire (SOQ)--a 100 item attitudinal and factual instrument designed to cover a wide range of suicidal concerns. Subjects of the study were 17 college students drawn at random from 89 students enrolled in an abnormal psychology course. Results…

  20. Use of Drama Students as "Clients" in Teaching Abnormal Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Kirby

    1982-01-01

    Describes the use of drama students to role play subjects of case studies in simulations of standard interviews in a college-level abnormal psychology class. Graduate drama students role-played clients in interviews with instructors or student panels. After the interviews, class discussion covered alternative possible diagnoses and possible…

  1. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    granulite belt, India: structural and petrochemical evidences attesting to their relict nature. 337. Earth systems. Earth support systems: Threatened? Why? What can we do? 269. Earthquake source. Earthquake source model using strong motion dis- placement as response of finite elastic media. 9. Eastern Dharwar Craton.

  2. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    dodecyl sulphate (SDS) complex. 299. Acid catalysts ... Synthesis of gold nanoparticles stabilised by metal-chelator and the ... 83. a3Co1+xIr1–xO6. Structural and magnetic anomalies among ..... Direct hydrothermal synthesis of metal inter-.

  3. Cytogenetic abnormalities in Tunisian women with premature ovarian failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayed, Wiem; Amouri, Ahlem; Hammami, Wajih; Kilani, Olfa; Turki, Zinet; Harzallah, Fatma; Bouayed-Abdelmoula, Nouha; Chemkhi, Imen; Zhioua, Fethi; Slama, Claude Ben

    2014-12-01

    To identify the distribution of chromosome abnormalities among Tunisian women with premature ovarian failure (POF) referred to the department of Cytogenetic at the Pasteur Institute of Tunis (Tunisia), standard cytogenetic analysis was carried out in a total of 100 women younger than 40 affected with premature ovarian failure. We identified 18 chromosomal abnormalities, including seven X-numerical anomalies in mosaic and non-mosaic state (45,X; 47,XXX), four sex reversal, three X-structural abnormalities (terminal deletion and isochromosomes), one autosomal translocation and one supernumerary marker. The overall prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities was 18% in our cohort. X chromosome aneuploidy was the most frequent aberration. This finding confirms the essential role of X chromosome in ovarian function and underlies the importance of cytogenetic investigations in the routine management of POF. Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of BDNF sensitive electrophysiological markers of synaptic activity and their structural correlates in healthy subjects using a genetic approach utilizing the functional BDNF Val66Met polymorphism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fruzsina Soltész

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that synaptic dysfunction is a core pathophysiological hallmark of neurodegenerative disorders. Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF is key synaptogenic molecule and targeting synaptic repair through modulation of BDNF signalling has been suggested as a potential drug discovery strategy. The development of such "synaptogenic" therapies depend on the availability of BDNF sensitive markers of synaptic function that could be utilized as biomarkers for examining target engagement or drug efficacy in humans. Here we have utilized the BDNF Val66Met genetic polymorphism to examine the effect of the polymorphism and genetic load (i.e. Met allele load on electrophysiological (EEG markers of synaptic activity and their structural (MRI correlates. Sixty healthy adults were prospectively recruited into the three genetic groups (Val/Val, Val/Met, Met/Met. Subjects also underwent fMRI, tDCS/TMS, and cognitive assessments as part of a larger study. Overall, some of the EEG markers of synaptic activity and brain structure measured with MRI were the most sensitive markers of the polymorphism. Met carriers showed decreased oscillatory activity and synchrony in the neural network subserving error-processing, as measured during a flanker task (ERN; and showed increased slow-wave activity during resting. There was no evidence for a Met load effect on the EEG measures and the polymorphism had no effects on MMN and P300. Met carriers also showed reduced grey matter volume in the anterior cingulate and in the (left prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, anterior cingulate grey matter volume, and oscillatory EEG power during the flanker task predicted subsequent behavioural adaptation, indicating a BDNF dependent link between brain structure, function and behaviour associated with error processing and monitoring. These findings suggest that EEG markers such as ERN and resting EEG could be used as BDNF sensitive functional markers in early

  5. DNA methylation abnormalities in congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Juhé, Clara; Cuscó, Ivon; Homs, Aïda; Flores, Raquel; Torán, Núria; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    Congenital heart defects represent the most common malformation at birth, occurring also in ∼50% of individuals with Down syndrome. Congenital heart defects are thought to have multifactorial etiology, but the main causes are largely unknown. We have explored the global methylation profile of fetal heart DNA in comparison to blood DNA from control subjects: an absolute correlation with the type of tissue was detected. Pathway analysis revealed a significant enrichment of differential methylation at genes related to muscle contraction and cardiomyopathies in the developing heart DNA. We have also searched for abnormal methylation profiles on developing heart-tissue DNA of syndromic and non-syndromic congenital heart defects. On average, 3 regions with aberrant methylation were detected per sample and 18 regions were found differentially methylated between groups. Several epimutations were detected in candidate genes involved in growth regulation, apoptosis and folate pathway. A likely pathogenic hypermethylation of several intragenic sites at the MSX1 gene, involved in outflow tract morphogenesis, was found in a fetus with isolated heart malformation. In addition, hypermethylation of the GATA4 gene was present in fetuses with Down syndrome with or without congenital heart defects, as well as in fetuses with isolated heart malformations. Expression deregulation of the abnormally methylated genes was detected. Our data indicate that epigenetic alterations of relevant genes are present in developing heart DNA in fetuses with both isolated and syndromic heart malformations. These epimutations likely contribute to the pathogenesis of the malformation by cis-acting effects on gene expression.

  6. Manual for subject analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series and also constitutes a part of the ETDE Procedures Manual. It presents the rules, guidelines and procedures to be adopted by centers submitting input to the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) or the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE). It is a manual for the subject analysis part of input preparation, meaning the selection, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing of relevant publications, and is to be used in conjunction with the Thesauruses, Subject Categories documents and the documents providing guidelines for the preparation of abstracts. The concept and structure of the new manual are intended to describe in a logical and efficient sequence all the steps comprising the subject analysis of documents to be reported to INIS or ETDE. The manual includes new chapters on preparatory analysis, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing, as well as rules, guidelines, procedures, examples and a special chapter on guidelines and examples for subject analysis in particular subject fields. (g.t.; a.n.)

  7. Echocardiographic abnormalities in hypertensive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodulfo Garcia, Maikel; Tornes Perez, Victor Manuel; Castellanos Tardo, Juan Ramon

    2012-01-01

    A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in 120 hypertensive patients with a course of 5 or more years, who went to the emergency room of 'Saturnino Lora' Provincial Teaching Hospital from November 2010 to November 2011 in order to determine the presence or absence of echocardiographic abnormalities typical of hypertension. Of these, 78,3 % was affected, most of whom reported not to continue with regular previous medical treatment, and 21,7 % had not these abnormalities. Age group of 50-60 years, males and blacks prevailed in the case material. The most significant echocardiographic findings were left ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure with ejection fraction of left ventricle preserved

  8. The risk of menstrual abnormalities after tubal sterilization: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    shobeiri, Mehri Jafari; AtashKhoii, Simin

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Tubal sterilization is the method of family planning most commonly used. The existence of the post-tubal-ligation syndrome of menstrual abnormalities has been the subject of debate for decades. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 112 women with the history of Pomeroy type of tubal ligation achieved by minilaparatomy as the case group and 288 women with no previous tubal ligation as the control group were assessed for menstrual abnormalities. Results Menstrual abnormalities...

  9. Goldenhar syndrome and urogenital abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Marulaiah

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Goldenhar syndrome (oculo-auriculo-vertebral syn-drome or 1st and 2nd branchial arch syndrome is a com-plex of craniofacial anomalies. It has been associated with anomalies in other systems and with abnormalities of the urogenital system. We present a case of Goldenhar syn-drome with multiple renal anomalies and a urogenital si-nus, which has not been reported before.

  10. Mastoid abnormalities in Down syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, R.B.J.; Yousefzadeh, D.K.; Roizen, N.J.

    1989-06-01

    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child's hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors which are important for learning and maximum development.

  11. Mastoid abnormalities in Down syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.B.J.; Yousefzadeh, D.K.; Roizen, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child's hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors which are important for learning and maximum development. (orig.)

  12. Nonparametric Change Point Diagnosis Method of Concrete Dam Crack Behavior Abnormality

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhanchao; Gu, Chongshi; Wu, Zhongru

    2013-01-01

    The study on diagnosis method of concrete crack behavior abnormality has always been a hot spot and difficulty in the safety monitoring field of hydraulic structure. Based on the performance of concrete dam crack behavior abnormality in parametric statistical model and nonparametric statistical model, the internal relation between concrete dam crack behavior abnormality and statistical change point theory is deeply analyzed from the model structure instability of parametric statistical model ...

  13. Abnormal uterine bleeding in perimenopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, S R; Lumsden, M A

    2017-10-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the commonest presenting complaints encountered in a gynecologist's office or primary-care setting. The wider availability of diagnostic tools has allowed prompt diagnosis and treatment of an increasing number of menstrual disorders in an office setting. This White Paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages of transvaginal ultrasound, blind endometrial sampling and diagnostic hysteroscopy. Once a proper diagnosis has been established, appropriate therapy may be embarked upon. Fortunately, only a minority of such patients will have premalignant or malignant disease. When bleeding is sufficient to cause severe anemia or even hypovolemia, prompt intervention is called for. In most of the cases, however, the abnormal uterine bleeding will be disquieting to the patient and significantly affect her 'quality of life'. Sometimes, reassurance and expectant management will be sufficient in such patients. Overall, however, in cases of benign disease, some intervention will be required. The use of oral contraceptive pills especially those with a short hormone-free interval, the insertion of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system, the incorporation of newer medical therapies including antifibrinolytic drugs and selective progesterone receptor modulators and minimally invasive treatments have made outpatient therapy increasingly effective. For others, operative hysteroscopy and endometrial ablation are proven therapeutic tools to provide both long- and short-term relief of abnormal uterine bleeding, thus avoiding, or deferring, hysterectomy.

  14. Hemostatic abnormalities in Noonan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artoni, Andrea; Selicorni, Angelo; Passamonti, Serena M; Lecchi, Anna; Bucciarelli, Paolo; Cerutti, Marta; Cianci, Paola; Gianniello, Francesca; Martinelli, Ida

    2014-05-01

    A bleeding diathesis is a common feature of Noonan syndrome, and various coagulation abnormalities have been reported. Platelet function has never been carefully investigated. The degree of bleeding diathesis in a cohort of patients with Noonan syndrome was evaluated by a validated bleeding score and investigated with coagulation and platelet function tests. If ratios of prothrombin time and/or activated partial thromboplastin time were prolonged, the activity of clotting factors was measured. Individuals with no history of bleeding formed the control group. The study population included 39 patients and 28 controls. Bleeding score was ≥2 (ie, suggestive of a moderate bleeding diathesis) in 15 patients (38.5%) and ≥4 (ie, suggestive of a severe bleeding diathesis) in 7 (17.9%). Abnormal coagulation and/or platelet function tests were found in 14 patients with bleeding score ≥2 (93.3%) but also in 21 (87.5%) of those with bleeding score Noonan syndrome had a bleeding diathesis and >90% of them had platelet function and/or coagulation abnormalities. Results of these tests should be taken into account in the management of bleeding or invasive procedures in these patients. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Congenital abnormalities of the posterior fossa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Orman, Gunes; Boltshauser, Eugen; Tekes, Aylin; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Poretti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The frequency and importance of the evaluation of the posterior fossa have increased significantly over the past 20 years owing to advances in neuroimaging. Nowadays, conventional and advanced neuroimaging techniques allow detailed evaluation of the complex anatomic structures within the posterior fossa. A wide spectrum of congenital abnormalities has been demonstrated, including malformations (anomalies due to an alteration of the primary developmental program caused by a genetic defect) and disruptions (anomalies due to the breakdown of a structure that had a normal developmental potential). Familiarity with the spectrum of congenital posterior fossa anomalies and their well-defined diagnostic criteria is crucial for optimal therapy, an accurate prognosis, and correct genetic counseling. The authors discuss the spectrum of posterior fossa malformations and disruptions, with emphasis on neuroimaging findings (including diagnostic criteria), neurologic presentation, systemic involvement, prognosis, and risk of recurrence. RSNA, 2015

  16. OneD: increasing reproducibility of Hi-C samples with abnormal karyotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Enrique; le Dily, François; Quilez, Javier; Stadhouders, Ralph; Cuartero, Yasmina; Graf, Thomas; Marti-Renom, Marc A; Beato, Miguel; Filion, Guillaume J

    2018-05-04

    The three-dimensional conformation of genomes is an essential component of their biological activity. The advent of the Hi-C technology enabled an unprecedented progress in our understanding of genome structures. However, Hi-C is subject to systematic biases that can compromise downstream analyses. Several strategies have been proposed to remove those biases, but the issue of abnormal karyotypes received little attention. Many experiments are performed in cancer cell lines, which typically harbor large-scale copy number variations that create visible defects on the raw Hi-C maps. The consequences of these widespread artifacts on the normalized maps are mostly unexplored. We observed that current normalization methods are not robust to the presence of large-scale copy number variations, potentially obscuring biological differences and enhancing batch effects. To address this issue, we developed an alternative approach designed to take into account chromosomal abnormalities. The method, called OneD, increases reproducibility among replicates of Hi-C samples with abnormal karyotype, outperforming previous methods significantly. On normal karyotypes, OneD fared equally well as state-of-the-art methods, making it a safe choice for Hi-C normalization. OneD is fast and scales well in terms of computing resources for resolutions up to 5 kb.

  17. Familial defective apolipoprotein B-100: low density lipoproteins with abnormal receptor binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innerarity, T.L.; Weisgraber, K.H.; Arnold, K.S.; Mahley, R.W.; Krauss, R.M.; Vega, G.L.; Grundy, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    Previous in vivo turnover studies suggested that retarded clearance of low density lipoproteins (LDL) from the plasma of some hypercholesterolemic patients is due to LDL with defective receptor binding. The present study examined this postulate directly by receptor binding experiments. The LDL from a hypercholesterolemic patient (G.R.) displayed a reduced ability to bind to the LDL receptors on normal human fibroblasts. The G.R. LDL possessed 32% of normal receptor binding activity. Likewise, the G.R. LDL were much less effective than normal LDL in competing with 125 I-labeled normal LDL for cellular uptake and degradation and in stimulating intracellular cholesteryl ester synthesis. The defect in LDL binding appears to be due to a genetic abnormality of apolipoprotein B-100: two brothers of the proband possess LDL defective in receptor binding, whereas a third brother and the proband's son have normally binding LDL. Further, the defect in receptor binding does not appear to be associated wit an abnormal lipid composition or structure of the LDL. Normal and abnormal LDL subpopulations were partially separated from plasma of two subjects by density-gradient ultracentrifugation, a finding consistent with the presence of a normal and a mutant allele. The affected family members appear to be heterozygous for this disorder, which has been designated familial defective apolipoprotein B-100. These studies indicate that the defective receptor binding results in inefficient clearance of LDL and the hypercholesterolemia observed in these patients

  18. [X-ray computed tomographic abnormalities in schizophrenia. Trial of relationship with clinical data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, T; Rochet, T; Dalery, J; Chauchat, J H; Terra, J L; Arteaga, C; Marie-Cardine, M

    1992-01-01

    Computerized tomography (CT-scan) studies in schizophrenia revealed that some patients have neuromorphological abnormalities. The structural changes consist mainly in lateral and third ventricle enlargement, and in cortical atrophy. The present study evaluates these three changes in 42 schizophrenics aged 18 to 50, compared to 24 healthy controls. Diagnosis were established from information gathered by personal interview with the SADS-LA. Clinical sub-types were evaluated according to the DSM III-R criteria. Moreover, detailed symptoms were rated according to the Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). CT scans were recorded in floppy disks and blindly analyzed. Schizophrenics shown significant higher mean size of lateral and third ventricles, and higher mean anterior cortical atrophy than healthy subjects. Significant differences were also found between subtypes, with more marked abnormalities in the disorganized group. The relationship between brain abnormalities and clinical symptoms recorded with the PANSS, were analysed using Pearson correlates. Positive correlations concerned mainly negative symptoms like blunted affect, emotional withdrawal, difficulties in abstract thinking, passive apathetic social withdrawal and lack of spontaneity of conversation. Positive correlations are also observed with some symptoms classified with the PANSS in the General Psychopathology scale such as mannerism and disorientation. Negative correlation concerned most of PANSS positive symptoms.

  19. Regional Abnormality of Grey Matter in Schizophrenia: Effect from the Illness or Treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yue

    Full Text Available Both schizophrenia and antipsychotic treatment are known to modulate brain morphology. However, it is difficult to establish whether observed structural brain abnormalities are due to disease or the effects of treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of illness and antipsychotic treatment on brain structures in antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia based on a longitudinal short-term design. Twenty antipsychotic-naïve subjects with first-episode schizophrenia and twenty-four age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent 3T MRI scans. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM was used to examine the brain structural abnormality in patients compared to healthy controls. Nine patients were included in the follow-up examination after 8 weeks of treatment. Tensor-based morphometry (TBM was used to identify longitudinal brain structural changes. We observed significantly reduced grey matter volume in the right superior temporal gyrus in antipsychotic-naïve patients with schizophrenia compared with healthy controls. After 8 weeks of treatment, patients showed significantly increased grey matter volume primarily in the bilateral prefrontal cortex, insula, right thalamus, left superior occipital cortex and the bilateral cerebellum. In addition, a greater enlargement of the prefrontal cortex is associated with the improvement in negative symptoms, and a more enlarged thalamus is associated with greater improvement in positive symptoms. Our results suggest the following: (1 the abnormality in the right superior temporal gyrus is present in the early stages of schizophrenia, possibly representing the core region related to schizophrenia; and (2 atypical antipsychotics could modulate brain morphology involving the thalamus, cortical grey matter and cerebellum. In addition, examination of the prefrontal cortex and thalamus might facilitate an efficient response to atypical antipsychotics in terms of symptom improvement.

  20. Special report on abnormal climate in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    This reports on abnormal climate in 2010 with impact on the each field. It is comprised of four chapters, which deal with Introduction with purpose of publish and background, current situation and cause of abnormal climate in 2010 on abnormal climate around the world and Korea, Action and impact against abnormal climate in 2010 to agriculture, industry and energy, prevention of disasters, forest, fishery products, environment and health, Evaluation and policy proposal. It also has an appendix about occurrence and damage on abnormal climate of the world in 2010 and media reports on abnormal climate in Korea in 2010.

  1. The Role of Life-Space, Social Activity, and Depression on the Subjective Memory Complaints of Community-Dwelling Filipino Elderly: A Structural Equation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Lagdaan, Lovely France M.; Lagoy, Marie Lauren V.

    2015-01-01

    Subjective memory complaints are one of the major concerns of the elderly and remain a challenging area in gerontology. There are previous studies that identify different factors affecting subjective memory complaints. However, an extended model that correlates life-space on subjective memory complaints remains a blank spot. The objective of this…

  2. Functional-structural reorganisation of the neuronal network for auditory perception in subjects with unilateral hearing loss: Review of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggdal, Peder O Laugen; Brännström, Jonas; Aarstad, Hans Jørgen; Vassbotn, Flemming S; Specht, Karsten

    2016-02-01

    This paper aims to provide a review of studies using neuroimaging to measure functional-structural reorganisation of the neuronal network for auditory perception after unilateral hearing loss. A literature search was performed in PubMed. Search criterions were peer reviewed original research papers in English completed by the 11th of March 2015. Twelve studies were found to use neuroimaging in subjects with unilateral hearing loss. An additional five papers not identified by the literature search were provided by a reviewer. Thus, a total of 17 studies were included in the review. Four different neuroimaging methods were used in these studies: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (n = 11), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) (n = 4), T1/T2 volumetric images (n = 2), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) (n = 1). One study utilized two imaging methods (fMRI and T1 volumetric images). Neuroimaging techniques could provide valuable information regarding the effects of unilateral hearing loss on both auditory and non-auditory performance. fMRI-studies showing a bilateral BOLD-response in patients with unilateral hearing loss have not yet been followed by DTI studies confirming their microstructural correlates. In addition, the review shows that an auditory modality-specific deficit could affect multi-modal brain regions and their connections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. On English Locative Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Brůhová

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses English sentences with thematic locative subjects. These subjects were detected as translation counterparts of Czech sentenceinitial locative adverbials realized by prepositional phrases with the prepositions do (into, na (on, v/ve (in, z/ze (from complemented by a noun. In the corresponding English structure, the initial scene-setting adverbial is reflected in the thematic subject, which results in the locative semantics of the subject. The sentences are analysed from syntactic, semantic and FSP aspects. From the syntactic point of view, we found five syntactic patterns of the English sentences with a locative subject (SV, SVA, SVO, SVpassA and SVCs that correspond to Czech sentences with initial locative adverbials. On the FSP level the paper studies the potential of the sentences to implement the Presentation or Quality Scale. Since it is the “semantic content of the verb that actuates the presentation semantics of the sentence” (Duškova, 2015a: 260, major attention is paid to the syntactic-semantic structure of the verb. The analysis of the semantics of the English sentences results in the identification of two semantic classes of verbs which co-occur with the English locative subject.

  4. Abnormalities of small bowel and colon in systemic sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scutellari, P.N.; Cinotti, A.; Cavallari, L.; Orzincolo, C.; Dovigo, L.; Trotta, F.; Menegale, G.

    1990-01-01

    A series of 21 subjects (2 males and 19 females) affected with systemic sclerosis, was examined by small bowel (oral and intubation methods) and colon enema. The underlying process responsible for abnormalities in the small bowel and colon in systemic sclerosis is a variable and pacthy destruction of the muscularis propria, that produces the structural and functional changes detected on X-ray: Pathologic condition is the same affecting the esophagus. The scout film of the abdomen often reveals colonic distension and fecal impaction, so that it may be quite difficult to prepare adequately the patients for a barium enema. Peristalsis may be virtually absent in short segments, and transit time may be several time longer than that in normal patients. For these reasons, intestinal pseudo-obstruction may appear in systemic sclerosis. The observed radiographic changes are: 1) in the small bowel: a) dilatation of the gut, especially in its proximal portions (duodenum and jejunum), in which the valvulae conniventes are straightened, normal or thinned; b) presence of diverticula, 2-4 cm in diameter, with hemispherical shape without the neck-like opening into the bowel lumen; 2) in the colon, the characteristic finding is an increase in size of individual haustra, forming sacculations or pseudo-diverticula, usually on the antemesenteric border of the transverse colon, better demonstrated on post-evacuation film. Moreover, loss of colonic haustration is also observed associated to colonic elongation and dilatation

  5. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect - pinna; Congenital defect - pinna ... conditions: Abnormal folds or location of the pinna Low-set ears No opening to the ear canal ...

  6. Enhanced monitoring of abnormal emergency department demands

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi; Sun, Ying; Kadri, Farid

    2016-01-01

    of abnormal situations caused by abnormal patient arrivals to the ED. More specifically, This work proposed the application of autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models combined with the generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) test for anomaly-detection. ARMA

  7. Functional neuroimaging abnormalities in idiopathic generalized epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L. McGill

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques have been used to quantitatively assess focal and network abnormalities. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE is characterized by bilateral synchronous spike–wave discharges on electroencephalography (EEG but normal clinical MRI. Dysfunctions involving the neocortex, particularly the prefrontal cortex, and thalamus likely contribute to seizure activity. To identify possible morphometric and functional differences in the brains of IGE patients and normal controls, we employed measures of thalamic volumes, cortical thickness, gray–white blurring, fractional anisotropy (FA measures from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF in thalamic subregions from resting state functional MRI. Data from 27 patients with IGE and 27 age- and sex-matched controls showed similar thalamic volumes, cortical thickness and gray–white contrast. There were no differences in FA values on DTI in tracts connecting the thalamus and prefrontal cortex. Functional analysis revealed decreased fALFF in the prefrontal cortex (PFC subregion of the thalamus in patients with IGE. We provide minimum detectable effect sizes for each measure used in the study. Our analysis indicates that fMRI-based methods are more sensitive than quantitative structural techniques for characterizing brain abnormalities in IGE.

  8. MR imaging of abnormal synovial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, S.F.; Sanchez, R.; Murray, W.T.; Silbiger, M.L.; Ogden, J.; Cochran, C.

    1987-01-01

    MR imaging can directly image abnormal synovium. The authors reviewed over 50 cases with abnormal synovial processes. The abnormalities include Baker cysts, semimembranous bursitis, chronic shoulder bursitis, peroneal tendon ganglion cyst, periarticular abscesses, thickened synovium from rheumatoid and septic arthritis, and synovial hypertrophy secondary to Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. MR imaging has proved invaluable in identifying abnormal synovium, defining the extent and, to a limited degree, characterizing its makeup

  9. Abnormal grain growth: a non-equilibrium thermodynamic model for multi-grain binary systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Jiří; Fischer, F. D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2014), Art . No. 015013 ISSN 0965-0393 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : grain boundary segregation * abnormal grain growth * theory * modelling * solute drag Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 2.167, year: 2014

  10. Hypothalamic pituitary abnormalities in tubercular meningitis at the time of diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanwal, Dinesh Kumar; Vyas, Anirudh; Sharma, Ashok; Saxena, Alpana

    2010-12-01

    Tubercular meningitis (TBM) is the most dreaded form of extra pulmonary tuberculosis associated with high morbidity and mortality. Various hypothalamic pituitary hormonal abnormalities have been reported to occur years after recovery from disease but there are no systematic studies in the literature to evaluate the pituitary hypothalamic dysfunction in patients with TBM at the time of presentation. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate hypothalamic pituitary abnormalities in newly diagnosed patients with TBM. Patient case series. This prospective study included 75 untreated adult patients with TBM diagnosed as "definite", "highly probable" and "probable" TBM by Ahuja's criteria and in clinical stage 1, 2 or 3 at the time of presentation to hospital. Basal hormonal profile was measured by electrochemilumniscence technique for serum cortisol, luetinizing hormone (LH), follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin (PRL), thyrotropin (TSH), free tri-iodothyronine (fT3), and free thyroxine (fT4). All patients were subjected to MRI to image brain and hypothalamic pituitary axis and CT for adrenal glands. Thirty-two (42.7%) cases showed relative or absolute cortisol insufficiency. Twenty-three (30.7%) cases showed central hypothyroidism and 37 (49.3%) cases had hyperprolactinemia. No patient had evidence of diabetes insipidus. Multiple hormone deficiency was seen in 22 (29.3%) cases. MRI of hypothalamic pituitary axis using dynamic scanning and thin cuts revealed abnormalities in 10 (13.3%) of the cases. CT adrenal gland was normal in all the patients. Tubercular meningitis is associated with both hormonal and structural abnormalities in the hypothalamic pituitary axis at the time of diagnosis.

  11. Operator training for the abnormal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzec, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    Training of nuclear power plant control room operators, on actions to be taken for an abnormal event, has classically been limited to discussion, on-shift and/or during requalification training classes, of symptoms, logical thought processes, systems analysis, and operator experience. The prerequisites for these discussions are a common technical vocabulary, and a minimum basic comprehension of nuclear power plant fundamentals, plant component theory of operation, system configuration, system control philosophy and operating procedures. Nuclear power plant control room operators are not the only personnel who are or should be involved in these discussions. The shift supervisors, operations management, and auxiliary equipment operators require continuing training in abnormal operations, as well. More in-depth training is necessary for shift supervisors and control room operators. The availability of vendor simulators has improved the effectiveness of training efforts for these individuals to some extent by displaying typical situations and plant performance characteristics and by providing a degree of ''hands on'' experience. The evolution of in-depth training with these simulators is reviewed

  12. Distinct white matter abnormalities in different idiopathic generalized epilepsy syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Concha, Luis; Beaulieu, Christian; Gross, Donald W

    2011-12-01

    By definition idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) is not associated with structural abnormalities on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, recent quantitative studies suggest white and gray matter alterations in IGE. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there are white and/or gray matter structural differences between controls and two subsets of IGE, namely juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) and IGE with generalized tonic-clonic seizures only (IGE-GTC). We assessed white matter integrity and gray matter volume using diffusion tensor tractography-based analysis of fractional anisotropy and voxel-based morphometry, respectively, in 25 patients with IGE, all of whom had experienced generalized tonic-clonic convulsions. Specifically, 15 patients with JME and 10 patients with IGE-GTC were compared to two groups of similarly matched controls separately. Correlations between total lifetime generalized tonic-clonic seizures and fractional anisotropy were investigated for both groups. Tractography revealed lower fractional anisotropy in specific tracts including the crus of the fornix, body of corpus callosum, uncinate fasciculi, superior longitudinal fasciculi, anterior limb of internal capsule, and corticospinal tracts in JME with respect to controls, whereas there were no fractional anisotropy differences in IGE-GTC. No correlation was found between fractional anisotropy and total lifetime generalized tonic-clonic seizures for either JME or IGE-GTC. Although false discovery rate-corrected voxel-based morphometry (VBM) showed no gray matter volume differences between patient and control groups, spatial extent cluster-corrected VBM analysis suggested a trend of gray matter volume reduction in frontal and central regions in both patient groups, more lateral in JME and more medial in IGE-GTC. The findings support the idea that the clinical syndromes of JME and IGE-GTC have unique anatomic substrates. The fact that the primary clinical

  13. Development of Abnormality Detection System for Bathers using Ultrasonic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Yosuke; Abe, Takehiko; Nambo, Hidetaka; Kimura, Haruhiko; Ogoshi, Yasuhiro