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Sample records for subjects skin prick

  1. Skin prick test results of atopic asthmatic subjects in a chest disease clinic in Sanliurfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Koç

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Skin prick test (SPT is used widely to determine the allergens in atopic patients. In this study, we aimed to determine the spectrum of aeroallergen sensitivity of atopic asthmatic subjects in Şanlıurfa district. Methods: We evaluated clinical, demographic findings and SPT results of 95 male and 162 female in a total 257 patients who had asthma and allergic symptoms. Results: Most common allergens causing a sensitivity reaction detected in our clinic were as follows; cockroach (56.8%, wheat pollen (53.3%, corn pollen (47.4%, grass pollen (36.5%, poplar tree pollen (26%, house dust mite (19.4%, pepper (16.7% and cat dander (15.1%. Conclusion: High levels of sensitivity to wheat and corn pollens and relatively low sensitivity levels of cat dander results meet our expectations in the area of agricultural land and where pet ownership is not common.

  2. The skin prick test - European standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinzerling, Lucie; Mari, Adriano; Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Bresciani, Megon; Burbach, Guido; Darsow, Ulf; Durham, Stephen; Fokkens, Wytske; Gjomarkaj, Mark; Haahtela, Tari; Bom, Ana Todo; Wöhrl, Stefan; Maibach, Howard; Lockey, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Skin prick testing is an essential test procedure to confirm sensitization in IgE-mediated allergic disease in subjects with rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, urticaria, anapylaxis, atopic eczema and food and drug allergy. This manuscript reviews the available evidence including Medline and Embase

  3. Skin prick test reactivity to lupin in comparison to peanut, pea, and soybean in atopic and non-atopic German subjects: A preliminary cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bähr, Melanie; Fechner, Anita; Kaatz, Martin; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2014-08-01

    The increasing use of lupin in food processing poses a problem of potential (cross-)allergic reactions. To evaluate the prevalence of sensitization to lupin in comparison to that of other legumes skin prick tests were performed with lupin, pea, peanut, and soybean in atopic (n = 81) and non-atopic (n = 102) German adults. Of these 183 subjects, 20 subjects had to be excluded due to invalid skin prick tests (reaction to histamine 2 mm). Thus, skin prick tests of 163 subjects were included in final analyses. Of 163 subjects, 18 had a positive reaction to at least one legume tested. Overall skin prick test reactivity was different among non-atopic and atopic subjects (P = 0.005). Altogether, six subjects (4%) were sensitized to lupin, 12 (7%) to pea, 5 (3%) to peanut, and 8 (5%) to soybean. Two (2%) of the 92 non-atopic subjects and 4 (6%) of the 71 atopic subjects had a positive skin prick test to lupin. Of the 6 subjects sensitized to lupin, 3 (50%) were also sensitized to pea, 3 (50%) to peanut, and 5 (83%) to soybean. In conclusion, the prevalence rates of lupin sensitization were comparable to or even lower than those of pea, peanut, and soybean. To date, lupin allergy is suspected to be relatively uncommon in the overall German population since lupin sensitization occurred in only 2% of non-atopic subjects. However, there is a clear risk of a lupin allergy in predisposed subjects, since the frequency of lupin sensitization was 6% in atopic subjects. In particular, subjects with existing sensitization or allergy to other legumes are at higher risk for a sensitization or allergy to lupin due to cross-reactivity.

  4. The skin prick test – European standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Skin prick testing is an essential test procedure to confirm sensitization in IgE-mediated allergic disease in subjects with rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, urticaria, anapylaxis, atopic eczema and food and drug allergy. This manuscript reviews the available evidence including Medline and Embase searches, abstracts of international allergy meetings and position papers from the world allergy literature. The recommended method of prick testing includes the appropriate use of specific allergen extracts, positive and negative controls, interpretation of the tests after 15 – 20 minutes of application, with a positive result defined as a wheal ≥3 mm diameter. A standard prick test panel for Europe for inhalants is proposed and includes hazel (Corylus avellana), alder (Alnus incana), birch (Betula alba), plane (Platanus vulgaris), cypress (Cupressus sempervirens), grass mix (Poa pratensis, Dactilis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense, Festuca pratensis, Helictotrichon pretense), Olive (Olea europaea), mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris), ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia), Alternaria alternata (tenuis), Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Parietaria, cat, dog, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, and cockroach (Blatella germanica). Standardization of the skin test procedures and standard panels for different geographic locations are encouraged worldwide to permit better comparisons for diagnostic, clinical and research purposes. PMID:23369181

  5. The skin prick test – European standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinzerling Lucie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Skin prick testing is an essential test procedure to confirm sensitization in IgE-mediated allergic disease in subjects with rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, urticaria, anapylaxis, atopic eczema and food and drug allergy. This manuscript reviews the available evidence including Medline and Embase searches, abstracts of international allergy meetings and position papers from the world allergy literature. The recommended method of prick testing includes the appropriate use of specific allergen extracts, positive and negative controls, interpretation of the tests after 15 – 20 minutes of application, with a positive result defined as a wheal ≥3 mm diameter. A standard prick test panel for Europe for inhalants is proposed and includes hazel (Corylus avellana, alder (Alnus incana, birch (Betula alba, plane (Platanus vulgaris, cypress (Cupressus sempervirens, grass mix (Poa pratensis, Dactilis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense, Festuca pratensis, Helictotrichon pretense, Olive (Olea europaea, mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris, ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Alternaria alternata (tenuis, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Parietaria, cat, dog, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, and cockroach (Blatella germanica. Standardization of the skin test procedures and standard panels for different geographic locations are encouraged worldwide to permit better comparisons for diagnostic, clinical and research purposes.

  6. Where to prick the apple for skin testing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; van de Weg, W. E.; van der Heide, S.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    Mal d 1 is not equally distributed over the apple. We aimed to examine the influence of the location of pricking in the apple on prick-to-prick skin prick test (PTP) results. PTPs were performed in autumn 2007 and spring 2008, before the birch pollen season, in 32 Dutch adults with symptoms of oral

  7. Variables affecting interpretation of skin prick test results

    OpenAIRE

    Suhan Günasti Topal; Bilge Fettahlıoğlu Karaman; Varol L Aksungur

    2017-01-01

    Background: Both performer- and device-dependent variabilities have been reported in sizes of wheal responses to skin prick tests. Objective: We aimed to evaluate whether or not variabilities in sizes of wheal responses influence the final interpretation of skin prick tests; in other words, the decision on whether or not there is an allergy to a given antigen. Methods: Skin prick tests with positive and negative controls and extracts of Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pter...

  8. Reactions to prick and intradermal skin tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagg, Andrew; Chacko, Thomas; Lockey, Richard

    2009-05-01

    Allergy skin testing is a common procedure for the diagnosis of atopic diseases with a small risk of systemic reactions. To determine the 12-month incidence of systemic reactions (SRs) to skin prick testing (SPT) and intradermal skin testing (ST) and the symptoms and response to immediate treatment with epinephrine intramuscularly. A prospective study was conducted to evaluate SRs from ST in 1,456 patients. A standard form was used to record symptoms, signs, and treatment. The SRs are defined as any sign or symptom other than a local reaction thought to be secondary to ST. No vasovagal reactions were included. Nurses, as instructed by attending physicians, administered epinephrine (0.2 mL of a 1:1,000 dilution) intramuscularly in the deltoid as soon as any remote signs or symptoms occurred. Fifty-two patients (3.6%) had SRs (6 SPT and 46 intradermal): 43 (83%) were female, and 17 (33%) had asthma. Systemic symptoms included (SPT/intradermal) pruritic eyes, nose, or pharynx (0%/46%); worsening cough (50%/26%); sensation of difficulty swallowing (0%/20%); worsening nasal congestion (17%/15%); rhinorrhea (17%/13%); chest tightness or shortness of breath (33%/11%); generalized pruritus (17%/11%); sneezing (33%/9%); wheeze (0%/4%); and urticaria (17%/2%). No severe asthma, shock, hypotension, unconsciousness, or biphasic reactions occurred. All 52 patients received epinephrine intramuscularly, 48 (92%) oral prednisone, 9 (17%) oral prednisone to take 6 to 8 hours after a reaction, 50 (96%) oral antihistamine, and 6 (12%) nebulized beta-agonist. Of patients who underwent ST, SRs occurred in 3.6% (0.4% for SPT and 3.2% for intradermal ST), all of whom readily responded to epinephrine intramuscularly in the deltoid. This immediate administration of epinephrine seems to prevent more serious and biphasic reactions.

  9. Variables affecting interpretation of skin prick test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topal, Suhan Günasti; Karaman, Bilge Fettahlıoğlu; Aksungur, Varol L

    2017-01-01

    Both performer- and device-dependent variabilities have been reported in sizes of wheal responses to skin prick tests. We aimed to evaluate whether or not variabilities in sizes of wheal responses influence the final interpretation of skin prick tests; in other words, the decision on whether or not there is an allergy to a given antigen. Skin prick tests with positive and negative controls and extracts of Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were done for 69 patients by two different persons, using two different puncturing devices- disposable 22-gauge hypodermic needles and metal lancets. Among four different skin prick tests, the average coefficients of variation in sizes of wheal responses were near to or higher than 20% for all of them. On the other hand, in the final interpretation of results, kappa values indicated substantial or almost perfect agreements between these tests. However, the frequency of establishing allergy to the house dust mites widely ranged in these tests (20.8-35.8% for D. farinae and 20.8-28.3% for D. pteronyssinus). The conduction of the study in a single center and the comparisons of results of only two performers. We feel that variabilities in sizes of wheal responses of skin prick test can influence its categorical results.

  10. Measurement and interpretation of skin prick test results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.M. van der Valk; R. Gerth van Wijk (Roy); E.J. Hoorn (Ewout); L. Groenendijk (Laurens); I.M. Groenendijk (Ilse M.); N.W. de Jong (Nicolette)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: There are several methods to read skin prick test results in type-I allergy testing. A commonly used method is to characterize the wheal size by its 'average diameter'. A more accurate method is to scan the area of the wheal to calculate the actual size. In both methods, skin

  11. Skin sensitivity to rocuronium and vecuronium: a randomized controlled prick-testing study in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhonneur, Gilles; Combes, Xavier; Chassard, Didier; Merle, Jean Claude

    2004-04-01

    Prick tests are frequently used for the authentication of neuromuscular blocking drugs (NMBDs) as causative drugs for anaphylactic reactions during anesthesia. Unfortunately, the actual threshold concentration for skin testing remains debatable for most NMBDs. We studied the flare and wheal responses to prick tests with rocuronium and vecuronium. Thirty healthy, nonatopic, anesthesia-naive male and female volunteers (14 men and 16 women) from 18 to 40 yr of age were assigned randomly to receive a total of 10 prick tests-4 ascending dilutions (1:1000, 1:100, 1:10, and 1) of rocuronium and vecuronium and 2 controls-on both forearms. An assessor blinded to the assignment monitored systemic and skin responses to NMBDs and measured wheal and flare surfaces immediately after and 15 min after prick tests. None of the volunteers experienced any immediate systemic or cutaneous responses to rocuronium or vecuronium. Although a dilution of 1:1000 of both NMBDs failed to promote any skin response at 15 min, 50% and 40% of the subjects had a positive skin reaction to undiluted rocuronium and vecuronium, respectively. We demonstrated a sex effect related to smaller threshold concentration-induced cutaneous reactions in female volunteers to both muscle relaxants. Our observation questions the reliability of prick testing with undiluted solutions of rocuronium and vecuronium for the diagnosis of allergy. Building concentration-skin response curves to prick tests with rocuronium and vecuronium in healthy, nonatopic, anesthesia-naive male and female volunteers demonstrated that the nonreactive concentration for both muscle relaxants is the 1:1000 dilution of the stock solutions. Our observation calls into question the past practice of prick-testing skin for sensitivity to neuromuscular blocking drugs by using undiluted solutions.

  12. Skin Prick Tests and Dose Response Relationship between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zagazig Journal of Occupational Health and Safety ... Objectives: the objectives of this study were to: a) study the association between chronic exposure to flour among bakers and the prevalence of work related respiratory and allergic symptoms, b) assess allergic reaction to flour dust using Skin Prick Test (SPT), c) evaluate ...

  13. Comparison of different diagnostic products for skin prick testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, M; Antico, A; Cilia, M; Calabrò, D; Poto, S; Pecora, S; Burastero, S E

    2009-02-01

    Different in vivo methods are used to quantify the amount of allergens in products for skin prick testing. It is unclear how this impacts on the correct diagnosis of allergies. We compared the allergenic potency of three commercial extracts for skin prick testing and evaluated batch-to-batch differences within each product. Patients with a mono-sensitization (specific IgE level > 0,70 KU/L, ImmunoCAP, Phadia) to Phleum pratense (N=21), Parietaria judaica (N=20) or Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (N=28) were evaluated by standard skin prick testing and with the end-point dilution technique using commercial products from Stallergenes (A) (Antony, France), Lofarma Allergeni (B) (Milan, Italy) and ALK Abellò (C) (Hoersholm, Denmark). Results were expressed as mean areas of the wheal (cut-off for positive reactions: 7 mm2). With standard prick testing, the following differences in wheal areas were found: Phleum, C higher than B (p=0.0454); Parietaria, C higher than A (p=0.094); Dermatophagoides, C higher than A (p=0.021). With limiting dilution testing, the following differences in dilutions yielding positive skin prick tests were found: Phleum, C and B higher than A (p=0.0391 and 0.0039, respectively); Dermatophagoides, C higher than A and B (p=0.0010 and 0.0156, respectively). In the batch-to-batch comparison, mean differences between wheal areas of compared undiluted solutions did not significantly differ in any allergen tested, although in single cases large differences were observed. At the 1 to 64 dilution, agreement was significant only with Dermatophagoides from Manufacturer C (p= 0.262). At the 1 to 16 dilution, agreement was significant with Phleum from Manufacturer C (p=0.0116) and with Dermatophagoides from Manufacturer B and C (p=0.0239 and 0.0001, respectively). At the 1 to 4 dilution agreement was significant with Dermatophagoides from the three considered Manufacturers (p=0.0189, 0.0052 and 0.0077, respectively) and with Phleum from Manufacturer B and C

  14. Pattern Of Skin Prick Allergy Test Results In Enugu | Mgbor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The “Allergo Ganzer” Allergy test kit (Germany) was used for skin prick allergy test on each patient. Result The reactivities to test allergens were found to be in 44.4% patients positive to house dust mites I & II, 27.2% to house dust, 22% to grass, 16.6% to cereal and trees respectively and only 8.3% to mould. Conclusion

  15. Compatibility of Clinical Manifestation with Skin Prick Test Result and Food Provocation Test in Food Cross Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Azwin; Barlianto, Wisnu; Endaryanto, Anang; Harsono, Ariyanto

    2017-01-01

    Background: Subjective diagnostic test of food allergy is hugely biased, resulting in irrational diet avoidance. Additional objective tools by skin prick test following food provocation test resulting more accurate cause and prevalence on population. Purpose: To evaluate the compatibility of clinical symptoms with skin prick test and provocation test for imunoglobulin E (IgE) mediated food allergy in Dr. Soetomo Hospital Surabaya. Methods: Cross sectional observational analytic study. Patient...

  16. Skin prick test reactivity to aeroallergens by filaggrin mutation status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, M G; Johansen, J D; Linneberg, A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that filaggrin gene (FLG) mutations are positively associated with sensitization to aero allergens. We hypothesized that FLG mutations would also have an effect on the mean size of positive skin prick test (SPT) reactions as well as the number of positive reactions....... OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of FLG mutations on the mean size and the number of positive SPT reactions, as well as the association with positive specific IgE. METHODS: A random sample of 3335 adults from the general population in Denmark was genotyped for the R501X and 2282del4 mutations in the FLG....... SPT and specific IgE measurements to common aeroallergens were also performed. RESULTS: FLG mutations did not influence the mean size and number of positive SPT reactions. Also, no association was found between FLG mutations and specific IgE measurements. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that FLG...

  17. The lancet weight determines wheal diameter in response to skin prick testing with histamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hjalte Holm; Lundgaard, Anna Charlotte; Sohrt Petersen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin prick test (SPT) is a common test for diagnosing immunoglobulin E-mediated allergies. In clinical routine, technicalities, human errors or patient-related biases, occasionally results in suboptimal diagnosis of sensitization. OBJECTIVE: Although not previously assessed...

  18. A guide to performing skin-prick testing in practice: tips and tricks of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-16

    Apr 16, 2013 ... from 95-100%.3,4,6,7. Skin-prick tests are used to confirm a diagnosis of both .... A severe reaction to nuts, horse hair, latex or a food allergen ... Others: Relevant food allergens, e.g. cow's milk and egg, especially in young children. Table II: Drugs that may interfere with skin-prick testing. Drug. Withhold prior ...

  19. The Lancet Weight Determines Wheal Diameter in Response to Skin Prick Testing with Histamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Hjalte H; Lundgaard, Anna Charlotte; Petersen, Anne S; Hauberg, Lise E; Sharma, Neha; Hansen, Sofie D; Elberling, Jesper; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Skin prick test (SPT) is a common test for diagnosing immunoglobulin E-mediated allergies. In clinical routine, technicalities, human errors or patient-related biases, occasionally results in suboptimal diagnosis of sensitization. Although not previously assessed qualitatively, lancet weight is hypothesized to be important when performing SPT to minimize the frequency of false positives, false negatives, and unwanted discomfort. Accurate weight-controlled SPT was performed on the volar forearms and backs of 20 healthy subjects. Four predetermined lancet weights were applied (25 g, 85 g, 135 g and 265 g) using two positive control histamine solutions (1 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL) and one negative control (saline). A total of 400 SPTs were conducted. The outcome parameters were: wheal size, neurogenic inflammation (measured by superficial blood perfusion), frequency of bleeding, and the lancet provoked pain response. The mean wheal diameter increased significantly as higher weights were applied to the SPT lancet, e.g. from 3.2 ± 0.28 mm at 25 g to 5.4 ± 1.7 mm at 265 g (presponse increased significantly. At 265 g saline evoked two wheal responses (/160 pricks) below 3 mm. The applied weight of the lancet during the SPT-procedure is an important factor. Higher lancet weights precipitate significantly larger wheal reactions with potential diagnostic implications. This warrants additional research of the optimal lancet weight in relation to SPT-guidelines to improve the specificity and sensitivity of the procedure.

  20. Skin prick test: the only predictive tool of anaphylaxis? A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannetti, A; Meglio, P; Ricci, G

    2014-01-01

    Currently, in the literature there is a lack of definite predictive values parameters to identify patients with the risk to develop anaphylaxis. The controlled oral food challenge remains the gold standard for food allergy diagnosis. We report a case of a girl allergic to cow's milk with low levels of specific IgE and large skin prick test wheal sizes for cow's milk. In some cases the high diameter of skin prick test wheal may be more reliable than specific IgE levels in predicting an anaphylactic reaction.

  1. The effect of montelukast on wheal reactions in skin prick tests: a double-blind-placebo-controlled randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulan, Keziban; Aydogan, Metin; Siraneci, Rengin; Aydogmus, Cigdem Yilmaz

    2013-10-01

    It is well-known that number of drugs may interfere with wheal reactions in skin prick test. However, the effect of long-term use of montelukast, a cystenil leukotriene receptor antagonist, on skin prick test hasn't been full elucidated. The aim of present study was to demonstrate the effect of montelukast on skin prick tests (SPT). This is a single-center, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study including two treatment periods with a wash-out interval. The subjects received montelukast (5 mg per day), fexofenadine HCl (60 mg per day) and placebo (lactose) with a double-blinded manner during 7- and 21-days treatment periods with a 14 days wash-out period. Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae) was used as the skin test material, while histamine as positive control and normal saline as negative control. Overall, 7 skin prick tests were performed at following time points: before treatment periods, on the last days of both treatment periods, 24 h after completion of treatment periods, and on the last day of 14-days interval. Sixty house dust mite (HDM) allergic children (23 girls and 37 boys) with allergic rhinitis and/or asthma completed the study. Mean age was 8.3 ± 2.0 years. In the fexofenadine group, a significant suppression was observed in post-treatment values when compared to baseline values in SPT with D. farinae (p = 0.019). In the montelukast group, no significant suppression was observed in SPT with D. farinae at all time points when compared to baseline. Our results showed that montelukast had no effect on measurements of SPT. Thus, we concluded that there is no need to discontinue the treatment in order to perform SPT in patients receiving montelukast, even in those on montelukast treatment for at least 21 days. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Frequency of Food-Sensitization by Prick-to-Prick Skin Tests and Atopy Patch Tests in Children with Allergic Diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya-Epelstein, Jonathan; Rosas-Vargas, Miguel Ngel; Del-Rio-Navarro, Blanca

    2012-01-01

    Food allergy is a health problem that has increased its prevalence in the last decade, and plays a role in the multiple symptoms of allergic diseases like asthma, atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis. It has become the new epidemic with significant implications. To describe the frequency of sensitization to food antigens by skin tests, prick-to-prick and atopy patch tests, in a group of allergic children in a pediatric hospital. We retrospectively reviewed the results of skin tests with foods, prick-to-prick and atopy patch tests, in the clinical records of 170 and 140 children respectively, with a diagnosis of asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, food allergy or eosinophilic gastroenteropathies, and analyzed the results with measures of central tendency and chi2 test. Immediate hypersensitivity tests with fresh foods (prick-to-prick) were positive in 135 cases. Cowís milk was positive in 28.8%, followed by egg white with 20.1% and banana in 19.4%. In the group of 1 to 5 years, cowís milk was positive in 26.9% (p chocolate with 50.5%. In the group with atopic dermatitis soybean was positive in 55.6% (p <0.05). In the group of 1 to 5 years, soybean was positive in 52.1% (p <0.05). In children with various allergic diseases, with prick-to-prick skin tests, cowís milk was the food allergen with more frequent positive results. When we used atopy patch tests, soybean was the food with more positive results. We observe sensitization to different foods, according to the mechanism of injury, type I or IV, which is dependent on the type of skin tests used.

  3. Long-term repeatability of the skin prick test is high when supported by history or allergen-sensitivity tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodtger, U; Jacobsen, C R; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2003-01-01

    Long-term reproducibility of the skin-prick test (SPT) has been questioned. The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical relevance of SPT changes.......Long-term reproducibility of the skin-prick test (SPT) has been questioned. The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical relevance of SPT changes....

  4. Anaphylaxis to Spirulina confirmed by skin prick test with ingredients of Spirulina tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thuy-My; Knulst, André C; Röckmann, Heike

    2014-12-01

    Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis), blue-green microalgae, has high content in proteins, γ-linoleic acid and vitamins and therefore gained popularity as food supplement. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Spirulina is also an interesting alternative and sustainable protein source with the growing world population. We present a case of a 17-year-old male, who developed anaphylaxis the first time he ingested a Spirulina tablet. Skin prick test with diluted Spirulina tablet was positive. Further skin prick testing with separated ingredients (Spirulina platensis algae, silicon dioxide, inulin and magnesium stearate) was only positive for Spirulina platensis algae and negative in controls, confirming the allergy was caused by Spirulina and not by one of the additives. This case report shows that diagnosis of Spirulina allergy can safely be made by skin prick test with dilutions of the A. platensis or even more simple by skin prick test with the diluted tablet. Since Spirulina has gained popularity as food and nutritional supplement, it is important to realize the potential risk of this dietary supplement. Before Spirulina is produced and consumed on a wider scale, allergenicity risk assessment should be performed, including investigation of potential crossreactivity with well-known inhalant allergens and foods.

  5. [Three cases of perioperative anaphylaxis identified by using skin-prick tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kazuyoshi; Kawanishi, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Hitoshi; Yatsu, Yuichi; Takebe, Sawako; Nagai, Akihiro; Matsuda, Rikiya; Hirasaki, Akihito

    2014-11-01

    We encountered three cases of perioperative anaphylaxis identified by using skin-prick tests. [Case 1] A 43-year-old woman was scheduled to undergo elective laparoscopic subtotal gastrectomy under general anesthesia for gastric tumor. However, the procedure was cancelled because of anaphylaxis that was noted at the beginning of the surgery. We performed a skin-prick test and observed a positive reaction with ro- curonium. [Case 2] A 79-year-old man underwent laparoscopic colon resection under general anesthesia for colon cancer. Anaphylaxis was noted at the end of surgery. We performed a skin-prick test and observed a positive reaction with sugammadex. [Case 3] A 44-year-old woman underwent myomectomy under general anesthesia for a uterine fibroid. Anaphylaxis was noted approximately 10 minutes after the beginning of surgery. We performed a skin-prick test and noted a positive reaction with latex. It is difficult to identify the reason for anaphylaxis during surgery under general anesthesia because various agents may be responsible for the anaphylactic reaction. Anaphylaxis during surgery is a rare but life-threatening event and it is important to identify the causative agent for anaphylaxis.

  6. Skin prick test: the only predictive tool of anaphylaxis? A case report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giannetti, A; Meglio, P; Ricci, G

    2014-01-01

    .... The controlled oral food challenge remains the gold standard for food allergy diagnosis. We report a case of a girl allergic to cow's milk with low levels of specific IgE and large skin prick test wheal sizes for cow's milk...

  7. Proficiency testing of skin prick testers as part of a quality assurance system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Allesen-Holm, Pernille; Karved, Lisbeth Sys

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin prick test is an important diagnostic procedure in clinical allergy but documentation of the quality is often missing. METHODS: We describe a proficiency system to evaluate staff members in relation to the international recommended reproducibility in terms of coefficient...

  8. Methodologic aspects of the quantification of skin prick test responses: the EGEA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccario, Jean; Oryszczyn, Marie-Pierre; Charpin, Denis; Kauffmann, Francine

    2003-04-01

    The expression of responses of allergy skin prick tests is not standardized. Usual definitions of atopy are not quantitative. We sought to perform a biometric analysis of responses to various allergens to propose synthetic, quantitative indices independent of the heterogeneity of responses to various allergens. Adults (N = 1286) from the Epidemiological Study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma, Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness, and Atopy (EGEA) were included in the analysis. The first step, conducted for 678 subjects with at least 1 wheal >0, was to perform a standardization of wheal diameters to obtain comparable figures for 10 allergens through use of the means of the squares of wheal size as a scaling factor. The second step was a factor analysis of the standardized responses conducted not only for all subjects but also separately for asthmatic case and nonasthmatic control subjects. Finally, the strength of the link between various dichotomous and quantitative scores was assessed with multiRAST, total IgE, and asthma. Analyzed quantitative scores were based on the number of positive responses and on the nonstandardized and standardized sizes of the wheals. The standardization was efficient. Among asthmatic subjects but not other subjects, factor analysis evidenced a pattern with 3 factors, corresponding to outdoor, indoor, and mold allergens. The link study showed that all scores performed very similarly. The number of positive tests is a quantitative score with valid biometric properties. It should be used more widely in clinical settings and in epidemiology to assess the severity of atopy.

  9. Comparison of skin prick allergy test in urban and rural children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhri Widyanto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Children who grow up in rural areas have a lower incidence of atopy and other allergic manifestations than children in urban areas. Several recent studies have suggested that agricultural exposure may protect children from developing asthma and atopy, but these findings are inconsistent. Objective To examine an association between living in rural or urban areas and skin prick allergy test results in children and to detennine associated risk factors for atopy. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in Karo district (rural and Medan (urban in October-December 2009. We enrolled primary school children who had a history of atopy in their families. Skin prick testing was done on the volar side of the forearm and included eight aero-allergens: house dust mites, house dust, cotton, chicken feathers, cat dander, cockroaches, mould, and pollen. We analyzed the folloMng risk factors for association Mth atopy: tobacco smoke, pets, livestock exposure, and having older sibling(s. Results We recruited 49 children from the Karo district and 52 children from the city of Medan. There were significant associations between living in an urban area and positive skin prick test results for house dust mites and house dust compared to living in a rural area (P=0.04, 95% CI: 1.11 to 5.91; P=0.04, 95% CI: 1.13 to 12.45, respectively. The reverse was true for cockroach allergens (P=0.02, 95% CI: 0.16 to 0.81. Tobacco smoke and livestock exposure were associated Mth negative skin prick test results in rural children (P=O.03, 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.81 and P=0.002, 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.42, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that lack of livestock exposure was the major risk factor associated Mth any positive skin prick test results in rural children (P=0.004; 95% CI ; 0.02 to 0.49. Conclusion There were differing associations between living in rural and urban areas to various skin prick test results in children. Lack of livestock exposure was the risk

  10. The Lancet Weight Determines Wheal Diameter in Response to Skin Prick Testing with Histamine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjalte H Andersen

    Full Text Available Skin prick test (SPT is a common test for diagnosing immunoglobulin E-mediated allergies. In clinical routine, technicalities, human errors or patient-related biases, occasionally results in suboptimal diagnosis of sensitization.Although not previously assessed qualitatively, lancet weight is hypothesized to be important when performing SPT to minimize the frequency of false positives, false negatives, and unwanted discomfort.Accurate weight-controlled SPT was performed on the volar forearms and backs of 20 healthy subjects. Four predetermined lancet weights were applied (25 g, 85 g, 135 g and 265 g using two positive control histamine solutions (1 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL and one negative control (saline. A total of 400 SPTs were conducted. The outcome parameters were: wheal size, neurogenic inflammation (measured by superficial blood perfusion, frequency of bleeding, and the lancet provoked pain response.The mean wheal diameter increased significantly as higher weights were applied to the SPT lancet, e.g. from 3.2 ± 0.28 mm at 25 g to 5.4 ± 1.7 mm at 265 g (p<0.01. Similarly, the frequency of bleeding, the provoked pain, and the neurogenic inflammatory response increased significantly. At 265 g saline evoked two wheal responses (/160 pricks below 3 mm.The applied weight of the lancet during the SPT-procedure is an important factor. Higher lancet weights precipitate significantly larger wheal reactions with potential diagnostic implications. This warrants additional research of the optimal lancet weight in relation to SPT-guidelines to improve the specificity and sensitivity of the procedure.

  11. Sensitization to cereals and peanut evidenced by skin prick test and specific IgE in food-tolerant, grass pollen allergic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Maria; Schnoor, Heidi J; Malling, Hans-Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test (SPT) and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without...... history of, and clinically reactions to foods botanically related to grass....

  12. Allergen skin prick test should be adjusted by the histamine reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreborg, Sten

    2015-01-01

    Skin prick test results are mostly reported as mean wheal diameter obtained with one concentration of allergen. Differences in technique between personnel causes variation in wheal size. The research question was whether the influence of differences in skin prick test technique among assistants and centers can be reduced by relating the allergen wheal response to that of histamine. Two methods for estimating skin reactivity, the method of Nordic Guidelines using histamine as a reference and the method of Brighton et al. [Clin Allergy 1979;9:591-596] not using histamine as a reference, were applied to data from two biological standardization trials, using the same batch of freeze-dried timothy pollen preparation. The concentration defining the Nordic biological unit, defined as a concentration of allergen eliciting a wheal of the same size as that of histamine dihydrochloride 10 mg/ml, did not differ between the centers. When not using histamine as a reference, applying the method of Brighton et al., there was a 15-fold difference in the estimate of the biological activity between the trials that was eliminated by adjusting the allergen response to that of the histamine reference. To reduce the influence of differences in test technique among assistants and centers responses to allergen-induced skin prick tests should be compared to that of histamine. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. The risk of systemic reactions to skin prick-tests using food allergens: CICBAA data and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codreanu, F; Moneret-Vautrin, D A; Morisset, M; Guénard, L; Rancé, F; Kanny, G; Lemerdy, Ph

    2006-02-01

    Prick-tests to foods are usually carried out as the first step in the diagnosis of food allergy. Severe anaphylaxis accounts for 4.9 % of allergies in children and occurs more frequently in adults, raising the possibility of systemic reactions to prick-tests in highly sensitized people. Several studies published in the literature have used commercial extracts. As for airborne allergens, concentrations causing a skin reaction of 15 mm do not present a risk of systemic reactions. Prick-tests to native foods--prick-in-prick tests--have been less extensively studied. The CICBAA1 data, from 1,138 food allergic patients of all ages, cover 34,905 prick-in-prick tests to foods. The wheal of these prick-tests has been regulary registered. The risk of systemic reactions can be evaluated at 0.008 %. There were no severe reactions and anti-histamine and corticosteroid therapy were sufficient. These results are similar to those of the large study in 2000 carried out by Devenney in neonates (0.005%). A review of the literature reveals only a few severe reactions in adults. The authors draw attention to the necessary precautions: temporary contra-indication for skin prick-tests in children and adults with grade 3 or 4 asthma, with particular attention to such foods as all kinds of nuts, fish, etc.

  14. Debates in allergy medicine: Molecular allergy diagnosis with ISAC will replace screenings by skin prick test in the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen-Jarolim, E; Jensen, A N; Canonica, G W

    2017-01-01

    In today's clinical practice patients' skin is used as screening organ for diagnosing type 1 allergy. According to European guidelines skin prick testing with a panel of 18 allergen extracts is recommended, in the US between 10 to 50 allergens are used. The specificity and sensitivity of skin testing is individually highly variable depending on age, body mass, and skin barrier status. In atopic inflammation skin testing gives more false positive results. Smaller skin area and strain limits prick testing in small children. Although the risk for systemic reactions in skin prick testing is very small, emergency medications must be available. Considering the fact that IgE is the only reliable biomarker for type I allergy, upfront IgE screening with ISAC, followed by fewer skin tests to approve positive sensitizations, is proposed. It is time to arrive in the age of molecular allergy diagnosis in daily patient care.

  15. The lancet weight determines wheal diameter in response to skin prick testing with histamine

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Hjalte H.; Anna Charlotte Lundgaard; Petersen, Anne S.; Hauberg, Lise E.; Neha Sharma; Hansen, Sofie D.; Jesper Elberling; Lars Arendt-Nielsen

    2016-01-01

    Background Skin prick test (SPT) is a common test for diagnosing immunoglobulin E-mediated allergies. In clinical routine, technicalities, human errors or patient-related biases, occasionally results in suboptimal diagnosis of sensitization. Objective Although not previously assessed qualitatively, lancet weight is hypothesized to be important when performing SPT to minimize the frequency of false positives, false negatives, and unwanted discomfort. Methods Accurate weight-controlled SPT was ...

  16. The effect of allergic rhinitis with positive skin prick test on choroidal thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenigun, Alper; Elbay, Ahmet; Dogan, Remzi; Ozturan, Orhan; Ozdemir, Mehmet Hakan

    2017-06-01

    Allergic rhinitis is an inflammatory disease that develops through immunoglobulin E in the rhino-ocular mucosa due to allergy. The main symptoms are runny nose, nasal congestion, sneezing and itchy nose. This study was designed to investigate the effect of allergic rhinitis on choroidal thickness. This study was planned as a case-control study. This study performed in a tertiary referral center. The study included 61 patients with allergic rhinitis and 35 healthy subjects. Patients in both groups underwent skin prick test. In allergic rhinitis patients and healthy persons; subfoveal, temporal and nasal choroidal thickness measurement was performed. The choroidal thicknesses were measured without pupil dilation using the Spectralis Optical Coherence Tomography. In the subfoveal and temporal region, choroidal tissue was followed up significantly thicker in allergic rhinitis patients statistically compared to healthy persons (p = 0.031, p = 0.049). However, no significant difference was followed up between the nasal choroidal thickness measurements statistically (p = 0.54). Runny nose (67.2%), sneeze (65.5%), stuffiness (62.2%), itching of the nose (40.9%), and nasal discharge (21.3%) complaints were observed significantly higher in the group having allergic rhinitis. The effect of allergic rhinitis on choroidal thickness were assessed and compared with the control group. Our study revealed that there was significant association between increased choroidal thickness and allergic rhinitis. Allergic sensitivity may play an important role in increased choroidal thickness.

  17. Thermographic assessment of skin prick tests in comparison with the routine evaluation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Rok

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction :Theskin prick test is still the first and basic procedure in the diagnosis of allergic diseases. The possibility of using a sensitive thermographic method supported by the mathematical model for the assessment of skin test results will be highlighted in the studies. Aim :To compare the proposed approach with routine planimetric and thermographic methods. Material and methods: A mathematical model of allergic reaction was developedSimplifying assumptions of the IgE-mediated skin reaction is the essence of the model. Investigations were performed in a group of 40 patients. Results: Using the spatio-temporal evolution of temperature distributions, the ratios of the histamine released from mast cells to the control histamine were determined. The obtained values very well correlate with the standard evaluation of skin prick tests (correlation coefficient = 0.98. Conclusions : The proposed method of skin test evaluation presents several advantages. The continuous acquisition of data provides the monitoring of time course of the allergic response. The transport of mediator and its concentration were distinctly discriminated, which may be diagnostically useful, especially for abnormal cases. The high sensitivity of the method enables studying patients regardless of age and skin sensitivity.

  18. House dust bioactivities predict skin prick test reactivity for children with high risk of allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Haejin; Tse, Kevin; Levin, Linda; Bernstein, David; Reponen, Tiina; LeMasters, Grace; Lummus, Zana; Horner, Anthony A

    2012-06-01

    Although evidence suggests that ambient exposures to endotoxin and other immunostimulants during early life influence allergic risk, efforts to understand this host-environment relationship have been hampered by a paucity of relevant assays. These investigations determined whether parameters of house dust extract (HDE) bioactivity were predictive of allergen skin prick test (SPT) reactivity for infants at high risk of allergy participating in the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study (CCAAPS). We conducted a nested case-control study, selecting 99 CCAAPS children who had positive SPT results to at least 1 aeroallergen at age 3 years and 101 subjects with negative SPT results. HDEs were prepared from dust samples collected from the subjects' homes at age 1 year. Murine splenocytes and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells were incubated with HDEs, and supernatant cytokine concentrations were determined by means of ELISA. Alternatively, bone marrow-derived dendritic cells were preincubated with HDEs, and then LPS-induced IL-6 responses were assessed. HDE endotoxin levels were determined by using the limulus amebocyte lysate assay. HDEs derived from the homes of children with positive (cases) and negative (control subjects) SPT results had similar bioactivities. However, when cases were considered in isolation, HDEs with higher levels of bioactivity were significantly associated with children who had lower numbers of positive SPT results. Analogous statistical analyses did not identify any association between HDE endotoxin levels and the aeroallergen sensitization profiles of children included in this study. HDE immunostimulatory activities predicted the aeroallergen sensitization status of CCAAPS subjects better than HDE endotoxin levels. These results provide the first published evidence that HDE bioassays have clinical relevance in predicting atopic risk. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All

  19. Standardization of food allergen extracts for skin prick test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, K; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Skov, P S

    2001-01-01

    -blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, except for the hazelnut-allergic patients. The controls were subjected to an open food challenge with all the foods to ensure tolerance. The standardization was performed by means of titrated SPT in accordance with the guidelines on biological standardization from...... investigated by leukocyte histamine release (HR) and immunoblotting experiments using sera from 27 hazelnut allergic patients. The clinical sensitivity of the optimized hazelnut extract evaluated by HR was 0.78 compared to 0.30 for a commercially available hazelnut extract (Soluprick). Immunoblotting results...

  20. Anaphylaxis due to patent blue dye during lymphography, with negative skin prick test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivellaro, Mariangiola; Senna, Gianenrico; Dama, Annarita; Bonadonna, Patrizia; Passalacqua, Giovanni

    2003-01-01

    We report here a case of anaphylaxis due to patent blue dye, which was administered to an adult female during a lymphographic intraoperative procedure. The patient was not atopic, and other possible causes of anaphylaxis (anesthetics, latex) had been carefully excluded through routine tests. The skin-prick test and patch test carried out with patent blue (PB) dye were negative, but the intradermal test with 100 microliters of the dye showed a remarkable positivity. There was no available commercial, specific IgE assay for PB dye, but the negativity of prick tests would exclude the involvement of an IgE-mediated mechanism. We want to highlight the possible danger derived from a dye that is considered inert, and that is now increasingly being used in surgical procedures.

  1. The association of asthma, nasal allergies, and positive skin prick tests with obesity, leptin, and adiponectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newson, R B; Jones, M; Forsberg, B; Janson, C; Bossios, A; Dahlen, S-E; Toskala, E M; Al-Kalemji, A; Kowalski, M L; Rymarczyk, B; Salagean, E M; van Drunen, C M; Bachert, C; Wehrend, T; Krämer, U; Mota-Pinto, A; Burney, P; Leynaert, B; Jarvis, D

    2014-02-01

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal reports show that obese adults have more asthma than non-obese adults. A proposed mechanism is via effects of adipokines (leptin and adiponectin) on the immune system. We wished to measure the associations of asthma and other atopic diseases with serum adipokine levels and to find whether the associations with asthma were strong enough to rule out the possibility that they are secondary to the association of fatness measures with asthma. The Global Asthma and Allergy Network of Excellence (GA(2) LEN) clinical follow-up survey is a clinical survey, embedded in a larger multi-centre cross-sectional postal survey, involving, with a case/control design, enrichment of the sample with subjects with asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). We recorded serum leptin or adiponectin in 845 men and 1110 women in 15 centres and also anthropometric measures of fatness including body mass index and waist/hip ratio, current asthma, and specific skin prick and IgE sensitisation. We used inverse sampling-probability-weighted rank and regression statistics to measure population associations of disease outcomes with adipokines in males and females, adjusting for confounders (area, age, smoking history, and number of elder siblings) and also mutually adjusting associations with adipokines and fatness measures. One thousand nine hundred and fifty-five subjects aged 16-77 years had information on leptin or adiponectin levels. Leptin and leptin/adiponectin ratio were positively associated with the level of asthma, especially in females (Somers' D of leptin by asthma score, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.08-0.30; P = 0.00079). These associations were attenuated after adjusting for confounders and became non-significant after additionally adjusting for fatness measures and multiple comparisons. Asthma levels are positively associated with serum leptin. However, we cannot rule out the possibility that this association is secondary to associations of both with fatness

  2. Interpreting skin prick tests in the evaluation of food allergy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigenmann, P A; Sampson, H A

    1998-11-01

    Skin prick tests (SPTs) are utilized routinely in the evaluation of food allergy and several authors have discussed their utility. Efforts to standardize SPT reagents and procedures have been made, but the accuracies of different recording techniques have not been clearly defined. The aim of this study was to compare different SPT recording methods with the outcome of oral food challenge and determine whether they offer any advantage over the criteria proposed by Bock and May (1). Children suspected of IgE-mediated symptoms to any of five common food allergens (egg, milk, peanut, soy and wheat) were skin tested by the prick technique utilizing commercial extracts. The wheal reactions were recorded by two different methods: first by measuring the largest diameter of the wheal and the diameter orthogonal to it (mean wheal diameter), and second by recording the surface area of the wheal with a hand-held scanner. Wheal sizes above the 95% confidence interval of tolerant individuals were considered positive. The results of double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges were considered the "gold standard" for diagnosis. Cut-off values were compared for positive responses in our study population (mean diameter/surface area of wheal): 4 mm/16 mm2 for egg, 5 mm/29 mm2 for milk, 6 mm/40 mm2 for peanut, 3 mm/9 mm2 for soy, and 3 mm/7 mm2 for wheat. Significant differences in wheal sizes were seen between individuals who were allergic or tolerant to egg (P Skin prick tests are a useful procedure for evaluating clinical reactivity to egg, milk, peanut and wheat, but not to soy. While the size of the SPT wheals may be interpreted utilizing mean diameter or surface area cut-offs, the predictive values of these measurement methods were no better than the commonly utilized grading method where a positive skin test was recorded as a mean wheal diameter 3 mm greater than the negative control.

  3. Anomalous cutaneous absorption of allergens as cause of skin prick testing adverse reactions in adult patients. Clinical and experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antico, A; Arisi, M; Lima, G

    2015-07-01

    Paediatric age, active eczema and high number of allergens tested in poly-sensitized patients have been pinpointed as possible risk factors of systemic reactions by skin prick testing. As far as atopic eczema concerns, the higher penetration of the allergens into the skin because of the scraping or micro-injuries is an intuitive rationalization. Purpose of the present study is to provide documentary evidence that adverse reactions elicited by anomalous absorption of allergens can occur also in adult patients with apparently normal skin. Report of some exemplifying clinical and experimental observations. Measuring the inoculum volume into impaired skin and its variability in relation to the variation of the chemical-physical characteristic of the solutions used for the tests by means of a method of direct assay based on the use of a gamma-camera. Localized impairments of the skin permeability can cause a significant increase in inoculum volume by prick-test. Critical amounts of allergens can be introduced into the skin because of the possibility of direct absorption, also without pricking, of allergy diagnostic solutions. The greater water content of the solutions used for prick-testing can significantly increase the inoculum volume. This study adds clinical and experimental evidences that localized impairments of permeability can occur in adult patients with apparently normal skin. Special precautions should be taken when a change of the drops' normal shape and cohesion is seen, because allergy prick-testing in such areas is potentially associated with increased risk of large local or systemic reactions.

  4. Long-term repeatability of the skin prick test is high when supported by history or allergen-sensitivity tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, Uffe; Jacobsen, C R; Poulsen, L K

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term reproducibility of the skin-prick test (SPT) has been questioned. The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical relevance of SPT changes. METHODS: SPT to 10 common inhalation allergens was performed annually from 1999 to 2001 in 25 nonsensitized and 21 sensitized subj....... CONCLUSION: SPT changes are clinically relevant. Further studies using other allergens are needed. Long-term repeatability of SPT is high in the presence of a supportive history.......BACKGROUND: Long-term reproducibility of the skin-prick test (SPT) has been questioned. The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical relevance of SPT changes. METHODS: SPT to 10 common inhalation allergens was performed annually from 1999 to 2001 in 25 nonsensitized and 21 sensitized...... subjects. An SPT was positive when > or =3 mm, and repeatable if either persistently positive or negative. Clinical sensitivity to birch pollen was used as model for inhalation allergy, and was investigated at inclusion and at study termination by challenge tests, intradermal test, titrated SPT and Ig...

  5. Skin Prick Test Reactivity to Common Aero and Food Allergens among Children with Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safoora Hosseini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of allergic diseases has risen in the last decades. The objective of this study was to determine the common allergens in children via the skin prick test. Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited 313 allergic children (4 months to 18 years old referred to the Asthma and Allergy Clinic of Children’s Medical Center in Tehran. A questionnaire containing demographic data and patient history was completed. The Skin Prick Test (SPT was selected according to the patients’ history of food and/or aeroallergen sensitivity. Results: Patients (62.4% male, 37.6% female with symptoms of asthma (n=141, 57.1%, allergic rhinitis (n=50, 20.4%, atopic dermatitis (n=29, 11.7%, and urticaria (n=20, 8.1% were studied. Positive skin prick test to at least one allergen was 58.1%. The most prevalent allergens were tree mix (26%, Alternaria alternata (26%, weed mix (23.6%, Dermatophagoides farinae (22.9%, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (22.9%, milk (21.7%, eggs (20%, and wheat flour (18.3%. Also, common allergens in the patients with different symptoms of allergic disorders were as follows: asthma (tree mix, weed mix, and Dermatophagoides farinae; allergic rhinitis (Dermatophagoides farinae, tree mix, and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus; and atopic dermatitis (Alternaria alternata, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, and cockroaches. Conclusion: Identifying allergens in each area is necessary and has an important role in the diagnosis and management of allergic disorders and possibility of performing immunotherapy. In this study, the most common aeroallergens were tree mix, Alternaria alternata, and weed mix and also the most common food allergens were milk, eggs, and wheat. Considering these data, appropriate preventive strategies can decrease the cost and morbidity of therapeutic actions.

  6. Evaluation of commercial skin prick test solutions for selected occupational allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kampen, V; de Blay, F; Folletti, I; Kobierski, P; Moscato, G; Olivieri, M; Quirce, S; Sastre, J; Walusiak-Skorupa, J; Kotschy-Lang, N; Müsken, H; Mahler, V; Schliemann, S; Ochmann, U; Sültz, J; Worm, M; Sander, I; Zahradnik, E; Brüning, T; Merget, R; Raulf-Heimsoth, M

    2013-01-01

    Skin prick testing (SPT) is an important step in the diagnosis of IgE-mediated occupational allergic diseases. The outcome of SPT is related to the quality of allergen extracts. Thus, the aim of the study was to assess different commercially available SPT solutions for selected occupational allergens. SPT was performed in 116 bakers, 47 farmers and 33 subjects exposed to natural rubber latex (NRL), all with work-related allergic symptoms. The SPT solutions from different manufacturers (n = 3-5) for wheat flour, rye flour, soy, cow hair/dander, storage mites (Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Acarus siro) and NRL were analysed with respect to their protein and antigen contents. SPT was carried out in 16 allergy centres in six European countries using standardized procedures. Specific IgE values were used as the gold standard to calculate the sensitivity and specificity of SPT solutions. The optimal cut-point for each SPT solution was determined by Youden Index. Protein and antigen contents and patterns of the SPT solutions varied remarkably depending on the manufacturer. While SPT solutions for wheat flour and soy reached overall low sensitivities, sensitivities of other tested SPT solutions depended on the manufacturer. As a rule, solutions with higher protein and antigen content showed higher sensitivities and test efficiencies. There is a wide variability of SPT solutions for occupational allergens, and the sensitivity of several solutions is low. Thus, improvement and standardization of SPT solutions for occupational allergens is essential. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Skin prick test results to artesunate in children sensitized to Artemisia vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, F; Pantano, S; Rossi, M E; Montagnani, C; Chiappini, E; Novembre, E; Galli, L; de Martino, M

    2015-09-01

    Artemisia vulgaris L and Artemisia annua L (Chinese: qinghao) are similar plants of the Asterbaceae family. Artesunate, a semi-synthetic derivate of artemisin which is the active principle extract of the plant qinghao, has antimalarial properties. Some cases of severe allergic reactions to artesunate have been described. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between positive skin tests to Artemisia vulgaris L allergen and a preparation of injectable artesunate. A total of 531 children were skin prick tested with inhalants (including Artemisia vulgaris L), foods, and artesunate. Among the 59 patients positive to Artemisia vulgaris L only one child was also positive to artesunate. No child was positive to artesunate in those negative to Artemisia vulgaris L. We conclude that Artemisia vulgaris L sensitization is not associated with sensitization to artesunate; consequently, skin test to artesunate should not be carried out before using the drug considering the rare allergic reactions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Association Between Aeroallergens and Allergic Diseases Based on Skin Prick Test in Bushehr Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of allergic diseases is growing in the world and Iran. Allergens play an important role in creating these diseases. Since inhalation allergens are an important part of these allergens the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of aeroallergens and their association with allergic diseases based on skin prick test (SPT. Material and Methods: In this study, the frequency of these allergens were examined by using 22 aeroallergens and based on Skin Prick Test in 1100 patients with allergic diseases who referred to Shohadaye- Khalije- Fars university hospital. Results: The reaction severity of SPT and the severity of disease associated with inhaled allergens with Russian thistle (21.1%, P꞊0.001, Chenopodium album pollen (14%, P꞊0.001 and Dermatophagoid Pteronyssinus (9%, P꞊0.001 respectively. Also, in these patients, the frequency of inhalation allergens were House Dust Mite (HDM (69%, feather (60.8%, Russian this tle (59.9% pollen and Alternaria mold (59.6% respectively. Conclusion: This study indicated that outdoors inhaled allergens  such as Russian thistle and Chenopodium album pollen have the most allergenicity in patients with allergic and asthma in Bushehr province, Meanwhile, the prevalence of indoor aeroallergens such as HDM, feather and mold were high in these patients.

  9. Herbal supplements and skin testing: the lack of effect of commonly used herbal supplements on histamine skin prick testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, D R; Napoli, D C; Hagan, L L

    2003-06-01

    The use of herbal supplements is common, yet little is known about their pharmacologic properties. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of 23 commonly used herbal supplements on histamine skin prick testing (SPT). Fifteen healthy volunteers participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose, crossover study. Wheal and flare responses to SPT with histamine phosphate (1 mg/ml) were measured before and 4 h after administration of each of the 23 popular herbal supplements, fexofenadine (60 mg) and placebo. Wheal and flare areas were recorded with tracings performed 10 min after the prick test and measured with a PC-digitizer using stereometric software. Fexofenadine significantly suppressed the wheal (P wheal and flare areas compared with placebo (P > 0.10). When taken in single-doses, the popular herbal supplements tested did not significantly affect the histamine skin response. Therefore, it seems unnecessary for clinicians to ask patients to discontinue these herbal supplements prior to allergy skin testing.

  10. Inhibitory effects of oral prednisolone and fexofenadine on skin responses by prick tests with histamine and compound 48/80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tomoko; Katoh, Norito; Kishimoto, Saburo; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2002-12-01

    The prick test is a useful skin test for diagnosing immediate hypersensitivity response. Sometimes it is necessary to perform prick tests on patients who have already received antihistamines or corticosteroids. It is, however, occasionally uncertain whether the results of prick tests are reliable. In this study, the inhibitory effects of prednisolone (10 mg/day) and fexofenadine (120 mg/day) on the response to prick tests induced with histamine and compound 48/80 were examined. During a 7-day-continual drug administration, prick tests were performed 8 h after drug administration. The inhibitory effects of fexofenadine on both the histamine- and compound 48/80-induced skin responses were exhibited on the 1st day and persisted from 24 to 36 h after the final administration. The histamine-induced wheal responses were not inhibited by prednisolone, while the compound 48/80-induced flare and wheal responses were significantly inhibited on the 5th day of drug administration. These responses returned to the baseline level 24 h after the last drug administration. Thus, the results of skin tests performed during administration of antihistamines and corticosteroids should be carefully interpreted.

  11. Association Between Allergic Diseases and Food Allergens Based on Skin Prick Test in Bushehr Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Keshvari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Frequency of allergic diseases is growing in recent years. Identification of frequency of food allergens in different areas play an important role in diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. The aim of this study was to determine frequency and association of common food allergens in patients with allergic diseases based on Skin Prick Test in Bushehr province. Material and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 1100 patients were enrolled with allergic diseases which had a sensitivity to at least one allergen.  This test was carried out with 21 common food allergens extract. Results: In all patients, association between the severity of the reaction prick allergy test and severity of allergic diseases with shrimp, cow's Milk and peanuts were (P= 0.01, (P= 0.02 and (P=0.04 respectively. In this study, the frequency of allergic rhinitis, asthma, chronic and acute urticaris and atopic eczema were 54.2%, 23%, 12.4%, 4.1% and 12%, respectively. While the the most common food allergens were peanuts (46.6%, egg yolk (43.1% and shrimp (42% respectively. Conclusion: This study indicated that food allergens such as shrimp, cow's Milk and peanuts have a greater role in severity of allergic diseases and this food allergens showed the highest frequency in patients.

  12. The association of asthma, nasal allergies, and positive skin prick tests with obesity, leptin, and adiponectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newson, R. B.; Jones, M.; Forsberg, B.

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundCross-sectional and longitudinal reports show that obese adults have more asthma than non-obese adults. A proposed mechanism is via effects of adipokines (leptin and adiponectin) on the immune system. ObjectiveWe wished to measure the associations of asthma and other atopic diseases...... with serum adipokine levels and to find whether the associations with asthma were strong enough to rule out the possibility that they are secondary to the association of fatness measures with asthma. MethodsThe Global Asthma and Allergy Network of Excellence (GA(2)LEN) clinical follow-up survey is a clinical...... measures of fatness including body mass index and waist/hip ratio, current asthma, and specific skin prick and IgE sensitisation. We used inverse sampling-probability-weighted rank and regression statistics to measure population associations of disease outcomes with adipokines in males and females...

  13. Disagreement between skin prick test and specific IgE in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, Ann-Marie Malby; Chawes, BLK; Følsgaard, N V

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin prick test (SPT) and measurement of serum-specific IgE (sIgE) level are important tools for the clinician to diagnose allergic sensitization. However, little is known about the agreement between the two methods in young children. METHODS: SPT and sIgE levels were assessed...... points was analyzed using kappa statistics. RESULTS: The prevalence of inhalant allergen sensitization increased during childhood diagnosed by both sIgE levels (0.6% to 4.2% to 18.1% to 24.8%, P P ... sensitization increased during childhood when diagnosed from sIgE (7.8% to 12.1% to 15.0% to 18.9%, P P = 0.05). Overall, the agreement between SPT and sIgE levels was poor to moderate (all κ-coefficients ≤ 0.60) and decreased from...

  14. Oral food challenge: safety, adherence to guidelines and predictive value of skin prick testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvani, Mauro; Berti, Irene; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Galli, Elena; Giorgio, Valentina; Martelli, Alberto; Miceli Sopo, Stefano; Panetta, Valentina

    2012-12-01

    The diagnostic gold standard of food allergy is the oral food challenge (OFC). Data on severe reactions and drug use during OFC are scarce. Our aims were (i) to investigate the prevalence and spectrum of reactions' severity during OFC and to assess drug use and epinephrine use in anaphylaxis due to OFC; (ii) to investigate the predictive value of the skin prick test wheal size for the outcome of OFCs. A retrospective charts review of children undergoing OFC at three Allergy Centres between January 2007 and December 2008 was performed. A total of 544 OFCs were analysed. Most frequently involved foods were egg, milk and wheat. 254/526 (48.3%) were positive. 167 (65.7%) were defined mild reactions, 81 (31.9%) multiorgan reactions and 6 (2.4%) anaphylaxis. No patients had cardiovascular symptoms. Data on treatments were available in 98.8% OFCs. In half of them antihistamines were used vs. 10% cases in which steroids were preferred. Six children (2.4%) were treated with Epinephrine inhalation, 5 (2%) with beta-2 inhalation, 8 (3.1%) with steroid inhalation. One child was treated with IM Epinephrine + IV fluids. Skin prick tests predictive cut-off were 9 mm for albumen, 7 for yolk, 13 for fresh albumen, 10 for α-lactalbumin, seven for casein, eight for β-lactoglobulin, 20 for cow's milk and 10 for fresh cow's milk. OFCs performed in controlled settings by expert Allergists are safe. Consideration needs to be given as to whether the Anaphylaxis' Guideline need to be modified when applied in treating patients undergoing OFC. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Skin Prick Test Reactivity to Aeroallergens among Egyptian Patients with Isolated Allergic Conjunctival Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo-Ali, Fawzeia H; Farres, Mohamed N; Shahin, Rasha Y; Eissa, Abeer M; Ahmed, Abutaleb; Abdel-Monsef, Ahmed; Arafa, Naglaa A

    2015-06-01

    Allergic conjunctival disease (ACD) is a type of ocular allergy, which includes seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC), perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC), and vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC). Little is known about the pattern of sensitization or prevalent aeroallergens among patients with isolated ACD in Egypt We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of skin prick test positivity to common aeroallergens among Egyptian patients with isolated allergic conjunctival disease. The study included 75 patients with isolated ACD recruited from a tertiary Egyptian outpatient clinic. Skin prick test (SPT) was performed for all patients with common aeroallergens. Total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) was measured by ELISA. A positive SPT reaction was present among 32 patients (42.7%). The most prevalent aeroallergens among all patients were mites and pollens (12% respectively), followed by grass (8%) and hay dust (6.7%). Eight patients (10.7%) had SAC, 19 patients (25.3%) had PAC, and 48 patients (64%) had VKC. Prevalence of SPT positivity to indoor allergens was significantly more common among PAC (52.6%) than among SAC (25%) and VKC (16.7%), P= 0.011. Outdoor allergen sensitization did not differ significantly between the 3 subgroups, P= 0.614. Elevated IgE levels were observed among 62.5%, 73.7% and 66.7% of patients with SAC, PAC and VKC, respectively, with no statistically significant difference between them, P= 0.806. In conclusion aeroallergen sensitization is common among Egyptian patients with isolated ACD. Accordingly, SPT should be included in the diagnostic workup of these patients. Copyright© by the Egyptian Association of Immunologists.

  16. Standard skin prick testing and sensitization to inhalant allergens across Europe--a survey from the GALEN network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinzerling, L.; Frew, A. J.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Bonini, S.; Bousquet, J.; Bresciani, M.; Carlsen, K.-H.; van Cauwenberge, P.; Darsow, U.; Fokkens, W. J.; Haahtela, T.; van Hoecke, H.; Jessberger, B.; Kowalski, M. L.; Kopp, T.; Lahoz, C. N.; Lodrup Carlsen, K. C.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Ring, J.; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P.; Vignola, A. M.; Wöhrl, S.; Zuberbier, T.

    2005-01-01

    Skin prick testing (SPT) is the standard method for diagnosing allergic sensitization but is to some extent performed differently in clinical centres across Europe. There would be advantages in harmonizing the standard panels of allergens used in different European countries, both for clinical

  17. Correlation between symptoms of the irritable bowel syndrome and the response to the food extract skin prick test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L.S. Soares

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and food intolerance is not clear. We studied the cutaneous response to food antigens in 43 volunteers who were students and employees of the Faculty of Medicine of Universidade Federal Fluminense. Subjects were divided into 3 groups after evaluation for Roma II criteria for functional disease of the gastrointestinal tract: group I, 14 volunteers with IBS; group II, 15 volunteers with functional dyspepsia; group III, 14 volunteers without habitual gastrointestinal symptoms. The subjects were submitted to the skin prick test with 9 food antigen extracts, for a total of 387 skin tests (9 per volunteer. Of the 126 tests applied to group I, 24 (19.4% were positive (a 3-mm wider papule than the negative control and of the 135 tests applied to group II, 3 (2.3% were positive. Of the 126 tests applied to group III, 6 (4% were positive. The number of positive responses obtained in group I (IBS differed significantly from the other 2 groups (P < 0.01. None of the volunteers with IBS reported intolerance to any isolated food. The higher reactivity to food antigens in group I compared to groups II and III suggests that intestinal permeability may be increased in patients with IBS.

  18. Evaluation of methods for the estimation of threshold concentrations by the skin prick test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreborg, Sten; Holgersson, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The allergen dose-response curve is flat; thus, small changes in wheal size reflect large differences in skin sensitivity. The sensitivity as measured by provocation tests is given by the threshold concentration that causes symptoms and/or objective signs. The threshold concentrations differ by several magnitudes between the most and the least sensitive individuals clinically allergic to the same allergen. Variation in technique can be minimized by relating allergen responses to that to histamine. The aim here is to present and validate simple methods for estimation of the skin sensitivity given as the concentration inducing a wheal of the same size as that with the positive reference, 10 mg/ml of histamine HCl, in the same patient. Data from previously reported trials on the biological equilibration of allergen extracts were used to document a method to calculate the concentration of allergen required to induce a wheal of the same size as that with 10 mg/ml of histamine dihydrochloride in the same patient, and to validate the methods using the parallel line bioassay as the gold standard. The validated methods correlated well with the results obtained using the gold standard method and provide results of skin prick testing based on threshold concentrations of allergen. The validated methods reduce the error of differences in testing techniques and make it possible to report skin sensitivity at threshold concentrations. A simple method to be used in clinical practice and a method suitable to describe changes in skin reactivity over time or during treatment are proposed. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Skin prick test reactivity in allergic rhinitis patients to airborne pollens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkara, Ismuhan Potoglu; Cingi, Cemal; Ayranci, Unal; Gurbuz, Kezban Melek; Pehlivan, Sevil; Tokur, Suleyman

    2009-04-01

    The aim was to investigate the impact of atmospheric pollen in determining allergic rhinitis. It was conducted with 130 patients with allergic rhinitis in three different sites in Eskisehir, Turkey, in 2000-2001, using a gravimetric method with a Durham sampler. Skin prick test results, the symptoms of patients and their findings all confirmed the presence of allergic reactions to pollen allergens in the patients observed. During the period, a total of 47,082 pollen grains/cm(2) belonging to 45 taxa were recorded. Of the total pollen grains, 81.0% were arboreal and 18% non-arboreal. The majority of the investigated pollen grains were from Pinaceae, Salix spp., Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Cupressaceae and Poaceae. Pollen concentrations reached the highest level in May (54.36%). The pollen allergens provoking severe sensitization were grasscereal mixtures (58.5%), followed by arboreals (33.8%). All patients (100.0%) were sensitive to grass. This study emphasizes the significance of determining the types and concentrations of pollen with a view to comparing changes in highly concentrated allergens.

  20. Cow’s milk allergy: Evaluating tolerance through skin-prick test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Valença de Oliveira Neves

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: To evaluate the wheal diameter in allergy skin-prick tests (SPT with cow’s milk extract (CM comparing tolerant and persistent patients. Method: A retrospective cohort study involving database analysis of children with diagnosis of cow’s milk protein allergy (CMPA mediated by immunoglobulin E in a specialized outpatient clinic that regularly performed SPT between January 2000 and July 2015. Patients were allocated into two groups: tolerant or persistent. Comparisons were made at diagnosis and over time between tolerant and persistent patients using Fisher’s, Mann-Whitney or Wilcoxon tests and significance level at 5%. Results: After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, the sample includes 44 patients (29 tolerant and 15 who persisted with CMPA. In the tolerant group, the medians of SPT were: 6 mm at diagnosis and 2 mm at the development of tolerance; a significant difference (p<0.0001 was found. In the persistent group, the median SPT at diagnosis was 7 mm, while in the last SPT it was 5 mm, with no statistical difference (p=0.173. The comparison of medians in the last SPT between groups was significant (p=0.001, with a reduction greater than 50% in SPT in the tolerant group. Conclusion: Serial SPTs were useful for diagnosis, and a decrease higher than 50% in diameter can indicate the moment to perform oral food challenge (OFC tests, helping to detect tolerance in CMPA.

  1. GA(2)LEN skin test study I: GA(2)LEN harmonization of skin prick testing: novel sensitization patterns for inhalant allergens in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinzerling, L. M.; Burbach, G. J.; Edenharter, G.; Bachert, C.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Bonini, S.; Bousquet, J.; Bousquet-Rouanet, L.; Bousquet, P. J.; Bresciani, M.; Bruno, A.; Burney, P.; Canonica, G. W.; Darsow, U.; Demoly, P.; Durham, S.; Fokkens, W. J.; Giavi, S.; Gjomarkaj, M.; Gramiccioni, C.; Haahtela, T.; Kowalski, M. L.; Magyar, P.; Muraközi, G.; Orosz, M.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Röhnelt, C.; Stingl, G.; Todo-Bom, A.; von Mutius, E.; Wiesner, A.; Wöhrl, S.; Zuberbier, T.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin prick testing is the standard for diagnosing IgE-mediated allergies. However, different allergen extracts and different testing procedures have been applied by European allergy centres. Thus, it has been difficult to compare results from different centres or studies across Europe.

  2. A study of skin sensitivity to various allergens by skin prick test in patients of nasobronchial allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study skin sensitivity to various allergens in patients of nasobronchial allergy. Materials and Methods: 2880 skin prick tests with 60 allergens were performed in 48 patients of nasobronchial allergy. Results: Most common offending allergens were insects (21.2%, followed by dusts (12.0%, pollens (7.8%, animal dander (3.1%, and fungi (1.3%. The common insect antigen were locust female (33.3% followed by locust male (25%, grasshopper (20.8%, cricket (16.7%, cockroach female (16.7% and cockroach male (14.6%. Common dust allergens were house dust, wheat dust, cotton mill and paper dust. Among pollens, Amaranthus spinosus, Argemone mexicana, Adhatoda vasica, Ailanthus and Cannabis were found to be common allergens. In animal danders common offending allergens were cow dander and dog dander. Among fungi Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria teneis and Fusarium sodani were common allergens. Patients of bronchial asthma had associated allergic rhinitis in 80% cases. Conclusion: Common allergens in patients of nasobronchial allergy were identified. The data may prove useful in of allergen avoidance and immunotherapy in these patients.

  3. The incidence and features of systemic reactions to skin prick tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellaturay, Priya; Nasser, Shuaib; Ewan, Pamela

    2015-09-01

    Skin prick testing (SPT) has been regarded as a safe procedure with few systemic reactions. To evaluate the rate of systemic reactions and their associations after SPT in the largest population to date. In this study reactions were recorded prospectively in a specialist UK allergy clinic for 6 years (2007-2013). An estimated 31,000 patients underwent SPT. Twenty-four patients (age range 7 months to 56 years, mean 23.5 years, 17 female patients, 12 with asthma) had systemic reactions. The rate of systemic reactions to SPT was 0.077%. The likely allergens causing the reaction were foods (18; peanut, 7; walnut, 1; Brazil nut, 2; pistachio, 1; lupin, 1; cow's milk, 2; shrimp, 1; spinach, 1; legume, 1; soy, 1), aeroallergens (4; rabbit, 1; rat, 1; ragwort, 1; grass pollen, 1), wasp venom (1), and Tazocin (1). The causative SPT wheal was larger than 8 mm in 75%. The reaction to Tazocin was severe, with anaphylaxis occurring minutes after SPT. Reactions were treated immediately in the clinic and did not require further medical care. In this largest single-center study, the rate of systemic reactions after SPT was 77 per 100,000 patients. It is the first study to identify foods as a common and important cause (75%), with nuts posing the highest risk. This study reports the first systemic reaction to venom SPT and the first anaphylactic reaction after drug SPT. There was an association with a history of severe reactions and large skin test reaction. There are risks, albeit small, when undertaking SPT. Copyright © 2015 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Patterns of skin prick test positivity in allergic patients: usefulness of a nationwide SPT chart review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larenas-Linnemann, D E; Fogelbach, G A Guidos; Alatorre, A Monteverde; Cruz, A Arias; Colín, D D Hernández; Pech, J A Luna; Hernández, A Medina; Imperial, D Alberto García; del Prado, M L Cid; Zapién, F J Linares; Huerta, R E; Martell, J A Ortega

    2011-01-01

    A previous survey on allergens used by Mexican allergists in their skin prick test (SPT) panel showed wide variation. Humidity varies in different zones of Mexico. This might lead to differences in natural exposure and allergic sensitisation throughout the country. We aim to describe the SPT sensitivity patterns in the different climatic zones in Mexico and to show the usefulness of a structured SPT chart-review including multiple clinics in obtaining these allergen sensitisation patterns. A retrospective, structured chart-review of SPT results was undertaken in allergy clinics throughout Mexico. Ratios of SPT positivity were calculated for individual allergens, per climatic zone and nation-wide. Per allergen group the most important allergens were identified. Statistically significant differences between zones and the nation-wide data were tested with Pearson's Chi-squares test. 4169 skin test charts were recollected. The most important allergens causing sensitisation were very similar in different zones, despite climate variation. The allergen with highest ratio of SPT positivity was Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (51%), with trees (Ash-27%, Alder-22%, Oak19%), and Bermuda grass (26%) as second and third. In the hot zones (humid and dry) Aspergillus was statistically significant more frequently than in more temperate zones. Cockroaches thrive in big cities and humid zones and Mesquite and Poplar in dry zones. Weeds are less important. Mexico has its own SPT sensitisation pattern, which is different from America and Europe. A structured chart-review of SPT results is able to show this and might be a tool for allergists in other countries. Copyright © 2010 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Distribution of Skin Prick Test Results in Rhinitis Allergic Patients at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gama Antares

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Allergic Rhinitis (AR is an inflammation condition in nasal mucous because of type 1 hypersensitivity. Skin prick test is one of the diagnostic tests to diagnose AR. Purpose of this study was to know the distribution of skin prick test in AR patients. Methods: This study used retrospective descriptive method as cross sectional design. This study was performed from 1 August to 31 October 2014. This study used medical record as secondary data at Department of Otorhinolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital. There were 175 cases which fulfilled the inclusion criteria of the study. The data were then analyzed using computer program. Results: Forty seven cases were positive for house dust (26.8%, 127 cases were positive for dust mite (72.5%, 85 cases were positive for rice pollen (48.5%, 62 cases were positive for maize pollen (35.5%, 56 cases were positive for mixed fungi (32%, 100 cases were positive for cockroach (57.1%, 63 cases were positive for horse dander (36%, 50 cases were positive for cat dander (28.5%, 93 cases were positive for dog dander (53.1%, and 38 cases were positive for chicken feather (21.9%. Conclusions: The most aeroallergen making positive result in skin prick test is dust mite.

  6. Multiple IgE-mediated sensitizations to enzymes after occupational exposure: evaluation by skin prick test, RAST, and immunoblot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentner, A; Jeep, S; Wahl, R; Kunkel, G; Kleine-Tebbe, J

    1997-09-01

    We investigated 10 sensitized and 10 nonsensitized workers from a pharmaceutic factory who had been exposed to powdered trypsin, chymotrypsin, bromelain, papain, amylase, and lipase. Ten nonallergic subjects served as a control group. Titrated skin prick tests (SPT), RAST, and immunoblot studies were performed with all six enzymes. SPT reactivity revealed multiple sensitizations to proteolytic enzymes, i.e., papain (specifically sensitized/total number of sensitizations: 9/10), trypsin (8/10), chymotrypsin (8/10), and bromelain (7/10) and appeared to be more frequent and more pronounced than sensitizations to amylase (3/10) or lipase (3/10). The low molecular weight of proteolytic enzymes (20-30 kDa) and their biologic activity might facilitate mucosal penetration more easily and thus-compared to amylase and lipase-permit an immune response and induction of allergic hypersensitivity. Immunoblot studies demonstrated IgG-binding bands in both SPT-positive and -negative workers, indicating exposure to the enzymes, but not in 10 unexposed control subjects. IgE-binding bands of the enzymes were detected only in workers with a positive SPT reaction and/or a positive RAST result. IgG bands were more frequent and the IgG/IgE ratio was increased in workers without allergic complaints compared to symptomatic workers. This might indicate that high levels of specific IgG antibodies to enzymes are associated with an immune response lacking allergic manifestations in spite of IgE-mediated sensitizations to the enzymes. Atopic subjects were at greater risk of developing IgE-mediated sensitization (7/10) and allergic symptoms to enzymes (5/7). However, even without risk of atopy, IgE-mediated hypersensitivity occurred in a few subjects (3/13) exposed to enzymes by inhalation for prolonged periods of time.

  7. Anaphylaxis due to Brazil nut skin testing in a walnut-allergic subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senna, G; Bonadonna, P; Crivellaro, M; Schiappoli, M; Passalacqua, G

    2005-01-01

    The diagnosis and management of nut allergy can be difficult because of the possible severity of the clinical manifestations and the cross reactivity between different species. We report a case of anaphylaxis due to skin testing in a young adult with clinically ascertained walnut allergy. After an episode of anaphylaxis due to walnut ingestion, a routine diagnostic workup was carried out, involving skin prick test with commercial extracts, prick by prick with fresh food and CAP-RAST assay for different nuts. Immediately after pricking with fresh Brazil nut, a severe episode of anaphylaxis occurred, that required epinephrine and intravenous steroids. The subject had never eaten Brazil nut before. Therefore we hypothesize a cross reactivity effect, since this phenomenon is well known for tree nuts. Our case suggests that in vivo diagnosis, especially if fresh nuts are used, should be performed only if adequate equipment to treat anaphylaxis is available.

  8. Relevance of cat and dog sensitization by skin prick testing in childhood eczema and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Kam Lun E Lun; Tsang, Kathy Yin Ching; Leung, Ting Fan

    2017-06-14

    Household animal dander has been implicated as aeroallergen in childhood atopic diseases. Many parents seek healthcare advice if household pet keeping may be detrimental in atopic eczema (AE) and atopies. We investigated if skin sensitization by cat/dog dander was associated with disease severity and quality of life in children with AE. Demographics, skin prick test (SPT) results, disease severity (Nottingham eczema severity score NESS), Children Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI), blood IgE and eosinophil counts of a cohort of AE patients were reviewed. 325 AE patients followed at a pediatric dermatology clinic were evaluated. Personal history of asthma was lowest (20%) in the dog-dander-positive-group but highest (61%) in both-cat-and-dog-dander-positive group (p=0.007). Unlike dust mite or food sensitization, the incidence of cat or dog sensitization was low. Binomial logistic regression ascertained that cat-dander sensitization was associated with increasing age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.056; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.006 to 1.109; p=0.029), dust-mite sensitization (aOR, 4.625; 95% CI, 1.444 to 14.815; p=0.010), food-allergen sensitization (aOR, 2.330; 95% CI, 1.259 to 4.310; p=0.007) and keeping-cat-ever (aOR, 7.325; 95% CI, 1.193 to 44.971; p=0.032); whereas dog-dander sensitization was associated with dust-mite sensitization (aOR, 9.091; 95% CI, 1.148 to 71.980; p=0.037), food-allergen sensitization (aOR, 3.568; 95% CI, 1.341 to 9.492; p=0.011) and keeping-dog-ever (aOR, 6.809; 95% CI, 2.179 to 21.281; p=0.001). However, neither cat nor dog sensitization were associated with asthma, allergic rhinitis, parental or sibling atopic status, disease severity or quality of life. Physicians should advise parents that there is no direct correlation between AE severity, quality of life, asthma or allergic rhinitis with skin sensitization to cats or dogs. Sensitized patients especially those with concomitant asthma and severe symptoms may consider non

  9. Sensitivity Comparison of the Skin Prick Test and Serum and Fecal Radio Allergosorbent Test (RAST) in Diagnosis of Food Allergy in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Kianifar, Hamid Reza; Pourreza, Alireza; Jabbari Azad, Farahzad; Yousefzadeh, Hadis; Masomi, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diagnosis of food allergy is difficult in children. Food allergies are diagnosed using several methods that include medical histories, clinical examinations, skin prick and serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) tests, radio-allergosorbent test (RAST), food challenge, and supervised elimination diets. In this study we evaluated allergies to cow's milk, egg, peanut, and fish in children with suspected food allergies with skin prick tests and serum and feces RAST. Methods: Forty-o...

  10. Prediction of atopy by skin prick tests in patients with asthma and/or persistent rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, G; Ozturk, A B; Kalyoncu, A F

    2012-01-01

    Patient history gives important clues about the likelihood of atopy. However, the accuracy of assessment of atopy based on detailed allergy history is low. The objective of this survey was to determine the successful prediction rate of atopy by a questionnaire and the effect of various factors on the successful prediction. A standard questionnaire including detailed allergy history was filled in by two experienced allergists for 169 patients having bronchial asthma and/or persistent rhinitis symptoms. Skin prick test (SPT) results were predicted based on the clinical data obtained by a questionnaire. Final diagnosis was made after SPT. Sensitivity and specificity analysis of SPT results prediction was investigated using two different cut-off values (3mm and 5mm) for positive tests, and factors associated with successful atopy prediction were analysed. SPT was predicted to be positive in 42.6% and was positive in 36.1%. Depending on SPT results with the cut-off value 3mm, prediction sensitivity was 77%, specificity was 65.3%, positive predictive value was 65%, and negative predictive value was 86%. Successful positive atopy prediction was associated with age; true negative prediction was also associated with age and high education. With the threshold of 5mm for a positive test, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predicted values were 91%, 61%, 14% and 99%, respectively. It seems that the success rate of detailed history is high for negative prediction. However, detailed history alone does not seem to be efficient for atopy prediction. Copyright © 2010 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Medical clowns ease anxiety and pain perceived by children undergoing allergy prick skin tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, A; Stauber, T; Peleg, O; Hanuka, P; Eshayek, L; Confino-Cohen, R

    2014-10-01

    Intervention of medical clowns (MC) during various medical procedures performed in children has been used to relieve anxiety and pain. Their role in allergy skin testing has never been evaluated. To evaluate whether MC can diminish pain and anxiety perceived by children undergoing allergy skin prick tests (SPT). In a prospective, randomized, controlled, and blinded study, children undergoing SPT were or were not accompanied by MC. All parents and children ≥8 years completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) before and after SPT. Videotapes recorded during the procedure were scored for anxiety (m-YPAS) for all children and for pain (FLACC) for children 2-7 years old by a psychologist who was unaware of the MC's presence. After SPT, children ≥8 years completed a visual analog score (VAS) for pain. Ninety-one children (mean age 8.2 years, M/F = 54/37) were recruited of whom 45 were accompanied by clowns. A significant reduction in state-STAI was found in the clowns group, in both parents and children, when compared with the regular group (26.9 ± 6.6 and 32.3 ± 10.0; P = 0.004, and 27.1 ± 4.2 and 34.3 ± 7.6; P = 0.002, respectively). Both m-YPAS and FLACC were reduced in the clowns group compared with the regular one. In the clowns group, m-YPAS positively correlated with both VAS and FLACC (P = 0.000 and 0.002, respectively). m-YPAS was positively correlated with FLACC in the regular group (P = 0.000). Medical clowns significantly decrease the level of anxiety perceived by both children undergoing allergy SPT and their parents, as well as the pain perceived by young children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. GA(2)LEN skin test study I: GA(2)LEN harmonization of skin prick testing: novel sensitization patterns for inhalant allergens in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinzerling, L M; Burbach, G J; Edenharter, G

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin prick testing is the standard for diagnosing IgE-mediated allergies. However, different allergen extracts and different testing procedures have been applied by European allergy centres. Thus, it has been difficult to compare results from different centres or studies across Europe....... It was, therefore, crucial to standardize and harmonize procedures in allergy diagnosis and treatment within Europe. AIMS: The Global Asthma and Allergy European Network (GA(2)LEN), with partners and collaborating centres across Europe, was in a unique position to take on this task. The current study...... is the first approach to implement a standardized procedure for skin prick testing in allergies against inhalant allergens with a standardized pan-European allergen panel. METHODS: The study population consisted of patients who were referred to one of the 17 participating centres in 14 European countries (n...

  13. Clinical features of allergic rhinitis and skin prick test analysis based on the ARIA classification: a preliminary study in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha'ari, Zamzil Amin; Yusof, Suhaimi; Ismail, Rushdan; Che Hussin, Che Maraina

    2010-08-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a prevalent disease worldwide but is still underdiagnosed in many parts of Asia. We studied the clinical profiles of AR patients in our community based on the new ARIA classification and investigated the aetiological allergens using a skin prick test. In 2008, 142 newly diagnosed patients with AR were seen and underwent skin prick testing with 90 patients completing the study. Intermittent mild and moderate/severe AR were evident in 10% and 21.1% of the patients, while persistent mild and moderate/severe were seen in 20% and 48.9%, respectively. Rhinitis and asthma co-morbidity occurred in 28.8% with asthma incidence significantly higher in persistent AR (P = 0.002). There was no significant association between AR severity, city living and asthma co-morbidity. Nasal itchiness and sneezing were the main presenting complaints and were more common in intermittent AR (P Sleep disturbance was associated with moderate-severe AR (P <0.05). Polypoidal mucosa was associated with asthma co-morbidity (P <0.05). Monosensitivity reaction occurred in 12.2% of patients and was associated with fungi sensitivity (P <0.05). Majority of patients were oligosensitive (52.8%) and polysensitive (34.4%) and were significantly associated with moderate-severe persistent AR (P <0.01). The highest positive skin prick reaction and the largest average wheal diameter were for the house dust mites and cat allergen (P <0.05). Our results reflected the AR profiles in our country, which was comparable with typical profiles of the neighbouring country and other Mediterranean countries with a similar temperate climate.

  14. Sensitivity Comparison of the Skin Prick Test and Serum and Fecal Radio Allergosorbent Test (RAST in Diagnosis of Food Allergy in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Kianifar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diagnosis of food allergy is difficult in children. Food allergies are diagnosed using several methods that include medical histories, clinical examinations, skin prick and serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE tests, radio-allergosorbent test (RAST, food challenge, and supervised elimination diets. In this study we evaluated allergies to cow's milk, egg, peanut, and fish in children with suspected food allergies with skin prick tests and serum and feces RAST. Methods: Forty-one children with clinical symptoms of food allergies were enrolled in the study. Skin prick tests and serum and fecal RAST were performed and compared with challenge tests. Results: The most common sites of food allergy symptoms were gastrointestinal (82.9% and skin (48.8%. 100% of the patients responded to the challenge tests with cow’s milk, egg, peanut, and fish. 65% of the patients tested positive with the skin prick test, 12.1% tested positive with serum RAST, and 29.2% tested positive with fecal RAST. Conclusions: The skin prick test was more sensitive than serum or fecal RAST, and fecal RAST was more than twice as sensitive as serum RAST.

  15. Sensitivity Comparison of the Skin Prick Test and Serum and Fecal Radio Allergosorbent Test (RAST) in Diagnosis of Food Allergy in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianifar, Hamid Reza; Pourreza, Alireza; Jabbari Azad, Farahzad; Yousefzadeh, Hadis; Masomi, Fatemeh

    2016-04-01

    Diagnosis of food allergy is difficult in children. Food allergies are diagnosed using several methods that include medical histories, clinical examinations, skin prick and serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) tests, radio-allergosorbent test (RAST), food challenge, and supervised elimination diets. In this study we evaluated allergies to cow's milk, egg, peanut, and fish in children with suspected food allergies with skin prick tests and serum and feces RAST. Forty-one children with clinical symptoms of food allergies were enrolled in the study. Skin prick tests and serum and fecal RAST were performed and compared with challenge tests. The most common sites of food allergy symptoms were gastrointestinal (82.9%) and skin (48.8%). 100% of the patients responded to the challenge tests with cow's milk, egg, peanut, and fish. 65% of the patients tested positive with the skin prick test, 12.1% tested positive with serum RAST, and 29.2% tested positive with fecal RAST. The skin prick test was more sensitive than serum or fecal RAST, and fecal RAST was more than twice as sensitive as serum RAST.

  16. Prevention of pruritus with ethyl-chloride in skin prick test: a double-blind placebo-controlled prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal-Oz, Amir; Kivity, Shmuel; Shacham, Yacov; Fiszer, Elisheva; Rogowsky, Ori; Chernin, Gil

    2015-01-01

    Ethyl-chloride (EC) spray was recently shown to be an effective antipruritic agent, when given 15 min after histamine skin-prick test (SPT), without changing the wheal and flare reaction. We aimed to investigate the antipruritic effect of EC on SPT, when given prior to SPT. A double-blind placebo-controlled prospective study. Overall, 44 volunteers underwent histamine SPT on both arms to trigger local pruritus. Prior to test, they were randomly treated with EC spray on one arm and saline spray (placebo) on the other. Subjects as well as researchers were blinded to the type of applied sprays. The wheal and flare reaction was measured after the SPT and subjects reported the intensity of pruritus following EC/placebo using a validated pruritus questionnaire (indexes 1-3) and a visual analog scale (VAS). Significant improvement in pruritus was reported following treatment with EC compared with placebo for all four studied parameters. Index 1 in EC 3.7 ± 2.3 versus 5 ± 3.5 (p = 0.007) in placebo, index 2 in EC 2.6 ± 2.1 versus 3.8 ± 2.8 (p = 0.002) in placebo, index 3 of EC 6.3 ± 3.8 versus 8.8 ± 5.8 (p = 0.03) and VAS in EC 3.7 ± 1.9 versus 4.4 ± 2.3 (p = 0.003). There were no significant differences between EC and placebo in terms of the wheal and flare indurations area. Ethyl-chloride has an effective antipruritic agent, when given before histamine SPT. Its use did not change the wheal and flare reaction, making it ideal for prevention of pruritus, secondary to allergy skin test, without masking the results.

  17. Skin prick test and basophil reactivity to cetuximab in patients with IgE to alpha-gal and allergy to red meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, S; Scherer, K; Heijnen, I A F M; Bircher, A J

    2014-03-01

    Severe hypersensitivity reactions to red meat with delay of several hours in patients with IgE to alpha-gal (galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose) have been reported. The diagnosis of meat allergy is difficult, because of the limited sensitivity of skin prick tests and specific IgE tests to meat extracts. These circumstances have been explained by the delayed expression of alpha-gal due to digestive processes. Because of the low sensitivity of skin prick tests to meat, we studied the possibility to perform skin prick tests with cetuximab, which carries the alpha-gal epitope. Skin prick and intradermal tests with cetuximab were clearly positive in 2 of 2 patients. As a further diagnostic step, we performed basophil activation tests with cetuximab. Skin prick tests and basophil activation test using cetuximab may be a more sensitive alternative in patients with an assumed allergy to meat. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Skin Prick Test Results of Canakkale Onsekizmart University Faculty of Medicine Dermatology Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Isik

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study we aimed to evaluate the prick test results of the patients with chronic urticaria, allergic rhinitis, sinusitis conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, allergic asthma and atopic dermatitis who attended to dermatology department of Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University Faculty of Medicine. Material and Method: The prick test results of 583 patients with chronic urticaria, allergic rhinitis, sinusitis, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, allergic asthma, atopic dermatitis were assessed retrospectively for this study. 50 standard allergens including pollens, grass, weed, fungal allergens, latex, cat fur, dog hair, house dust mites and foods were performed to the patients. Results: The ages of the patients were between 3 and 70 (mean age was 30.6±17.5. At least one positive prick test result to any allergen were obtained in 359 patients (61.6%. The most common allergens were; house dust mites (50.5%, weed(28.8%, polen grains(29%, tomato (13.7%, coffee (13.1%, chicken meat (13.0% and chocolate (12.7%, respectively. Discussion: We think that our study will help to contribute to the allergen map of our country.

  19. Comparison between Siriraj mite allergen vaccine and standardized commercial mite vaccine by skin prick testing in normal Thai adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visitsunthorn, Nualanong; Pacharn, Punchama; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai; Weeravejsukit, Sirirat; Sripramong, Chaweewan; Sookrung, Nitat; Bunnag, Chaweewan

    2010-03-01

    House dust mite is a major cause of allergic asthma and rhinitis in Thai population. Skin prick test (SPT) is a useful tool for the diagnosis of the IgE-mediated reactions. The imported commercial mite vaccine for SPT is available but it is relatively expensive. Aim of this study is to compare Siriraj Mite Allergen Vaccine (SMAV) with standardized commercial mite allergen vaccine by skin prick testing in normal Thai adults. A double blind, self-controlled study between the SMAV and standardized commercial mite allergen vaccine was performed by SPT in 17 normal Thai adult males and non-pregnant or non-lactating females aged 18-60 years. The study showed that 35.29 % of non atopic adults had positive SPT reaction to Dp and Df of both SMAV and standardized commercial mite allergen vaccine. Mean wheal and flare diameters from SPT of Dp and Df of SMAV showed strong correlation with standardized commercial mite allergen vaccine (r= 0.768 and 0.897 in Dp and Df respectively, p standardized commercial mite allergen vaccine. No systemic or large local reaction was found in any of the study cases.

  20. Skin prick testing to food allergens in breast-fed young infants with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennick, Gordon J; Moore, Elizabeth; Orchard, David C

    2006-02-01

    SUMMARY The role of food allergy in atopic dermatitis is controversial. This study presents results of skin prick tests to 31 different food allergens in a selected population of predominantly breast-fed young infants who had moderate to severe generalized atopic dermatitis. Of the 59 infants (22 female, mean age 26.5 weeks) tested, 54 infants (91.5%) had positive responses to one or more foods, 53 infants (90%) were positive to one or more of the five common food allergens (egg white, cow's milk, peanuts, wheat or soy) and 80% were positive to egg white, which was by far the most common positive test. A total of 37 infants had strongly positive responses to one or more foods, with 33 of these 37 having strongly positive responses to egg white. The significance of these responses is discussed. It is concluded that positive skin prick tests to foods, particularly to egg white, are very common in this selected population of breast-fed infants with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis.

  1. A New Diagnostic Way for Behcet's Disease: Skin Prick with Self-Saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumio Kaneko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Behcet's disease (BD is a mysterious multisystemic disorder characterized by recurrent involvement of mucocutaneous (including recurrent aphthous stomatitis; RAS, ocular, intestinal, vascular, and/or nervous system organs. Previously, the positivity of “pathergy test”, which is one of the diagnostic examinations, was reported to be related to the possession of HLA-B51 gene in BD patients, even though the positivity is low and different from the countries. Here, instead of the ordinal pathergy test, we would like to propose the prick with self-saliva as a new diagnostic way for patients with RAS of BD based on the genetic intrinsic factors including HLA-B51 and extrinsic triggering factors. BD patients are considered to acquire the hypersensitivity against oral streptococci through the innate immune mechanism in the oral cavity. Bes-1 gene and 65 kD of heat shock protein (HSP-65 derived from oral S. sanguinis are supposed to play important roles as extrinsic factors in BD pathogenesis. Although the prick positivity was not related to the possession of HLA-B51 gene, the method is suggested to be a significant way for BD diagnosis. The results also suggest that BD symptoms are due to the vascular immune responses by monocytes expressed oral streptococcal agents of the patients.

  2. Two screening methods for detection of specific IgE to inhalant allergens. Comparison with skin prick test and RAST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scordamaglia, A; Passalacqua, G; Ruffoni, S; Parodi, M N; Ciprandi, G; Canonica, G W

    1991-10-01

    We analyzed the technical features of two new screening methods for detection of specific IgE to inhalant allergens. Moreover, their diagnostic accuracy was evaluated comparing the results obtained from the procedures with those from RAST and skin prick test (SPT) in a group of 30 symptomatic allergic patients. The procedures employ a classic ELISA method, where the presence of IgE is revealed by a colored reaction. These two assays appeared to be quick, inexpensive and easy to use. The results obtained showed significant correlations with both RAST and SPT, in particular for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Parietaria officinalis and grasses, which are the allergens chiefly responsible for respiratory atopy in our area.

  3. False-positive skin prick test responses to commercially available dog dander extracts caused by contamination with house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, M. J.; Mulder, M.; Witteman, A. M.; van Ree, R.; Aalberse, R. C.; Jansen, H. M.; van der Zee, J. S.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In an outpatient population, a high frequency of positive skin prick test responses to dog dander was found in the absence of detectable IgE to dog dander in the RAST. The majority of these patients were sensitized to house dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) and had no obvious

  4. Criteria for prick test using soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Keiji; Sugiura, Mariko

    2012-05-01

    We previously reported four cases of soy sauce allergy and noted that new criteria are necessary for the prick test. Soy sauce contains histamine and often causes false-positive reactions in the skin tests. It is important to discuss how to interpret the results of prick tests. Eight female patients with soy sauce allergy and four female volunteers as controls were given the prick test using 15 sauces and were evaluated according to nine criteria. The volume of histamine in 15 sauces was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The conventional criteria resulted in nine different reactions. Some of the control subjects showed false-positive reactions according to the conventional criteria. Histamine was detected in 11 sauces and was not detected in four sauces. The positive ratios of these four sauces were low; there were no positive reactions in controls according to the new criteria. Regardless of patients or controls, the positive ratio evaluated using the conventional criteria was higher than that evaluated using the new criteria in the sauces containing histamine. It is difficult to evaluate the results of the prick test using soy sauce with the conventional criteria because the results were different depending on each criterion. Our new criteria are more suitable for evaluating the results of the prick test using soy sauce than the conventional criteria, and they could decrease the number of false-positive reactions. Common diagnostic criteria are needed for prick testing using pseudoallergens. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  5. Wheal and flare reactions in skin prick tests of patients treated with montelukast alone or in combination with antihistamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciebiada, Malgorzata Gorska; Barylski, Marcin; Ciebiada, Maciej

    2014-03-01

    Because antileukotrienes may inhibit inflammation, it is plausible that montelukast administered for a long time could suppress skin wheal and flare reaction, and thus, it should be discarded prior to the tests. This study assessed the effect of long-lasting treatment with montelukast alone or in combination with antihistamines on wheal and flare in skin pricks tests (SPT) in patients sensitized to perennial allergens. We conducted a 32-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over and randomized trial that implicated two arms: arm A, 20 patients received levocetirizine, montelukast with or without levocetirizine or placebo; arm B, 20 patients received desloratadine, montelukast with or without desloratadine or placebo. All treatment periods lasted 6 weeks and were separated by 2-week washouts. At baseline and on the last day of each treatment period, SPT were performed in all participants. Both levocetirizine and desloratadine in monotherapy, or in combination with montelukast, were effective in reducing wheal and flare in SPT. Monotherapy with montelukast did not change the size of the wheal for either histamine or for house dust mites, in either arm of the study, but significantly reduced the size of flare for histamine in arm A. Addition of montelukast to antihistamine did not exceed efficacy of monotherapy with antihistamine in both arms of the study. Since the size of wheal determines the results of SPT, montelukast, even taken for a long time, does not have to be discarded prior to the tests.

  6. Sensitization to cereals and peanut evidenced by skin prick test and specific IgE in food-tolerant, grass pollen allergic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martens Maria

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test (SPT and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without history of, and clinically reactions to foods botanically related to grass. Methods 70 subjects (41 females; mean age 32 years and 20 healthy controls (13 females; mean age 24 years were tested by open food challenge (OFC with cereals and peanut. SPT and sIgE both with Immulite® (Siemens and ImmunoCAP® (Phadia to grass and birch pollen, cereals, peanut and bromelain were performed. Results Of the 65 OFC-negative subjects 29-46% (SPT, depending on cut-off, 20% (Immulite and 38% (ImmunoCAP had positive results to one or more of the foods tested. Controls were negative in all tests. Cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD as evidenced by reaction to bromelain could explain only a minority of the measured IgE-sensitizations. Conclusion Grass pollen allergic patients with documented food tolerance to cereals and peanut may express significant sensitization. False-positive cereal or peanut allergy diagnoses may be a quantitatively important problem both in routine clinical work and epidemiological studies.

  7. A guide to performing skin-prick testing in practice: tips and tricks of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In practice, it is critical to identify the offending allergen in atopic individuals. This will not only influence therapeutic interventions, but may also have a significant impact on the individual's quality of life. The most common clinical test for allergy detection is the introduction of an allergen directly into the skin in the form of a ...

  8. Prediction of new-onset asthma and nasal allergy by skin prick test and RAST in a cohort of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallmeier, Kerstin; Becker, Eva; Kirsten, Anne; Wölke, Gabriele; Manuwald, Olaf; Meyer, Heike; Magnussen, Helgo; Nowak, Dennis; Heinrich, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Limited information exists regarding the incidence and predictors of asthma and nasal allergy in adulthood. We determined the incidence rate of asthma and nasal allergy in adults and assessed the predictive value of skin prick tests (SPTs) and radioallergosorbent tests (RASTs) for these two outcomes. Two German centres involved in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey conducted a follow-up assessment in 2012 of the baseline participants (1185 adults aged 21-47 years assessed in 1990). The predictive value of SPTs and RASTs on new-onset asthma and nasal allergy was assessed by Cox regression and by calculating the positive or negative predictive value. During the 20 years between baseline and follow-up, 3.1 and 4.4 per 1000 person-years of new-onset asthma and nasal allergy cases were recorded, respectively. The hazard ratios for SPTs of any specific and of all aeroallergens combined were slightly higher than those of RASTs for asthma and nasal allergy. The negative predictive values of both the SPT and RAST were very high and similar (0.94-0.96), whereas the postive predictive values were low (0.09-0.20). Positive SPT results showed a better association with new onset asthma and nasal allergy than positive RAST either to any specific aeroallergens or to all combined.

  9. Predictive value of the cow?s milk skin prick test in infantile colic

    OpenAIRE

    Moravej, Hossein; Imanieh, Mohammad H.; Kashef, Sara; Handjani, Farhad; Eghterdari, Fardin

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Infantile colic is a common problem among young infants. Cow?s milk allergy has been suggested as one of the causes. We aimed to investigate the value of the cow?s milk skin test for the diagnosis of cow?s milk allergy in exclusively breast-fed infants with infantile colic. METHODS: Exclusively breast-fed infants with infantile colic were enrolled in this study. On the first visit, the average hours of crying of the infant in a 24-h period were recorded and the cow?...

  10. Evaluation of the Frequency of Food and Aeroallergens in Patients with Eczema and Urticaria in Province of Bushehr: Based on Skin Prick Test Reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokrollah Farrokhi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years frequency of skin allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis (eczema and urticaria is reported to be high in the region. Identification of reactive allergens in different areas are very important in the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. The aim of this study was to determine frequency of common allergens in patients with skin allergies in province of Bushehr with regards to eczema and urticaria. Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study, 234 patients with urticarial and eczema were enrolled. The participants reacted to at least one allergen with SPT. Skin prick test with standard inhaled and food was performed on patients according to the herbal geography of the area. Results: Among 837 patients referred to allergy clinic, 91 patients had eczema and 143 had urticaria. The frequency of both eczema and urticaria was significantly higher in females than in males. The most common food allergens in patients with eczema were almond (56.6%, walnut (47.7% and soybean (46.1%. And in patients with urticaria were almond (58%, walnut (53.1% and tomato (48.2%. Also, aeroallergens in the subjects were house dust mite (HDM (63.7%, Russian thistle (57.7% and Alternaria alternara (51.6%. Meanwhile, the common aeroallergens in the patients were HDM (66.4%, Russian thistle (52.4% and date palm (51%. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that almond and walnut are important food allergens in participants with eczema and urticaria. Moreover, SPT reactivity was positive with aeroallergens such as HDM and weeds.

  11. [Correlation between the magnitude of skin prick test reactivity and pollen-specific serum IgE levels in patients with respiratory allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlachi-Corona, Laura; Caballero-López, Chrystopherson Gengyny; López-García, Aída Inés; Papaqui-Tapia, Sergio; Arana-Muñoz, Oswaldo; Carcaño-Pérez, María Socorro Yolanda; Marín-Marín, Araceli; Garrido-Priego, Fabiola

    2014-01-01

    For the etiological diagnosis of allergic respiratory diseases skin tests or specific serum IgE determination are used. To determine the correlation between the extent of reactivity to cutaneous prick tests and the levels of pollen specific serum IgE in patients with respiratory allergy. A prolective, descriptive and transversal study was done with patients of both genders, aged 2 to 60 years, who attended for the first time at the service of Allergy and Clinical Immunology of University Hospital of Puebla, Mexico, with presumptive diagnosis of respiratory allergy. All patients underwent clinical history, skin prick tests with standardized allergenic extracts and quantification of pollen specific serum IgE by chemiluminescence method. We estimated the correlation index r using the statistical method Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient; a value r equal to or higher than 0.70 was considered a significant relationship or a high correlation. Nine-one patients were included, of whom 58.2% were female. The diagnoses were: allergic rhinitis (79.1%), asthma and allergic rhinitis (16.5%) and only asthma (4.4%). Only significant correlation was found in patients with allergic rhinitis for Rumex crispus (r = 0.702) and in patients with asthma and rhinitis for Ambrosia trifida (r = 1). Only for Rumex crispus and Ambrosia trifida, the skin prick tests or the determination of specific serum IgE levels are comparable diagnostic methods of allergic respiratory diseases.

  12. Diagnostic value of scratch-chamber test, skin prick test, histamine release and specific IgE in birch-allergic patients with oral allergy syndrome to apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osterballe, M; Scheller, R; Stahl Skov, P

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to examine the diagnostic value of skin prick test (SPT), scratch-chamber test (SCT), histamine release (HR) and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in birch-allergic patients with oral allergy syndrome to apple. METHODS: Ten birch-allergic patients with oral...... allergy syndrome to apple and 10 control subjects were included. All were tested with SPT, SCT, HR and specific IgE [CAP, Pharmacia, Sweden and Magic Lite (ML), ALK-ABELLO, Denmark]. RESULTS: The SPT with apple, acetone extract of apple (A72) and commercial apple extract showed sensitivities of 0.80, 0.......90 and 0.10, respectively. The SCT with the same extracts showed sensitivities of 0.30, 0.50 and 0.20, respectively. The sensitivity of specific IgE to apple were 0.90 (CAP) and 0.10 (ML). The sensitivity of the HR test was 90% (A72), and 25% using the commercial extract. CONCLUSION: The SPT and HR test...

  13. Comparison of the skin-prick test and Phadia ImmunoCAP as tools to diagnose house-dust mite allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yong Gi; Cho, Hyun-Jin; Park, Ga Young; Min, Jin-Young; Kim, Hyo Yeol; Dhong, Hun-Jong; Chung, Seung Kyu; Kim, Seon Woo

    2010-01-01

    When the skin-prick test (SPT) and in vitro test such as ImmunoCAP assay are performed simultaneously, results do not always coincide in some patients. Our objectives, therefore, were (1) to assess differences in allergic test results according to age group and (2) to establish appropriate guidelines for diagnosing mite allergy according to age. A total of 692 participants complaining of allergic rhinitis symptoms participated. Patients were divided according to age; the mean age was 32 years (range, 8-76 years). The SPT and ImmunoCAP assays were performed to detect allergies to house-dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae). The association between age and the result of each allergy test were examined, and a cutoff age for proper application of each test was than estimated. Three hundred thirty-six patients (48.6%) were allergic to D. pteronyssinus and 350 patients (50.6%) were allergic to D. farinae. In the case of D. pteronyssinus, SPT was proved to be more useful in detecting allergy for subjects 30 years old (p allergy tests according to age using true allergens. For patients >50 years of age, the ImmunoCAP was found to be the preferred method for detecting allergy to house-dust mites and for patients <30 years old, SPT is the recommended first choice.

  14. Is asthma caused by atopy (positive skin prick tests)? Epidemiologic evidence suggests a negative answer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchetti, Roberto; Jesenak, Milos; Ronchetti, Francesco; Rennerova, Zuzana

    2010-06-01

    In this paper we shortly discuss epidemiological data on the relationship between asthma and atopy according to recent personal and literature epidemiological publications. The coexistence in several subjects of asthma (and of other "atopic" diseases) and IgE hyperproduction generated the dogma that these two biological conditions are mainly genetic in origin and are linked by a strong casual relationship. In the last decades atopy increased at 5-10 % annual rate and at present atopy prevalence, although variable in different countries, reaches somewhere the prevalence of more than 60 %. Similarly, asthma prevalence increased in the last decades, especially so in western and English speaking countries, reaching in certain countries prevalence values higher than 40 %. For these reasons, although certainly dependent on a genetic predisposition, atopy and asthma can nowadays be considered to be largely determined by environmental factors. Moreover, the analysis of epidemiological data derived from studies conducted worldwide, showed that the prevalence of the two conditions were clearly not correlated so that in certain countries with a 50-60% prevalence of atopy asthma prevalence is lower than 2-6 %, while in other countries asthma prevalence is double than atopy prevalence. Further, in countries with high atopy, the prevalence this conditions is high both in asthmatics and in normal subjects and in the places where asthma prevalence reaches high levels this condition is high both in atopic and non atopic people. In conclusion, epidemiological data show that environmental factors affecting asthma prevalence are different from those affecting atopy prevalence and that subjects bearing one of the two conditions don't show any preferential tendency to develop the other one. From aetiological and pathogenetic point of view asthma and atopy appear to be independent conditions We therefore believe that the association between asthma and atopy demonstrated in almost all the

  15. Validitas Hasil Pemeriksaan Skin Prick Test terhadap Imunoglobulin E RAST Tungau Debu Rumah dan Debu Rumah pada Dermatitis Atopik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeyen Yovita Mulyana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In extrinsic type atopic dermatitis (AD there is an increased of specific immunoglobulin (IgE towards house dust mites (HDM and house dust (HD, resulting in positive skin prick test (SPT. The method of this study was cross sectional, analytic-observational, to find validity of SPT toward HDM and HD IgE radioallergosorbent (RAST in AD patients. The study was held from August to November 2011 in Department of Dermatovenereology Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient was used for statistical analysis. The results showed positive SPT to HDM in AD patients were statistically significant higher than non-AD. Positive SPT to HD in AD patients were higher than non-AD but statistically non significant. Value of HDM SPT positivity and IgE RAST in AD was directly proportional, but not with HD. There was a higher positivity of HMD SPT in AD patients (15/16 than in non-AD (5/16. Positivity value of HDM SPT was proportional to the HDM IgE RAST in AD patients with Spearman’s Rank correlation coefficient 0.541 (p=0.031. The results of HDM SPT toward HDM IgE RAST in AD patients showed higher validity sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, 100%, 25% and 81% respectively, while HD SPT toward HD IgE RAST with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy 43%, 78% and 63% respectively. In conclusions, HDM TDR examination could be used as a marker for AD diagnosis, due to positive HDM TDR examination result could give a meaning of increased specific IgE with RAST IgE examination.

  16. Comparison of the Performance of Skin Prick, ImmunoCAP, and ISAC Tests in the Diagnosis of Patients with Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Rebecca L M; El-Shanawany, Tariq; Jolles, Stephen R A; Selwood, Clive; Heaps, Adrian G; Carne, Emily M; Williams, Paul E

    2017-01-01

    Allergy is diagnosed from typical symptoms, and tests are performed to incriminate the suspected precipitant. Skin prick tests (SPTs) are commonly performed, inexpensive, and give immediate results. Laboratory tests (ImmunoCAP) for serum allergen-specific IgE antibodies are usually performed more selectively. The immuno-solid phase allergen chip (ISAC) enables testing for specific IgE against multiple allergen components in a multiplex assay. We retrospectively analysed clinic letters, case notes, and laboratory results of 118 patients attending the National Adult Allergy Service at the University Hospital of Wales who presented diagnostic difficulty, to evaluate which testing strategy (SPT, ImmunoCAP, or ISAC) was the most appropriate to use to confirm the diagnosis in these complex patients, evaluated in a "real-life" clinical service setting. In patients with nut allergy, the detection rates of SPTs (56%) and ISAC (65%) were lower than those of ImmunoCAP (71%). ISAC had a higher detection rate (88%) than ImmunoCAP (69%) or SPT (33%) in the diagnosis of oral allergy syndrome. ImmunoCAP test results identified all 9 patients with anaphylaxis due to wheat allergy (100%), whereas ISAC was positive in only 6 of these 9 (67%). In this difficult diagnostic group, the ImmunoCAP test should be the preferred single test for possible allergy to nuts, wheat, other specific foods, and anaphylaxis of any cause. In these conditions, SPT and ISAC tests give comparable results. The most useful single test for oral allergy syndrome is ISAC, and SPT should be the preferred test for latex allergy. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Role of skin prick test in allergic disorders: A prospective study in Kashmiri population in light of review

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    Roohi Rasool

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin prick test (SPT is the most effective diagnostic test to detect IgE mediated type I allergic reactions like allergic rhinitis, atopic asthma, acute urticaria, food allergy etc. SPTs are done to know allergic sensitivity and applied for devising immunotherapy as the therapeutic modality. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted in the department of Immunology and Molecular medicine at SKIMS. A total of 400 patients suffering from allergic rhinitis, asthma and urticaria were recruited in this study. SPT was performed with panel of allergens including house dust mite, pollens, fungi, dusts, cockroach, sheep wool and dog epithelia. Allergen immunotherapy was given to allergic rhinitis and asthmatic patients as therapeutic modality. Results: In our study, age of patients ranged from 6 to 65 years. Majority of patients were in the age group of 20-30 years (72% with Male to female ratio of 1:1.5. Of the 400 patients, 248 (62% had urticaria, 108 (27% patients had allergic rhinitis and 44 (11% patients had asthma. SPT reaction was positive in 38 (86.4% with allergic asthma, 74 (68.5% patients with allergic rhinitis and 4 (1.6% patient with urticaria, respectively. Allergen immunotherapy was effective in 58% patients with allergic rhinitis and 42% allergic asthma. Conclusion: Identifiable aeroallergen could be detected in 86.4% allergic asthma and 68.5% allergic rhinitis patients by SPT alone. Pollens were the most prevalent causative allergen. There was significant relief in the severity of symptoms, medication intake with the help of allergen immunotherapy.

  18. Evaluation of autologous serum skin test and skin prick test reactivity to house dust mite in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria.

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    Zhiqiang Song

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU is a common skin disorder with etiology that is not well understood. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of autologous serum skin test (ASST and skin prick testing (SPT to house dust mite (HDM in 862 CSU cases in China. Clinical features, courses and treatment responses were also recorded. RESULTS: The prevalence of positive ASST was 46.3%, and patients aged 30-39 years had the highest positive rate (52.1%. Positive SPT to HDM was seen in 153 patients (17.7% with the highest positive rate (34.2% in patients aged 20 or less. Patients with positive ASST had higher urticaria activity scores (UAS (4.18±0.65 vs. 3.67±0.53 but lower positive rates of HDM (24.6% vs. 37.6%, as compared with those with negative ASST (odds ratio (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.38-2.47. Patients could be categorized into four groups based on the results of ASST and SPT to HDM and patients with positive ASST and positive SPT to HDM had the highest disease activity scores, experienced higher frequencies of angioedema, diseases duration, and required higher dosage of loratadine every month, compared with other subgroups (P<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with CSU showed varied responses of positive ASST and varied sensitivity to HDM, Patients with positive ASST and/or positive SPT had more disease activity compared with patients with negative ASST and/or negative SPT. Further classification can be made based on the result of SPT and ASST.

  19. House dust mite-related allergic diseases: role of skin prick test, atopy patch test, and RAST in the diagnosis of different manifestations of allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuiano, Nicola; Fusilli, Saverio; Incorvaia, Cristoforo

    2010-07-01

    The atopy patch test (APT) was recently defined as an important tool in diagnosis of atopic dermatitis (AD) and also of rhinitis and asthma caused by hypersensitivity to the house dust mites. We evaluated 465 children (279 males and 186 females) aged 0.4-17.6 years (mean 6.6 +/- 3.8 years), by dividing them into four groups: group A, current AD (40 patients); group B, current AD with respiratory symptoms (156 patients); group C, past AD with respiratory symptoms (203 patients); and the control group, respiratory symptoms with no history of AD (66 patients). The APT was significantly more frequently positive in groups with current AD (groups A and B) or past AD (group C) than in the control group, while skin prick test (SPT) and radioallergosorbent test (RAST) were significantly more frequently positive in the control group. With multivariate analysis, for APT, significant differences were found in the comparison between group A vs group B (odds ratio (OR) 1.55) and between group A vs group C (OR 1.81). The mean age was significantly lower in group A than in groups B, C, and the control group and with less significance in groups C vs D. Children sensitized to mites with current or past AD, with or without respiratory symptoms, have a different response to diagnostic tests, which is characterized by a highly significantly more frequent positive APT in comparison with subjects who have respiratory symptoms but a negative history for AD, who show the common response to SPT and RAST.

  20. Specific immune response to Parietaria judaica plant profilin: a low T cell proliferative response supports high IgE and skin prick test.

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    Benítez, D; García-Ortega, P; Picado, C; Milà, J; Vives, J; Martínez, J; Vilella, R

    2002-01-01

    allergic disease caused by Parietaria judaica (Pj) has been widely documented in Mediterranean area. Profilins have been identified as widely distributed allergenic proteins. The role of Pj profilin in specific immune response in Pj-sensitized patients is unknown. skin prick test and determination of specific and total IgE levels in serum were performed in all patients (n = 28) and non-allergic controls (n = 18). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from both groups and stimulated with crude extract or highly purified Pj profilin. The production of type I and type II cytokines was determined by specific and polyclonal stimuli in patients and controls. T-cell lines specific to Pj profilin were established and cross-reactivity with another highly purified profilin from Phleum pratense (Phl p) was evaluated. Pj profilin-sensitized patients showed a small but significantly increased in T-cell proliferative response to this profilin compared with non-atopic controls. The production of interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon (IFN)-γ in response to the specific stimulus was undetectable. However, the production of IL-4 in response to a polyclonal stimulus [phytohemagglutinin (PHA)] was significantly higher in atopic patients than in controls. The T-cell response did not correlate with the magnitude of response to skin prick tests with Pj profilin or with Pj-specific serum IgE levels. In addition, the production of IL-4 in response to a polyclonal stimulus (PHA) did not correlate with the individual skin prick tests to Pj profilin or with Pj-specific IgE levels in serum. The T-cell lines tested showed no cross-reactivity with Phl p profilin. our results suggest that Pj profilin is partly responsible for the T-cell-mediated response in patients allergic to Pj. The high skin reactivity to Pj profilin is these patients was accompanied by a small increase in the T-cell response to this profilin. The response was highly specific since Pj profilin specific T

  1. [Anaphylaxis after carrying out prick tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Cortés, S; Robledo Echarren, T; Bartolomé, B; García-Rubio, I; González Gutiérrez, M L; Martínez-Cócera, C

    2007-02-01

    The skin prick test (SPT) is a simple and fast method used routinely in allergology practice. Systemic reactions have been described with this technique on few occasions. We are presenting a case of anaphylaxis with hemodynamic consequences after carrying out skin prick test with a cat dander extract. A 23 years old female who suffered rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma following contact with cats. We performed skin prick test with a battery of the usual inhalants. Twenty minutes after carrying out the prick test the patient showed intense ocular irritation and reddening followed by dysphonia and a feeling of pharyngeal occupation. Although skin prick test is a safe diagnostic approach, it should be performed only in places equipped to treat anaphylaxis and for trained specialists .

  2. The results of skin prick testing in patients with allergic rhinitis: a comparison between a multiple lancet device and a single lancet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateş, Aşkin; Kinikli, Gülay; Turgay, Murat; Aydoğan, Nergis; Duman, Murat

    2004-01-01

    Skin prick testing (SPT) is widely used in the assessment of allergic disorders. Different SPT techniques are widely used. The aim of this study was to compare the response to SPT using a multiple lancet device (MLD) with the results of a single lancet (SL). Fifty patients with allergic rhinitis were included in this study. Initially, SPT was performed by a SL technique. After one week SPT was repeated using the MLD on all patients. The patients were tested with a panel containing 19 specific allergens including grass pollen, tree pollen, house dust mites, weed pollen allergen extracts, histamine and a negative control. The skin responses were recorded after 15 minutes for each device by measuring the diameter of the wheal and the erythema. The skin wheal responses for grass pollen, tree pollen, weed pollen and house dust mite allergen extracts obtained using the SL were generally significantly larger than those using the MLD. The comparison between the MLD and the SL methods revealed that SPT was positive with SL and negative with MLD in 176 tests (15.3%), and on the contrary SPT was positive with MLD and negative with SL in only 13 tests (1%). In conclusion, we claim that SPT using SL shows a higher degree of sensitivity and reproducibility.

  3. Anaphylaxis after carrying out prick tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vázquez-Cortés, S; Robledo Echarren, T; Bartolomé, B; García-Rubio, I; González Gutiérrez, M L; Martínez-Cócera, C

    2007-01-01

    .... Systemic reactions have been described with this technique on few occasions. We are presenting a case of anaphylaxis with hemodynamic consequences after carrying out skin prick test with a cat dander extract...

  4. Limited influence of aspirin intake on mast cell activation in patients with food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis: comparison using skin prick and histamine release tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Atsushi; Shimizu, Hideki; Tanaka, Mami; Kikuzawa, Ayuko; Tsujimoto, Mariko; Sekimukai, Akiko; Yamashita, Junji; Horikawa, Tatsuya; Nishigori, Chikako

    2012-09-01

    Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA) is a severe systemic syndrome induced by physical exercise after ingesting causative food. Aspirin is a well-known trigger for anaphylaxis in patients with FDEIA. Possible mechanisms by which symptoms are aggravated by aspirin include enhanced antigen absorption and mast cell activation. The aim of this study was to determine whether aspirin intake has an influence on mast cell/basophil activation in patients with FDEIA. Provocation tests revealed that adding aspirin to the causative food challenge in 7 of 9 (77.8%) patients with FDEIA provoked symptoms. In most cases, pretreatment with aspirin did not enhance skin tests (71.4%) or histamine release tests (88.9%) with food allergen challenges. The study confirms that histamine release and skin prick tests can be adjunctive tools for diagnosing FDEIA. In addition, our results suggest that exacerbation of FDEIA symptoms by aspirin is not mediated by direct effects of aspirin on mast cell/basophil activation.

  5. [An analysis of skin prick test reactivity to dust mite in overweight and normal weight children with allergic asthma before and after specific immunotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Xue-Li; Huang, Xia; Xu, Xiao-Wen; Liang, Fan-Mei

    2016-04-01

    To study the skin prick test (SPT) reactivity to house dust mite allergens in overweight and normal weight children with allergic asthma before and after standard subcutaneous specific immunotherapy. Two hundred and fifteen children with allergic asthma who had positive SPT responses to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DP) and Dermatophagoides farinae (DF) were enrolled. According to the weight index, they were classified into overweight (n=63) and normal weight groups (n=152). Skin indices (SI) to DP and DF were compared between the two groups at 6 months and 1 year after standard subcutaneous specific immunotherapy. The overweight group had a significantly larger histamine wheal diameter than the normal weight group after controlling the variation in testing time (Presponses to histamine than the normal weight patients. Specific immunotherapy can reduce the reactivity to dust mite allergens in children with allergic asthma. Within one year after specific immunotherapy, the overweight children with allergic asthma have a significantly greater decrease in the reactivity to dust mite allergens than the normal weight patients.

  6. Sensitivity to Parietaria pollen in Izmir, Turkey as determined by skin prick and serum specific IgE values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzioğlu, E; Sin, A; Kokuludağ, A; Kirmaz, C; Erdem, N; Sebik, F; Kabakçi, T

    1998-01-01

    As the first study of its kind in the Aegean region of Turkey, we examined the incidence of sensitivity to Parietaria pollen in patients with allergic rhinitis and/or asthma living in the Mediterranean climate of the Aegean coast. On the Mediterranean, there are characteristic climatic conditions (mild winters, dry summers, etc.) which facilitate the growth of a typical vegetation and the production of allergenic pollen, such as that from Parietaria. These pollen types differ greatly from those of central and northern Europe. We skin tested 132 patients with a clinical history of seasonal rhinitis and/or asthma symptoms. Each patient was skin tested with extracts of grass, weed, tree and cereal pollens, and serum samples were collected for specific IgE assays for Parietaria. Sixty-nine of the 132 patients (52%) showed skin reactivity to Parietaria; seven of these (10%) had monosensitization to Parietaria. Fifty-six out of 69 patients (81%) had specific IgE in their serum to Parietaria pollen. Based on skin test reactions, we concluded that Parietaria is important in terms of clinical symptoms and that it is the most common weed pollen in the Aegean region in Turkey.

  7. Evaluation of a Novel Rapid Test System for the Detection of Allergic Sensitization to Timothy Grass Pollen against Established Laboratory Methods and Skin Prick Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lucassen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Type I hypersensitivity is driven by allergen specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE and thus sIgE represents a marker for modern allergy diagnosis. Recently, a rapid assay for the detection of sIgE, termed as (Allergy Lateral Flow Assay ALFA, has been developed. The objective of our study is the evaluation of a scanner-based system for the semiquantitative interpretation of ALFA results. Agreement to Skin Prick Test (SPT, Allergopharma, ALLERG-O-LIQ System (Dr. Fooke, and ImmunoCAP (Phadia was investigated using 50 sera tested for specific IgE to timothy grass pollen (g6. 35/50 sera were positive by SPT, ALLERG-O-LIQ, and ImmunoCAP. Excellent agreement was observed between ALFA results and SPT, ImmunoCAP, and ALLERG-O-LIQ. Area under the curve (AUC values were found at 1.0, and 100% sensitivity and specificity was found versus all other methods. Visual- and scanner-based interpretation of the ALFA results revealed excellent agreement.

  8. Two cases of pollen-food allergy syndrome to soy milk diagnosed by skin prick test, specific serum immunoglobulin E and microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagami, Akiko; Inaba, Yasuko; Kuno, Yuki; Suzuki, Kayoko; Tanaka, Akira; Sjolander, Sigrid; Saito, Hirohisa; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2009-01-01

    Oral allergy syndrome to soy milk is classified as a phenotype of pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS). As causative antigens, Gly m 4 (Bet v 1 homolog, 17 kD) and oleosin (23 kD), have been reported. In this study, we report two cases of PFAS to soy milk. Both cases showed positive reactions to soy milk in skin prick tests (SPT) and to Gly m 4 in specific serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E antibody. When we measured specific serum IgE antibody of soy-related proteins using a new laboratory testing method, microarray analysis, both cases showed a positive reaction for Bet v 1. One case was weakly positive for a soybean protein, beta-conglycinin. Other results for reactivity to soy, peanut, cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants and profilin were negative. Based on these results, we diagnosed the two cases as PFAS to Gly m 4. We also performed protein microarray analysis and found it useful as a screening test for immediate allergy, such as PFAS.

  9. Measurement of natural rubber latex allergen levels in medical gloves by allergen-specific IgE-ELISA inhibition, RAST inhibition, and skin prick test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palosuo, T; Mäkinen-Kiljunen, S; Alenius, H; Reunala, T; Yip, E; Turjanmaa, K

    1998-01-01

    Exposure to natural rubber latex (NRL) medical gloves poses risks to patients sensitized to NRL and to users of protective gloves. Previous studies have shown that extractable allergen levels of the gloves vary widely. Since most of the available laboratory methods of NRL allergen measurement lack adequate validation, we wanted to evaluate the performance of a recently developed competitive IgE-ELISA-inhibition method in relation to the skin prick test (SPT) and RAST inhibition, as well as to extractable protein quantification and an immunochemical latex antigen assay (LEAP). Twenty samples of surgical (n = 14) and examination gloves (n = 6), covering > 90% of medical gloves marketed in Finland in 1994-5, were collected by the Finnish National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health, coded, extracted, and analyzed by the five methods. The IgE-ELISA inhibition correlated highly significantly with SPT (r = 0.94) and RAST inhibition (r = 0.96). Likewise, ELISA inhibition and RAST inhibition showed highly significant correlation (P = 0.96, P RAST inhibition (r = 0.82), and ELISA inhibition (r = 0.81, P 100 AU/ml) in seven of the 20 glove brands analyzed. In conclusion, the results of a novel IgE-ELISA-inhibition method of measuring NRL allergen levels in medical gloves correlated highly significantly with those of SPT. The ELISA method was found to be sensitive, reproducible, technically easy, inexpensive, and suitable for the analysis of large numbers of NRL products. The results of extensive market surveys in 1994 and 1995, communicated to the medical community in Finland, appear to have had a clear effect in moving glove purchasing policies toward the use of low-allergen gloves.

  10. Prediction of anaphylaxis during peanut food challenge: usefulness of the peanut skin prick test (SPT) and specific IgE level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainstein, Brynn Kevin; Studdert, Jennie; Ziegler, Mary; Ziegler, John B

    2010-06-01

    Cutoffs (decision points) of the peanut skin prick test (SPT) and specific IgE level for predicting peanut allergy have been proposed. It is not known whether decision points indicating a significant risk of severe reactions on challenge differ from those indicating probable allergy. We aimed at determining the usefulness of allergy tests for predicting the risk of anaphylaxis on challenge following the ingestion of up to 12 g of peanut in peanut-sensitized children. Children attending the Allergy Clinic who had a positive peanut SPT and completed open-label in-hospital peanut challenges were included. The challenge protocol provided for challenges to be continued beyond initial mild reactions. Eighty-nine in-hospital peanut challenges were performed. Thirty-four were excluded as the challenge was not completed, leaving 55 for analysis. Children who completed the challenge and did not react (n = 28) or reacted without anaphylaxis (n = 6) represented the comparison group (n = 34). The study group comprised 21 children whose challenge resulted in anaphylaxis. The mean peanut SPT wheal size and specific IgE level were associated with the severity of reactions on challenge. Among the 21 children, who developed anaphylaxis, in only 3 cases was anaphylaxis the initial reaction. Unexpectedly, a history of anaphylaxis was not predictive of anaphylaxis on challenge. Anaphylaxis developed at cumulative doses of peanut ranging from 0.02 to 11.7 g. Provided that a fixed amount of peanut is ingested, available tests for peanut allergy may assist in predicting the risk of anaphylaxis during challenge in peanut-sensitized children.

  11. Sensitization according to skin prick testings in atopic patients with asthma or rhinitis at 24 allergy clinics in Northern Europe and Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils E Eriksson

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin prick tests (SPT were performed on 2113 atopic patients (407 children and 1 706 adults with asthma and/or rhinitis at 24 allergy clinics in Iceland, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Estonia, Lithuania and Russia. Test extracts were Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae [D. farinae, cat, dog, horse, birch, timothy, mugwort, Cladosporium, Alternaria, cockroach, chironomids (red mosquito larvae, RML and shrimp. Among the allergens, timothy followed by cat, birch and dog gave the highest number of positive SPT. Positive SPT with house dust mites (HDM, furred animals, RML and Cladosporium were more common in asthmatics than in patients with rhinitis; birch and timothy more common in patients with rhinitis. Sensitization against D. pteronyssinus, horse, timothy and Cladosporium was more common in men than in women. Although the general sensitization pattern of the atopic patients at the participating centers showed similarities, there were also significant differences between centers. Positive SPT with furred animals were most prevalent in Northern and Central Sweden and St Petersburg, and least common in Siberia and Denmark. Pollen allergy was most common in Novosibirsk and on the west coast of Sweden, and less common in Vladivostok. Sensitization against HDM was most common in Lithuania and least prevalent in Northern Sweden and Finland. Insect allergens gave the most positive reactions in St Petersburg and the least positive reaction in Novosibirsk. Sensitization against multiple allergens was found in 74% of the patients and a mono-allergy in 26%. The degree of atopy was higher in males than in females and higher in asthmatics than in patients with rhinitis. The month of birth of the patients did not influence significantly the test results. It is concluded that although the sensitization pattern shows similarities in different regions, it is also influenced to some extent by residence as well as by diagnosis, sex

  12. [Anaphylaxis secondary to prick-to-prick tests to foods and its risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Pacheco, Lucy Vania; O'Farrill-Romanillos, Patricia María; Amaya-Mejía, Adela Sisy; Almeraya-García, Priscilla; López-Rocha, Eunice

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of food allergy requires a proper anamnesis and diagnostic testing with skin prick tests with fresh foods and/or standardized allergen, or specific IgE tests. The risk of systemic reactions is of 15-23 per 100,000 skin tests performed by prick method, specifically anaphylaxis at 0.02%. This paper reports the case of four patients, who while performing prick to prick test with fresh food presented anaphylactic reaction. Implicated foods were fruits of the Rosaceae, Anacardiaceae and Caricaceae families. The severity of anaphylaxis was: two patients with grade 4, one patient grade 2 and one grade 3, all with appropriate response to drug treatment. The risk factors identified were: female sex, personal history of atopy, previous systemic reaction to Hymenoptera venom, prior anaphylaxis to prick tests to aeroallergens. We found that a history of positive skin test for Betulla v, can be a risk factor for anaphylaxis in patients with oral syndrome. During testing prick to prick with food anaphylaxis can occur, so it should be made with aerial red team on hand. The history of positivity Betulla v is an additional risk factor in these patients.

  13. Diagnosis and immunotherapy of mould allergy. III. Diagnosis of Cladosporium allergy by means of symptom score, bronchial provocation test, skin prick test, RAST, CRIE and histamine release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malling, H J; Dreborg, S; Weeke, B

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-three adult asthmatic patients suspected of mould allergy were investigated by in vivo and in vitro tests in order to establish a specific diagnosis of asthma caused by the mould species Cladosporium. The patients were evaluated by daily symptom scores in the peak Cladosporium season, bronchial provocation test (BPT), skin prick test (SPT), RAST, histamine release from basophil granulocytes (HIST), and crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis (CRIE), and the results were scored as negative (score 0), equivocal (score 1) or positive (score 2). Based on daily symptom scores and the result of BPT the patients were classified as being manifest allergic (asthma) to Cladosporium (positive allergy), inconclusive or negative. Positive allergy was defined as asthma symptoms oscillating with the spore concentration and a BPT score 2 (positive at allergen concentration less than 10,000 BU). Negative allergy was defined as no asthma symptoms and a negative BPT (score 0) and inconclusive in the case of symptoms and BPT sum of score 1-3. According to the classification a final diagnosis (positive or negative) could be established in 85% of the patients. "False positive" tests were found: for BPT in 27%, SPT 18%, RAST 0%, HIST 18%, and CRIE 0%. The corresponding figures for "false negative" were: BPT 0%, SPT 0%, RAST 27%, HIST 18%, and CRIE 23%. The relative risk of being allergic in spite of a negative test result was 0% for BPT and SPT, and 25-30% with RAST, HIST, and CRIE. In the case of positive test the risk was 90-100%. Excluding BPT, SPT was found to be the optimal single test to predict/rule out clinical allergy. A stepwise combination of positive SPT and positive RAST was found exclusively in patients clinically evaluated as positive, and does not call for an additional BPT. Using a potent allergenic extract a negative SPT excluded clinically important allergy. The primary conclusion of the study, however, is that the final diagnosis of Cladosporium asthma could not be

  14. Skin prick test to egg white provides additional diagnostic utility to serum egg white-specific IgE antibody concentration in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Adina Kay; Shreffler, Wayne G; Sampson, Hugh A; Sicherer, Scott H; Noone, Sally; Mofidi, Shideh; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna

    2006-04-01

    Levels of IgE antibody to egg white of greater than 7 kIU/L are highly predictive of clinical reactivity to egg, and lower levels often require evaluation with oral food challenge (OFC) to establish definitive diagnosis. OFCs have inherent risks, and diagnostic criteria indicating high likelihood of passing would be clinically useful. We sought to determine whether the size of the skin prick test (SPT) to egg white adds diagnostic utility for children with low egg white-specific IgE antibody levels. A retrospective analysis of clinical history, egg white-specific IgE antibody levels, SPT responses, and egg OFC outcomes was performed. Children who passed (n = 29) egg OFCs and those who failed (n = 45) did not differ significantly in age, clinical characteristics, or egg white-specific IgE levels. There were, however, significant differences between both egg white SPT wheal response size and egg/histamine SPT wheal index. Children who failed egg OFCs had a median wheal of 5.0 mm; those who passed had a median wheal of 3.0 mm (P = .003). Children who failed egg OFCs had a median egg/histamine index of 1.00; those who passed had a median index of 0.71 (P = .001). For egg white-specific IgE levels of less than 2.5 kIU/L, an SPT wheal of 3 mm or an egg/histamine index of 0.65 was associated with a 50% chance of passing. In children with low egg white-specific IgE levels, those with smaller SPT wheal responses to egg were more likely to pass an egg OFC than those with larger wheal responses. The size of the egg white SPT response might provide additional information to determine the timing of egg OFC. The size of the egg white SPT wheal response might provide the clinician with additional information to determine the timing of egg OFC in children with low egg white-specific IgE antibody levels.

  15. Skin prick test responses and allergen-specific IgE levels as predictors of peanut, egg, and sesame allergy in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Rachel L; Allen, Katrina J; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Tang, Mimi L K; Koplin, Jennifer J; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Lowe, Adrian J; Hill, David; Gurrin, Lyle C

    2013-10-01

    Ninety-five percent positive predictive values (PPVs) provide an invaluable tool for clinicians to avoid unnecessary oral food challenges. However, 95% PPVs specific to infants, the age group most likely to present for diagnosis of food allergy, are limited. We sought to develop skin prick test (SPT) and allergen-specific IgE (sIgE) thresholds with 95% PPVs for challenge-confirmed food allergy in a large population-based cohort of 1-year-old infants with challenges undertaken irrespective of SPT wheal size or previous history of ingestion. HealthNuts is a population-based, longitudinal food allergy study with baseline recruitment of 1-year-old infants. Infants were recruited from council-run immunization sessions during which they underwent SPTs to 4 allergens: egg, peanut, sesame, and cow's milk/shrimp. Any infant with a detectable SPT response was invited to undergo oral food challenge and sIgE testing. Five thousand two hundred seventy-six infants participated in the study. Peanut SPT responses of 8 mm or greater (95% CI, 7-9 mm), egg SPT responses of 4 mm or greater (95% CI, 3-5 mm), and sesame SPT responses of 8 mm or greater (95% CI, 5-9 mm) had 95% PPVs for challenge-proved food allergy. Peanut sIgE levels of 34 kUA/L or greater (95% CI, 14-48 kUA/L) and egg sIgE levels of 1.7 kUA/L or greater (95% CI, 1-3 kUA/L) had 95% PPVs for challenge-proved food allergy. Results were robust when stratified on established risk factors for food allergy. Egg SPT responses and sIgE levels were poor predictors of allergy to egg in baked goods. These 95% PPVs, which were generated from a unique dataset, are valuable for the diagnosis of food allergy in young infants and were robust when stratified across a number of different risk factors. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Skin test reactivity of allergic subjects to basidiomycetes' crude extracts in a tropical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Mariani, Félix E; Nazario-Jiménez, Sylvette; López-Malpica, Fernando; Bolaños-Rosero, Benjamín

    2011-11-01

    Fungal allergies can be detected by the skin prick test with extracts of the organisms, but not all fungi, including the basidiomycetes, are being examined. We determined the level of sensitization to basidiomycetes in allergic subjects and compared their reactivity to commercial extracts commonly used to detect allergies. Crude spore extracts of the basidiomycetes Ganoderma applanatum, Chlorophyllum molybdites, and Pleurotus ostreatus, which are known to release numerous spores, were examined along with commercial extracts on 33 subjects with asthma, allergic or non-allergic rhinitis. Overall, affected subjects showed the highest reactivity to mites (36%), followed by Ganoderma applanatum (30%), grass (27%) Chlorophyllum molybdites (12%) and Pleurotus ostreatus (12%). Allergic rhinitis patients were most reactive to mites (58%), grass (42%), Ganoderma applanatum (25%), Penicillium spp. (25%), and cat (17%). Those with asthma primarily responded to mites (44%), Ganoderma applanatum (44%), grass (33%), and Pleurotus ostreatus (22%). IgE levels correlated with positive basidiomycetes extracts. This finding, coupled with higher reactivity to basidiospores as compared to mitospores, and the similar sensitivities of patients to G. applanatum and mites, suggest that basidiomycetes are important allergen sources in the tropics.

  17. [A case of anaphylaxis caused by abalone diagosed with prick by prick test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shintaro; Nakamura, Yoichi; Nishioka, Kiyoshi; Adachi, Mitsuru

    2007-06-01

    A 30-year-old man exhibited systemic edema, dyspnea and wheal immediately after eating raw fish and cuttlefish served on an abalone shell. He had history of anaphylaxis after eating abalone and beef 4 years ago and had avoided shellfish including abalone since then. He also had past history of bronchial asthma and anaphylaxis due to shrimp. CAP-FEIA was performed to determine the allergen and was positive for scallop and oyster. Refined extracts made from abalone are not commercially available in Japan. Therefore, we purchased several kinds of shellfish, which are commonly consumed by Japanese, and used them, as is, for skin testing. Prick-by-prick tests were conduced using these shellfish, and yielded positive results for abalone and effluent from washing the abalone shell. Consequently, he was diagnosed with anaphylaxis caused by abalone extracts attached to the surface of raw fish. In our case, prick-by-prick test with shellfish was useful for the diagnosis of type I food allergy. If there are no commercial reagents of suspected food allergens for skin testing or challenge-test is not available, prick-by-prick tests might be performed for the diagnosis of food allergy.

  18. Application of native prick test in diagnosis of bed bug allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokołowski, Łukasz; Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was case report of the patient with systemic reaction after a bed bug (Cimex lectularius) bite. A 23-year-old female, previously healthy, reports systemic reaction, including rash on her corpus and limbs, itching, nausea, conciseness disorder, forcing her to call the ambulance. The interview revealed that the bed bug occurs in the patient's apartment. A prick-by-prick test with bed bug excretion was made. The skin test with native allergen was strongly positive (histamine 5 mm/5 mm, prick-by-prick 12 mm/8 mm). The prick-by-prick test was useful in objective confirmation of the source of symptoms. PMID:24278049

  19. PH- Mapping Of Prepubertal Skin Of Indian Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta A B

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available PH- mapping of skin was made by measuring the skin surface pH in 61 normal Indian subjects (35M, 26F in the prepubertal age group at 21 different sites from scalp to sole at an ambient temperature 25-32C and a relative humidity 60-65%. The pH values at axilla, umbilicus, palm, fingerfolds, foot, sole, and cheek were found to be consistently higher than those at scalp, forehead, retroauricular folds, antecubital and popliteal fossae, anterior arm, anterior the mean pH of male skin appeared to be lower than that of female. The highest pH recorded was in axilla (5.98 for male, 6.00 for female, irrespective of sex. The lowest value however was in anterior neck (4.59 for male and in antecubital fossa (4.83 for female. While the origin of the skin pH is yet to be definitely known, it was observed that a high density of both sweat gland and bacteria flora leads to a high pH, and high concentration of sebaceous gland and of bacterial flora to a lower pH.

  20. [Systemic reaction after performing a food prick-to-prick test. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Moreno, Karen Estefanía; Diez, Libia Susana

    2017-01-01

    Skin prick test is the most widely used test for the diagnosis of IgE-mediated conditions. Commercial extracts are used for its performance, but in the case of fruits and vegetables it is preferable using fresh food. Although both tests possess a good safety profile, hypersensitivity reactions have been recorded. Forty-seven-year old woman with a history of persistent allergic rhinitis, sensitized to the pollen of grasses, olive and salsola; she was referred to an allergology department due to anaphylaxis triggered by the consumption of avocado, cantaloupe, carrots and watermelon. Minutes after skin prick test with standardized extract and skin prick with fresh foods, she developed dyspnea, pruritus, erythema, dizziness and sibilance; she was administered 0.5 mg of intramuscular adrenalin and 4 salbutamol inhalations and placed in the Trendelemburg position. Dyspnea persisted, and vital signs monitoring showed heart and respiratory rates increase and, hence, salbutamol was applied again, together with 2 L/min of oxygen delivered by nasal cannula, intravenous fluids and 100 mg intravenous hydrocortisone; improvement was observed at 40 minutes. The patient was hospitalized for 48 hours. Although skin tests are safe, the risk of hypersensitivity and anaphylactic reactions should not be ruled out, especially in susceptible patients.

  1. Natural history of skin prick test reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou Nielsen, Jesper; Meteran, Howraman; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2017-01-01

    aeroallergens (ie, birch, grass, mugwort, horse, dog, cat, house dust mite [Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae] and 2 molds [Alternaria iridis and Cladosporium herbarum]). RESULTS: The prevalence of allergy to any tested allergen peaked at the ages of 13 to 23 years. Rates...

  2. Skin-prick test and RAST responses to cereals in children with atopic dermatitis. Characterization of IgE-binding components in wheat and oats by an immunoblotting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjonen, E; Vainio, E; Kalimo, K; Juntunen-Backman, K; Savolainen, J

    1995-11-01

    Hypersensitivity to cereals may occur via inhalation or ingestion. Although cereals are essential in the daily nutrition, only little information is available of the allergens causing symptoms in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). The purpose of the present study was to analyse the IgE immune-response to various cereals and specific cereal fractions of wheat and oats in children with severe AD and correlate the results with challenge studies. Skin-prick tests (SPT) with a NaCl suspension of wheat, oats, rice, corn, millet and buckwheat and the ethanol soluble gliadin fraction of wheat were performed to 34 wheat/oats challenge positive or negative children with AD. Simultaneously serum total IgE and specific IgE antibody radioallergosorbent test (RAST), levels to wheat, oats and gluten were determined. In addition serum samples of these 34 AD patients and five age matched controls were analysed with IgE immunoblotting using neutral and acidic protein extracts of wheat and oats. From the 34 AD children 33 were SPT positive with wheat and 18 with oats. Positive RAST to wheat and oats could be detected in 32 and 30 samples respectively. From the oral wheat challenge positive children 12/14 appeared positive with gliadin SPT and revealed positive RAST to gluten, but each of the wheat challenge negative were negative in SPT with gliadin. In immunoblotting using neutral and acidic fractions of cereals the IgE binding with sera of challenge positive children showed the most intensive staining, but no correlation was found between different staining patterns and the clinical wheat sensitivity. The 26, 38 and 69 kDa bands in wheat and the 46 and 66 kDa in oats could be classified as major IgE binding proteins of these cereals (> 50% of the sera were positive). SPT with rice, corn, millet or buckwheat was positive in 16/34 patients. Intensive IgE staining to neutral/acidic soluble proteins in wheat and oats was seen, with major IgE binding to 26, 38 and 69 kDa proteins in

  3. Optimal cutoff values of allergen-specific immunoglobulin E to house dust mites and animal dander based on skin-prick test results: Analysis in 16,209 patients with allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-25

    The most common tests for allergen sensitization in patients with allergic rhinitis are the skin-prick test(SPT) and an in vitro test to detect serum specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE). However, in vitro allergen test results were interpreted dichotomically as positive or negative at a threshold of 0.35kU/L of sIgE, regardless of the patient characteristics or antigen types. The purpose of this study was to determine the cutoff value for sIgE in house-dust mites and animal dander, and to analyze differences in cutoff value according to age and gender. A total of 16,209 patients with more than one allergic rhinitis symptom who underwent both SPT and serum sIgE testing were retrospectively evaluated between March 2008 and May 2012. There were 9374 male (57.8%) and 6835 female (42.2%) patients. The mean age was 31.8 years (range, 2-89 years). The criterion standard for allergen sensitization was defined as a wheal of > 3 mm or an allergen-to-histamine ratio of greater than or equal to 1 in SPT results. The Youden index was used to calculate the cutoff value of sIgE. Cutoff values of sIgE for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, cat, and dog were 0.69, 1.16, 0.13, and 0.45 kU/L, respectively. The cutoff value of sIgE changed according to age for D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae but not for cat and dog allergens. When categorizingaccording to age group, the cutoff values of sIgE for D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae had a tendency to decrease with age. There was no significant difference in cutoff value according to gender. The cutoff value for sIgE differed for each antigen and changed with age. Physicians should select the proper cutoff value for sIgE for appropriate criteria according to antigen and patient age rather than using a uniform cutoff value.

  4. Birth order modifies the effect of IL13 gene polymorphisms on serum IgE at age 10 and skin prick test at ages 4, 10 and 18: a prospective birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbuanu Ikechukwu U

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Susceptibility to atopy originates from effects of the environment on genes. Birth order has been identified as a risk factor for atopy and evidence for some candidate genes has been accumulated; however no study has yet assessed a birth order-gene interaction. Objective To investigate the interaction of IL13 polymorphisms with birth order on allergic sensitization at ages 4, 10 and 18 years. Methods Mother-infant dyads were recruited antenatally and followed prospectively to age 18 years. Questionnaire data (at birth, age 4, 10, 18; skin prick test (SPT at ages 4, 10, 18; total serum IgE and specific inhalant screen at age 10; and genotyping for IL13 were collected. Three SNPs were selected from IL13: rs20541 (exon 4, nonsynonymous SNP, rs1800925 (promoter region and rs2066960 (intron 1. Analysis included multivariable log-linear regression analyses using repeated measurements to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs. Results Of the 1456 participants, birth order information was available for 83.2% (1212/1456; SPT was performed on 67.4% at age 4, 71.2% at age 10 and 58.0% at age 18. The prevalence of atopy (sensitization to one or more food or aeroallergens increased from 19.7% at age 4, to 26.7% at 10 and 41.1% at age 18. Repeated measurement analysis indicated interaction between rs20541 and birth order on SPT. The stratified analyses demonstrated that the effect of IL13 on SPT was restricted only to first-born children (p = 0.007; adjusted PR = 1.35; 95%CI = 1.09, 1.69. Similar findings were noted for firstborns regarding elevated total serum IgE at age 10 (p = 0.007; PR = 1.73; 1.16, 2.57 and specific inhalant screen (p = 0.034; PR = 1.48; 1.03, 2.13. Conclusions This is the first study to show an interaction between birth order and IL13 polymorphisms on allergic sensitization. Future functional genetic research need to determine whether or not birth order is related to altered expression and methylation of the IL13 gene.

  5. [Sensitization to aeroallergens in subjects with allergic rhinitis who live in the metropolitan zone of Guadalajara, Jalisco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barajas, Martin Bedolla; Hernández Colín, Dante D

    2010-01-01

    allergic rhinitis is the most common allergic disease worldwide. Aeroallergens are compromise in its presentation and its prevalence varies in different parts of the world. Aeroallergen sensitization in the Guadalajara metropolitan area is not yet documented. to determine by means of skin prick test the sensitization prevalence to aeroallergens in patients with allergic rhinitis. We retrospective evaluated the results of skin prick test to different aeroallergens and their prevalence by age group in patients with allergic rhinitis referred to our allergy department. the complete data of 965 subjects were available, 78% of these had positive skin prick tests, the age range of the patients was 16 to 78 years, 74.9% of which were women; 9% were sensitized to one allergen and 11.5% had more than 15 positive skin prick test. The most frequent interior allergens were house dust mites and outdoor allergens Quercus sp and Fraxinus sp. Males showed the highest reaction frequency to aeroallergens. The age range from 21 to 40 years presented the highest frequency of positive skin prick test. our data demonstrate that house dust mites followed by tree pollens are the most frequent aeroallergens in patient with allergic rhinitis. Positive skin prick test frequency was age associated.

  6. Determination of heavy metals in chinese prickly ash from different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the heavy metal content of Chinese prickly ash (CPA) produced in various areas of China. Methods: CPA samples collected from different production areas in China were subjected to microwave digestion, and the contents of copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic.

  7. A controlled laboratory comparison of 4 topical skin creams moisturizing capability on human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Daniel L; Chakravarthy, Debashish

    2014-01-01

    This study compares human skin capacitance (moisture) readings after the application of 4 different, commercially available, topical skin creams. Twenty-one subjects (15 women and 6 men) aged 49.38 ± 11.02) years (mean ± SD) participated. This study was conducted in a climate-controlled laboratory on healthy human subjects. Randomized experimental study comparing 4 topical skin creams for their effect on human skin capacitance (moisture). Subject forearm skin was conditioned for 7 days prior to testing by washing with a standard soap and application of no other products. Each subject was marked with 5 test sites on the forearms. Sites on the volar surface of each subject's forearms were randomly assigned for application of 1 of 4 product pairs, consisting of a cleanser and a topical skin cream or a control site. A Corneometer was used to measure skin capacitance. Each site on the arms was cleaned and dried, tested again for moisture content, subjected to topical skin cream application, and finally tested again for moisture content. Changes were measured by subtracting the capacitance readings at baseline from values measured following topical skin cream application for each test site. The mean change in capacitance was 13.9 for product 1, 10.3 for product 3, 8.7 for product 2, 1.6 for product 4, and 0.8 for the control site. The mean capacitance change in sites treated with product 1 (13.9 ± 8.0, mean ± SD) was significantly greater than all others. There was no difference between the change in capacitance of product 2 (mean = 8.7, SD = 4.9) and product 3 (10.3 ± 7.1) t(20) = 1.081, P = .293, nor between product 4 (1.6 ± 3.9) and the control site (0.3, ± 2.2) t(20) = 0.779, P = .445. The capacitance change of products 2 and 3 was greater than that of product 4 and the control site. Commercially available topical skin creams vary in their impact on human skin capacitance. In this study, sites tested with product 1 had a greater skin capacitance reading than

  8. The mental and subjective skin: Emotion, empathy, feelings and thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-López, E; Domínguez, E; Juárez Ramos, V; de la Fuente, J; Meins, A; Iborra, O; Gálvez, G; Rodríguez-Artacho, M A; Gómez-Milán, E

    2015-07-01

    We applied thermography to investigate the cognitive neuropsychology of emotions, using it as a somatic marker of subjective experience during emotional tasks. We obtained results that showed significant correlations between changes in facial temperature and mental set. The main result was the change in the temperature of the nose, which tended to decrease with negative valence stimuli but to increase with positive emotions and arousal patterns. However, temperature change was identified not only in the nose, but also in the forehead, the oro-facial area, the cheeks and in the face taken as a whole. Nevertheless, thermic facial changes, mostly nasal temperature changes, correlated positively with participants' empathy scores and their performance. We found that temperature changes in the face may reveal maps of bodily sensations associated with different emotions and feelings like love. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Prick tests for histamine and cow milk in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, F J; Jiménez, A

    1995-01-01

    Three hundred and one children were evaluated in six different rural areas in Tlaxcala, State (México). Through skin prick tests which included histamine, glycerine, cow's milk antigen and a drop fulfill a registration form including: personal data; personal and family atopic background; degree and frequency of gastrointestinal, respiratory and cutaneous diseases, as well as the child temperament. Besides, feeding history (length and type of breast-feeding). Six cases were found positive to cow's milk antigen (1.9%) by Prick test but none of them had showed signology related to (83%) were breast-fed at least for the first month of life. Histamine wheal size increased progressively up to eight months of age and reached a plateau.

  10. Understanding excess skin in postbariatric patients: objective measurements and subjective experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biörserud, Christina; Olbers, Torsten; Staalesen, Trude; Elander, Anna; Olsén, Monika Fagevik

    2016-08-01

    Excess skin is a well-known side effect of massive weight loss after bariatric surgery. However, there is a lack of longitudinal follow-ups. The primary aims of this study were to investigate the development and amount of excess skin after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and to relate objective results to subjective experiences. University hospital. From 2009 to 2012, 200 patients were included and assessed with respect to excess skin before and 18 months after bariatric surgery. Patients were measured according to a standardized protocol and completed a questionnaire regarding their subjective experience of excess skin. A follow-up visit was completed in 149 patients (78%). All ptosis measurements decreased after weight reduction except for ptosis on the thighs. When comparing objective measurements with patients' subjective experience and discomfort from excess skin, we found little or low correlation in most body parts (rs .03-.67). The prediction analysis indicated that, for every centimeter of ptosis on the abdomen preoperatively, there was a 2-fold greater probability of having a postoperative ptosis on the abdomen of>3 cm (OR = 2.32, 1.76-3.07). The objective measurement of excess skin provides unique information in postbariatric patients' body habitus. Although the measured excess skin decreased compared with preoperative measurements, patients seem to become more aware of and disturbed and discomforted by it after the weight loss. Importantly, the objectively assessed measurements of excess skin correlated fairly with the perceived discomfort. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Efficacy and Tolerability of a Cosmetic Skin Care Product With Trans-4-t-butylcyclohexanol and Licochalcone A in Subjects With Sensitive Skin Prone to Redness and Rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Zorica; Angabini, Nariman; Ehlen, Sonja; Mokos, Zrinka Bukvic; Subotic, Milica; Neufang, Gitta

    2017-06-01

    BACKGROUND: Sensitive skin and rosacea are skin conditions, which may affect the quality of life of the patients considerably. In vitro and in vivo data indicated that the combination of trans-t-butylcyclohexanol and licochalcone A is an effective combination for alleviating the increased sensitivity of rosacea subtype I. OBJECTIVE: Objective of this open dermocosmetic study was to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of a skin care product containing the anti-inflammatory licochalcone A and the TRPV1 antagonist trans-t-butylcyclohexanol in subjects with sensitive skin prone to redness and rosacea. METHODS: 1221 subjects with sensitive skin and rosacea stage 0-II applied the test product twice daily for 4 weeks. Clinical assessment of sensitive skin and rosacea symptoms were performed at baseline and after 4 weeks. Additionally, at treatment end the test subjects filled a self-assessment questionnaire. RESULTS: After 4 weeks of application, both, clinical and subjective assessment have shown improvement of all symptoms of sensitive skin and rosacea in a significant number of subjects (P less than 0.001). The test product was efficacious and very well tolerated also when used in conjunction with pharmacological treatments of the skin condition under scrutiny. Conclusions: The study confirmed the good tolerability and efficacy of the skin care product in the management of sensitive skin prone to redness and rosacea when used alone or in combination with other therapies. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(6):605-611..

  12. Niacinamide-containing facial moisturizer improves skin barrier and benefits subjects with rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe Diana; Ertel, Keith; Berge, Cindy

    2005-08-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that some moisturizers can improve stratum corneum barrier function, as well as ameliorate dry skin. The clinical signs and symptoms of rosacea, which include increased facial skin dryness and sensitivity, suggest a possible role for such moisturizers as an adjuvant in the management of this condition. This randomized, investigator-blind, controlled observational study (N = 50) was designed to assess whether a niacinamide-containing facial moisturizer would improve the stratum corneum barrier and thus provide a clinical benefit to subjects with rosacea. Subjects with rosacea applied the test moisturizer to their face and to one forearm twice daily for 4 weeks. The other forearm remained untreated as a control. Barrier function on the forearms was assessed instrumentally and using a dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) chemical probe. Stratum corneum hydration also was measured instrumentally. The dermatologist investigator evaluated each subject's rosacea condition over the course of the study, and subjects self-assessed their facial skin condition at study end. Instruments provided objective measures of stratum corneum barrier function and hydration on the face.

  13. EMLA cream for pain reduction in diagnostic allergy skin testing: effects on wheal and flare responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicherer, S H; Eggleston, P A

    1997-01-01

    The use of a topical anesthetic cream containing prilocaine and lidocaine (EMLA) has been considered to reduce the pain of diagnostic allergy skin testing, but the effects of the cream on interpretation of skin tests is unclear. To determine the effects of the cream for pain reduction using prick and ID skin tests and for possible alteration of wheal and flare responses to allergen, saline, and histamine. In a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled design, 20 adult volunteers with a history of positive allergen tests had EMLA and placebo cream placed according to the manufacturer's recommendations on the volar aspect of the arms. Paired skin tests were placed and subjects rated the tests on a pain scale from 0 to 5 and average wheal and flare diameters were determined. Mean pain scores (+/-SEM) were significantly reduced from 2.5 +/- 0.7 to 1.1 +/- 0.6 for prick tests (n = 20, P wheal sizes for allergen prick tests, allergen ID tests, and histamine ID tests were identical in comparing placebo to EMLA-treated skin. Flare responses were reduced on the actively treated skin, on average, as follows: allergen skin tests- 52% (P response, all on the EMLA treated skin. EMLA significantly reduced the pain associated with diagnostic allergy skin testing and with no effect on the size of the wheal response. It reduces the flare response, in some cases inhibiting it completely, which must be taken into consideration in interpreting results.

  14. Determination of skin temperature under a comfort-controlled liquid-cooled garment in exercising subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, L. J.

    1971-01-01

    The physiological responses of exercising subjects were investigated under conditions in which the temperature of the coolant water was varied according to the subjective state of thermal comfort. Conditioning water was maintained at a constant flow rate of 240 lb/hr and at a temperature controllable within the range of 45 to 90 F. In addition to skin temperatures, rectal temperature and heart rate were monitored in the course of each trial. Total and evaporative weight losses were determined by measurements before and after each test. The levels on metabolic loading, measured indirectly on the basis of O2 consumption in the course of treadmill activity, ranged from the resting state to 2000 BTU/hr at increments of about 400 BTU. Under the experimental conditions, six volunteer subjects established a level of thermal comfort, as sensed subjectively, by controlling inlet water within the available range of temperature.

  15. Effect of acupuncture anesthesia on acne vulgaris of pricking-bloodletting cupping: a single-blind randomized clinical trail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianfeng; Lin, Ruizhu; Wang, Jing; Wu, Yongli; Wang, Yingxu; Zhang, Yuequan; Xi, Chaolei; Wu, Qiang

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the effect on acne vulgaris of pricking-bloodletting cupping at Dazhui (GV 14) under acupuncture anesthesia, and establish whether providing anesthesia to the treatment area by manipulating Hegu (LI 4) and Quchi (LI 11) might have an additional therapeutic benefit. Thirty-eight patients were recruited and randomized into a control group and an intervention group with a single-blind (observer-blind) method. The control group was treated by pricking-bloodletting cupping at Dazhui (GV 14)-and the studied group by pricking-bloodletting cupping at Dazhui (GV 14) under acupuncture anesthesia at Hegu (LI 4) and Quchi (LI 11). Both groups were treated twice weekly for 6 weeks. The analgesic and therapeutic effects of acupuncture were evaluated on a visual analog scale (VAS) and global acne grading system (GAGS), respectively. There were differences in the VAS scores of pain on pricking and in the pricked area, and the duration of pain between the groups. After 12 treatments, there was a significant reduction in GAGS scores from baseline in both groups, but there was no significant difference between the groups. Acupuncture anesthesia at Hegu (LI 4) and Quchi (LI 11) is an effective means of alleviating the pain of pricking-bloodletting cupping and reducing the duration of pain in the treatment area. Pricking-bloodletting cupping at Dazhui (GV 14) improves the skin lesions of patients with moderate acne vulgaris, but acupuncture anesthesia does not appear to have an additional therapeutic effect.

  16. Multiple skin neoplasms in subjects under 40 years of age in Goiania, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Samir; Curado, Maria Paula; Ribeiro, Ana Maria Quinteiro

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the trend for malignant skin neoplasms in subjects under 40 years of age in a region with high ultraviolet radiation indices. METHODS A descriptive epidemiological study on melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers that was conducted in Goiania, Midwest Brazil, with 1,688 people under 40 years of age, between 1988 and 2009. Cases were obtained from Registro de Câncer de Base Populacional de Goiânia (Goiania’s Population-Based Cancer File). Frequency, trends, and incidence of cases with single and multiple lesions were analyzed; transplants and genetic skin diseases were found in cases with multiple lesions. RESULTS Over the period, 1,995 skin cancer cases were observed to found, of which 1,524 (90.3%) cases had single lesions and 164 (9.7%) had multiple lesions. Regarding single lesions, incidence on men was observed to have risen from 2.4 to 3.1/100,000 inhabitants; it differed significantly for women, shifting from 2.3 to 5.3/100,000 (Annual percentage change – [APC] 3.0%, p = 0.006). Regarding multiple lesions, incidence on men was observed to have risen from 0.30 to 0.98/100,000 inhabitants; for women, it rose from 0.43 to 1.16/100,000 (APC 8.6%, p = 0.003). Genetic skin diseases or transplants were found to have been correlated with 10.0% of cases with multiple lesions – an average of 5.1 lesions per patient. The average was 2.5 in cases without that correlation. CONCLUSIONS Skin cancer on women under 40 years of age has been observed to be increasing for both cases with single and multiple lesions. It is not unusual to find multiple tumors in young people – in most cases, they are not associated with genetic skin diseases or transplants. It is necessary to avoid excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation from childhood. PMID:26465667

  17. Application of dermal microdialysis for the determination of bioavailability of clobetasol propionate applied to the skin of human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Au, W L; Skinner, M F; Benfeldt, E

    2012-01-01

    Dermal microdialysis was used to assess the bioavailability of a topical corticosteroid, clobetasol propionate, following application onto the skin of human subjects. The penetration of clobetasol propionate from a 4% m/v ethanolic solution applied onto 4 sites on one forearm of healthy human vol...... drug of interest. Furthermore, the study clearly demonstrated the application of dermal microdialysis as a valuable tool to assess the bioavailability/bioequivalence of clobetasol propionate penetration into the skin following topical application....

  18. Differential skin test reactivity to pollens in pollen food allergy syndrome versus allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Von; Scott, David R; Chin, William K; Wineinger, Nathan E; Kelso, John M; White, Andrew A

    2015-01-01

    Pollen food allergy syndrome (PFAS), also called oral allergy syndrome, is a form of food allergy in which uncooked foods cause allergic symptoms generally limited to the oral mucosa. It occurs in a subset of patients with pollen allergy, although not all patients have prominent rhinitis symptoms. PFAS is related to antigenic similarity between the pollen and food allergen. The size of skin test reactions in a group of subjects with pollen sensitivity with PFAS was compared with a group of subjects who were pollen sensitive and without PFAS. Self-reported rhinitis symptoms between the two groups were compared to identify if symptom severity differed. Twenty subjects with PFAS and 20 subjects with seasonal allergic rhinitis without PFAS were enrolled in the study. All the subjects underwent standard skin-prick testing to a panel of common allergens, including select fresh fruits and vegetables. The subjects completed a Mini Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire as part of their clinical evaluation. The subjects with PFAS and those without PFAS were compared statistically. The subjects with PFAS had significantly larger-sized skin-prick test results specific to pollens (p allergic rhinitis and PFAS reported milder nasal symptoms in relation to pollen skin test result size when compared with allergic rhinitis controls without PFAS. Our study outlined basic differences between two seemingly similar patient groups with a particularly striking discordance between skin test result sizes and rhinitis symptoms. This discordance should be explored further to increase mechanistic understanding of allergen cross-reactivity in PFAS.

  19. Subjective and objective observation of skin graft recovery on Indonesian local cat with different periods of transplantation time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The success of a skin graft in a cat is highly dependent on the granulation formed by the base of recipient bed. Granulation by the base of recipient bed will form after several days after injury. This research aimed to observe subjective and objective profile of skin graft recovery on forelimb of cats with different periods of donor skin placement. Materials and Methods: Nine male Indonesian local cats aged 1-2 years old, weighing 3-4 kg were divided into three groups. The first surgery for creating defect wound of 2 cm×2 cm in size was performed in the whole group. The wound was left for several days with the respective interval for each group, respectively: Group I (for 2 days, Group II (for 4 days, and Group III (for 6 days. In the whole group, the second surgery was done by the harvesting skin of thoracic area which then applied on recipient bed of respective groups. Result: The donor skin on Group II was accepted faster compared to Group I and Group III. The donor skin did not show color differences compared to surrounding skin, painless, bright red in bleeding test had faster both hair growth and drug absorption. Test toward the size of donor skin and the effect of drugs did not show a significant difference between each group. Conclusion: The observe subjective and objective profile of skin graft recovery on forelimb of cats on Group II were accepted faster compared to Group I and III.

  20. Pen needle design influences ease of insertion, pain, and skin trauma in subjects with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Præstmark, Kezia A; Jensen, Morten L; Berg Madsen, Nils

    2016-01-01

    of insertion, pain and skin trauma. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: 30 subjects with injection-treated type 2 diabetes and body mass index 25-35 kg/m(2) were included in the single-blinded study. Each subject received abdominal insertions with 18 different types of needles. All needles were tested twice per...... was dependent of SBP increase. CONCLUSIONS: The shape and design of a needle and the needle tip affect ease of insertion, pain and skin trauma. Relations are seen across different data acquisition methods and across species, enabling needle performance testing outside of clinical trials. TRIAL REGISTRATION...

  1. Practical guide to skin prick tests in allergy to aeroallergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, J; Heinzerling, L; Bachert, C

    2012-01-01

    in the management of allergic diseases. It is not a long or detailed scientific review of the topic. However, the recommendations in this pocket guide were compiled following an in-depth review of existing guidelines and publications, including the 1993 European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology position...

  2. Conditioning pain stimulation does not affect itch induced by intra-epidermal histamine pricks but aggravates neurogenic inflammation in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hjalte Holm; Imai, Yosuke; Petersen, Kristian Kjær

    2016-01-01

    forearm by skin prick test punctures. Moreover, neurogenic inflammation and wheal reactions induced by histamine and autonomic nervous system responses (heart rate variability and skin conductance) were monitored. CPM did not modulate the intensity of histamine-induced itch suggesting that pruriceptive...

  3. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 skin cancer prevention study of DFMO in subjects with previous history of skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, HH; Kim, K; Verma, A; Sielaff, K; Larson, PO; Snow, S; Lenaghan, T; Viner, JL; Douglass, J; Dreckschmidt, N; Hamielec, M; Pomplun, M; Sharata, HH; Puchalsky, D; Berg, ER; Havighurst, T; Carbone, PP

    2009-01-01

    Preclinical studies have shown the inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) by α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) and resultant decreases in tissue concentrations of polyamines (putrescine & spermidine) prevents neoplastic developments in many tissue types. Clinical studies of oral DFMO at 500 mg/m2/day revealed it to be safe and tolerable and resulted in significant inhibition of phorbol ester-induced skin ODC activity. Two hundred and ninety-one participants (mean 61 y.o., 60% male) with a history of prior non-melanoma skin cancer (mean 4.5 skin cancers) were randomized to oral DFMO (500 mg/m2/day) or placebo for 4–5 years. There was a trend toward a history of more prior skin cancers in subjects randomized to placebo, but all other characteristics including sunscreen and NSAID use were evenly distributed. Evaluation of 1200-person years of follow-up revealed a new non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) rate of 0.5 events/person/year. The primary endpoint, new NMSC’s, was not significantly different between subjects taking DFMO and placebo (260 vs. 363 cancers, p=0.069, two-sample t test). Evaluation of basal cell (BCC) and squamous cell (SCC) cancers separately revealed very little difference in SCC between treatment groups but a significant difference in new BCC (DFMO 163 cancers; Placebo 243 cancers; expressed as event rate 0.28 BCC/person/year vs. 0.40 BCC/person/year, p=0.03). Compliance with DFMO was >90% and it appeared to be well tolerated with evidence of mild ototoxicity as measured by serial audiometric examination when compared to placebo subjects. Analysis of normal skin biopsies revealed a significant (pskin cancer taking daily DFMO had an insignificant reduction (p=0.069), in new NMSC that was predominantly due to a marked reduction in new BCC. Based on these data, the potential of DFMO, alone or in combination, to prevent skin cancers should be explored further. PMID:20051371

  4. Seasonal dynamics of chemokine receptors and CD62L in subjects with asymptomatic skin sensitization to birch and grass pollen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assing, K; Bodtger, U; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2006-01-01

    Asymptomatic skin sensitization (AS) has been shown to be a risk factor for respiratory allergic disease. CCR4, CXCR1 and CD62L have all been assigned a role in the immunopathogenesis of allergy. Memory T-cell expression of CCR4, CXCR1 and CD62L has not hitherto been investigated in subjects...

  5. New Mydriasis-Free Electroretinogram Recorded with Skin Electrodes in Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Asakawa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the reproducibility and consistency of the new mydriasis-free electroretinogram (ERG with a skin electrode (RETeval device, to determine the normative values of parameters, and to clarify the usefulness of pupil records to colored-light stimulus. Methods. A total of 100 eyes of 50 healthy subjects (mean age, 21.4 years were enrolled. The diagnostic parameters obtained by the RETeval device were examined under the following conditions. The reproducibility was determined with the coefficient of variation (CV. The consistency was examined by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs. The mean value and the normal range were analyzed with a 95% confidence interval as the normative values of parameters. The correlation of parameters to pupil records (area ratio, constriction ratio and flicker ERG was also examined in the diabetic retinopathy assessment protocol. Results. From the CV for each of the two measurements, the amplitude has a low reproducibility compared with the implicit time. Generally good consistency was obtained with both ERG parameters (ICCs = 0.48–0.92. Moderate correlations were found for the white-, red-, and blue-light stimulus in the area ratio and the constriction ratio, respectively (r = 0.44–0.62; P = 0.010–<0.0001. No correlation was observed between pupil and flicker parameters (r = 0.06–0.34; P = 0.646–0.051. Conclusions. The RETeval device was suggested as a possible screening device to detect the visual afferent diseases by evaluating in combination with the ERG recording and the colored-light pupil response.

  6. Supraclavicular skin temperature as a measure of 18F-FDG uptake by BAT in human subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariëtte R Boon

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT has emerged as a novel player in energy homeostasis in humans and is considered a potential new target for combating obesity and related diseases. The current 'gold standard' for quantification of BAT volume and activity is cold-induced 18F-FDG uptake in BAT. However, use of this technique is limited by cost and radiation exposure. Given the fact that BAT is a thermogenic tissue, mainly located in the supraclavicular region, the aim of the current study was to investigate whether cold-induced supraclavicular skin temperature and core body temperature may be alternative markers of BAT activation in humans.BAT volume and activity were measured in 24 healthy lean adolescent males (mean age 24.1±0.8 years, using cold-induced 18F-FDG uptake with PET-CT. Core body temperature was measured continuously in the small intestine with use of an ingestible telemetric capsule and skin temperature was measured by eighteen wireless iButtons attached to the skin following ISO-defined locations.Proximal and distal (hand/feet skin temperatures markedly decreased upon cold exposure, while supraclavicular skin temperature significantly increased (35.2±0.1 vs. 35.5±0.1°C, p = 0.001. Furthermore, cold-induced supraclavicular skin temperature positively correlated with both total (R2 = 0.28, P = 0.010 and clavicular BAT volume (R2 = 0.20, P = 0.030 and clavicular SUVmax (R2 = 0.27, P = 0.010, while core body temperature did not.Supraclavicular skin temperature as measured by iButtons may have predictive value for BAT detection in adult humans. This is highly desirable considering the increasing interest in pharmacological interventions to stimulate BAT in human subjects.NTR 2473.

  7. Supraclavicular skin temperature as a measure of 18F-FDG uptake by BAT in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Mariëtte R; Bakker, Leontine E H; van der Linden, Rianne A D; Pereira Arias-Bouda, Lenka; Smit, Frits; Verberne, Hein J; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D; Jazet, Ingrid M; Rensen, Patrick C N

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has emerged as a novel player in energy homeostasis in humans and is considered a potential new target for combating obesity and related diseases. The current 'gold standard' for quantification of BAT volume and activity is cold-induced 18F-FDG uptake in BAT. However, use of this technique is limited by cost and radiation exposure. Given the fact that BAT is a thermogenic tissue, mainly located in the supraclavicular region, the aim of the current study was to investigate whether cold-induced supraclavicular skin temperature and core body temperature may be alternative markers of BAT activation in humans. BAT volume and activity were measured in 24 healthy lean adolescent males (mean age 24.1±0.8 years), using cold-induced 18F-FDG uptake with PET-CT. Core body temperature was measured continuously in the small intestine with use of an ingestible telemetric capsule and skin temperature was measured by eighteen wireless iButtons attached to the skin following ISO-defined locations. Proximal and distal (hand/feet) skin temperatures markedly decreased upon cold exposure, while supraclavicular skin temperature significantly increased (35.2±0.1 vs. 35.5±0.1°C, p = 0.001). Furthermore, cold-induced supraclavicular skin temperature positively correlated with both total (R2 = 0.28, P = 0.010) and clavicular BAT volume (R2 = 0.20, P = 0.030) and clavicular SUVmax (R2 = 0.27, P = 0.010), while core body temperature did not. Supraclavicular skin temperature as measured by iButtons may have predictive value for BAT detection in adult humans. This is highly desirable considering the increasing interest in pharmacological interventions to stimulate BAT in human subjects. NTR 2473.

  8. Analysis of inflammatory cells and mediators in skin wound biopsies to determine wound age in living subjects in forensic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronczek, Judith; Lulf, Ronald; Korkmaz, H Ibrahim; Witte, Birgit I; van de Goot, Franklin R W; Begieneman, Mark P V; Schalkwijk, C G; Krijnen, Paul A J; Rozendaal, Lawrence; Niessen, Hans W M; Reijnders, Udo J L

    2015-02-01

    In forensic medicine it is important to determine the age of skin wounds in living subjects. The aim of this study was to assess whether analysis of inflammatory cells and inflammatory mediators in skin biopsies of wounds from living subjects could improve wound age determination. Biopsies (n=101), representing the superficial border area of a skin wound, were taken from skin injuries of known wound age (range: 4.5 hours to 25 days) of living subjects. All biopsies were analyzed for 3 inflammatory cell markers (MPO, CD45 and CD68) and 4 inflammatory mediators (MIP-1, IL-8, CML and vitronectin). For quantification, biopsies were subdivided in 4 different timeframes: 0.2-2 days, 2-4 days, 4-10 days and 10-25 days old wounds. Subsequently, a probability scoring system was developed. MPO, CD45, MIP-1, IL-8 (inflammatory cell markers) and N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) positivity were maximal in wounds of 0.2-2 days old and then decreased in time. Remarkably, CD45, CD68 and CML showed a minor but non-significant increase again in 10-25 days old wounds. MPO and CD68 positivity was significantly lower in 4-25 days old wounds compared to 0.2-4 days old wounds. MPO positivity was also significantly lower in 10-25 days old wounds compared to 0.2-10 days old wounds. For CD45, MIP-1, IL-8 and CML no significant differences between the age groups were found. In case of vitronectin positivity in the extravasate or when the number of MIP-1 or IL-8-positive cells was more than 10 cells/mm(2) the probability that a wound was more than 10 days old was 0%. A probability scoring system of all analyzed markers can be used to calculate individual wound age probabilities in biopsies of skin wounds of living subjects. We have developed a probability scoring system of inflammatory cells and mediators that can be used to determine wound age in skin biopsies of living subjects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Tuberculin skin testing in intravenous drug users: differences between HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portu, José J; Aldamiz-Etxebarria, Mikel; Agud, José M; Arévalo, José M; Almaraz, María J; Ayensa, Cándido

    2002-04-01

    The prevalence of tuberculin skin test reactions among intravenous drug abusers and differences in tuberculin skin test positivity between HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative subjects were evaluated in a cross-sectional study of 1131 subjects. They were recruited from a therapeutic community, from those who attended the centre for the treatment of drug addiction and from those who visited for any reason an acute tertiary-care hospital in Vitoria-Gasteiz, Basque Country (Spain). All subjects underwent skin testing with purified protein derivative (PPD) tuberculin and testing for HIV antibodies. CD4(+) T-lymphocyte count was determined in HIV-seropositive individuals. Positive PPD tests were recorded in 35% of drug users who were HIV-seropositive and in 65% in those who were HIV-seronegative. In the HIV-infected group, there was a significant association between results of the tuberculin test and CD4(+) T-lymphocyte count. When the CD4(+) T-lymphocyte count was > or = 500 cells/mm(3), percentages of positive PPD tests were similar in HIV-seropositives and HIV-seronegatives (47% versus 65%) but when the CD4(+) count was < 500 cells/mm(3), positive PPD tests occurred in only 21% of HIV-seropositives. The PPD test showed a decreased sensitivity for detecting tuberculosis infection in HIV-infected intravenous drug users with CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts fewer than 500 cells/mm(3).

  10. Behavior of Skin Friction of Piles subjected to Top-downward and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In situ results of Osterberg cell load test and the conventional static compression load test are compared. Finite Element Method (FEM) is used to study the effects of changes in boundary conditions, mechanism of pile-soil interaction and the accompanying change in soil stress, which are responsible for the difference in skin ...

  11. GA(2)LEN skin test study II: clinical relevance of inhalant allergen sensitizations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burbach, G J; Heinzerling, L M; Edenharter, G

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin prick testing is the standard for diagnosing IgE-mediated allergies. A positive skin prick reaction, however, does not always correlate with clinical symptoms. A large database from a Global Asthma and Allergy European Network (GA(2)LEN) study with data on clinical relevance was ...

  12. Asymptomatic skin sensitization to birch predicts later development of birch pollen allergy in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodtger, Uffe; Poulsen, Lars K.; Malling, Hans-Jørgen

    2003-01-01

    The skin prick test is the allergologic test of choice, but asymptomatic skin sensitization to aeroallergens is common. However, no data in the literature describe the clinical phenotype of asymptomatic sensitized adults....

  13. Pain perception and performance of three devices for single-site allergen skin testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Harold S; Lopez, Phillip; Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Skin testing remains the preferred method for most allergists for establishing the presence of allergen sensitization. This study examined the performance of a new single-site skin test device that incorporates initial pressure to reduce the sensation of pain. Comparators were a conventional skin testing system and a smallpox needle. Twenty subjects were tested on the back, four sites with histamine and four sites with saline with each of the three skin testing devices. The single-site skin test device was applied with downward pressure, the conventional skin testing system, and smallpox needle (SPN) by pricking at a 45°angle. Outcomes were size and reproducibility of the skin test reactions and discomfort, as graded by the subject. The whealing responses to histamine were larger with the conventional skin testing system than with the single-site skin test device and both produced larger wheals than the SPN. The conventional skin testing system also produced greater intrasubject variability. Only the conventional skin testing system produced wheals of >3 mm with saline. There was no significant difference in perception of pain, which was low with all three devices. All three devices were well tolerated, without a significant difference in perception of discomfort. Testing with histamine revealed differences in wheal size and reproducibility among the three devices and testing with saline revealed differing likelihood of inducing a significantly sized wheal.

  14. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  15. Sensitive skin is not limited to the face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Martory, C; Roguedas-Contios, A M; Sibaud, V; Degouy, A; Schmitt, A M; Misery, L

    2008-01-01

    Sensitive skin (or reactive or hyper-reactive skin) is defined as skin that reacts by erythema and/or subjective symptoms (pricking, burning, pain, pruritus etc.) to stimuli that are not pathogens in themselves (e.g. wind, heat, cold, water, cosmetics, stress). This phenomenon is very frequent, occurring in about 50% of the European population. Sensitive skin is always reported on the face. The aim of our study was to determine if it can occur in other localizations. We have performed this study in two centres. One was a department of dermatology in a university hospital while the other one was a centre for cosmetological studies. A questionnaire was given to women aged > 15 years. The questions were: Do you have sensitive skin? If yes, in which localization? What are the symptoms and triggering factors? Four hundred subjects were included in the study (200 in each centre). The two populations were similar in terms of age, sex, and most of the results. The mean age was 40 years. Eighty-five per cent of the 400 subjects declared that they had sensitive skin on the face, and 70% had sensitive skin in another area: hands (58%), scalp (36%), feet (34%), neck (27%), torso (23%) or back (21%). Triggering factors included cold (66%), heat (28%), stress (61%), sun exposure (51%), wind (42%), water from a shower (29%) or a swimming pool (40%), soaps (42%), cosmetics (28%) and pollution (18%). Friction from clothes was reported in 28% of cases. Sensitive skin was observed as redness in most cases along with various subjective symptoms. The proportion of subjects presenting with sensitive skin is probably overestimated. However, the main result of this study is that sensitive skin is not restricted to the face but rather it is also present at other localizations, mainly the hands, and often the scalp and feet.

  16. NRP-1 Receptor Expression Mismatch in Skin of Subjects with Experimental and Diabetic Small Fiber Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Acker, Nathalie; Ragé, Michael; Vermeirsch, Hilde; Schrijvers, Dorien; Nuydens, Rony; Byttebier, Geert; Timmers, Maarten; De Schepper, Stefanie; Streffer, Johannes; Andries, Luc; Plaghki, Léon; Cras, Patrick; Meert, Theo

    2016-01-01

    The in vivo cutaneous nerve regeneration model using capsaicin is applied extensively to study the regenerative mechanisms and therapeutic efficacy of disease modifying molecules for small fiber neuropathy (SFN). Since mismatches between functional and morphological nerve fiber recovery are described for this model, we aimed at determining the capability of the capsaicin model to truly mimic the morphological manifestations of SFN in diabetes. As nerve and blood vessel growth and regenerative capacities are defective in diabetes, we focused on studying the key regulator of these processes, the neuropilin-1 (NRP-1)/semaphorin pathway. This led us to the evaluation of NRP-1 receptor expression in epidermis and dermis of subjects presenting experimentally induced small fiber neuropathy, diabetic polyneuropathy and of diabetic subjects without clinical signs of small fiber neuropathy. The NRP-1 receptor was co-stained with CD31 vessel-marker using immunofluorescence and analyzed with Definiens® technology. This study indicates that capsaicin application results in significant loss of epidermal NRP-1 receptor expression, whereas diabetic subjects presenting small fiber neuropathy show full epidermal NRP-1 expression in contrast to the basal expression pattern seen in healthy controls. Capsaicin induced a decrease in dermal non-vascular NRP-1 receptor expression which did not appear in diabetic polyneuropathy. We can conclude that the capsaicin model does not mimic diabetic neuropathy related changes for cutaneous NRP-1 receptor expression. In addition, our data suggest that NRP-1 might play an important role in epidermal nerve fiber loss and/or defective regeneration and that NRP-1 receptor could change the epidermal environment to a nerve fiber repellant bed possibly through Sem3A in diabetes.

  17. Skin-derived precursors from human subjects with Type 2 diabetes yield dysfunctional vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, Sarah K; Yau, Terrence M; Ouzounian, Maral; Abdel-Qadir, Husam; Chandy, Mark; Waddell, Thomas K; Husain, Mansoor

    2017-08-01

    Objective : Few methods enable molecular and cellular studies of vascular aging or Type 2 diabetes (T2D). Here, we report a new approach to studying human vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) pathophysiology by examining VSMCs differentiated from progenitors found in skin. Approach and results : Skin-derived precursors (SKPs) were cultured from biopsies ( N =164, ∼1 cm 2 ) taken from the edges of surgical incisions of older adults ( N =158; males 72%; mean age 62.7 ± 13 years) undergoing cardiothoracic surgery, and differentiated into VSMCs at high efficiency (>80% yield). The number of SKPs isolated from subjects with T2D was ∼50% lower than those without T2D (cells/g: 0.18 ± 0.03, N =58 versus 0.40 ± 0.05, N =100, P <0.05). Importantly, SKP-derived VSMCs from subjects with T2D had higher Fluo-5F-determined baseline cytosolic Ca 2+ concentrations (AU: 1,968 ± 160, N =7 versus 1,386 ± 170, N =13, P <0.05), and a trend toward greater Ca 2+ cycling responses to norepinephrine (NE) (AUC: 177,207 ± 24,669, N =7 versus 101,537 ± 15,881, N =20, P <0.08) despite a reduced frequency of Ca 2+ cycling (events s -1 cell -1 : 0.011 ± 0.004, N =8 versus 0.021 ± 0.003, N =19, P <0.05) than those without T2D. SKP-derived VSMCs from subjects with T2D also manifest enhanced sensitivity to phenylephrine (PE) in an impedance-based assay (EC 50 nM: 72.3 ± 63.6, N =5 versus 3,684 ± 3,122, N =9, P <0.05), and impaired wound closure in vitro (% closure: 21.9 ± 3.6, N =4 versus 67.0 ± 10.3, N =4, P <0.05). Compared with aortic- and saphenous vein-derived primary VSMCs, SKP-derived VSMCs are functionally distinct, but mirror defects of T2D also exhibited by primary VSMCs. Skin biopsies from older adults yield sufficient SKPs to differentiate VSMCs, which reveal abnormal phenotypes of T2D that survive differentiation and persist even after long-term normoglycemic culture. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  18. Evaluation Of Prick Test In Atopic Dermatitis And Chronic Urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhar Sandipan

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available “Prick test” was carried out in 15 patients with atopic dermatitis (AD and 10 patients with chronic urticaria (CU. Of the various aeroallergens tested, house dust mite (HDM, pollens, aspergillus furnigatus and insects were found to be most commonly positive. The common food allergens showing prick test positivity were egg white, fish, milk, brinjal, dal, groundnut and banana. Use of nasal filters showed 10-20% improvement in AD and 5 â€" 10% improvement in urticaria. Withdrawal of the responsible food article(s showed 20-30% improvement in patients with AD and urticaria.

  19. Elevated skin autofluorescence is strongly associated with foot ulcers in patients with diabetes : a cross-sectional, observational study of Chinese subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Hang; Han, Chun-mao; Hu, Xin-lei; Ye, Wan-lan; Huang, Wen-juan; Smit, Andries J.

    This study was designed to evaluate the association between skin autofluorescence (AF), an indicator of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), and foot ulcers in subjects with diabetes. In this study, 195 Chinese diabetic subjects were examined. Their feet were examined regardless of whether an

  20. Onset and duration of action of topical antihistamine: a study of histamine skin test response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danarti, Retno; Waskito, Fajar; Indrastuti, Niken

    2008-08-01

    Most patients who require skin prick testing cannot deal with their pruritus without taking antihistamines (AH). Orally administered AH has a quick onset of action, but it will suppress skin test responses (STR) from several days to weeks. In this study, we aimed to determine the onset and duration of action of single topical AH application by observing histamine-STR suppression over time. A two-step, randomized, intraindividual parallel-comparative, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on the volar side of the forearm. Step 1 was aimed to determine the onset, while step 2 determined the duration of action. The topical AH tested was a single application of 5% doxepin hydrochloride cream, while 10 mg/ml histamine dihydrochloride was used to test the skin responses. Our 10 subjects' mean age was 35.8 +/- 3.179 years. Histamine wheal response was suppressed starting on minute 90 and the wheal width were back to >/= 7 mm(2 )on minute 270. Significant histamine reactivity difference between genders (P = 0.201) and atopic status (P = 1.000), which could be a source of bias in histamine STR, was not found among our subjects. Single application of topical AH has an onset of action in 90 min and duration of action skin prick testing after a few hours, without influencing the patient's STR.

  1. Safety and efficacy of two anti-acne/anti-aging treatments in subjects with photodamaged skin and mild to moderate acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircik, Leon H; Dahl, Amanda; Yatskayer, Margarita; Raab, Susana; Oresajo, Christian

    2012-06-01

    Although reliable prevalence data are not available, adult acne is thought to be somewhat common, and it is not unusual for patients to have acne as well as early signs of skin aging. A novel anti-acne/anti-aging formulation (Treatment A) has been developed for daily use by patients to address both signs of skin aging and facial acne vulgaris. The novel, non-prescription formulation includes several ingredients shown to target factors underlying the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris while also addressing multiple components in the pathophysiology of skin aging. A blinded, randomized, split-face study was conducted to evaluate and compare the tolerability and efficacy of the novel anti-acne/ anti-aging product in subjects with photodamaged skin and acne vulgaris relative to tretinoin cream 0.025% (Treatment B). All subjects also were given supportive skincare, consisting of a cleanser, moisturizer, and sunscreen. Each treatment was assessed for its effects on subjects' appearance, lesion count reductions, and tolerability. Treatment A produced statistically significantly greater improvements in skin tone evenness, skin tone clarity, and blemishes and blotchiness. There were also statistically greater reductions in total lesion count for acne patients on the side of the face treated with Treatment A compared to Treatment B; Treatment A was also associated with early (day 2) improvement in skin tone evenness and clarity, tactile skin smoothness, and blemishes and blotchiness. Both treatments demonstrated favorable tolerability. The novel topical anti-aging/anti-acne therapy (Treatment A) within a comprehensive skin care regimen of cleanser, moisturizer, and sunscreen may maximize efficacy and tolerability and contribute to our armamentarium for treating both photodamage and acne at the same time.

  2. Patch and Prick Tests in Hand Eczema: Results of A Sixty Seven Patient Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Fettahlıoğlu Karaman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The patch and prick tests have a place in the management of patients with hand eczema. In this study, we investigated whether some of the clinical features patients with hand eczema could provide us with the predictability of skin test results. Methods: In Çukurova University Faculty of Medicine, 67 consecutive patients with hand eczema; evaluated in terms of duration of disease, morphology and severity. All of the patients were undergoes patch tested with the European Standard Series, and needle testing with routine aeroallergens. Results: Patch test with at least one allergen was positive in 46.3% of the patients; wheras this rate was 23.9% for prick test. The likelihood of having a contact sensitivity of patients complaining of hand eczema for at least three years was statistically more significant [odds ratio (OR 0.9]. Although statistically not significant, it is less likely to be sensitized to patients with keratotic and/or licheniform hand eczema (OR 0.3. The severity of hand eczema was not predictive of patch test, there was no indicator of needle test positivity. Conclusion: We strongly recommend patch testing in all patients with prolonged hand eczema.

  3. Percutaneous penetration of sodium lauryl sulphate is increased in uninvolved skin of patients with atopic dermatitis compared with control subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakasa, I.; de Jongh, C. M.; Verberk, M. M.; Bos, J. D.; Kezić, S.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Involved regions of the skin in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) have been shown to have higher transepidermal water loss (TEWL), indicating a compromised skin barrier. Whether uninvolved skin also has diminished barrier characteristics is controversial. OBJECTIVES: To study the

  4. Measurement of interstitial cetirizine concentrations in human skin: correlation of drug levels with inhibition of histamine-induced skin responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, L J; Church, M K; Rihoux, J P; Skov, P S

    1999-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to measure the concentrations of cetirizine in the extracellular water compartment in intact human skin and assess simultaneously inhibition of histamine-induced wheal and flare reactions. Skin cetirizine levels were collected by the microdialysis technique and analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. Skin levels in 20 subjects were compared to plasma levels for 4 h after a single oral dose of 10 or 20 mg of cetirizine. Skin prick tests were performed with histamine 100 mg/ml. Plasma cetirizine levels increased within 30 min to reach peak values of 315+/-10 and 786+/-45 ng/ml 90-120 min after administration of 10 and 20 mg of cetirizine. This was followed by a slow decline. In the skin, dialysate cetirizine levels (non-protein-bound fraction only) peaked at 1.6+/-0.1 and 2.4+/-0.3 ng/ml at 120-180 min. In vivo recovery of cetirizine was 14.4+/-4.3%. It was estimated that the non-protein-bound concentration of cetirizine in the skin was 50-70% of corresponding plasma values. Both 10- and 20-mg doses of cetirizine inhibited wheal and flare reactions over 240 min. The time vs concentration profile of cetirizine in skin dialysate paralleled the inhibition of skin reactions, but no significant correlations were found between individual cetirizine levels in skin or plasma with wheal and flare reactions. Cetirizine concentrations in the skin could be monitored by the microdialysis technique. The results indicate no simple linear correlation between cetirizine skin levels and inhibition of skin reactions.

  5. The prevalence of skin-test-positive allergic rhinitis in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Jørgensen, T; Nielsen, N H

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is disputed whether increases in self-reported respiratory allergy represent a true increase or merely increased recognition. We aimed to investigate whether the prevalence of skin-prick-test (SPT)-positive allergic rhinitis had increased in an adult general population in Copenhagen...... (participation rate 74.6%) and 482 (participation rate 53.4%) subjects were examined in 1990 and 1998, respectively. Diagnoses of SPT-positive allergic rhinitis were based on a history of nasal symptoms on exposure to allergens and SPT positivity to allergens. RESULTS: The prevalence of a diagnosis of SPT...

  6. Finger prick blood plasma separation using a standard lab equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Andersen, Karsten Brandt; Pfreundt, Andrea

    Blood is a complex biological matrix that has a huge potential for diagnostics as it contains various analytes and biomarkers. Traditionally the analysis is performed on plasma and white blood cells separated from venous blood. However, the collection of venous blood samples is painful and requires...... present a device for analysis of minute blood volumes using a standard laboratory tabletop spinner. The microfabricated polymer device fits in a 1.5 mL eppendorf tube and takes between 10-20 μl of whole blood. The blood is layered over a pre-loaded Ficoll paque® that is used to separate the plasma...... a few milliliters of blood. It has been demonstrated that the blood taken from finger prick contains the same analytes as venous blood in sufficient abundance and could therefore be used for diagnosis as an alternative in many cases. Various approaches towards analysis of finger prick blood with plasma...

  7. Antioxidant capability and phytochemicals content of Sicilian prickly fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria Cova, Anna; Crascì, Lucia; Panico, Annamaria; Catalfo, Alfio; De Guidi, Guido

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to compare three cultivars of prickly pear fruits ("Sanguigna" red, "Sulfarina" yellow and "Muscaredda" white) regarding the quality parameters of antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds, betalains and ascorbic acid (vitamin C). Depending on the crop operation, these cultivars are represented by "Agostane" and "Bastardoni" and are located at an altitude between 150 and 750 m, above sea level. Their antioxidant activity was evaluated by ORAC assay. Total phenolic compounds, betalains and ascorbic acid recovered from pulp juice, were determined by a spectrophotometric analysis. The results indicate that the different cultivars of prickly pear possess antioxidant activity in function of the type of the adopted practice. These fruits were derived from the practice of scozzolatura, by dropping the berries to encourage a second bloom of the plant. Among the "Bastardoni", the "Sulfarina" possesses the highest antioxidant activity.

  8. Appearance self-esteem in systemic sclerosis--subjective experience of skin deformity and its relationship with physician-assessed skin involvement, disease status and psychological variables.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lankveld, W.G.J.M. van; Vonk, M.C.; Teunissen, H.; Hoogen, F.H.J. van den

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the importance of skin deformity in systemic sclerosis (SSc) relative to other disease stressors and to find psychological correlates of appearance self-esteem (ASE) after controlling for disease status. METHODS: Disease-related stressors, symptoms, physical and

  9. You are what you eat: within-subject increases in fruit and vegetable consumption confer beneficial skin-color changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross D Whitehead

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fruit and vegetable consumption and ingestion of carotenoids have been found to be associated with human skin-color (yellowness in a recent cross-sectional study. This carotenoid-based coloration contributes beneficially to the appearance of health in humans and is held to be a sexually selected cue of condition in other species. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we investigate the effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on skin-color longitudinally to determine the magnitude and duration of diet change required to change skin-color perceptibly. Diet and skin-color were recorded at baseline and after three and six weeks, in a group of 35 individuals who were without makeup, self-tanning agents and/or recent intensive UV exposure. Six-week changes in fruit and vegetable consumption were significantly correlated with changes in skin redness and yellowness over this period, and diet-linked skin reflectance changes were significantly associated with the spectral absorption of carotenoids and not melanin. We also used psychophysical methods to investigate the minimum color change required to confer perceptibly healthier and more attractive skin-coloration. Modest dietary changes are required to enhance apparent health (2.91 portions per day and attractiveness (3.30 portions. CONCLUSIONS: Increased fruit and vegetable consumption confers measurable and perceptibly beneficial effects on Caucasian skin appearance within six weeks. This effect could potentially be used as a motivational tool in dietary intervention.

  10. You are what you eat: within-subject increases in fruit and vegetable consumption confer beneficial skin-color changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Ross D; Re, Daniel; Xiao, Dengke; Ozakinci, Gozde; Perrett, David I

    2012-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable consumption and ingestion of carotenoids have been found to be associated with human skin-color (yellowness) in a recent cross-sectional study. This carotenoid-based coloration contributes beneficially to the appearance of health in humans and is held to be a sexually selected cue of condition in other species. Here we investigate the effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on skin-color longitudinally to determine the magnitude and duration of diet change required to change skin-color perceptibly. Diet and skin-color were recorded at baseline and after three and six weeks, in a group of 35 individuals who were without makeup, self-tanning agents and/or recent intensive UV exposure. Six-week changes in fruit and vegetable consumption were significantly correlated with changes in skin redness and yellowness over this period, and diet-linked skin reflectance changes were significantly associated with the spectral absorption of carotenoids and not melanin. We also used psychophysical methods to investigate the minimum color change required to confer perceptibly healthier and more attractive skin-coloration. Modest dietary changes are required to enhance apparent health (2.91 portions per day) and attractiveness (3.30 portions). Increased fruit and vegetable consumption confers measurable and perceptibly beneficial effects on Caucasian skin appearance within six weeks. This effect could potentially be used as a motivational tool in dietary intervention.

  11. Relation between food and drinking habits, and skin autofluorescence and intima media thickness in subjects at high cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jochemsen, B. M.; Van Doormaal, J. J.; Mulder, G.; Volmer, M.; Graaff, R.; Smit, A. J.; Mulder, Douwe J.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relations between food and drinking habits, and estimated exogenous advanced glycation end products (AGE) intake, skin autofluorescence (AF) as a marker of AGE accumulation, and intima media thickness (IMT). IMT of the carotid artery and skin AF were measured in 147 elderly

  12. Analysis of morphological characteristics and expression levels of extracellular matrix proteins in skin wounds to determine wound age in living subjects in forensic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronczek, Judith; Lulf, Ronald; Korkmaz, H Ibrahim; Witte, Birgit I; van de Goot, Franklin R W; Begieneman, Mark P V; Krijnen, Paul A J; Rozendaal, Lawrence; Niessen, Hans W M; Reijnders, Udo J L

    2015-01-01

    Wound age determination in living subjects is important in routine diagnostics in forensic medicine. Macroscopical description of a wound to determine wound age however is inadequate. The aim of this study was to assess whether it would be feasible to determine wound age via analysis of morphological characteristics and extracellular matrix proteins in skin biopsies of living subjects referred to a forensic outpatient clinic. Skin biopsies (n=101), representing the border area of the wound, were taken from skin injuries of known wound age (range: 4.5h-25 days) in living subjects. All biopsies were analyzed for 3 morphological features (ulceration, parakeratosis and hemorrhage) and 3 extracellular matrix markers (collagen III, collagen IV and α-SMA). For quantification, biopsies were subdivided in 4 different timeframes: 0.2-2 days, 2-4 days, 4-10 days and 10-25 days old wounds. Subsequently, a probability scoring system was developed. For hemorrhage, collagen III, collagen IV and α-SMA expression no relation with wound age was found. Ulceration was only found in wounds of 0.2-2, 2-4 and 4-10 days old, implying that the probability that a wound was more than 10 days old in case of ulceration is equal to 0%. Also parakeratosis was almost exclusively found in wounds of 0.2-2, 2-4 and 4-10 days old, except for one case with a wound age of 15 days old. The probability scoring system of all analyzed markers, as depicted above, however can be used to calculate individual wound age probabilities in biopsies of skin wounds of living subjects. We have developed a probability scoring system, analysing morphological characteristics and extracellular matrix proteins in superficial skin biopsies of wounds in living subjects that can be applied in forensic medicine for wound age determination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Stratum Corneum Lipids: Their Role for the Skin Barrier Function in Healthy Subjects and Atopic Dermatitis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Smeden, Jeroen; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2016-01-01

    Human skin acts as a primary barrier between the body and its environment. Crucial for this skin barrier function is the lipid matrix in the outermost layer of the skin, the stratum corneum (SC). Two of its functions are (1) to prevent excessive water loss through the epidermis and (2) to avoid that compounds from the environment permeate into the viable epidermal and dermal layers and thereby provoke an immune response. The composition of the SC lipid matrix is dominated by three lipid classes: cholesterol, free fatty acids and ceramides. These lipids adopt a highly ordered, 3-dimensional structure of stacked densely packed lipid layers (lipid lamellae): the lateral and lamellar lipid organization. The way in which these lipids are ordered depends on the composition of the lipids. One very common skin disease in which the SC lipid barrier is affected is atopic dermatitis (AD). This review addresses the SC lipid composition and organization in healthy skin, and elaborates on how these parameters are changed in lesional and nonlesional skin of AD patients. Concerning the lipid composition, the changes in the three main lipid classes and the importance of the carbon chain lengths of the lipids are discussed. In addition, this review addresses how these changes in lipid composition induce changes in lipid organization and subsequently correlate with an impaired skin barrier function in both lesional and nonlesional skin of these patients. Furthermore, the effect of filaggrin and mutations in the filaggrin gene on the SC lipid composition is critically discussed. Also, the breakdown products of filaggrin, the natural moisturizing factor molecules and its relation to SC-pH is described. Finally, the paper discusses some major changes in epidermal lipid biosynthesis in patients with AD and other related skin diseases, and how inflammation has a deteriorating effect on the SC lipids and SC biosynthesis. The review ends with perspectives on future studies in relation to

  14. Tenskinmetric Evaluation of Surface Energy Changes in Adult Skin: Evidence from 834 Normal Subjects Monitored in Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Dal Bosco

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the influence of the skin aging critical level on the adult skin epidermal functional state, an improved analytical method based on the skin surface energetic measurement (TVS modeling was developed. Tenskinmetric measurements were carried out non-invasively in controlled conditions by contact angle method using only a water-drop as reference standard liquid. Adult skin was monitored by TVS Observatory according to a specific and controlled thermal protocol (Camianta protocol in use at the interconnected “Mamma Margherita Terme spa” of Terme Euganee. From June to November 2013, the surface free energy and the epidermal hydration level of adult skin were evaluated on arrival of 265 male and 569 female adult volunteers (51–90 years of age and when they departed 2 weeks later. Sensitive measurements were carried out at 0.1 mN/m. High test compliance was obtained (93.2% of all guests. Very interesting results are obtained. The high sensitivity and discrimination power of tenskinmetry combined with a thermal Camianta protocol demonstrate the possibility to evaluate at baseline level the surface energetic changes and the skin reactivity which occurs on adult skin.

  15. Malassezia intra-specific diversity and potentially new species in the skin microbiota from Brazilian healthy subjects and seborrheic dermatitis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Cardoso Soares

    Full Text Available Malassezia yeasts are part of the resident cutaneous microbiota, and are also associated with skin diseases such as seborrheic dermatitis (SD. The role these fungi play in skin diseases and why they are pathogenic for only some individuals remain unclear. This study aimed to characterize Malassezia microbiota from different body sites in healthy and SD subjects from Brazil. Scalp and forehead samples from healthy, mild SD and severe SD subjects were collected. Non-scalp lesions from severe SD patients were also sampled. 5.8S rDNA/ITS2 amplicons from Malassezia sp. were analyzed by RFLP and sequencing. Results indicate that Malassezia microbiota did not group according to health condition or body area. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that three groups of sequences did not cluster together with any formally described species, suggesting that they might belong to potential new species. One of them was found in high proportions in scalp samples. A large variety of Malassezia subtypes were detected, indicating intra-specific diversity. Higher M. globosa proportions were found in non-scalp lesions from severe SD subjects compared with other areas, suggesting closer association of this species with SD lesions from areas other than scalp. Our results show the first panorama of Malassezia microbiota in Brazilian subjects using molecular techniques and provide new perspectives for further studies to elucidate the association between Malassezia microbiota and skin diseases.

  16. Effect of blasts on subject-specific computational models of skin and bone sections at various locations on the human body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab Chanda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Blast injuries are very common among soldiers deployed in politically unstable regions such as Afghanistan and Iraq, and also in a battle field anywhere in the world. Understanding the mechanics of interaction of blasts with the skin and bone at various parts of the human body is the key to designing effective personal protective equipment (PPE's which can mitigate blast impacts. In the current work, subject-specific 3D computational models of the skin (with the three layers namely the epidermis, dermis and the hypodermis (muscles and bone sections from various parts of the human body (such as the elbow, finger, wrist, cheek bone, forehead, shin etc. have been developed to study the effect of blast loading. Non-linear material properties have been adopted for the skin and stress impulses at the different skin layers and bone sections are estimated. To date, such an extensive study on the effect of blast loading on the human skin and bone has not been attempted. The results of this study would be indispensable for medical practitioners to understand the effect of blast trauma and plan effective post-traumatic surgical strategies, and also for developing better PPE designs for the military in the future.

  17. Antioxidant and Anticlastogenic Capacity of Prickly Pear Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Melo, Fernando; Morales-González, José A.; Vázquez-Alvarado, Patricia; Muñoz-Juárez, Sergio; Zuñiga-Pérez, Clara; Sumaya-Martínez, Maria Teresa; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo; Hernández-Ceruelos, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Plants belonging to the genus Opuntia spp. are the most abundant of the Cactaceae family, grown throughout America and the Mediterranean central area. Its fruit, known as cactus pear or prickly pear, is an oval berry grouped in different colors. Some studies have shown its antioxidant activities which may help in preventing chronic pathologies such as diabetes. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of three varieties of prickly pear juice (red-purple, white-green and yellow-orange) in five different concentrations (100, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 mg/mL) by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical) colorimetric method, selecting the best variety to determine its anticlastogenic potential against methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). The results indicate that the highest antioxidant was found in the juice of the prickly pear red-purple variety (PPRP), in all concentrations. Its anticlastogenic potential was therefore evaluated with a micronucleus assay. The experiment was run over two weeks. A negative control was included along with a positive control with MMS (40 mg/kg), a group of mice treated with PPRP (25 mL/kg), and three groups with PPRP (in doses of 25, 16.5 and 8.3 mL/kg) plus the mutagen. The PPRP was administered daily by oral gavage and the MMS was injected intraperitoneally five days prior to the end of the experiment. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h in order to determine the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPE). The results indicated that PPRP is not a genotoxic agent, on the contrary, it may reduce the number of MNPE. In this regard, the PPRP showed an anticlastogenic effect directly proportional to its concentrations. Thus, the highest protection was obtained with a concentration of 25 mL/kg after 48 h of treatment. PMID:24145870

  18. Antioxidant and Anticlastogenic Capacity of Prickly Pear Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Hernández-Ceruelos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants belonging to the genus Opuntia spp. are the most abundant of the Cactaceae family, grown throughout America and the Mediterranean central area. Its fruit, known as cactus pear or prickly pear, is an oval berry grouped in different colors. Some studies have shown its antioxidant activities which may help in preventing chronic pathologies such as diabetes. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of three varieties of prickly pear juice (red-purple, white-green and yellow-orange in five different concentrations (100, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 mg/mL by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical colorimetric method, selecting the best variety to determine its anticlastogenic potential against methyl methanesulfonate (MMS. The results indicate that the highest antioxidant was found in the juice of the prickly pear red-purple variety (PPRP, in all concentrations. Its anticlastogenic potential was therefore evaluated with a micronucleus assay. The experiment was run over two weeks. A negative control was included along with a positive control with MMS (40 mg/kg, a group of mice treated with PPRP (25 mL/kg, and three groups with PPRP (in doses of 25, 16.5 and 8.3 mL/kg plus the mutagen. The PPRP was administered daily by oral gavage and the MMS was injected intraperitoneally five days prior to the end of the experiment. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h in order to determine the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPE. The results indicated that PPRP is not a genotoxic agent, on the contrary, it may reduce the number of MNPE. In this regard, the PPRP showed an anticlastogenic effect directly proportional to its concentrations. Thus, the highest protection was obtained with a concentration of 25 mL/kg after 48 h of treatment.

  19. Phytochemical study of prickly pear from southern Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Bouzoubaâ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This work concerns the phytochemical study of the prickly pear pulp’s fruits of two opuntia cultivars; Achefri and Amouslem widely present in two regions of southern Morocco; Arbaa Sahel and Asgherkis that are different in their altitude and annual rainfall. The results of the phytochemical study show that the levels of antioxidants have a non-significant difference between the fruits of the two sites (comparing Amouslem and Achefri in the same site, on the one hand, for the differences due to the variety or cultivar, on the other hand between Amouslem and Achefri from the two sites to show the site effect.

  20. Increase in skin surface elasticity in normal volunteer subjects following the use of copper oxide impregnated socks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykes, P

    2015-08-01

    Copper is an essential mineral involved in the formation and stabilisation of extracellular skin proteins. As copper can be absorbed through intact skin, we reasoned that using socks containing copper-impregnated fibres may have an effect on skin elasticity. A double blind, placebo controlled study was conducted in which one group of healthy volunteers (n = 32) wore socks with fibres containing microscopic copper oxide particles and the other group wore identical socks without copper oxide (n = 28). The socks were worn for at least 10 h a day for 4 weeks. Skin elasticity measurements were taken from three separate test sites on the side of the ankle using a Cutometer at baseline and after 2 and 4 weeks of product use. There was an increase in the mean net skin elasticity (R5) of 6.4% (P = 0.6) and 31.4% (P = 0.004) after 2 and 4 weeks respectively, in the group of individuals that used the copper oxide containing socks, but no increase in the group of individuals that used the control socks. Similarly, there was an increase in the mean biological elasticity (R7 values) of 3% (P = 0.55) and 20.7% (0.014) after 2 and 4 weeks, respectively, only in the group of individuals that used the copper oxide containing socks. The differences between treatments (i.e. socks used) were statistically significant at 4 weeks (P = 0.0058 and P = 0.0327 for R5 and R7, respectively). Using copper oxide containing socks results in an increase in skin elasticity of the feet. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The butterbur extract petasin has no effect on skin test reactivity induced by different stimuli: a randomized, double-blind crossover study using histamine, codeine, methacholine, and aeroallergen solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gex-Collet, C; Imhof, L; Brattström, A; Pichler, W J; Helbling, A

    2006-01-01

    Petasin (Ze 339) was recently introduced on the market as a potent herbal antiallergic drug for treatment of respiratory allergies such as hay fever. Few clinical studies have been performed so far addressing the clinical effectiveness of Ze 339. To evaluate the antiallergic properties of Ze 339 using skin prick tests with different stimuli, such as codeine, histamine, methacholine, and a relevant inhalant allergen. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed in which Ze 339 was compared to acrivastine, a short-acting antihistamine, in 8 patients with respiratory allergy and in 10 nonatopic, healthy volunteers. Antiallergic activity of Ze 339 was determined by analyzing inhibitory potency in skin prick tests with codeine, histamine, methacholine, and an inhalant allergen. Wheal-and-flare reactions were assessed 90 minutes after a double dose of Ze 339, acrivastine, or placebo. An interval of at least 3 days was left between the skin tests. Acrivastine was identified as the only substance that significantly inhibited skin test reactivity to all solutions analyzed in all study subjects. In contrast, no significant inhibition could be demonstrated for Ze 339 with any test solution. Moreover, the results of Ze 339 did not differ significantly from placebo. In this study we found no antiallergic, particularly antihistaminic, effect of Ze 339 in skin tests using a variety of stimuli often used to evaluate immediate skin test reactivity. The mechanism by which Ze 339 is effective in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis still needs to be elucidated.

  2. Anthropological neurology: symptoms and their meanings according to Joseph Prick (1909-1978)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, B.C. ter; Dekkers, W.J.M.; Keyser, A.J.M.; Woerkom, T.C. van

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the life and work of the Dutch neurologist Joseph Prick (1909-1978) and his idea of an anthropological neurology. According to Prick, neurological symptoms should not only be explained from an underlying physico-chemical substrate but also be regarded as meaningful. We present

  3. Effects of pricking, sun-drying and sieving on Ginger (Zingiber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of pricking, sun drying and sieving on the color retention of Nigerian yellow bark ginger were investigated. The exterior and interior surface of fresh, pricked and sun dried medium sized Nigerian ginger rhizomes (Tafin giwa) were analysed for colour variation. The colour values of the exterior surface of fresh ginger ...

  4. A strategy to design efficient fermentation processes for traditional beverages production: prickly pear wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Bolaños, J L; Fato-Aldeco, E; Gutiérrez-Moreno, K; Botello-Álvarez, J E; Jiménez-Islas, H; Rico-Martínez, R

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes a methodology to establish an optimal process design for prickly pear wine production that preserves the peculiar and unique traits of traditional products, generating at the same time, technical information for appropriate design of both bioreactor and overall process. The strategy includes alcoholic fermentation optimization by the mixed native culture composed by Pichia fermentans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, followed by malolactic fermentation optimization by Oenococcus oeni. The optimization criteria were based on multiple output functions: alcohol content, volatile compounds profile, organic acids profile, and compound contents related to color, which were analyzed by spectroscopy-chromatography methods and sensory analysis. The results showed that the mixed culture inoculated into a bioreactor containing prickly pear juice with 20 °Bx of fermentable sugars concentration, processed at a constant temperature of 20 °C for 240 h, leads to a fermented product with 9.93% (v/v) total alcohol content, and significant abundance of volatile compounds, which provide fruity and ethereal aromatic notes, complemented by a lively but not unpleasant acidity. This young wine was further subjected to malolactic fermentation at constant temperature (16 °C) for 192 h, decreasing malic acid, and balancing volatile compounds contents, thus resulting in a product with better aroma and flavor perception, and a velvety feeling of long aftertaste. Repeated assays showed that the process is stable, predictable, controllable, and reproducible. These results were used for process design and spreadsheet construction in order to simulate the process, and properly select and size the equipment required for such process. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Variations of the histomorphological characteristics of human skin of different body regions in subjects of different age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakasheva-Mazhenkovska, L; Milenkova, L; Gjokik, G; Janevska, V

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to create a reference model for the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of healthy human skin in different body regions and different life periods. For this purpose we have taken skin biopsy specimens from 15 different body regions: capillitium, forehead, cheeks, anterior neck, thorax, axilla, abdomen, back, gluteus, anterior arm, anterior forearm, palm, anterior leg, anterior lower leg and sole. The biopsies were histologically elaborated according to a standard paraffin technique, and the obtained histological slides were qualitatively and quantitatively analysed with the use of a computer system for image processing and analysis (Lucia M, Version 3, System for Image Processing and Analysis). The examinees were divided by age into five groups: from full-term infants up to the age of 1 year; from the age of 2 up to the age of 12 years; from the age of 13 up to the age of 22; from the age of 23 up to the age of 55; from the age of 56 up to the age of 73. In each exemplar were determined: the total skin thickness in each region at each age group, total thickness of the epidermis, total thickness of the corium, thickness of the papillary and reticular layers of the corium. In this period the thickening is about 4-4.5 times. The growth of the thickness comes as a result of the growth of the thickness of the reticular corium, values of which grow by 4-5 times. The height of the epidermis in newborns shows higher values than the second group (childhood). In the third and fourth group the values of the epidermis are from 1.5 to 2.5 times higher on those parts of the body which are uncovered and exposed to externalities. The essence of the changes that happen to the skin is structural final formation, which is turbulent and targeted in youth (in order to harmonize structural and functional abilities of the human organism) and in mature age to synchronize the function of the skin with the other systems of the organism.

  6. Subjective Health Complaints in Individuals with Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis: Associations with the Severity of the Skin Condition and Illness Perceptions - A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordbø, Emma Charlott Andersson; Aamodt, Geir; Ihlebæk, Camilla Martha

    2017-06-01

    High comorbidity has been reported among persons with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA), but the occurrence of subjective health complaints (SHCs) in these patient groups is poorly understood. The study aimed to describe the prevalence of SHCs among individuals with psoriasis and PsA in Norway, and investigate whether the severity of their skin condition and their illness perceptions were associated with the number and severity of health complaints. Participants were recruited through the Psoriasis and Eczema Association of Norway (PEF) (n = 942). The participants answered a self-administered questionnaire covering subjective health complaints, the severity of their skin condition, and their illness perceptions measured with the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (BIPQ-R). The prevalence and severity of SHCs were high. Participants with PsA reported more complaints and higher severity of complaints compared with participants with psoriasis. In both groups, the severity of the skin condition was associated with the number and severity of SHCs. Cognitive illness perceptions (consequences) and emotional illness perceptions (emotional affect) were associated with SHCs in participants with psoriasis, whereas only cognitive illness perceptions (consequences and identity) were associated with SHCs in participants with PsA. The high prevalence and severity of SHCs among individuals with psoriasis and PsA were associated with the severity of the skin condition and illness perceptions. Somatic and cognitive sensitizations are proposed as possible mechanisms. The findings suggest that holistic approaches are essential when managing these patient groups in health care institutions and clinical practice.

  7. Basophil histamine release in the diagnosis of house dust mite and dander allergy of asthmatic children. Comparison between prick test, RAST, basophil histamine release and bronchial provocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostergaard, P A; Ebbesen, F; Nolte, H; Skov, P S

    1990-04-01

    The aim of the study is to compare the glass fibre-based basophil histamine release test with skin test (Phazet), RAST (Phadebas) and bronchial provocation test in children with allergic asthma. The study comprised 68 selected children with a case history of extrinsic allergic asthma to danders (cat and dog) and house-dust mite. Skin prick test, RAST, and histamine release were performed in all children and the bronchial provocation test was used as a reference of "true allergic asthma". A total of 81 allergen bronchial challenges were performed and 44 children experienced 49 positive provocations. In 2.9% (2/68) of the children histamine release could not be performed due to technical difficulties (low histamine release with anti-IgE). Concordances in the range 76-87% were observed with no significant difference between the tests. The highest concordance (87%) was found between histamine release and bronchial provocation test followed by skin prick test vs bronchial provocation (84%) and RAST vs bronchial provocation (80%). The sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each test. All tests showed sensitivities in the range 90-94% and no significant difference between them was observed. The specificity of histamine release, skin prick test, and RAST was 0.78, 0.69, and 0.63, respectively. The specificity of histamine release was better than RAST demonstrated by 95% confidence intervals. In conclusion, it was found that the histamine release test is a convenient diagnostic method and the study indicates a diagnostic value comparable to the common diagnostic methods in clinical allergy.

  8. Discrepancies between Skinned Single Muscle Fibres and Whole Thigh Muscle Function Characteristics in Young and Elderly Human Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Hyunseok Jee; Jae-Young Lim

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to analyse the mechanical properties of skinned single muscle fibres derived from the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle in relation to those of the whole intact thigh muscle and to compare any difference between young and older adults. Sixteen young men (29.25 ? 4.65 years), 11 older men (71.45 ? 2.94 years), 11 young women (29.64 ? 4.88 years), and 7 older women (67.29 ? 1.70 years) were recruited. In vivo analyses were performed for mechanical properties such as isokinetic performance, ...

  9. Sleep Deprivation in Young and Healthy Subjects Is More Sensitively Identified by Higher Frequencies of Electrodermal Activity than by Skin Conductance Level Evaluated in the Time Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. Posada-Quintero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed multiple measures of the autonomic nervous system (ANS based on electrodermal activity (EDA and heart rate variability (HRV for young healthy subjects undergoing 24-h sleep deprivation. In this study, we have utilized the error awareness test (EAT every 2 h (13 runs total, to evaluate the deterioration of performance. EAT consists of trials where the subject is presented words representing colors. Subjects are instructed to press a button (“Go” trials or withhold the response if the word presented and the color of the word mismatch (“Stroop No-Go” trial, or the screen is repeated (“Repeat No-Go” trials. We measured subjects' (N = 10 reaction time to the “Go” trials, and accuracy to the “Stroop No-Go” and “Repeat No-Go” trials. Simultaneously, changes in EDA and HRV indices were evaluated. Furthermore, the relationship between reactiveness and vigilance measures and indices of sympathetic control based on HRV were analyzed. We found the performance improved to a stable level from 6 through 16 h of deprivation, with a subsequently sustained impairment after 18 h. Indices of higher frequencies of EDA related more to vigilance measures, whereas lower frequencies index (skin conductance leve, SCL measured the reactiveness of the subject. We conclude that indices of EDA, including those of the higher frequencies, termed TVSymp, EDASymp, and NSSCRs, provide information to better understand the effect of sleep deprivation on subjects' autonomic response and performance.

  10. Prick by Prick Induced Anaphylaxis in a Patient with Peanuts and Lupine Allergy: Awareness of Risks and Role of Component Resolved Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ciccarelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of anaphylaxis is reported in the course of a prick by prick with Lupinus albus and roasted peanut in a 20-year-old woman. We focused on some main topics. First of all it seems important to underscore the potential risks connected to the practice of the prick-by-prick with fresh foods in allergic patients, especially when testing cross-reactive substances, such as White Lupine, peanuts, or soy. It is important that clinicians who perform prick tests be aware of the risk related with in vivo tests in allergic patients. Second, we discuss the problem of the hidden allergens, such as White Lupine flour, or soy flour which are utilized to improve wheat flour because of their lower cost. Patients with a demonstrated allergy to peanuts should be assessed for lupine allergy and informed about the “hidden allergens” issue. Finally, we believe that component resolved diagnosis, the serum specific IgE against molecular components, that is normally considered a second-level diagnostic step has an important role even as a first line approach at least in some selected cases.

  11. [Practice patterns in Mexican allergologists about skin tests with allergens during 2005-2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larenas Linnemann, Désirée; Fogelbach, Guillermo Arturo Guidos; Cruz, Alfredo Arias

    2008-01-01

    Immunotherapy has been practiced since over a hundred years. The exact composition of the immunotherapy concentrate, with which the patient is treated, depends partly on the results of the skin prick tests applied to the allergic patient. As such, the effectiveness of the immunotherapy depends heavily on the quality of the skin prick test. The detailed recommendations for the realization of the skin prick tests have evolved and changed over the years, leading to multiple variations in its application in Mexico. We tried to get a picture of the daily practice patterns of the members of CMICA and CoMPedIA concerning the application of skin prick tests. Aquestionnaire was sent in various occasions to all members of the Colegio Mexicano de Inmunologia Clinica y Alergia (CMICA) and of the Colegio Mexicano de Pediatras, Especialistas en Inmunologia y Alergia (CoMPedIA). The results are presented descriptively and by calculation of the frequency/percentages of intervals of replies, in the case of numerical responses. A response rate of 61 (17%) was obtained of the College members, showing consistency in some replies but a wide variation in others, for example in the time certain medication has to be suspended before the execution of the skin prick test. Comparing the replies obtained with recent recommendations in international publications, some discrepancy can be detected. In some aspects of the survey there is coincidence of the skin test practices among the participants; however, in other items there is an important variation.

  12. Discrepancies between Skinned Single Muscle Fibres and Whole Thigh Muscle Function Characteristics in Young and Elderly Human Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunseok Jee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to analyse the mechanical properties of skinned single muscle fibres derived from the vastus lateralis (VL muscle in relation to those of the whole intact thigh muscle and to compare any difference between young and older adults. Sixteen young men (29.25±4.65 years, 11 older men (71.45±2.94 years, 11 young women (29.64±4.88 years, and 7 older women (67.29±1.70 years were recruited. In vivo analyses were performed for mechanical properties such as isokinetic performance, isometric torque, and power. Specific force and maximum shortening velocity (Vo were measured with single muscle fibres. Sex difference showed greater impact on the functional properties of both the whole muscle (p<0.01 and single muscle fibres than aging (p<0.05. Sex difference, rather than aging, yielded more remarkable differences in gross mechanical properties in the single muscle fibre study in which significant differences between young men and young women were found only in the cross-sectional area and Vo (p<0.05. Age and sex differences reflect the mechanical properties of both single muscle fibres and whole thigh muscle, with the whole muscle yielding more prominent functional properties.

  13. Utility of minor determinants for skin testing in inpatient penicillin allergy evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Bob; Eastman, Jacqueline J; Mori, Karen; Braskett, Melinda; Riedl, Marc A

    2017-09-01

    Most patients with a history of penicillin allergy can tolerate penicillin. Skin testing can identify tolerant patients, but not all known allergenic determinants are commercially available. Protocols exist that use only available reagents, but the sensitivity and safety of these protocols, particularly for hospitalized patients, are controversial. To determine the number of hospitalized patients referred for penicillin skin testing who showed unique positivity to the minor determinants penicilloate and penilloate. A retrospective chart review was conducted of all inpatients who underwent penicillin skin testing at 1 institution. Patients were referred by their treating physician. All patients underwent skin prick testing to benzylpenicilloyl polylysine (major determinant), penicillin G, penicilloate, penilloate (minor determinants), amoxicillin, and positive and negative controls. If the result was negative, then intradermal testing was done with the same penicillin determinants and the negative control. A 4-mm wheal with flare was considered a positive reaction. Inpatient penicillin skin testing was done in 528 subjects. Any positive test reaction was found in 107 subjects (20%). Three subjects (3%) reacted to penilloate only, 25 (23%) reacted to penicilloate only, 2 (2%) reacted to penicillin G only, and 8 (8%) reacted to amoxicillin only. Sixty-eight subjects (64%) reacted to a compound other than the major determinant. This study found a high rate of exclusively positive skin test reactions to the minor determinants penicilloate and penilloate. Because patients with positive test reactions are at increased risk of reaction to drug challenge, these data support the use of these reagents for penicillin skin testing in hospitalized patients. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Kissing reduces allergic skin wheal responses and plasma neurotrophin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimata, Hajime

    2003-11-01

    The effect of kissing on allergen-induced skin wheal responses and plasma neurotrophin levels were studied in 30 normal subjects, 30 patients with allergic rhinitis (AR), and 30 patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). All of the patients with AR or AD are allergic to house dust mite (HDM) and Japanese cedar pollen (JCP). They are all Japanese and they do not kiss habitually. The subject kissed freely during 30 min with their lover or spouse alone in a room with closed doors while listening to soft music. Before and after kissing, skin prick tests were performed using commercial HDM allergen, JCP allergen, as well as histamine and control solution, and wheal responses were measured. Simultaneously, plasma levels of neurotrophin, including nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and -4 (NT-4) were measured. Kissing significantly reduced wheal responses induced by HDM and JCP, but not by histamine, and decreased plasma levels of NGF, BDNF, NT-3, and NT-4 in patients with AR or AD, while it failed to do so in normal subjects. These finding indicate that kissing have some implication in the study of neuroimmunology in allergic patients.

  15. Empirical models in the description of prickly pear shoot (Nopal drying kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel M. Pereira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to describe the technological process involved in the drying kinetics of fresh-cut prickly pear shoots through numerical and analytical solutions. Shoots of two different prickly pear species were used, ‘Gigante’ and ‘Miúda’. Drying was performed at different temperatures (50, 60, 70 and 80 °C and weighing procedures were made continuously. The experimental data were expressed as moisture ratio. The Page model showed the best fit to the drying kinetics of minimally processed ‘Gigante’ and ‘Miúda’ prickly pear shoots, with the best coefficients of determination and Chi-square. Peleg and Wang & Singh models can not be used to simulate the drying of ‘Gigante’ and ‘Miúda’ prickly pear shoots within the evaluated range of temperatures, showing an incoherent graphic pattern.

  16. Efficient dye-sensitized solar cells using red turnip and purple wild sicilian prickly pear fruits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Calogero, Giuseppe; Di Marco, Gaetano; Cazzanti, Silvia; Caramori, Stefano; Argazzi, Roberto; Di Carlo, Aldo; Bignozzi, Carlo Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were assembled by using the bougainvillea flowers, red turnip and the purple wild Sicilian prickly pear fruit juice extracts as natural sensitizers of TiO(2) films...

  17. Skin testing with food allergens. Guideline of the German Society of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (DGAKI), the Physicians' Association of German Allergologists (ADA) and the Society of Pediatric Allergology (GPA) together with the Swiss Society of Allergology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henzgen, Margot; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K; Erdmann, Stephan; Fuchs, Thomas; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Lepp, Ute; Niggemann, Bodo; Raithel, Martin; Reese, Imke; Saloga, Joachim; Vieths, Stefan; Zuberbier, Torsten; Werfel, Thomas

    2008-11-01

    Skin testing has a central role in the diagnosis of food allergy. Prick testing is well- established as a routine diagnostic tool. Nonetheless, unstable allergens and the lack of standardized extracts create difficulties in the identification of sensitization to foods in patients with suspected food allergy. Therefore prick-to-prick tests with native (raw, fresh) foods are still recommended. The indications and contraindications are the same as those of routine skin testing in clinical allergology. We recommend a careful and restricted application of skin tests in patients with a history of severe anaphylaxis to foods.

  18. Histamine 50-Skin-Prick Test: A Tool to Diagnose Histamine Intolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Lukas Kofler; Hanno Ulmer; Heinz Kofler

    2011-01-01

    Background. Histamine intolerance results from an imbalance between histamine intake and degradation. In healthy persons, dietary histamine can be sufficiently metabolized by amine oxidases, whereas persons with low amine oxidase activity are at risk of histamine toxicity. Diamine oxidase (DAO) is the key enzyme in degradation. Histamine elicits a wide range of effects. Histamine intolerance displays symptoms, such as rhinitis, headache, gastrointestinal symptoms, palpitations, urticaria and ...

  19. Evaluation of skin prick test sensitivity for 37 allergen extracts in atopic patients with nasal polyposis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z A Ashour

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion Negative SPT does not exclude allergy in atopic patients with nasal polyposis. Thus, before delivering a diagnosis of nonallergic rhinitis in patients with negative SPT to common allergen, further tests are needed. We recommend further studies to evaluate the prevalence, immunopathology, and management of local allergic rhinitis.

  20. Association between alcohol consumption and skin prick test reactivity to aeroallergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assing, Kristian; Bodtger, Uffe; Linneberg, Allan

    2007-01-01

    A few studies have indicated a positive association between consumption of alcohol and allergic sensitization in age and socioeconomically heterogeneous populations.......A few studies have indicated a positive association between consumption of alcohol and allergic sensitization in age and socioeconomically heterogeneous populations....

  1. Clinical relevance is associated with allergen-specific wheal size in skin prick testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahtela, T.; Burbach, G. J.; Bachert, C.

    2014-01-01

    by providing quantitative decision points. MethodsThe GA(2)LEN SPT study with 3068 valid data sets was used to investigate the relationship between SPT results and patient-reported clinical relevance for each of the 18 inhalant allergens as well as SPT wheal size and physician-diagnosed allergy (rhinitis......, asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergy). The effects of age, gender, and geographical area on SPT results were assessed. For each allergen, the wheal size in mm with an 80% positive predictive value (PPV) for being clinically relevant was calculated. ResultsDepending on the allergen, from 40% (blatella......) to 87-89% (grass, mites) of the positive SPT reactions (wheal size3mm) were associated with patient-reported clinical symptoms when exposed to the respective allergen. The risk of allergic symptoms increased significantly with larger wheal sizes for 17 of the 18 allergens tested. Children with positive...

  2. Prick testing with chemicals in the diagnosis of occupational contact urticaria and respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helaskoski, Eva; Suojalehto, Hille; Kuuliala, Outi; Aalto-Korte, Kristiina

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the use of prick tests with chemicals in diagnosing occupational diseases. To evaluate the use of prick tests in the diagnosis of occupational contact urticaria, asthma and rhinitis caused by chemicals (undertaken at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health). We retrospectively reviewed the patient and test files for the period 1 January 1991 to 31 May 2011. Prick tests were performed with chemical solutions and human serum albumin (HSA)-chemical conjugates. Positive prick test reactions to isocyanate-HSA conjugates were associated with isocyanate-specific IgE in all 20 patients, and 17 patients had a relevant occupational disease. Positive reactions to chloramine-T-HSA conjugates in 10 patients also indicated the presence of specific IgE, although occupational diseases were not always diagnosed. Eleven of 17 patients with positive reactions to persulfate solutions were diagnosed with an occupational disease. Methacrylates, colophonium-related substances, amine hardeners, ethanolamines, glutaraldehyde, glyoxal, pyrocatechol and ammonium thioglycolate did not elicit any relevant prick test reactions. No generalized reactions were detected. Prick tests can be safely used for diagnosing contact urticaria, asthma and rhinitis caused by isocyanates, chloramine-T, persulfates, and chlorhexidine, but the results should be carefully interpreted and related to clinical symptoms and other diagnostic tests. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. An evaluation of the diagnostic value of different skin tests with egg in clinically egg-allergic children having atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine K; Høst, Arne; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2004-01-01

    in diagnosing egg allergy. Ten clinically egg-allergic children with atopic dermatitis (AD; age 10 months to 8.4 yr, mean 3.4 yr) and 10 egg-tolerant children with and 10 without AD (age 2.4-11 yr, mean 5.5 yr) participated. In SAFT several false-negative reactions were seen, whereas all clinically egg......Skin testing is a common diagnostic procedure in food allergy, but the final diagnosis of food allergy is based on the clinical response to food challenge. We studied the value of the skin prick-prick test (SPT), skin application food test (SAFT) and atopy patch test (APT) with fresh egg extract......-allergic children were positive in SPT and 40-60% in APT. In APT and in SPT false-positive reactions to egg were observed. In this study comprising a small number of patients including control subjects, neither SAFT nor APT with fresh whole egg extract were able to increase the diagnostic accuracy in detecting egg...

  4. Influence of the Chungkookjang on histamine-induced wheal and flare skin response: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Dae-Young; Yang, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Min-Jeong; Kang, Hee-Joo; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Ha, Ki-Chan; Back, Hyang-Im; Kim, Sun-Young; Park, Eun-Ok; Kim, Min-Gul; Yun, Seok-Kwon; Chae, Soo-Wan; Cho, Back-Hwan

    2011-12-05

    Allergic disease is a consequence of exposure to normally innocuous substances that elicit the activation of mast cells. Mast-cell-mediated allergic response is involved in many diseases such as anaphylaxis, urticaria, allergic rhinitis, asthma and allergic dermatitis. The development of food products for the prevention of allergic disease is an important subject in human health. The chungkookjang (CKJ) has been reported to exhibit antiallergic inflammatory activity. Therefore, the aim of the study is to examine the effects of the CKJ to reduce histamine-induced wheal and flare skin responses. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 60 healthy subjects will be carried out. Sixty volunteers (aged 20-80) who gave a written consent before entering the study will be randomized in two groups of thirty subjects each. The skin prick test with histamine solution of 10 mg/ml will be performed on the ventral forearm, 10 cm from the elbow. The subjects will be instructed to take 35 g per day of either the CKJ pills or a placebo pills for a period of 3 months. Diameters of wheal and flare will be assessing 15 minutes after performing the above-mentioned skin prick test. The primary outcome is change in wheal and flare responses. Secondary outcomes will be include change in serum histamine, immunoglobulin E, cytokines (interferon-gamma, interleukin-4, -10, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha), and eosinophil cationic protein. This study will show the potential anti-inflammatory properties of the CKJ in their skin activity when histamine is the challenging agent as occurs in the clinical situation. And the present protocol will confirm the efficacy and safety of the CKJ for allergy symptoms, suggesting more basic knowledge to conduct further randomized controlled trials (RCT). If this study will be successfully performed, the CKJ will be an alternative dietary supplemental remedy for allergy patients. NCT01402141.

  5. Influence of the Chungkookjang on histamine-induced wheal and flare skin response: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Dae-Young

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts Background Allergic disease is a consequence of exposure to normally innocuous substances that elicit the activation of mast cells. Mast-cell-mediated allergic response is involved in many diseases such as anaphylaxis, urticaria, allergic rhinitis, asthma and allergic dermatitis. The development of food products for the prevention of allergic disease is an important subject in human health. The chungkookjang (CKJ has been reported to exhibit antiallergic inflammatory activity. Therefore, the aim of the study is to examine the effects of the CKJ to reduce histamine-induced wheal and flare skin responses. Methods/Design A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 60 healthy subjects will be carried out. Sixty volunteers (aged 20-80 who gave a written consent before entering the study will be randomized in two groups of thirty subjects each. The skin prick test with histamine solution of 10 mg/ml will be performed on the ventral forearm, 10 cm from the elbow. The subjects will be instructed to take 35 g per day of either the CKJ pills or a placebo pills for a period of 3 months. Diameters of wheal and flare will be assessing 15 minutes after performing the above-mentioned skin prick test. The primary outcome is change in wheal and flare responses. Secondary outcomes will be include change in serum histamine, immunoglobulin E, cytokines (interferon-gamma, interleukin-4, -10, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and eosinophil cationic protein. Discussion This study will show the potential anti-inflammatory properties of the CKJ in their skin activity when histamine is the challenging agent as occurs in the clinical situation. And the present protocol will confirm the efficacy and safety of the CKJ for allergy symptoms, suggesting more basic knowledge to conduct further randomized controlled trials (RCT. If this study will be successfully performed, the CKJ will be an alternative dietary supplemental remedy for allergy patients

  6. Immediate skin and mucosal symptoms from pot plants and vegetables in gardeners and greenhouse workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, E; Skov, Per Stahl; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1998-01-01

    Short-lived occupational skin symptoms of irritant or urticarial nature were commonly reported among 253 attendants in a clinical study on occupational dermatitis in Danish gardeners and greenhouse workers. Aimed prick or scratch-patch testing for immediate skin and mucosal symptoms was performed...

  7. Characteristics of subjective recognition and computer-aided image analysis of facial erythematous skin diseases: a cornerstone of automated diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J W; Kim, B R; Lee, H S; Youn, S W

    2014-08-01

    Rosacea and seborrhoeic dermatitis are common diseases that cause facial erythema. They have common features and are frequently misdiagnosed. To extract characteristic features of erythrotelangiectatic rosacea (ETR), papulopustular rosacea (PPR) and seborrhoeic dermatitis (SEB) through computer-aided image analysis (CAIA) and compare them with subjectively recognized features and to use these findings to construct a decision tree for differential diagnosis. Thirty-four clinical photos of patients with facial erythema were assessed: 12 patients were classified as showing ETR, 12 as PPR and 10 as SEB. Five dermatologists blinded to the original diagnosis gave their impressions of each photo. The mean, SD and T-zone to U-zone (T/U) ratios of the erythema parameter a* (a* of the L*a*b* colour space) were calculated for each photo using CAIA. These CAIA parameters were compared between impression groups. The most closely related CAIA parameter for each disease was established using the receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis. A decision tree which predicts the diagnosis from given CAIA parameters was constructed. All the photos classified as PPR generated impressions of PPR. However, approximately 30% of the photos classified as ETR generated impressions of SEB and vice versa. PPR was characterized by a large SD of erythema of the cheek, ETR was characterized by a large mean erythema of the U-zone, and SEB was characterized by a large T/U ratio of mean erythema. Fifteen additional photos were examined: the decision tree predicted the original diagnosis for 14, but incorrectly predicted one case of ETR as SEB. The CAIA result of facial erythema is well correlated with the actual clinical diagnosis. The accuracy of differential diagnosis using a decision tree with CAIA parameters is as good as that of global examination impressions of dermatologists. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  8. [YANG's pricking-cupping therapy for knee osteoarthritis: a multi-center randomized controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Liu, Xiru; Hu, Zhihai; Sun, Aijun; Ma, Yanwen; Chen Yingying; Zhang, Xuzhi; Liu, Meiling; Wang, Yi; Wang, Shuoshuo; Zhang, Yunjia; Li, Yijing; Shen, Weidong

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy of YANG's pricking-cupping therapy for knee osteoar thritis (KOA). Methods This was a multi-center randomized parallel controlled trial. One hundred and seventy one patients with KOA were randomly allocated to a pricking-cupping group (89 cases) and a conventional acu puncture group (82 cases). Neixiyan (EX-LE 4), Dubi (ST 35) and ashi points were selected in the two groups. Patients in the pricking-cupping group were treated with YANG's pricking-cupping therapy; the seven-star needles were used to perform pricking at acupoints, then cupping was used until slight bleeding was observed. Patients in the conventional acupuncture group were treated with semi-standardized filiform needle therapy. The treatment was given for 4 weeks (from a minimum of 5 times to a maximum of 10 times). The follow-up visit was 4 weeks. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and the visual analogue scale (VAS) were adopted for the efficacy assessments. The pain score, stiffness score, physical function score and total score of WOMAC were all reduced after 4-week treatment and during follow-up visit in the two groups (all P0. 05), each score and total score of WOMAC in the pricking-cupping group were lower than those in the conventional acupuncture group after 4-week treatment and during follow-up visit (Pcupping group were lower than those in the conventional acupuncture group after 4-week treatment and during follow-up visit (P cupping and conventional acupuncture therapy can both significantly improve knee joint pain and function in patients with KOA, which are relatively safe. The pricking cupping therapy is superior to conventional acupuncture with the identical selection of acupoints.

  9. [Skin cancer in primary care: frequency, need to further education and subjective diagnostic certainty. A cross sectional survey among general practitioners in Canton of Zurich

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badertscher, N.; Senn, O.; Rossi, P.O.; Wensing, M.; Rosemann, T.; Tandjung, R.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Incidence of malignant skin lesions is rising in Switzerland. We wanted to assess the frequency of patients with suspicious skin lesions in daily practice. Furthermore, we asked for diagnostic certainty and the need of further education in skin cancer. METHODS: Survey with 1212 GPs in

  10. Lipid transfer proteins: the most frequent sensitizer in Italian subjects with food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, A; Scala, E; Rumi, G; Gaeta, F; Caruso, C; Alonzi, C; Maggioletti, M; Ferrara, R; Palazzo, P; Palmieri, V; Zeppilli, P; Mari, A

    2012-11-01

    Specific food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (S-FDEIAn) is a distinct form of food allergy in which symptoms are elicited by exercise performed after ingesting food to which the patient has become sensitised. Non-specific FDEIAn (NS-FDEIAn) is a syndrome provoked by exercise performed after ingesting any food. We sought to identify the culprit allergenic molecules in patients with FDEIAn, combining 'classic' allergy testing with an allergenic molecule-based microarray approach for IgE detection. All subjects were evaluated who reported at least one episode of anaphylaxis in association with physical exercise performed within 4 h after a meal. We performed skin prick tests (SPT) with commercial food extracts, prick plus prick tests (P + P) with fresh foods (P + P), and serum specific IgE assays by means of both the ImmunoCAP (CAP) and the ISAC 89 microarray system (ISAC). Among our 82 FDEIAn patients, the most frequent suspected foods were tomato, cereals, and peanut. SPT, P + P, and CAP displayed different degrees of sensitivity. Each test disclosed some positivities not discovered by others. Seventy-nine subjects were positive to at least one food (49 to more than 20), whereas three were negative. All suspected foods were positive to at least one of SPT, P + P, and CAP. When tested using the ISAC, 64 (78%) subjects were positive to Pru p 3 [peach lipid transfer protein (LTP)], 13 were positive to other food allergen molecules, and five displayed negative results to all food allergenic molecules. Overall, 79 patients probably had S-FDEIAn and the other 3 NS-FDEIAn. Multiple food hypersensitivity represents a clinical hallmark of a large percentage of FDEIAn patients. The very high prevalence of IgE to the LTP suggests a role of this allergen group in causing S-FDEIAn. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Changes in pulse rate, respiratory rate, blood oxygenation, perfusion index, skin conductance, and their variability induced during and after grounding human subjects for 40 minutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Gaetan

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that grounding produces quantifiable physiologic changes. This study was set up to reproduce and expand earlier electrophysiologic and physiologic parameters measured immediately after grounding with improved methodology and state-of-the-art equipment. A multiparameter double-blind experiment was conducted with 14 men and 14 women (age range: 18-80) in relatively good health. Subjects were screened for health problems using a commonly used health questionnaire. They were seated in a comfortable recliner and measured during 2-hour grounding sessions, leaving time for signals to stabilize before, during, and after grounding (40 minutes for each period). Sham 2-hour grounding sessions were also recorded with the same subjects as controls. This report presents results for 5 of the 18 parameters measured. The parameters reported here are: skin conductance (SC), blood oxygenation (BO), respiratory rate (RR), pulse rate (PR), and perfusion index (PI). This study was performed in a rented facility in Encinitas, California. The facility was chosen in a quiet area for its very low electromagnetic noise. For each session, statistical analyses were performed on four 10-minute segments: before and after grounding (sham grounding for control session) and before and after ungrounding (sham ungrounding). There was an immediate decrease in SC at grounding and an immediate increase at ungrounding on all subjects. RR increased during grounding, and the effect lasted after ungrounding. RR variance increased immediately after grounding then decreased. BO variance decreased during grounding, followed by a dramatic increase after ungrounding. PR and PI variances increased toward the end of the grounding period, and this change persisted after ungrounding. These results warrant further research to determine how grounding affects the body. Grounding could become important for relaxation, health maintenance and disease prevention.

  12. Histamine skin reactivity increases with body mass index in Korean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ju Wan; Lee, Keun-Hwa; Hong, Seong-Chul; Lee, Hye-Sook; Lee, Jaechun; Kim, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Jeong Hong

    2015-02-01

    Histamine skin prick testing is most commonly used to diagnose immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic diseases, and histamine reactivity is used as a standardized positive control in the interpretation of a skin prick test. However, reactivity to histamine differs among individuals for reasons that are poorly understood. The present study aimed to evaluate the potential association between body mass index (BMI) and histamine skin reactivity in children. A total of 451 children (246 boys, 205 girls) aged 7-8 years were enrolled in this study. The skin prick test was performed with 26 aeroallergens commonly found in Korea. Other information was collected, including sex, age, BMI, parental allergy history, and parental smoking status. Multivariate analysis was used to confirm the association between histamine skin reactivity and BMI. The histamine wheal size was revealed to be associated with BMI (Spearman's Rho 0.161, pSkin responses to histamine were primarily correlated with increased BMI. Further studies are needed to understand the clinical implication of BMI when interpreting the results of skin prick test. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Extraction and determination of polyphenols and betalain pigments in the Moroccan Prickly pear fruits (Opuntia ficus indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Khatabi

    2016-09-01

    This study has permitted us equally to value betalain pigments extracted from fruity juice. These are the betalains present in the epidermis and the pulp of the prickly pear confers on it its color varying from yellow to purple. Results show that yellow and red prickly pears contain imported strengths in betalains. Our work shows that the red prickly pear contains betaxanthin pigments in excess of the indicaxanthin that permits to valorize human’s potential spring of genuine colorings. Betalains and polyphenols are antioxidants that contribute to nutritional prickly pears’ quality and to their products of transformation.

  14. Anaphylaxis during skin testing with food allergens in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitsios, Constantinos; Dimitriou, Anastasia; Stefanaki, Efthalia C; Kontou-Fili, Kalliopi

    2010-05-01

    Skin testing is the diagnostic cornerstone for allergies and is considered extremely safe. It is usually performed with the prick and the prick-to-prick method. The aim of this study is to report the first two pediatric cases of systemic allergic reactions during skin prick tests (SPT) with commercial food allergens. Both patients had a history of fish allergy. A 5-year-old girl, with a history of atopic dermatitis and asthma, reported an episode of urticaria and angioedema due to ingestion of fish, which had occurred 2 years before consultation. Ten minutes after having completed SPT to fish extracts, which had resulted positive, she suffered from generalized pruritus, nausea, stomach pain, and loss of consciousness. A 9-year-old boy, with a history of asthma and two episodes of acute urticaria and angioedema upon eating fish during infancy, reported a recent episode of oropharyngeal pruritus after tasting salmon. He was evaluated for fish allergy with SPT but developed conjunctivitis and acute urticaria during the first 10 min of the test. Anaphylaxis appears to be a rare side effect of skin testing in pediatric patients. Children with a history of asthma and atopic dermatitis are more likely to react.

  15. Human finger-prick induced pluripotent stem cells facilitate the development of stem cell banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hong-Kee; Toh, Cheng-Xu Delon; Ma, Dongrui; Yang, Binxia; Liu, Tong Ming; Lu, Jun; Wong, Chee-Wai; Tan, Tze-Kai; Li, Hu; Syn, Christopher; Tan, Eng-Lee; Lim, Bing; Lim, Yoon-Pin; Cook, Stuart A; Loh, Yuin-Han

    2014-05-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from somatic cells of patients can be a good model for studying human diseases and for future therapeutic regenerative medicine. Current initiatives to establish human iPSC (hiPSC) banking face challenges in recruiting large numbers of donors with diverse diseased, genetic, and phenotypic representations. In this study, we describe the efficient derivation of transgene-free hiPSCs from human finger-prick blood. Finger-prick sample collection can be performed on a "do-it-yourself" basis by donors and sent to the hiPSC facility for reprogramming. We show that single-drop volumes of finger-prick samples are sufficient for performing cellular reprogramming, DNA sequencing, and blood serotyping in parallel. Our novel strategy has the potential to facilitate the development of large-scale hiPSC banking worldwide.

  16. Anthropological neurology: symptoms and their meanings according to Joseph Prick (1909-1978).

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Meulen, B C; Dekkers, W J M; Keyser, A; van Woerkom, T C A M

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the life and work of the Dutch neurologist Joseph Prick (1909-1978) and his idea of an anthropological neurology. According to Prick, neurological symptoms should not only be explained from an underlying physico-chemical substrate but also be regarded as meaningful. We present an outline of the historical and philosophical context of his ideas with a focus on the theory of the human body by the French philosopher Maurice Merleau-Ponty (1908-1961) and the concept of anthropology-based medicine developed by Frederik Buytendijk (1887-1974). We give an overview of anthropological neurology as a clinical practice and finally we discuss the value of Prick's approach for clinical neurology today.

  17. Effect of low-level laser therapy on blood flow and oxygen- hemoglobin saturation of the foot skin in healthy subjects: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heu, Franziska; Forster, Clemens; Namer, Barbara; Dragu, Adrian; Lang, Werner

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: This study on healthy test subjects intends to show whether one-off Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) has an instant effect on the perfusion or the oxygenation of the skin tissue. These possible instant effects may have an influence on the accelerated wound healing which is often observed after application of LLLT, in addition to the usual postulated effects of LLLT which occur with a time delay normally. Study design/materials and methods: The study was carried out double-blind and placebo-controlled in two batches of testing. The test subjects received one-off LLLT on a defined area of the arch of the foot. Simultaneously a placebo treatment was carried out on the corresponding contralateral area. In the first batch of tests, the blood flow was measured immediately before and after treatment using thermography and LDI. In the second batch of tests, the blood flow and the oxygen saturation were determined immediately before and after the treatment using an O2C device. Results: No evidence that the LLLT has a significant instant effect on the circulation or the oxygen saturation could be found. Conclusion: No immediate effect of an LLLT on the perfusion or oxygenation situation is to be expected with physiologically normal starting conditions. An additional investigation should be carried out in which either the radiation dose is varied or the starting conditions are pathological (e.g. chronic wounds) in order to rule out immediate effects on circulation or oxygen saturation as the cause of the improved wound healing which is often observed. PMID:24155546

  18. Are basophil histamine release and high affinity IgE receptor expression involved in asymptomatic skin sensitization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina Margrethe; Assing, K; Jensen, Lone Hummelshøj

    2006-01-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig)E-sensitized persons with positive skin prick test, but no allergy symptoms, are classified as being asymptomatic skin sensitized (AS). The allergic type 1 disease is dependant on IgE binding to the high affinity IgE-receptor (FcepsilonRI) expressed on basophils and mast cells...

  19. Allergy to Ficus benjamina (weeping fig) in nonatopic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, I G

    1995-03-01

    Occupational allergy to Ficus benjamina (Fb), or weeping fig, occurs in about one in four plant-keepers. Sensitization to this plant occurs in about 3-4% of persons with clear-cut atopy. I now report on four female nonatopic patients with rhinoconjunctivitis who were sensitized only to weeping fig. All four had a positive skin prick test and RAST test to Fb. The identification of a preventable respiratory allergen is of considerable importance for the patient. Inclusion of Fb in the standard prick test panel may therefore be considered. Furthermore, the findings suggest that it may be unwise to choose Fb as an ornamental indoor plant.

  20. Growth development and morphological differences among native and non-native prickly nightshades (Solanum spp.) of the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prickly nightshades are troublesome weeds of natural habitats pastures, feed lots, right-of-ways, and croplands. Native and non-native invasive weedy species of prickly nightshades were compared to determine growth, development, and morphological differences. Tables were developed from new and exis...

  1. [Effects of bloodletting pricking, cupping and surrounding acupuncture on inflammation-related indices in peripheral and local blood in patients with acute herpes zoster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Pengliang; Yang, Yiling; Guan, Ling

    2016-01-01

    To observe the effects of bloodletting pricking, cupping and surrounding acupuncture on blood inflammation-related indices in patients with acute herpes zoster (HZ), and to explore the mechanism of pain control and treatment. A total of 60 patients were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 30 cases in each one. In the observation group, the patients were treated with bloodletting pricking at herpes, followed by cupping treatment; also the surrounding acupuncture was performed at injured skin. The treatment was given once a day and once every other day after the first 3 days; totally one-week treatment was given. In the control group, the patients were treated with intravenous drip of acyclovir and oral administration of vitamin B1 and B12, once a day for total one week. The visual analogue scale (VAS) and percentages of neutrophil, lymphocyte in peripheral and local blood were observed before and after treatment in the two groups. After treatment, the score of VAS was significantly reduced in both groups (both P treatment, the percentages of lymphocyte in peripheral and local blood were reduced after treatment (both P treatment in the control group (P cupping and surrounding acupuncture on acute herpes zoster is positive, and it can significantly lower the number of lymphocytes in the local blood and increase the number of neutrophil, which is likely to be one of the anti-virus mechanisms.

  2. Uptake, translocation and metabolism of aminocyclopyrachlor in prickly lettuce, rush skeletonweed and yellow starthistle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jared L; Burke, Ian C; Prather, Timothy S

    2011-10-01

    Aminocyclopyrachlor is a new herbicide proposed to control broadleaf weeds and shrubs in non-crop and rangeland systems. To gain a better understanding of observed field efficacy, the uptake and translocation of foliar-applied aminocyclopyrachlor (DPX-MAT28) and aminocyclopyrachlor methyl ester (DPX-KJM44) were evaluated in two annuals, prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola L.) and yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis L.), and one perennial, rush skeletonweed (Chondrilla juncea L.). Absorption and translocation varied between species. While absorption of DPX-KJM44 was greater than absorption of DPX-MAT28, rush skeletonweed absorbed the most, followed by yellow starthistle and prickly lettuce. Overall, the total translocation of either herbicide was highest in yellow starthistle, followed by rush skeletonweed and prickly lettuce. Proportional herbicide movement between species was similar, with the majority translocating to developing shoots. However, in rush skeletonweed, early translocation was directed to root tissue. In rush skeletonweed, no DPX-MAT28 metabolism occurred, while DPX-KJM44 was rapidly de-esterified and translocated as DPX-MAT28. Aminocyclopyrachlor absorption and translocation are dependent on active ingredient structure and species sensitivity. Highly sensitive species such as prickly lettuce absorb and translocate less material than relatively less sensitive species such as rush skeletonweed. De-esterification of DPX-KJM44 appears to delay translocation of the resulting acid in yellow starthistle and rush skeletonweed. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Profil allergénique des patients symptomatiques réalisant des prick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Profil allergénique des patients symptomatiques réalisant des prick-tests dans une structure sanitaire privée de la ville de Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). Patrice Gilbert Tapsoba, Nomtondo Amina Ouédraogo, Maodo Ndiaye, Muriel Sidnoma Ouédraogo, Fagnima Traoré, Dofinissery Joel Bognini, Fatou Barro-Traoré, Pascal ...

  4. Preventing the dental needle prick injury (DNPI) : a new approach to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The burden of serious occupational hazards of infectious diseases such as HIV, Hepatitis B and C, Lassa and Ebola Virus diseases which can be contracted through such injuries can be quite costly to the dental health care worker and to the healthcare system in general. Dental needle prick injury (DNPI) prevention devices ...

  5. Correlation of glucose level among venous, gingival and finger-prick blood samples in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Chopra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is essential for a dental surgeon or a periodontist to detect blood glucose level for patients whose signs and symptoms are suggestive of diabetes. Seventy patients in the age group of 40 to 80 years of either sex were selected for the study. The study population included patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Venous blood was used as a control group, whereas gingival blood and finger-prick blood constituted the study groups I and II, respectively. The percentage deviations of gingival blood glucose level measurements and finger-prick blood glucose level measurements from the standard venous blood glucose level measurements were recorded, which showed that 72.86% of gingival and 68.57% of finger-prick blood glucose level measurements were found to be within ΁15% of the standard venous blood glucose level measurements. All values exhibited significant correlations among each other, but correlations between glucose values obtained using venous and gingival blood samples were higher than the correlations between glucose values obtained using venous and finger-prick blood samples.

  6. Trial of Music, Sucrose, and Combination Therapy for Pain Relief during Heel Prick Procedures in Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Swapnil R; Kadage, Shahajahan; Sinn, John

    2017-11-01

    To compare the effectiveness of music, oral sucrose, and combination therapy for pain relief in neonates undergoing a heel prick procedure. This randomized, controlled, blinded crossover clinical trial included stable neonates >32 weeks of postmenstrual age. Each neonate crossed over to all 3 interventions in random order during consecutive heel pricks. A video camera on mute mode recorded facial expressions, starting 2 minutes before until 7 minutes after the heel prick. The videos were later analyzed using the Premature Infant Pain Profile-Revised (PIPP-R) scale once per minute by 2 independent assessors, blinded to the intervention. The PIPP-R scores were compared between treatment groups using Friedman test. For the 35 participants, the postmenstrual age was 35 weeks (SD, 2.3) with an average weight of 2210 g (SD, 710). The overall median PIPP-R scores following heel prick over 6 minutes were 4 (IQR 0-6), 3 (IQR 0-6), and 1 (IQR 0-3) for the music, sucrose, and combination therapy interventions, respectively. The PIPP-R scores were significantly lower at all time points after combination therapy compared with the groups given music or sucrose alone. There was no difference in PIPP-R scores between the music and sucrose groups. In relatively stable and mature neonates, the combination of music therapy with sucrose provided better pain relief during heel prick than when sucrose or music was used alone. Recorded music in isolation had a similar effect to the current gold standard of oral sucrose. www.anzctr.org.au ACTRN12615000271505. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Skin color independent assessment of aging using skin autofluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetsier, Marten; Nur, Erfan; Han Chunmao, [No Value; Lutgers, Helen L.; Links, Thera P.; Smit, Andries J.; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Graaff, Reindert

    2010-01-01

    Skin autofluorescence (AF) for the non-invasive assessment of the amount of accumulated tissue Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) increases with aging. In subjects with darker skin colors, measurements typically result in lower AF values than in subjects with fair skin colors, e. g. due to

  8. Skin barrier function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    on the subject. It covers new basic research on skin markers, including results on filaggrin and on methods for the assessment of the barrier function. Biological variation and aspects of skin barrier function restoration are discussed as well. Further sections are dedicated to clinical implications of skin...... barrier integrity, factors influencing the penetration of the skin, influence of wet work, and guidance for prevention and saving the barrier. Distinguished researchers have contributed to this book, providing a comprehensive and thorough overview of the skin barrier function. Researchers in the field...

  9. Characterizing the Vertical Distribution of Hydraulic Conductivity Using the Multilevel Slug Test Subject to Skin Effects: Comparison of the Uniform-head and Uniform-flux Wellbore Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    wei-Chiang, C.; Chen, C. S.

    2016-12-01

    The multilevel slug test (MLST) is an in-well technique in characterizing the vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity K(z) in granular or fractured formations. In modeling MLST, the well screen is either simulated as a uniform-flux (UF) or a uniform head (UH) condition. This study investigates the impact of the skin effect, positive or negative, on the UH and UF models. The positive skin effect, as associated with a reduced hydraulic conductivity surrounding the well due to drilling mud invasion, is taken into account by making use of a skin factor, Sk.The negative skin effect, as associated with an increased hydraulic conductivity due to overdeveloping of the well, is modeled by using an effective well radius, re, which is greater than or equal to the well radius, rw. The UF and UH models are compared using different values of Sk and re for a variety of the partial penetration ratio of screen length to aquifer thickness, φ, the vertical anisotropy ratio of hydraulic conductivity, κ, and the aspect ratio of rw to the screen length, α. It is found that (1) the two models yield results of negligible difference when the well fully penetrates the aquifer (i.e., φ=1) regardless of the values of α,κ, Sk or re, (2) the two models yield essentially the same results for negative skin for all α and κ, (3) the difference between the two models decreases as Sk gets larger, regardless of the values of α, φ, or κ, yet it becomes negligible for Sk is greater than unity, and (4) when the skin effect is absent, the maximum difference between the two models is within 3-5%. As a result, it is suggested the UF model be used since it is mathematically easier to solve than the UH model, with or without skin effects.

  10. Activity of ebastine (10 and 20 mg) and cetirizine at 24 hours of a steady state treatment in the skin of healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frossard, N; Benabdesselam, O; Purohit, A; Mounedji, N; Pauli, G

    2000-01-01

    We have compared the inhibitory effects of ebastine (10 mg), ebastine (20 mg) and cetirizine (10 mg) on histamine-induced wheal and flare skin reactions 24 h following a 6-day-long treatment. This was a double-blind, randomised, crossover, placebo-controlled study involving 24 healthy volunteers (18-65 years) with negative skin prick tests and the absence of specific IgEs to common allergens. Subjects were randomised to receive each of the following treatments once daily for 6 days: ebastine (10 mg), ebastine (20 mg), cetirizine (10 mg) or placebo with a washout period of 5 days. Twenty-four hours after the last dose of each treatment, histamine skin prick tests were performed (0, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200 mg/mL), and wheal and flare responses were measured. All active treatments produced significant inhibition of the wheal responses compared to placebo (P Wheal response inhibition was significantly better with 20 mg of ebastine compared with 10 mg of ebastine and 10 mg of cetirizine. In a comparison to histamine concentrations required to produce a wheal surface area of 10 mm2, 20 mg of ebastine was also significantly better than ebastine 10 mg and cetirizine (P response were observed with each active treatment compared to placebo, with no difference between groups. The frequency of adverse events, primarily somnolence, was similar among the four treatment groups. Our results clearly indicate that ebastine, at either recommended dosage of 10 and 20 mg, and cetirizine produced significant inhibition of the histamine-induced wheal and flare reaction compared to placebo for up to 24 h. A superior efficacy of 20 mg of ebastine is observed compared with 10 mg of ebastine and 10 mg of cetirizine on the skin wheal response 24 h after the last dose of a 6-day-long treatment. This study clearly proves ebastine to be an effective, truly once-daily antihistamine.

  11. Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Red Turnip and Purple Wild Sicilian Prickly Pear Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Di Carlo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were assembled by using the bougainvillea flowers, red turnip and the purple wild Sicilian prickly pear fruit juice extracts as natural sensitizers of TiO2 films. The yellow orange indicaxanthin and the red purple betacyanins are the main components in the cocktail of natural dyes obtained from these natural products. The best overall solar energy conversion efficiency of 1.7% was obtained, under AM 1.5 irradiation, with the red turnip extract, that showed a remarkable current density (Jsc = 9.5 mA/cm2 and a high IPCE value (65% at λ = 470 nm. Also the purple extract of the wild Sicilian prickly pear fruit showed interesting performances, with a Jsc of 9.4 mA/cm2, corresponding to a solar to electrical power conversion of 1.26%.

  12. Adsorption-desorption isotherms and heat of sorption of prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahsasni, S.; Kouhila, M. E-mail: kouhila@hotmail.com; Mahrouz, M

    2004-01-01

    The equilibrium moisture contents were determined for prickly pear fruit using the gravimetric static method at t=30, 40 and 50 deg. C over a range of relative humidities from 0.05 to 0.9. The sorption curves of prickly pear fruit decreased with increase in temperature at constant relative humidity. The hysteresis effect was observed. The GAB, modified Halsey, modified Chung-Pfost, modified Oswin and modified Henderson models were tested to fit the experimental data. The GAB model was found to be the most suitable for describing the sorption curves. The monolayer moisture content values for the sorption at different temperatures are calculated using a modified BET equation. The isosteric heats of desorption and adsorption of water were determined from the equilibrium data at different temperatures.

  13. Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Red Turnip and Purple Wild Sicilian Prickly Pear Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogero, Giuseppe; Di Marco, Gaetano; Cazzanti, Silvia; Caramori, Stefano; Argazzi, Roberto; Di Carlo, Aldo; Bignozzi, Carlo Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were assembled by using the bougainvillea flowers, red turnip and the purple wild Sicilian prickly pear fruit juice extracts as natural sensitizers of TiO2 films. The yellow orange indicaxanthin and the red purple betacyanins are the main components in the cocktail of natural dyes obtained from these natural products. The best overall solar energy conversion efficiency of 1.7% was obtained, under AM 1.5 irradiation, with the red turnip extract, that showed a remarkable current density (Jsc = 9.5 mA/cm2) and a high IPCE value (65% at λ = 470 nm). Also the purple extract of the wild Sicilian prickly pear fruit showed interesting performances, with a Jsc of 9.4 mA/cm2, corresponding to a solar to electrical power conversion of 1.26%. PMID:20162014

  14. Molecular profile of sensitization in subjects with short occupational exposure to latex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Lamberti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We examined the prevalence of latex allergy in subjects with occupational exposure to latex allergens for less than 5 years, determining the disease spectrum in symptomatic workers. We identified the most frequent molecular allergens by Immuno- CAP (ICAP, correlating the findings with skin prick test (SPT results. Material and Methods: Seven hundred twenty-three healthcare students using latex gloves on a regular basis were invited to participate in a baseline questionnaire screening. An ICAP serum test was performed only when a possible latex allergy was indicated by the questionnaire. Results: The total number of participants responding to the baseline survey was 619. Glove-related symptoms were indicated by 4% (N = 25 of the students. The most common symptom was contact dermatitis (N = 18, 72%. In 12 subjects, ICAP revealed a real sensitization to latex, with a recombinant latex allergen profile showing a high frequency for rHev b 6.01 specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE (N = 9, 67%. In these individuals, skin symptoms were more prevalent than other types (88%. Conclusions: The combined positivity for rHev b 6.01, rHev 8 and rHev b 5 determined by ICAP identified 92% of latex-allergic subjects with short-term exposure to latex.

  15. Molecular profile of sensitization in subjects with short occupational exposure to latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Monica; Buonanno, Rosaria; Ritonnaro, Chiara; Giovane, Giancarlo; Crispino, Vincenzo; Feola, Antonia; Medici, Nicola; Sannolo, Nicola; Di Carlo, Angelina; Di Domenico, Marina

    2015-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of latex allergy in subjects with occupational exposure to latex allergens for less than 5 years, determining the disease spectrum in symptomatic workers. We identified the most frequent molecular allergens by Immuno- CAP (ICAP), correlating the findings with skin prick test (SPT) results. Seven hundred twenty-three healthcare students using latex gloves on a regular basis were invited to participate in a baseline questionnaire screening. An ICAP serum test was performed only when a possible latex allergy was indicated by the questionnaire. The total number of participants responding to the baseline survey was 619. Glove-related symptoms were indicated by 4% (N = 25) of the students. The most common symptom was contact dermatitis (N = 18, 72%). In 12 subjects, ICAP revealed a real sensitization to latex, with a recombinant latex allergen profile showing a high frequency for rHev b 6.01 specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) (N = 9, 67%). In these individuals, skin symptoms were more prevalent than other types (88%). The combined positivity for rHev b 6.01, rHev 8 and rHev b 5 determined by ICAP identified 92% of latex-allergic subjects with short-term exposure to latex. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  16. Pyrazinamide-induced anaphylaxis: diagnosed by skin test and successful desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavbek, Sevim; Yılmaz, Insu; Aydın, Ömür; Ozdemir, Seçil Kepil

    2012-01-01

    Pyrazinamide (PZA), an antituberculosis drug, may cause hypersensitivity reactions. Here, we report a case of anaphylaxis secondary to a PZA administration for tuberculosis pleuritis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of strongly possible IgE-mediated, PZA-induced anaphylaxis proved by skin prick test and oral provocation/desensitization. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Effects of repeated administration of intradermal skin test by Mantoux method on delayed-type hypersensitivity responses in healthy young and elderly subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-test CMI to test immune response is no longer commercially available. DTH response is a highly suitable marker of immune function. Because delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin test can predict morbidity and mortality, it may be clinically meaningful test to evaluate the effect of nutrition...

  18. Effect of Mozart music on heel prick pain in preterm infants: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cavaiuolo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this pilot study was to determine the effect of music by Mozart on heel prick procedural pain in premature infants.Background: Painful procedures are routinely performed in the setting of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Pain may exert short- and long-term deleterious effects on premature babies. Many non-pharmacological interventions have been proven efficacious for blunting neonatal pain.Study design: Randomized, controlled trial.Methods: The study was carried out in the NICU of the “G. Rummo” Hospital in Benevento, Italy. The sample consisted of 42 preterm infants, with no hearing loss or significant cerebral lesions on cranial ultrasound. They were randomized to receive heel lance during a music condition or a no-music control condition. We set strict criteria for selecting and delivering the music. Baseline and postprocedural heart rate and transcutaneous oxygen saturation were manually recorded. The Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP score was used to measure the behavioral response to prick. An unpaired t-test was performed for the intergroup comparisons.Results: There were significant differences between groups on heart rate increase, oxygen saturation reduction and PIPP score following the procedure.Conclusions: Listening to Mozart music during heel prick is a simple and inexpensive tool for pain alleviating in preterm stable neonates.

  19. Thin layer convective solar drying and mathematical modeling of prickly pear peel (Opuntia ficus indica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahsasni, S.; Mahrouz, M. [Unite de Chimie Agroalimentaire (LCOA), Faculte des Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech (Morocco); Kouhila, M.; Idlimam, A.; Jamali, A. [Ecole Normale Superieure, Marrakech (Morocco). Lab. d' Energie Solaire et Plantes Aromatiques et Medicinales

    2004-02-01

    This paper presents the thin layer convective solar drying and mathematical modeling of prickly pear peel. For these purposes, an indirect forced convection solar dryer consisting of a solar air collector, an auxiliary heater, a circulation fan and a drying cabinet is used for drying experiments. Moreover, the prickly pear peel is sufficiently dried in the ranges of 32 to 36 {sup o} C of ambient air temperature, 50 to 60 {sup o}C of drying air temperature, 23 to 34% of relative humidity, 0.0277 to 0.0833 m{sup 3}/s of drying air flow rate and 200 to 950 W/m{sup 2} of daily solar radiation. The experimental drying curves show only a falling drying rate period. The main factor in controlling the drying rate was found to be the drying air temperature. The drying rate equation is determined empirically from the characteristic drying curve. Also, the experimental drying curves obtained were fitted to a number of mathematical models. The Midilli-Kucuk drying model was found to satisfactorily describe the solar drying curves of prickly pear peel with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9998 and chi-square ({chi}{sup 2}) of 4.6572 10{sup -5}. (Author)

  20. Bioaccumulation of Cadmium and Lead in Prickly Pen Shell in Seribu Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etty Riani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Jakarta Bay waters contaminated with heavy metals, so that the waters of the Thousand Islands are also potentially contaminated with heavy metals. The purpose of this study were to determine the condition of the water quality on the Panggang Island and Karya Island, analyze contamination of heavy metals (Cadmium and Lead in water, sediments and Prickly Pen Shell and then the correlation. Based on Ministry of Environment decree No. 51/2004, water quality in the Panggang Island and Karya Island tend toward to low category. Cadmium and lead concentration in the water on October exceed the quality standards. In the sediment on July and October at Karya Island, concentration of cadmium were exceed the quality standar by RNO. On the other hand, cadmium and lead concentration on Prickly Pen Shell still below standard quality from decree of Director General of POM RI No. 03725. We found highest positive correlation were found between cadmium and lead accumulation in the water and on the Prickly Pen Shell, then positive correlation between cadmium and lead in the water and in the sediment. For the heavy metal contamination, we found contamination of cadmium correlation were higher than lead contamination.

  1. Prickly polyaniline nano/microstructures as the efficient counter electrode materials for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guiqiang; Yan, Chao; Zhang, Wei

    2017-12-01

    Two kinds of prickly polyaniline samples, prickly polyaniline nanorods and microgranules, are prepared through the chemically oxidative polymerization method by regulating the concentration of aniline. Scanning electron microscopy images indicate that the diameter of prickly polyaniline nanorods (PPNRs) is about 80 nm and the size of prickly polyaniline microgranules (PPMGs) is about 400 nm. The as-prepared prickly polyaniline samples are subsequently explored as the Pt-free counter electrode materials for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry measurements demonstrate that PPNR electrode displays superior electrocatalytic activity for the I3 - reduction reaction to PPMG electrode, which can be attributed to the unique prickly nanorod structure that provides abundant electrocatalytic active sites and the fast charge transport pathway simultaneously. As a consequence, the DSC fabricated with PPNR counter electrode achieves a high conversion efficiency of 6.86% under illumination of 100 mW cm-2, which is close to the efficiency of a Pt electrode-based device. This work presents a promising way to develop Pt-free and high-efficiency counter electrode in DSCs.

  2. The 24-hour skin hydration and barrier function effects of a hyaluronic 1%, glycerin 5%, and Centella asiatica stem cells extract moisturizing fluid: an intra-subject, randomized, assessor-blinded study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milani M

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Massimo Milani,1 Adele Sparavigna2 1Difa Cooper, Caronno Pertusella, Varese, 2Dermatologic Institute Dermig Milan, Milan, Italy Introduction: Moisturizing products are commonly used to improve hydration in skin dryness conditions. However, some topical hydrating products could have negative effects on skin barrier function. In addition, hydrating effects of moisturizers are not commonly evaluated up to 24 hours after a single application. Hyaluronic acid (HA and glycerin are very well-known substances able to improve skin hydration. Centella asiatica extract (CAE could exert lenitive, anti-inflammatory and reepithelialization actions. Furthermore, CAE could inhibit hyaluronidase enzyme activity, therefore prolonging the effect of HA. A fluid containing HA 1%, glycerin 5% and stem cells CAE has been recently developed (Jaluronius CS [JCS] fluid. Study aim: To evaluate and compare the 24-hour effects of JCS fluid on skin hydration and on transepidermal water loss (TEWL in healthy subjects in comparison with the control site. Subjects and methods: Twenty healthy women, mean age 40 years, were enrolled in an intra-subject (right vs left, randomized, assessor-blinded, controlled, 1-day trial. The primary end points were the skin hydration and TEWL, evaluated at the volar surface of the forearm and in standardized conditions (temperature- and humidity-controlled room: 23°C and 30% of humidity using a corneometer and a vapometer device at baseline, 1, 8 and 24 hours after JCS fluid application. Measurements were performed by an operator blinded for the treatments. Results: Skin hydration after 24 hours was significantly higher (P=0.001; Mann–Whitney U test in the JCS-treated area in comparison with the control site. JCS induced a significant (P=0.0001 increase in skin hydration at each evaluation time (+59% after 1 hour, +48% after 8 hours and +29% after 24 hours in comparison with both baseline (P=0.0001 and non-treated control site (P=0

  3. Allergic reactions to decorative skin paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkels, A F; Henry, F; Piérard, G E

    2001-03-01

    Dye mixtures containing henna, P-phenylenediamine (PPD), and indigo are applied to the skin in various parts of the world for religious purposes, social recognition or fun. To identify eventual allergens responsible for contact sensitization to skin decoration in three young children. Lesions remained strictly limited to the site painted during the summer holiday. None of the children had a previous history of contact dermatitis, but two of them suffered from severe seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Patch testing revealed severe contact hypersensitivity to PPD in all three patients, and one child presented a positive prick test to 1% henna in water. The eruptions resolved following spontaneous elimination of the dyes and topical applications of corticosteroids, but left residual depigmentation. PPD is the main allergen identified in allergic reactions to decorative skin paintings.

  4. How Stress and Anxiety Can Alter Immediate and Late Phase Skin Test Responses in Allergic Rhinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.; Heffner, Kathi L.; Glaser, Ronald; Malarkey, William B.; Porter, Kyle; Atkinson, Cathie; Laskowski, Bryon; Lemeshow, Stanley; Marshall, Gailen D.

    2009-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the fifth most common chronic disease, and the association between allergic disorders and anxiety is well-documented. To investigate how anxiety and stressors modulate skin prick test (SPT) responses and associated inflammatory responses, 28 men and women with AR were selected by clinical history and skin test responses. The participants were admitted twice to a hospital research unit for 4 hours in a crossover trial. Changes in SPT wheals were assessed before and af...

  5. Steroid-Free Over-the-Counter Eczema Skin Care Formulations Reduce Risk of Flare, Prolong Time to Flare, and Reduce Eczema Symptoms in Pediatric Subjects With Atopic Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Teresa M; Samarin, Frank; Babcock, Michael J; Filbry, Alexander; Rippke, Frank

    2015-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic skin condition associated with decreased barrier function resulting in periodic flare-ups of erythematous and pruritic lesions. Guidelines recommend daily treatment of atopic skin with emollient moisturizers for prevention of flares and maintenance of the flare-free state. This study evaluated the efficacy of 2 steroid-free, nonprescription eczema skin care formulations for reducing the risk of flare and relieving symptoms in infants and children with AD: Body Cream for the daily maintenance treatment of atopic skin and Flare Treatment for the treatment of atopic flares. After a 2-week washout period, subjects (N=45; mean age 3.5 years) were randomized to cleanser plus daily moisturizing with Body Cream (moisturizer group) or cleanser only (control group) for 6 months or until flare. Subjects experiencing flare received Flare Treatment for 4 weeks. The incidence of flare was significantly lower in the moisturizer group compared with the control group (21% vs 65%; P=.006), while the median time to flare was shorter in the control group (28 vs >180 days). Risk of flare was reduced by 44.1% after 6 months of Body Cream application. Flare Treatment reduced overall eczema symptom severity at week 2 and week 4; 78.9% of flares had improved or cleared at week 4. Body Cream reduced the incidence of flare and the time to flare, reinforcing guidelines that daily emollient therapy should be an integral part of the maintenance treatment plan for the prevention of disease flares. Body Cream and Flare Treatment are effective over-the-counter steroid-free options for management of AD in children.

  6. Skin Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Procedure Safety Results en español Biopsia de piel What Is a Skin Biopsy and Who Would ... skin infections, such as staph diseases, such as cancer other medical problems that may affect the skin, ...

  7. Immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions to proton pump inhibitors: usefulness of skin tests in the diagnosis and assessment of cross-reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepil Özdemir, S; Yılmaz, I; Aydin, Ö; Büyüköztürk, S; Gelincik, A; Demirtürk, M; Erdoğdu, D; Cömert, S; Erdoğan, T; Karakaya, G; Kalyoncu, A F; Oner Erkekol, F; Dursun, A B; Misirligil, Z; Bavbek, S

    2013-08-01

    Data are limited about the value of skin tests in the diagnosis of proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-induced hypersensitivity reactions and the cross-reactivity between PPIs. We aimed to assess the role of skin testing in the diagnosis of PPI-related immediate hypersensitivity reactions and the cross-reactivity patterns among PPIs. The study was designed in a prospective, national, multicentre nature. Sixty-five patients with a suggestive history of a PPI-induced immediate hypersensitivity reaction and 30 control subjects were included. Standardized skin prick and intradermal tests were carried out with a panel of PPIs. Single-blind, placebo-controlled oral provocation tests (OPTs) with the PPIs other than the culprit PPI that displayed negative results in skin tests (n = 61) and diagnostic OPTs with the suspected PPI (n = 12) were performed. The suspected PPIs were lansoprazole (n = 52), esomeprazole (n = 11), pantoprazole (n = 9), rabeprazole (n = 2), and omeprazole (n = 1). The sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values of the skin tests with PPIs were 58.8%, 100%, 70.8%, and 100%, respectively. Fifteen of the 31 patients with a hypersensitivity reaction to lansoprazole had a positive OPT or skin test result with at least one of the alternative PPIs (8/52 pantoprazole, 6/52 omeprazole, 5/52 esomeprazole, 3/52 rabeprazole). Considering the high specificity, skin testing seems to be a useful method for the diagnosis of immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions to PPIs and for the evaluation of cross-reactivity among PPIs. However, OPT should be performed in case of negativity on skin tests. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Skin Pedagogies and Abject Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenway, Jane; Bullen, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    How does the beauty industry "narrate the skin"? What does it teach women from different cultural groups about the female body? How does skin function as a site where female subjection and abjection are produced and reproduced? In this paper we examine the skin industry pointing to its extreme commodification of the female body and to the…

  9. Chemical composition and sensory analysis of roasted peanuts coated with prickly pear and algarrobo pod syrups

    OpenAIRE

    N. R. Grosso; Conci, S.; Ryan, L. C.; Olmedo, R. H.; Mestrallet, M. G.; Nepote, V.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the chemical composition, sensory attributes and consumer acceptance of roasted peanuts coated with prickly pear (RP-P) and “algarrobo” pod syrups (RP-A). Roasted peanuts (RP) without coating had the highest oil content (50.4%) in comparison with the coated products RP-P and RP-A (45.3% and 46.7%, respectively). RP-P and RP-A showed lower protein percentage and higher carbohydrate content than RP. These results affe...

  10. Bio-cultural anchorage of the prickly pear cactus in Tlalnepantla (Morelos), Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Torres-Salcido, Gerardo; Ramos-Chávez, Alejandro; Urreta-Fernández, Álvaro

    2016-01-01

    The prickly pear cactus is a source of food with strong bio-cultural anchorage in Mexico. This is due to at least three factors: 1) the nature and heritage of cacti; 2) cultural heritage; and 3) the socio-cultural relationships with historical and symbolic roots that have facilitated knowledge of how to cultivate it and how to use it. The aim of this article is to put factors of territorial anchorage and its historical transformation in context by examining the case of the municipality of Tla...

  11. [Observation of curative effect of herpes zoster treated with acupuncture based on syndrome differentiation combined with pricking and cupping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hua

    2011-10-01

    To compare the differences of curative effects of herpes zoster treated with acupuncture based on syndrome differentiation combined with pricking and cupping and simple pricking and cupping. Eighty-six cases were randomly divided into an observation group (43 cases) and a control group (43 cases). In observation group, acupoints selection based on syndrome differentiation i.e. Quchi (LI 11), Zusanli (ST 36), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), etc. were selected and pricking and cupping at affected parts were applied, and the cases were classified into damp heat in liver and gallbladder, damp retention and spleen deficiency, and qi deficiency and blood stasis. In control group, all the cases were simplely treated with pricking and cupping at affected parts. The treatment was given once a day, and seven days were made one session. The curative effect was evaluated after 2 courses, and the follow-up was carried on after 1 month. The cured and markedly effective rate was 93.0% (40/43) in observation group, superior to that of 67.4% (29/43) in control group (P 0.05). The cured and markedly effective rate of damp retention and spleen deficiency: 93.8% (15/16) in observation group, superior to that of 60.0% (9/15) in control group (P cupping therapy is high pertinent and effective, the postherpetic neuralgia can be reduced significantly and the curative effect is superior to that of simple pricking and cupping.

  12. GALEN skin test study III: Minimum battery of test inhalent allergens needed in epidemiological studies in patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousquet, P.-J.; Burbach, G.; Heinzerling, L. M.; Edenharter, G.; Bachert, C.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Bonini, S.; Bousquet-Rouanet, L.; Demoly, P.; Bresciani, M.; Bruno, A.; Gjomarkaj, M.; Canonica, G. W.; Darsow, U.; Durham, S.; Fokkens, W. J.; Giavi, S.; Gramiccioni, C.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Haahtela, T.; Kowalski, M. L.; Magyar, P.; Muraközi, G.; Orosz, M.; Röhnelt, C.; Stingl, G.; Todo-Bom, A.; von Mutius, E.; Wiesner, A.; Wöhrl, S.; Bousquet, J.; Zuberbier, T.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The number of allergens to be tested in order to identify sensitized patients is important in order to have the most cost-effective approach in epidemiological studies. Objective: To define the minimal number and the type of skin prick test (SPT) allergens required to identify a patient

  13. ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES AND FIBER DIMENSION OF PRICKLY ACACIA (Acacia nilotica L. FROM BALURAN NATIONAL PARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisdianto Krisdianto

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Acacia nilotica (L. Willd. ex. Delile growing in Baluran National Park has dramatically altered the ecological balance of grasslands and thereby threatens the existence of local biodiversity. Prickly acacia is able to spread rapidly and remains uncontrollable. Baluran National Park authorization has been struggling to control this prickly acacia trees. One possible action that can be taken to encounter this problem is allowing wood based industries, and local people take advantages of this nilotica timber utilization. This paper studies the anatomical properties and fiber dimensions of nilotica timber and discusses the possible utilization of  nilotica timber.   This timber is characterized by dark brown heartwood which is clearly distinct from reddish brown color of sapwood. The denser cell wall shows attractively streaked in tangential surfaces. The length of  wood fiber decreases from pith toward periphery portion. Longitudinally, higher stem has shorter fiber. Nilotica wood has second class quality of fiber, which means its fiber is moderately thick with narrow lumen diameter. Due to small log diameter and branches, the nilotica timber is not recommended for construction material. The timber is suitable for carved and turnery products. Nilotica timber is suitable for charcoal manufacture and fuel wood due to its high calorific value.

  14. Expression of ripening-related genes in prickly pear (Opuntia sp.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazo-Siqués, P; Valverde, M E; Paredes-López, O; Guevara-Lara, F

    2003-01-01

    To throw light on the expression of ripening-related genes in prickly pear (Opuntia sp.) fruits and on the possible role of the gaseous hormone ethylene in nonclimacteric fruit ripening, cDNA fragments that showed high homologies with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase and ACC oxidase cDNAs from other plants were cloned and partially characterized. Thus, the corresponding genes were accordingly named opaccs-1 and opacco-1, after Opuntia ACC synthase-1 and Opuntia ACC oxidase-1, respectively. Southern analysis suggests the presence of at least one copy of both genes, as well as other related homologous sequences in the Opuntia genome. Northern analysis of the opaccs-1 gene shows an enhanced expression in ripening fruit tissues, whereas opacco-1 expression is highly induced in ripe tissues with respect to the green fruits and mature cladodes. These results are in agreement with an active metabolic role of ethylene during nonclimacteric prickly pear fruit ripening. This is the first report on the analysis at the molecular level of ripening-related genes of the Opuntia genus.

  15. [Aged skin and skin care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proksch, E

    2015-06-01

    Aged skin is the sum of chronological und UV-induced aging. Light-exposed skin is unattractive, with irregular pigmentation, roughness und scaliness. The skin is often dry and itches. The present paper provides an overview of diseases of aging skin and describes how to prevent or reduce disease by prophylactic and therapeutic skin care. Aged skin can develop into several skin diseases, e.g., different types of eczema and skin cancer. In the body folds we often find an irritant contact eczema caused by friction from skin to skin, sweating, and urinary and fecal incontinence. In the bedridden, bed sores can also develop. Furthermore, there is a delay in wound healing owing to old age. Use of adequate creams and ointments is very helpful in preventing and improving most skin diseases of mature skin. However, the knowledge of aged people and healthcare professionals about the importance of skin care is low. Older people are often unable to care for their skin because they are lacking the physical and mental ability. Healthcare professionals are not sufficiently trained about the value of proper skin care. Adequate studies on the role of skin care and selection of the correct preparation in various aged-related diseases are lacking.

  16. Chemical analysis of nutritional content of prickly pads (Opuntia ficus indica) at varied ages in an organic harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Urbiola, Margarita I; Pérez-Torrero, Esther; Rodríguez-García, Mario E

    2011-05-01

    Opuntia ficus indica, also known as prickly pads, are an important part of the human diet and are also used as forage for livestock. This is an interesting vegetable due the environmental conditions in which it grows and its resistance to climatic extremes; however, little is known about its nutritional properties, especially in the later stages of maturity. The objective of this study was to determine the composition of organic prickly pads (Opuntia ficus indica) at differing stages of growth maturity. Chemical proximate analysis and mineral constituent analysis at different maturation stages were carried out in this investigation. As a result, older prickly pads were found to be an important source of nutritional components such as calcium.

  17. How accurate and safe is the diagnosis of hazelnut allergy by means of commercial skin prick test reagents?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerdaas, J.H.; Wensing, M.; Knulst, A.C.; Krebitz, M.; Breiteneder, H.; Vries, S. de; Penninks, A.H.; Aalberse, R.C.; Hefle, S.L.; Ree, R. van

    2003-01-01

    Background: Allergy to tree nuts, like hazelnuts, ranks among the most frequently observed food allergies. These allergies can start at early childhood and are, in contrast to other food allergies, not always outgrown by the patient. Tree nut allergy is frequently associated with severe reactions.

  18. How accurate and safe is diagnosis of hazelnut allergy by means of commercial skin prick test reagents?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerdaas, J.H.; Wensing, M.; Knulst, A.C.; Krebitz, M.; Breiteneder, H.; Vries, de S.C.; Penninks, A.H.; Aalberse, R.C.; Hefle, S.L.; Ree, van R.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Allergy to tree nuts, like hazelnuts, ranks among the most frequently observed food allergies. These allergies can start at early childhood and are, in contrast to other food allergies, not always outgrown by the patient. Tree nut allergy is frequently associated with severe reactions.

  19. Variation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen-specific IFN-γ and IL-17 responses in healthy tuberculin skin test (TST-positive human subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Fan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the variation of IFN-γ and IL-17 responses to M. tuberculosis antigens in healthy TST+ humans. METHODS: We isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 21 TST+ healthy adults, stimulated them with phytohemagglutinin (PHA, PPD, Ag85B, ESAT-6, and live M. bovis BCG, and assayed IFN-γ and IL-17 secretion by ELISA in supernatants after 24 or 72 hours of incubation respectively. RESULTS: As in other studies, we found a wide range of IFN-γ responses to M. tuberculosis antigens; the variation significantly exceeded that observed in the same donors to the polyclonal T cell stimulus, phytohemagglutinin (PHA. In addition, we assayed IL-17 secretion in response to the same stimuli, and found less subject-to-subject variation. Analysis of the ratio of IFN-γ to IL-17 secretion on a subject-to-subject basis also revealed a wide range, with the majority of results distributed in a narrow range, and a minority with extreme results all of which were greater than that in the majority of subjects. The data suggest that study of exceptional responses to M. tuberculosis antigens may reveal immunologic correlates with specific outcomes of M. tuberculosis infection. CONCLUSION: Variation of IFNγ and IFN-γ/IL-17 responses to mycobacterial antigens exceeds that of responses to the polyclonal stimulus, PHA, in TST positive healthy humans. This indicates a quantitative spectrum of human immune responses to infection with M. tuberculosis. Since the outcome of human infection with M. tuberculosis varies greatly, systematic study of multiple immune responses to multiple antigens is likely to reveal correlations between selected immune responses and the outcomes of infection.

  20. Cetirizine inhibits bradykinin-induced cutaneous wheal and flare in atopic and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadel, R; Ramboer, I; Chatterjee, N; Rihoux, J P; Derde, M P

    2000-04-01

    Kinins are vasoactive mediators involved in allergic reactions. When applied on the skin or in the nose, bradykinin (BK) elicits inflammation that is poorly affected by previous H1-blockade. The aim of this study was to compare the possible effect of cetirizine (an H1-antagonist) on wheal and flare responses to BK, histamine, and compound 48/80 in atopic and healthy subjects. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover study, eight atopic and eight healthy subjects received cetirizine (10 mg/day) or placebo for 3 days before cutaneous tests. Intradermal tests (IDT) and prick tests (PT) were performed with BK (20 nmol/ml for IDT and 20 micromol/ml for PT), histamine (100 microg/ml IDT and 100 mg/ml PT), and compound 48/80 (100 microg/ml IDT and 100 mg/ml PT) as positive controls and saline as negative control. The skin responses were monitored by measurement of wheal and flare areas. BK, histamine, and 48/80 induced wheal and flare reactions in all placebo-treated subjects. Histamine elicited larger wheal and flare reactions than BK and 48/80. IDT with BK induced four- to sixfold larger wheal and flare reaction than PT. No differences in BK-induced wheal and flare were observed between atopic and healthy subjects. In atopic subjects, cetirizine induced a significant reduction of flare reactions after the BK test (80% for IDT, and 94% for PT [P wheals by 70% for IDT (P wheal and flare reactions induced by BK challenge were markedly inhibited by previous intake of cetirizine. The mechanism by which this effect is mediated cannot be established at present.

  1. Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abscess Cellulitis Taking Care of Your Skin Abscess Impetigo Ringworm Cellulitis Should I Pop My Pimple? Tips for Taking Care of Your Skin Impetigo Paronychia Pityriasis Rosea Abscess Contact Us Print Resources ...

  2. Skin Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

  3. Skin Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... benefits Become a member DermCare Team Professionalism and ethics My account Member directory Publications JAAD JAAD Case ... SkinPAC State societies Scope of practice Truth in advertising Public and patients SPOT Skin Cancer™ Community programs & ...

  4. Sagging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hands Age Spots Aging Skin Birthmarks Burn Scars Cellulite Crow's Feet Droopy Eyelids Excess Fat Excessive Sweating ... Hands Age Spots Aging Skin Birthmarks Burn Scars Cellulite Crow's Feet Droopy Eyelids Excess Fat Excessive Sweating ...

  5. Skin Pigment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Summer Camp Tips for Kids With Asthma, Allergies Antioxidants: The Good Health Helpers As Stroke 'Liquefies' Brain ... Skin Cancer Additional Content Medical News Overview of Skin Pigment By Shinjita Das, MD, Instructor in Dermatology; ...

  6. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types ... face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Anyone ...

  7. Hay fever and predictive value of prick test and specific IgE antibodies: a prospective study in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Torsten; Hoelscher, Bernd; Adam, Horst; Ring, Johannes; Wichmann, H-Erich; Heinrich, Joachim

    2003-04-01

    Little is known from population-based studies in children about the diagnostic values of allergen-specific IgE antibodies (RAST) and skin prick test (SPT) with respect to hay fever. We aimed to determine and compare the diagnostic values of SPT and RAST to aeroallergens with respect to the incidence of hay fever cases in schoolchildren at different cut-off points. A prospective cohort study was performed on 1100 school children (5-7 and 8-10 years). Information on a doctor's diagnosis of hay fever was obtained by questionnaire and allergic sensitization to grass and birch pollen, cat, and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were measured using SPT and RAST between September 1992 and July 1993. Thirty-eight children give a history of hay fever (3.5%) in 1992/93 and additionally 37 cases occurred until 1996. Allergic sensitization was present in 17.9% (SPT), 30.2% (RAST) and more frequent in children with a history of hay fever (SPT: OR 11.7, 5.5-24.7; RAST: OR 10.6, 4.3-26.4). This difference was most pronounced for sensitization to pollen allergens. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) for SPT and RAST were 65.6, 83.7, 11.9, 98.6 and 79.3, 71.6, 9.3, 99.0, respectively, with differences for specificity being significant (p RAST (99.3), the incidence of hay fever cases were predicted rather poorly though somewhat better by SPT than by RAST (PPV 16.7 vs. 9.8; p RAST reactivity, the PPV increased and reached 25.0 at 17.5 kU/l, whereas the NPV decreased to 97.9, which was lower than that of SPT reactivity (p RAST were obtained. SPT and RAST perform better in the negative than positive prediction of hay fever cases in epidemiological studies. Differences in the predictive capabilities depend on the chosen cut-off point for RAST reactivity.

  8. Your Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and a little waterproofing. previous continue Skin Can Warm and Cool You Your skin can help if you're feeling too hot or too cold. Your blood ... you're ice-skating or sledding? When you're cold, your blood vessels keep your ... and keeping the warm blood away from the skin's surface. You might ...

  9. Use of laser speckle contrast imaging to reveal changes in temperature and blood perfusion in the skin of healthy subjects after administration of heated moxa sticks and daiwenjiu ointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingyan; Yang, Jinsheng; Wang, Liang; Deng, Zi; Wang, Yingying; Yang, Li; Wu, Peng; Li, Liang

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the influence of heated moxa sticks ("moxibustion") and Daiwenjiu ointment (DO) on changes in temperature and blood perfusion volume on the skin of the backs of healthy subjects. DO was spread on the left side of the body, and the right side of the body was treated with a heated moxa stick. Images denoting blood perfusion and body temperature were collected 7-8 cm lateral to the spinous process of the sixth thoracic vertebra using laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI). Data obtained from eight-frame images were analyzed and used to calculate the mean blood perfusion volume. Simultaneously, blood-perfusion images were collected from the body surface and used to compare the change in blood flow on the body surface and the actual position of imaging. After moxibustion, a rapid increase in blood perfusion volume and body temperature was noted in the local skin surface. The maximum blood perfusion volume and body temperature was noted at 20 min (P temperature (P temperature after treatment with moxibustion, but the respective changes seen in the DO group were gradual and moderate.

  10. Determination of some mineral contents of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) seed flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Juhaimi, Fahad; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine some mineral contents of prickly pear (Opuntia fıcus-indica L.) seeds collected from different locations. The mineral contents of seeds were established by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. All the seeds contained Ca, K, Mg and P at high levels. Calcium content ranged between 268.5 (sample no. 11) and 674.8 ppm (sample no. 4). The level of K changed between 346.7 (sample no. 1) and 676.1 ppm (sample no. 13). Phosphorus content of seeds varied between 1,173.6 (sample no. 14) and 1,871.3 ppm (sample no. 1). It is apparent that seeds are good sources of the macro and micro minerals and can be consumed as a food ingredient to provide nutrition.

  11. fMRI of pain studies using laser-induced heat on skin with and without the loved one near the subject - a pilot study on 'love hurts'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofina, T.; Kamil, W. A.; Ahmad, A. H.

    2014-11-01

    The aims of this study are to image and investigate the areas of brain response to laser-induced heat pain, to analyse for any difference in the brain response when a subject is alone and when her loved one is present next to the MRI gantry. Pain stimuli was delivered using Th-YAG laser to four female subjects. Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent (BOLD) fMRI experiment was performed using blocked design paradigm with five blocks of painful (P) stimuli and five blocks of non-painful (NP) stimuli arranged in pseudorandom order with an 18 seconds rest (R) between each stimulation phase. Brain images were obtained from 3T Philips Achieva MRI scanner using 32-channel SENSE head coil. A T1-weighted image (TR/TE/slice/FOV = 9ms/4ms/4mm slices/240×240mm) was obtained for verification of brain anatomical structures. An echo-planar-imaging sequence were used for the functional scans (TR/TE/slice/flip/FOV=2000ms/35ms/4mm slices/90°/220×220mm). fMRI data sets were analysed using SPM 8.0 involving preprocessing steps followed by t-contrast analysis for individuals and FFX analysis. In both with and without-loved-one conditions, neuronal responses were seen in the somatosensory gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, thalamus and insula regions, consistent with pain-related areas. FFX analysis showed that the presence of loved one produced more activation in the frontal and supramarginal gyrus during painful and non-painful stimulations compared to absence of a loved one. Brain response to pain is modulated by the presence of a loved one, causing more activation in the cognitive/emotional area i.e. 'love hurts'.

  12. [Haemoglobinopathy in the 21st century: incidence, diagnosis and heel prick screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suijker, Monique H; Roovers, E A Lian; Fijnvandraat, C J Karin; Dors, Natasja; Rodrigues Pereira, Rob; Giordano, Piero C; Verkerk, Paul H; Peters, Marjolein

    2014-01-01

    To determine the incidence of severe haemoglobinopathy, to evaluate the effect of heel prick screening, and to identify those children who do not benefit from this early diagnosis. Prospective descriptive study. Registration of all symptomatic and asymptomatic children who between 2003-2009 were newly diagnosed with the a severe form of a hereditary disorder concerning the formation of the alpha haemoglobin chain (HbH disease), or the beta haemoglobin chain (sickle cell disease or beta thalassaemia major) in the Netherlands. Registration was done by collecting anonymised reports from the Dutch Paediatric Surveillance Unit and TNO, and by additional questionnaires. During the study period, 48 children (range: 36-76) per year were diagnosed with severe haemoglobinopathy. The overall incidence was 2.5 per 10,000 live births. The incidence of sickle cell disease diagnosed by heel prick screening was 2.1 per 10,000 live births and of thalassaemia major 0.6 per 10,000 live births. In 7% of the children with sickle cell disease who were diagnosed without any form of screening, the diagnosis was made on (a life threatening) infection. Twenty-two percent of the children with a severe form of haemoglobinopathy were not born in the Netherlands. The parents of almost half of the children with sickle cell disease originally came from West- or Central Africa. The parents of children with thalassaemia major were mainly from Morocco or various Asiatic countries. The number of children with severe haemoglobinopathy in the Netherlands has trebled since 1992. In order for all children to benefit from early diagnosis and preventive treatment, it is advisable that children who originate from risk areas should be tested for haemoglobinopathy when they first arrive in the Netherlands.

  13. Seasonal variability of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in prickly pear cladodes of Opuntia and Nopalea genres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Abel Lemos ALVES

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The prickly pear is a cactaceae that have chemical compounds that act as natural antioxidants. In addition, the prickly pear is a plant widely used in semiarid region as it’s considered very important forage for animal feed, especially in the dry season. The objectives of this research were to characterize the main classes of phytochemicals, determine the phenols content, flavonoids and anthocyanins and evaluate the antioxidant activity of the prickly pear cultivars Opuntia and Nopalea grown in the semiarid region of Pernambuco in two collection periods (dry and rainy. In the work crude ethanol extracts from cladodes of cultivars (IPA-20, Elephant Ear Mexican, F-08, V-19, Small palm, F-21 and IPA-Sertânia were used. As for the class of phytochemical compounds from ethanol extract only the flavonoids and steroids were detected in all prickly pear cultivars, in both periods analyzed. The content of phenolic compounds ranges from 1.24 to 5.41 mg GAE g-1 DM, flavonoids 0.90 to 3.43 mg QE g-1 DM, anthocyanins from 0.05 to 0.34 µg QE 100 g-1 DM and antioxidant activity 39.59 to 217.17 µM TEAC g-1 DM. The occurrence of chemical variability and antioxidant activity were observed, both among the botanical cultivars studied and among the collection periods.

  14. Modeling the effects of temperature and relative humidity on gas exchange of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia spp.) stems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guevara-Arauza, J.C.; Yahia, E.M.; Cedeno, L.; Tijskens, L.M.M.

    2006-01-01

    A model to estimate gas profile of modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) prickly pear cactus stems was developed and calibrated. The model describes the transient gas exchange taking in consideration the effect of temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) on film permeability (FPgas), respiration rate

  15. Factors associated with the support of pricking (female genital cutting type IV) among Somali immigrants - a cross-sectional study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlberg, Anna; Johnsdotter, Sara; Ekholm Selling, Katarina; Källestål, Carina; Essén, Birgitta

    2017-08-08

    Pricking, classified as female genital cutting (FGC) type IV by the World Health Organization, is an under-researched area gaining momentum among diaspora communities. Our aim was to explore factors associated with being supportive of pricking among Somalis in Sweden. In a cross-sectional design, attitudes and knowledge regarding FGC, and measures of socioeconomic status, acculturation, and social capital, were assessed by a 49-item questionnaire in four municipalities in Sweden. Data were collected in 2015 from 648 Somali men and women, ≥ 18 years old, of which 113 supported the continuation of pricking. Logistic regression was used for the analysis. Those more likely to support the continuation of pricking were older, originally from rural areas, and newly arrived in Sweden. Further, those who reported that they thought pricking was: acceptable, according to their religion (aOR: 10.59, 95% CI: 5.44-20.62); not a violation of children's rights (aOR: 2.86, 95% CI: 1.46-5.61); and did not cause long-term health complications (aOR: 5.52, 95% CI: 2.25-13.52) had higher odds of supporting pricking. Religion was strongly associated with the support of pricking among both genders. However, for men, children's rights and the definition of pricking as FGC or not were important aspects in how they viewed pricking, while, for women, health complications and respectability were important. Values known to be associated with FGC in general are also related to pricking. Hence, there seems to be a change in what types of FGC are supported rather than in their perceived values.

  16. [Sensitisation profile to airborne allergens of patients followed for asthma in Cotonou, Benin. A cross-sectional study using prick-tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agodokpessi, G; Ade, G; Dovoedo, N; Ade, S; Wachinou, A P; Fayomi, B; Gninafon, M

    2015-11-01

    The sensitisation profile to airborne allergens of asthma patients followed in Benin is not known. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2013 at the hospital reference centre. A prick-test was performed in all adults with asthma consulting during this period. The standardized allergenic extracts tested were: mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus [DP], Dermatophagoides farinae [DF] and Blomia tropicalis [BT]), cockroaches, 5 different grasses, Alternaria, dogs and cats. The test was positive when the diameter of the wheal was more than half that of the positive control and/or when the diameter of the wheal was ≥3mm than the negative control. Of the 253 asthmatics tested, 247 (97.6%) had at least one positive skin reaction. The average age was 44 years, the sex ratio was 0.81. Sensitization to mites was the most frequent (99.6%), followed by cockroaches (71.3%), 5 grasses (71.3%), Alternaria (71%), dog (68%) and cat (63.6%). The average number of sensitivities was 5±2. Asthmatics monitored in Cotonou have multiple sensitisations dominated by mites. Copyright © 2014 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a serious case, you might need medical help. Impetigo —A skin infection caused by bacteria. Usually the ... and form a thick crust. You can treat impetigo with antibiotics. Melanoma © 2008 Logical Images, Inc. Melanoma — ...

  18. Occupational skin cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawkrodger, D.J. [Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Dermatology

    2004-10-01

    Skin cancer due to occupation is more common than is generally recognized, although it is difficult to obtain an accurate estimate of its prevalence. Over the past two centuries, occupational skin cancers have particularly been due to industrial exposure of men (it seems more so than women) to chemical carcinogens such as polycyclic hydrocarbons (e.g. from coal tar products) or to arsenic. Industrial processes have improved in most Western countries to limit this type of exposure, but those with outdoor occupations are still exposed to solar ultraviolet irradiation without this being widely recognized as an industrial hazard. Ionizing radiation such as X-rays can also cause skin cancer. Occupational skin cancers often resemble skin tumours found in non-occupational subjects, e.g. basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, but some pre-malignant lesions can be more specific and point to an occupational origin, e.g. tar keratoses or arsenical keratoses. An uncommon but well-recognized cause of occupational skin cancer is that which results from scar formation following an industrial burn. In the future it will be necessary to focus on preventative measures, e.g. for outdoor workers, the need to cover up in the sun and use sun protective creams and a campaign for earlier recognition of skin cancers, which are usually curable if treated in their early stages.

  19. Bio-cultural anchorage of the prickly pear cactus in Tlalnepantla (Morelos, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Salcido, Gerardo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The prickly pear cactus is a source of food with strong bio-cultural anchorage in Mexico. This is due to at least three factors: 1 the nature and heritage of cacti; 2 cultural heritage; and 3 the socio-cultural relationships with historical and symbolic roots that have facilitated knowledge of how to cultivate it and how to use it. The aim of this article is to put factors of territorial anchorage and its historical transformation in context by examining the case of the municipality of Tlalnepantla in the state of Morelos, Mexico. This community has experienced accelerated change due to the exchange of traditional crops for the prickly pear cactus and the integration of farming, commercialization and agro-transformation. Our hypothesis is that the market, internal conflicts and a lack of socio-institutional coordination have put social organization into crisis, favoring the territorial spread of the prickly pear cactus and making the Local Agro-Food Systems (LAFS of Tlalnepantla less competitive. The conclusions highlight important economic and social advances whose roots lie in the strengthening and anchorage of the territory-product. However, circumstances both internal and external to the community persist, such as intra-community conflicts, the international market and cultural paradigm shifts that affect the producers and put consolidation of the LAFS at risk.El nopal es un alimento con un fuerte anclaje bio-cultural en México, propiciado por al menos tres factores: 1 la naturaleza y el patrimonio de cactáceas; 2 el patrimonio cultural; y, 3 las relaciones socio-culturales que han permitido un “saber hacer” y un “saber utilizar” con raíces históricas y simbólicas. El objetivo es situar los factores de anclaje territorial y su transformación histórica tomando como caso el municipio de Tlalnepantla, en el estado de Morelos, México. Esta comunidad ha experimentado un acelerado cambio por la reconversión de los cultivos

  20. Racial differences in the association of CD14 polymorphisms with serum total IgE levels and allergen skin test reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang ZY

    2013-06-01

    disease. For subjects with CD14 1188 G alleles, the association with atopic disease was stronger in Caucasians compared to African Americans.Keywords: total serum immunoglobulin E, IgE, skin prick test, SPT, CD14-159T, single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP, lipopolysaccharide, LPS, endotoxin

  1. Preparation of Artificial Skin that Mimics Human Skin Surface and Mechanical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Rana; Nonomura, Yoshimune

    2017-12-14

    We have developed an artificial skin that mimics the morphological and mechanical properties of human skin. The artificial skin comprises a polyurethane block possessing a microscopically rough surface. We evaluated the tactile sensations when skin-care cream was applied to the artificial skin. Many subjects perceived smooth, moist, and soft feels during the application process. Cluster analysis showed that these characteristic tactile feels are similar to those when skin-care cream is applied to real human skin. Contact angle analysis showed that an oil droplet spread smoothly on the artificial skin surface, which occurred because there were many grooves several hundred micrometers in width on the skin surface. In addition, when the skin-care cream was applied, the change in frictional force during the dynamic friction process increased. These wetting and frictional properties are important factors controlling the similarity of artificial skin to real human skin.

  2. [Effects of Chinese prickly ash orchard on soil organic carbon mineralization and labile organic carbon in karst rocky desertification region of Guizhou province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; Liao, Hong-Kai; Long, Jian; Li, Juan; Liu, Ling-Fei

    2015-03-01

    Taking 5-year-old Chinese prickly ash orchard (PO-5), 17-year-old Chinese prickly ash orchard (PO- 17), 30-year-old Chinese prickly ash orchard (PO-30) and the forest land (FL, about 60 years) in typical demonstration area of desertification control test in southwestern Guizhou as our research objects, the aim of this study using a batch incubation experiment was to research the mineralization characteristics of soil organic carbon and changes of the labile soil organic carbon contents at different depths (0-15 cm, 15-30 cm, and 30-50 cm). The results showed that: the cumulative mineralization amounts of soil organic carbon were in the order of 30-year-old Chinese prickly ash orchard, the forest land, 5-year-old Chinese prickly ash orchard and 17-year-old Chinese prickly ash orchard at corresponding depth. Distribution ratios of CO2-C cumulative mineralization amount to SOC contents were higher in Chinese prickly ash orchards than in forest land at each depth. Cultivation of Chinese prickly ash in long-term enhanced the mineralization of soil organic carbon, and decreased the stability of soil organic carbon. Readily oxidized carbon and particulate organic carbon in forest land soils were significantly more than those in Chinese prickly ash orchards at each depth (P < 0.05). With the increasing times of cultivation of Chinese prickly ash, the contents of readily oxidized carbon and particulate organic carbon first increased and then declined at 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm depth, respectively, but an opposite trend was found at 30-50 cm depth. At 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm, cultivation of Chinese prickly ash could be good for improving the contents of labile soil organic carbon in short term, but it was not conducive in long-term. In this study, we found that cultivation of Chinese prickly ash was beneficial for the accumulation of labile organic carbon at the 30-50 cm depth.

  3. Skin abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can help identify the cause of the infection. Treatment You can apply moist heat (such as warm compresses) to help the abscess ... if you develop new symptoms during or after treatment of a skin abscess. Prevention ... the skin around minor wounds clean and dry to prevent infection. Call your provider if you ...

  4. Identification of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants in subjects reporting work-related respiratory symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Wiszniewska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The role of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs in diagnostics of occupational allergy remains unclarified and its clinical relevance is still questioned. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of positive response to CCDs in the subjects with suspected occupational allergy and the relationship between other diagnostic test results and final diagnosis. Material and methods The study group included 201 patients. They underwent clinical examination, skin prick test (SPT to common and occupational allergens, specific serum immunoglobulin (sIgE determinations, spirometry and specific inhalation challenge test. Moreover, sIgE to CCDs from bromelain was assessed in all subjects. Results Occupational respiratory allergy was recognized in 64.3% of CCD-positive and 52.4% of CCD-negative patients. Positive SPT results to common and occupational allergens were found in 64.3% and 35.7% of CCD-positive subjects, respectively. In all subjects with CCDs, the sIgE to grass pollens as well as to occupational allergens were detected. The total IgE level > 100 kU/l was significantly associated with the presence of sIgE to CCDs. Conclusions sIgE to CCDs were found in 7% of subjects suspected to suffer from occupational respiratory allergy. The presence of CCDs is not significantly associated with occupational respiratory allergy. It is also not more frequent in subjects reporting work-related respiratory symptoms in whom occupational allergy was not confirmed. The elevated total IgE level was related with CCD positivity. In patients with suspected occupational allergy, the presence of sIgE to CCDs in serum did not indicate the irrelevance of positive sIgE to occupational allergens.

  5. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and safety of QGE031 (ligelizumab), a novel high-affinity anti-IgE antibody, in atopic subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arm, J P; Bottoli, I; Skerjanec, A; Floch, D; Groenewegen, A; Maahs, S; Owen, C E; Jones, I; Lowe, P J

    2014-01-01

    Background Using a monoclonal antibody with greater affinity for IgE than omalizumab, we examined whether more complete suppression of IgE provided greater pharmacodynamic effects, including suppression of skin prick responses to allergen. Objective To explore the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and safety of QGE031 (ligelizumab), a novel high-affinity humanized monoclonal IgG1κ anti-IgE. Methods Preclinical assessments and two randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trials were conducted in atopic subjects. The first trial administered single doses of QGE031 (0.1–10 mg/kg) or placebo intravenously, while the second trial administered two to four doses of QGE031 (0.2– 4 mg/kg) or placebo subcutaneously at 2-week intervals. Both trials included an open-label omalizumab arm. Results Sixty of 73 (82%) and 96 of 110 (87%) subjects completed the intravenous and subcutaneous studies, respectively. Exposure to QGE031 and its half-life depended on the QGE031 dose and serum IgE level. QGE031 had a biexponential pharmacokinetic profile after intravenous administration and a terminal half-life of approximately 20 days. QGE031 demonstrated dose- and time-dependent suppression of free IgE, basophil FcεRI and basophil surface IgE superior in extent (free IgE and surface IgE) and duration to omalizumab. At Day 85, 6 weeks after the last dose, skin prick wheal responses to allergen were suppressed by > 95% and 41% in subjects treated subcutaneously with QGE031 (2 mg/kg) or omalizumab, respectively (P < 0.001). Urticaria was observed in QGE031- and placebo-treated subjects and was accompanied by systemic symptoms in one subject treated with 10 mg/kg intravenous QGE031. There were no serious adverse events. Conclusion and Clinical Relevance These first clinical data for QGE031, a high-affinity IgG1κ anti-IgE, demonstrate that increased suppression of free IgE compared with omalizumab translated to superior pharmacodynamic effects in atopic subjects

  6. Nutritive value and chemical composition of prickly pear seeds (Opuntia ficus indica L.) growing in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad Y

    2011-08-01

    The proximate composition and physico-chemical properties (moisture, crude lipid, crude protein, ash, and crude fiber, peroxide value, saponification value, acidity, relative density and refractive index) of prickly pear seed and corresponding oil were determined. The mineral contents (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Mn and Zn) of samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Minerals determined were: calcium 471.2 mg/kg, potassium 532.7 mg/kg, magnesium 117.3 mg/kg, phosphorus 1,627.5 mg/kg and natrium 71.3 mg/kg. The fatty acid profiles of seed oil from the Opuntia ficus indica were analyzed by gas chromatography. Linoleic acid was established as the major fatty acid (61.01%), followed by oleic (25.52%) and palmitic (12.23%) acids. Both myristic, stearic and arachidonic acids were detected in O. ficus indica seed oil in low amounts. As a result, O. ficus indica seeds are an important source of natural fiber and, given its high linoleic acid content, its oil can be used as a nutraceutic agent.

  7. [Clinical observation on pricking blood along meridians combined with electroacupuncture for treatment of prolapse of lumbar intervertebral disc].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiao-Hu; Xie, Xiao-Kun; Liu, Xue-Ni

    2010-12-01

    To observe the therapeutic effects on pricking blood along meridians combined with electroacupuncture for treatment of prolapse of lumbar intervertebral disc. One hundred cases were randomly divided into an observation group (50 cases) and a control group (50 cases). The observation group was treated with pricking blood along meridians combined with electroacupuncture. The main points for pricking blood were collaterals with blood stasis around Weizhong (BL 40) on the affected side, and collaterals with blood stasis on corresponding meridians such as Foot Shaoyang Meridian, Foot Taiyang Meridian and Foot Yangming Meridian according to body parts syndrome differentiation could also be used. The points for electroacupuncture included Ashi point (1 cun away from the spinal space of segmental lesions), Dachangshu (BL 25), Guanyuanshu (BL 26), Zhibian (BL 54), Huantiao (GB 30) and so on. The control group was only treated with electroacupuncture and treatment was same as the observation group. The therapeutic effects and scores of Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) of two groups were compared. The cured rate of observation group (68.0%, 34/50) was higher than that of control group (46.0%, 23/50, P prolapse of lumbar intervertebral disc.

  8. Biological indices of lead exposure in relation to heavy metal residues in sediment and Biota from Prickly Pear Creek and Lake Helena, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Biotic and sediment samples were collected from Lake Helena and Prickly Pear Creek upstream and downstream of the East Helena Smelter Superfund Site to assess metals...

  9. Development of an Economical DNA Delivery System by "Acufection" and its Application to Skin Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Jei; Lee, Tsung-Lin; Ku, Chia-Chi

    2017-04-19

    Dysregulation of immune response in skin is associated with numerous human skin disorders. Direct transfer of immune-related genes into skin tissue is a fascinating approach to investigate immune modulation of cutaneous inflammation in mouse models of human diseases. Here we present a cost-effective protocol that delivered naked DNA in mouse skin and leads to transgene expression. The method is coined "acufection", denoting acupuncture-mediated DNA transfection. To perform acufection, mouse skin was first infused with DNA in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and then pricked lightly with a bundle of acupuncture needles to facilitate the absorption of DNA and transfection into cells. The plasmid DNA is presumably taken up by the keratinocyte and dendritic cells (DCs) in the skin and expressed into protein. Mechanical prick with the needles per se did not cause skin damage or induce keratinocyte activation. The expression of the transfected genes was detected in the skin at both transcriptional and translational levels following acufection for 2 days and maintained up to 7 days. The primary goal for the development of this acufection method was to investigate a previously undefined isoform of IL-15. Using this method, an alternatively spliced IL-15 isoform with partially deleted exon 7 (IL-15ΔE7) was expressed in the skin and subsequently treated with a Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonist, imiquimod (IMQ), to induce inflammation. Acufection-delivered IL-15ΔE7 in skin suppressed keratinocyte proliferation, epidermal thickness and neutrophil recruitment in IMQ-induced cutaneous inflammation. With increasing interest in identifying the regulatory mechanisms of cutaneous inflammation, the protocol described here provides a cost effective and versatile alternative to the gene gun system or microseeding for DNA delivery in vivo. It may potentially allow discovery of the function of a novel gene in the skin or for investigating new treatment for cutaneous diseases.

  10. The effect of soil environment on germination and emergence of prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kapeluszny

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 mature achenes of prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola L. were collected from a winter wheat crop growing on loess-derived brown earth soil, from the side of a dirt road, and from a hybrid alfalfa crop growing on heavy rendzina soil. In March 2008 the germination ability of achenes and the length of roots and above-ground parts of L. serriola seedlings were determined. The experiment was set up as a completely randomized design in 6 replicates and it was done in dishes. The dishes were filled with loess-derived brown soil and podzolic soil derived from light loamy sand with different pH values of 4.5, 5.5 and 7.0 obtained using laboratory methods. The second experiment evaluated the effect of medium type and light conditions on the germination of Lactuca serriola achenes. The experimental design was the same as in the above described experiment. The study found that there were significantly more germinating seeds from the plants growing in the alfalfa crop and on the dirt roadside compared to the plants from the wheat crop. Emerging plants showed higher germination ability on loess-derived soil with a pH of 5.5 and 7.0 than on podzolic soil derived from sand with the same pH. Lactuca serriola prefers soils rich in calcium compounds, and developing segetal cenopopulations produce diaspores capable of germination, thereby the numbers of individuals can increase and the continuity of this species in crop fields can be maintained. Seeds germinated significantly better in the dark than under the conditions of 12-hour illumination.

  11. In Vitro Propagation of Three Moroccan Prickly Pear Cactus Opuntia and Plant Establishment in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aissam EL FINTI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia is one of the most widespread cacti, primarily due to their edible fruit and vegetable mass used as feed. The high demand for young plants of Opuntia made it necessary to find a rapid method of multiplication of the cactus, the safest method consisting in vitro micropropagation of species belonging to this genus. With aim of large production of plant material, a propagation system of three important prickly pear cactus cultivar (Opuntia ficus-indica in Morocco was developed. Segments of healthy young cladode (containing one areole were cultivated in Murashige and Skoog medium (MS containing adenine sulfate (40 mg/1, monosodium phosphate (50 mg/l, sucrose (50 g/l, phytagel (0.3% and benzyladenine (BA at 22.2 μM, to start the process of micropropagation. In vitro-developed shoots from areoles were used as secondary explants to induce shoot development in the MS medium with 5 mg/l of BA. All of the three studied cultivars showed an important multiplication rate in this medium. ‘Sidi Ifni M’ (‘Moussa’ cultivar shows the greatest number of shoots followed by ‘Sidi Ifni A’ (‘Aissa’ and ‘Delahia’ 17.26, 14.12 and 12.13 respectively. Rooting of in vitro-generated shoots was achieved most efficiently on half-strength MS basal medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA or IAA. Rooting frequencies were in the range from 95 to 100% and the highest mean number of root (19.1 was obtained with IBA for ‘Delahia’ cultivar. All micropropagated plants were transferred to greenhouse and all of them survived acclimatization process and showed good overall growth.

  12. Changes in skin test reactivity among adults with atopic disease: a 3-year prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslund, N.; Thomsen, S.F.; Molgaard, E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Our knowledge about longtudinal predictors of atopy is limited. Objectives: To describe changes in skin test reactivity during a 3-year period in a sample of adolescents and adults with atopic disease and to identify factors of importance for these changes. Methods: From a sample of 1......, 186 candidates, ranging in age from 14 to 44 years, who in a screening questionnaire reported symptoms suggestive of respiratory allergic disease, 344 individuals with a positive skin prick test (SPT) result concomitantly with asthma and/or rhinitis were clinically studied on 2 occasions, 3 years...

  13. Increased Releasability of Skin Mast Cells after Exercise in Patients with Exercise-induced Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Inseon S Choi; Koh, Youngil I.; Chung, Se-Woong; Lim, Ho

    2004-01-01

    The role of lung mast cells in exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is controversial. To investigate whether the skin mast cell releasability is increased after exercise in EIA, 49 young atopic men with or without asthma took part in a free-running test for 6 min and were given skin prick tests using morphine, a mast cell secretagogue, before and after the exercise. The mean diameters of the wheal induced by morphine in patients with EIA were not significantly different from those in patients withou...

  14. Anaphylaxis to muscle relaxants: rational for skin tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moneret-Vautrin, D A; Kanny, G

    2002-09-01

    IgE-dependent allergy to muscle relaxants (MR) has an estimated prevalence of 1 out of 6500 General Anesthesias (GA). 62% of anaphylaxis during surgery are due to MR anaphylaxis. All the molecules are divalent, carrying two NH4+ epitopes (quaternary ammonium ions), either structurally or after rapid in vivo protonization (vecuronium). The excellent overall performance of skin test makes them the golden standard for the diagnosis of anaphylactoid reactions. Techniques include intradermal tests and prick-tests. The current localizations are the forearm and the back. Positivity criteria are 3 mm for prick-tests. For IDTs, the criterium is the doubling of the size of the injection papula, when 0.02 to 0.04 ml is injected: 8 mm. The recommended concentrations are not falsely negative. Commercial concentrations can be tested by prick tests, except for mivacurium and atracurium tested of 1:10 dilution. A scale of concentrations is advised for IDT starting with 1:10,000, up to a normally non reactive concentration that is: 100 micrograms/ml (succinylcholine), 200 micrograms/ml (gallamine), 10 micrograms/ml (atracurium), 2 micrograms/ml (mivacurium), 200 micrograms/ml (pancuronium), 400 micrograms/ml (vecuronium), 1,000 micrograms/ml (rocuronium), 200 micrograms/ml (cis atracurium). The specificity and sensitivity of the skin tests to MRs are greater than 95%. The reproducibility over years is 88%. The overall concordance of PT and IDR is 97%. Both types of tests can be used for the diagnosis. IDT have to be carried out for the search of the cross sensitization. 84% of patients do have cross sensitization to MRs but only 16% react to all MRs. The further use of MRs selected by negative IDTs has been proved to be safe.

  15. Development and validation of a structured questionnaire for the diagnosis of oral allergy syndrome in subjects with seasonal allergic rhinitis during the UK birch pollen season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skypala, I J; Calderon, M A; Leeds, A R; Emery, P; Till, S J; Durham, S R

    2011-07-01

    Birch pollen-associated oral allergy syndrome, also known as pollen-food syndrome (PFS), is the most common food allergy in adults in the United Kingdom. Because of its characteristic rapid onset of oro-pharyngeal symptoms associated with specific plant foods, it was hypothesized that a history-based questionnaire could accurately diagnose PFS in subjects with rhino-conjunctivitis symptoms in the UK springtime. In this study of diagnostic accuracy, we aimed to validate a simple PFS diagnostic questionnaire and algorithm against a reference diagnostic test method (RTM) comprising diagnosis by expert evaluation of clinical history, skin prick tests and oral food challenge, in subjects reporting allergic rhinitis (AR) in the UK birch pollen season from March to May. Participants were UK adults reporting symptoms of spring time-AR (hayfever). They self-completed a diagnostic questionnaire in addition to undergoing an RTM comprising clinical history, skin prick testing to foods and pollens and oral food challenge. Subjects who reported anaphylaxis were excluded on the basis that they required specialist referral. One hundred and twenty three subjects took part in the study. Data from 110 participants were analysed; of the 13 exclusions, four provided insufficient data and nine reported anaphylaxis such that they warranted specialist assessment. Fifty-two participants (47%) were diagnosed with PFS by the RTM in comparison with 51 (46%) by a diagnostic questionnaire and algorithm (P=1.000, McNemar's test). The diagnostic questionnaire and algorithm had a sensitivity of 0.90 (0.78-0.96), a specificity of 0.93 (0.82-0.97), a positive predictive value of 0.92 (0.80-0.97) and a negative predictive value of 0.91 (0.80-0.96) when measured against the RTM. The diagnostic questionnaire and algorithm is a practical and robust tool, which enables rapid identification, and therefore management, of individuals with PFS who experience rhino-conjunctivitis symptoms in the UK birch

  16. Anaphylaxis and severe systemic reactions caused by skin contact with persulfates in hair-bleaching products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Margriet; van der Heide, Sicco; Coenraads, Pieter Jan; Schuttelaar, Marie Louise Anna

    2012-06-01

    Persulfates have been reported to cause both delayed-type and immediate skin reactions. They may also cause immediate reactions of the mucous membranes of the bronchial system through inhalation, leading to asthma and rhinitis. Anaphylactic reactions caused by contact with persulfates are rare. The mechanism of immediate reactions caused by persulfates is unclear. To report 2 cases with systemic reactions after skin contact with persulfates, and to propose a test protocol for diagnosing immediate reactions caused by persulfates. Prick tests with serial dilutions of ammonium and potassium persulfate were performed. Patch tests were also performed with the two agents. Persulfate-specific IgE was detected with two different IgE immunoblotting techniques. Prick tests were positive with ammonium and potassium persufate, but no specific IgE was detected in the serum. Patch tests showed early positive reactions to both persulfates in 1 patient. Prick tests and patch tests can be valuable in the testing of patients with a suspicion of an immediate-type reaction caused by persulfates. The mechanism of these reactions remains unclear. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Neonatal staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome: clinical and outbreak containment review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Neylon, Orla

    2012-01-31

    Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) is a toxin-mediated exfoliating skin condition predominated by desquamation and blistering. Neonatal outbreaks have already been reported; however, our outbreak highlights the potential for SSSS following neonatal health promotion measures such as intra-muscular vitamin K administration and metabolic screening (heel prick) as well as effective case containment measures and the value of staff screening. Between February and June 2007, five confirmed cases of neonatal SSSS were identified in full-term neonates born in an Irish regional maternity hospital. All infants were treated successfully. Analysis of contact and environmental screening was undertaken, including family members and healthcare workers. Molecular typing on isolates was carried out. An outbreak control team (OCT) was assembled and took successful prospective steps to prevent further cases. All five Staphylococcus aureus isolates tested positive for exfoliative toxin A, of which two distinct strains were identified on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. Two cases followed staphylococcal inoculation during preventive measures such as intra-muscular vitamin K administration and metabolic screening (heel prick). None of the neonatal isolates were methicillin resistant. Of 259 hospital staff (70% of staff) screened, 30% were colonised with S. aureus, and 6% were positive for MRSA carriage. This is the first reported outbreak of neonatal SSSS in Ireland. Effective case containment measures and clinical value of OCT is demonstrated. Results of staff screening underlines the need for vigilance and compliance in hand disinfection strategies in maternity hospitals especially during neonatal screening and preventive procedures.

  18. risk estimates of hiv and hbv infection to the dental operator via prick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Intact skin provides an adequate barrier against transmission of microorganisms but existing lesions offer a por~ of entry. Through this entrance several diseases can pass in both directions, either from the patient to the operator, or vice versa. (1 ) Microorganisms can also invade the body via accidental.

  19. End point prick test: could this new test be used to predict the outcome of oral food challenge in children with cow's milk allergy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellini Federica

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cow's milk allergy (CMA is the most frequent food allergy in childhood; the trend of CMA is often characterized by a progressive improvement to achieve tolerance in the first 4 to 5 years of life. It has been observed that specific IgE (sIgE towards cow's milk proteins decrease when the age increases. Although food allergy can be easily diagnosed, it is difficult to predict the outcome of the oral food challenge (OFC, that remains the gold standard in the diagnosis of food allergy, by allergometric tests. Methods We considered 44 children with CMA diagnosed through OFC who returned to our Allergy and Immunology Pediatric Department between January to December 2010 to evaluate the persistence of allergy or the achievement of tolerance. On the basis of the history, we performed both allergometric skin tests and OFC in children that were still following a milk-free diet, whereas only allergometric skin tests those that had already undergone spontaneous introduction of milk protein at home without presenting symptoms. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the persistence of CMA or the acquisition of tolerance and the results of the end point prick test (EPT. Results and Discussion The OFC with cow's milk was performed on 30 children, 4 children were excluded because of a history of severe reactions to cow's milk, and 10 because they had spontaneously already taken milk food derivates at home without problems. 16/30 (53% children showed clinical reactions and the challenge was stopped, 14/30 (47% did not have any reaction. Comparing the mean wheal diameter of every EPT's dilution between the group of allergic children and the tolerant ones, we obtained a significant difference (p We have also calculated sensitivity (SE, specificity (SP, the positive predictive value (PPV and the negative predictive value (NPV for each EPT dilution. Conclusions EPT is a safe and cheap test, easy to be executed

  20. Dry Skin (Xerosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dry skin: Symptoms Dry skin: Causes Dry skin: Treatment Dry skin: Tips Tips Dry skin: Tips for managing Here are tips that can prevent dry skin or keep it from getting worse. Do not use hot water . Hot water removes your natural skin oils more ...

  1. Extraction and determination of polyphenols and betalain pigments in the Moroccan Prickly pear fruits (Opuntia ficus indica)

    OpenAIRE

    Khatabi, Omar; Hanine, Hafida; Elothmani, Driss; Hasib, Aziz

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols and betalain pigments respond property’s antioxidants benefic for the human health (Will Strike et al., 2002; Lecerf, 1999). The item present shows procured results for strengths in polyphenols and in betalains to the time in fruits and in their juice for the period 2008–2009. Our searches show that rate in polyphenols is more increased in the entire fruit than in only the juice. We have equally remarked that the red prickly pear contains amounts of polyphenols more raised than th...

  2. Comparative activity of cetirizine and mizolastine on histamine-induced skin wheal and flare responses at 24 h.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, A; Mélac, M; Pauli, G; Frossard, N

    2002-03-01

    The aim of our study was to compare the activity of cetirizine 10 mg with that of mizolastine 10 mg vs placebo at 24 h after intake in healthy volunteers. This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled, three-way cross-over study with a wash-out period of 7 +/- 2 days between each period. The study included 36 healthy volunteers (18--50 years, mean age = 32 years; 9 males). The objective measurement was the cutaneous reactivity to increasing concentrations of histamine (0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160 mg ml(-1)) administered by prick tests. The reactivity was evaluated by the wheal and flare areas (mm2). The AUC (area under curves) values of the wheal and flare areas as a function of the log2 transformed histamine concentration were calculated for each subject and treatment, and compared. A highly significant treatment effect was evidenced both for wheal and flare responses (P = 0.0001). This indicates the good activity of both cetirizine 10 mg and mizolastine 10 mg in inhibiting skin wheal and flare reactions to histamine. In addition, the mean AUC values significantly differed between cetirizine and mizolastine (64.8 and 117.8 log2 (mg ml(-1)) x mm2 for wheal, and 939.4 and 2340.8 for flare, respectively; P = 0.0001), with a superior activity of cetirizine than mizolastine at 24 h after intake both on wheal and flare responses. The tolerance of cetirizine and mizolastine was good. The severity of the adverse events was never more than 'moderate', 'fatigue' being the most frequent reported symptom [cetirizine (6 subjects), placebo (3), mizolastine (5)], followed by 'somnolence' [cetirizine (0), placebo (1), mizolastine (3)]. There was no serious adverse event. This study shows that cetirizine (10 mg) suppresses skin reactivity to histamine more effectively than mizolastine (10 mg) 24 h after intake in healthy volunteers.

  3. Skin - clammy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the clammy skin may be due to heat exhaustion and the person is awake and can swallow: Have the person drink plenty of (non-alcoholic) fluids Move the person to a cool, shaded place When to Contact a Medical Professional Seek immediate medical help if the person has ...

  4. Monitoring pigmented skin lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Vincent P.; Bamber, Jeffery C.; Ott, Robert J.; Crawford, Diane C.; Mortimer, Peter S.

    2002-06-01

    The rising incidence of skin cancer has led to an increase in the number of patients with skin lesions that require diagnosis, mostly using subjective visual examination. Successful treatment depends on early diagnosis. Unfortunately diagnostic accuracy, even by experts, can be as low as 56%; therefore, an accurate, objective diagnostic aid is greatly needed. Reflectance characteristics of pigmented skin lesions were documented to evaluate their diagnostic potential. Reflectance spectra in the wavelength range 320-1100nm were obtained from 260 lesions. Differences between spectra from benign and malignant lesions were utilized by extracting features with the best discriminating power. Discrimination was evaluated using two techniques: multivariate statistical analysis and artificial neural networks, using histology as the standard. Each technique was tested in a blind study and assessed in terms of its ability to diagnose new cases and compared to the clinical diagnosis. The artificial neural network achieved the best diagnostic performance for discriminating between malignant melanoma and benign nevi, having a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 65%. Utilization of visible and infrared techniques for monitoring skin lesions has lead to improvements in diagnostic accuracy. We conclude that these techniques are worthy of further development and evaluation in clinical practice as a screening tool.

  5. Phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity and in vitro cancer cell cytotoxicity of nine prickly pear (Opuntia spp.) juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Santoscoy, R A; Gutierrez-Uribe, J A; Serna-Saldívar, S O

    2009-06-01

    Juices of nine prickly pears (Opuntia spp.) were characterized in terms of color, acidity, sugar content, phenolics, flavonoids, betalains and antioxidant activity and tested in vitro against four cancer cell lines. The juices had pH s, acidities and sugar ranging from 4.27 to 5.46, 0.03 to 0.27% and 8 to 14.7 degrees Brix, respectively. Juices also varied in color from white to purple and contained total phenolics, flavonoids, betaxanthins, betacyanins and antioxidant capacity ranging from 22 to 226 microg gallic acid eq/g, 95 to 374 microg quercetin eq/g, 3 to 189 microg/g, 1.6 to 300 microg/g and 17 to 25 micromoles Trolox eq./mL, respectively. Among the cancer lines tested, viability of prostate and colon cells were the most affected. Moradillo contained the highest flavonoids and diminished both prostate and colon cancer cell viability without affecting mammary or hepatic cancer cells. Rastrero reduced the growth of the four cancer cell lines without affecting normal fibroblast viability. The research shows intervarietal differences among prickly pears in terms of juice properties and phytochemicals that could prevent oxidative stress and cancer.

  6. Synergistic effect of polysaccharides, betalain pigment and phenolic compounds of red prickly pear (Opuntia stricta) in the stabilization of salami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharrat, Nadia; Salem, Hedia; Mrabet, Aicha; Aloui, Fatma; Triki, Soumaya; Fendri, Ahmed; Gargouri, Youssef

    2018-01-09

    The aim of this work is to try to substitute some synthetic additives by a natural extract from red prickly pear (Opuntia stricta) which known by its richness on bioactive polysaccharides mainly consisting of galactose, rhamnose and galacturonic acid. This natural fruit has a high content of carbohydrates above 18.81% FM. It contains also a high level of polyphenols 152.25 ± 0.26 μg QE/mg PPE and flavonoids about 370.60 ± 0.12 μg GAE/mg of PPE. In addition, prickly pear extract (PPE) displayed a strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. These activities are likely due to its phenolic, flavonoid and carbohydrate contents. Moreover, the addition of 2.5% of PPE, as a natural colorant and antimicrobial agent in salami formulation, causes a decrease in hardness and chewiness of the formulated salami. Interestingly, PPE inhibited bacterial growth in salami stored at 4 °C over 30 days. Sensorial analysis shows that the color, taste and texture of salami prepared with 2.5% of PPE are markedly more appreciated by panelists. Our results suggest that the betalain pigment, carbohydrate and phenolic compounds present in PPE could be used as a natural colorant, antioxidant and antimicrobial agent without change of the sensory characteristics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Chemical composition and sensory analysis of roasted peanuts coated with prickly pear and algarrobo pod syrups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grosso, N. R.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the chemical composition, sensory attributes and consumer acceptance of roasted peanuts coated with prickly pear (RP-P and “algarrobo” pod syrups (RP-A. Roasted peanuts (RP without coating had the highest oil content (50.4% in comparison with the coated products RP-P and RP-A (45.3% and 46.7%, respectively. RP-P and RP-A showed lower protein percentage and higher carbohydrate content than RP. These results affected the energy values of the products: 6.14 kcal/g in RP-P, 6.24 kcal/g in RP-A and 6.42 kcal/g in RP. In the consumer test, RP and RP-P had higher consumer acceptance for the attributes of color, texture and flavor than RP-A. In the descriptive analysis, RP-P and RPA showed higher intensity ratings in brown color, roughness, glossy, powdery, sweetness, and salty sensory attributes and lower intensity ratings in raw/beany flavor than in RP. The intensity of roasted peanutty flavor and the texture attributes in the descriptive analysis were not affected for the pod syrup coating.El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar la composición química, atributos sensoriales y la aceptabilidad del maní tostado cubierto con arrope de tuna (RP-P y de Algarrobo (RP-A. El maní tostado sin cobertura presentó el mayor contenido de aceite (50,4% en comparación con los maníes cubiertos, RPP y RP-A (45,3% y 46,7%, respectivamente. RP-P y RP-A mostraron menor porcentaje de proteína y mayor contenido de hidratos de carbonos que RP. Estos resultados afectaron los valores energéticos de los productos: 6,14 kcal/g in RP-P, 6,24 kcal/g in RP-A y 6,42 kcal/g in RP. En la prueba de consumidores, RP y RP-P tuvieron mayor aceptabilidad para los atributos color, textura y sabor que en RP-A. En la prueba descriptiva, RP-P y RP-A mostraron mayores intensidades en los atributos sensoriales de color marrón, rugosidad, brillo, pulverulencia, dulzor y salado y menor intensidad en sabor crudo/ poroto que en RP. Las

  8. Skin Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Host a Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation is the only ... Handbook A "Sunscreen Gene"? Skin Cancer Facts & Statistics Skin Cancer Treatment Glossary Information on medications and procedures The ...

  9. Skin Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Skin Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends mostly ...

  10. Skin lesion removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shave excision - skin; Excision of skin lesions - benign; Skin lesion removal - benign; Cryosurgery - skin, benign; BCC - removal; Basal cell cancer - removal; Actinic keratosis - removal; Wart - removal; Squamous cell - removal; ...

  11. [Skin reactivity frequency to aeroallergens in patients with clinical symptoms of allergic disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Méndez, Isabel Cristina; Arana-Muñoz, Oswaldo; López-García, Aída Inés; Rivero-Yeverino, Daniela; Caballero-López, Chrystopherson Gengyny; Papaqui-Tapia, Sergio; Camero-Martínez, Heriberto; Vázquez-Rojas, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Allergic diseases diagnosis must be based on adequate allergological anamnesis and an immunological sensitization test; the most sensitive and specific is the skin prick test. To determine the frequency of skin reactivity to aeroallergens, by age groups, in patients of the Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology of the Hospital Universitario de Puebla, in Mexico. A cross-sectional study was conducted that included patients aged 2 to 64 years with symptoms suggestive of allergic disease, in which skin prick tests with aeroallergens were performed; the diagnostic criteria were those of international guidelines. Frequencies, percentages and dispersion measures were calculated. Of 173 patients, 63 % were females. Mean age was 22.3 years. The frequency of skin reactivity for Quercus sp. was 12.72 %, for Periplaneta americana, 9.83 %, for Dermatophagoides farinae, 9.25 %, for Cynodon dactylon, 8.09 %, for Blatella germanica, 8.09 %, for Holcus halepensis, 6.94 %, for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, 6.36 %, for Schinus molle, 5.78 %, for Fraxinus uhdei, 5.20 %, for Lolium perenne, 5.20 %, for Ambrosia eliator, 5.20 % and for Artemisa tridentata, 4.62 %. Although Dermatophagoides are the most frequently reported aeroallergens, the most common aeroallergen in this study was pollen, probably owing to geographical and environmental factors, although this was not observed in the analysis by age groups.

  12. Rehabilitation of Degraded Rangeland in Drylands by Prickly Pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L. Plantations: Effect on Soil and Spontaneous Vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souad Neffar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In arid and semi-arid lands, the spiny prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica is an outstanding plant for soil conservation and restoration. To determine the role of Opuntia ficus-indica on vegetation recovery process in desertified areas of Southern Tebessa (Northeast Algeria, we investigated the effect of prickly pear plantation age and some soil properties (grain size, pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and CaCO3 equivalents on native plant community. Vegetation cover and plant diversity were assessed by calculating the number of individual plants (N, species richness (S, their ratio (N/S, Shannon index, and Evenness in prickly pear plantation plots of different ages (control, 5 and 20 years. Even if surveyed soil parameters did not differ significantly among O. ficus-indica plantations, results of ANOVA testing the effect of Opuntia plantations on native vegetation traits revealed significant variation for plant abundance (P < 0.0001, N/S ratio (P = 0.003 and vegetation cover (P < 0.0001. Vegetation cover differed significantly with both prickly-pear plantation age (P = 0.031 and seasons (P = 0.019. Tukey's tests revealed that all vegetation traits were significantly higher on prickly pear plantations than in control plots. Multiple comparisons also showed that plant abundance, N/S ratio and vegetation cover were significantly different between both young and old plantations and the controls. Prickly pear cultures facilitated the colonization and development of herbaceous species by ameliorating the severe environmental conditions. In conclusion, the facilitative effect of O. ficus-indica has been clearly demonstrated for both abundance and cover of native vegetation.

  13. Mold-specific IgE antibodies in relation to exposure and skin test data in schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Taskinen, Taina; Laitinen, Sirpa; Hyvärinen, Anne; Meklin, Teija; Husman, Tuula; Nevalainen, Aino; Korppi,Matti

    2001-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the present study was to compare mold specific IgE results with skin test and exposure data, as well as in relation to asthma and other allergic manifestations. Methods: We performed skin prick tests (SPT) to 13 molds in 341 children from six schools and studied the microbial status of all school buildings. Subsequently, mold specific IgE was measured by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to 10 molds in 31 of those children with a positive (≥3 mm) or weak SPT reaction (1–2...

  14. Skin perfusion pressure measured with a photo sensor in an air-filled plastic balloon: validity and reproducibility on the lower leg in normal subjects and patients suspected of obliterative arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen Levin; Nielsen, Anne Lerberg; Vind, Susanne Haase

    2011-01-01

    An inflatable small plastic bag including a photo sensor was constructed for measurement of skin perfusion pressure avoiding the rim of the photo sensor over bony and tendineous surfaces of the tibia below the knee, at the ankle, and on the dorsal forefoot. Compression was obtained using a conical...

  15. Skin collagen glycation, glycoxidation, and crosslinking are lower in subjects with long-term intensive versus conventional therapy of type 1 diabetes - Relevance of glycated collagen products versus HbA(1c) as markers of diabetic complications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monnier, VM; Bautista, O; Kenny, D; Sell, DR; Fogarty, J; Dahms, W; Cleary, PA; Lachin, J; Genuth, S

    The relationships between long-term intensive control of glycemia and indicators of skin collagen glycation (furosine), glycoxidation (pentosidine and N-epsilon-[carboxymethyl]-lysine [CML]), and crosslinking (acid and pepsin solubility) were examined in 216 patients with type 1 diabetes from the

  16. Skin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, S L

    2012-06-01

    Lymphoma arising from the skin is the second most common site of extra-nodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Over the last 25 years, the incidence has been rising. There is now a new World Health Organization/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer joint classification for cutaneous lymphomas and new proposed International Society for Cutaneous Lymphomas/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer staging systems. This overview examines the role of radiotherapy in the current management of cutaneous T- and B-cell lymphomas encompassing technological advances, new systemic therapies and novel radio-enhancing therapies now available. Modern total skin electron beam radiotherapy and the current low-dose and combination approaches are reviewed. Radiotherapy has remained the most successful treatment for cutaneous lymphoma over the last 50 years and with the technological advances and combination approaches available now and in the future will remain so for the next 50 years. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Skin Keratins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengrong; Zieman, Abigail; Coulombe, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    Keratins comprise the type I and type II intermediate filament-forming proteins and occur primarily in epithelial cells. They are encoded by 54 evolutionarily conserved genes (28 type I, 26 type II) and regulated in a pairwise and tissue type-, differentiation-, and context-dependent manner. Keratins serve multiple homeostatic and stress-enhanced mechanical and nonmechanical functions in epithelia, including the maintenance of cellular integrity, regulation of cell growth and migration, and protection from apoptosis. These functions are tightly regulated by posttranslational modifications as well as keratin-associated proteins. Genetically determined alterations in keratin-coding sequences underlie highly penetrant and rare disorders whose pathophysiology reflects cell fragility and/or altered tissue homeostasis. Moreover, keratin mutation or misregulation represents risk factors or genetic modifiers for several acute and chronic diseases. This chapter focuses on keratins that are expressed in skin epithelia, and details a number of basic protocols and assays that have proven useful for analyses being carried out in skin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pollen food allergy syndrome in Turkey: Clinical characteristics and evaluation of its association with skin test reactivity to pollens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Seςil Kepil; Özgüςlü, Selcan

    2017-09-17

    There is limited data regarding pollen food allergy syndrome (PFAS) in Turkey. To investigate the clinical characteristics and possible risk factors of PFAS in Turkey, and to evaluate if there was an association between skin test reactivity to pollens and presence of PFAS. A total of 254 consecutive adult patients with pollen sensitivity were prospectively recruited. Patients were interviewed with a questionnaire including a list of pollen-associated foods. Patients were classified as having PFAS if they reported clear allergic symptoms compatible with PFAS. All participants underwent skin prick tests (SPT) to a panel of common aeroallergens, prick-to-prick tests with culprit fresh foods were performed in patients who gave consent. Self-reported PFAS was observed in 49 patients (19.3%). The most common culprit foods were kiwi, peach, tomato, melon and watermelon. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that potential risk factors for PFAS were having asthma (OR=2.392, P=0.044) and tree pollen sensitization (OR=2.904, P=0.004). There were no significant differences in the SPT wheal sizes to individual pollen extracts between patients with and without PFAS with a positive SPT result for that pollen extract (P> 0.05). PFAS is frequent in pollen sensitized adults in Turkey. The most commonly implicated foods are kiwi, peach,tomato, melon and watermelon, in our geographical region. SPT wheal sizes to pollen extracts seems to be similar in patients with and without PFAS.

  19. Phytochemicals, nutritionals and antioxidant properties of two prickly pear cactus cultivars (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) growing in Taif, KSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hameed, El-Sayed S; Nagaty, Mohamed A; Salman, Mahmood S; Bazaid, Salih A

    2014-10-01

    The antioxidant properties, some phytochemicals and nutritionals were characterized in two prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) cultivars; red and yellow; growing in Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The antioxidant properties of red cactus cultivar were higher than the yellow cactus cultivar. Linear correlation appeared between the antioxidant properties and total phenolics. All samples nearly have the same quantity of iron, copper, sodium and potassium. Some phenolic compounds were detected by HPLC-UV analysis. HPLC-RI analysis of all samples revealed the absence of sucrose and the presence of glucose and fructose. According to the above results, this study gave a good indication about the nutritional and pharmaceutical potential of the two cactus cultivars that must be widespread cultivated in arid and semiarid regions as KSA accompanying with establishment of industries beside the cactus farms that used all parts of plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of high-performance liquid chromatography to the characterization of the betalain pigments in prickly pear fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-López, J A; Almela, L

    2001-04-13

    The qualitative and quantitative betalain pigment content of two cultivars of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruits grown in southeastern Spain was evaluated. After methanolic extraction of crushed fruits, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and photodiode array detection were applied simultaneously for the separation, identification and quantification of these pigments. Two main pigments were obtained, which were identified as indicaxanthin (lambda(max) 484 nm) and betanin (lambda(max) 535 nm). Spectrophotometric evaluation of both pigments showed a yield of around 20-30 mg per 100 g of fresh pulp. When the influence of temperature (25 to 90 degrees C) on betacyanin pigment stability was investigated, the results revealed a substantial degree of thermodegradation at temperatures higher than 70 degrees C.

  1. Antioxidant activities of sicilian prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) fruit extracts and reducing properties of its betalains: betanin and indicaxanthin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butera, Daniela; Tesoriere, Luisa; Di Gaudio, Francesca; Bongiorno, Antonino; Allegra, Mario; Pintaudi, Anna Maria; Kohen, Rohn; Livrea, Maria A

    2002-11-06

    Sicilian cultivars of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) produce yellow, red, and white fruits, due to the combination of two betalain pigments, the purple-red betanin and the yellow-orange indicaxanthin. The betalain distribution in the three cultivars and the antioxidant activities of methanolic extracts from edible pulp were investigated. In addition, the reducing capacity of purified betanin and indicaxanthin was measured. According to a spectrophotometric analysis, the yellow cultivar exhibited the highest amount of betalains, followed by the red and white ones. Indicaxanthin accounted for about 99% of betalains in the white fruit, while the ratio of betanin to indicaxanthin varied from 1:8 (w:w) in the yellow fruit to 2:1 (w:w) in the red one. Polyphenol pigments were negligible components only in the red fruit. When measured as 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox) equivalents per gram of pulp, the methanolic fruit extracts showed a marked antioxidant activity. Vitamin C did not account for more than 40% of the measured activity. In addition, the extracts dose-dependently inhibited the organic hydroperoxide-stimulated red cell membrane lipid oxidation, as well as the metal-dependent and -independent low-density lipoprotein oxidation. The extract from the white fruit showed the highest protection in all models of lipid oxidation. Purified betanin and indicaxanthin were more effective than Trolox at scavenging the [2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] diammonium salt cation radical. Cyclic voltammetric measurements show two anodic waves for betanin and indicaxanthin, and differential pulse voltammetry shows three anodic waves for betanin, with calculated peak potentials of 404, 616, and 998 mV, and two anodic waves for indicaxanthin, with peak potentials of 611 and 895 mV. Betanin underwent complex formation through chelation with Cu(2+), whereas indicaxanthin was not modified. These findings suggest that the above

  2. [Effect of joss stick moxibustion combined with pricking and cupping for acute herpes zoster and its mechanism of analgesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Guoping; Su, Meiling; Zhu, Dingyu; Zhang, Linyun; Lin, Wang; Huang, Li; Wu, Mingxia

    2017-12-12

    To observe the effects of conventional western medication and joss stick moxibustion combined with pricking and cupping for herpes zoster in acute stage, and to explore its analgesic mechanism. Seventy patients with acute herpes zoster were randomized into an observation group (33 cases after 2 dropping) and a control group (34 cases after 1 dropping). Patients in the observation group were treated with joss stick moxibustion combined with pricking and cupping at local ashi points for 7 times, once every other day. Oral acyclovir, vitamin B1 and mecobalamin tablets were applied in the control group for continuous 14 days, and interferon injection was used for continuous 6 days, etc. The herpes evaluation indexes of blister stopping time, scab time and decrustation time as well as pain intensity were observed before and after treatment. Peripheral serum substance P (SP) content of herpes local situation was detected. The comprehensive effects were evaluated. The blister stopping time, scab time and decrustation time in the observation group were shorter than those in the control group (all P0.05). The pain beginning to ease time and duration time in the observation group were better than those in the control group (both P0.05). The cured rate of the observation group was better than that of the control group [66.7% (22/33) vs 58.8% (20/34), Pcupping are effective for herpes zoster, which have quicker and good analgesic effects than conventional western medication. Its mechanism may be related to reducing the content of SP more fast and to a larger degree.

  3. Identification and quantification of betalains from the fruits of 10 mexican prickly pear cultivars by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Santiago, Elena; Yahia, Elhadi M

    2008-07-23

    Qualitative and quantitative analyses of betalain pigments in 10 cultivars/lines of prickly pear (Opuntia spp.) fruit grown in Mexico were conducted with reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Betacyanins and betaxanthins were identified by comparison with the UV/vis and mass spectrometric characteristics as well as the retention times of semisynthesized reference betaxanthins. Data revealed that the ratio and concentration of betalain pigments are responsible for the color in the different cultivars, showing the highest betalains content in the fruit of purple colored Camuesa (O. robusta Wendl.) (8.1 mg/g dry fruit), which is comparable to that found in red beet Beta vulgaris L. ssp. Var. Pablo) (8.6 mg/g dry tissue). Yellow betalains were absent in Reyna (O. alba-carpa) prickly pear cultivar. A total of 24 known/unknown betalains were present in the prickly pear fruit samples studied, including 18 betaxanthins and 6 betacyanins. Our results indicate that prickly pear cultivars can be considered as a potential source of yellow and red natural colorants.

  4. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer Order the free Anyone Can ... rarely, younger children can develop skin cancer. How can people with dark skin get skin cancer? Although ...

  5. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go to ... all skin colors can get skin cancer. Skin Cancer Screening Key Points Tests are used to screen for ...

  6. Epidemiology of "fragile skin": results from a survey of different skin types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haftek M

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Marek Haftek,1 Christine Coutanceau,2 Charles Taïeb3 1Université Lyon 1, Laboratoire de Recherche Dermatologique, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Lyon, 2Département Médical, Laboratoires Dermatologiques A-Derma, Lavaur, 3Public Health, Pierre Fabre SA, Paris, France Background: Epidemiologic information regarding the prevalence of "fragile skin" in different adult populations is currently limited. The objective of the current survey was to assess the occurrence of perceived "fragile skin" across different skin types in the general adult population. Methods: Individuals aged 15–65 years from five representative geographic regions (France, Spain, Sweden, Japan, and the US were interviewed and grouped into the following skin types: Caucasian North skin (n=1,218, Caucasian South skin (n=1,695, Asian skin (n=1,500, and Black skin (n=500. The main survey question was "In your opinion, do you have fragile skin?" Concepts relating to the nature and appearance of an individual's skin were also evaluated. Results: A total of 4,913 individuals were interviewed. Subjects in the Caucasian North, Caucasian South, Asian, and Black skin type groups responded positively to the question "In your opinion, do you have fragile skin?" in the following proportions: 24.44%, 29.71%, 52.67%, and 42.20%, respectively. With the exception of individuals in the Black skin group, "fragile skin" was prevalent in significantly more women than men (P<0.0001. Compared with other age categories, the prevalence of "fragile skin" was significantly higher in individuals aged 15–34 years (P<0.0001, regardless of skin type. In general, individuals reporting "fragile skin" were 2–3-fold more likely to respond positively to a series of questions relating to the nature and appearance of their skin. The prevalence of "fragile skin" was also higher in individuals who experienced dermatosis (skin lesions of any type in the previous 12 months. Conclusion: Whilst these

  7. A preliminary investigation of the impact of oily skin on quality of life and concordance of self-perceived skin oiliness and skin surface lipids (sebum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y; Niu, Y; Zhong, S; Liu, H; Zhen, Y; Saint-Leger, D; Verschoore, M

    2013-10-01

    This preliminary study investigated both the impact of oily skin on quality of life (QoL) and the agreement between subjective oily skin self-assessment and objective skin surface sebum measurement in young to middle-aged Chinese women in Beijing. A 18-item Chinese version of the Oily Skin Self-Image Questionnaire (OSSIQ) was used to assess the impact of oily skin on QoL in 300 healthy female subjects (age groups: 20-25; 26-30; 31-35,). The subjects were divided equally into the oily skin group and the non-oily skin group based on their self-perception of skin oiliness. The level of skin surface lipids (SSL) was measured on the middle of the forehead, and both cheeks using the Sebumeter(®). In order to assess the agreement between self-perceived skin oiliness and measured SSL, we tentatively used the SSL median value as a dividing point to regroup all subjects. The results indicate that the Chinese version of the OSSIQ distinguished the oily skin group from the non-oily skin group. Subjects in the oily skin group had significant higher emotional status score and behavior score when compared with subjects in the non-oily skin group. Subjects in the oily skin group had higher SSL when compared with subjects in the non-oily skin group, especially in younger age groups. The agreement between self-perceived skin oiliness and measured SSL was moderately strong in younger age groups, and declined with age. These results strongly suggest that having oily skin can cause a significant negative impact on QoL among Chinese women. The Chinese version of the OSSIQ is a reliable and valid tool for assessing the impact of oily skin on QoL. The accuracy of oily skin self-assessment declines with age. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  8. Skin Allergy Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... time. Some common medications that can cause skin allergy include penicillin, sulfa drugs, barbiturates and anticonvulsants just to mention a few. Some of the symptoms from drug allergies might be hives, skin rash, itchy skin or ...

  9. Allergy testing - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... allergy skin tests if you have: Hay fever ( allergic rhinitis ) and asthma symptoms that are not well controlled with medicine Hives and angioedema Food allergies Skin rashes ( dermatitis ), in which the skin ...

  10. Severe delayed skin reactions related to drugs in the paediatric age group: A review of the subject by way of three cases (Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis and DRESS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belver, M T; Michavila, A; Bobolea, I; Feito, M; Bellón, T; Quirce, S

    2016-01-01

    Severe delayed drug-induced skin reactions in children are not common but potentially serious. This article describes aspects concerning the etiology, pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of these processes; it presents three paediatric cases, namely STS (Steven Johnson Syndrome), TEN (toxic epidermal necrolysis), probably related to amoxicillin/clavulanate and ibuprofen and DRESS (a drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms) secondary to phenytoin; and in relation to them, the diagnosis and the treatment of these processes are discussed and reviewed. The AGEP (acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis) is also reviewed. The aetiological diagnosis of severe non-immediate reactions is difficult, and the value of current allergological testing is not well defined in these cases. Diagnosis is based on clinical history, the empirical risk of drugs to trigger SJS/TEN or DRESS, and the in vivo and in vitro testing of the suspect drug. Skin biopsy confirms that the clinical diagnosis and delayed hypersensitivity tests, especially the patch test and the lymphoblastic transformation test (LTT), may be important to confirm the aetiological diagnosis, in our cases emphasising the latter. These diseases can be life threatening (especially DRESS and TEN) and/or have a high rate of major complications or sequelae (SJS/TEN). The three cases described progressed well without sequelae. All were treated with corticosteroids, which is the most currently accepted treatment although the effect has not been clearly demonstrated. Copyright © 2015 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Beneficial Effects of Treatment With Anti-IgE Antibodies (Omalizumab) in a Patient With Severe Asthma and Negative Skin-Prick Test Results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berge, Maarten; Pauw, Ronald G.; de Monchy, Jan G. R.; van Minnen, Cees A.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.

    It is now well recognized that treatment with anti-IgE antibodies like omalizumab is a valuable option in patients with allergic asthma who remain symptomatic despite optimal treatment. To our knowledge, treatment with omalizumab in patients with nonallergic asthma has not been reported. We present

  12. Agreement between the Skin Prick Test and Specific Serum IgE for Egg White and Cow's Milk Allergens in Young Infant with Atopic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Jong Yang

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The results of SPT agreed well with those of sIgE. This finding provides a rationale for using SPT, and suggests that SPT can be used along with sIgE to detect food sensitization in young infants with AD.

  13. Expert System For Diagnosis Of Skin Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A.L.C. Amarathunga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dermatology is a one of major session of medicine that concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of skin diseases. Skin diseases are the most common form of disease in humans. Recently many of researchers have advocated and developed the imaging of human vision or in the loop approach to visual object recognition. This research paper presents a development of a skin diseases diagnosis system which allows user to identify diseases of the human skin and to provide advises or medical treatments in a very short time period. For this purpose user will have to upload an image of skin disease to our system and answer questions based on their skin condition or symptoms. It will be used to detect diseases of the skin and offer a treatment recommendation. This system uses technologies such as image processing and data mining for the diagnosis of the disease of the skin. The image of skin disease is taken and it must be subjected to various preprocessing for noise eliminating and enhancement of the image. This image is immediately segmentation of images using threshold values. Finally data mining techniques are used to identify the skin disease and to suggest medical treatments or advice for users. This expert system exhibits disease identification accuracy of 85 for Eczema 95 for Impetigo and 85 for Melanoma.

  14. A disposable amperometric dual-sensor for the detection of hemoglobin and glycated hemoglobin in a finger prick blood sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jong-Min; Kim, Dong-Min; Kim, Moo Hyun; Han, Jin-Yeong; Jung, Dong-Keun; Shim, Yoon-Bo

    2017-05-15

    A disposable microfluidic amperometric dual-sensor was developed for the detection of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) and total hemoglobin (Hb), separately, in a finger prick blood sample. The accurate level of total Hb was determined through the measurements of the cathodic currents of total Hb catalyzed by a toluidine blue O (TBO)-modified working electrode. Subsequently, after washing unbound Hb in the fluidic channel of dual sensor with PBS, the cathodic current by only HbA1C captured on aptamer was monitored using another aptamer/TBO-modified working electrode in the channel. To modify the sensor probe, poly(2,2´:5´,5″-terthiophene-3´-p-benzoic acid) and a multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composite layer (pTBA@MWCNT) was electropolymerized on a screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE), followed by immobilization of TBO for the total Hb probe and aptamer/TBO for the HbA1C probe, respectively. The characterization of each sensor surface was performed using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The experimental conditions affecting the analytical signal were optimized in terms of the amount of TBO, pH, temperature, binding time, applied potential, and the content ratio of monomer and MWCNT. The dynamic ranges of Hb and HbA1C were from 0.1 to 10µM and from 0.006 to 0.74µM, with detection limits of 82(±4.2)nM and 3.7(±0.8)nM, respectively. The reliability of the proposed microfluidic dual-sensor for a finger prick blood sample (1µL) was evaluated in parallel with a conventional method (HPLC) for point-of-care analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants used by Assamese people for various skin ailments and cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Abinash Pratim; Ryakala, Venkat Kishore; Sharma, Pragya; Goswami, Pranab; Bora, Utpal

    2006-06-30

    The present paper deals with the medicinal plants used by the people of Assam for curing different skin ailments and for cosmetics. A total of 85 plants belonging to 49 families have been documented for their therapeutic use against skin diseases and as herbal care. The herbal medicines were prepared from various plant parts of single plant, or multiple plants. The majority of the preparation was made using water as the medium. The mode of application was topical, but in many cases it was also administered orally. In several cases the pure herbal preparations was administered along with milk, ghee, honey, coconut oil, curd, etc. Remedies for 18 skin ailments were documented through this study. About 14 plants are known for their use to cure multiple skin diseases. Among these Curcuma longa and Melia azaderach constitute the major plants. The herbal cosmetic products used by the people of Assam ranges from the enhancement of skin colour, hair care, removal of ugly spots, colouring of nails, palms, and teeth. However, many of the plant preparations used for enhancing beauty were also applied for therapeutic use. Herbal remedies were also available for skin burns, prickly heat and pimples. Information on nine plants used for managing dry skin also emerged from this study.

  16. Estrogens and aging skin

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, M. Julie

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency following menopause results in atrophic skin changes and acceleration of skin aging. Estrogens significantly modulate skin physiology, targeting keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, hair follicles and sebaceous glands, and improve angiogenesis, wound healing and immune responses. Estrogen insufficiency decreases defense against oxidative stress; skin becomes thinner with less collagen, decreased elasticity, increased wrinkling, increased dryness and reduced vascularity...

  17. Psychiatric Morbidity among Subjects with Leprosy and Albinism in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Skin, which is the largest organ in the body, carries immense psychological significance. Disfiguring skin disorders may impact negatively on the mental health of individuals. Aim: This study compared the psychiatric morbidity of subjects with leprosy and albinism. Subjects and Methods: One hundred subjects ...

  18. An experimental study on mother-infant skin-to-skin contact in full-terms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, R.; Cillessen, L.J.G.; Zijlmans, M.A.C.

    2016-01-01

    In premature infants, daily skin-to-skin contact (SSC) has various beneficial effects on the health of the infant and the mother. These beneficial effects might extend to full-term infants. This experimental within-subject study examines the immediate effects of SSC on full-terms’ cortisol

  19. Protective effect of Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis prickly pear juice upon ethanol-induced damages in rat erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimi, Hichem; Hfaeidh, Najla; Bouoni, Zouhour; Sakly, Mohsen; Ben Rhouma, Khémais

    2012-05-01

    Juice from the fruit of the cactus Opuntia ficus indica is claimed to possess several health-beneficial properties. The present study was carried out to determine whether O. ficus indica f. inermis fruit extract might have a protective effect upon physiological and morphological damages inflicted to erythrocytes membrane by chronic ethanol poisoning, per os, in rat. Chemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, and betalains. Ethanol administration (3 g/kg b.w, per day for 90 days) induced an increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonylated proteins levels and a decrease of glutathione (GSH) level in erythrocyte. Ethanol administration also reduced the scavenging activity in plasma and enhanced erythrocytes hemolysis, as compared to control rats. In addition, ethanol intake increased the erythrocyte shape index by +895.5% and decreased the erythrocyte diameter by -61.53% as compared to controls. In animals also given prickly pear juice during the same experimental period, the studied parameters were much less shifted. This protective effect was found to be dose-dependent. It is likely that the beneficial effect of the extract is due to the high content of antioxidant compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) protects against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Jeon, Byung Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun; Kim, Tae Il; Lee, Hee Kyoung; Han, Dae Seob; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Jung Wha; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2012-11-01

    The protective activity of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) fruit juice and its main constituent, betanin, were evaluated against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats. After 6 h of water immersion restraint stress (WIRS), gastric mucosal lesions with bleeding were induced in Sprague-Dawley rats. Pretreatment of a lyophilized powder containing O. ficus indica var. saboten fruit juice and maltodextrin (OFSM) and betanin significantly reduced stress lesions (800-1600 mg/kg). Both OFSM and betanin effectively prevented the decrease in gastric mucus content as detected by alcian blue staining. In addition, OFSM significantly suppressed WIRS-induced increases in the level of gastric mucosal tumor necrosis factor-α and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Betanin alone was only effective in decreasing MPO. These results revealed the protective activity of OFSM against stress-induced acute gastric lesions and that betanin may contribute to OFSM's gastric protective activity, at least in part. When OFSM and betanin were taken together, OFSM exerted gastroprotective activity against stress-induced gastric lesions by maintaining gastric mucus, which might be related to the attenuation of MPO-mediated damage and proinflammatory cytokine production.

  1. Characterization of carotenoid profile of Spanish Sanguinos and Verdal prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica, spp.) tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, M P; Gómez-Maqueo, A; García-Cayuela, T; Welti-Chanes, J

    2017-12-15

    Carotenoid profiles of different tissues (peel, pulp and whole fruit) of Spanish Sanguinos (red) and Verdal (orange) prickly pears (Opuntia ficus-indica spp.) have been characterized in detail and quantified for the first time. Carotenoids were determined by HPLC-PDA-MS (APCI+), using a reverse phase C30 column. A total of 9 xantophylls and 4 hydrocarbon carotenes were identified. Also, minor amounts of chlorophyll a, a' and b can be observed in Opuntia peel extracts. All carotenoids were found to be present in their free form (no carotenoid esters were detected). The RAE was highest in Opuntia peels, showing values from 19.20 to 16.48µg/100g fresh weigth, for Sanguinos and Verdal Opuntia fruits, respectively. The main carotenoid in Opuntia peel extracts was (all-E)-lutein with 1132.51 and 767.98µg/100g fresh weigth, followed by (all-E)-β-carotene with 200.40 and 173.50µg/100g fresh weigth for Sanguinos and Verdal varieties of Opuntia fruits, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Armazenamento de figo-da-índia em pó Storage of the prickly pear powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícera G. C. de Lisbôa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram avaliadas a estabilidade do figo-da-índia em pó acondicionado em embalagens laminadas durante 100 dias de armazenamento, sob condições controladas de temperatura e umidade relativa e as amostras a cada 20 dias, por meio do teor de água, atividade de água, acidez total titulável, açúcares redutores e cor (luminosidade, intensidade de vermelho e de amarelo. Observou-se que as embalagens laminadas não evitaram a absorção de água, enquanto a atividade de água aumentou e os açúcares redutores diminuíram com o tempo; por outro lado, a acidez total titulável diminuiu mas apenas nos primeiros vinte dias; enfim, todas as amostras sofreram escurecimento durante o armazenamento.The stability of the prickly pear power packed in laminated roll for 100 days storage under controlled temperature and relative humidity was evaluated. The material was evaluated every 20 days, through the moisture content, water activity, total acidity, sugars and color (brightness, red and yellow colour intensity. It was found during storage of powder samples, that the laminated packaging did not prevent the water absorption, while water activity increased and reduced sugars decreased with time, the total acidity decreased in the first twenty days, keeping stable thereafter in all samples and there was a darkening of the powder samples stored at 40 ºC.

  3. PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CELLULOLYTIC ENZYMES BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER AND RHIZOPUS SP . BY SOLID STATE FERMENTATION OF PRICKLY PEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAMIRES CARVALHO DOS SANTOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prickly palm cactus husk was used as a solid - state fermentation support substrate for the production of cellulolytic enzymes using Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus sp. A Box - Behnken design was used to evaluate the effects of water activity, fermentation time and temperature on endoglucanase and total cellulase production. Response Surface Methodology showed that optimum conditions for endoglucanase production were achieved at after 70.35 h of fermentation at 29.56°C and a water activity of 0.875 for Aspergillus niger and after 68.12 h at 30.41°C for Rhizopus sp. Optimum conditions for total cellulase production were achieved after 74.27 h of fermentation at 31.22°C for Aspergillus niger and after 72.48 h and 27.86°C for Rhizopus sp . Water activity had a significant effect on Aspergillus niger endoglucanase production only. In industrial applications, enzymatic characterization is important for optimizing variables such as temperature and pH. In this study we showed that endoglucanase and total cellulase had a high level of thermostability and pH stability in all the enzymatic extracts. Enzymatic deactivation kinetic experiments indicated that the enzymes remained active after the freezing of the crude extract. Based on the results, bioconversion of cactus is an excellent alternative for the production of thermostable enzymes.

  4. Effects of Prickly Pear Dried Leaves, Artichoke Leaves, Turmeric and Garlic Extracts, and Their Combinations on Preventing Dyslipidemia in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qinna, Nidal A.; Kamona, Basma S.; Alhussainy, Tawfiq M.; Taha, Hashem; Badwan, Adnan A.; Matalka, Khalid Z.

    2012-01-01

    The successful use of herbal combinations in managing diseases or conditions over a single herb has lead us to evaluate the anti-dyslipidemic properties of the combination of the artichoke leaves extract, turmeric extract, prickly pear dried leaves (PPL) and garlic extract versus each one alone in two different hyperlipidemic animal models. A two-week treatment of each of the natural extracts, combination 1 (artichoke, turmeric and PPL) or combination 2 (artichoke, turmeric, PPL and garlic) prior to a single intraperitoneal injection of Pluronic F-127 resulted in decreasing significantly serum LDL levels by garlic and PPL extracts and serum LDL/HDL ratios by turmeric, PPL, combination 1 and 2. In a 10-day high fat diet model, only the combination 1 and 2 lowered serum cholesterol, LDL by 8–12%, decreased significantly triglycerides, LDL/HDL ratio; and increased significantly HDL (P artichoke and PPL inhibited significantly HMG-CoA reductase activity (P artichoke, turmeric, PPL and garlic extract prevents dyslipidemia; partially through inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase. PMID:22811929

  5. Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... 76,690; deaths: 9,480. Read More "Skin Cancer" Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk ...

  6. Skin cancer in skin of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Porcia T

    2009-01-01

    In general, skin cancer is uncommon in people of color when compared to Caucasians. When it does occur, it is often associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Differences in survival rates may be attributed to skin cancers being diagnosed at a more advanced stage, and socioeconomic factors such as lack of adequate insurance coverage and lack of transportation can function as barriers to timely diagnosis and early treatment. In addition to advanced stage at presentation, malignant skin lesions in skin of color often present in an atypical fashion. Because skin cancer prevention and screening practices historically have been lower among Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians, and given the changing demographics in the United States, interventions that are tailored to each of these groups will be needed. Public educational campaigns should be expanded to educate people of all skin types with emphasis on skin cancers occurring in areas not exposed to the sun (Byrd-Miles et al., 2007), since sunlight is not as important an etiologic factor in the pathogenesis of skin cancer in people of color. Dermatologists and primary care physicians should instruct their darker-skinned patients on how to perform routine skin self-examinations. Physicians should also encourage patients to ask their specialists such as their gynecologist, dentist, and ophthalmologist to look for abnormal pigmentation during routine exams. To reduce the burden of skin cancer, several prevention methods for all people have been strongly encouraged, including monthly self-examinations, daily use of SPF 30 or greater sunscreen, sunglasses with UV-absorbing lenses, and avoiding tanning booths (American Cancer Society, 2008) (see Table 7). In addition, recommendations for clinicians to promote the prevention of skin cancer in skin of color have also been made, including closely monitoring changing pigmented lesions on the palms and soles and hyperkeratotic or poorly healing ulcers in immunosuppressed patients

  7. [Importance of accurate assessment of capillary blood glucose level in diagnosis: misleading results in handlers of prickly pears (Opuntia ficus-indica)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Pantoja, José; Landróguez Salinas, Sergio; Barrero Luque, Susana; Pérez Pérez, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Hypoglycemia can cause symptoms of neuroglycopenia that can be easily confused with symptoms of greater clinical importance such as stroke. Appropriate differential diagnosis between these 2 processes will be essential for guiding the treatment approach. We report a case in which stroke was initially suspected because hypoglycemia was masked by the incorrect capillary blood glucose (CBG) measurement technique used in treating an itinerant vendor of prickly pears (Opuntia ficus-indica). We studied the effects of prickly pear handling on the CBG levels in 11 vendors before and after they handled the fruit. CBG levels were noticeably higher after the fruit was handled in all cases. Our observations reveal the need to measure both capillary and venous blood glucose levels to rule out hypoglycemia in patients with acute neurological symptoms.

  8. Nutritional and antioxidant status by skin types among female adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyun Sook; Choi, Sung Im

    2010-01-01

    This study was performed to analyze the relationship among sebum · hydration content of the skin and nutritional intake, serum antioxidant minerals and antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxide concentration in 50 female subjects in their 20s. The skin type was divided into Dry Skin, Mixed Skin, and Oily Skin, and the dry skin group was 14%, the mixed skin group was 56%, and the oily skin group was 30% of all subjects. The average age of the subjects was 20.54 ± 1.43 years and BMI was 20.66. The average sebum content in each group was in the order of T-zone>forehead>chin>cheek. In case of the T-zone, a significant difference between the dry skin group and the oily skin group was observed, suggesting that the area is most sensitive to sebum content by skin type. Significant differences were not observed in energy and nutrient intakes by skin type. Serum concentrations of antioxidant minerals such as copper, manganese, zinc and selenium were not significantly different among the groups, but the dry skin group tended to be higher than the oily skin group. Serum catalase was significantly higher in the oily skin group (P < 0.05), and MDA was significantly higher in the mixed skin group (P < 0.05). The hydration of the cheek and serum zinc showed a negative correlation, and the sebum content of the cheek and GPx showed a significant negative correlation. The hydration of the forehead and serum copper showed a significant negative correlation, and the hydration of the forehead and GPx showed a significant positive correlation. The hydration of the chin and serum SOD showed a significant positive correlation. With these results, it is considered that the basic condition of nutritional status can affect the skin health. PMID:20607067

  9. Digital dermoscopy to determine skin melanin index as an objective indicator of skin pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Majewski

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Clinical assessment of skin photosensitivity is subjectively determined by erythema and tanning responses to sunlight recalled by the subject, alternatively known as Fitzpatrick Skin Phototype (SPT. Responses may be unreliable due to recall bias, subjective bias by clinicians and subjects, and lack of cultural sensitivity of the questions. Analysis of red-green-blue (RGB color spacing of digital images may provide an objective determination of SPT. This paper presents the studies to assess the melanin index (MI, as determined by RGB images obtained by both standard digital camera as well as by videodermoscope, and to correlate the MI with SPT based upon subjects’ verbal responses to standardized questions administered by a dermatologist.A sample of subjects representing all SPTs I–VI was selected. Both the digital camera and videodermoscope were calibrated at standard illumination, light source and white balance. Images of constitutive skin of the upper ventral arm were taken of each subject using both instruments.The studies showed that 58 subjects (20 M, 38 F were enrolled in the study (mean age: 47 years; range: 20–89, stratified to skin phototype I–VI. MI obtained by using both digital camera and videodermoscope increased significantly as the SPT increased p = 0.004 and p < 0.0001, respectively and positively correlated with dermatologist-assessed SPT (Spearman correlation, r = 0.48 and r = 0.84, respectively.Digital imaging can quantify melanin content in order to quantitatively approximate skin pigmentation in all skin phototypes including Type VI skin. This methodology holds promise as a simple, non-invasive, rapid and objective approach to reliably determine skin phototype and, with further investigation, may prove to be both practical and useful in the prediction of skin cancer risk.

  10. Thermosensitive Hydrogel Mask Significantly Improves Skin Moisture and Skin Tone; Bilateral Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Quattrone

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A temperature-sensitive state-changing hydrogel mask was used in this study. Once it comes into contact with the skin and reaches the body temperature, it uniformly and quickly releases the active compounds, which possess moisturizing, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and regenerative properties. Methods: An open label clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of the test product on skin hydration, skin tone and skin ageing. Subjects applied the product to one side of their face and underwent Corneometer® and Chromameter measurements, Visual assessment of facial skin ageing and facial photography. All assessments and Self-Perception Questionnaires (SPQ were performed at baseline, after the first application of the test product and after four applications. Results: After a single treatment we observed an increase in skin moisturisation, an improvement of skin tone/luminosity and a reduction in signs of ageing, all statistically significant. After four applications a further improvement in all measured parameters was recorded. These results were confirmed by the subjects’ own perceptions, as reported in the SPQ both after one and four applications. Conclusion: The hydrogel mask tested in this study is very effective in improving skin hydration, skin radiance and luminosity, in encouraging an even skin tone and in reducing skin pigmentation.

  11. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  12. Evaluation of a Topical Anti-inflammatory/Antifungal Combination Cream in Mild-to-moderate Facial Seborrheic Dermatitis: An Intra-subject Controlled Trial Examining Treated vs. Untreated Skin Utilizing Clinical Features and Erythema-directed Digital Photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Oglio, Federica; Tedeschi, Aurora; Guardabasso, Vincenzo; Micali, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate if nonprescription topical agents may provide positive outcomes in the management of mild-to-moderate facial seborrheic dermatitis by reducing inflammation and scale production through clinical evaluation and erythema-directed digital photography. Open-label, prospective, not-blinded, intra-patient, controlled, clinical trial (target area). Twenty adult subjects affected by mild-to-moderate facial seborrheic dermatitis were enrolled and instructed to apply the study cream two times daily, initially on a selected target area only for seven days. If the subject developed visible improvement, it was advised to extend the application to all facial affected area for 21 additional days. Efficacy was evaluated by measuring the grade of erythema (by clinical examination and by erythema-directed digital photography), desquamation (by clinical examination), and pruritus (by subject-completed visual analog scale). Additionally, at the end of the protocol, a Physician Global Assessment was carried out. Eighteen subjects completed the study, whereas two subjects were lost to follow-up for nonadherence and personal reasons, respectively. Day 7 data from target areas showed a significant reduction in erythema. At the end of study, a significant improvement was recorded for erythema, desquamation, and pruritus compared to baseline. Physician Global Assessment showed improvement in 89 percent of patients, with a complete response in 56 percent of cases. These preliminary results indicate that the study cream may be a viable nonprescription therapeutic option for patients affected by facial seborrheic dermatitis able to determine early and significant improvement. This study also emphasizes the advantages of using an erythema-directed digital photography system for assisting in a simple, more accurate erythema severity grading and therapeutic monitoring in patients affected by seborrheic dermatitis.

  13. Exploitation of Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains to improve shelf life, rheological, sensory and functional features of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) fruit puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; Filannino, Pasquale; Vincentini, Olimpia; Lanera, Alessia; Cavoski, Ivana; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-10-01

    Strains of Leuconostoc mesenteroides were identified from raw prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.). Five autochthonous strains were selected based on the kinetics of growth and acidification on prickly pear fruit juice, and the capacity to synthesize exo-polysaccharides. All selected Leuc. mesenteroides strains showed an in vitro mucilage-degrading capability. A protocol for processing and storage of fermented prickly pear fruit puree (FP) was set up. Unstarted FP and chemically acidified FP were used as the controls. Starters grew and remained viable at elevated cell numbers during 21 days of storage at 4 °C. Contaminating Enterobacteriaceae and yeasts were found only in the controls. Viscosity and serum separation distinguished started FP compared to the controls. Colour parameters, browning index, sensory attributes, antimicrobial activity, vitamin C and betalains levels were positively affected by lactic acid fermentation. Increase of free radical scavenging activity in ethyl acetate soluble extract suggested an effect of selected strains on phenolic profiles. Started FP markedly inhibited the inflammatory status of Caco-2/TC7 cells, and also contributed to maintaining the integrity of tight junctions. Started FP scavenged the reactive oxygen species generated by H2O2 on Caco-2 cells. All selected strain variously affected the immunomodulatory activity towards anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A flexible skin piloerection monitoring sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaemin; Seo, Dae Geon; Cho, Young-Ho

    2014-06-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and tested a capacitive-type flexible micro sensor for measurement of the human skin piloerection arisen from sudden emotional and environmental change. The present skin piloerection monitoring methods are limited in objective and quantitative measurement by physical disturbance stimulation to the skin due to bulky size and heavy weight of measuring devices. The proposed flexible skin piloerection monitoring sensor is composed of 3 × 3 spiral coplanar capacitor array using conductive polymer for having high capacitive density and thin enough thickness to be attached to human skin. The performance of the skin piloerection monitoring sensor is characterized using the artificial bump, representing human skin goosebump; thus, resulting in the sensitivity of -0.00252%/μm and the nonlinearity of 25.9% for the artificial goosebump deformation in the range of 0-326 μm. We also verified successive human skin piloerection having 3.5 s duration on the subject's dorsal forearms, thus resulting in the capacitance change of -6.2 fF and -9.2 fF for the piloerection intensity of 145 μm and 194 μm, respectively. It is demonstrated experimentally that the proposed sensor is capable to measure the human skin piloerection objectively and quantitatively, thereby suggesting the quantitative evaluation method of the qualitative human emotional status for cognitive human-machine interfaces applications.

  15. Prevalence of Skin Sensitization to Pollen of Date Palm in Marrakesh, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serhane, Hind; Amro, Lamyae; Sajiai, Hafsa; Alaoui Yazidi, Abdelhaq

    2017-01-01

    Background. Date palm's pollen has been identified as a source of allergy; the rate of sensitization of this pollen is between 6 and 29%. Objective. To determine the prevalence of sensitization to date palm in Marrakesh and to identify the clinical profile. Patients and Methods. This study is based on a questionnaire and the prick test on 7 allergens, in population aged 5 years and above with clinical symptoms suggesting allergic diseases, from November 2012 to February 2013 in Marrakech. Results. We included 468 patients (women: 79.5%). The prick tests were considered interpretable in 467 cases. The prevalence of skin sensitization to pollen of date palm was 6.6%. The 31 cases of sensitization to date palm involved 7 men and 24 women with an average age of 37.5 years. Cutaneous monosensitization to date palm's pollen was observed in 2 cases. Asthma, rhinitis, and conjunctivitis were recorded, respectively, in 48.4%, 93.5%, and 67.7%. Conclusion. Skin sensitization to pollen of date palm does not seem unusual among allergic patients in Marrakech and is comparable to that found in Casablanca (7%), Barcelona (6.6%), and Cartagena (6.1%).

  16. Oily skin: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Thais H; Maibach, Howard I

    2012-01-01

    Oily skin (seborrhea) is a common cosmetic problem that occurs when oversized sebaceous glands produce excessive amounts of sebum giving the appearance of shiny and greasy skin. This paper overviews the main concepts of sebaceous gland anatomy and physiology, including the biosynthesis, storage and release of sebum, as well as its relationship to skin hydration and water barrier function. We also address how skin oiliness may vary according to diet, age, gender, ethnicity and hot humid climates. The deeper understanding of this skin type provides the opportunity to better guide patients regarding skin care and also assist in the development of sebosuppressive agents. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Viral Skin Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdass, Priya; Mullick, Sahil; Farber, Harold F

    2015-12-01

    In the vast world of skin diseases, viral skin disorders account for a significant percentage. Most viral skin diseases present with an exanthem (skin rash) and, oftentimes, an accompanying enanthem (lesions involving the mucosal membrane). In this article, the various viral skin diseases are explored, including viral childhood exanthems (measles, rubella, erythema infectiosum, and roseola), herpes viruses (herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus, viral zoonotic infections [orf, monkeypox, ebola, smallpox]), and several other viral skin diseases, such as human papilloma virus, hand, foot, and mouth disease, molluscum contagiosum, and Gianotti-Crosti syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Investigation of pajama properties on skin under mild cold conditions: the interaction between skin and clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lei; Gohel, Mayur D I; Li, Yi; Chung, Waiyee J

    2011-07-01

    Clothing is considered the second skin of the human body. The aim of this study was to determine clothing-wearer interaction on skin physiology under mild cold conditions. Skin physiological parameters, subjective sensory response, stress level, and physical properties of clothing fabric from two longitude parallel-designed wear trials were studied. The wear trials involved four kinds of pajamas made from cotton or polyester material that had hydrophilic or hydrophobic treatment, conducted for three weeks under mild cold conditions. Statistical tools, factor analysis, hierarchical linear regression, and logistic regression were applied to analyze the strong predictors of skin physiological parameters, stress level, and sensory response. A framework was established to illustrate clothing-wearer interactions with clothing fabric properties, skin physiology, stress level, and sensory response under mild cold conditions. Fabric has various effects on the human body under mild cold conditions. A fabric's properties influence skin physiology, sensation, and psychological response. © 2011 The International Society of Dermatology.

  19. Skin and respiratory disorders following the identification of disaster victims in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huusom, Anja Julie; Agner, Tove; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    The purpose was to assess disorders related to disaster victim identification (DVI) in a group of Danish forensic personnel that had performed disaster victim identification in Thailand after the 2004 tsunami. All individuals from the DVI team were screened using a questionnaire to identify....... Individuals with respiratory disorders were evaluated by a specialists in pulmonary medicine, based on the results of an extended lung function test and a skin prick test. Out of the 165 persons that worked with DVI in Thailand, 152 (92%) answered the questionnaire, and 24 underwent subsequent clinical....... Working in disaster areas may cause or aggravate skin and airway disorders. It is suggested that an assessment of risk is performed before sending personnel abroad to challenging working conditions, and that a health check is carried out upon their return....

  20. Skin Stem Cells in Skin Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollapour Sisakht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Context Preclinical and clinical research has shown that stem cell therapy is a promising therapeutic option for many diseases. This article describes skin stem cells sources and their therapeutic applications. Evidence Acquisition Compared with conventional methods, cell therapy reduces the surgical burden for patients because it is simple and less time-consuming. Skin cell therapy has been developed for variety of diseases. By isolation of the skin stem cell from the niche, in vitro expansion and transplantation of cells offers a surprising healing capacity profile. Results Stem cells located in skin cells have shown interesting properties such as plasticity, transdifferentiation, and specificity. Mesenchymal cells of the dermis, hypodermis, and other sources are currently being investigated to promote regeneration. Conclusions Because skin stem cells are highly accessible from autologous sources and their immunological profile is unique, they are ideal for therapeutic approaches. Optimization of administrative routes requires more investigation own to the lack of a standard protocol.

  1. Characterizing human skin blood flow regulation in response to different local skin temperature perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y; Nieuwenhoff, M D; Huygen, F J P M; van der Helm, F C T; Niehof, S; Schouten, A C

    2017-05-01

    Small nerve fibers regulate local skin blood flow in response to local thermal perturbations. Small nerve fiber function is difficult to assess with classical neurophysiological tests. In this study, a vasomotor response model in combination with a heating protocol was developed to quantitatively characterize the control mechanism of small nerve fibers in regulating skin blood flow in response to local thermal perturbation. The skin of healthy subjects' hand dorsum (n=8) was heated to 42°C with an infrared lamp, and then naturally cooled down. The distance between the lamp and the hand was set to three different levels in order to change the irradiation intensity on the skin and implement three different skin temperature rise rates (0.03°C/s, 0.02°C/s and 0.01°C/s). A laser Doppler imager (LDI) and a thermographic video camera recorded the temporal profile of the skin blood flow and the skin temperature, respectively. The relationship between the skin blood flow and the skin temperature was characterized by a vasomotor response model. The model fitted the skin blood flow response well with a variance accounted for (VAF) between 78% and 99%. The model parameters suggested a similar mechanism for the skin blood flow regulation with the thermal perturbations at 0.03°C/s and 0.02°C/s. But there was an accelerated skin vasoconstriction after a slow heating (0.01°C/s) (p-valueskin vasodilation was also observed in four out of the seven subjects during the slow heating (0.01°C/s). Our method provides a promising way to quantitatively assess the function of small nerve fibers non-invasively and non-contact. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Neuromodulators for Aging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hands Age Spots Aging Skin Birthmarks Burn Scars Cellulite Crow's Feet Droopy Eyelids Excess Fat Excessive Sweating ... Hands Age Spots Aging Skin Birthmarks Burn Scars Cellulite Crow's Feet Droopy Eyelids Excess Fat Excessive Sweating ...

  3. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Store In Memory Melanoma Info Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ... video. UPDATED: November 23, 2016 Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ...

  4. Necrotizing Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Summer Camp Tips for Kids With Asthma, Allergies Antioxidants: The Good Health Helpers As Stroke 'Liquefies' Brain ... Video) Skin Cancer Additional Content Medical News Necrotizing Skin Infections By A. Damian Dhar, MD, JD, Private ...

  5. Basal cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basal cell skin cancer almost never spreads. If it is left untreated, it may spread into surrounding areas and nearby tissues and bone. In these cases, treatment can injure the appearance of the skin.

  6. Skin care and incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Skin care and incontinence URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003976.htm Skin care and incontinence To use ...

  7. Skin lesion of blastomycosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000865.htm Skin lesion of blastomycosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A skin lesion of blastomycosis is a symptom of an infection ...

  8. Skin lesion aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003451.htm Skin lesion aspiration To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Skin lesion aspiration is the withdrawal of fluid from a ...

  9. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Melanoma ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Melanoma ...

  10. High skin temperature and hypohydration impair aerobic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawka, Michael N; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W

    2012-03-01

    This paper reviews the roles of hot skin (>35°C) and body water deficits (>2% body mass; hypohydration) in impairing submaximal aerobic performance. Hot skin is associated with high skin blood flow requirements and hypohydration is associated with reduced cardiac filling, both of which act to reduce aerobic reserve. In euhydrated subjects, hot skin alone (with a modest core temperature elevation) impairs submaximal aerobic performance. Conversely, aerobic performance is sustained with core temperatures >40°C if skin temperatures are cool-warm when euhydrated. No study has demonstrated that high core temperature (∼40°C) alone, without coexisting hot skin, will impair aerobic performance. In hypohydrated subjects, aerobic performance begins to be impaired when skin temperatures exceed 27°C, and even warmer skin exacerbates the aerobic performance impairment (-1.5% for each 1°C skin temperature). We conclude that hot skin (high skin blood flow requirements from narrow skin temperature to core temperature gradients), not high core temperature, is the 'primary' factor impairing aerobic exercise performance when euhydrated and that hypohydration exacerbates this effect.

  11. Psychoneuroimmunology and the Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyman, Juan F

    2016-08-23

    The nervous, immune, endocrine and integumentary systems are closely related and interact in a number of normal and pathological conditions. Nervous system mediators may bring about direct changes to the skin or may induce the release of immunological or hormonal mediators that cause pathological changes to the skin. This article reviews the psychological mechanisms involved in the development of skin diseases.

  12. Microbiome and skin diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeuwen, P.L.; Kleerebezem, M.; Timmerman, H.M.; Schalkwijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review: This article reviews recent findings on the skin microbiome. It provides an update on the current understanding of the role of microbiota in healthy skin and in inflammatory and allergic skin diseases. Recent findings: Advances in computing and high-throughput sequencing

  13. Microbiome and skin diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeuwen, P.L.J.M.; Kleerebezem, M.; Timmerman, H.M.; Schalkwijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews recent findings on the skin microbiome. It provides an update on the current understanding of the role of microbiota in healthy skin and in inflammatory and allergic skin diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in computing and high-throughput sequencing

  14. On skin expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamplona, Djenane C; Velloso, Raquel Q; Radwanski, Henrique N

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses skin expansion without considering cellular growth of the skin. An in vivo analysis was carried out that involved expansion at three different sites on one patient, allowing for the observation of the relaxation process. Those measurements were used to characterize the human skin of the thorax during the surgical process of skin expansion. A comparison between the in vivo results and the numerical finite elements model of the expansion was used to identify the material elastic parameters of the skin of the thorax of that patient. Delfino's constitutive equation was chosen to model the in vivo results. The skin is considered to be an isotropic, homogeneous, hyperelastic, and incompressible membrane. When the skin is extended, such as with expanders, the collagen fibers are also extended and cause stiffening in the skin, which results in increasing resistance to expansion or further stretching. We observed this phenomenon as an increase in the parameters as subsequent expansions continued. The number and shape of the skin expanders used in expansions were also studied, both mathematically and experimentally. The choice of the site where the expansion should be performed is discussed to enlighten problems that can lead to frustrated skin expansions. These results are very encouraging and provide insight into our understanding of the behavior of stretched skin by expansion. To our knowledge, this study has provided results that considerably improve our understanding of the behavior of human skin under expansion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Responsive corneosurfametry following in vivo skin preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhoda, E; Goffin, V; Pierard, G E

    2003-12-01

    Skin is subjected to many environmental threats, some of which altering the structure and function of the stratum corneum. Among them, surfactants are recognized factors that may influence irritant contact dermatitis. The present study was conducted to compare the variations in skin capacitance and corneosurfametry (CSM) reactivity before and after skin exposure to repeated subclinical injuries by 2 hand dishwashing liquids. A forearm immersion test was performed on 30 healthy volunteers. 2 daily soak sessions were performed for 5 days. At inclusion and the day following the last soak session, skin capacitance was measured and cyanoacrylate skin-surface strippings were harvested. The latter specimens were used for the ex vivo microwave CSM. Both types of assessments clearly differentiated the 2 hand dishwashing liquids. The forearm immersion test allowed the discriminant sensitivity of CSM to increase. Intact skin capacitance did not predict CSM data. By contrast, a significant correlation was found between the post-test conductance and the corresponding CSM data. In conclusion, a forearm immersion test under realistic conditions can discriminate the irritation potential between surfactant-based products by measuring skin conductance and performing CSM. In vivo skin preconditioning by surfactants increases CSM sensitivity to the same surfactants.

  16. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  17. Oral nickel exposure may induce Type I hypersensitivity reaction in nickel-sensitized subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyüköztürk, Suna; Gelincik, Aslı; Ünal, Derya; Demirtürk, Mustafa; Çelik, Dolay Damla; Erden, Sacide; Çolakoğlu, Bahattin; Erdem Kuruca, Serap

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about the clinical and immunological changes in the nickel allergic patients with systemic symptoms. We aimed to evaluate T helper cell responses of patients with different clinical presentations due to nickel. Patients having various allergic symptoms and positive patch test results to nickel and 20 controls underwent skin prick tests with nickel. IL-10, IL-4, IL-5 and IFN-gamma were measured in the culture supernatants of PBMC stimulated by nickel during lymphocyte proliferation test (LTT). 69 patients (56 female, mean age: 49.2 ± 13.1), 97% having nickel containing dental devices and 20 controls (8 female, mean age 34.9 ± 12.06) were evaluated. Skin prick tests with nickel were positive in 70% of the patients (pType I hypersensitivity in addition to a Type IV immune reaction in patients with chronic systemic symptoms related to nickel. Nickel containing dental alloys and oral nickel intake seem to trigger systemic symptoms in previously nickel sensitized patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of the single radiosensitivity in patients subjected to medical exposure that show severe skin reactions; Evaluacion de la radiosensibilidad individual en pacientes sometidos a exposiciones medicas que manifiestan reacciones cutaneas severas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M.B. [Laboratorio de Dosimetria Biologica, Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Del Libertador 8250 (C1429BNP), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Portas, M. [Hospital de Quemados del Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Perez, M.R. [Laboratorio de Radiopatologia, Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. e-mail: mdigiorg@cae.arn.gov.ar

    2006-07-01

    The Burnt Hospital of the Buenos Aires City Government (HQGCBA) it is a hospital of reference of the Net of Medical Responses in Radiological Emergencies of the Argentine Republic. In the mark of an agreement among the HQGCBA and the Authority Regulatory Nuclear (ARN), it is in execution a study protocol for the one boarding diagnoses and therapeutic of radioinduced cutaneous leisure. They exist individual variations that can condition the response to the ionizing radiations (IR), so much in accidental exposures as having programmed (radiotherapy, radiology interventionist). In this context, the individual radiosensitivity is evaluated in the patients signed up in this protocol that presented sharp or late cutaneous reactions, with grades of severity 3-4 (approaches EORTC/RTOG). The capacity of repair of the DNA was evaluated in outlying blood lymphocytes irradiated in vitro (2 Gy, gamma of Co-60) by means of the micronucleus techniques and comet essay in alkaline conditions. In this work two cases in those that is applied this study protocol, the therapeutic answer and its correlate with the discoveries of the radiosensitivity tests is presented. Case 1: patient of feminine sex, subjected to external radiotherapy by a breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma; developed sharp cutaneous radiotoxicity grade 3 (confluent humid epithelitis) that motivate the interruption of the treatment. Case 2: patient of masculine sex, subjected to a coronary angioplasty (interventionist radiology); developed late cutaneous radiotoxicity grade 4 (ulceration in dorsal region). Both patients were treated with topical trolamine associated to systemic administration of pentoxiphiline and antioxidants. The therapeutic answer is evaluated by means of clinical pursuit, photographic serial register and complementary exams (thermography and ultrasonography of high frequency). In the case 1 the answer was very favorable, with precocious local improvement and complete remission of symptoms and

  19. Skin lesion removal-aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shave excision - skin aftercare; Excision of skin lesions - benign aftercare; Skin lesion removal - benign aftercare; Cryosurgery - skin aftercare; BCC - removal aftercare; Basal cell cancer - removal aftercare; Actinic keratosis - removal aftercare; Wart - ...

  20. Gram stain of skin lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin lesion gram stain ... skin sore. This procedure is called a skin lesion biopsy . Before the biopsy, your provider will numb ... means bacteria have been found in the skin lesion. Further tests are needed to confirm the results. ...

  1. Screening survey of ocular, nasal, respiratory and skin symptoms in manicurists in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kieć-Świerczyńska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Manicurists are exposed to various chemicals in nail and skin care products and may develop ocular, nasal, respiratory or skin adverse reactions to them. To investigate the occurrence of ocular, nasal, respiratory and skin problems among manicurists and to identify their causal factors, particularly allergic etiology and occupational origin. Material and Methods: Manicurists employed in beauty salons in the central region of Poland were invited to fill in the questionnaire and undergo medical examination, skin prick tests with common aeroallergens, patch tests with European Baseline Series and (MethAcrylates Series-Nails and spirometry. Results: In the questionnaire adverse nasal symptoms were reported by 70%, ocular – by 58%, respiratory – by 42%, hand eczema – by 43% of manicurists. In the medical interview, the frequency of those complaints was lower: nasal ones – 41%, ocular – 24%, cough – 18%, hand skin dryness – 20%, hand eczema – 6%. Cough and hand skin dryness occurred significantly more frequently than in the case of controls. Contact allergy was found for 41% of manicurists and 35% of controls. The prevalence of nickel sensitization was high in both groups (38% and 27%, respectively. Only 3 manicurists reacted to (methacrylates. The frequency of atopic diseases was similar in compared groups. Irritant nasal and respiratory reactions were significantly more prevalent among manicurists (nasal – 18% vs. 2%, p < 0.01; respiratory – 18% vs. 1%, p < 0.001. Work-related nasal irritant reactions were finally diagnosed for 19%, ocular ones – for 13%, respiratory – for 18% and within hand skin – for 23% of manicurists. Conclusions: The frequency of workattributed irritant mucosal and skin symptoms among manicurists is high. Exposure to acrylates is an important source of mucosal irritant reactions while occlusive gloves cause irritation of hand skin. The prevalence of nickel allergy among Polish females is

  2. Skin disease in dermatomyositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaba, Lisa C; Fiorentino, David F

    2012-11-01

    This review will provide the clinician with an update on the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and therapy for skin disease in dermatomyositis. Recent insights into the role for interferon in skin disease as well as the development and validation of quantitative tools to measure skin disease activity allow the possibility that, for the first time, dermatomyositis skin disease can serve as a valid outcome for clinical trials of targeted therapies. Also, the increasing appreciation of the heterogeneity of skin disease in dermatomyositis has already provided evidence that clinical subtypes of disease can provide important prognostic and diagnostic information to the clinician. It is becoming apparent that the skin inflammation alone has implications for systemic and malignancy risk in dermatomyositis patients, and that there may be several pathogenic similarities between muscle and skin inflammation in dermatomyositis. Recent data on therapy for calcinosis cutis highlights that more prospective studies are needed to evaluate how best to manage all manifestations of skin inflammation in dermatomyositis. A more careful description and classification of skin disease in dermatomyositis may allow the clinician to predict more accurately which patients will be at higher risk for cancer, lung disease, or muscle inflammation. In addition, given the similarities in perturbed gene expression between skin and muscle tissue, it is likely that analysis of a more readily evaluable target organ such as skin might shed light on mechanisms of disease propagation throughout the body.

  3. Human age and skin physiology shape diversity and abundance of Archaea on skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Probst, Alexander J; Birarda, Giovanni; Auerbach, Anna; Koskinen, Kaisa; Wolf, Peter; Holman, Hoi-Ying N

    2017-06-22

    The human skin microbiome acts as an important barrier protecting our body from pathogens and other environmental influences. Recent investigations have provided evidence that Archaea are a constant but highly variable component of the human skin microbiome, yet factors that determine their abundance changes are unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the abundance of archaea on human skin is influenced by human age and skin physiology by quantitative PCR of 51 different skin samples taken from human subjects of various age. Our results reveal that archaea are more abundant in human subjects either older than 60 years or younger than 12 years as compared to middle-aged human subjects. These results, together with results obtained from spectroscopy analysis, allowed us gain first insights into a potential link of lower sebum levels and lipid content and thus reduced skin moisture with an increase in archaeal signatures. Amplicon sequencing of selected samples revealed the prevalence of specific eury- and mainly thaumarchaeal taxa, represented by a core archaeome of the human skin.

  4. Sensitive skin: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun C Inamadar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitive skin is less tolerant to frequent and prolonged use of cosmetics and toiletries. It is self-diagnosed and typically unaccompanied by any obvious physical signs of irritation. With the change in lifestyle and also with increased opportunity to use many new brands of cosmetics and toiletries, there has been an increase in females complaining of unique sensation in their facial skin. Sensitive skin presents as smarting, burning, stinging, itching, and/or tight sensation in their facial skin. The condition is found in more than 50% of women and 40% of men, creating a sizable demand for products designed to minimize skin sensitivity. Good numbers of invasive and non-invasive tests are designed to evaluate and predict the sensitive skin. Management includes guidelines for selecting suitable cosmetics and toiletries in sensitive skin individuals.

  5. Sensitive skin: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamadar, Arun C; Palit, Aparna

    2013-01-01

    Sensitive skin is less tolerant to frequent and prolonged use of cosmetics and toiletries. It is self-diagnosed and typically unaccompanied by any obvious physical signs of irritation. With the change in lifestyle and also with increased opportunity to use many new brands of cosmetics and toiletries, there has been an increase in females complaining of unique sensation in their facial skin. Sensitive skin presents as smarting, burning, stinging, itching, and/or tight sensation in their facial skin. The condition is found in more than 50% of women and 40% of men, creating a sizable demand for products designed to minimize skin sensitivity. Good numbers of invasive and non-invasive tests are designed to evaluate and predict the sensitive skin. Management includes guidelines for selecting suitable cosmetics and toiletries in sensitive skin individuals.

  6. Skin absorption through atopic dermatitis skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Overgaard, A-S; Kezic, S; Jakasa, I

    2017-01-01

    Patients with atopic dermatitis have skin barrier impairment in both lesional and non-lesional skin. They are typically exposed to emollients daily and topical anti-inflammatory medicaments intermittently, hereby increasing the risk of developing contact allergy and systemic exposed to chemicals...... ingredients found in these topical preparations. We systematically searched for studies that investigated skin absorption of various penetrants, including medicaments, in atopic dermatitis patients, but also animals with experimentally induced dermatitis. We identified 40 articles, i.e. 11 human studies...... examining model penetrants, 26 human studies examining atopic dermatitis drugs and 3 animal studies. We conclude that atopic dermatitis patients have nearly two-fold increased skin absorption when compared to healthy controls. There is a need for well-designed epidemiological and dermato...

  7. The relationship between skin aging and steady state ultraweak photon emission as an indicator of skin oxidative stress in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabe, Y; Osanai, O; Takema, Y

    2014-08-01

    Ultraweak photon emission (UPE) is one potential method to evaluate the oxidative status of the skin in vivo. However, little is known about how the daily oxidative stress of the skin is related to skin aging-related alterations in vivo. We characterized the steady state UPE and performed a skin survey. We evaluated the skin oxidative status by UPE, skin elasticity, epidermal thickness and skin color on the inner upper arm, the outer forearm, and the buttock of 70 Japanese volunteers. The steady state UPE at the three skin sites increased with age. Correlation analysis revealed that the steady state UPE only from the buttock was related to skin elasticity, which showed age-dependent changes. Moreover, analysis by age group indicated that b* values of the inner upper arm of subjects in their 20s were inversely correlated with UPE as occurred in buttock skin. In contrast, photoaged skin did not show a clear relationship with steady state UPE because the accumulation of sun-exposure might influence the sensitivity to oxidative stress. These results suggest that steady state UPE reflects not only intrinsic skin aging and cutaneous color but also the current oxidative status independent of skin aging. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Airway responses and inflammation in subjects with asthma after four days of repeated high-single-dose allergen challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulze Johannes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both standard and low-dose allergen provocations are an established tool in asthma research to improve our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanism of allergic asthma. However, clinical symptoms are less likely to be induced. Therefore, we designed a protocol for repetitive high-dose bronchial allergen challenges to generate clinical symptoms and airway inflammation. Methods A total of 27 patients aged 18 to 40 years with positive skin-prick tests and mild asthma underwent repetitive high-dose allergen challenges with household dust mites for four consecutive days. Pulmonary function and exhaled NO were measured at every visit. Induced sputum was analysed before and after the allergen challenges for cell counts, ECP, IL-5, INF-γ, IL-8, and the transcription factor Foxp3. Results We found a significant decrease in pulmonary function, an increased use of salbutamol and the development of a late asthmatic response and bronchial hyperresponsiveness, as well as a significant induction of eNO, eosinophils, and Th-2 cytokines. Repeated provocation was feasible in the majority of patients. Two subjects had severe adverse events requiring prednisolone to cope with nocturnal asthma symptoms. Conclusions Repeated high-dose bronchial allergen challenges resulted in severe asthma symptoms and marked Th-2-mediated allergic airway inflammation. The high-dose challenge model is suitable only in an attenuated form in diseased volunteers for proof-of-concept studies and in clinical settings to reduce the risk of severe asthma exacerbations. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.govNCT00677209

  9. Understanding engineered nanomaterial skin interactions and the modulatory effects of ultraviolet radiation skin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatana, Samreen; DeLouise, Lisa A

    2014-01-01

    The study of engineered nanomaterials for the development of technological applications, nanomedicine, and nano-enabled consumer products is an ever-expanding discipline as is the concern over the impact of nanotechnology on human environmental health and safety. In this review, we discuss the current state of understanding of nanomaterial skin interactions with a specific emphasis on the effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) skin exposure. Skin is the largest organ of the body and is typically exposed to UVR on a daily basis. This necessitates the need to understand how UVR skin exposure can influence nanomaterial skin penetration, alter nanomaterial systemic trafficking, toxicity, and skin immune function. We explore the unique dichotomy that UVR has on inducing both deleterious and therapeutic effects in skin. The subject matter covered in this review is broadly informative and will raise awareness of potential increased risks from nanomaterial skin exposure associated with specific occupational and life style choices. The UVR-induced immunosuppressive response in skin raises intriguing questions that motivate future research directions in the nanotoxicology and nanomedicine fields. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. High temperature skin friction measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcheng, Ping; Holmes, Harlan K.; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Skin friction measurement in the NASA Langley hypersonic propulsion facility is described. The sensor configuration utilized an existing balance, modified to provide thermal isolation and an increased standoff distance. For test run times of about 20 sec and ambient-air cooling of the test section and balance, the modified balance performed satisfactorily, even when it was subjected to acoustic and structural vibration. The balance is an inertially balanced closed-loop servo system where the current to a moving-coil motor needed to restore or null the output from the position sensor is a measure of the force or skin friction tending to displace the moving element. The accuracy of the sensor is directly affected by the position sensor in the feedback loop, in this case a linear-variable differential transformer which has proven to be influenced by temperature gradients.

  11. The evaluation of fifteen spineless prickly pear cultivars (Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill. for fresh fruit production in the Pretoria region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Wessels

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen spineless prickly pear cultivars (Opuntia ficus-indica were evaluated for three successive seasons at the University of Pretoria Research Farm. Yields were recorded and external and internal fruit quality factors were identified and considered. Following this investigation, minimum standards were suggested and the cultivars under review were compared. The cultivars Morado, Algerian, Fusicaulis van Heerden, Fresno, Mexican and Nudosa met all or most of the standards set. It is concluded that for fresh fruit production these cultivars are best suited for planting in the Pretoria region and in areas with similar climatic conditions.

  12. The potential utility of iodinated contrast media (ICM) skin testing in patients with ICM hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Young-Hwan; Koh, Young-Il; Kim, Joo-Hee; Ban, Ga-Young; Lee, Yeon-Kyung; Hong, Ga-Na; Jin, U-Ram; Choi, Byung-Joo; Shin, Yoo-Seob; Park, Hae-Sim; Ye, Young-Min

    2015-03-01

    Both immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media (ICM) are relatively common. However, there are few data to determine the clinical utility of immunologic evaluation of ICM. To evaluate the utility of ICM skin testing in patients with ICM hypersensitivity, 23 patients (17 immediate and 6 delayed reactions) were enrolled from 3 university hospitals in Korea. With 6 commonly used ICM including iopromide, iohexol, ioversol, iomeprol, iopamidol and iodixanol, skin prick (SPT), intradermal (IDT) and patch tests were performed. Of 10 patients with anaphylaxis, 3 (30.0%) and 6 (60.0%) were positive respectively on SPTs and IDTs with the culprit ICM. Three of 6 patients with urticaria showed positive IDTs. In total, 11 (64.7%) had positive on either SPT or IDT. Three of 6 patients with delayed rashes had positive response to patch test and/or delayed IDT. Among 5 patients (3 anaphylaxis, 1 urticaria and 1 delayed rash) taken subsequent radiological examinations, 3 patients administered safe alternatives according to the results of skin testing had no adverse reaction. However, anaphylaxis developed in the other 2 patients administered the culprit ICM again. With 64.7% (11/17) and 50% (3/6) of the sensitivities of corresponding allergic skin tests with culprit ICM for immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions, the present study suggests that skin tests is useful for the diagnosis of ICM hypersensitivity and for selecting safe ICM and preventing a recurrence of anaphylaxis caused by the same ICM.

  13. Skin and respiratory disorders following the identification of disaster victims in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huusom, Anja Julie; Agner, Tove; Backer, Vibeke; Ebbehøj, Niels; Jacobsen, Peter

    2012-06-01

    The purpose was to assess disorders related to disaster victim identification (DVI) in a group of Danish forensic personnel that had performed disaster victim identification in Thailand after the 2004 tsunami. All individuals from the DVI team were screened using a questionnaire to identify disorders presenting in relation to DVI work in Thailand. All participants who had a positive screening result were examined clinically by an occupational physician and had a standard lung function test. Individuals with skin disorders were examined by a dermatologist and a skin patch was performed. Individuals with respiratory disorders were evaluated by a specialists in pulmonary medicine, based on the results of an extended lung function test and a skin prick test. Out of the 165 persons that worked with DVI in Thailand, 152 (92%) answered the questionnaire, and 24 underwent subsequent clinical examination. On examination, five persons were found to have skin disorders and four had airway disorders associated with the DVI work in Thailand. The allergy tests gave no support to the conditions being caused by exposure to disinfectants or other specific chemicals in any of the examined individuals. Working in disaster areas may cause or aggravate skin and airway disorders. It is suggested that an assessment of risk is performed before sending personnel abroad to challenging working conditions, and that a health check is carried out upon their return.

  14. Age influences the skin reaction pattern to mechanical stress and its repair level through skin care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouboulis, Christos C; Elewa, Rana; Ottaviani, Monica; Fluhr, Joachim; Picardo, Mauro; Bernois, Armand; Heusèle, Catherine; Camera, Emanuela

    2017-11-21

    Skin aging is associated with alterations of surface texture, sebum composition and immune response. Mechanical stress induces repair mechanisms, which may be dependent on the age and quality of the skin. The response to mechanical stress in young and aged individuals, their subjective opinion and the objective effectiveness of skin care products were evaluated by biophysical skin quality parameters (stratum corneum hydration, transepidermal water loss, skin pH, pigmentation and erythema) at baseline, 1, 6, 24h and 7days at the forearms of 2 groups of healthy volunteers, younger than 35 years (n=11) and older than 60 years (n=13). In addition, casual surface lipid composition was studied under the same conditions at the baseline and day 7 after mechanical stress induction. Evaluations were also performed in stressed skin areas treated daily with skin care products and the subjective opinion of the volunteers was additionally documented. The tested groups exhibited age-associated baseline skin functions as well as casual surface lipid composition and different reaction patterns to mechanical stress. Skin care was more effective in normalizing skin reaction to stress in the young than in the aged group. The subjective volunteer opinion correlated with the objective measurements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A Comparison Between 0,25% Tumeric Extract Cream and Grated Tumeric for Skin Discoloration

    OpenAIRE

    Farida Tabri, Farida Tabri

    2017-01-01

    - Abstract: Turmeric has been found to have some efficacies in repairing the skin texture including its ability to enlighten the color of the skin associated to premature skin aging. This study aims to compare between the 0.25% turmeric extract cream and grated turmeric in skin color change. Samples in this study were collected from women subjects that were selected randomly and consecutively. There were 22 women subjects involved in this study that were assigned into two treatmen...

  16. Whitening effect of alpha-bisabolol in Asian women subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J; Jun, H; Jung, E; Ha, J; Park, D

    2010-08-01

    Although skin pigmentation, which results from the production and distribution of melanin in the epidermis, is the major physiological defence against solar irradiation, hyperpigmentation is a common and distressing problem caused by various inflammatory skin disorders, such as eczema, allergic contact dermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis. We evaluated the effects of a preparation containing alpha-bisabolol on pigmented skin of a group of subjects. The effectiveness of the active compound, alpha-bisabolol, in a base-cream preparation for the treatment of pigmented skin was tested on 28 female subjects as follows: the cream was applied once a day to the back for 8 weeks. These same women also applied a vehicle control cream to the pigmented skin. The results were evaluated by clinical and biophysical test methods. After 8 weeks of treatment of the alpha-bisabolol-containing cream, there was significant lightening effect in the pigmented skin for the majority of the subjects who tested the cream.

  17. Non-lipophilic mycobiota of human skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Talaga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The human skin is inhabited by many species of bacteria and fungi, which are its natural microbiota. Fungi colonizing the skin, including those causing disease, characterized by great variety and variability, can be influenced by various factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the composition of the non-lipid-dependent fungal microbiota of skin, including the presence of species potentially pathogenic for humans. Fifty-six volunteers of both sexes aged 22–78 were subjected to the study. Swabs were taken from the face, chest, back and interdigital spaces of hands. Mycobiota isolated proved to vary both in terms of the location of occurrence and gender of patients. Interdigital spaces of hands, dominated by yeasts, constitute a location on human skin most contaminated with fungi. Molds were more often isolated from the face and chest. The back was the least contaminated location. There was no difference in fungal incidence in relation to sex.

  18. Fillers in the skin of color population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Candrice R; Taylor, Susan C

    2011-05-01

    The skin of color population in the United States is rapidly growing and the cosmetic industry is responding to the demand for skin of color targeted treatments. The aging face in skin of color patients has a unique pattern that can be successfully augmented by dermal fillers. Though many subjects with skin of color were not included in the pre-market dermal filler clinical trials, some post-market studies have examined the safety and risks of adverse events in this population. The safety data from a selection of these studies was examined. Though pigmentary changes occurred, there have been no reports of keloid development. Developing a patient-specific care plan and instituting close follow up is emphasized.

  19. Popsicle-induced anaphylaxis due to carmine dye allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, J L; Chou, A H; Solomon, W R

    1997-11-01

    IgE-mediated hypersensitivity is a suggested mechanism to explain adverse reactions from carmine-containing products. To describe a patient who experienced anaphylaxis after ingestion of a popsicle colored with carmine and to provide additional evidence that the adverse reaction was IgE-mediated. The patient and her husband underwent skin prick tests to the popsicle and carmine. The patient also received skin prick tests and/or open oral challenge to each of the other components of the incriminated food. Topical application of cosmetics with and without carmine to the patient's forearm was also performed. To confirm carmine-specific IgE, a Prausnitz-Kustner (P-K) test was performed using the patient's husband as recipient. Twenty control subjects also were tested to carmine by skin prick test. The patient showed 4+ skin prick test responses to the popsicle and carmine. Skin prick tests and/or open oral challenge to each of the other components of the popsicle were negative. The patient's husband's and 20 control subjects' skin prick tests to carmine were negative as was the patient's husband's skin prick test to the popsicle. Skin prick test reactivity to the popsicle and carmine were successfully transferred to the patient's husband in P-K format. Cosmetics applied to the patient's forearm elicited no immediate response. The positive skin prick tests to the popsicle and carmine and the successful (P-K) transfer of skin prick test reactivity support a carmine-specific, IgE-mediated mechanism in explaining our patient's popsicle-induced anaphylaxis.

  20. Ranitidine-induced anaphylaxis: clinical features, cross-reactivity, and skin testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K H; Pai, J; Song, D-G; Sim, D W; Park, H J; Lee, J-H; Jeong, K Y; Pan, C-H; Shin, I; Park, J-W

    2016-04-01

    Histamine H2 receptor antagonists are commonly prescribed medications and are known to be well tolerated. However, 99 cases of ranitidine-induced anaphylaxis occurred in Korea from 2007 to 2014. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence, clinical features, and diagnostic methods for ranitidine-induced anaphylaxis. Ranitidine-related pharmacovigilance data from 2007 to 2014 were reviewed. Adverse drug reactions with causal relationships were selected, and clinical manifestations, outcomes, and drug-related information were assessed. For further investigation, 8 years of pharmacovigilance data were collected at a single centre. Twenty-three patients participated in in vivo and in vitro studies. Skin tests, oral provocation tests, and laboratory tests were performed, including tests using other kinds of histamine H2 receptor antagonists. Over 7 years, 584 patients suffered adverse reactions to ranitidine. The most common manifestation was cutaneous symptoms. Among them, 99 patients (17.0%) experienced anaphylaxis. In a single-centre study, skin prick tests were positive in 91.7% of ranitidine-induced anaphylaxis patients (11/12); the optimal concentration was 20 mg/mL. Detection of ranitidine-specific immunoglobulin E failed. Cimetidine and proton pump inhibitors showed no cross-reactivity with ranitidine based on the skin prick test, oral provocation test, or clinical determination. Surprisingly, 82.6% of patients reintroduced ranitidine and re-experienced the same adverse reactions because ranitidine was not considered the culprit drug. Although ranitidine is known as a safe drug, it can also cause diverse adverse reactions, including anaphylaxis. This study demonstrates the need to pay attention to adverse reactions to ranitidine and consider ranitidine as a cause of anaphylaxis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Ultrasound skin imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfageme Roldán, F

    2014-12-01

    The interaction of high-frequency ultrasound waves with the skin provides the basis for noninvasive, fast, and accessible diagnostic imaging. This tool is increasingly used in skin cancer and inflammatory conditions as well as in cosmetic dermatology. This article reviews the basic principles of skin ultrasound and its applications in the different areas of dermatology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y AEDV. All rights reserved.

  2. The skin microbiome

    OpenAIRE

    Grice, Elizabeth A.; Segre, Julia A.

    2011-01-01

    The skin is the human body’s largest organ, colonized by a diverse milieu of microorganisms, most of which are harmless or even beneficial to their host. Colonization is driven by the ecology of the skin surface, which is highly variable depending on topographical location, endogenous host factors and exogenous environmental factors. The cutaneous innate and adaptive immune responses can modulate the skin microbiota, but the microbiota also functions in educating the immune system. The develo...

  3. Two novel Fusarium species that cause canker disease of prickly ash (Zanthoxylum bungeanum) in northern China form a novel clade with Fusarium torreyae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xue; O'Donnell, Kerry; Aoki, Takayuki; Smith, Jason A; Kasson, Matthew T; Cao, Zhi-Min

    2016-01-01

    Canker disease of prickly ash (Zanthoxylum bungeanum) has caused a decline in the production of this economically important spice in northern China in the past 25 y. To identify the etiological agent, 38 fungal isolates were recovered from symptomatic tissues from trees in five provinces in China. These isolates were identified by conducting BLASTN queries of NCBI GenBank and phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS rDNA), a portion of the translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF1) gene, and genes encoding RNA polymerase II largest (RPB1) and second largest (RPB2) subunits. Results of these analyses suggested that 30/38 isolates belonged to two novel fusaria most closely related to the Florida torreya (Torreya taxifolia Arn.) pathogen, Fusarium torreyae in Florida and Georgia. These three canker-inducing tree pathogens form a novel clade within Fusarium here designated the F. torreyae species complex (FTOSC). BLASTN queries of GenBank also revealed that 5/38 isolates recovered from cankers represented an undescribed phylogenetic species within the F. solani species complex (FSSC) designated FSSC 6. Stem inoculations of three fusaria on Z. bungeanum resulted in consistent canker symptoms from which these three fusaria were recovered. The two novel fusaria, however, induced significantly larger lesions than FSSC 6. Herein, the two novel prickly ash pathogens are formally described as F. zanthoxyli and F. continuum. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  4. The prick test and specific IgE (RAST and MAST-CLA) compared with the oral challenge test with milk, eggs and nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, A; Pena, M; Botey, J; Eseverri, J L; Marín, A

    1994-01-01

    In spite of the development of numerous in vivo and in vitro diagnostic techniques for food allergy, the oral challenge test (OCT) is still the "gold standard". Consequently, we have compared it with some of the more recent techniques. We studied 36 patients with a medical history compatible with food allergy (to milk, eggs or nuts) and 11 patients without food allergy (6 nonatopic and 5 with acarid allergy). A prick test, specific IgE (RAST and MAST-CLA) and an OCT with the suspected food were performed in all patients. The following parameters were calculated for all patients overall and for each of the three allergic groups separately: sensitivity, specificity and match with the OCT. We also studied the RAST-MAST-CLA correlation and the variability of the MAST-CLA. The prick test was the most sensitive (95%) and the MAST-CLA (13% divergence in two measurements) the most specific (92%). The RAST and the MAST-CLA (68% match) gave similar results, with an acceptable match (75% and 77%, respectively) with the OCT. The medical history could only suggest the diagnosis (39% false-positives). After comparing the results with those in the literature, it is suggested that greater attention should be paid to the limitations of these techniques compared with the OCT.

  5. Effect of Environmental and Behavioral Interventions on Pain Intensity in Preterm Infants for Heel Prick Blood Sampling in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharlooei, Fatemeh; Marofi, Maryam; Abdeyazdan, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Recent researches suggest that preterm infants understand pain and stress. Because of the wide range of effects of pain on infants, the present study was conducted on the effect of environmental and behavioral interventions on pain due to heel-prick blood sampling in preterm infants. A clinical trial was conducted among 32 infants with gestational age of 32-37 weeks in the intervention and control groups. The effects of noise reduction by earplugs, light reduction by blindfolds, reduction of nursing manipulation, and creation of intrauterine position for neonates, 30 minutes before taking blood samples until 30 minutes after it, were measured during the intervention stage. Data were collected using the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS) in 5 stages (before intervention, 2 minutes before sampling, during the sampling, and 5 minutes and 30 minutes after the sampling). The data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired t -test in SPSS software. The paired t -test results showed no significant differences between the control and intervention stages in terms of pain scores at base time ( P = 0.42) and 2 minutes before sampling ( P = 0.12). However, at the sampling time ( P = 0.0), and 5 minutes ( P = 0.001) and 30 minutes after the sampling ( P = 0.001), mean pain score in the intervention stage was significantly less than that in the control stage. Based on the findings, environmental and behavioral interventions reduced pain and facilitated heel-prick blood sampling in preterm infants.

  6. Micromorfologia Foliar de Espécies de Sida spp. (guanxumas Leaf Micromorphology of Sida spp. Species (prickly sida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H.B. Albert

    2002-12-01

    influenced by the morphological and physical-chemical characteristics of the leaf surface on which the herbicide solution is sprayed. The topography of the leaf surface, thickness of the cuticle, and the degree and type of epicuticular wax and the presence and type of trichomes, are characteristics that influence the distribution of the herbicide spray solution on the leaf surface and thus the efficacy of weed control. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to obtain information on the morphological characteristics of three foliar surfaces of prickly sida (Sida rhombifolia, Sida glaziovii and Sida cordifolia. The experiment was conducted at the Electronic Microscopic Center Applied to Agriculture (NAP/MEPA, of Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", Universidade de São Paulo, Piracicaba-SP, Brazil. The experiment using electronic microscopy technique showed that the species S. rhombifolia presented a higher amount of epicuticle-striped wax while the species S. cordifolia presented a flat and smooth cuticle. The species S. glaziovii showed the highest amount of trichomes on the adaxial foliar surface. All the species analyzed had stomata in both surfaces of the leaves, with a predominance of the anomocytic type.

  7. Under Persistent Assault: Understanding the Factors that Deteriorate Human Skin and Clinical Efficacy of Topical Antioxidants in Treating Aging Skin

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia K. Farris; Yevgeniy Krol

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies contend that the skin is subject to far more damage than just ultraviolet (UV) light, with infrared radiation and pollution now clearly demonstrated to degrade cutaneous tissue. While consumers continue to strive for new ways to augment the aesthetic appeal and improve the health of their skin, awareness regarding environmental insults and effective ways to protect the skin remains low. New advances in dermatologic science have exponentially increased the available information ...

  8. Friction, adhesion and durability and influence of humidity on adhesion and surface charging of skin and various skin creams using atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, W; Bhushan, B; Ge, S

    2010-08-01

    Skin cream is commonly used to improve skin health and create a smooth, soft and moist perception by altering the surface roughness, friction, adhesion, elasticity and surface charging of skin surface. In this study, we present the first systematic study on friction, adhesion, durability and influence of humidity on adhesion and surface charging of skin and various skin creams using atomic force microscopy. Skin is subjected to various daily activities with time, and the durability is closely tied to product compositions. Durability of various skin creams was studied by repeated cycling tests. In order to better understand the frictional behaviour, the dynamic viscosities of various skin creams were measured. Skin cream thinly coats the skin surface and can cause drastic changes in the mechanical properties. In addition to mechanical properties, adhesive force is one of the important factors in determining the tactile perception of skin cream and is directly affected by the film thickness. Because the environmental dependence of skin and skin cream is of importance, the influence of humidity on adhesive force, film thickness and Young's modulus mapping were measured using force distance technique. The health and feel of skin are significantly affected by its surface charging, the surface potential of skin and various cream-treated skins was measured using the Kelvin probe method.

  9. Thermistor holder for skin-temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Williams, B. A.

    1974-01-01

    Sensing head of thermistor probe is supported in center area of plastic ring which has tabs so that it can be anchored in place by rubber bands or adhesive tapes. Device attaches probes to human subjects practically, reliably, and without affecting characteristics of skin segment being measured.

  10. Immediate hypersensitivity to iodinated contrast media: diagnostic accuracy of skin tests and intravenous provocation test with low dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesé, L; Gaouar, H; Autegarden, J-E; Alari, A; Amsler, E; Vial-Dupuy, A; Pecquet, C; Francès, C; Soria, A

    2016-03-01

    The diagnosis of HSR to iodinated contrast media (ICM) is challenging based on clinical history and skin tests. This study evaluates the negative predictive value (NPV) of skin tests and intravenous provocation test (IPT) with low-dose ICM in patients with suspected immediate hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) to ICM. Thirty-seven patients with suspected immediate hypersensitivity reaction to ICM were included retrospectively. Skin tests and a single-blind placebo-controlled intravenous provocation test (IPT) with low-dose iodinated contrast media (ICM) were performed. Skin tests with ICM were positive in five cases (one skin prick test and five intradermal test). Thirty-six patients were challenged successfully by IPT, and only one patient had a positive challenge result, with a grade I reaction by the Ring and Messmer classification. Ten of 23 patients followed up by telephone were re-exposed to a negative tested ICM during radiologic examination; two experienced a grade I immediate reaction. For immediate hypersensitivity reaction to ICM, the NPV for skin tests and IPT with low dose was 80% (95% CI 44-97%). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Allergy Skin Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Histamine. In most people, this substance causes a skin response. If you don't react to histamine, your ... days or more to produce results. A positive skin test means that you may be allergic to a particular substance. Bigger wheals usually indicate a greater degree of sensitivity. A ...

  12. Deformable skinning on bones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bent Dalgaard; Petersen, Kim Steen; Jakobsen, Bjarke

    2001-01-01

    Applying skin to a model is a relatively simple task to implement. Nonetheless it seems that no good resource exists that describes both the concepts and math necessary to understand and implement skinning. The intention of this article is an attempt to give a thoroughly description of the theore...

  13. Skin tribology: Science friction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, Emile; Zeng, Xiangqiong; Masen, Marc Arthur

    2013-01-01

    The application of tribological knowledge is not just restricted to optimizing mechanical and chemical engineering problems. In fact, effective solutions to friction and wear related questions can be found in our everyday life. An important part is related to skin tribology, as the human skin is

  14. Dark Skin No Shield from Deadly Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 166194.html Dark Skin No Shield From Deadly Skin Cancer Death rates from melanoma are higher for people ... deadly melanomas, an expert warns. This type of skin cancer can be affected by genetics and is far ...

  15. Skin Diseases: Skin and Sun—Not a good mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Skin Diseases Skin and Sun —Not a good mix Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Good skin care begins with sun safety. Whether it ...

  16. Outdoor sports and skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehrle, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is estimated to be one of the most important risk factors for nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Athletes practicing outdoor sports receive considerable UV doses because of training and competition schedules with high sun exposure, and in alpine sports, by altitude-related increase of UV radiation and reflection from snow- and ice-covered surfaces. Extreme UV exposure in outdoor sports such as skiing, mountaineering, cycling, or triathlon has been documented in a series of dosimetric studies. Sweating because of physical exercise may contribute to UV-related skin damage as it increases the individual photosensitivity of the skin, facilitating the risk of sunburns. Large epidemiological studies showed that recreational activities such as sun exposure on the beach or during water sports were associated with an increased risk of basal cell carcinoma, whereas skiing has been shown to be at increased risk for squamous cell carcinoma. Risk factors of cutaneous melanoma such as the number of melanocytic nevi and solar lentigines have been found to be more frequent in subjects practicing endurance outdoor sports. An increased risk for cutaneous melanoma may be assumed for these athletes. In addition to the important sun exposure, exercise-induced immunosuppression may increase the risk for nonmelanoma skin cancer and cutaneous melanoma in athletes. Frequently, athletes seem to know little about the risk of sun exposure. Protective means such as avoiding training and competition with considerable sun exposure, choosing adequate clothing, and applying water-resistant sunscreen still need to be propagated in the community of outdoor sportsmen.

  17. Bionanomaterials for skin regeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Leonida, Mihaela D

    2016-01-01

    This book gives a concise overview of bionanomaterials with applications for skin regeneration. The advantages and challenges of nanoscale materials are covered in detail, giving a basic view of the skin structure and conditions that require transdermal or topical applications. Medical applications, such as wound healing, care for burns, skin disease, and cosmetic care, such as aging of the skin and photodamage, and how they benefit from bionanomaterials, are described in detail. A final chapter is devoted to the ethical and social issues related to the use of bionanomaterials for skin regeneration. This is an ideal book for researchers in materials science, medical scientists specialized in dermatology, and cosmetic chemists working in formulations. It can also serve as a reference for nanotechnologists, dermatologists, microbiologists, engineers, and polymer chemists, as well as students studying in these fields.

  18. Comparative study in Japan and China concerning aspiration of Asian women towards quality of skin fairness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Miho; Matsumoto, Junko; Date, Akira; Li, Junfang

    2002-06-01

    Beauty is a world common aspiration, but perceptions of what make a woman beautiful vary across culture and countries. A series of Saito's studies indicated that unlike much of the Western world, in Asia, one common desire is fairer skin tone that epitomizes feminine beauty. Using 105 Japanese women and 105 Chinese women as subjects, a comparative study concerning aspiration of Asian Women toward skin fairness was conducted. In this study, four real skin photo images that have skin tone variations (fair/dark) and skin texture variations (rough/smooth) were used. The fifty-two words describe personality were shown to the subject. The subjects were required to match a suitable skin photo image to the descriptive words. The overall result between China and Japan were very consistent. Both in China and Japan, fairer skin tone with smoother skin texture was accepted very positively. Fairer skin tone with rougher texture tends to provide passive and conservative impression while smoother skin texture with darker skin tone tends to provide friendly and delight impression. The results suggested that in addition to skin tone, the skin texture plays an important role for the personal impressions and it works as a trigger to enhance 'ideal skin fairness' for Asian women.

  19. Identification and partial sequencing of a crocodile poxvirus associated with deeply penetrating skin lesions in farmed Nile crocodiles, Crocodylus niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchzermeyer, F W; Wallace, D B; Putterill, J F; Gerdes, G H

    2009-09-01

    When large numbers of crocodile skins were downgraded because of the presence of small pin prick-like holes, collapsed epidermal cysts were found deep in the dermis of juvenile crocodiles while forming cysts were observed in hatchlings. Histopathology of these forming cysts showed the presence of intracytoplasmic inclusions in proliferating and ballooning epidermal cells. Pox virions were seen in electron microscope preparations made from the scabs of such early lesions. The partial sequencing of virus material from scrapings of these lesions and comparison of it with the published sequence of crocodile poxvirus showed the virus associated with the deep lesions to be closely related, but different. To differentiate between the two forms of crocodile pox infection it is suggested that the previously known form should be called "classical crocodile pox" and the newly discovered form "atypical crocodile pox". The application of strict hygiene measures brought about a decline in the percentage of downgraded skins.

  20. Comparison of neonatal skin sensor temperatures with axillary temperature: does skin sensor placement really matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Dorothea; Boogaart, Sheri; Johnson, Lynette; Keezel, Catherine; Ruperts, Liga; Vander Laan, Karen J

    2014-02-01

    Appropriate thermoregulation affects both morbidity and mortality in the neonatal setting. Nurses rely on information from temperature sensors and radiant warmers or incubators to appropriately maintain a neonate's body temperature. Skin temperature sensors must be repositioned to prevent skin irritation and breakdown. This study addresses whether there is a significant difference between skin sensor temperature readings from 3 locations on the neonate and whether there is a significant difference between skin sensor temperatures compared with digital axillary temperatures. The study participants included 36 hemodynamically stable neonates, with birth weight of 750 g or more and postnatal age of 15 days or more, in a neonatal intensive care unit. Gestational age ranged from 29.6 to 36.1 weeks at the time of data collection. A method-comparison design was used to evaluate the level of agreement between skin sensor temperatures and digital axillary thermometer measurements. When the neonate's skin sensor was scheduled for routine site change, 3 new skin sensors were placed-1 each on the right upper abdomen, left flank, and right axilla. The neonate was placed in a supine position and redressed or rewrapped if previously dressed or wrapped. Subjects served as their own controls, with temperatures measured at all 3 skin sensor sites and followed by a digital thermometer measurement in the left axilla. The order of skin sensor temperature measurements was randomly assigned by a computer-generated number sequence. An analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to test for statistical differences between the skin sensor temperatures. The difference in axillary and skin sensor temperatures was calculated by subtracting the reference standard temperature (digital axillary) from the test temperatures (skin temperatures at 3 different locations), using the Bland-Altman method. The level of significance was set at P temperature readings obtained from the 3 sites (F2

  1. How stress and anxiety can alter immediate and late phase skin test responses in allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K; Heffner, Kathi L; Glaser, Ronald; Malarkey, William B; Porter, Kyle; Atkinson, Cathie; Laskowski, Bryon; Lemeshow, Stanley; Marshall, Gailen D

    2009-06-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the fifth most common chronic disease, and the association between allergic disorders and anxiety is well-documented. To investigate how anxiety and stressors modulate skin prick test (SPT) responses and associated inflammatory responses, 28 men and women with AR were selected by clinical history and skin test responses. The participants were admitted twice to a hospital research unit for 4h in a crossover trial. Changes in SPT wheals were assessed before and after a standardized laboratory speech stressor, as well as again the following morning; skin responses assessed twice during a lab session without a stressor and again the following morning served as the contrast condition. Anxiety heightened the magnitude of allergen-induced wheals following the stressor. As anxiety increased, SPT wheal diameters increased after the stressor, compared to a slight decrease following the control task. Anxiety also substantially enhanced the effects of stress on late phase responses: even skin tests performed the day after the stressor reflected the continuing impact of the speech stressor among the more anxious participants. Greater anxiety was associated with more IL-6 production by Con A-stimulated leukocytes following the stressor compared to the control visit. The data suggest that stress and anxiety can enhance and prolong AR symptoms.

  2. 569 Prevalence of Skin Reactivity to Antigen Mus Musculus in Patients with Respiratory Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Chrystopherson

    2012-01-01

    Background It has been reported worldwide high prevalence of sensitization to antigen Mus musculus (mouse) in patients with allergic respiratory diseases.1,2 Methods We performed a cross-sectional, observational, prospective and descriptive study in patients of both genders, from 2 to 58 years old, attending for the first time to the service of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in the University Hospital of Puebla, with clinical symptoms suggestive of asthma, allergic rhinitis, or both, for a period of 6 months. Each patient underwent clinical history and prick skin test with epithelial antigen Mus musculus. Data were analyzed with the program SPSS-Statistics 18. Results We included 110 patients, 50% were women, mean age was 24.1 years (SD 16.2) 92.7% were from urban areas and 7.3% rural. The overall prevalence of skin reactivity to antigen epithelial Mus musculus was 1.8%, the corresponding to patients with allergic rhinitis were 2.4% and the remaining subgroups were nonreactive. One of these patients worked with laboratory animals including Mus musculus, which represented 33% of patients with positive skin reactivity. Conclusions The results presented here support the relevance of implementing skin testing with antigen Mus musculus only in those patients who suffer from respiratory allergy and who have a history of recurrent exposure to it.

  3. Skin and respiratory disorders following the identification of disaster victims in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huusom, Anja Julie; Agner, Tove; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    The purpose was to assess disorders related to disaster victim identification (DVI) in a group of Danish forensic personnel that had performed disaster victim identification in Thailand after the 2004 tsunami. All individuals from the DVI team were screened using a questionnaire to identify disor....... Working in disaster areas may cause or aggravate skin and airway disorders. It is suggested that an assessment of risk is performed before sending personnel abroad to challenging working conditions, and that a health check is carried out upon their return....... disorders presenting in relation to DVI work in Thailand. All participants who had a positive screening result were examined clinically by an occupational physician and had a standard lung function test. Individuals with skin disorders were examined by a dermatologist and a skin patch was performed....... Individuals with respiratory disorders were evaluated by a specialists in pulmonary medicine, based on the results of an extended lung function test and a skin prick test. Out of the 165 persons that worked with DVI in Thailand, 152 (92%) answered the questionnaire, and 24 underwent subsequent clinical...

  4. The interrealtionship between locally applied heat, ageing and skin blood flow on heat transfer into and from the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrofsky, Jerrold; Alshahmmari, Faris; Yim, Jong Eun; Hamdan, Adel; Lee, Haneul; Neupane, Sushma; Shetye, Gauri; Moniz, Harold; Chen, Wei-Ti; Cho, Sungkwan; Pathak, Kunal; Malthane, Swapnil; Shenoy, Samruddha; Somanaboina, Karunakar; Alshaharani, Mastour; Nevgi, Bhakti; Dave, Bhargav; Desai, Rajavi

    2011-07-01

    In response to a thermal stress, skin blood flow (BF) increases to protect the skin from damage. When a very warm, noxious, heat source (44 °C) is applied to the skin, the BF increases disproportionately faster than the heat stress that was applied, creating a safety mechanism for protecting the skin. In the present investigation, the rate of rise of BF in response to applied heat at temperatures between 32 °C and 40 °C was examined as well as the thermal transfer to and from the skin with and without BF in younger and older subjects to see how the skin responds to a non-noxious heat source. Twenty male and female subjects (10 - 20-35 years, 10 - 40-70 years) were examined. The arms of the subjects were passively heated for 6 min with and without vascular occlusion by a thermode at temperatures of 32, 36, 38 or 40 °C. When occlusion was not used during the 6 min exposure to heat, there was an exponential rise in skin temperature and BF in both groups of subjects over the 6-min period. However, the older subjects achieved similar skin temperatures but with the expenditure of fewer calories from the thermode than was seen for the younger subjects (p<0.05). BF was significantly less in the older group than the younger group at rest and after exposure to each of the three warmest thermode temperatures (p<0.05). As was seen for noxious temperatures, after a delay, the rate of rise of BF at the three warmest thermode temperatures was faster than the rise in skin temperature in the younger group but less in the older group of subjects. Thus, a consequence of ageing is reduced excess BF in response to thermal stress increasing susceptibility to thermal damage. This must be considered in modelling of BF. Copyright © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.

  5. Influence of age and sun exposure on the biophysical properties of the human skin: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhoute, H; de Rigal, J; Marchand, J P; Privat, Y; Leveque, J L

    1992-06-01

    The physical properties of the skin were measured by using noninvasive methods on 72 people displaying various levels of solar elastosis on the neck. The physical parameters measured were the skin extensibility, the elastic recovery, the skin colour, the skin thickness and the electrical conductance. The correlation between the above parameters, the clinical grades of elastosis and the chronological age of each subject were studied using two different statistical approaches. They both showed that elastotic skin is less elastic, dryer, darker, more erythematous and less yellowish than the nonexposed skin. The similarities and differences between the properties of elastotic skin and purely chronologically aged skin are discussed.

  6. The Skin Microbiome in Atopic Dermatitis and Its Relationship to Emollients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynde, Charles W; Andriessen, Anneke; Bertucci, Vince; McCuaig, Catherine; Skotnicki, Sandy; Weinstein, Miriam; Wiseman, Marni; Zip, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Human-associated bacterial communities on the skin, skin microbiome, likely play a central role in development of immunity and protection from pathogens. In atopic patients, the skin bacterial diversity is smaller than in healthy subjects. To review treatment strategies for atopic dermatitis in Canada, taking the skin microbiome concept into account. An expert panel of 8 Canadian dermatologists explored the role of skin microbiome in clinical dermatology, specifically looking at atopic dermatitis. The panel reached consensus on the following: (1) In atopic patients, the skin microbiome of lesional atopic skin is different from nonlesional skin in adjacent areas. (2) Worsening atopic dermatitis and smaller bacterial diversity are strongly associated. (3) Application of emollients containing antioxidant and antibacterial components may increase microbiome diversity in atopic skin. The skin microbiome may be the next frontier in preventive health and may impact the approach to atopic dermatitis treatment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Phenol esterase activity of porcine skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laszlo, Joseph A; Smith, Leslie J; Evans, Kervin O; Compton, David L

    2015-01-01

    The alkyl esters of plant-derived phenols may serve as slow-release sources for cutaneous delivery of antioxidants. The ability of skin esterases to hydrolyze phenolic esters was examined. Esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol were prepared from decanoic and lipoic acids. Ferulic acid was esterified with octadecanol, glycerol, and dioleoylglycerol. These phenolic derivatives were treated in taurodeoxycholate microemulsion and unilamellar liposomes with ex vivo porcine skin and an aqueous extract of the skin. Extracted esterases hydrolyzed the microemulsions at rates in the order: tyrosyl lipoate > tyrosyl decanoate > hydroxytyrosyl lipoate > hydroxytyrosyl decanoate. The tyrosyl decanoate was subject to comparatively little hydrolysis (10-30% after 24h) when incorporated into liposomes, while hydroxytyrosyl decanoate in liposomes was not hydrolyzed at all by the skin extract. Ferulate esters were not hydrolyzed by the extract in aqueous buffer, microemulsion, nor liposomes. Tyrosyl decanoate applied topically to skin explants in microemulsion were readily hydrolyzed within 4h, while hydrolysis was minimal when applied in liposomes. These findings indicate that porcine skin displays a general esterase activity toward medium-chain esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol, which can be moderated by the physiochemical properties of the lipid vehicle, but no feruloyl esterase activity. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Skin Picking Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Cetinay Aydin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Skin picking disorder is not a dermatological disorder and it is a table characterized with picking skin excessively and repetitively, leading to damage in skin tissue. Unlike normal picking behaviour, psychogenic skin picking is repetitive and it can lead to severe damage in the skin and even complications which constitute vital danger. While some patients define frequent but short lasting picking attacks, others define rarer attacks which last a few hours. Skin picking disorder, which is not included in the classification systems up to DSM-5 as a separate diagnosis category, is included as an independent diagnosis in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Associated Disorders category in DSM-5. In case reports, open label studies and double blind studies selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are shown to be effective in the treatment of skin picking disorder. Mostly, cognitive-behaviourial techniques are used and have been proven to be useful in psychotherapy. Habit reversal is one of the behaviourial techniques which are frequently applied, give positive results in which well-being state can be maintained. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 401-428

  9. Skin and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljsak, Borut; Dahmane, Raja; Godic, Aleksandar

    2013-04-01

    It is estimated that total sun exposure occurs non-intentionally in three quarters of our lifetimes. Our skin is exposed to majority of UV radiation during outdoor activities, e.g. walking, practicing sports, running, hiking, etc. and not when we are intentionally exposed to the sun on the beach. We rarely use sunscreens during those activities, or at least not as much and as regular as we should and are commonly prone to acute and chronic sun damage of the skin. The only protection of our skin is endogenous (synthesis of melanin and enzymatic antioxidants) and exogenous (antioxidants, which we consume from the food, like vitamins A, C, E, etc.). UV-induced photoaging of the skin becomes clinically evident with age, when endogenous antioxidative mechanisms and repair processes are not effective any more and actinic damage to the skin prevails. At this point it would be reasonable to ingest additional antioxidants and/or to apply them on the skin in topical preparations. We review endogenous and exogenous skin protection with antioxidants.

  10. Danish translation and validation of the International Skin Tear Advisory Panel Skin Tear Classification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiveren, J; Bermark, S; LeBlanc, K; Baranoski, S

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to translate, validate and establish reliability of the International Skin Tear Classification System in Danish. Phase 1 of the project involved the translation of the International Skin Tear Advisory Panel (ISTAP) Skin Tear Classification System into Danish, using the forward-back translation method described by the principles of good practice for the translation process for patient-reported outcomes. In Phase 2, the Danish group sought to replicate the ISTAP validation study and validate the classification system with registered nurses (RN) and social and health-care assistants (non-RN) from both primary health care and a Danish university hospital in Copenhagen. Thirty photographs, with equal representation of the three types of skin tears, were selected to test validity. The photographs chosen were those originally used for internal and external validation by the ISTAP group. The subjects were approached in their place of work and invited to participate in the study and to attend an educational session related to skin tears. The Danish translation of the ISTAP classification system was tested on 270 non-wound specialists. The ISTAP classification system was validated by 241 RNs, and 29 non-RN. The results indicated a moderate level of agreement on classification of skin tears by type (Fleiss' Kappa=0.460). A moderate level of agreement was demonstrated for both the RN group and the non-RN group (Fleiss' Kappa=0.464 and 0.443, respectively). The ISTAP Skin Tear Classification System was developed with the goal of establishing a global language for describing and documenting skin tears and to raise the health-care community's awareness of skin tears. The Danish translation of the ISTAP classification system supports the earlier ISTAP study and further validates the classification system. The Danish translation of the classification system is vital to the promotion of skin tears in both research and the clinical settings in Denmark.

  11. Facial skin pores: a multiethnic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flament F

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Frederic Flament,1 Ghislain Francois,1 Huixia Qiu,2 Chengda Ye,2 Tomoo Hanaya,3 Dominique Batisse,3 Suzy Cointereau-Chardon,1 Mirela Donato Gianeti Seixas,4 Susi Elaine Dal Belo,4 Roland Bazin5 1Department of Applied Research and Development, L’Oreal Research and Innovation, Paris, France; 2Department of Applied Research and Development, L’Oreal Research and Innovation, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Applied Research and Development, L’Oreal Research and Innovation, Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Applied Research and Development, L’Oreal Research and Innovation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 5RB Consult, Bievres, France Abstract: Skin pores (SP, as they are called by laymen, are common and benign features mostly located on the face (nose, cheeks, etc that generate many aesthetic concerns or complaints. Despite the prevalence of skin pores, related literature is scarce. With the aim of describing the prevalence of skin pores and anatomic features among ethnic groups, a dermatoscopic instrument, using polarized lighting, coupled to a digital camera recorded the major features of skin pores (size, density, coverage on the cheeks of 2,585 women in different countries and continents. A detection threshold of 250 µm, correlated to clinical scorings by experts, was input into a specific software to further allow for automatic counting of the SP density (N/cm2 and determination of their respective sizes in mm2. Integrating both criteria also led to establishing the relative part of the skin surface (as a percentage that is actually covered by SP on cheeks. The results showed that the values of respective sizes, densities, and skin coverage: 1 were recorded in all studied subjects; 2 varied greatly with ethnicity; 3 plateaued with age in most cases; and 4 globally reflected self-assessment by subjects, in particular those who self-declare having “enlarged pores” like Brazilian women. Inversely, Chinese women were clearly

  12. Efficacy of a novel food supplement in the relief of the signs and symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis and in the reduction of the consumption of anti-allergic drugs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ariano, Renato

    2015-01-01

    ... rhinitis and in the reduction of consumption of anti-allergic drugs. 23 subjects enrolled in the open clinical study had at least one year history of allergic rhinitis and positive skin prick test or RAST to Parietaria officinalis pollen...

  13. Study of mast cell count in skin tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher Hesham

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin tags or acrochordons are common tumors of middle-aged and elderly subjects. They consist of loose fibrous tissue and occur mainly on the neck and major flexures as small, soft, pedunculated protrusions. Objectives: The aim was to compare the mast cells count in skin tags to adjacent normal skin in diabetic and nondiabetic participants in an attempt to elucidate the possible role of mast cells in the pathogenesis of skin tags. Participants and Methods: Thirty participants with skin tags were divided into group I (15 nondiabetic participants and group II (15 diabetic participants. Three biopsies were obtained from each participant: a large skin tag, a small skin tag and adjacent normal skin. Mast cell count from all the obtained sections was carried out, and the mast cell density was expressed as the average mast cell count/high power field (HPF. Results: A statistically significant increase in mast cells count in skin tags in comparison to normal skin was detected in group I and group II. There was no statistically significant difference between mast cell counts in skin tags of both the groups. Conclusion: Both the mast cell mediators and hyperinsulinemia are capable of inducing fibroblast proliferation and epidermal hyperplasia that are the main pathologic abnormalities seen in all types of skin tags. However, the presence of mast cells in all examined skin tags regardless of diabetes and obesity may point to the possible crucial role of mast cells in the etiogenesis of skin tags through its interaction with fibroblasts and keratinocytes.

  14. Nanoscale alterations of corneocytes indicate skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franz, J; Beutel, M; Gevers, K

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The skin barrier protects the organism against exogenous stressors and simultaneously prevents excessive water loss. While the delicate regulation of skin barrier is not completely understood, morphological and histological evaluation remain key features of clinical investigations. Here......-objects were identified and these were quantitated through computer vision. RESULTS: Typical dimensions of 273 nm height and 305 nm width. We showed that their density does not correlate to age or pigmentation in healthy subjects, but that they were clearly elevated in corneocytes from patients with atopic...

  15. Essential oils composition of two Sicilian cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) fruits (prickly pear).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Pietro; Sajeva, Maurizio; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Maggio, Antonella; Senatore, Felice

    2013-01-01

    The essential oils composition of the skin, pulp and seeds from fruits of two Sicilian cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica (cv. Sanguigna and cv. Surfarina) has been obtained by hydrodistillation and the possible antioxidant, antimicrobial and semiochemical roles have been investigated comparing the data with those reported in the literature. The presence of antioxidants and antimicrobials found in this study increases the spectrum of compounds that have beneficial properties in O. ficus-indica. In addition, several compounds identified in this study have been reported to influence the behaviour of Ceratitis capitata, a phytophagous pest which causes severe damages to several crops including O. ficus-indica and the kairomonal activity of the odour of the fruits seems provided by a blend of compounds found in the various matrices analysed.

  16. Anti-diabetic effects of aqueous prickly lettuce (Lactuca scariola Linn.) leaves extract in alloxan-induced male diabetic rats treated with nickel (II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadchan, Kailash S; Jargar, Jameel G; Das, Swastika N

    2016-01-01

    Hattaraki pallye or prickly lettuce (Lactuca scariola Linn.) is one among several green leafy plants that grow in north Karnataka; it is usually consumed by the people of this region and is found to be antidiabetic in nature. The objective of this study is to evaluate hypoglycemic activities of supplementation with aqueous extract of prickly lettuce (L. scariola) leaves in vivo in acute and subchronic exposure with or without nickel (II) along with its glucose reduction capabilities with or without nickel (II) at pH 7.0 and 9.0 in vitro. Percentage glucose reduction (in vitro) was determined by glucose oxidase-peroxidase enzymatic method at pH 7.0 and pH 9.0 using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Hypoglycemic activities of L. scariola were carried out in alloxan-induced male diabetic rats at both acute and subchronic exposure. The results showed a significant alteration in the λmax value of Ni (II) in combination with L. scariola leaves extracts at both pH 7.0 and 9.0. The aqueous extract also produced a significant reduction in the glucose concentration at pH 7.0 and pH 9.0 even in presence of Ni (II) in vitro. Lactuca scariola leaves in either acute or subchronic supplementation showed a greater glucose tolerance and hypoglycemic regulation of blood sugar in diabetic rats with or without nickel (II) treatments. Lactuca scariola leaves can be a substitute for synthetic drugs to treat diabetic patients.

  17. [Influence of needle-pricking bleeding combined with pulling-rotating manipulation on blood rheology in patients with vertebral artery type cervical spondylosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Zhong, Jian; Hong, Yan-Bo; Chen, Da-Dian; Deng, Lie-Hua; Cai, Ming-Xue; Zhang, Yue-Juan; Lin, Xiu-Hua; Zheng, Fu-Shi

    2009-10-01

    To observe the effect of needle-pricking bleeding combined with pulling-rotating manipulation and simple manipulation on blood rheology in vertebral artery type cervical spondylosis (VATCS) patients, so as to analyze their mechanisms in relieving VATCS. A total of 198 VATCS patients were randomly divided into treatment group (n=101) which was treated with needle-pricking plus pulling-rotating manipulation, and control group (n=97) which was treated with simple pulling-rotating manipulation, according to the random number table. The treatment was given once every 7 days, 9 times altogether. The peak systolic blood flow velocity (Vpeak), end-diastolic blood velocity (Vmin), pulsatility index (PI) and resistent index (RI) of bilateral vertebral arteries (VA) and basilar artery (BA) were detected by transcranial doppler sonography (TCD). Whole blood apparent viscosity and the plasma viscosity in the treatment group were determined by using a blood viscosimeter. Of the 101 and 97 VATCS cases in the treatment and control groups, 62 (61.38%) and 12 (12.37%) were cured basically, 23 (22.77%) and 26 (26.80%) experienced marked improvement, 14 (13.86%) and 41 (42.27%) were improved. 2 (1.98%) and 18 (18.55%) failed in the treatment, with the total effective rates being 98.01% and 81.44% separately. The effective rate of the treatment group was significantly higher than that of control group (Pmanipulation can significantly improve VATCS patients' clinical symptoms, which may be closely related to its effects in lowering vascular blood resistance and blood viscosity and increasing cerebral blood supply.

  18. Introducing the SKIN score: a validated scoring system to assess severity of mastectomy skin flap necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaine, Valerie; Hoskin, Tanya L; Farley, David R; Grant, Clive S; Boughey, Judy C; Torstenson, Tiffany A; Jacobson, Steven R; Jakub, James W; Degnim, Amy C

    2015-09-01

    With increasing use of immediate breast reconstruction (IBR), mastectomy skin flap necrosis (MSFN) is a clinical problem that deserves further study. We propose a validated scoring system to discriminate MSFN severity and standardize its assessment. Women who underwent skin-sparing (SSM) or nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) and IBR from November 2009 to October 2010 were studied retrospectively. A workgroup of breast and plastic surgeons scored postoperative photographs using the skin ischemia necrosis (SKIN) score to assess depth and surface area of MSFN. We evaluated correlation of the SKIN score with reoperation for MSFN and its reproducibility in an external sample of surgeons. We identified 106 subjects (175 operated breasts: 103 SSM, 72 NSM) who had ≥1 postoperative photograph within 60 days. SKIN scores correlated strongly with need for reoperation for MSFN, with an AUC of 0.96 for SSM and 0.89 for NSM. External scores agreed well with the gold standard scores for the breast mound photographs with weighted kappa values of 0.82 (depth), 0.56 (surface area), and 0.79 (composite score). The agreement was similar for the nipple-areolar complex photographs: 0.75 (depth), 0.63 (surface area), and 0.79 (composite score). A simple scoring system to assess the severity of MSFN is proposed, incorporating both depth and surface area of MSFN. The SKIN score correlates strongly with the need for reoperation to manage MSFN and is reproducible among breast and plastic surgeons.

  19. Item reduction and psychometric validation of the Oily Skin Self Assessment Scale (OSSAS) and the Oily Skin Impact Scale (OSIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuckle, Robert; Clark, Marci; Harness, Jane; Bonner, Nicola; Scott, Jane; Draelos, Zoe; Rizer, Ronald; Yeh, Yating; Copley-Merriman, Kati

    2009-01-01

    Developed using focus groups, the Oily Skin Self Assessment Scale (OSSAS) and Oily Skin Impact Scale (OSIS) are patient-reported outcome measures of oily facial skin. The aim of this study was to finalize the item-scale structure of the instruments and perform psychometric validation in adults with self-reported oily facial skin. The OSSAS and OSIS were administered to 202 adult subjects with oily facial skin in the United States. A subgroup of 152 subjects returned, 4 to 10 days later, for test–retest reliability evaluation. Of the 202 participants, 72.8% were female; 64.4% had self-reported nonsevere acne. Item reduction resulted in a 14-item OSSAS with Sensation (five items), Tactile (four items) and Visual (four items) domains, a single blotting item, and an overall oiliness item. The OSIS was reduced to two three-item domains assessing Annoyance and Self-Image. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the construct validity of the final item-scale structures. The OSSAS and OSIS scales had acceptable item convergent validity (item-scale correlations >0.40) and floor and ceiling effects (oily skin severity (P oily skin (P oily facial skin), as assessments of self-reported oily facial skin severity and its emotional impact, respectively.

  20. Danish translation and validation of the International Skin Tear Advisory Panel Skin Tear Classification System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiveren, J; Bermark, S; LeBlanc, K

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to translate, validate and establish reliability of the International Skin Tear Classification System in Danish. METHOD: Phase 1 of the project involved the translation of the International Skin Tear Advisory Panel (ISTAP) Skin Tear Classification System...... and external validation by the ISTAP group. The subjects were approached in their place of work and invited to participate in the study and to attend an educational session related to skin tears. RESULTS: The Danish translation of the ISTAP classification system was tested on 270 non-wound specialists...... into Danish, using the forward-back translation method described by the principles of good practice for the translation process for patient-reported outcomes. In Phase 2, the Danish group sought to replicate the ISTAP validation study and validate the classification system with registered nurses (RN...

  1. Aging changes in skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is more noticeable in sun-exposed areas (solar elastosis). Elastosis produces the leathery, weather-beaten appearance ... Good nutrition and adequate fluids are also helpful. Dehydration increases the risk of skin injury. Sometimes minor ...

  2. Designing pliable structural Skins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Peters, Brady; Nielsen, Stig Anton

    2013-01-01

    Structural stability can be formed through structured or seemingly unstructured approaches to fold, plead or crumble paper. This paper reports on two projects that showcase how computational design approaches can help to widen the understanding and use of structural skins....

  3. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Doctor Glossary of Terms Resources Resources Global Resources Cancer Centers Online Resources The Melanoma Book Clinical Trials Download a Skin Self-Exam Card Download a Patient Navigation Card Events, Webinars & Videos Events, Webinars & Videos ...

  4. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Doctor Glossary of Terms Resources Resources Global Resources Cancer Centers Online Resources The Melanoma Book Clinical Trials Download a Skin Self-Exam Card Download a Patient Navigation Card ...

  5. Allergy Skin Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medications: Know your options Allergy skin tests About Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  6. Bacterial Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Summer Camp Tips for Kids With Asthma, Allergies Antioxidants: The Good Health Helpers As Stroke 'Liquefies' Brain ... Cancer Additional Content Medical News Overview of Bacterial Skin Infections By A. Damian Dhar, MD, JD, Private ...

  7. Fungal Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Summer Camp Tips for Kids With Asthma, Allergies Antioxidants: The Good Health Helpers As Stroke 'Liquefies' Brain ... and itching. Some Antifungal Drugs Applied to the Skin (Topical Drugs) Amorolfine Butoconazole Butenafine Ciclopirox Clotrimazole Econazole ...

  8. Smoking and skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T

    2010-01-01

    suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably...

  9. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... us for One-on-One Support Donate Share Facebook Twitter Newsletter Examine Your Skin Watch the video ... develop personalized strategies with patients so they may live longer, better lives. Our Vision: A future where ...

  10. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Download a Skin Self-Exam Card Download a Patient Navigation Card Events, Webinars & Videos Events, Webinars & Videos Melanoma Patient Video Events Host an Event Past Webinars Upcoming ...

  11. Skin, Hair, and Nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... they're cut off from their supply of nourishment and start to form a hard protein called ... yeast Candida . Yeast infections of the skin in older children, teens, and adults are less common. Tinea ...

  12. Skin Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Having a weakened immune system . Being exposed to arsenic . Risk factors for melanoma skin cancer: Having a ... such as “NCI’s PDQ cancer information summary about breast cancer prevention states the risks in the following way: [ ...

  13. Skin self-exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Names Skin cancer - self-exam; Melanoma - self-exam; Basal cell cancer - self-exam; Squamous cell - self-exam; ... 2015 Updated by: Yi-Bin Chen, MD, Leukemia/Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. ...

  14. Stages of Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with a nozzle is used to spray liquid nitrogen or liquid carbon dioxide to freeze and destroy ... or small particles to rub away skin cells. Radiation therapy Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that ...

  15. Radiation therapy -- skin care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000735.htm Radiation therapy - skin care To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. When you have radiation treatment for cancer, you may have some changes ...

  16. Dry skin conditions are related to the recovery rate of skin temperature after cold stress rather than to blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida-Amano, Yasuko; Nomura, Tomoko; Sugiyama, Yoshinori; Iwata, Kayoko; Higaki, Yuko; Tanahashi, Masanori

    2017-02-01

    Cutaneous blood flow plays an important role in the thermoregulation, oxygen supply, and nutritional support necessary to maintain the skin. However, there is little evidence for a link between blood flow and skin physiology. Therefore, we conducted surveys of healthy volunteers to determine the relationship(s) between dry skin properties and cutaneous vascular function. Water content of the stratum corneum, transepidermal water loss, and visual dryness score were investigated as dry skin parameters. Cutaneous blood flow in the resting state, the recovery rate (RR) of skin temperature on the hand after a cold-stress test, and the responsiveness of facial skin blood flow to local cooling were examined as indices of cutaneous vascular functions. The relationships between dry skin parameters and cutaneous vascular functions were assessed. The RR correlated negatively with the visual dryness score of skin on the leg but correlated positively with water content of the stratum corneum on the arm. No significant correlation between the resting state of blood flow and dry skin parameters was observed. In both the face and the body, deterioration in skin dryness from summer to winter was significant in subjects with low RR. The RR correlated well with the responsiveness of facial skin blood flow to local cooling, indicating that the RR affects systemic dry skin conditions. These results suggest that the RR but not blood flow at the resting state is associated with dry skin conditions and is involved in skin homeostasis during seasonal environmental changes. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Society of Dermatology.

  17. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenefelt PD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Philip D Shenefelt,1 Debrah A Shenefelt2 1Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of South Florida, Tampa, 2Congregation Or Ahavah, Lutz, FL, USA Abstract: Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, "goose bumps", redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. Keywords: skin, skin disorders, spiritual, religious

  18. Skin Cancer - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Expand Section Skin Cancer: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Cáncer de piel: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) National Library of Medicine Ukrainian (українська ) Expand Section Skin Cancer - українська (Ukrainian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Characters ...

  19. Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-11-22

    Learn how to evaluate people for latent TB infection with the Mantoux tuberculin skin test. This podcast includes sections on administering and reading the Mantoux tuberculin skin test, the standard method for detecting latent TB infection since the 1930s.  Created: 11/22/2006 by National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 12/12/2006.

  20. ReciPlySkin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovic Larsen, Olga; Andersen, Mikkel; Munk-Andersen, Niklas

    2017-01-01

    The report presents process that enbabled the production of the ReciPlySkin structure exhibited at the Circular Economy Exhibition at KADK during the Autumn 2017. The concept, design, detailed design and production are presented in this report.......The report presents process that enbabled the production of the ReciPlySkin structure exhibited at the Circular Economy Exhibition at KADK during the Autumn 2017. The concept, design, detailed design and production are presented in this report....

  1. Reflectance confocal microscopy for the evaluation of sensitive skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y-F; Yuan, C; Jiang, W-C; Wang, X-L; Humbert, P

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays, the diagnosis for sensitive skin relies on subjective assessment or on the combination of subjective and objective evaluation. No quantitative evaluation is available. It could be expected that confocal microscopy imaging could be of interest to better define the condition. Total 166 healthy female subjects were recruited in this study. Firstly, all subjects completed the sensitive questionnaire. Then, the cutaneous structures were measured by the reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) on the face and fossa cubitalia. The lactic acid sting test was conducted finally. According to the results of self-perception sensitive skin questionnaire and lactic acid stinging test to evaluate facial skin sensitivity the both positive subjects were regarded as sensitive skin group and both negative group as healthy control group. The results of RCM indicating that the proportion of 'disarranged honeycomb pattern' and 'spongiform edema' in the sensitive group and healthy control group were statistically different (P 0.05). The epidermal thickness was 38.88 ± 6.81 μm, healthy control group was 40.31 ± 9.37 μm in, respectively, sensitive skin group and healthy control group, there was no significant statistical difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). The honeycomb structure depth of sensitive group was 20.57 ± 4.86 μm. It was for 23.27 ± 6.38 μm, healthy control group the difference being statistically different between the two groups (P skin signs of RCM evaluation of sensitive skin effectively. Indeed, sensitive skin honeycomb structure depth was thinner compared with healthy control group. Such a specific pattern has good clinical and monitoring value for the further exploration. RCM could provide new data and patterns for the evaluation of sensitive skin. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Discomfort due to skin humidity with different fabric textures and materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Rasmussen, Leif Winsnes; Mackeprang, Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    discomfort. Thirty-eight subjects (18 females and 20 males) were exposed to three levels of skin relative humidity (30%, 50% and 70%) at sedentary activity, at low stepping activity and at high stepping activity. At moderate temperatures and activity levels, neither material nor texture significantly...... impacted the clothing comfort, perceived skin humidity or humidity of clothing, or the acceptability of skin humidity. Clothing comfort and acceptability deteriorated significantly with increasing skin humidity. In addition, the subjects perceived their skin or clothing as being more humid with increasing...... skin humidity. Based on the experimental results, a model was developed that predicts the percentage of persons dissatisfied due to humid skin or clothing. At different combinations of air humidity, air and mean radiant temperature, air velocity and clothing, the skin humidity model predicts discomfort...

  3. Non-animal testing strategies for assessment of the skin corrosion and skin irritation potential of ingredients and finished products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M K; Cohen, C; de Fraissinette, A de Brugerolle; Ponec, M; Whittle, E; Fentem, J H

    2002-05-01

    The dermatotoxicologist today is faced with a dilemma. Protection of workers and consumers from skin toxicities (irritation and allergy) associated with exposure to products, and the ingredients they contain, requires toxicological skin testing prior to manufacture, transport, or marketing. Testing for skin corrosion or irritation has traditionally been conducted in animals, particularly in rabbits via the long established Draize test method. However, this procedure, among others, has been subject to criticism, both for its limited predictive capacity for human toxicity, as well as for its use of animals. In fact, legislation is pending in the European Union which would ban the sale of cosmetic products, the ingredients of which have been tested in animals. These considerations, and advancements in both in vitro skin biology and clinical testing, have helped drive an intensive effort among skin scientists to develop alternative test methods based either on in vitro test systems (e.g. using rat, pig or human skin ex vivo, or reconstructed human skin models) or ethical clinical approaches (human volunteer studies). Tools are now in place today to enable a thorough skin corrosion and irritation assessment of new ingredients and products without the need to test in animals. Herein, we describe general testing strategies and new test methods for the assessment of skin corrosion and irritation. The methods described, and utilized within industry today, provide a framework for the practicing toxicologist to support new product development initiatives through the use of reliable skin safety testing and risk assessment tools and strategies.

  4. Generalized reactions during skin testing with clindamycin in drug hypersensitivity: a report of 3 cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Eleni; Müller, Sabine; Röhrbein, Jan H; Wieczorek, Dorothea; Kapp, Alexander; Jakob, Thilo; Wedi, Bettina

    2018-01-22

    The diagnostic approach to drug hypersensitivity includes a detailed medical history, clinical examination, and skin testing and/or oral challenge with a culprit or alternative drug, depending on the type of reaction and the suspected drugs. Although skin testing is considered to be rather safe, cutaneous and systemic, including fatal, reactions have been described. To report 3 cases with generalized delayed reactions after skin testing with clindamycin, and to review the existing literature. Thorough clinical examination, blood tests and prick, intradermal and patch tests were performed in 3 patients. All patients experienced generalized maculopapular exanthema after intradermal and patch testing with clindamycin and amoxicillin in the first patient, and clindamycin alone in the second and third patients. None of the patients showed immediate reactions to skin tests, while positive intradermal reactions after 24 h to amoxicillin and clindamycin were observed in the first patient, and positive intradermal reactions after 24 h to clindamycin were observed in the second and third patients. Skin testing with clindamycin in the diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity carries some risk of adverse reactions. A stepwise and individual diagnostic work-up, considering potential risk factors, and testing in a specialized centre with emergency equipment available is highly recommended. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Sebusuppressive efficacy of the antioxidant bis-ethylhexyl hydroxydimethoxy benzylmalonate in the treatment of oily and blemished skin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gerlach, Nicole; Graf, Ruediger; Witte, Gabriele; Lefort, Marina; Pfluecker, Frank; Heinrich, Ulrike; Tronnier, Hagen

    2012-01-01

    ...) as an active ingredient in the treatment of oily and blemished skin. This study was carried out as a randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blind study on 44 test subjects with blemished skin over a period of 8 weeks...

  6. [Increase in skin surface temperature in spinal anesthesia. Predictive value for probability of surgical tolerance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penno, A; Arumugam, M; Antweiler, G; Laubert, T; Habermann, J; Bruch, H-P

    2012-09-01

    Spinal anesthesia causes sympathetic blockade which leads to changes in the local temperature of the skin surface due to hyperemia. These changes in skin temperature were used in a newly developed method for estimating the level of analgesia. A total of 11 patients who were scheduled for surgical procedures of the lower extremities with symmetrical spinal anesthesia were included in the clinical study. By means of an electronic digital multi-channel body temperature measurement device with eight high precision temperature sensors placed on defined dermatomes, patient skin temperature was continuously measured at 2 s intervals and documented before, during and for 45 min after spinal anesthesia. Simultaneously, a neurological pin-prick test was carried on at regular intervals every 2 min on the defined dermatomes to calculate the correlation between the effects of analgesia and corresponding changes in skin temperature. The analyzed correlations showed that there is a minimum of 1.05°C temperature difference before and after spinal anesthesia especially on the lower extremities (foot, knee, inguinal) of patient dermatomes. The collected data of varying temperature differences were systematically evaluated using statistical software which led to a deeper understanding of the interdependency between temperature differences at different dermatomes. These interdependencies of temperature differences were used to develop a systematic analgesia level measurement algorithm. The algorithm calculates the skin temperature differences at specified dermatomes to find the accurate level of analgesia and also to find the forward and reverse progresses of analgesia. The developed mathematical method shows that it is possible to predict the level of analgesia up to an accuracy of 95% after spinal anesthesia. Therefore, it can be concluded that systematic processing of skin temperature data, collected at defined dermatomes can be used as a promising parameter for predicting

  7. Does poor sleep quality affect skin ageing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyetakin-White, P; Suggs, A; Koo, B; Matsui, M S; Yarosh, D; Cooper, K D; Baron, E D

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is important for growth and renewal of multiple physiological systems. The effects of chronic poor sleep quality on human skin function and visible signs of ageing have not been elucidated. To evaluate the effect of chronic poor sleep quality on measures of skin health and ageing. Self-perceived satisfaction with appearance was also assessed. 60 healthy caucasian women, who were categorized as poor quality sleepers [Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) > 5, sleep duration ≤ 5 h] or good quality sleepers (PSQI ≤ 5, sleep duration 7-9 h). A validated clinical tool, SCINEXA(TM) , was used to assess intrinsic and extrinsic skin ageing. Dark under-eye circles were evaluated using standardized photos. Measurement of in vivo transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was used to assess recovery of the skin barrier after tape stripping. Subjects were exposed to simulated solar ultraviolet light, and recovery from erythema was monitored. Subjects also completed a questionnaire evaluating self-perception of attractiveness. Good sleepers had significantly lower intrinsic skin ageing scores by SCINEXA(TM) . At baseline, poor sleepers had significantly higher levels of TEWL. At 72 h after tape stripping, good sleepers had 30% greater barrier recovery compared with poor sleepers. At 24 h after exposure to ultraviolet light, good sleepers had significantly better recovery from erythema. Good sleepers also reported a significantly better perception of their appearance and physical attractiveness compared with poor sleepers. This study indicates that chronic poor sleep quality is associated with increased signs of intrinsic ageing, diminished skin barrier function and lower satisfaction with appearance. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  8. A multiscale analysis of frictional interaction between human skin and nonwoven fabrics

    OpenAIRE

    Cottenden, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    Various hygiene products, notably incontinence pads, bring nonwoven “topsheet” fabrics into contact with individuals’ skin. This contact can damage the skin in various ways, including abrading it by friction, a mechanism enhanced by the presence of moisture. In recent years skin-nonwoven friction has been the subject of significant experimental study in the Continence and Skin Technology Group, UCL, in the course of which methods have been developed which can detect differences ...

  9. Increased releasability of skin mast cells after exercise in patients with exercise-induced asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Inseon S; Koh, Youngil I; Chung, Se-Woong; Lim, Ho

    2004-10-01

    The role of lung mast cells in exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is controversial. To investigate whether the skin mast cell releasability is increased after exercise in EIA, 49 young atopic men with or without asthma took part in a free-running test for 6 min and were given skin prick tests using morphine, a mast cell secretagogue, before and after the exercise. The mean diameters of the wheal induced by morphine in patients with EIA were not significantly different from those in patients without EIA before exercise, although the baseline lung function was significantly lower and the airway hyperresponsiveness, the peripheral blood eosinophil count, and the size of the wheal in response to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were significantly higher in patients with EIA. However, the differences of the morphine-induced wheal diameter between patients with EIA and those without EIA became significant at 120 min after exercise (presponses to histamine were not significantly different. These results suggest that exercise increases the releasability of skin mast cells in EIA patients whose asthma/allergy are relatively severe.

  10. Smoking and skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a serious and preventable health hazard that can cause or exacerbate a number of diseases and shorten life expectancy, but the role of smoking as an etiologic factor in the development of skin disease is largely unknown. Although epidemiological evidence is sparse, findings...... suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably...... pemphigus vulgaris, pyoderma gangrenosum, aphthous ulcers, and Behçet's disease. Various degenerative dermatologic conditions are also impacted by smoking, such as skin wrinkling and dysregulated wound healing, which can result in post-surgical complications and delayed or even arrested healing of chronic...

  11. Skin cancer recognition by using a neuro-fuzzy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Bareqa; Alshraideh, Mohammad; Beidas, Rasha; Hayajneh, Ferial

    2011-02-02

    Skin cancer is the most prevalent cancer in the light-skinned population and it is generally caused by exposure to ultraviolet light. Early detection of skin cancer has the potential to reduce mortality and morbidity. There are many diagnostic technologies and tests to diagnose skin cancer. However many of these tests are extremely complex and subjective and depend heavily on the experience of the clinician. To obviate these problems, image processing techniques, a neural network system (NN) and a fuzzy inference system were used in this study as promising modalities for detection of different types of skin cancer. The accuracy rate of the diagnosis of skin cancer by using the hierarchal neural network was 90.67% while using neuro-fuzzy system yielded a slightly higher rate of accuracy of 91.26% in diagnosis skin cancer type. The sensitivity of NN in diagnosing skin cancer was 95%, while the specificity was 88%. Skin cancer diagnosis by neuro-fuzzy system achieved sensitivity of 98% and a specificity of 89%.

  12. Skin in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Sujata

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Screening for cutaneous disorders was undertaken in 1,175 pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic. Skin disease or STD being encountered in 114 (9.7%. Pruritus was present in 7.1 percent and was mostly due to candidiadis. The physiological skin changes were frequently observed. Candidiasis was by far the commonest infection with a 2.9 percent incidence. Syphilis was the commonest STD followed by Donovanosis and condyloma acuminata. Specific pregnancy dermatoses were seen in 1.5 percent and included prurigo gestationis, pruritic urticarial papules and plaques (PUPPP and pruritus gravidarum.

  13. Nicotinamide and the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L

    2014-08-01

    Nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3, boosts cellular energy and regulates poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase 1, an enzyme with important roles in DNA repair and the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Nicotinamide shows promise for the treatment of a wide range of dermatological conditions, including autoimmune blistering disorders, acne, rosacea, ageing skin and atopic dermatitis. In particular, recent studies have also shown it to be a potential agent for reducing actinic keratoses and preventing skin cancers. © 2014 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  14. Probable hypoglycemic adverse drug reaction associated with prickly pear cactus, glipizide, and metformin in a patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieraj, Diana M; Freyer, Craig W

    2010-01-01

    To report a case of an adverse drug reaction (ADR) in a patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus taking prickly pear cactus (PPC), glipizide, and metformin. A 58-year-old Mexican male with type 2 diabetes mellitus being treated with metformin 1000 mg twice daily and extended-release glipizide 10 mg daily was referred to the pharmacist for medication education. He denied taking herbal supplements or experiencing hypoglycemia. Two hemoglobin A(1c) values (6.8% and 6.7%) obtained over the past year demonstrated glycemic control, which was supported by his reported fasting blood glucose readings of 113-132 mg/dL. One month later, the patient reported 4 hypoglycemic events with blood glucose readings of 49-68 mg/dL, which resulted in discontinuation of glipizide. One month later, the patient denied any further hypoglycemia. During medication reconciliation he reported consuming crude PPC pads daily for 2 months for glucose control. Literature suggests that PPC has an effect on lowering blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, although few identified data describe ADRs from combining PPC with other agents used in treating type 2 diabetes mellitus. A literature search of MEDLINE (through December 2009) using the search terms diabetes mellitus, prickly pear cactus, nopal, opuntia, metformin, glipizide, glyburide, glimepiride, and sulfonylurea revealed no case reports of the described ADR. One case report describing the blood glucose-lowering effect of PPC in a patient concurrently taking oral antihyperglycemics documented an episode of hypoglycemia, although the Naranjo probability scale was not applied. One patient survey discovered the most common drug-herbal interaction in the given population to be between PPC and antihyperglycemic agents, resulting in hypoglycemia. In our case, use of the Naranjo probability scale suggests the ADR to be probable. The mechanism may be due to the additive glucose lowering of the 3 agents consumed concurrently by the

  15. A case of radiation-induced skin ulcer, cerebral meningioma and skin cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, Yuki; Yano, Kenji [Kure National Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2000-10-01

    We report a case of radiation-induced skin ulcer, cerebral meningioma, and skin cancer in a 69-year-old woman who had undergone local irradiation and application of radium directly to the skin for actinomycosis of the face at the age of twenty. Some forty to fifty years later, a skin ulcer in the preauricular area in the center of the radiodermatitis, cerebral meningioma in the right sphenoid ridge, and a keratotic skin tumor in the right auricle all developed within the previously irradiated region. The cerebral meningioma was extirpated. The skin ulcer was excised and covered with a forearm flap. After the skin tumor was excised and the subcutaneous tumor in the postauricular area was excised, the postoperative histopathological diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma with lymph node metastasis. It was considered that the squamous cell carcinoma was derived from irradiated keratosis. Four months later, right neck lymph node dissection was performed. Both the meningioma and squamous cell carcinoma satisfied Cahan's criteria for radiation-induced tumors. So we diagnosed these as radiation-induced cerebral meningioma and squamous cell carcinoma. We haven't detected any recurrence of the squamous cell carcinoma for two years. We learned from this case that chronic radiation disturbances cause an irreversible reaction and various radiolesions, including malignancies, can occur after a long period of latency. It is important to never underestimate a small lesion in the irradiated area, to plan early preventive surgical treatment to remove skin that may have been over-subjected to irradiation, and to continue long-term follow-up for patients with chronic radiodermatitis. (author)

  16. Coverage error of commercial skin pigments as compared to human facial skin tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungerford, Elizabeth; Beatty, Mark W; Marx, David B; Simetich, Bobby; Wee, Alvin G

    2013-11-01

    It is unknown if present-day pigments used for intrinsic colouration of maxillofacial prostheses are representative of human facial skin tones. This study's purpose was to measure L*a*b* values of pigmented elastomers coloured by eleven skin tone pigments and determine coverage error (CE) when the pigments were compared to human facial lip and nose colour data. 11 skin tone pigments were combined at 0.1%, 1% and 10% by weight with A-2186 elastomer (n=3). L*a*b* values were measured with a spectrophotometer and group means were used to calculate ΔE* colour differences with each L*a*b* value obtained for human nose and lip. Pigmented elastomer CEs were calculated for nose and lip. Results were compared to CEs for proposed shade guide colours obtained from clustering analyses of facial skin colours. L* values of pigmented elastomers generally were higher than those measured for nose and lip, whereas a* values were lower. CEs for pigmented elastomers were higher than those obtained from the proposed shade guide obtained from clustered skin measurements. Overall, the current commercial elastomers appeared to be too white and not red enough to adequately match the skin tones of the subject population. Adjustments must be made to the existing pigmenting system in order to adequately match the skin colours of the study population. The creation of a shade guide and a collection of intrinsic pigments representing the realm of human facial skin colours would greatly decrease the time a patient must sit while the clinician is obtaining an acceptable colour match for the silicone to be used for processing the final prosthesis, thereby increasing both patient satisfaction and clinician productivity. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Measuring skin conductance over clothes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ki Hwan; Lee, Seung Min; Lim, Yong Gyu; Park, Kwang Suk

    2012-11-01

    We propose a new method that measures skin conductance over clothes to nonintrusively monitor the changes in physiological conditions affecting skin conductance during daily activities. We selected the thigh-to-thigh current path and used an indirectly coupled 5-kHz AC current for the measurement. While varying the skin conductance by the Valsalva maneuver method, the results were compared with the traditional galvanic skin response (GSR) measured directly from the fingers. Skin conductance measured using a 5-kHz current displayed a highly negative correlation with the traditional GSR and the current measured over clothes reflected the rate of change of the conductance of the skin beneath.

  18. Preliminary characterization of human skin microbiome in healthy Egyptian individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, M; Solyman, S; Taha, M; Hanora, A

    2016-07-31

    Human skin is a large, complex ecosystem that harbors diverse microbial communities. The rapid advances in molecular techniques facilitate the exploration of skin associated bacterial populations. The objective of this study was to perform a preliminary characterization of skin associated bacterial populations in Egyptian individuals. Samples were collected from five healthy subjects from two skin sites; Antecubital Fossa (AF) and Popliteal Fossa (PF). Genomic DNA was extracted and used to amplify bacterial 16S rRNA genes which were sequenced on Illumina MiSeq platform. The two sites showed distinct diversity where PF was more diverse than AF. Taxonomic analysis of sequences revealed four main phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Deinococcus-Thermus, with Proteobacteria presenting the highest diversity. Klebsiella, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Escherichia were the most predominant genera. Our data suggest that environmental factors can shape the composition of the skin microbiome in certain geographical regions. This study presents a new insight for subsequent analyses of human microbiome in Egypt.

  19. Predisposing factors for adverse skin reactions with percutaneous bone anchored hearing devices implanted with skin reduction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candreia, Claudia; Birrer, Ruth; Fistarol, Susanna; Kompis, Martin; Caversaccio, Marco; Arnold, Andreas; Stieger, Christof

    2016-12-01

    We present an analysis of adverse events after implantation of bone anchored hearing device in our patient population with focus on individual risk factors for peri-implant skin reactions. The investigation involved a chart review of adult Baha patients (n = 179) with 203 Bahas implanted with skin reduction techniques between 1993 and 2009, a questionnaire (n = 97) and a free clinical examination (n = 47). Skin reactions were graded by severity from 0 (no skin reaction) to 4 (implant loss resulting from infection) according to Holgers. We analyzed the skin reaction rate (SRR) defined as the number of skin reactions per year and the worst Holgers grade (WHG), which indicates the grade of the worst skin reaction per implant. We defined 20 parameters including the demographic characteristics, surgery details, subjective benefits, handling and individual factors. The most frequent adverse events (85 %) were skin reactions. The average SRR was 0.426 per Baha year. Six parameters showed an association with the SRR or the WHG. The clinically most relevant factors are an elevated Body Mass Index (BMI, p = 0.02) and darker skin type (p = 0.03). The SRR increased with the distance between the tragus and the implant (p = 0.02). Regarding the identified risk factors, the SRR might be reduced by selecting a location for the implant near the pinna and by specific counseling regarding post-operative care for patients with darker skin type or an elevated Body Mass Index (BMI). Few of the factors analyzed were found to influence the SRR and WHG. Since most adverse skin reactions could be treated easily with local therapy, our results suggest that in adult patients, individual risk factors for skin reactions are not a contraindication for Baha implantation. Thus, patients can be selected purely on audiological criteria.

  20. Preventing Skin Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-05-18

    A man and a woman talk about how they’ve learned to protect their skin from the sun over the years. .  Created: 5/18/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/18/2016.

  1. Stress and the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, A; Wójcik-Maciejewicz, A; Slominski, A T

    2010-04-01

    Emotional stress can affect, reveal or even exacerbate a number of skin disorders including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, pruritus, alopecia areata, lichen planus, seborrheic dermatitis, rosacea or urticaria, although the direct pathophysiologic link between stress factors and cutaneous disease manifestation remains unclear. However, there is an increasing evidence that stress influences disease processes and contributes to the inflammation through modulating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and releasing neuropeptides, neurotrophins, lymphokines and other chemical mediators from nerve endings and dermal cells. The central role in cellular skin reactivity to various stressors might be attributed to dermal mast cells, as they show close connections with sensory nerve endings and may release a huge number of proinflammatory mediators. However, many other cells also actively take part in skin response to stress. Although our knowledge is still not complete, one of the most distinct aspect is that the skin, endocrine, nervous and immune systems cannot longer be treated autonomously, but have to be considered as a large multidirectional complex of which interacting nature is still poorly understood.

  2. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Melanoma Book Clinical Trials Download a Skin Self-Exam Card Download a Patient Navigation Card Events, Webinars & Videos Events, Webinars & Videos Melanoma Patient Video Events Host an Event Past Webinars Upcoming Webinars Volunteer Blog Blog Melanoma? The ...

  3. Parasites and the skin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-06-11

    Jun 11, 2009 ... basin, the Caribbean and Latin America. It is transmitted by the bite of the phlebotomus sandfly. Dogs and rodents are the intermediate hosts. There are three forms of leishmaniasis: • cutaneous leishmaniasis, which is restricted to the skin and is seen more often in the old world, as seen in our patient.

  4. Skin Conditions during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the navel to pubic hair that darkens during pregnancy. Melasma: A common skin problem that causes brown to gray-brown patches on the face. Also known as “chloasma” or “mask of pregnancy.” Rectum: The last part of the digestive tract. ...

  5. Squamous cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... squamous cell cancer include: Having light-colored skin, blue or green eyes, or blond or red hair Long-term, daily sun exposure (such as in people who work outside) Many severe sunburns early in life Older age Having had many x-rays Chemical exposure A weakened immune system, especially in ...

  6. Dyspigmentation, skin physiology, and a novel approach to skin lightening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe; Dahl, Amanda; Yatskayer, Margarita; Chen, Nannan; Krol, Yevgeniy; Oresajo, Christian

    2013-12-01

    Even facial pigmentation is considered a universal sign of youth and beauty in all cultures and at all ages in both men and women. The recent FDA concern about the safety of topical hydroquinone has provided the impetus for research into new pigment lightening alternatives in the cosmetic OTC market. This research examined a novel hydroxyphenoxy propionic acid, ellagic acid, yeast extract, and salicylic acid formulation applied twice daily compared to the standard prescription combination of 4% hydroquinone cream and 0.025% tretinoin cream applied nightly. This single-center investigator-blinded 12 week study enrolled 82 subjects (7 male, 75 female) ages 25-60 years divided into 2 balanced groups of 41 subjects each with one group using a novel hydroxyphenoxy propionic acid, ellagic acid, yeast extract, and salicylic acid formulation applied twice daily compared to the standard prescription combination of 4% hydroquinone cream and 0.025% tretinoin cream applied nightly. Significant tolerability issues arose with the prescription combinations that were not seen with the cosmetic formulation. In terms of ability to even skin tone, decrease spot intensity, decrease spot size, and improve overall pigmentation, both products demonstrated parity. This research demonstrated the value of cosmetic formulations as part of a treatment regimen for pigmentation issues. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Evaluation of out-in skin transparency using a colorimeter and food dye in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, H; Tadaki, H; Takami, S; Muramatsu, R; Hagiwara, S; Mizuno, T; Arakawa, H

    2009-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a disease of skin barrier dysfunction and outside stimuli can cross the skin barrier. To examine a new method for evaluating the outside to inside skin transparency with a colorimeter and yellow dyes. In study 1, a total of 28 volunteer subjects (24 normal and four with atopic dermatitis) participated. After provocation with yellow dye, the skin colour of all the subjects was measured using a colorimeter. The skin transparency index was calculated by the changes of the skin colour to yellow. Other variables of skin function, including transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum hydration, were also measured. In study 2, the skin transparency index was evaluated for a cohort of 38 patients with atopic dermatitis, 27 subjects with dry skin and 29 healthy controls. In study 1, the measurement of skin colour (b*) using tartrazine showed good results. There was a significant relationship between the skin transparency index with tartrazine and the atopic dermatitis score (P = 0.014). No other measurements of skin function, including the TEWL, were correlated. In study 2, the skin transparency index score obtained with tartrazine in the patients with atopic dermatitis was significantly higher than that of the controls and those with dry skin (P < 0.001 and P = 0.022, respectively). However, the TEWL in patients with atopic dermatitis was not significantly higher than that of patients with dry skin and the TEWL in subjects with dry skin was not higher than that of the controls. This method, which used a colorimeter and food dye, is noninvasive, safe and reliable for the evaluation of out-in skin transparency and can demonstrate the characteristic dysfunction in the skin barrier in patients with atopic dermatitis.

  8. SENSITIZATION SPREAD AND SKIN SENSITIVITY TO HISTAMINE IN CHILDREN OF SCHOOL AGE IN TOMSK AND TOMSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Kamaltynova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of sensitization spread is crucial to the understanding of formation mechanisms of allergic diseases symptoms and development of prevention programs. However, this parameter has been studied very insufficiently in Russia. The aim of this trial is to study spread of sensitization to allergens and skin sensitivity to histamine in the populations of urban and rural schoolchildren using the method of skin prick test. Methods: the authors examined 2,290 urban and rural schoolchildren (1-11 grades. Mixed allergens of house dust mites, cockroach, fish, birch pollen, mixed weeds and cat hair were used for the allergy test. Results: the authors revealed spread of sensitization to various allergens in various age-sex groups of urban and rural schoolchildren in Tomsk Region. Conclusion: the trial revealed that sensitization spread and skin sensitivity to histamine was higher in urban schoolchildren than in their rural peers (p<0.001. Lower sensitization spread index in rural schoolchildren may be caused the skin reactivity reduction.

  9. Effect of evaporative coolers on skin test reactivity to dust mites and molds in a desert environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Chaithra; Hogan, Mary Beth; Peele, Kathleen; Wilson, Nevin W

    2009-01-01

    Dust mites and molds are usually not found in arid environments and have a lower prevalence in desert areas. Evaporative (swamp) coolers increase indoor humidity significantly. The purpose of this study is to determine whether evaporative coolers affect the skin test rate to dust mites and molds in patients. Patients with asthma or allergic rhinitis who were undergoing skin testing for molds, indoor allergens, grasses, weeds, and trees were asked about presence of central, window, and evaporative cooler air conditioning in their home. All were tested using the prick technique with controls. One hundred ninety patients between 1 and 42 years (mean, 5.4 years) were evaluated. Fifty-nine (31%) had an evaporative cooler in their home. Twenty-five (42%) of those with evaporative coolers had a positive skin test to at least one mold compared with 26 (19%) without coolers (chi-square, 10.5; p = 0.001). Twenty (34%) of those with evaporative coolers had a positive skin test to dust mites compared with 23 (17.5%) without coolers (chi-square, 6.2; p = 0.013). Children molds or mites. This appears to be because of humidity caused by these devices. Patients with asthma in homes with evaporative coolers should be counseled about the risk for mold and dust-mite allergy. Humidity monitoring, cooler maintenance, and filter changes should be discussed.

  10. Suppression of histamine- and allergen-induced skin reactions: comparison of first- and second-generation antihistamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Rosaly Vieira; Magerl, Markus; Mlynek, Agnieszka; Lima, Hermenio C

    2009-06-01

    Nonsedating antihistamines (nsAHs) are recommended as first-line therapeutics for the treatment of mast cell-driven disorders, including allergic rhinitis and urticaria. However, their superiority over first-generation AHs (fgAHs) has recently been called into question, mainly because of the lack of supporting head-to-head therapeutic studies. To compare the effects of 3 modem nsAHs with those of the fgAH hydroxyzine on histamine- and allergen-induced skin reactions in a controlled, double-blind, clinical trial. Skin prick tests with histamine and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus extract were performed before and 4 hours after treatment with hydroxyzine, 25 mg; desloratadine, 5 mg; epinastine, 20 mg; fexofenadine, 120 mg; or placebo. Wheal and erythema development was evaluated by digital photography and planimetric analyses. The nsAHs prevented the development of positive reactions to histamine in only 10% to 20% of all individuals tested (n = 75). In contrast, more than 50% of all hydroxyzine-treated individuals showed negative test reactions to histamine (ie, wheals skin reactions. Our results suggest that higher doses of nsAHs than those currently recommended are required for the treatment of skin responses to obtain antihistaminic and antiallergic effects that are equivalent to those of fgAHs.

  11. Prickles, latex, and tolerance in the endemic Hawaiian prickly poppy (Argemone glauca): variation between populations, across ontogeny, and in response to abiotic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Kasey E

    2014-04-01

    Covariance among plant defense traits is predicted to occur both within and among plant species, potentially leading to characteristic defense syndromes. I examined patterns of variation in prickle density, latex exudation, and tolerance in order to assess whether traits varied between populations, across plant ontogeny, and as phenotypic plasticity in response to water and light limitation and physical damage using the endemic Hawaiian prickly poppy, Argemone glauca, as a model system. Plants produced copious latex, had extremely variable prickle densities, and were generally tolerant of 50% defoliation. However, expression patterns differed among defense traits. Prickle density was consistent across ontogeny and was not induced by either water limitation or mechanical damage, but was significantly induced under high light conditions. In contrast, latex exudation increased significantly across ontogeny and was reduced by water limitation, but had no response to mechanical damage or light. Prickles, latex, and tolerance differed considerably between populations, suggesting different evolutionary histories for these populations. These disparate patterns indicate that latex and prickles are unlinked within A. glauca, potentially as a result of differences in their function, and providing little evidence that they jointly function as a defense syndrome. Moreover, this study provides the first description patterns of variation for multiple defense traits in an island endemic, and high levels of prickles, latex, and tolerance suggest that A. glauca is well defended against herbivores. Future research in the field will provide additional insights into the functional ecology of these traits in A. glauca.

  12. Tips for Relieving Dry Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin include lactic acid, urea, hyaluronic acid, dimethicone, glycerin, lanolin, mineral oil, and petrolatum. Tip: Carry a ... using: Deodorant soaps Skin care products that contain alcohol, fragrance, retinoids, or alpha-hydroxy acid (AHA) Avoiding ...

  13. Candida infection of the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000880.htm Candida infection of the skin To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Candida infection of the skin is a yeast infection ...

  14. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... involves the cells that produce the skin pigment melanin, which is responsible for skin and hair color. ... acted like a carrier pigeon to deliver a gene encoding a specific protein, called a T cell ...

  15. Skin aging and oxidative stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ahsanuddin, Sayeeda; Lam, Minh; D. Baron, Elma

    2016-01-01

    .... Here, we review the critical role that oxidative stress plays in skin aging, including its effects on signaling pathways involved in skin matrix formation and degradation, proteasome activity, as well as DNA structure...

  16. Colloidal Oatmeal (Avena Sativa) Improves Skin Barrier Through Multi-Therapy Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilnytska, Olha; Kaur, Simarna; Chon, Suhyoun; Reynertson, Kurt A; Nebus, Judith; Garay, Michelle; Mahmood, Khalid; Southall, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    Oats (Avena sativa) are a centuries-old topical treatment for a variety of skin barrier conditions, including dry skin, skin rashes, and eczema; however, few studies have investigated the actual mechanism of action for the skin barrier strengthening activity of colloidal oatmeal. Four extracts of colloidal oatmeal were prepared with various solvents and tested in vitro for skin barrier related gene expression and activity. Extracts of colloidal oatmeal were found to induce the expression of genes related to epidermal differentiation, tight junctions and lipid regulation in skin, and provide pH-buffering capacity. Colloidal oatmeal boosted the expression of multiple target genes related to skin barrier, and resulted in recovery of barrier damage in an in vitro model of atopic dermatitis. In addition, an investigator-blinded study was performed with 50 healthy female subjects who exhibited bilateral moderate to severe dry skin on their lower legs. Subjects were treated with a colloidal oatmeal skin protectant lotion. Clinically, the colloidal oatmeal lotion showed significant clinical improvements in skin dryness, moisturization, and barrier. Taken together, these results demonstrate that colloidal oatmeal can provide clinically effective benefits for dry and compromised skin by strengthening skin barrier. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(6):684-690.

  17. The spectrum of skin diseases in a rural setting in Cameroon (sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bissek Anne-Cécile

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin disorders are generally considered to be more prevalent in the rural areas of Cameroon. This study was carried out to verify this assumption by describing the spectrum of skin disorders in a rural setting of Cameroon. Methods We carried out a community-based clinical skin examination of 400 consenting subjects from 4 villages of Cameroon: Nyamanga (27%, Yebekolo (24%, Mbangassina (23% and Bilomo (26%. Results The overall prevalence of skin diseases in our sample was 62% {95% CI: 57.2%, 66.8%} (248/400. The commonest skin disorders were: fungal infections (25.4%, parasitic infestations (21.4%, atrophic skin disorders (11.7%, hypertrophic skin disorders (9.7%, disorders of skin appendages {acne} (8.9%, benign neoplasm (6.5%, bacterial skin infections (5.2%, pigmentation disorders (4.8%, and dermatitis/eczema (4.0%. Skin infections and infestations constituted 52.82% of all skin disorders. The overall prevalence of infectious and parasitic infestation was 32.75% {95%CI: 28.17%, 37.59%} (131/400 as against 29.25% {95%CI: 24.83%, 33.98%} (117/400 for non-infectious disorders. Among people with skin infections/parasitic infestations, those with fungal infections and onchocercal skin lesions were the most prevalent, accounting for 48.1% (63/131 and 35.1% (46/131; and an overall prevalence of 15.75% {95%CI: 12.3%, 19.7%} (63/400 and 11.5% {95%CI: 8.5%, 15.0%} (46/400 respectively. There was secondary bacterial infection in 12.1% {95%CI: 8.31%, 16.82%} (30/248 of subjects with skin diseases. Hypertrophic and atrophic disorders of the skin were mainly keloids (9.68%, scarification marks (6.05% and burn scars (5.65%. Skin diseases like dermatitis and eczema (4.03%, malignant tumours and pigmentation disorders were rare in our sample. The proportion of subjects diagnosed with skin disorders after examination (62.8% was significantly higher than the proportion of 40.8% that declared having skin diseases (p  Conclusion The

  18. Skin Detection of Animation Characters

    OpenAIRE

    Kazi Tanvir Ahmed Siddiqui; Abu Wasif

    2015-01-01

    The increasing popularity of animes makes it vulnerable to unwanted usages like copyright violations and pornography. That’s why, we need to develop a method to detect and recognize animation characters. Skin detection is one of the most important steps in this way. Though there are some methods to detect human skin color, but those methods do not work properly for anime characters. Anime skin varies greatly from human skin in color, texture, tone and in different kinds of lightin...

  19. Transcranial cerebral oximetry in random normal subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Mukesh; Stark, Jennifer; Dujovny, Manuel; Alp, M. Serdar; Widman, Ronald; Ausman, James I.

    1997-08-01

    Near infrared optical spectroscopy is becoming a useful method for monitoring regional cerebral oxygenation status. The method is simple, reliable and noninvasive and the information which it provides is clinically significant in managing a growing number of neurological ailments. Use of this technique has been described previously by numerous authors. In the present study, regional cerebral oxygen saturation was measured at rest in 94 subjects randomly elected from a diverse population of individuals. This sample consisted of 38 males and 65 females, with the age ranging from 18 - 70. There were 68 light-skinned individuals and 35 with darker skin comprising various ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Mean regional cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation was recorded as 67.14 plus or minus 8.84%. The association of the mean regional cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation in various group of individuals in relationship of their age, race, sex and skin color is examined.

  20. Prototype tactile feedback system for examination by skin touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, O; Lee, K; Oh, C; Kim, K; Kim, M

    2014-08-01

    Diagnosis of conditions such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, in the case of induration, involves palpating the infected area via hands and then selecting a ratings score. However, the score is determined based on the tester's experience and standards, making it subjective. To provide tactile feedback on the skin, we developed a prototype tactile feedback system to simulate skin wrinkles with PHANToM OMNI. To provide the user with tactile feedback on skin wrinkles, a visual and haptic Augmented Reality system was developed. First, a pair of stereo skin images obtained by a stereo camera generates a disparity map of skin wrinkles. Second, the generated disparity map is sent to an implemented tactile rendering algorithm that computes a reaction force according to the user's interaction with the skin image. We first obtained a stereo image of skin wrinkles from the in vivo stereo imaging system, which has a baseline of 50.8 μm, and obtained the disparity map with a graph cuts algorithm. The left image is displayed on the monitor to enable the user to recognize the location visually. The disparity map of the skin wrinkle image sends skin wrinkle information as a tactile response to the user through a haptic device. We successfully developed a tactile feedback system for virtual skin wrinkle simulation by means of a commercialized haptic device that provides the user with a single point of contact to feel the surface roughness of a virtual skin sample. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.