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  1. Physical activity impairment in depressed COPD subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marco, Fabiano; Terraneo, Silvia; Roggi, Maria Adelaide; Repossi, Alice C; Pellegrino, Giulia M; Veronelli, Anna; Santus, Pierachille; Pontiroli, Antonio E; Centanni, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    Limited exercise tolerance is a cardinal clinical feature in COPD. Depression and COPD share some clinical features, such as reduced physical activity and impaired nutritional status. The aim of the present study was to evaluate maximum and daily physical activities and the nutritional status of COPD patients affected or not by depression. In 70 COPD out-patients, daily and maximum physical activities were assessed by multisensor accelerometer armband, 6-min walk test, and cardiopulmonary exercise test. Mental status, metabolic/muscular status, and systemic inflammation were evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and with regard to fibrinogen/C-reactive protein, respectively. Depressed subjects (27% of the sample) showed a similar level of respiratory functional impairment but a higher level of shortness of breath and a worse quality of life compared to non-depressed subjects (P physical activity impairment consisting of a reduced number of steps per day, a lower peak of oxygen consumption, an early anaerobic threshold, and a reduced distance in the 6-min walk test (P daily number of steps. Our study found that depressed COPD patients have a reduced daily and maximum exercise capacity compared to non-depressed patients. This further suggests the potential utility of screening for depression in COPD.

  2. Cognitive impairments in alcohol-dependent subjects

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    Florent eBernardin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic excessive alcohol consumption induces cognitive impairments mainly affecting executive functions, episodic memory, and visuospatial capacities related to multiple brain lesions. These cognitive impairments not only determine everyday management of these patients, but also impact on the efficacy of management and may compromise the abstinence prognosis. Maintenance of lasting abstinence is associated with cognitive recovery in these patients, but some impairments may persist and interfere with the good conduct and the efficacy of management. It therefore appears essential to clearly define neuropsychological management designed to identify and evaluate the type and severity of alcohol-related cognitive impairments. It is also essential to develop cognitive remediation therapy so that the patient can fully benefit from the management proposed in addiction medicine units.

  3. Self Presentation as Subjective Stancetaking in Celebrity Interview Show

    OpenAIRE

    Kyrychuk, Laryssa; Киричук, Лариса

    2014-01-01

    The paper explores the issues of self-presentation in celebrity interview show from the viewpoint of stancetaking theory. The research is focused on the analysis of self-presentational motivations, the ways of public image reinforcement / modification and communicative characteristics of the celebrity interview show. It specifies the factors that affect celebrity‟s subjective stancetaking as a verbal act of self-presentation in this type of social interaction. It is claimed that the tactics o...

  4. Subjective cognitive impairment: Towards early identification of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ptacek, S; Eriksdotter, M; Jelic, V; Porta-Etessam, J; Kåreholt, I; Manzano Palomo, S

    2016-10-01

    Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer disease (AD) begins decades before dementia and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) already demonstrate significant lesion loads. Lack of information about the early pathophysiology in AD complicates the search for therapeutic strategies.Subjective cognitive impairment is the description given to subjects who have memory-related complaints without pathological results on neuropsychological tests. There is no consensus regarding this heterogeneous syndrome, but at least some of these patients may represent the earliest stage in AD. We reviewed available literature in order to summarise current knowledge on subjective cognitive impairment. Although they may not present detectable signs of disease, SCI patients as a group score lower on neuropsychological tests than the general population does, and they also have a higher incidence of future cognitive decline. Depression and psychiatric co-morbidity play a role but cannot account for all cognitive complaints. Magnetic resonance imaging studies in these patients reveal a pattern of hippocampal atrophy similar to that of amnestic mild cognitive impairment and functional MRI shows increased activation during cognitive tasks which might indicate compensation for loss of function. Prevalence of an AD-like pattern of beta-amyloid (Aβ42) and tau proteins in cerebrospinal fluid is higher in SCI patients than in the general population. Memory complaints are relevant symptoms and may predict AD. Interpatient variability and methodological differences between clinical studies make it difficult to assign a definition to this syndrome. In the future, having a standard definition and longitudinal studies with sufficient follow-up times and an emphasis on quantifiable variables may clarify aspects of early AD. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Phytoceramide Shows Neuroprotection and Ameliorates Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment

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    Seikwan Oh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The function and the role phytoceramide (PCER and phytosphingosine (PSO in the central nervous system has not been well studied. This study was aimed at investigating the possible roles of PCER and PSO in glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in cultured neuronal cells and memory function in mice. Phytoceramide showed neuro-protective activity in the glutamate-induced toxicity in cultured cortical neuronal cells. Neither phytosphingosine nor tetraacetylphytosphingosine (TAPS showed neuroproective effects in neuronal cells. PCER (50 mg/kg, p.o. recovered the scopolamine-induced reduction in step-through latency in the passive avoidance test; however, PSO did not modulate memory function on this task. The ameliorating effects of PCER on spatial memory were confirmed by the Morris water maze test. In conclusion, through behavioral and neurochemical experimental results, it was demonstrated that central administration of PCER produces amelioration of memory impairment. These results suggest that PCER plays an important role in neuroprotection and memory enhancement and PCER could be a potential new therapeutic agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease.

  6. Mice Lacking Endoglin in Macrophages Show an Impaired Immune Response.

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    Luisa Ojeda-Fernández

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Endoglin is an auxiliary receptor for members of the TGF-β superfamily and plays an important role in the homeostasis of the vessel wall. Mutations in endoglin gene (ENG or in the closely related TGF-β receptor type I ACVRL1/ALK1 are responsible for a rare dominant vascular dysplasia, the Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT, or Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome. Endoglin is also expressed in human macrophages, but its role in macrophage function remains unknown. In this work, we show that endoglin expression is triggered during the monocyte-macrophage differentiation process, both in vitro and during the in vivo differentiation of blood monocytes recruited to foci of inflammation in wild-type C57BL/6 mice. To analyze the role of endoglin in macrophages in vivo, an endoglin myeloid lineage specific knock-out mouse line (Eng(fl/flLysMCre was generated. These mice show a predisposition to develop spontaneous infections by opportunistic bacteria. Eng(fl/flLysMCre mice also display increased survival following LPS-induced peritonitis, suggesting a delayed immune response. Phagocytic activity is impaired in peritoneal macrophages, altering one of the main functions of macrophages which contributes to the initiation of the immune response. We also observed altered expression of TGF-β1 target genes in endoglin deficient peritoneal macrophages. Overall, the altered immune activity of endoglin deficient macrophages could help to explain the higher rate of infectious diseases seen in HHT1 patients.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of Nintedanib in Subjects With Hepatic Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzin, Kristell; Kretschmar, Gunther; Luedtke, Doreen; Kraemer, Sandrine; Kuelzer, Raimund; Schlenker-Herceg, Rozsa; Schmid, Ulrike; Schnell, David; Dallinger, Claudia

    2017-11-06

    Nintedanib is an intracellular inhibitor of tyrosine kinases used in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). This phase 1 open-label study investigated the influence of mild and moderate hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and tolerability of nintedanib following oral administration of a single 100-mg dose. Subjects with hepatic impairment classified as Child-Pugh A (mild hepatic impairment) or Child-Pugh B (moderate hepatic impairment) were eligible. The control group comprised healthy matched subjects. Primary end points were Cmax and AUC0-∞ of nintedanib. Thirty-three subjects received nintedanib (8 in each of the Child-Pugh A and Child-Pugh B groups and 17 controls). The shape of the plasma concentration-time curve for nintedanib was similar between Child-Pugh A or B and healthy subjects. Nintedanib exposure was ∼2-fold higher in Child-Pugh A subjects and ∼8-fold higher in Child-Pugh B subjects than in healthy subjects. Adverse events were reported in 3 Child-Pugh B subjects (37.5%), no Child-Pugh A subjects, and 3 healthy subjects (17.6%). In conclusion, exposure to nintedanib was higher in Child-Pugh A and B subjects than in matched healthy subjects. A single dose of nintedanib 100 mg had an acceptable safety and tolerability profile in subjects with hepatic impairment. Results of this dedicated phase 1 study are in line with exploratory investigations into the PK of nintedanib in patients with advanced solid tumors or IPF and hepatic impairment. © 2017, The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  8. Subjective hearing impairment after subarachnoid haemorrhage : Prevalence and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Erik M.; Greebe, Paut; Visser-Meily, J. M Anne; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I

    2017-01-01

    Background Sensorineural hearing impairment is a key symptom in patients with superficial siderosis of the central nervous system, a disease caused by chronic or intermittent haemorrhage into the subarachnoid space. We investigated the prevalence and risk factors of subjective hearing impairment

  9. Cognitive loci of impairments in picture naming by aphasic subjects.

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    Mills, R H; Knox, A W; Juola, J F; Salmon, S J

    1979-03-01

    In order to identify the process or processes responsible for impaired naming by aphasic patients, ten aphasic adults and ten normal adults performed three independent tasks--picture naming, modified Sternberg picture recognition, and modified Sternberg random shape recognition (Sternberg, 1966). Response times and error percentages were the dependent variables. Independent variables in naming were stimulus codability measured in bits of uncertainty (two levels) and number of naming trials (three trials). Independent variables in the recognition tasks were uncertainty (two levels), number of stimuli to be remembered (two or four stimuli) and response type ("yes" or "no"). The results showed that uncertainty had significant effects on naming but not on recognition performance. The aphasic group produced significantly longer naming response times regardless of uncertainty level. The differences between groups were much greater for high-uncertainty pictures (1100 msec) than for low-uncertainty pictures (270 msec). A comparison of estimates of word retrieval times showed that the two subject groups differed significantly for high-uncertainty but not for low-uncertainty items. It was concluded that (1) use of the term "word retrieval problem" rather than "loss of memory problem" was justified to describe the major component in the aphasic naming impairment for high-uncertainty items, and (2) when naming low-uncertainty items these aphasic subjects did not demonstrate a word retrieval problem. The results indicate that treatment procedures designed to improve naming should be process rather than content oriented.

  10. Older people experiencing homelessness show marked impairment on tests of frontal lobe function.

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    Rogoz, Astrid; Burke, David

    2016-03-01

    Reported rates of mild and moderate cognitive impairment in older people experiencing homelessness range from 5-80%. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of cognitive impairment in older people experiencing homelessness in the inner city of Sydney, Australia. Men and women experiencing homelessness aged 45 years and over in the inner city were screened for cognitive impairment. Participants who scored 26 or below on the mini-mental state examination and/or were impaired on any one of the clock-drawing test, the verbal fluency test and the trail-making test, part B were then assessed with a semi-structured interview, including the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Screening of 144 men and 27 women aged between 45 years and 93 years identified cognitive impairment in 78%. Subsequently, high rates of mental and physical illness were identified, and 75% of subjects who were cognitively impaired performed poorly on frontal lobe tests. The trail-making test, part B was the most sensitive measure of frontal function. This study demonstrated that a large majority of older people experiencing homelessness, in the inner city of a high-income country, showed impairment on tests of frontal lobe function, a finding that could have significant implications for any medical or psychosocial intervention. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Aggressive behavior, cognitive impairment, and depressive symptoms in elderly subjects

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    Margari F

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Margari,1 Michele Sicolo,1 Lucia Spinelli,1 Franco Mastroianni,2 Adriana Pastore,1 Francesco Craig,3 Maria Giuseppina Petruzzelli31Psychiatry Unit, Department of Neuroscience and Sense Organs, Hospital Polyclinic of Bari, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, 2Geriatrics Unit, Hospital “Miulli”, Acquaviva delle Fonti; 3Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Neuroscience and Sense Organs, University of Bari “Aldo Moro,” Bari, ItalyAbstract: Patients with dementia often have neuropsychiatric symptoms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between neuropsychiatric symptoms and progressive cognitive decline by assessing cognitive impairment, depressive symptoms, and aggressive behavior in a sample of elderly subjects. The study sample consisted of 201 subjects admitted to nursing homes. For the purpose of the present study each subject was evaluated using the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Geriatric Depression Scale, and the Modified Overt Aggression Scale. The results show that aggressive behavior and depressive symptoms are associated with progressive cognitive decline in elderly subjects. Early assessment of these conditions can promote rational therapeutic strategies that may improve the quality of life and delay institutionalization for elderly patients.Keywords: neuropsychiatric symptoms, dementia, behavioral and psychological syndromes of dementia (BPSD, progressive cognitive decline

  12. Subjectively impaired bed mobility in Parkinson disease affects sleep efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louter, M.; Sloun, R.J. van; Pevernagie, D.A.; Arends, J.B.; Cluitmans, P.J.; Bloem, B.R.; Overeem, S.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Impaired bed mobility (IBM) may be an important reason for the high prevalence of sleep insomnia in Parkinson disease (PD). Here we assessed the influence of subjectively IBM on both subjective and objective sleep parameters in insomnia PD patients with (PD+IBM) and without (PD-IBM)

  13. 20 CFR 404.1508 - What is needed to show an impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is needed to show an impairment. 404... is needed to show an impairment. If you are not doing substantial gainful activity, we always look first at your physical or mental impairment(s) to determine whether you are disabled or blind. Your...

  14. 20 CFR 416.908 - What is needed to show an impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is needed to show an impairment. 416.908... is needed to show an impairment. If you are not doing substantial gainful activity, we always look first at your physical or mental impairment(s) to determine whether you are disabled or blind. Your...

  15. 20 CFR 220.27 - What is needed to show an impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is needed to show an impairment. 220.27... is needed to show an impairment. A physical or mental impairment must result from anatomical... diagnostic techniques. A physical or mental impairment must be established by medical evidence consisting of...

  16. Healthy subjects with a family history of alcoholism show increased stimulative subjective effects of alcohol.

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    Söderpalm Gordh, Anna H V; Söderpalm, Bo

    2011-08-01

    Research has shown that subjects with a family history positive (FHP) of alcoholism are at increased risk for alcoholism and that this group reacts differently to alcohol than family history negative (FHN) subjects. These different levels of sensitivity may make FHP persons more likely to consume alcohol. Here, we tested the hypothesis that subjects FHP for type 1 alcoholism (according to Cloninger) are more sensitive than control subjects to the stimulative, properties of alcohol following a single moderate dose of alcohol. Fifty-one healthy men and women (22 FHP and 29 FHN) participated in 2 laboratory sessions, in which they consumed a beverage containing ethanol (0.6 g/kg in juice) or placebo (juice alone) in a randomized order. Primary dependent measures were self-report questionnaires of mood states. Subjects with family history of type 1 alcoholism showed increased stimulative responses and an elevated positive mood state after ethanol compared to controls. At this moderate dose, ethanol increased stimulative subjective responses in individuals who were "family history positive." This enhanced sensitivity could motivate to exaggerated drinking and thereby increase the risk for developing alcoholism. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  17. Surgery and Brain Atrophy In Cognitively Normal Elderly Subjects and Subjects Diagnosed with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Richard P.; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Cheng, Hao; Santi, Susan De; Li, Yi; Haile, Michael; de Leon, Mony J.; Bekker, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Background Structural MRI is used to longitudinally monitor the progression of Alzheimer's disease from its presymptomatic to symptomatic phases. Using magnetic resonance imaging data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), we tested the hypothesis that surgery would affect brain parameters associated with progression of dementia. Materials and Methods Brain images from the neuroimaging initiative database were used to study normal volunteer subjects and patients with mild cognitive impairment for the age group 55 to 90 inclusive. We compared changes in regional brain anatomy for three visits that defined two inter-visit intervals for a surgical cohort (n=41) and a propensity matched non-surgical control cohort (n = 123). The first interval for the surgical cohort contained the surgical date. Regional brain volumes were determined with Freesurfer and quantitatively described with J-image software (University of California at San Francisco). Statistical analysis used Repeated Measures ANCOVA (SPSS, v.18.0; Chicago, IL). Results We found that surgical patients, during the first follow-up interval (5–9 months), but not subsequently, had increased rates of atrophy for cortical gray matter and hippocampus, and lateral ventricle enlargement, as compared to non-surgical controls. A composite score of five cognitive tests during this interval showed reduced performance for surgical patients with mild cognitive impairment. Conclusions Elderly subjects after surgery experienced an increased rate of brain atrophy during the initial evaluation interval, a time associated with enhanced risk for postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Although there was no difference in atrophy rate by diagnosis, subjects with mild cognitive impairment suffered greater subsequent cognitive effects. PMID:22293721

  18. Circadian rhythm of the autonomic nervous system in insulin resistant subjects with normoglycemia, impaired fasting glycemia, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    Serra Pietro

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In type 2 diabetes mellitus both insulin resistance and hyperglycemia are considered responsible for autonomic dysfunction. The relation between the autonomic activity, impaired fasting glycemia and impaired glucose tolerance is, however, unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the circadian autonomic activity expressed as heart rate variability (HRV measured by 24-hours ECG recording in insulin resistant subjects (IR with characteristics as follow: IR subjects with normal oral glucose tolerance test results, IR subjects with impaired fasting glucose, IR subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods Eighty Caucasian insulin resistant subjects (IR and twenty five control subjects were recruited for the study. IR subjects were divided into four groups according to the outcoming results of oral glucose tests (OGTTs: IR subjects with normal glucose regulation (NGR, IR subjects with impaired fasting glycemia (IFG, IR subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. Autonomic nervous activity was studied by 24-hours ECG recording. Heart rate variability analysis was performed in time and frequency domains: SDNN, RMS-SD, low frequency (LF and high frequency (HF were calculated. Results The total SDNN showed statistically significant reduction in all four groups with insulin resistant subjects (IR when compared to the control group (p Conclusion The results of our study suggest that insulin resistance might cause global autonomic dysfunction which increases along with worsening glucose metabolic impairment. The analysis of sympathetic and parasympathetic components and the sympathovagal balance demonstrated an association between insulin resistance and sympathetic over-activity, especially during night. The results indicated that the sympathetic over-activity is directly correlated to the grade of insulin resistance

  19. Preschoolers with autism show greater impairment in receptive compared with expressive language abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudry, Kristelle; Leadbitter, Kathy; Temple, Kathryn; Slonims, Vicky; McConachie, Helen; Aldred, Catherine; Howlin, Patricia; Charman, Tony

    2010-01-01

    In early typical language development, children understand words before they are able to use them in speech. Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) generally show impairments in both the comprehension and the production of language. However, the relative degree of delay or impairment in each of these sub-domains may also be atypical and remains less well-understood. Relative delay in receptive and expressive language skills was examined within a large sample of preschoolers with autism. Children's language abilities varied from pre-verbal to fluent speech. Scores on one direct clinician assessment and two parent-report measures of language were obtained for 152 preschoolers with core autism. As expected, on average, the language ability of the children with autism was lower than typical age norms, albeit with substantial individual variability. On all three language measures, receptive ability was relatively more impaired than expressive ability. Higher non-verbal ability was associated with such an atypical language profile. Recognition of the marked receptive language impairment relative to expressive language, found to affect at least one-third of preschoolers with autism in this sample, has important implications for interacting with these children and for informing appropriate targets in language and communication intervention.

  20. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging shows altered brain network topology in Type 2 diabetic patients without cognitive impairment.

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    Chen, Guan-Qun; Zhang, Xin; Xing, Yue; Wen, Dong; Cui, Guang-Bin; Han, Ying

    2017-11-28

    We analyzed topology of brain functional networks in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients without mild cognitive impairment. We recruited T2DM patients without mild cognitive impairment (4 males and 8 females) and healthy control subjects (8 males and 16 females) to undergo cognitive testing and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Graph theoretical analysis of functional brain networks revealed abnormal small-world architecture in T2DM patients as compared to control subjects. The functional brain networks of T2DM patients showed increased path length, decreased global efficiency and disrupted long-distance connections. Moreover, reduced nodal characteristics were distributed in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes, while increased nodal characteristics were distributed in the frontal, occipital lobes, and basal ganglia in the T2DM patients. The disrupted topological properties correlated with cognitive performance of T2DM patients. These findings demonstrate altered topological organization of functional brain networks in T2DM patients without mild cognitive impairment.

  1. Subjective benefit after BAHA system application in patients with congenital unilateral conductive hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, Sylvia J W; Hol, Myrthe K S; Mylanus, Emmanuel A M; Leijendeckers, Joop M; Snik, Ad F M; Cremers, Cor W R J

    2008-04-01

    To study whether unilateral Bone-anchored Hearing Aid (BAHA) fitting led to subjective hearing benefit in patients with congenital unilateral conductive hearing impairment. Prospective evaluation on 20 patients. Tertiary referral center. Ten adults and 10 children with congenital unilateral conductive hearing impairment, with a mean air-bone gap of 50 dB, were included. Subjective bilateral hearing benefit after BAHA fitting was measured using 2 disability-specific questionnaires: Chung and Stephens and the Speech, Spatial and Qualities of hearing profile (children's version in the patients aged BAHA fitting. Chung and Stephens' questionnaire showed an overall preference for the BAHA in several specific hearing situations. The Glasgow children's benefit inventory demonstrated an overall mean improvement of +34, which was the most prominent in the learning domain. The 10 adults showed an already good score on the Speech, Spatial and Qualities of hearing scale in the unaided situation. The BAHA was well accepted by most of the patients with congenital unilateral conductive hearing impairment. A preoperative trial of the BAHA system with the BAHA on a headband is part of the preoperative procedure. In children with unilateral conductive hearing loss, with regard to possible childs' development and communication difficulties, intervention with BAHA can be considered as an option.

  2. Peripheral leukocyte populations and oxidative stress biomarkers in aged dogs showing impaired cognitive abilities.

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    Mongillo, Paolo; Bertotto, Daniela; Pitteri, Elisa; Stefani, Annalisa; Marinelli, Lieta; Gabai, Gianfranco

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, the peripheral blood leukocyte phenotypes, lymphocyte subset populations, and oxidative stress parameters were studied in cognitively characterized adult and aged dogs, in order to assess possible relationships between age, cognitive decline, and the immune status. Adult (N = 16, 2-7 years old) and aged (N = 29, older than 8 years) dogs underwent two testing procedures, for the assessment of spatial reversal learning and selective social attention abilities, which were shown to be sensitive to aging in pet dogs. Based on age and performance in cognitive testing, dogs were classified as adult not cognitively impaired (ADNI, N = 12), aged not cognitively impaired (AGNI, N = 19) and aged cognitively impaired (AGCI, N = 10). Immunological and oxidative stress parameters were compared across groups with the Kruskal-Wallis test. AGCI dogs displayed lower absolute CD4 cell count (p dogs had higher CD8 cell percentage than ADNI (p dogs showed lower CD4/CD8 and CD21 count and percentage and higher neutrophil/lymphocyte and CD3/CD21 ratios (p dog as a model for studying the functional relationship between the nervous and immune systems during aging.

  3. Investigation of Psychophysiological and Subjective Effects of Long Working Hours – Do Age and Hearing Impairment Matter?

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    Verena Wagner-Hartl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Following current prognosis, demographic development raises expectations of an aging of the working population. Therefore, keeping employees healthy and strengthening their ability to work, becomes more and more important. When employees become older, dealing with age-related impairments of sensory functions, such as hearing impairment, is a central issue. Recent evidence suggests that negative effects that are associated with reduced hearing can have a strong impact at work. Especially under exhausting working situations such as working overtime hours, age and hearing impairment might influence employees’ well-being. Until now, neither the problem of aged workers and long working hours, nor the problem of hearing impairment and prolonged working time has been addressed explicitly. Therefore, a laboratory study was examined to answer the research question: Do age and hearing impairment have an impact on psychophysiological and subjective effects of long working hours. In total, 51 white-collar workers, aged between 24 and 63 years, participated in the laboratory study. The results show no significant effects for age and hearing impairment on the intensity of subjective consequences (perceived recovery and fatigue, subjective emotional well-being and physical symptoms of long working hours. However, the psychophysiological response (the saliva cortisol level to long working hours differs significantly between hearing impaired and normal hearing employees. Interestingly, the results suggest that from a psychophysiological point of view long working hours were more demanding for normal hearing employees.

  4. Increased prolactin levels are associated with impaired processing speed in subjects with early psychosis.

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    Itziar Montalvo

    Full Text Available Hyperprolactinaemia, a common side effect of some antipsychotic drugs, is also present in drug-naïve psychotic patients and subjects at risk for psychosis. Recent studies in non-psychiatric populations suggest that increased prolactin may have negative effects on cognition. The aim of our study was to explore whether high plasma prolactin levels are associated with poorer cognitive functioning in subjects with early psychoses. We studied 107 participants: 29 healthy subjects and 78 subjects with an early psychosis (55 psychotic disorders with <3 years of illness, 23 high-risk subjects. Cognitive assessment was performed with the MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Cognitive Battery, and prolactin levels were determined as well as total cortisol levels in plasma. Psychopathological status was assessed and the use of psychopharmacological treatments (antipsychotics, antidepressants, benzodiazepines recorded. Prolactin levels were negatively associated with cognitive performance in processing speed, in patients with a psychotic disorder and high-risk subjects. In the latter group, increased prolactin levels were also associated with impaired reasoning and problem solving and poorer general cognition. In a multiple linear regression analysis conducted in both high-risk and psychotic patients, controlling for potential confounders, prolactin and benzodiazepines were independently related to poorer cognitive performance in the speed of processing domain. A mediation analysis showed that both prolactin and benzodiazepine treatment act as mediators of the relationship between risperidone/paliperidone treatment and speed of processing. These results suggest that increased prolactin levels are associated with impaired processing speed in early psychosis. If these results are confirmed in future studies, strategies targeting reduction of prolactin levels may improve cognition in this population.

  5. Evaluation of the Pharmacokinetics and Renal Excretion of Simeprevir in Subjects with Renal Impairment.

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    Ouwerkerk-Mahadevan, Sivi; Beumont-Mauviel, Maria; Mortier, Steven; Peeters, Monika; Verloes, Rene; Truyers, Carla; Mannens, Geert; Wynant, Inneke; Simion, Alexandru

    2015-09-01

    Simeprevir is a N3/4 protease inhibitor approved for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. HCV prevalence is higher in patients with chronic kidney disease compared with the general population; safe and efficacious therapies in renal impairment are needed. To evaluate simeprevir renal excretion in healthy subjects and to compare the simeprevir steady-state pharmacokinetics between subjects with severe renal impairment and healthy subjects. In the mass balance study, healthy adults received a single 200-mg dose of (14)C-simeprevir; radioactivity in the urine and feces was quantified until concentrations were 150 mg simeprevir for 7 days. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed post-dose on Day 7. (14)C-simeprevir recovery from the urine was low (0.009-0.138% of total dose). The minimum plasma concentration, maximum plasma concentration, and area under the plasma concentration-time curve at 24 h were 71, 34, and 62% higher, respectively, in subjects with severe renal impairment compared with healthy subjects. The mean fraction of simeprevir unbound to protein was <0.0001 (all subjects). Most adverse events were grade I or II; one subject with renal impairment who was receiving fenofibrate presented with grade 3 rhabdomyolysis. Simeprevir plasma concentrations were mildly elevated in subjects with severe renal impairment. The results suggest that simeprevir may be administered without dose adjustment in patients with renal impairment.

  6. Gray and white matter changes in subjective cognitive impairment, amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: a voxel-based analysis study.

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    Kuniaki Kiuchi

    Full Text Available Subjective cognitive impairment may be a very early at-risk period of the continuum of dementia. However, it is difficult to discriminate at-risk states from normal aging. Thus, detection of the early pathological changes in the subjective cognitive impairment period is needed. To elucidate these changes, we employed diffusion tensor imaging and volumetry analysis, and compared subjective cognitive impairment with normal, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The subjects in this study were 39 Alzheimer's disease, 43 mild cognitive impairment, 28 subjective cognitive impairment and 41 normal controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the normal control and subjective cognitive impairment groups in all measures. Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment had the same extent of brain atrophy and diffusion changes. These results are consistent with the hypothetical model of the dynamic biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Analyzing the Subjective Consciousness of the Hearing-Impaired Students in Fine-Art Teaching

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    Gao, Yang

    2009-01-01

    Initiative plays an important role in special fine art education. Teachers should take into full consideration the profile of the hearing-impaired students. For better teaching achievement, it is the teachers who shoulder the responsibility to activate the subjective role and consciousness of the hearing-impaired students by arousing their sense…

  8. Female Rats Exposed to Stress and Alcohol Show Impaired Memory and Increased Depressive-like Behaviors

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    Gomez, J.L.; Luine, V.N.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to daily life stressors is associated with increases in anxiety, depression, and overall negative affect. Alcohol or other psychoactive drugs are often used to alleviate stress effects. While females are more than twice as likely to develop mood disorders and are more susceptible to dependency than males, they are infrequently examined. In this study, female rats received no stress/no alcohol control (CON), alcohol alone (ALC), stress alone (STR), or stress plus alcohol (STR+ALC). Stress consisted of restraint for 6hr/day/7days, and alcohol was administered immediately following restraint via gastric gavage at a dose of 2.0 g/kg. Dependent measures included tests utilizing object recognition (OR), Y-maze, elevated plus maze (EPM), forced swim (FST), blood alcohol content, corticosterone levels, and body weights. ALC, STR+ALC, but not stress alone, impaired memory on OR. All treatments impaired spatial memory on the Y-maze. Anxiety was not affected on the EPM, but rats treated with alcohol or in combination with stress showed increased immobility on the FST, suggestive of alcohol-induced depression. Previously, we found alcohol reversed deleterious effects of stress on memory and mood in males, but current results show females reacted negatively when the two treatments were combined. Thus, responses to alcohol, stress and their combination suggest that sex specific treatments are needed for stress-induced behavioral changes and that self-medicating with alcohol to cope with stress maybe deleterious in females. PMID:24096191

  9. Neuropsychological Impairment in Detoxified Alcohol-Dependent Subjects with Preserved Psychosocial Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Martelli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundChronic alcoholism and its related cognitive impairments are associated with increased social, relational, and professional deficits which have a variable overall impact on social integration. These impairments are known to have varying severities and have rarely been studied among healthy alcohol-dependent subjects with preserved psychosocial functioning. Thus, the objective of this study is to describe neuropsychological performance in this particular population.MethodTwenty-nine socially adjusted alcohol-dependent men, hospitalized for a first or second withdrawal and abstinent for 3 weeks minimum, were compared to 29 healthy non-alcoholic controls. All subjects underwent clinical and psychiatric examination, neuropsychological tests of memory (M, working memory (WM, and executive functions (EF. Comparisons were performed using Student’s t-tests or Mann–Whitney U tests.ResultsNo group differences were found on the Self-Reported Social Adjustment Scale (SAS-SR or in the Mini-Mental State Examination. Compared to controls, patients had greater episodic, spatial, and WM deficits as well as slightly altered executive functions. In contrast, their executive functions (spontaneous flexibility, criteria generation, rule maintenance, and inhibitory control were relatively preserved.ConclusionOur sample of socially and professionally integrated alcoholic patients shows fewer cognitive deficits than described in previous studies. Our results suggest that early on, alcohol-dependent subjects develop compensatory adaptation processes to preserve social function and adaptation. Minor cognitive impairments should be screened early in the disease to integrate cognitive interventions into the health-care plan to thus eventually prevent further socio-professional marginalization.

  10. Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Momelotinib in Subjects With Hepatic or Renal Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yan; Kawashima, Jun; Weng, Winnie; Kwan, Ellen; Tarnowski, Thomas; Silverman, Jeffrey A

    2017-12-28

    Momelotinib is a Janus kinase 1/2 inhibitor in clinical development for the treatment of myelofibrosis. Two phase 1 open-label, parallel-group, adaptive studies were conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of a single 200-mg oral dose of momelotinib in subjects with hepatic or renal impairment compared with healthy matched control subjects with normal hepatic or renal function. Plasma pharmacokinetics of momelotinib and its major active metabolite, M21, were evaluated, and geometric least-squares mean ratios (GMRs) and associated 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for impaired versus each control group were calculated for plasma exposures (area under concentration-time curve from time 0 to ∞ [AUC ∞ ] and maximum concentration) of momelotinib and M21. There was no clinically significant difference in plasma exposures of momelotinib and M21 between subjects with moderate or severe renal impairment or moderate hepatic impairment and healthy control subjects. Compared with healthy control subjects, momelotinib AUC ∞ was increased (GMR, 197%; 90%CI, 129%-301%), and M21 AUC ∞ was decreased (GMR, 52%; 90%CI, 34%-79%) in subjects with severe hepatic impairment. The safety profile following a single dose of momelotinib was similar between subjects with hepatic or renal dysfunction and healthy control subjects. These pharmacokinetic and safety results indicate that dose adjustment is not necessary for momelotinib in patients with renal impairment or mild to moderate hepatic impairment. In patients with severe hepatic impairment, however, the dose of momelotinib should be reduced. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  11. Pharmacokinetics and safety of the anti-human cytomegalovirus drug letermovir in subjects with hepatic impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropeit, Dirk; McCormick, David; Erb-Zohar, Katharina; Moiseev, Valentin S; Kobalava, Zhanna D; Stobernack, Hans-Peter; Zimmermann, Holger; Rübsamen-Schaeff, Helga

    2017-07-18

    Human cytomegalovirus constitutes a prevalent and serious threat to immunocompromised individuals and requires new treatments. Letermovir is a novel viral-terminase inhibitor that has demonstrated prophylactic/pre-emptive activity against human cytomegalovirus in Phase 2 and 3 transplant trials. As unchanged letermovir is primarily excreted via the liver by bile, this trial aimed to assess the effect of hepatic impairment on letermovir pharmacokinetics. Phase 1, open-label, parallel-group pharmacokinetic and safety comparison of multiple once-daily oral letermovir in female subjects with hepatic impairment and healthy matched controls. For 8 days, subjects with moderate hepatic impairment (n = 8) and their matched healthy controls (n = 9) received 60 mg letermovir/day and those with severe hepatic impairment (n = 8) and their matched healthy controls (n = 8) received 30 mg letermovir/day. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined from blood samples. For subjects with moderate hepatic impairment, maximal observed concentration at steady state (Css,max ) and the area under the concentration vs. time curve over a dosing interval at steady state (AUCτ,ss ) for total letermovir were 1.37-fold (90% confidence interval: 0.87, 2.17) and 1.59-fold (0.98, 2.57) higher, respectively, than in healthy subjects. For subjects with severe hepatic impairment, Css,max and AUCτ,ss values of total letermovir were 2.34-fold (1.91, 2.88) and 3.82-fold (2.94, 4.97) higher, respectively, compared with healthy subjects. Moderate hepatic impairment increased exposure to letermovir letermovir exposure approximately 4-fold as compared with healthy subjects. Letermovir 60/30 mg/day was generally well-tolerated in subjects with hepatic impairment. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  12. ERPs Reveal Atypical Processing of Subject versus Object "Wh"-Questions in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Baila; Hestvik, Arild; Shafer, Valerie L.; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children with specific language impairment (SLI) show particular difficulty comprehending and producing object ("Who did the bear follow?") relative to subject ("Who followed the tiger?") "wh"-questions. Aims: To determine if school-age children with SLI, relative to children with typical development (TD),…

  13. Comparing subjective and objective evaluation of show jumping competition and warm-up arena surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernlund, E; Egenvall, A; Hobbs, S J; Peterson, M L; Northrop, A J; Bergh, A; Martin, J H; Roepstorff, L

    2017-09-01

    The development of safety and quality standards for equestrian surfaces needs to be based on objective, repeatable measurements which allow comparisons between surfaces. These measurements should incorporate the assessment of surface performance by riders. This study provides data from objective and subjective assessment of functional properties of high-level show jumping competition and warm-up arenas. Twenty-five arenas in nine international show jumping events were evaluated by mechanical in-situ testing with a surface tester, rider assessments using visual analogue scales (198 riders provided 749 arena evaluations), descriptions of arena constructions and by laboratory tests of surface material. Mixed models were used to present subjective evaluation of rider perception of the functional properties for each arena while controlling for rider and event. The association between objective and subjective assessments were also explored creating mixed models, controlling for rider and event. Mechanical measurements of impact firmness, and to a lesser extent cushioning and grip, had a significant positive association with the riders' perception. Responsiveness as assessed by the Orono biomechanical surface tester (OBST) was negatively associated with the riders' perceptions, which suggests riders and the OBST had different concepts of this functional property and that further developments of the OBST might be necessary. Objectively measured uniformity showed no useful association with riders' perception. Even though arena assessments were made by top level riders, a substantial inter-rider variation was demonstrated. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Female rats exposed to stress and alcohol show impaired memory and increased depressive-like behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, J L; Luine, V N

    2014-01-17

    Exposure to daily life stressors is associated with increases in anxiety, depression, and overall negative affect. Alcohol or other psychoactive drugs are often used to alleviate stress effects. While females are more than twice as likely to develop mood disorders and are more susceptible to dependency than males, they are infrequently examined. In this study, female rats received no stress/no alcohol control (CON), alcohol alone (ALC), stress alone (STR), or stress plus alcohol (STR+ALC). Stress consisted of restraint for 6h/day/7days, and alcohol was administered immediately following restraint via gastric gavage at a dose of 2.0g/kg. Dependent measures included tests utilizing object recognition (OR), Y-maze, elevated plus maze (EPM), forced swim (FST), blood alcohol content, corticosterone levels, and body weights. ALC, STR+ALC, but not stress alone, impaired memory on OR. All treatments impaired spatial memory on the Y-maze. Anxiety was not affected on the EPM, but rats treated with alcohol or in combination with stress showed increased immobility on the FST, suggestive of alcohol-induced depression. Previously, we found alcohol reversed deleterious effects of stress on memory and mood in males, but current results show that females reacted negatively when the two treatments were combined. Thus, responses to alcohol, stress and their combination suggest that sex specific treatments are needed for stress-induced behavioral changes and that self-medicating with alcohol to cope with stress maybe deleterious in females. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. PET and MRI show differences in cerebral asymmetry and functional connectivity between homo- and heterosexual subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Ivanka; Lindström, Per

    2008-07-08

    Cerebral responses to putative pheromones and objects of sexual attraction were recently found to differ between homo- and heterosexual subjects. Although this observation may merely mirror perceptional differences, it raises the intriguing question as to whether certain sexually dimorphic features in the brain may differ between individuals of the same sex but different sexual orientation. We addressed this issue by studying hemispheric asymmetry and functional connectivity, two parameters that in previous publications have shown specific sex differences. Ninety subjects [25 heterosexual men (HeM) and women (HeW), and 20 homosexual men (HoM) and women (HoW)] were investigated with magnetic resonance volumetry of cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres. Fifty of them also participated in PET measurements of cerebral blood flow, used for analyses of functional connections from the right and left amygdalae. HeM and HoW showed a rightward cerebral asymmetry, whereas volumes of the cerebral hemispheres were symmetrical in HoM and HeW. No cerebellar asymmetries were found. Homosexual subjects also showed sex-atypical amygdala connections. In HoM, as in HeW, the connections were more widespread from the left amygdala; in HoW and HeM, on the other hand, from the right amygdala. Furthermore, in HoM and HeW the connections were primarily displayed with the contralateral amygdala and the anterior cingulate, in HeM and HoW with the caudate, putamen, and the prefrontal cortex. The present study shows sex-atypical cerebral asymmetry and functional connections in homosexual subjects. The results cannot be primarily ascribed to learned effects, and they suggest a linkage to neurobiological entities.

  16. Are depressive symptomatology and self-focused attention associated with subjective memory impairment in older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Juhee; Oh, Kyung Ja; Seo, Sang Won; Na, Duk L

    2014-04-01

    Subjective memory impairment (SMI) refers to conditions in which people complain of memory problems despite intact cognition. The primary purpose of the present study was to examine the roles of self-focused attention and depressive symptomatology in subjective memory complaints. One hundred and eight patients who visited a memory disorder clinic with complaints of memory decline, but who were found on subsequent neuropsychological assessment to have normal cognitive function, were recruited to participate in the study. The severity of subjective memory complaints was measured with the modified Multifactorial Memory Questionnaire. In addition, neuropsychological functions, self-focused attention, and depressive symptomatology were also assessed. The results showed that the severity of SMI was not significantly correlated with any of the neuropsychological test scores except for the complex figure copy. The severity of SMI, however, was significantly correlated with self-focused attention and depressive symptomatology. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that self-focused attention and depressive symptomatology significantly contributed to the severity of subjective memory complaints over and above the neuropsychological test performance. The interaction effects between self-focused attention/depressive symptomatology and objective memory performance on the severity of SMI were not significant. In conclusion, self-focused attention and depressive symptomatology appear to play important roles in the severity of SMI, even though it is not clear how these factors interact with objective memory performance. Clinical implications as well as limitations of the present study were discussed.

  17. Association between cognitive impairment and eating habits in elderly Chinese subjects over 90 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lingyun; Dong, Birong; Hao, Qiu Kui; Ding, Xiang

    2013-08-01

    Eating habits may have a key influence on cognitive function, however, the relationship between dietary intake and cognitive impairment in the elderly Chinese population has not been explored. The present study investigated the association between cognitive impairment and eating habits in elderly Chinese subjects >90 years of age. This study comprised data from subjects included in the 2005 Project of Longevity and Ageing in Dujiangyan, China. Subjects were divided into two groups: cognitive impairment group and normal group. Sociodemographic and dietary habit data were collected and cognitive function was assessed in all subjects using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Data from 763 subjects (249 men, 514 women) were included. There was no statistically significant difference in eating habits between the two groups. Education level in the cognitive impairment group was significantly lower than in the normal group. Significant between-group differences were detected in factors relating to subjects' professions. Eating habits were not related to cognitive impairment in elderly Chinese people >90 years of age.

  18. A look at risk factors of proteinuria in subjects without impaired renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Proteinuria is a common marker of kidney damage. This study aimed at determining predictors of proteinuria in subjects without impaired renal filtration function in Owerri, Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 136 subjects, consecutively drawn from Federal Medical Centre (FMC), Owerri, ...

  19. Morphometric connectivity analysis to distinguish normal, mild cognitive impaired, and Alzheimer subjects based on brain MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erleben, Lene Lillemark; Sørensen, Lauge; Mysling, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates a novel way of looking at the regions in the brain and their relationship as possible markers to classify normal control (NC), mild cognitive impaired (MCI), and Alzheimer Disease (AD) subjects. MRI scans from a subset of 101 subjects from the ADNI study at baseline was used...

  20. Elevated risk of an intermediate or high SYNTAX score in subjects with impaired fasting glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xishan; Liu, Hui; Yang, Fangfang; Dong, Pingshuan; Fa, Xianen; Zhang, Qingyong; Li, Li; Wang, Zhikuan; Zhao, Di

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the SYNTAX score under different fasting plasma glucose (FPG) states in Chinese patients undergoing coronary angiography, particularly subjects with impaired FPG. Four hundred and forty-six subjects undergoing coronary angiography were enrolled in this study and divided into four groups based on the FPG level or a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM): normal FPG, impaired FPG, known and previously unknown T2DM. The angiographic SYNTAX scores were higher in the subjects with known (pimportance of achieving better glycemic control in order to prevent coronary atherosclerosis and improve the cardiovascular prognosis.

  1. Left and right brain-oriented hemisity subjects show opposite behavioral preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Eldine Morton

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recently, three independent, intercorrelated biophysical measures have provided the first quantitative measures of a binary form of behavioral laterality called Hemisity, a term referring to inherent opposite right or left brain-oriented differences in thinking and behavioral styles. Crucially, the right or left brain-orientation of individuals assessed by these methods was later found to be essentially congruent with the thicker side of their ventral gyrus of the anterior cingulate cortex (vgACC as revealed by a 3 minute MRI procedure. Laterality of this putative executive structural element has thus become the primary standard defining individual hemisity. Methods: Here, the behavior of 150 subjects, whose hemisity had been calibrated by MRI, was assessed using five MRI-calibrated preference questionnaires, two of which were new.Results: Right and left brain-oriented subjects selected opposite answers (p > 0.05 for 47 of the 107 either-or, forced choice type preference questionnaire items. Hemisity subtype preference differences were present in several areas. They were in: a. logical orientation, b. type of consciousness, c. fear level and sensitivity, d. social-professional orientation, and e. pair bonding-spousal dominance style.Conclusions: The right and left brain-oriented hemisity subtype subjects, sorted on the anatomical basis of upon which brain side their vgACC was thickest, showed numerous significant differences in their either-or type of behavioral preferences.

  2. Left and right brain-oriented hemisity subjects show opposite behavioral preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Bruce E

    2012-01-01

    Recently, three independent, intercorrelated biophysical measures have provided the first quantitative measures of a binary form of behavioral laterality called "Hemisity," a term referring to inherent opposite right or left brain-oriented differences in thinking and behavioral styles. Crucially, the right or left brain-orientation of individuals assessed by these methods was later found to be essentially congruent with the thicker side of their ventral gyrus of the anterior cingulate cortex (vgACC) as revealed by a 3 min MRI procedure. Laterality of this putative executive structural element has thus become the primary standard defining individual hemisity. Here, the behavior of 150 subjects, whose hemisity had been calibrated by MRI, was assessed using five MRI-calibrated preference questionnaires, two of which were new. Right and left brain-oriented subjects selected opposite answers (p > 0.05) for 47 of the 107 "either-or," forced choice type preference questionnaire items. The resulting 30 hemisity subtype preference differences were present in several areas. These were: (1) in logical orientation, (2) in type of consciousness, (3) in fear level and sensitivity, (4) in social-professional orientation, and (5) in pair bonding-spousal dominance style. The right and left brain-oriented hemisity subtype subjects, sorted on the anatomical basis of upon which brain side their vgACC was thickest, showed 30 significant differences in their "either-or" type of behavioral preferences.

  3. Optimizing the diagnosis of early Alzheimer's disease in mild cognitive impairment subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattila, Jussi; Soininen, Hilkka; Koikkalainen, Juha

    2012-01-01

    In the diagnostic process of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there may be considerable delays between first contact to outpatient services and a final, definitive diagnosis. In Europe the average delay is 20 months. Nevertheless, patient data preceding clinical AD diagnoses often contains early signs...... of the disease. Several studies have analyzed data of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects, showing that conversion from MCI to AD can be predicted with a classification accuracy of 60-80%. This accuracy may not be high enough for influencing diagnostic decisions. In this work, the prediction problem...... is approached differently; a target prediction accuracy is defined first and is then used for identifying MCI patients for whom the required accuracy can be reached. The process uses a novel disease state index method in which patient data are statistically compared to a high number of previously diagnosed...

  4. Pharmacokinetics and renal excretion of desmopressin after intravenous administration to healthy subjects and renally impaired patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agersø, Henrik; Seiding Larsen, Lotte; Riis, Anders; Lövgren, Ulf; Karlsson, Mats O; Senderovitz, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the influence of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of desmopressin. Methods Twenty-four subjects were enrolled in the study, 18 with varying degrees of renal impairment and six healthy volunteers. Each subject received a single intravenous dose of 2 µg desmopressin. Blood and urine samples were collected for 24 h and assayed for desmopressin by radioimmunoassay. Plasma concentrations and the amounts of desmopressin excreted in the urine were analysed simultaneously by use of mixed effects modelling. Results Only mild adverse events were observed. Both the renal and the nonrenal clearance of desmopressin were found to vary with the creatinine clearance (CrCL). A decrease of 1.67% in the CrCL (corresponding to 1 ml min−1 from 60 ml min−1) was found to cause a 1.74% decrease in the renal clearance and a 0.93% decrease in the nonrenal clearance. The fall in renal clearance caused the amount of desmopressin excreted in urine to decrease from 47% in healthy subjects to 21% in the patients with severe renal impairment. The mean systemic clearance of desmopressin was 10 litres h−1 in healthy subjects and 2.9 litres h−1 in patients with severe renal impairment (difference −7.5 litres h−1, 95% CI [−11; −4.3] litres h−1). Correspondingly, the mean terminal half-life, was 3.7 h in healthy subjects and 10 h in patients with severe renal impairment (difference 6.7 h, 95% CI [4.0; 9.4] h). Conclusion Although desmopressin appears to be safe and well-tolerated by patients with impaired renal function, great caution should be exercised when titrating towards an efficient dosage regimen if patients with moderately or severely impaired renal function are to be treated with desmopressin at all. PMID:15373927

  5. Plasma and serum lipidomics of healthy white adults shows characteristic profiles by subjects' gender and age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Ishikawa

    Full Text Available Blood is a commonly used biofluid for biomarker discovery. Although blood lipid metabolites are considered to be potential biomarker candidates, their fundamental properties are not well characterized. We aimed to (1 investigate the matrix type (serum vs. plasma that may be preferable for lipid biomarker exploration, (2 elucidate age- and gender-associated differences in lipid metabolite levels, and (3 examine the stability of lipid metabolites in matrix samples subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we performed lipidomic analyses for fasting plasma and serum samples for four groups (15 subjects/group of young and elderly (25-34 and 55-64 years old, respectively males and females and for an additional aliquot of samples from young males, which were subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Lysophosphatidylcholine and diacylglycerol levels were higher in serum than in plasma samples, suggesting that the clotting process influences serum lipid metabolite levels. Gender-associated differences highlighted that the levels of many sphingomyelin species were significantly higher in females than in males, irrespective of age and matrix (plasma and serum. Age-associated differences were more prominent in females than in males, and in both matrices, levels of many triacylglycerols were significantly higher in elderly females than in young females. Plasma and serum levels of most lipid metabolites were reduced by freeze-thawing. Our results indicate that plasma is an optimal matrix for exploring lipid biomarkers because it represents the original properties of an individual's blood sample. In addition, the levels of some blood lipid species of healthy adults showed gender- and age-associated differences; thus, this should be considered during biomarker exploration and its application in diagnostics. Our fundamental findings on sample selection and handling procedures for measuring blood lipid metabolites

  6. Tolerable hearing-aid delays: IV. effects on subjective disturbance during speech production by hearing-impaired subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Michael A; Moore, Brian C J

    2005-04-01

    We assessed the effects of time delay in a hearing aid on subjective disturbance and reading rates while the user of the aid was speaking, using hearing-impaired subjects and real-time processing. The time delay was constant across frequency. A digital signal processor was programmed as a four-channel, fast-acting, wide-dynamic-range compression hearing aid. One of four delays could be selected on the aid to produce a total delay of 13, 21, 30, or 40 msec between microphone and receiver. Twenty-five subjects, mostly with near-symmetric hearing impairment of cochlear origin, were fitted bilaterally with behind-the-ear aids connected to the processor. The aids were programmed with insertion gains prescribed by the CAMEQ loudness equalization procedure for each subject and ear. Subjects were asked to read aloud from scripts: speech production rates were measured and subjective ratings of the disturbance of the delay were obtained. Subjects required some training to recognize the effects of the delay to rate it consistently. Subjective disturbance increased progressively with increasing delay and was a nonmonotonic function of low-frequency hearing loss. Subjects with mild or severe low-frequency hearing loss were generally less disturbed by the delay than those with moderate loss. Disturbance ratings tended to decrease over successive tests. Word production rates were not significantly affected by delay over the range of delays tested. The results follow a pattern similar to those presented in , obtained using a simulation of hearing loss and normally hearing subjects, except for the nonmonotonic variation of disturbance with low-frequency hearing loss. We hypothesize that disturbance is maximal when the levels in the ear canal of the low-frequency components are similar for the unaided and aided sounds. A rating of 3, which is probably just acceptable, was obtained for delays ranging from 14 to 30 msec, depending on the hearing loss. Some acclimatization to the

  7. Evaluation of the pharmacokinetics and safety of bosutinib in patients with chronic hepatic impairment and matched healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Richat; Chalon, Stephan; Leister, Cathie; El Gaaloul, Myriam; Sonnichsen, Daryl

    2013-01-01

    Bosutinib, a dual Src/Abl kinase inhibitor in development for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia, is primarily metabolized by the CYP3A4 hepatic enzyme. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics and safety of bosutinib in patients with chronic hepatic impairment and matched healthy subjects. Hepatically impaired patients were aged 18-65 years and of Child-Pugh classes A, B, or C; healthy subjects were matched by age, sex, body mass index, and smoking habits. A single oral dose of bosutinib 200 mg was administered on day 1 within 5 min after completion of breakfast. Compared with healthy subjects (n = 9), maximal plasma concentration (C(max)) and area under the curve increased 2.42-fold and 2.25-fold in Child-Pugh A (n = 6), 1.99-fold and 2.0-fold in Child-Pugh B (n = 6), and 1.52-fold and 1.91-fold in Child-Pugh C patients (n = 6). Time to C(max) decreased from 4 h in healthy subjects to 2.5, 2.0, and 1.5 h in Child-Pugh A, B, and C patients, respectively; the elimination half-life increased from 55 h in healthy subjects to 86, 113, and 111 h in Child-Pugh A, B, and C patients. Bosutinib oral clearance was lower in hepatically impaired patients compared with healthy subjects. Frequently reported adverse events included prolonged QTc interval (37.0%, n = 10), nausea (11.1%, n = 3), and vomiting (7.4%, n = 2). A single oral dose of bosutinib 200 mg showed acceptable tolerability in healthy subjects and in patients with mild, moderate, or severe chronic hepatic impairment.

  8. CD27-deficient mice show normal NK-cell differentiation but impaired function upon stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Colvenaer, Veerle; Taveirne, Sylvie; Delforche, Maarten; De Smedt, Magda; Vandekerckhove, Bart; Taghon, Tom; Boon, Louis; Plum, Jean; Leclercq, Georges

    2011-10-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are part of the first line defense against tumors, parasites and virus-infected cells. Therefore, factors that control NK-cell numbers and their function are important. CD27 is constitutively expressed on NK cells and its expression correlates with sequential phases in NK-cell development, discriminating phenotypically and functionally different subsets within the NK-cell population. Although CD27 has been described to have an important regulatory role in effector and memory T and B lymphocytes, its role in NK-cell biology remains to be addressed. In this study, we used CD27(-/-) mice to investigate the role of CD27 in NK-cell development and function, both during the resting state and upon stimulation. The results show that NK-cell numbers are not impaired in CD27(-/-) mice. Moreover, CD27(-/-) NK cells reach full phenotypic maturity, evidenced by normal expression of CD49b, CD43 and CD11b. Expression of activating receptors is unaltered, whereas expression of several inhibitory receptors is increased. Cytotoxicity and interferon-γ production by NK cells from CD27(-/-) mice in the resting state are normal. However, upon in vivo anti-CD40- or poly-I:C-mediated activation, or in vitro interleukin-15 priming plus anti-NKp46 stimulation, the absence of CD27 results in decreased cytolytic activity and cytokine production by spleen and liver NK cells. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that CD27 is dispensable for the development of functional NK cells. However, upon stimulation of NK cells, CD27 displays an important role in their activation and functionality.

  9. Which symptoms can distinguish between subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Bora; Shim, Yong S; Hong, Yun-Jeong; Kim, Yong-Duk; Lee, Kee Ook; Na, Sang-Jun; Yang, Dong-Won

    2012-01-01

    The SCI, the MCI, and the Alzheimer's disease (AD) are on a spectrum of disease progression; therefore, identification of the earliest signs of cognitive deterioration is becoming a crucial issue. The goal of this study was to examine symptom characteristics and distinguish predictive symptoms in patients with MCI compared with SCI, using caregiver questionnaires. We assessed the Korean Dementia Screening Questionnaire (KDSQ) and Seoul Instrumental activities of Daily Living (S-IADL) of 344 subjects with SCI and 697 with MCI. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted after adjusting for age, sex, and educational status. Common and rare symptoms were similar between the SCI and MCI groups. The most distinguishing features of KDSQ were 'Finds it hard to go somewhere on his/her own using public transportation' (odds ratio=OR=4.56, psymptoms also have a discriminative and predictive power in identifying SCI. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Gait stability and variability measures show effects of impaired cognition and dual tasking in frail people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamoth, C.J.; van Deudekom, F.J.; van Campen, J.P.; Appels, B.A.; de Vries, O.J.; Pijnappels, M.A.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Falls in frail elderly are a common problem with a rising incidence. Gait and postural instability are major risk factors for falling, particularly in geriatric patients. As walking requires attention, cognitive impairments are likely to contribute to an increased fall risk. An objective

  11. The effect of specific compression settings on phoneme identification in hearing-impaired subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreschler, W. A.

    1988-01-01

    In this study, some aspects of single-channel compression have been investigated in 15 hearing-impaired subjects and 4 normal-hearing listeners. Phoneme perception as a function of the compression-threshold level was measured for two hearing aids with input-dependent compression, differing in

  12. Subjective benefit after BAHA system application in patients with congenital unilateral conductive hearing impairment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunst, S.J.W.; Hol, M.K.S.; Mylanus, E.A.M.; Leijendeckers, J.M.; Snik, A.F.M.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study whether unilateral Bone-anchored Hearing Aid (BAHA) fitting led to subjective hearing benefit in patients with congenital unilateral conductive hearing impairment. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective evaluation on 20 patients. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Ten adults and 10

  13. Impaired masturbation-induced erections: a new cardiovascular risk factor for male subjects with sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastrelli, Giulia; Boddi, Valentina; Corona, Giovanni; Mannucci, Edoardo; Maggi, Mario

    2013-04-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is considered an early surrogate marker of silent, or even overt, cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, epidemiological studies take into account only sexual intercourse-related erections. Although autoeroticism is a very common practice, data on masturbation-induced erections as a possible predictor of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) are lacking. To evaluate the clinical correlates of impaired masturbation-induced erections and to verify the importance of this sexual aspect in predicting MACE. A consecutive series of 4,031 male patients attending the Outpatient Clinic for sexual dysfunction for the first time was retrospectively studied. Among these subjects, 64% reported autoeroticism during the last 3 months, and only this subset was considered in the following analyses. In the longitudinal study, 862 subjects reporting autoeroticism were enrolled. Several clinical, biochemical, and instrumental (Prostaglandin E1 [PGE1 ] test and penile color Doppler ultrasound) parameters were studied. Subjects with an impaired erection during masturbation (46% of those reporting autoeroticism) had more often a positive personal or family history of CVD, a higher risk of reduced intercourse- and sleep-related erections, hypoactive sexual desire and perceived reduced ejaculate volume, and impaired PGE1 test response. Prolactin levels were lower in those having impaired erection during masturbation. In the longitudinal study, unadjusted incidence of MACE was significantly associated with impaired masturbation-induced erections. When dividing the population according to the median age and diagnosis of diabetes, the association between impaired masturbation-induced erections and incidence of MACE was maintained only in the youngest (masturbation-induced erections, can provide further insights on forthcoming MACE in particular in "low risk" subjects. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  14. Subjective cognitive failures after stroke in young adults: prevalent but not related to cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaijwee, Noortje A M M; Schaapsmeerders, Pauline; Rutten-Jacobs, Loes C A; Arntz, Renate M; Schoonderwaldt, Hennie C; van Dijk, Ewoud J; Kessels, Roy P C; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik

    2014-07-01

    Few studies exist on subjective cognitive failures after a stroke in young adults (≤50 years) and their relation to objective cognitive performance is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of subjective cognitive failures in patients with a stroke in young adulthood and their relation with objective cognitive impairment. This study is part of the "Follow-Up of Transient ischemic attack and stroke patients and Unelucidated Risk factor Evaluation"-study (FUTURE study), including patients, aged 18-50 years, admitted to our hospital between 1980 and 2010 with a first-ever TIA or ischemic stroke. The prevalence of subjective cognitive failures in patients was determined and compared with 146 age- and sex-matched stroke-free controls. The relation of subjective failures with objective cognitive performance was investigated with linear and logistic regression analysis. 160 patients with a TIA and 277 with an ischemic stroke were included. After a mean follow-up of 10.1 (SD 8.3) years, the prevalence of subjective memory failures was 86.4% and that of subjective executive failures was 67.4% in patients, versus 69.7% (p = 0.008) and 41.4% (p = 0.002) in controls. A weak association between subjective memory failures and objective immediate (beta -0.12, p = 0.011) and delayed memory performance (beta -0.13, p = 0.010) was observed in patients. Subjective cognitive failures are prevalent after stroke in young adults, but not strongly related to objective cognitive impairment. Therefore, extensive neuropsychological assessment is essential for determination of objective cognitive impairment. However, it is important that subjective cognitive failures are recognized as they may indicate underlying psychosocial problems.

  15. Gait stability and variability measures show effects of impaired cognition and dual tasking in frail people

    OpenAIRE

    de Vries Oscar J; Appels Bregje A; van Campen Jos P; van Deudekom Floor J; Lamoth Claudine J; Pijnappels Mirjam

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Falls in frail elderly are a common problem with a rising incidence. Gait and postural instability are major risk factors for falling, particularly in geriatric patients. As walking requires attention, cognitive impairments are likely to contribute to an increased fall risk. An objective quantification of gait and balance ability is required to identify persons with a high tendency to fall. Recent studies have shown that stride variability is increased in elderly and under...

  16. Individuals with medial knee osteoarthritis show neuromuscular adaptation when perturbed during walking despite functional and structural impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Swanik, Charles Buz; Reisman, Darcy S; Rudolph, Katherine S

    2014-01-01

    Neuromuscular control relies on sensory feedback that influences responses to changing external demands, and the normal response is for movement and muscle activation patterns to adapt to repeated perturbations. People with knee osteoarthritis (OA) are known to have pain, quadriceps weakness, and neuromotor deficits that could affect adaption to external perturbations. The aim of this study was to analyze neuromotor adaptation during walking in people with knee OA (n = 38) and controls (n = 23). Disability, quadriceps strength, joint space width, malalignment, and proprioception were assessed. Kinematic and EMG data were collected during undisturbed walking and during perturbations that caused lateral translation of the foot at initial contact. Knee excursions and EMG magnitudes were analyzed. Subjects with OA walked with less knee motion and higher muscle activation and had greater pain, limitations in function, quadriceps weakness, and malalignment, but no difference was observed in proprioception. Both groups showed increased EMG and decreased knee motion in response to the first perturbation, followed by progressively decreased EMG activity and increased knee motion during midstance over the first five perturbations, but no group differences were observed. Over 30 trials, EMG levels returned to those of normal walking. The results illustrate that people with knee OA respond similarly to healthy individuals when exposed to challenging perturbations during functional weight-bearing activities despite structural, functional, and neuromotor impairments. Mechanisms underlying the adaptive response in people with knee OA need further study.

  17. Extended retention intervals can help to bridge the gap between subjective and objective memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Juri-Alexander; Glöckner, Carina; Helmstaedter, Christoph

    2012-03-01

    Despite their excellent clinical validity, objective measures of memory often do not reflect self-perceived memory impairment. This discordance has mostly been attributed to depressed mood. Alternatively, a lack of ecological validity due to the rather short standard retention intervals of 20-60 min may be responsible for this discordance. Therefore, we explored the value of extended retention intervals in regard to subjective memory deficits. Our prospective study was based on 73 patients with epilepsy. In addition to the standard 30-min retention interval of a verbal learning and memory test (VLMT) patients were randomized to either a free delayed recall after 1 week or after 4 weeks. Mood was assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Forty-four patients (60%) reported self-perceived memory deficits, whereas objective verbal memory impairment was present in 26 patients (36%). Concordance between subjective and objective memory performance was observed in 53% of the patients. Multivariate analyses identified memory performance after 4 weeks and self-rated mood as determinants of subjective memory impairment. Self-perceived memory impairment correlated with the number of remembered words after 4 weeks (r = -0.361, p = 0.030) and the BDI total score (r = 0.332, p = 0.004) but neither with recall performance after 30 min nor after 1 week. Subjective memory appears to follow a different time scale than routine memory testing. Thus, the introduction of longer retention intervals may enhance the ecological validity of standard memory tests. Furthermore, the findings again underscore that controlling for mood is mandatory when dealing with subjective memory complaints. Copyright © 2011 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to differentiate between Healthy Aging subjects, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer’s Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Oghabian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Back ground: Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia which is still difficult to be differentiated from other types of brain disorders. Moreover, Mild Cognitive Impairment refers to the presence of cognitive impairments that is not severe enough to meet the criteria of dementia, and its diagnosis in early stages is so critical. There is currently no distinct method available for diagnosing Alzheimer's or Mild Cognitive Impairment, and their diagnosis needs a combination of different methods and assessments.

    Methods: Our goal in this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of fMRI imaging in differentiating between Alzheimer's, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI and Healthy Aging. To prove fMRI's ability, we compared resting-state brain activation patterns between these three groups of subjects using Independent Component Algorithm (ICA. We examined 40 age- and sex-matched subjects, 15 elderly, 11 MCI and 14 Alzheimer's subjects.

    Results: The results show that during a certain resting-state session, healthy aging brain benefits from larger area and greater intensity of activation (compared with MCI and Alzheimer's group in Posterior Cingulate Cortex (PCC region of the brain, as part of Default Mode Network.

    Conclusion: This difference in activation pattern can be used as a diagnostic criterion in using fMRI for differentiating between Alzheimer's disease (AD, MCI and Healthy Aging.


    Keywords: fMRI, Default Mode Network, Alzheimer's, Mild Cognitive Impairment, Resting-State

  19. Predictors of incretin concentrations in subjects with normal, impaired, and diabetic glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollmer, Kirsten; Holst, Jens Juul; Baller, Birgit

    2008-01-01

    participated in an oral glucose tolerance test (75 g) and a mixed meal challenge (820 kcal), both carried out over 240 min on separate occasions. Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, triglycerides, free fatty acids (FFAs), gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), and GLP-1 were determined......OBJECTIVE: Defects in glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion have been reported in some patients with type 2 diabetes after meal ingestion. We addressed the following questions: 1) Is the quantitative impairment in GLP-1 levels different after mixed meal or isolated glucose ingestion? 2) Which...... endogenous factors are associated with the concentrations of GLP-1? In particular, do elevated fasting glucose or glucagon levels diminish GLP-1 responses? RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Seventeen patients with mild type 2 diabetes, 17 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance, and 14 matched control subjects...

  20. Gait stability and variability measures show effects of impaired cognition and dual tasking in frail people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vries Oscar J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Falls in frail elderly are a common problem with a rising incidence. Gait and postural instability are major risk factors for falling, particularly in geriatric patients. As walking requires attention, cognitive impairments are likely to contribute to an increased fall risk. An objective quantification of gait and balance ability is required to identify persons with a high tendency to fall. Recent studies have shown that stride variability is increased in elderly and under dual task condition and might be more sensitive to detect fall risk than walking speed. In the present study we complemented stride related measures with measures that quantify trunk movement patterns as indicators of dynamic balance ability during walking. The aim of the study was to quantify the effect of impaired cognition and dual tasking on gait variability and stability in geriatric patients. Methods Thirteen elderly with dementia (mean age: 82.6 ± 4.3 years and thirteen without dementia (79.4 ± 5.55 recruited from a geriatric day clinic, walked at self-selected speed with and without performing a verbal dual task. The Mini Mental State Examination and the Seven Minute Screen were administered. Trunk accelerations were measured with an accelerometer. In addition to walking speed, mean, and variability of stride times, gait stability was quantified using stochastic dynamical measures, namely regularity (sample entropy, long range correlations and local stability exponents of trunk accelerations. Results Dual tasking significantly (p Conclusions The observed trunk adaptations were a consistent instability factor. These results support the concept that changes in cognitive functions contribute to changes in the variability and stability of the gait pattern. Walking under dual task conditions and quantifying gait using dynamical parameters can improve detecting walking disorders and might help to identify those elderly who are able to adapt walking

  1. Gait stability and variability measures show effects of impaired cognition and dual tasking in frail people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoth, Claudine J; van Deudekom, Floor J; van Campen, Jos P; Appels, Bregje A; de Vries, Oscar J; Pijnappels, Mirjam

    2011-01-17

    Falls in frail elderly are a common problem with a rising incidence. Gait and postural instability are major risk factors for falling, particularly in geriatric patients. As walking requires attention, cognitive impairments are likely to contribute to an increased fall risk. An objective quantification of gait and balance ability is required to identify persons with a high tendency to fall. Recent studies have shown that stride variability is increased in elderly and under dual task condition and might be more sensitive to detect fall risk than walking speed. In the present study we complemented stride related measures with measures that quantify trunk movement patterns as indicators of dynamic balance ability during walking. The aim of the study was to quantify the effect of impaired cognition and dual tasking on gait variability and stability in geriatric patients. Thirteen elderly with dementia (mean age: 82.6 ± 4.3 years) and thirteen without dementia (79.4 ± 5.55) recruited from a geriatric day clinic, walked at self-selected speed with and without performing a verbal dual task. The Mini Mental State Examination and the Seven Minute Screen were administered. Trunk accelerations were measured with an accelerometer. In addition to walking speed, mean, and variability of stride times, gait stability was quantified using stochastic dynamical measures, namely regularity (sample entropy, long range correlations) and local stability exponents of trunk accelerations. Dual tasking significantly (p dual task conditions. The observed trunk adaptations were a consistent instability factor. These results support the concept that changes in cognitive functions contribute to changes in the variability and stability of the gait pattern. Walking under dual task conditions and quantifying gait using dynamical parameters can improve detecting walking disorders and might help to identify those elderly who are able to adapt walking ability and those who are not and thus are at

  2. Sex-specific effects of subjective memory complaints with respect to cognitive impairment or depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Tetsu; Sugawara, Norio; Kaneda, Ayako; Okubo, Noriyuki; Iwane, Kaori; Takahashi, Ippei; Kaneko, Sunao; Yasui-Furukori, Norio

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between subjective memory complaints (SMC) and sex. We researched the prevalence of SMC in a sample of 394 participants who were at least 60 years of age (138 male and 256 female). We also administered the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression (CES-D) scale. A multiple logistic regression analysis, which included SMC in association with the MMSE or CES-D scores and other confounding factors, was performed to determine the influence of sex on SMC. A P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The durations of education of male participants were significantly higher than those of female participants. MMSE scores for female participants were significantly higher than those for male participants. There was no significant difference in CES-D scores between male and female participants. Twenty-four male participants and 72 female participants showed evidence of SMC. The incidence of SMC was more frequent in female participants than in male participants. In all participants, sex difference and CES-D score were significantly associated with SMC. In male participants, MMSE score was independently and significantly associated with SMC. Both in female participants and all participants, CES-D score was independently and significantly associated with SMC. SMC varied by sex and were associated with the degree of cognitive impairment in male participants, while they were associated with depressive symptoms in female participants.

  3. Comparison of different pointing methods for sound localizability measurement in the vision impaired subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Atsunori; Ohsugi, Yudai; Yamamoto, Yuki; Nakamura, Takabun; Sugiura, Toshifumi; Tauchi, Masaki

    2007-05-01

    In order to find out the most suitable and accurate pointing methods to study the sound localizability of persons with visual impairment, we compared the accuracy of three different pointing methods for indicating the direction of sound sources in a semi-anechoic dark room. Six subjects with visual impairment (two totally blind and four with low vision) participated in this experiment. The three pointing methods employed were (1) directing the face, (2) directing the body trunk on a revolving chair and (3) indicating a tactile cue placed horizontally in front of the subject. Seven sound emitters were arranged in a semicircle 2.0 m from the subject, 0 degrees to +/-80 degrees of the subject's midline, at a height of 1.2 m. The accuracy of the pointing methods was evaluated by measuring the deviation between the angle of the target sound source and that of the subject's response. The result was that all methods indicated that as the angle of the sound source increased from midline, the accuracy decreased. The deviations recorded toward the left and the right of midline were symmetrical. In the whole frontal area (-80 degrees to +80 degrees from midline), both the tactile cue and the body trunk methods were more accurate than the face-pointing method. There was no significant difference in the center (-40 degrees to +40 degrees from midline). In the periphery (-80 degrees and +80 degrees ), the tactile cue pointing method was the most accurate of all and the body trunk method was the next best. These results suggest that the most suitable pointing methods to study the sound localizability of the frontal azimuth for subjects who are visually impaired are the tactile cue and the body trunk methods because of their higher accuracy in the periphery.

  4. Time perception in mild cognitive impairment: Interval length and subjective passage of time

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Sara; Guerreiro, Manuela; Chester, Catarina Carapeto da Silva; Silva, Dina Lúcia Gomes da, 1981-; Maroco, João; Coelho, Miguel; Paglieri, Fabio; de Mendonça, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may have difficulties in time perception, which in turn might contribute to some of their symptoms, especially memory deficits. The aim of this study was to evaluate perception of interval length and subjective passage of time in MCI patients as compared to healthy controls. Methods: Fifty-five MCI patients and 57 healthy controls underwent an experimental protocol for time perception on interval length, a questionnaire for...

  5. The amblyopic eye in subjects with anisometropia show increased saccadic latency in the delayed saccade task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej ePerdziak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The term amblyopia is used to describe reduced visual function in one eye (or both eyes, though not so often which cannot be fully improved by refractive correction and explained by the organic cause observed during regular eye examination. This developmental disorder of spatial vision affects about 2-5% of the population and is associated with abnormal visual experience (e.g. anisometropia, strabismus during infancy or early childhood. Several studies have shown prolongation of saccadic latency time in amblyopic eye. In our opinion, study of saccadic latency in the context of central vision deficits assessment, should be based on central retina stimulation. For this reason, we proposed saccade delayed task. It requires inhibitory processing for maintaining fixation on the central target until it disappears – what constitutes the GO signal for saccade. The experiment consisted of 100 trials for each eye and was performed under two viewing conditions: monocular amblyopic / non-dominant eye and monocular dominant eye. We examined saccadic latency in 16 subjects (mean age 30±11 years with anisometropic amblyopia (two subjects had also microtropia and in 17 control subjects (mean age 28±8 years. Participants were instructed to look at central (fixation target and when it disappears, to make the saccade toward the periphery (10 deg as fast as possible, either left or the right target. The study results have proved the significant difference in saccadic latency between the amblyopic (mean 262±48 ms and dominant (mean 237±45 ms eye, in anisometropic group. In the control group, the saccadic latency for dominant (mean 226±32ms and non-dominant (mean 230±29 ms eye was not significantly different.By the use of LATER (Linear Approach to the Threshold with Ergodic Rate decision model we interpret our findings as a decrease in accumulation of visual information acquired by means of central (affected retina in subjects with anisometropic amblyopia.

  6. PET and MRI show differences in cerebral asymmetry and functional connectivity between homo- and heterosexual subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Savic, Ivanka; Lindström, Per

    2008-01-01

    Cerebral responses to putative pheromones and objects of sexual attraction were recently found to differ between homo- and heterosexual subjects. Although this observation may merely mirror perceptional differences, it raises the intriguing question as to whether certain sexually dimorphic features in the brain may differ between individuals of the same sex but different sexual orientation. We addressed this issue by studying hemispheric asymmetry and functional connectivity, two parameters t...

  7. Towards Development of Robotic Aid for Rehabilitation of Locomotion-Impaired Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejczy, Antal K.

    2000-01-01

    Manual assistance of therapists to help movement of legs of spinal cord injured (SCI) subjects during stepping on a treadmill for locomotion rehabilitation has severe economic and technical limitations. Scientists at the Department of Physiological Science at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) and roboticists at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) initiated a joint effort to develop a robotic mechanism capable of performing controlled motions equivalent to the arm and hand motions of therapists assisting the stepping of locomotion impaired subjects on a treadmill, while the subjects' body weight is partially supported by an overhead harness. A first necessary technical step towards this development is to measure and understand the kinematics and dynamics of the therapists' arm and hand motions as they are reflected on the subjects' leg movement. This paper describes an initial measurement system developed for this purpose together with the related measurement results, and outlines the planned future technical work.

  8. From mild cognitive impairment to subjective cognitive decline: conceptual and methodological evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng YW

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Wen Cheng,1 Ta-Fu Chen,2 Ming-Jang Chiu2,3 1Department of Neurology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Hsin-Chu Branch, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan; 2Department of Neurology, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Department of Psychology, College of Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan Abstract: Identification of subjects at the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD is fundamental for drug development and possible intervention or prevention of cognitive decline. The concept of mild cognitive impairment (MCI evolved during the past two decades to define subjects at the transitional stage between normal aging and dementia. Evidence from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies has shown that MCI is associated with an increased risk of positive AD biomarkers and an increased annual conversion rate of 5%–17% to AD. The presence of AD biomarkers in subjects with MCI was associated with an even higher risk of progression to dementia. However, earlier clinical trials for pharmacotherapy in subjects with MCI were disappointing. To extend the spectrum of AD to an earlier stage before MCI, subjective cognitive decline (SCD was introduced and was defined as self-reported cognitive decline before the deficits could be detected by cognitive tests. Subjects with SCD have an increased risk of underlying AD pathology. However, SCD can also develop secondary to other heterogeneous etiologies, including other neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases, personality traits, physical conditions, and medication use. Several clinical and biomarker features were proposed to predict risk of conversion to AD in subjects with SCD. Further longitudinal studies are needed to support the validity of these high-risk features. Keywords: mild cognitive impairment, subjective cognitive decline, preclinical Alzheimer’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease

  9. Keratinocyte cultures from involved skin in vitiligo patients show an impaired in vitro behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondanza, Sergio; Maurelli, Riccardo; Paterna, Patrizia; Migliore, Eleonora; Giacomo, Fabio Di; Primavera, Giovanni; Paionni, Emanuel; Dellambra, Elena; Guerra, Liliana

    2007-08-01

    Vitiligo depigmentation is considered a consequence of either melanocyte disappearance or loss of functioning melanocytes in the involved areas. However, it has been reported that keratinocytes in involved vitiligo skin are damaged too. Based on this evidence, we evaluated the in vitro behaviour, in life span cultures, of involved and uninvolved vitiligo keratinocytes and their expression of proliferation, differentiation and senescence markers. An additional purpose was to investigate whether vitiligo keratinocytes from depigmented skin are able to sustain survival and growth of normal melanocytes (when added in co-culture experiments), as normal human keratinocytes manage to do. Our results demonstrate that almost all involved vitiligo keratinocytes have a shorter life span in vitro than the uninvolved cells and all of them do not maintain melanocytes in culture in a physiological ratio. Modification of proliferation and senescence marker expression also occurs. Indeed, we detected low initial expression levels of the senescence marker p16 in involved vitiligo keratinocytes, despite their shorter in vitro life span, and increased expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and p53. This preliminary analysis of a small number of in vitro cultured vitiligo keratinocytes suggests an impaired senescence process in lesional vitiligo keratinocytes and attempts to regulate it.

  10. The metabolites in peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed greater differences between patients with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes and healthy controls than those in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjoo; Kim, Minkyung; Han, Ji Yun; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Jee, Sun Ha; Lee, Jong Ho

    2017-03-01

    To determine differences between peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the plasma metabolites in patients with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes and healthy controls. In all, 65 nononobese patients (aged 30-70 years) with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes and 65 nonobese sex-matched healthy controls were included, and fasting peripheral blood mononuclear cell and plasma metabolomes were profiled. The diabetic or impaired fasting glucose patients showed higher circulating and peripheral blood mononuclear cell lipoprotein phospholipase A 2 activities, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and tumour necrosis factor-α than controls. Compared with controls, impaired fasting glucose or diabetic subjects showed increases in 11 peripheral blood mononuclear cell metabolites: six amino acids (valine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan), l-pyroglutamic acid, two fatty acid amides containing palmitic amide and oleamide and two lysophosphatidylcholines. In impaired fasting glucose or diabetic patients, peripheral blood mononuclear cell lipoprotein phospholipase A 2 positively associated with peripheral blood mononuclear cell lysophosphatidylcholines and circulating inflammatory markers, including tumour necrosis factor-α, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and lipoprotein phospholipase A 2 activities. In plasma metabolites between patients and healthy controls, we observed significant increases in only three amino acids (proline, valine and leucine) and decreases in only five lysophosphatidylcholines. This study demonstrates significant differences in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell metabolome in patients with impaired fasting glucose or diabetes compared with healthy controls. These differences were greater than those observed in the plasma metabolome. These data suggest peripheral blood mononuclear cells as a useful tool to better understand the inflammatory pathophysiology of diabetes.

  11. Very preterm adolescents show impaired performance with increasing demands in executive function tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrle, Flavia M; Kaufmann, Liane; Benz, Laura D; Huber, Reto; O'Gorman, Ruth L; Latal, Beatrice; Hagmann, Cornelia F

    2016-01-01

    Very preterm birth is often associated with executive function deficits later in life. The transition to adolescence increases personal autonomy, independence and, in parallel, the demands placed on executive functions at home and in school. To assess the impact of increasing demands on executive function performance in very preterm children and adolescents with normal intellectual and motor functions. Forty-one very preterm children and adolescents with normal intellectual and motor functions and 43 healthy term-born peers were assessed at a mean age of 13.0 years (SD: 1.9; range: 10.0-16.9). A comprehensive battery of performance-based executive function measures with different demand levels as well as a parent-rating questionnaire evaluating executive functions relevant for everyday life was applied. Standardized mean differences between groups of d ≥ .41 were regarded as clinically relevant. No group differences were found at the lowest demand levels of working memory (d=.09), planning (d=-.01), cognitive flexibility (d=-.21) and verbal fluency (d=-.14) tasks, but very preterm participants scored significantly below their term-born peers in the most demanding levels (d=-.50, -.59, -.43 and -.55, respectively). These differences were clinically relevant. Executive functions relevant for everyday life were strongly impaired in very preterm participants, e.g., global executive composite (d=-.66). Very preterm children and adolescents with normal intellectual and motor functions are at high risk for executive function deficits that may only become apparent with increasing demands, potentially leading to academic and other deficits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Young children with excess of weight show an impaired selenium status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Rosa M; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Elena; Aparicio, Aránzazu; Jiménez-Ortega, Ana Isabel; Palmeros, Carolina; Perea, José Miguel; Navia, Beatriz; López-Sobaler, Ana María

    2012-04-01

    People who are overweight/obese commonly experience poorer antioxidant protection. The aim of the present study was to determine whether overweight/obesity is associated with children's selenium status. The study subjects were 573 Madrid schoolchildren aged 8 - 13 years. Their selenium intake was monitored via a three-day food record. Serum selenium concentration and blood glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity of each subject was also determined, as was body mass index (BMI). Children with excess of weight (BMI>P85) had lower serum selenium concentrations than those of normal weight (64.6 ± 16.8 µg/L compared to 75.3 ± 12.2 µg/L; p selenium intake was also lower (1.99 ± 0.62 µg/kg compared to 2.73 ± 0.88 µg/kg; p selenium and selenium intake (the best being obtained when intake was measured in µg/kg/day, r = 0.338, p selenium and all the anthropometric variables recorded (the strongest correlation was seen between serum selenium and BMI, r = -0.390, p selenium deficiency (selenium intake [OR = 0.9862 (0.9775 - 0.9949)] and age [OR = 0.6813 (0.5434 - 0.8542)] (p selenium and GPx activity (r = 0.177; p selenium status than children of normal weight, which can contribute to poor antioxidant protection. This situation could be more evident in children with central adiposity.

  13. Subjects with Impaired Fasting Glucose: Evolution in a Period of 6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, E.; Mujica, V.; Orrego, R.; Wehinger, S.; Soto, A.; Icaza, G.; Vásquez, M.; Díaz, L.; Andrews, M.; Arredondo, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To study the evolution of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), considering glucose and HbA1c levels and risk factors associated, in a period of 6 years. Methods. We studied 94 subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) that were diagnosed in 2005 and followed up to 2012. Glucose and HbA1c levels were determined. A descriptive analysis of contingence charts was performed in order to study the evolution in the development of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Results. Twenty-eight of ninety-four subjects became T2DM; 51/94 remained with IFG; and 20/94 presented normal fasting glucose. From the 28 diabetic subjects, 9 had already developed diabetes and were under treatment with oral hypoglycemic agents; 5 were diagnosed with plasma glucose < 126 mg/dL, but with HbA1c over 6.5%. In those who developed diabetes, 15/28 had a family history of T2DM in first relative degree. Also, diabetic subjects had a BMI significantly higher than nodiabetics (t test: P < 0.01). The individuals that in 2005 had the highest BMI are those who currently have diabetes. Conclusion. The IFG constitutes a condition of high risk of developing T2DM in a few years, especially over 110 mg/dL and in obesity patients. PMID:25215305

  14. Subjects with Impaired Fasting Glucose: Evolution in a Period of 6 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Leiva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the evolution of impaired fasting glucose (IFG, considering glucose and HbA1c levels and risk factors associated, in a period of 6 years. Methods. We studied 94 subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG that were diagnosed in 2005 and followed up to 2012. Glucose and HbA1c levels were determined. A descriptive analysis of contingence charts was performed in order to study the evolution in the development of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Results. Twenty-eight of ninety-four subjects became T2DM; 51/94 remained with IFG; and 20/94 presented normal fasting glucose. From the 28 diabetic subjects, 9 had already developed diabetes and were under treatment with oral hypoglycemic agents; 5 were diagnosed with plasma glucose < 126 mg/dL, but with HbA1c over 6.5%. In those who developed diabetes, 15/28 had a family history of T2DM in first relative degree. Also, diabetic subjects had a BMI significantly higher than nodiabetics (t test: P < 0.01. The individuals that in 2005 had the highest BMI are those who currently have diabetes. Conclusion. The IFG constitutes a condition of high risk of developing T2DM in a few years, especially over 110 mg/dL and in obesity patients.

  15. Time Perception in Mild Cognitive Impairment: Interval Length and Subjective Passage of Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Sara; Guerreiro, Manuela; Chester, Catarina; Silva, Dina; Maroco, João; Coelho, Miguel; Paglieri, Fabio; de Mendonça, Alexandre

    2016-08-01

    Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may have difficulties in time perception, which in turn might contribute to some of their symptoms, especially memory deficits. The aim of this study was to evaluate perception of interval length and subjective passage of time in MCI patients as compared to healthy controls. Fifty-five MCI patients and 57 healthy controls underwent an experimental protocol for time perception on interval length, a questionnaire for the subjective passage of time and a neuropsychological evaluation. MCI patients presented no changes in the perception of interval length. However, for MCI patients, time seemed to pass more slowly than it did for controls. This experience was significantly correlated with memory deficits but not with performance in executive tests, nor with complaints of depression or anxiety. Memory deficits do not affect the perception of interval length, but are associated with alterations in the subjective passage of time. (JINS, 2016, 22, 755-764).

  16. Evidence of Objective Memory Impairments in Deployed Gulf War Veterans With Subjective Memory Complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Linda L

    2017-05-01

    Despite the fact that many veterans returned from the 1991 Gulf War (GW) with complaints of memory difficulties, most neuropsychological studies to date have found little evidence of a correspondence between subjective and objective measures of cognitive function in GW veterans. However, if GW veterans complain about memory problems, it is likely that they experience memory problems in their daily lives. In this respect, it is notable that the past studies that have investigated the relationship between subjective and objective measures of cognitive function in GW veterans used composite measures to quantify subjective complaints and batteries of neuropsychological tests that assessed multiple domains to objectively measure cognitive function. The study's focus on memory was motivated by the suggestive evidence that subjective memory complaint may be a harbinger of further cognitive decline and increased risk for dementia. This study examined the association between subjective memory complaint (probed with single question: "Do you have difficulty remembering things?") and performance on a single objective test of verbal learning and memory (i.e., California Verbal Learning Test, CVLT-II) in a sample of 428 deployed GW veterans. GW veterans who endorsed memory difficulties performed more poorly on CVLT-II measures of total learning, retention, and delayed recall than GW veterans without subjective memory complaints (p subjective memory complaint significantly predicted CVLT-II retention scores (β = -0.12, p = 0.04) and marginally predicted CVLT-II delayed recall scores (β = -0.11, p = 0.05) over and above potentially confounding demographic and clinical variables. This study suggests that deployed GW veterans with subjective memory complaints have objective memory impairments. In light of the evidence linking subjective memory complaint to increased risk for dementia in the elderly, these findings suggest that aging GW veterans with subjective memory complaints

  17. The clinical spectrum of non-dementia cognitive impairment: Subjective mild-to-moderate disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Zakharov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The important task of nevrology is to improve the diagnosis of chronic progressive degenerative and vascular brain diseases – to detect them at the earliest stages. The paper presents current views on the non-dementia stages of brain diseases: moderate, mild, and subjective cognitive impairments. It sets forth data on their prevalence and clinical features and types, as well as international diagnostic criteria. There is evidence for the expediency of the earliest neuroprotective therapy to prevent dementia. A methodology for neuroprotective therapy is discussed; the available data on the long-term effect of intermittent treatment cycles with the vasotropic and neurometabolic drug tanakan are given.

  18. Physical activity reduces the risk of dementia in mild cognitive impairment subjects: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Giulia; Vanacore, Nicola; Maggiore, Laura; Cucumo, Valentina; Ghiretti, Roberta; Galimberti, Daniela; Scarpini, Elio; Mariani, Claudio; Clerici, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Leisure activities, particularly exercise, play a protective role against dementia in healthy people, but it is unknown if this protective effect could be generalized to subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). To investigate the influence of leisure activities on the risk of progression of MCI to dementia. 176 MCI subjects attending a memory clinic underwent a standardized lifestyle questionnaire between October 2007 and May 2010. Social, cognitive, and physical scores were derived based on the assiduity of interpersonal contacts and on the frequency of participation in individual leisure activities. Subjects were requested to return every 12 months for dementia surveillance. The outcome measure was the risk of dementia associated with social, cognitive, and physical scores. Over a median follow-up time of 2.59 year, 92 (52.2%) MCI subjects developed dementia. Subjects with physical scores in the highest third had a lower risk (HR 0.44; 95% CI 0.23-0.85) of dementia compared with those in the lowest third. No association was found between cognitive or social scores and the risk of dementia. To our knowledge, this is the first prospective clinical study which demonstrates that high levels of participation in physical leisure activities are associated with reduced risk of dementia in subjects with MCI. In line with findings coming from community-based studies on healthy elderly, our finding suggests that the protective role of exercise against the development of dementia can be generalized to MCI subjects seen in clinical practice. Clinicians should encourage MCI subjects to participate in physical leisure activities.

  19. Ceylon cinnamon does not affect postprandial plasma glucose or insulin in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickenberg, Jennie; Lindstedt, Sandra; Berntorp, Kerstin; Nilsson, Jan; Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies on healthy subjects have shown that the intake of 6 g Cinnamomum cassia reduces postprandial glucose and that the intake of 3 g C. cassia reduces insulin response, without affecting postprandial glucose concentrations. Coumarin, which may damage the liver, is present in C. cassia, but not in Cinnamomum zeylanicum. The aim of the present study was to study the effect of C. zeylanicum on postprandial concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, glycaemic index (GI) and insulinaemic index (GII) in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A total of ten subjects with IGT were assessed in a crossover trial. A standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered together with placebo or C. zeylanicum capsules. Finger-prick capillary blood samples were taken for glucose measurements and venous blood for insulin measurements, before and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min after the start of the OGTT. The ingestion of 6 g C. zeylanicum had no significant effect on glucose level, insulin response, GI or GII. Ingestion of C. zeylanicum does not affect postprandial plasma glucose or insulin levels in human subjects. The Federal Institute for Risk Assessment in Europe has suggested the replacement of C. cassia by C. zeylanicum or the use of aqueous extracts of C. cassia to lower coumarin exposure. However, the positive effects seen with C. cassia in subjects with poor glycaemic control would then be lost.

  20. Pulmonary rehabilitation improves exercise capacity in subjects with kyphoscoliosis and severe respiratory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuschillo, Salvatore; De Felice, Alberto; Martucci, Michele; Gaudiosi, Carlo; Pisano, Viviana; Vitale, Dino; Balzano, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Patients with kyphoscoliosis and severe respiratory impairment frequently experience reduction in exercise tolerance, limitation in daily life activities, and deterioration in health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) as an add-on treatment to long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) was shown to improve symptoms and HRQOL in these patients. Pulmonary rehabilitation can increase exercise capacity and HRQOL in patients with COPD, but its role in patients with restrictive thoracic disease, such as kyphoscoliosis, is uncertain. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of combining pulmonary rehabilitation with LTOT and NIV treatments on arterial blood gases and the 6-min walk test (6MWT) in a homogeneous group of subjects with kyphoscoliosis. Twenty-three subjects with kyphoscoliosis and respiratory failure who were being treated with both LTOT and NIV and who had been referred to a pulmonary rehabilitation program were retrospectively analyzed. Eighteen subjects were included, and there was no control group. Pulmonary rehabilitation involved educational and physical training sessions and was carried out daily for 4-6 weeks. Exercise intensity was personalized based on individual tolerance, physiologic parameters, or physiotherapist judgment. Upon completion of pulmonary rehabilitation, a significant improvement in 6-min walk distance was observed (P = .04). The dyspnea score at the end of the 6MWT improved as well, although the improvement did not reach statistical significance (P = .06). These changes were not confirmed at a 12-month follow-up visit. No significant effects of pulmonary rehabilitation on arterial blood gases were observed. A combined intervention including a tailored pulmonary rehabilitation program together with LTOT and NIV seems to be of short-term benefit in subjects with kyphoscoliosis and severe respiratory impairment. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  1. Use of Adaptive Digital Signal Processing to Improve Speech Communication for Normally Hearing aand Hearing-Impaired Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Richard W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A two-microphone adaptive digital noise cancellation technique improved word-recognition ability for 20 normal and 12 hearing-impaired adults by reducing multitalker speech babble and speech spectrum noise 18-22 dB. Word recognition improvements averaged 37-50 percent for normal and 27-40 percent for hearing-impaired subjects. Improvement was best…

  2. Fasting plasma glucose levels and coronary artery calcification in subjects with impaired fasting glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, Young-Mi; Kang, Sung-Goo; Song, Sang-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Prediabetes is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). While the association of impaired glucose tolerance with CVD has been shown in many studies, the relationship between impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and CVD remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores of participants with normal fasting glucose versus those with IFG, according to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels, and to assess whether differences in CAC scores were independent of important confounders. Retrospective study. Health Promotion Center of the University Hospital (Gyeonggi-do, South Korea), during the period 2010-2014. Participants were enrolled from the general population who visited for a medical check-up. CAC was assessed in asymptomatic individuals by multidetector computed tomography. Anthropometric parameters and metabolic profiles were also recorded. Subjects were divided into four fasting glucose groups. Participants with a history of CVD or diabetes mellitus were excluded. Correlation between FPG and CAC scores, CAC score categories, and association between CAC score and FPG categories. Of 1112 participants, 346 (34.2%) had a CAC score > 0. FPG values in the IFG patients were positively but weakly correlated with CAC scores (r=0.099, P=.001). The incidence of CAC differed according to FPG level (P =110 mg/dL had a significantly higher risk of CAC than did subjects with normal fasting glucose (110.

  3. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide has impaired effect on abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue metabolism in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, M; Simonsen, L; Arngrim, N

    2013-01-01

    to an oral glucose challenge: (i) NGT and (ii) IGT. Abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue lipid metabolism was studied by conducting measurements of arteriovenous concentrations of metabolites and regional adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) during GIP (1.5 pmol kg(-1) min(-1)) in combination with a HI......OBJECTIVE: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) appears to have a role in lipid metabolism. Recently, we showed that GIP in combination with hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia increases triglyceride uptake in abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue in lean humans. It has been suggested...... be enhanced or blunted during a GIP, hyperinsulinemic and hyperglycemic (HI-HG) clamp in obese subjects with either normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). DESIGN: Sixteen obese (BMI>30 kg m(-2)) subjects were divided into two groups, based on their plasma glucose response...

  4. Production and processing of subject-verb agreement in monolingual Dutch children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Elma; Vasic, Nada; de Jong, Jan

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the authors investigated whether errors with subject-verb agreement in monolingual Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) are influenced by verb phonology. In addition, the productive and receptive abilities of Dutch acquiring children with SLI regarding agreement inflection were compared. An SLI group (6-8 years old), an age-matched group with typical development, and a language-matched, younger, typically developing (TD) group participated in the study. Using an elicitation task, the authors tested use of third person singular inflection after verbs that ended in obstruents (plosive, fricative) or nonobstruents (sonorant). The authors used a self-paced listening task to test sensitivity to subject-verb agreement violations. Omission was more frequent after obstruents than nonobstruents; the younger TD group used inflection less often after plosives than fricatives, unlike the SLI group. The SLI group did not detect subject-verb agreement violations if the ungrammatical structure contained a frequent error (omission), but if the ungrammatical structure contained an infrequent error (substitution), subject-verb agreement violations were noticed. The use of agreement inflection by children with TD or SLI is affected by verb phonology. Differential effects in the 2 groups are consistent with a delayed development in Dutch SLI. Parallels between productive and receptive abilities point to weak lexical agreement inflection representations in Dutch SLI.

  5. Inertial sensor based gait analysis discriminates subjects with and without visual impairment caused by simulated macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzler, Christoph M; Barth, Jens; Klucken, Jochen; Eskofier, Bjoern M

    2016-08-01

    Macular degeneration is the third leading cause of blindness worldwide and the leading cause of blindness in the developing world. The analysis of gait parameters can be used to assess the influence of macular degeneration on gait. This study examines the effect of macular degeneration on gait using inertial sensor based 3D spatio-temporal gait parameters. We acquired gait data from 21 young and healthy subjects during a 40 m obstacle walk. All subjects had to perform the gait trial with and without macular degeneration simulation glasses. The order of starting with or without glasses alternated between each subject in order to test for training effects. Multiple 3D spatio-temporal gait parameters were calculated for the normal vision as well as the impaired vision groups. The parameters trial time, stride time, stride time coefficient of variation (CV), stance time, stance time CV, stride length, cadence, gait velocity and angle at toe off showed statistically significant differences between the two groups. Training effects were visible for the trials which started without vision impairment. Inter-group differences in the gait pattern occurred due to an increased sense of insecurity related with the loss of visual acuity from the simulation glasses. In summary, we showed that 3D spatio-temporal gait parameters derived from inertial sensor data are viable to detect differences in the gait pattern of subjects with and without a macular degeneration simulation. We believe that this study provides the basis for an in-depth analysis regarding the impact of macular degeneration on gait.

  6. Activities of Daily Living and Depressive Symptoms in Patients with Subjective Cognitive Decline, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stogmann, Elisabeth; Moser, Doris; Klug, Stefanie; Gleiss, Andreas; Auff, Eduard; Dal-Bianco, Peter; Pusswald, Gisela; Lehrner, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) may be an early indicator for an increased risk of dementia. The exact definition of SCD remains unclear and has recently become a major research interest. To determine impairments in activities of daily living (ADL) and depressive symptoms in elderly individuals with SCD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We included 752 consecutive patients suffering from SCD, non-amnestic (naMCI) or amnestic MCI (aMCI), AD, and 343 healthy controls into this prospective cohort study. A neuropsychological test battery, B-ADL and BDI-II was performed. SCD patients showed a decreased performance in ADL compared to controls. Performance in ADL declined concurrently with cognitive abilities along the controls-SCD-naMCI-aMCI-AD continuum. Individuals with cognitive complains, no matter if SCD, MCI, or AD patients, reported more often depressive symptoms compared to healthy controls without complaints. Within all five cognitive subgroups, patients with depressive symptoms reported more difficulties in ADL in comparison to patients without depressive symptoms. Adjusting for depressive symptoms, there was no significant group difference between the control versus the SCD group (OR 1.1, CI 0.6-1.7). SCD is a heterogeneous clinical condition. Specific features such as slightly impaired ADL and depressive symptoms are associated with SCD. Clinical markers may serve as an indicator for preclinical AD and in combination with biomarkers guide to an early diagnosis of a progressive neurodegenerative disease.

  7. Visual impairment, but not hearing impairment, is independently associated with lower subjective well-being among individuals over 95 years of age: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zuyun; Wu, Di; Huang, Jiapin; Qian, Degui; Chen, Fei; Xu, Jun; Li, Shilin; Jin, Li; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Sensory impairment affects an increasing number of elderly adults, with a negative psychological impact. Our objective was to examine the associations of visual and hearing impairment with subjective well-being (SWB), an important psychological concept defined by life satisfaction [LS], positive affect [PA], negative affect [NA], and affect balance [AB] among long-lived individuals (LLIs) over 95 years of age. Data on 442 LLIs from the Rugao longevity cohort, a population-based study in Rugao, China, were analyzed. Graded classifications of visual and hearing impairment (none, mild, moderate, and severe) were constructed from self-reported items. Bivariate correlation and multiple regression analysis were performed to test the associations. Approximately 66.1% and 87.3% of the subjects reported varying degrees of visual and hearing impairment. Following the degree of vision impairment, LS, PA, and AB decreased linearly, whereas NA increased linearly (all p for trendimpairment with LS, NA, and AB, while diminished, still existed. Visual impairment, but not hearing impairment, was independently associated with low SWB among LLIs, and functional ability may play a mediating role in the observed relationship. The findings indicate that rehabilitation targeted for those with reduced vision and functioning in long-lived populations may be important for promoting well-being and quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Using virtual reality to distinguish subjects with multiple- but not single-domain amnestic mild cognitive impairment from normal elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Alireza; Kargar, Mahmoud; Hesami, Ehsan

    2018-02-06

    Spatial disorientation is a hallmark of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer's disease. Our aim was to use virtual reality to determine the allocentric and egocentric memory deficits of subjects with single-domain aMCI (aMCIsd) and multiple-domain aMCI (aMCImd). For this purpose, we introduced an advanced virtual reality navigation task (VRNT) to distinguish these deficits in mild Alzheimer's disease (miAD), aMCIsd, and aMCImd. The VRNT performance of 110 subjects, including 20 with miAD, 30 with pure aMCIsd, 30 with pure aMCImd, and 30 cognitively normal controls was compared. Our newly developed VRNT consists of a virtual neighbourhood (allocentric memory) and virtual maze (egocentric memory). Verbal and visuospatial memory impairments were also examined with Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, respectively. We found that miAD and aMCImd subjects were impaired in both allocentric and egocentric memory, but aMCIsd subjects performed similarly to the normal controls on both tasks. The miAD, aMCImd, and aMCIsd subjects performed worse on finding the target or required more time in the virtual environment than the aMCImd, aMCIsd, and normal controls, respectively. Our findings indicated the aMCImd and miAD subjects, as well as the aMCIsd subjects, were more impaired in egocentric orientation than allocentric orientation. We concluded that VRNT can distinguish aMCImd subjects, but not aMCIsd subjects, from normal elderly subjects. The VRNT, along with the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, can be used as a valid diagnostic tool for properly distinguishing different forms of aMCI. © 2018 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  9. Normal sweat secretion despite impaired growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-I axis in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby; Juul, Anders; Main, Katharina M

    2011-01-01

    Adults with GH deficiency are known to exhibit reduced sweating. Whether sweating capacity is impacted in obese subjects with impaired GH secretion have not previously been investigated. The main objective was to investigate sweat secretion rate and the GH-IGF-I axis in obese subjects before......, and impaired insulin sensitivity, which all were normalised after diet-induced weight loss of 30 ± 5 kg. Sweat secretion rates were similar comparing obese and nonobese subjects (78 ± 10 versus 82 ± 9 mg/30 minutes) and sweat secretion did not change after a diet-induced weight loss in obese subjects. We...... conclude that although obese subjects have markedly reduced GH release and impaired IGF-I levels, sweat secretion rate is found to be normal....

  10. Do type 2 diabetes patients without diabetic retinopathy or subjects with impaired fasting glucose have impaired colour vision? The Okubo Color Study Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, T; Sakurai, Y; Sato, H; Chihara, E; Takeuchi, M

    2011-07-01

    To investigate associations between fasting plasma glucose level and the prevalence of acquired colour vision impairment in type 2 diabetes patients without diabetic retinopathy. Participants in this cross-sectional study of male officials aged 20-60 yr in the Japanese Self Defence Force, underwent colour vision testing, ophthalmic examination, a standardized interview and examination of venous blood samples. Ishihara plates, a Lanthony 15-hue desaturated panel and Standard Pseudoisochromatic Plates Part 2 were used to examine colour vision. The Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test was performed to define acquired colour vision impairment. Cardiovascular disease risk factors were determined from serum blood samples, physical records and an interview. We performed logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, diagnosed hypertension, dyslipidaemia, cataract, glaucoma, being overweight, smoking status and alcohol intake. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were calculated for three glucose levels, which included normal fasting glucose, impaired fasting glucose and diabetes. Out of a total of 1042 men enrolled, 872 were eligible for the study, and 31 were diagnosed with acquired colour vision impairment. As compared with the subjects with normal fasting glucose (colour vision impairment was 0.93 (95% CI 0.32-2.74) for the subjects with impaired fasting glucose (5.6-6.9 mmol/l) and 8.07 (95% CI 2.48-26.22) for the patients with type 2 diabetes. The multiple-adjusted odds ratios were 0.77 (95% CI 0.25-2.34) for the subjects with impaired fasting glucose and 5.89 (95% CI 1.55-22.40) for the patients with type 2 diabetes. Our findings suggest that there is a dramatically increased prevalence of acquired colour vision impairment in type 2 diabetes patients without diabetic retinopathy which might be attributable to another pathogenesis associated with diabetic retinopathy. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK.

  11. Subjective memory complaints, depressive symptoms and instrumental activities of daily living in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Seon Young; Lee, Sang Bong; Kim, Tae Woo; Lee, Taek Jun

    2016-03-01

    The diagnostic relevance of subjective memory complaints (SMCs) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) remains to be unresolved. The aim of this study is to determine clinical correlates of SMCs in MCI. Furthermore, we examined whether there are the differences due to different aspects of complaints (i.e. prospective memory (PM) versus retrospective memory (RM) complaints). We examined the cross-sectional associations between SMCs and depressive symptoms, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and cognitive measures in sixty-six individuals with MCI (mean age: 65.7 ± 8.01 years). The criteria for MCI included SMCs, objective cognitive impairment, normal general cognitive function, largely intact functional activities, and absence of dementia. SMCs were assessed using the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ), which contains 16 items describing everyday memory failure of both PM and RM. SMC severity (i.e. PRMQ total score) was associated with stronger depressive symptoms and worse IADL performance. SMCs were not related to cognitive measures. For PM and RM subscores, both depressive symptoms and IADL were related to the PRMQ-PM and -RM scores. The main contributors to these PM and RM scores were depressive symptoms and IADL impairment, respectively. This study suggests that SMCs are more associated with depressive symptoms and IADL problems than with cognitive performance in individuals with MCI. Furthermore, while PM and RM complaints are related to both depressive symptoms and IADL, the differences between these main contributors suggest that RM complaints based on IADL could be more associated with the organically driven pathological features of MCI.

  12. Mice with deficient BK channel function show impaired prepulse inhibition and spatial learning, but normal working and spatial reference memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Typlt, Marei; Mirkowski, Magdalena; Azzopardi, Erin; Ruettiger, Lukas; Ruth, Peter; Schmid, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Genetic variations in the large-conductance, voltage- and calcium activated potassium channels (BK channels) have been recently implicated in mental retardation, autism and schizophrenia which all come along with severe cognitive impairments. In the present study we investigate the effects of functional BK channel deletion on cognition using a genetic mouse model with a knock-out of the gene for the pore forming α-subunit of the channel. We tested the F1 generation of a hybrid SV129/C57BL6 mouse line in which the slo1 gene was deleted in both parent strains. We first evaluated hearing and motor function to establish the suitability of this model for cognitive testing. Auditory brain stem responses to click stimuli showed no threshold differences between knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. Despite of muscular tremor, reduced grip force, and impaired gait, knockout mice exhibited normal locomotion. These findings allowed for testing of sensorimotor gating using the acoustic startle reflex, as well as of working memory, spatial learning and memory in the Y-maze and the Morris water maze, respectively. Prepulse inhibition on the first day of testing was normal, but the knockout mice did not improve over the days of testing as their wild-type littermates did. Spontaneous alternation in the y-maze was normal as well, suggesting that the BK channel knock-out does not impair working memory. In the Morris water maze knock-out mice showed significantly slower acquisition of the task, but normal memory once the task was learned. Thus, we propose a crucial role of the BK channels in learning, but not in memory storage or recollection.

  13. Mice with deficient BK channel function show impaired prepulse inhibition and spatial learning, but normal working and spatial reference memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marei Typlt

    Full Text Available Genetic variations in the large-conductance, voltage- and calcium activated potassium channels (BK channels have been recently implicated in mental retardation, autism and schizophrenia which all come along with severe cognitive impairments. In the present study we investigate the effects of functional BK channel deletion on cognition using a genetic mouse model with a knock-out of the gene for the pore forming α-subunit of the channel. We tested the F1 generation of a hybrid SV129/C57BL6 mouse line in which the slo1 gene was deleted in both parent strains. We first evaluated hearing and motor function to establish the suitability of this model for cognitive testing. Auditory brain stem responses to click stimuli showed no threshold differences between knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. Despite of muscular tremor, reduced grip force, and impaired gait, knockout mice exhibited normal locomotion. These findings allowed for testing of sensorimotor gating using the acoustic startle reflex, as well as of working memory, spatial learning and memory in the Y-maze and the Morris water maze, respectively. Prepulse inhibition on the first day of testing was normal, but the knockout mice did not improve over the days of testing as their wild-type littermates did. Spontaneous alternation in the y-maze was normal as well, suggesting that the BK channel knock-out does not impair working memory. In the Morris water maze knock-out mice showed significantly slower acquisition of the task, but normal memory once the task was learned. Thus, we propose a crucial role of the BK channels in learning, but not in memory storage or recollection.

  14. Subjective sleep impairment in adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes: Results from Diabetes MILES-The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nefs, G.; Donga, E.; van Someren, E.J.W.; Bot, M.; Speight, J.; Pouwer, F.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Despite growing recognition of the impact of sleep on diabetes, a clear profile of people with diabetes regarding subjective sleep impairment has yet to be established. This study examines: (1) subjective sleep characteristics in adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes; (2) the relationship of

  15. Subjective sleep impairment in adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes : Results from Diabetes MILES-The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nefs, Giesje; Donga, Esther; van Someren, Eus; Bot, Mariska; Speight, Jane; Pouwer, François

    AIMS: Despite growing recognition of the impact of sleep on diabetes, a clear profile of people with diabetes regarding subjective sleep impairment has yet to be established. This study examines: (1) subjective sleep characteristics in adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes; (2) the relationship of

  16. The use of subject-verb agreement and verb argument structure in monolingual and bilingual children with specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelman, Marianne; Bol, Gerard W.

    This study investigates the use of subject-verb agreement and verb argument structure in the spoken Dutch of monolingual Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) and bilingual Frisian-Dutch children with SLI. Both SLI groups appeared to be less efficient in their use of subject-verb

  17. Medial temporal lobe atrophy and memory dysfunction as preditors for dementia in subjects with mild cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, P.J.; Scheltens, P.; Verhey, F.R.J.; Schmand, B.A.; Launer, L.L.J.; Jolles, J.; Jonker, C.

    1999-01-01

    To determine whether the medial temporal lobe is atrophic in subjects with mild cognitive impairment, and whether atrophy of this structure is a better predictor of dementia than memory dysfunction. Forty-five noninstitutionalized subjects aged 65-85 years were randomly selected from a population

  18. Medial temporal lobe atrophy and memory dysfunction as predictors for dementia in subjects with mild cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, P.J.; Scheltens, P.; Verhey, F.R.J.; Schmand, B.A.; Launer, L.L.J.; Jolles, J.; Jonker, C.

    1999-01-01

    To determine whether the medial temporal lobe is atrophic in subjects with mild cognitive impairment, and whether atrophy of this structure is a better predictor of dementia than memory dysfunction. Forty-five noninstitutionalized subjects aged 65-85 years were randomly selected from a population

  19. The Use of Subject-Verb Agreement and Verb Argument Structure in Monolingual and Bilingual Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoelman, Marianne; Bol, Gerard W.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the use of subject-verb agreement and verb argument structure in the spoken Dutch of monolingual Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) and bilingual Frisian-Dutch children with SLI. Both SLI groups appeared to be less efficient in their use of subject-verb agreement and verb argument structure than the…

  20. Pharmacokinetics and Safety of a Single Oral Dose of Mirogabalin in Japanese Subjects With Varying Degrees of Renal Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Manabu; Tajima, Naoyuki; Shimizu, Takako; Sugihara, Masahiro; Furihata, Kenichi; Harada, Kazuhiro; Ishizuka, Hitoshi

    2018-01-01

    Mirogabalin (DS-5565) is a novel preferentially selective α 2 δ-1 ligand being developed for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain and postherpetic neuralgia. The current multicenter open-label study determined the effect of varying degrees of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics and safety of a single dose of mirogabalin 5 mg in Japanese subjects. A total of 30 subjects (6 subjects per renal function category [normal, mild, moderate, or severe impairment; and end-stage renal disease (ESRD)]) were enrolled and completed the study. The AUC last increased with severity of renal impairment; the geometric least-squares mean ratios of AUC last compared with subjects with normal renal function were 1.3, 1.9, 3.6, and 5.3 for patients with mild, moderate, and severe impairment and ESRD, respectively. In accordance with this AUC last increase, apparent total body clearance (CL/F), renal clearance (CLr), and the cumulative percentage of mirogabalin dose excreted into urine all decreased with severity of renal impairment. There were no deaths and no severe treatment-related adverse events (TEAEs), serious TEAEs, or TEAEs resulting in study discontinuation. Mirogabalin was well tolerated in Japanese subjects with normal renal function and those with mild to severe renal impairment. It was also tolerated in subjects with ESRD but with a higher incidence of TEAEs. The most frequently reported TEAEs were dizziness (ESRD, n = 3), somnolence (ESRD, n = 2), and vomiting (ESRD, n = 2). Based on these data, a mirogabalin dose adjustment will be considered in Japanese subjects with moderate to severe renal impairment and those with ESRD. © 2017, The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  1. Depressive Symptoms are the Main Predictor for Subjective Sleep Quality in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment--A Controlled Study.

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    Stefan Seidel

    Full Text Available Controlled data on predictors of subjective sleep quality in patients with memory complaints are sparse. To improve the amount of comprehensive data on this topic, we assessed factors associated with subjective sleep quality in patients from our memory clinic and healthy individuals.Between February 2012 and August 2014 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and subjective cognitive decline (SCD from our memory clinic and healthy controls were recruited. Apart from a detailed neuropsychological assessment, the subjective sleep quality, daytime sleepiness and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II.One hundred fifty eight consecutive patients (132 (84% MCI patients and 26 (16% SCD patients and 75 healthy controls were included in the study. Pairwise comparison of PSQI scores showed that non-amnestic MCI (naMCI patients (5.4 ± 3.5 had significantly higher PSQI scores than controls (4.3 ± 2.8, p = .003 Pairwise comparison of PSQI subscores showed that naMCI patients (1.1 ± 0.4 had significantly more "sleep disturbances" than controls (0.9 ± 0.5, p = .003. Amnestic MCI (aMCI (0.8 ± 1.2, p = .006 and naMCI patients (0.7 ± 1.2, p = .002 used "sleep medication" significantly more often than controls (0.1 ± 0.6 Both, aMCI (11.5 ± 8.6, p < .001 and naMCI (11.5 ± 8.6, p < .001 patients showed significantly higher BDI-II scores than healthy controls (6.1 ± 5.3. Linear regression analysis showed that the subjective sleep quality was predicted by depressive symptoms in aMCI (p < .0001 and naMCI (p < .0001 patients as well as controls (p < .0001. This means, that more depressive symptoms worsened subjective sleep quality. In aMCI patients we also found a significant interaction between depressive symptoms and global cognitive function (p = .002.Depressive symptoms were the main predictor of subjective sleep quality in MCI

  2. Impaired objective and subjective sleep in children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mählmann, Laura; Gerber, Markus; Furlano, Raoul I; Legeret, Corinne; Kalak, Nadeem; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2017-11-01

    Poor sleep and higher inflammation markers are associated, and impaired sleep quality is common among patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, information on sleep among children and adolescents with IBD is currently lacking. The aims of the present study were to compare subjective and objective sleep of children and adolescents with IBD with healthy controls and to shed more light on the relationship between sleep and inflammation. We expected that poor sleep, as assessed via sleep electroencephalography recordings, would be observed among participants with IBD, but particularly among participants in an active state of disease. Furthermore, we expected that poor sleep and higher inflammatory markers would be associated. A total of 47 children and adolescents participated in the study; 23 were diagnosed with IBD (mean age: 13.88 years, 44% female). The IBD group was divided into a medically well adjusted "remission-group" (IBD-RE; n = 14) and a group with an "active state of disease" (IBD-AD; n = 8). Healthy controls (HC; n = 24) were age and gender matched. Participants completed self-rating questionnaires for subjective sleep disturbances. Anthropometric data, acute and chronic inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein [CRP] and erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR]) and objective sleep were considered. Compared to HC and IBD-RE, IBD-AD patients showed impaired objective sleep patterns (eg, more awakenings, longer sleep latency, and reduced stage 3 sleep). Linear relationships described the correlation between higher ESR and more stage 4 (minutes, percentage) sleep. Nonlinear relationships described the relation between ESR and subjective sleep quality (inverse U-shaped) and between CRP and sleep latency (U-shaped). In children and adolescents with an active IBD, objective sleep was impaired and overall sleep quality and inflammation indices were associated in a complex manner. It seems advisable to include assessment of subjective sleep

  3. Resting state cortical electroencephalographic rhythms are related to gray matter volume in subjects with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

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    Babiloni, Claudio; Carducci, Filippo; Lizio, Roberta; Vecchio, Fabrizio; Baglieri, Annalisa; Bernardini, Silvia; Cavedo, Enrica; Bozzao, Alessandro; Buttinelli, Carla; Esposito, Fabrizio; Giubilei, Franco; Guizzaro, Antonio; Marino, Silvia; Montella, Patrizia; Quattrocchi, Carlo C; Redolfi, Alberto; Soricelli, Andrea; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Ferri, Raffaele; Rossi-Fedele, Giancarlo; Ursini, Francesca; Scrascia, Federica; Vernieri, Fabrizio; Pedersen, Torleif Jan; Hardemark, Hans-Goran; Rossini, Paolo M; Frisoni, Giovanni B

    2013-06-01

    Cortical gray matter volume and resting state cortical electroencephalographic rhythms are typically abnormal in subjects with amnesic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we tested the hypothesis that in amnesic MCI and AD subjects, abnormalities of EEG rhythms are a functional reflection of cortical atrophy across the disease. Eyes-closed resting state EEG data were recorded in 57 healthy elderly (Nold), 102 amnesic MCI, and 108 AD patients. Cortical gray matter volume was indexed by magnetic resonance imaging recorded in the MCI and AD subjects according to Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative project (http://www.adni-info.org/). EEG rhythms of interest were delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha1 (8-10.5 Hz), alpha2 (10.5-13 Hz), beta1 (13-20 Hz), beta2 (20-30 Hz), and gamma (30-40 Hz). These rhythms were indexed by LORETA. Compared with the Nold, the MCI showed a decrease in amplitude of alpha 1 sources. With respect to the Nold and MCI, the AD showed an amplitude increase of delta sources, along with a strong amplitude reduction of alpha 1 sources. In the MCI and AD subjects as a whole group, the lower the cortical gray matter volume, the higher the delta sources, the lower the alpha 1 sources. The better the score to cognitive tests the higher the gray matter volume, the lower the pathological delta sources, and the higher the alpha sources. These results suggest that in amnesic MCI and AD subjects, abnormalities of resting state cortical EEG rhythms are not epiphenomena but are strictly related to neurodegeneration (atrophy of cortical gray matter) and cognition. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Greater impairment of postprandial triacylglycerol than glucose response in metabolic syndrome subjects with fasting hyperglycaemia.

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    Jackson, Kim G; Walden, Charlotte M; Murray, Peter; Smith, Adrian M; Minihane, Anne M; Lovegrove, Julie A; Williams, Christine M

    2013-08-01

    Studies have started to question whether a specific component or combinations of metabolic syndrome (MetS) components may be more important in relation to cardiovascular disease risk. Our aim was to examine the impact of the presence of raised fasting glucose as a MetS component on postprandial lipaemia. Men classified with the MetS underwent a sequential test meal investigation, in which blood samples were taken at regular intervals after a test breakfast (t=0 min) and lunch (t=330 min). Lipids, glucose and insulin were measured in the fasting and postprandial samples. MetS subjects with 3 or 4 components were subdivided into those without (n=34) and with (n=23) fasting hyperglycaemia (≥5.6 mmol/l), irrespective of the combination of components. Fasting lipids and insulin were similar in the two groups, with glucose significantly higher in the men with glucose as a MetS component (Ppostprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) response in men with fasting hyperglycaemia. Greater glucose AUC (Pglucose to be an important predictor of the postprandial TAG and glucose response. Our data analysis has revealed a greater impairment of postprandial TAG than glucose response in MetS subjects with raised fasting glucose. The worsening of postprandial lipaemic control may contribute to the greater CVD risk reported in individuals with MetS component combinations which include hyperglycaemia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. THETA AND ALPHA EEG FREQUENCY INTERPLAY IN SUBJECTS WITH MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT: EVIDENCE FROM EEG, MRI AND SPECT BRAIN MODIFICATIONS

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    Davide Vito Moretti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: reduction of regional cerebral perfusion in hippocampus as well as temporo-parietal and medial temporal cortex atrophy are associated to mild cognitive impairment (MCI due to Alzheimer disease (AD. Methods: 74 adult subjects with MCI underwent clinical and neuropsychological evaluation, electroencephalogram (EEG recording and high resolution 3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Among the patients, a subset of 27 subjects underwent also perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT and hippocampal atrophy evaluation. Alpha3/alpha2 power ratio as well as cortical thickness was computed for each subject. Three MCI groups were detected according to increasing tertile values of alpha3/alpha2 power ratio and difference of cortical thickness among the groups estimated. Results: higher alpha3/alpha2 power ratio group had wider cortical thinning than other groups, mapped to the Supramarginal and Precuneus bilaterally. Subjects with higher alpha3/alpha2 frequency power ratio showed a constant trend to a lower perfusion than lower alpha3/alpha2 group. Moreover, this group correlates with both a bigger hippocampal atrophy and an increase of theta frequency power.Conclusion: Higher EEG alpha3/alpha2 power ratio was associated with temporo-parietal cortical thinning, hippocampal atrophy and reduction of regional cerebral perfusion in medial temporal cortex. In this group an increase of theta frequency power was detected inMCI subjects. The combination of higher EEG alpha3/alpha2 power ratio, cortical thickness measure and regional cerebral perfusion reveals a complex interplay between EEG cerebral rhythms, structural and functional brain modifications.

  6. Normal sweat secretion despite impaired growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-I axis in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M H; Juul, Anders; Main, Katharina M

    2011-01-01

    and after weight loss. Sixteen severely obese women (BMI, 40.6 ± 1.1 kg/m(2)) were investigated before and after a diet-induced weight loss. Sixteen age-matched nonobese women served as controls. The obese subjects presented the characteristic decreased GH release, hyperinsulinaemia, increased FFA levels......, and impaired insulin sensitivity, which all were normalised after diet-induced weight loss of 30 ± 5 kg. Sweat secretion rates were similar comparing obese and nonobese subjects (78 ± 10 versus 82 ± 9 mg/30 minutes) and sweat secretion did not change after a diet-induced weight loss in obese subjects. We......Adults with GH deficiency are known to exhibit reduced sweating. Whether sweating capacity is impacted in obese subjects with impaired GH secretion have not previously been investigated. The main objective was to investigate sweat secretion rate and the GH-IGF-I axis in obese subjects before...

  7. High Prevalence of Stress and Low Prevalence of Alzheimer Disease CSF Biomarkers in a Clinical Sample with Subjective Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerström, Marie; Berg, Anne Ingeborg; Nordlund, Arto; Rolstad, Sindre; Sacuiu, Simona; Wallin, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) is a trigger for seeking health care in a possible preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease (AD), although the characteristics of SCI need clarification. We investigated the prevalence of psychosocial stress, depressive symptoms and CSF AD biomarkers in SCI and MCI (mild cognitive impairment). Memory clinic patients (SCI: n = 90; age: 59.8 ± 7.6 years; MCI: n = 160; age: 63.7 ± 7.0 years) included in the Gothenburg MCI study were examined at baseline. Variables were analyzed using logistic regression with SCI as dependent variable. Stress was more prevalent in SCI (51.1%) than MCI (23.1%); p patients had more previous depressive symptoms (p = 0.006), but showed no difference compared to MCI patients considering current depressive symptoms. A positive CSF AD profile was present in 14.4% of SCI patients and 35.0% of MCI patients (p = 0.001). Stress (p = 0.002), previous stress/depressive symptoms (p = 0.006) and a negative CSF AD profile (p = 0.036) predicted allocation to the SCI group. Psychosocial stress is more prevalent in SCI than previously acknowledged. The high prevalence and long-term occurrence of stress/depressive symptoms in SCI in combination with a low prevalence of altered CSF AD biomarkers strengthens the notion that AD is not the most likely etiology of SCI. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Telomere Length, Proviral Load and Neurologic Impairment in HTLV-1 and HTLV-2-Infected Subjects

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    Benjamin Usadi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Short or damaged telomeres have been implicated in degenerative conditions. We hypothesized that analysis of telomere length (TL in human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV infection and HTLV-associated neuropathy might provide clues to the etiology of HTLV-associated disease and viral dynamics. A subset of 45 human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1, 45 human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2, and 45 seronegative subjects was selected from the larger HTLV Outcomes Study (HOST cohort, matched on age, sex and race/ethnicity. Telomere-to-single-copy gene (T/S ratio (a measure of TL and HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 proviral loads were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs using quantitative PCR (qPCR. Vibration sensation measured by tuning fork during neurologic examinations performed as part of the HOST study allowed for an assessment of peripheral neuropathy. TL was compared between groups using t-tests, linear and logistic regression. Mean T/S ratio was 1.02 ± 0.16 in HTLV-1, 1.03 ± 0.17 in HTLV-2 and 0.99 ± 0.18 in HTLV seronegative subjects (p = 0.322. TL was not associated with HTLV-1 or -2 proviral load. Shorter TL was significantly associated with impaired vibration sense in the HTLV-2 positive group only. Overall, we found no evidence that telomere length was affected by chronic HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infection. That TL was only associated with peripheral neuropathy in the HTLV-2-positive group is intriguing, but should be interpreted cautiously. Studies with larger sample size and telomere length measurement in lymphocyte subsets may clarify the relationship between TL and HTLV-infection.

  9. The association between vascular factors and subjective memory impairment in older people: The HUNT Study, Norway

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    Ellen Melbye Langballe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Subjective memory impairment (SMI is often considered an early sign of dementia. This study investigates the relationship between SMI and dementia-related vascular factors in older people.Method: This study was based on data from 12,255 individuals, 65 years and older, participating in the Nord-Trøndelag health study, third survey 2006-08 (HUNT3. SMI, vascular diseases, exercise, smoking, and alcohol consumption were self-reported. Blood pressure, cholesterol and body mass index (BMI were clinically measured. SMI were predicted using linear regression analysis.Results: Stroke and heart disease were associated with SMI. High exercise intensity was associated with less SMI. Respondents with high systolic blood pressure (SBP reported less SMI than those with moderate SBP. In men, low SBP was associated with significantly more SMI compared to those with moderate SBP. In women, moderate alcohol consumption compared to low alcohol consumption was associated with significantly more SMI.Conclusion: SMI was positively associated with stroke and heart disease in this study. For the other investigated vascular factors, we did not find strong relationships with SMI. However, for preventive and treatment purposes, it is noteworthy that high exercise intensity and high systolic blood pressure was associated with less SMI in both genders.

  10. Single-subject gray matter graph properties and their relationship with cognitive impairment in early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijms, Betty M; Yeung, Hiu M; Sikkes, Sietske A M; Möller, Christiane; Smits, Lieke L; Stam, Cornelis J; Scheltens, Philip; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Barkhof, Frederik

    2014-06-01

    Abstract We investigated the relationships between gray matter graph properties and cognitive impairment in a sample of 215 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and also whether age of disease onset modifies such relationships. We expected that more severe cognitive impairment in AD would be related to more random graph topologies. Single-subject gray matter graphs were constructed from T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans. The following global and local graph properties were calculated: betweenness centrality, normalized clustering coefficient γ, and normalized path length λ. Local clustering, path length, and betweenness centrality measures were determined for 90 anatomically defined areas. Regression models with as interaction term age of onset (i.e., early onset when patients were ≤65 years old and late onset when they were >65 years old at the time of diagnosis)×graph property were used to assess the relationships between cognitive functioning in five domains (memory, language, visuospatial, attention, and executive). Worse cognitive impairment was associated with more random graphs, as indicated by low γ, λ, and betweenness centrality values. Three interaction effects for age of onset×global graph property were found: Low γ and λ values more strongly related to memory impairment in early-onset patients; low beta values were significantly related to impaired visuospatial functioning in late-onset patients. For the local graph properties, language impairment showed the strongest relationship with decreased clustering coefficient in the left superior temporal gyrus across the entire sample. Our study shows that single-subject gray matter graph properties are associated with individual differences in cognitive impairment.

  11. Impaired IKs channel activation by Ca(2+)-dependent PKC shows correlation with emotion/arousal-triggered events in LQT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O-Uchi, Jin; Rice, J Jeremy; Ruwald, Martin H; Parks, Xiaorong Xu; Ronzier, Elsa; Moss, Arthur J; Zareba, Wojciech; Lopes, Coeli M

    2015-02-01

    The most common inherited cardiac arrhythmia, LQT1, is due to IKs potassium channel mutations and is linked to high risk of adrenergic-triggered cardiac events. We recently showed that although exercise-triggered events are very well treated by ß-blockers for these patients, acute arousal-triggered event rate were not significantly reduced after beta-blocker treatment, suggesting that the mechanisms underlying arousal-triggered arrhythmias may be different from those during exercise. IKs is strongly regulated by β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) signaling, but little is known about the role of α1-AR-mediated regulation. Here we show, using a combination of cellular electrophysiology and computational modeling, that IKs phosphorylation and α1-AR regulation via activation of calcium-dependent PKC isoforms (cPKC) may be a key mechanism to control channel voltage-dependent activation and consequently action potential duration (APD) in response to adrenergic-stimulus. We show that simulated mutation-specific combined adrenergic effects (β+α) on APD were strongly correlated to acute stress-triggered cardiac event rate for patients while β-AR effects alone were not. We were able to show that calcium-dependent PKC signaling is key to normal QT shortening during acute arousal and when impaired, correlates with increased rate of sudden arousal-triggered cardiac events. Our study suggests that the acute α1-AR-cPKC regulation of IKs is important for QT shortening in "fight-or-flight" response and is linked to decreased risk of sudden emotion/arousal-triggered cardiac events in LQT1 patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cognitive impairment, decline and fluctuations in older community-dwelling subjects with Lewy bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitakis, Z.; Yu, L.; Boyle, P. A.; Leurgans, S. E.; Bennett, D. A.

    2012-01-01

    Lewy bodies are common in the ageing brain and often co-occur with Alzheimer’s disease pathology. There is little known regarding the independent role of Lewy body pathology in cognition impairment, decline and fluctuations in community-dwelling older persons. We examined the contribution of Lewy body pathology to dementia, global cognition, cognitive domains, cognitive decline and fluctuations in 872 autopsied subjects (mean age = 87.9 years) from the Rush Religious Order Study (n = 491) and Memory and Aging Project (n = 381) longitudinal community-based clinical–pathological studies. Dementia was based on a clinical evaluation; annual cognitive performance tests were used to create a measure of global cognition and five cognitive domains. Lewy body type was determined by using α-synuclein immunostained sections of substantia nigra, limbic and neocortical regions. Statistical models included multiple regression models for dementia and cognition and mixed effects models for decline. Cognitive fluctuations were estimated by comparing standard deviations of individual residuals from mean trajectories of decline in those with and without Lewy bodies. All models controlled for age, sex, education, Alzheimer’s disease pathology and infarcts. One hundred and fifty-seven subjects (18%) exhibited Lewy body pathology (76 neocortical-type, 54 limbic-type and 27 nigra-predominant). One hundred and three (66%) subjects with Lewy body pathology had a pathologic diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. Neocortical-type, but not nigral-predominant or limbic-type Lewy body pathology was related to an increased odds of dementia (odds ratio = 3.21; 95% confidence interval = 1.78–5.81) and lower cognition (P Lewy body pathology was also related to a faster decline in global cognition (P Lewy body pathology was related to lower and faster decline in visuospatial skills (P = 0.042). The relationship of Lewy body pathology to cognition and dementia was not modified by Alzheimer

  13. Cognitive performance and perceived effort in speech processing tasks: effects of different noise backgrounds in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsby, Birgitta; Hällgren, Mathias; Lyxell, Björn; Arlinger, Stig

    2005-03-01

    Cognitive tests of speech understanding were administered (presented as text, or in auditory or audiovisual modality) and perceived effort was rated. This was done in four background conditions: in silence, and in three types of noise (S/N=+10 dB) varying in temporal structure and meaningfulness. Four groups of 12 subjects each (young/elderly with normal hearing and young/elderly with hearing impairment) participated. The presence of noise had a negative effect on accuracy and speed of performance in the speech processing tasks, and resulted in higher scores of perceived effort, even when the stimuli were presented as text. Differences in performance between noise conditions existed. In the subjective scores, the noise with temporal variations, but without meaningful content, was the most disruptive of the three noise conditions. In the objective scores the hearing-impaired subjects showed poorer results in noise with temporal variations. The elderly subjects were more distracted by noise with temporal variations, and especially by noise with meaningful content. In noise, all subjects, particularly those with impaired hearing, were more dependent upon visual cues than in the quiet condition.

  14. Reliability and Validity of Standing Back Extension Test for Detecting Motor Control Impairment in Subjects with Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondhalekar, Gauri A; Kumar, Senthil P; Eapen, Charu; Mahale, Ajit

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain is a chronic health problem with high socioeconomic impact. Specific diagnosis or treatment approach has not yet effectively established to treat chronic low back pain. Standing Back Extension Test is one of the clinical measures to detect the passive extension subgroup of Motor Control Impairment (MCI); which could have an impact on spinal stability leading to recurrent chronic low back pain. Reliability and validity of this test is not fully established. To determine the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability and concurrent validity of the Standing Back Extension Test for detecting MCI of the lumbar spine. A total of 50 subjects were included in the study, 25 patients with Non Specific Low Back Pain (NSLBP) (12 men, 13 women) and 25 healthy controls (12 men, 13 women) were recruited into the study. All subjects performed the test movement. Two raters blinded to the subjects rated the test performance as either 'Positive' or 'Negative' based on the predetermined rating protocol. The thickness of Transverse Abdominis (TrA) muscle was assessed using Rehabilitative Ultrasound Imaging (RUSI). For reliability, the kappa coefficient with percent agreement was calculated and for assessing the validity Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves and Area under the Curve (AUC) were constructed. The standing back extension test showed very good intra-rater (k=0.87 with an agreement of 96%) and good inter-rater (k=0.78 with an agreement of 94%) reliability and high AUC for TrA muscle. The standing back extension test was found to be a reliable and a valid measure to detect passive extension subgroup for MCI in subjects with low back pain.

  15. SGA children with moderate catch-up growth are showing the impaired insulin secretion at the age of 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanovic, Ivana; Njuieyon, Falucar; Deghmoun, Samia; Chevenne, Didier; Levy-Marchal, Claire; Beltrand, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Being born small for gestational age (SGA) is a risk factor for later development of type 2 diabetes. The development of glucose tolerance disorders in adults involves insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion. To evaluate insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in a 4-yr old cohort of SGA. 85 children were prospectively followed from mid-gestation to 4 years of age. Fetal growth velocity (FGV) was measured using ultrasound measurements. Body composition and hormonal profile were measured at birth, 1 and 4 years. 23 SGA babies had lower birth weight compared to 62 AGA (-1.9±0.3 vs. -0.6±0.8 z-score; pSGA infants experienced an early catch-up growth in weight (mean gain of 1.1±0.6 SD) during the first year of life. At 4 years, SGA children remain lighter than AGA, but with weight z-score in the normal range (-0.1±1.3 vs. 0.5±1.3 z-score; p = 0.05). No excess of fat mass was observed (19±4.8 vs. 19.7±4.1%; p = 0.45). 120-min plasma glucose was significantly higher (6.2±1.1 vs. 5.6±0.9 mmol/l; p = 0.006) and insulinogenic index was significantly lower (0.28±0.15 vs. 0.40±2.4; p = 0.02) in the SGA group at 4-yrs of life contrasting with a preserved insulin sensitivity (QUICKI 0.47±0.09 vs. 0.43±0.05; p = 0.06). SGA children with compensatory catch-up growth in first year of life show mild disturbances of glucose tolerance associated to a lower insulinogenic index at 4-yrs of age suggesting impairment of β-cell function.

  16. Effects of Immediate and Cumulative Syntactic Experience in Language Impairment: Evidence from Priming of Subject Relatives in Children with SLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraffa, Maria; Coco, Moreno I.; Branigan, Holly P.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the production of subject relative clauses (SRc) in Italian pre-school children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and age-matched typically-developing children (TD) controls. In a structural priming paradigm, children described pictures after hearing the experimenter produce a bare noun or an SRc description, as part of a…

  17. ADAM10 gene expression in the blood cells of Alzheimer's disease patients and mild cognitive impairment subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manzine, Patricia Regina; Marcello, Elena; Borroni, Barbara; Kamphuis, Willem; Hol, Elly; Padovani, Alessandro; Nascimento, Carla Crispim; De Godoy Bueno, Patricia; Assis Carvalho Vale, Francisco; Iost Pavarini, Sofia Cristina; Di Luca, Monica; Cominetti, Márcia Regina

    2015-01-01

    ADAM10 is a potential biomarker for Alzheimer's disease (AD). ADAM10 protein levels are reduced in platelets of AD patients. The aim was to verify the total blood and platelet ADAM10 gene expression in AD patients and to compare with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy subjects. No

  18. Impaired Executive Functions in Subjects with Frequent Nightmares as Reflected by Performance in Different Neuropsychological Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simor, Peter; Pajkossy, Peter; Horvath, Klara; Bodizs, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Nightmare disorder is a prevalent parasomnia characterized by vivid and highly unpleasant dream experiences during night time sleep. The neural background of disturbed dreaming was proposed to be associated with impaired prefrontal and fronto-limbic functioning during REM sleep. We hypothesized that the impaired prefrontal and fronto-limbic…

  19. Impaired incretin-induced amplification of insulin secretion after glucose homeostatic dysregulation in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Katrine B; Vilsbøll, Tina; Bagger, Jonatan I

    2012-01-01

    The insulinotropic effect of the incretin hormones, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is impaired in patients with type 2 diabetes. It remains unclear whether this impairment is a primary pathophysiological trait or a consequence of developing...

  20. Modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer disease and subjective memory impairment across age groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen T Chen

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Previous research has identified modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD in older adults. Research is limited on the potential link between these risk factors and subjective memory impairment (SMI, which may precede AD and other dementias. Examination of these potential relationships may help identify those at risk for AD at a stage when interventions may delay or prevent further memory problems. The objective of this study was to determine whether risk factors for AD are associated with SMI among different age groups. METHOD: Trained interviewers conducted daily telephone surveys (Gallup-Healthways of a representative community sample of 18,614 U.S. respondents, including 4,425 younger (age 18 to 39 years, 6,365 middle-aged (40 to 59 years, and 7,824 older (60 to 99 years adults. The surveyors collected data on demographics, lifestyles, and medical information. Less education, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, less exercise, obesity and depression, and interactions among them, were examined for associations with SMI. Weighted logistic regressions and chi-square tests were used to calculate odds ratios and confidence intervals for SMI with each risk factor and pairwise interactions across age groups. RESULTS: Depression, less education, less exercise, and hypertension were significantly associated with SMI in all three age groups. Several interactions between risk factors were significant in younger and middle-aged adults and influenced their associations with SMI. Frequency of SMI increased with age and number of risk factors. Odds of having SMI increased significantly with just having one risk factor. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that modifiable risk factors for AD are also associated with SMI, suggesting that these relationships occur in a broad range of ages and may be targeted to mitigate further memory problems. Whether modifying these risk factors reduces SMI and the eventual incidence of AD and other

  1. Recurrent syncope in a hypertensive subject with vascular cognitive impairment and permanent pacemaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Mazza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Syncope following permanent pacemaker (PM implantation is a nightmare for electrophysiologists. We describe a case of daily recurrent syncope in an 84-year-old man having a dual-chamber pacemaker implanted for complete atrio-ventricular block occurred 4 years before the admission to our department. He had a history of arterial hypertension, parossistic atrial fibrillation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, stage-III chronic renal failure, mild vascular cognitive impairment and glaucoma. The initial work-up including electrocardiogram (ECG, repeated PM inter- rogations, Holter electrocardiogram, blood pressure measurement in orthostatic position, complete blood count, serum glycaemia, electrolytes and thyroid function tests showed normal findings. Syncope occurred in lying position and during 90° left clockwise neck rotation and was associated to pallor, sweating, tonic-clonic seizures and transient self-limited loss of consciousness lasting a few seconds. Electroencephalogram was normal. During continuous ECG monitoring, the right rotation of the head determined a ventricular asystolic pause lasting 9 seconds associated with loss of consciousness. Restoration of sinus rhythm was observed after bringing back the head in axis. The PM interrogation, performed during pacing failure, recorded low impedance of bipolar ventricular lead, suggesting a damage in lead insulation. It is likely that lead movements during clockwise neck rotation produced an intermittent short circuit that prevented sufficient energy delivery to the myocardium with a consequence of sudden loss of capture.

  2. Anxiety and depression symptoms among caregivers of care-recipients with subjective cognitive decline and cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaoniu; Guo, Qihao; Luo, Jianfeng; Li, Fang; Ding, Ding; Zhao, Qianhua; Hong, Zhen

    2016-10-03

    Caregivers of care-recipients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia experience high caregiver burden; however, the psychiatric burden of caregivers of care-recipients with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) has not been investigated. We aimed to explore the prevalence of and risk factors for anxiety and depression symptoms among the caregivers of care-recipients with SCD and cognitive impairment. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to examine the anxiety and depression symptoms among the caregivers of 343 care-recipients (84 with SCD, 120 with MCI and 139 with dementia) treated at the Memory Clinic of Huashan Hospital in Shanghai, China from May 2012 to October 2014. A logistic regression was used to explore the factors associated with caregiver's anxiety and depression symptoms. In total, 26.5 % of caregivers had anxiety symptoms, and 22.4 % had depression symptoms. Totals of 17.9, 30.0 and 28.8 % of caregivers of care-recipients with SCD, MCI or dementia, respectively, had anxiety symptoms (P = 0.1140), whereas 22.6, 24.2 and 20.9 %, respectively, had depression symptoms (P = 0.8165). The risk factors for caregiver's anxiety symptoms were increased caregiver age as well as having care-recipients who were male, had higher Cohen Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI) scores, and higher Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) scores. The risk factors for caregiver's depression symptoms were increased caregiver age as well as caring for care-recipients with MCI or SCD, those with lower Toronto Empathy Questionnaire (TEQ) scores, and those with higher GDS scores. Caregivers of care-recipients with SCD showed the same level of depression symptoms as those of care-recipients with MCI. Caregiver's depression and anxiety symptoms were associated with their care-recipients' psychiatric and behavioral syndromes.

  3. Prevalence and prognostic value of CSF markers of Alzheimer's disease pathology in patients with subjective cognitive impairment or mild cognitive impairment in the DESCRIPA study: a prospective cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, P.J.; Verhey, F.; Knol, D.L.; Scheltens, P.; Wahlund, L.O.; Freund-Levi, Y.; Tsolaki, M.; Minthon, L.; Wallin, A.K.; Hampel, H.; Burger, K.; Pirttila, T.; Soininen, H.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Verbeek, M.M.; Spiru, L.; Blennow, K.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology is common in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) without dementia, but the prevalence of AD pathology in patients with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) and non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment (naMCI) is unknown. AD is

  4. Preschoolers with Down Syndrome Do Not yet Show the Learning and Memory Impairments Seen in Adults with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lynette V.; Richmond, Jenny L.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) exhibit a behavioral phenotype of specific strengths and weaknesses, in addition to a generalized cognitive delay. In particular, adults with DS exhibit specific deficits in learning and memory processes that depend on the hippocampus, and there is some suggestion of impairments on executive function tasks that…

  5. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  6. Do subjective cognitive complaints correlate with cognitive impairment in systemic lupus erythematosus? A Danish outpatient study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, A; Bhattacharya, S; Larsen, J L

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of cognitive impairment and its association with depressive symptoms and self-reported cognitive complaints in Danish outpatients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Fifty-seven consecutive female SLE-outpatients were examined with a comprehensive neuropsyc......This study examined the prevalence of cognitive impairment and its association with depressive symptoms and self-reported cognitive complaints in Danish outpatients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Fifty-seven consecutive female SLE-outpatients were examined with a comprehensive...

  7. Myotubes from severely obese type 2 diabetic subjects accumulate less lipids and show higher lipolytic rate than myotubes from severely obese non-diabetic subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siril S Bakke

    Full Text Available About 80% of patients with type 2 diabetes are classified as overweight. However, only about 1/3 of severely obese subjects have type 2 diabetes. This indicates that several severely obese individuals may possess certain characteristics that protect them against type 2 diabetes. We therefore hypothesized that this apparent paradox could be related to fundamental differences in skeletal muscle lipid handling. Energy metabolism and metabolic flexibility were examined in human myotubes derived from severely obese subjects without (BMI 44±7 kg/m2 and with type 2 diabetes (BMI 43±6 kg/m2. Lower insulin sensitivity was observed in myotubes from severely obese subjects with type 2 diabetes. Lipolysis rate was higher, and oleic acid accumulation, triacylglycerol content, and fatty acid adaptability were lower in myotubes from severely obese subjects with type 2 diabetes compared to severely obese non-diabetic subjects. There were no differences in lipid distribution and mRNA and protein expression of the lipases HSL and ATGL, the lipase cofactor CGI-58, or the lipid droplet proteins PLIN2 and PLIN3. Glucose and oleic acid oxidation were also similar in cells from the two groups. In conclusion, myotubes established from severely obese donors with established type 2 diabetes had lower ability for lipid accumulation and higher lipolysis rate than myotubes from severely obese donors without diabetes. This indicates that a difference in intramyocellular lipid turnover might be fundamental in evolving type 2 diabetes.

  8. Impaired myocardial blood flow reserve in subjects with metabolic syndrome analyzed using positron emission tomography and N-13 labeled ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teragawa, Hiroki; Kihara, Yasuki [Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Morita, Koichi; Tamaki, Nagara [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Shishido, Hiroki; Otsuka, Nobuaki; Hirokawa, Yutaka [Hiroshima Heiwa Clinic, Hiroshima (Japan); Chayama, Kazuaki [Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Molecular Science and Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    Coronary vasomotor response might be impaired in metabolic syndrome (MS); however, the precise abnormality has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to assess coronary-vasomotor response in MS subjects using N-13 labeled ammonia and positron emission tomography. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured at rest and during adenosine infusion in MS subjects (n = 13, MS group) with no definite evidence of heart disease and in subjects without MS (n = 14, non-MS group). Coronary vascular resistance (CVR) was calculated by dividing the mean aortic blood pressure by MBF. Myocardial blood flow reserve (MFR) was calculated as the ratio of the MBF during adenosine infusion to that during rest. Blood chemical parameters were measured to evaluate their relationship with MFR. During adenosine infusion, MBF was lower (p = 0.0085) and CVR higher (p = 0.0128) in the MS group than in the non-MS group and MFR was significantly lower in the MS group than in the non-MS group (2.13 {+-} 0.99 vs. 3.38 {+-} 0.95, p = 0.0027). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (p < 0.05) and the presence of hypertension (p < 0.05) were independent determinants of MFR. The results indicate that MFR was impaired in MS subjects, suggesting that an abnormal coronary microvascular response occurred in these subjects. This abnormality may have been partially due to insulin resistance and hypertension. (orig.)

  9. Impaired postprandial fullness in Type 2 diabetic subjects is rescued by acute exercise independently of total and acylated ghrelin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sine H; Karstoft, Kristian; Solomon, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Ghrelin levels are suppressed in obese subjects and subjects with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Exercise-stimulated decreases in plasma ghrelin are a proposed mediator of exercise-induced satiety in healthy subjects. However, exercise-induced satiety and the impact of impaired ghrelin levels...... in obesity-related disease are poorly understood. Therefore our objective was to investigate exercise-induced postprandial satiety and ghrelin responses in overweight subjects with T2DM (N = 8) and healthy controls (N = 7). Visual analog scale satiety questionnaires (assessing hunger, thirst, food that could...... be eaten, nausea, and fullness) and circulating levels of glucose, insulin, and total and acylated ghrelin were measured at baseline and in response to a 75 g oral glucose load, provided immediately after an aerobic exercise bout (1 h at 50% Wmax) or no exercise (rest trial), on two separate occasions...

  10. Relations between psychophysical data and speech perception for hearing-impaired subjects. II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreschler, W. A.; Plomp, R.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-one sensorineurally hearing-impaired adolescents were studied with an extensive battery of tone-perception, phoneme-perception, and speech-perception tests. Tests on loudness perception, frequency selectivity, and temporal resolution at the test frequencies of 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz were

  11. Cross-sectional study shows that impaired bone mineral status and metabolism are found in nonmosaic triple X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagi, Stefano; Di Tommaso, Mariarosaria; Scalini, Perla; Sandini, Elena; Masoni, Fabrizio; Chiarelli, Francesco; Verrotti, Alberto; Giglio, Sabrina; Romano, Silvia; de Martino, Maurizio

    2017-04-01

    The effect of a supernumerary X chromosome on bones has not been reported, and this study evaluated bone mineral status and metabolism in nonmosaic triple X syndrome. This cross-sectional study comprised 19 girls, with a median age of 10.9 years, with nonmosaic triple X syndrome and a control group matched for age and body size. We studied ionised and total calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase levels and urinary deoxypyridinoline concentrations. We also measured the phalangeal amplitude-dependent speed of sound (AD-SoS) and the bone transmission time (BTT) Z-scores. Patients with nonmosaic triple X syndrome showed significantly reduced AD-SoS (p p p p p p p triple X syndrome exhibited a significant impairment in bone mineral status and metabolism similar to other X polisomy, such as Klinefelter's syndrome. This suggests the presence of a primary bone deficit and the need for regular and close monitoring of these subjects. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Impaired Fat-induced Thermogenesis in Obese Subjects: The NUGENOB Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaak, E.E.; Hul, G.; Verdich, C.; Stich, V.; Martinez, J.A.; Petersen, M.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Patel, K.; Oppert, J.M.; Barbe, P.; Tourbro, S.; Polak, J.; Anderson, I.; Astrup, A.; Macdonald, I.; Langin, D.; Sorensen, T.; Saris, W.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To study energy expenditure before and 3 hours after a high-fat load in a large cohort of obese subjects (n=701) and a lean reference group (n = 113). Research Methods and Procedures: Subjects from seven European countries underwent a 1-day clinical study with a liquid test meal

  13. Systemic Inflammation and Lung Function Impairment in Morbidly Obese Subjects with the Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid van Huisstede

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity and asthma are associated. There is a relationship between lung function impairment and the metabolic syndrome. Whether this relationship also exists in the morbidly obese patients is still unknown. Hypothesis. Low-grade systemic inflammation associated with the metabolic syndrome causes inflammation in the lungs and, hence, lung function impairment. Methods. This is cross-sectional study of morbidly obese patients undergoing preoperative screening for bariatric surgery. Metabolic syndrome was assessed according to the revised NCEP-ATP III criteria. Results. A total of 452 patients were included. Patients with the metabolic syndrome (n=293 had significantly higher blood monocyte (mean 5.3 versus 4.9, P=0.044 and eosinophil percentages (median 1.0 versus 0.8, P=0.002, while the total leukocyte count did not differ between the groups. The FEV1/FVC ratio was significantly lower in patients with the metabolic syndrome (76.7% versus 78.2%, P=0.032. Blood eosinophils were associated with FEV1/FVC ratio (adj. B −0.113, P=0.018. Conclusion. Although the difference in FEV1/FVC ratio between the groups is relatively small, in this cross-sectional study, and its clinical relevance may be limited, these data indicate that the presence of the metabolic syndrome may influence lung function impairment, through the induction of relative eosinophilia.

  14. The effect of network template from normal subjects in the detection of network impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun-Chao, Huang; Shang-Hua, Lin; Ching-Po, Lin; Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, The Alzheimer's

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to provide a simple way to approach group differences by independent component analysis when researching functional connectivity changes of resting-state network in brain disorders. We used baseline resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging from the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative dataset and performed independent component analysis based on different kinds of subject selection, by including two downloaded templates and single-subject independent component analysis method. All conditions were used to calculate the functional connectivity of the default mode network, and to test group differences and evaluate correlation with cognitive measurements and hippocampal volume. The default mode network functional connectivity results most fitting clinical evaluations were from templates based on young healthy subjects and the worst results were from heterogeneous or more severe disease groups or single-subject independent component analysis method. Using independent component analysis network maps derived from normal young subjects to extract all individual functional connectivities provides significant correlations with clinical evaluations.

  15. The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor vildagliptin improves beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity in subjects with impaired fasting glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utzschneider, Kristina M; Tong, Jenny; Montgomery, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of treatment with the dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitor vildagliptin on insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function in subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 22 subjects with IFG (11 female and 11 male, mean +/- SD...... (FSIGT), followed by a 2-h meal tolerance test (MTT), was performed at 2, 8, and 10 weeks. From the FSIGT, the acute insulin response to glucose (AIR(g)) and insulin sensitivity index (S(I)) were determined and used to compute the disposition index (AIR(g) x S(I)) as a measure of beta-cell function...... was not sustained after washout. CONCLUSIONS: The DPP-4 inhibitor vildagliptin improves insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function, leading to improved postprandial glycemia in subjects with IFG, who are known to have beta-cell dysfunction. Thus, vildagliptin may prevent progression to diabetes in high...

  16. Elevated urinary albumin excretion is associated with impaired arterial dilatory capacity in clinically healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Jensen, G

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated urinary albumin excretion (UAE) predicts atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. It is hypothesized that elevated UAE is associated with a generalized vascular dysfunction. This study tested this hypothesis for conduit arteries. METHODS AND RESULTS: Clinically healthy subject...

  17. Impaired basal glucose effectiveness but unaltered fasting glucose release and gluconeogenesis during short-term hypercortisolemia in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael F; Caumo, Andrea; Chandramouli, Visvanathan

    2004-01-01

    Excess cortisol has been demonstrated to impair hepatic and extrahepatic insulin action. To determine whether glucose effectiveness and, in terms of endogenous glucose release (EGR), gluconeogenesis, also are altered by hypercortisolemia, eight healthy subjects were studied after overnight infusion...... contribution of gluconeogenesis to EGR (P = 0.33) did not differ on the two study days. During the prandial glucose infusion, the integrated glycemic response above baseline was higher in the presence of hydrocortisone than during saline infusion (P .... In conclusion, short-term hypercortisolemia in healthy individuals with normal beta-cell function decreases insulin action but does not alter rates of EGR and gluconeogenesis. In addition, cortisol impairs the ability of glucose to suppress its own production, which due to accumulation of glucose in the glucose...

  18. Randomized, Controlled, Thorough QT/QTc Study Shows Absence of QT Prolongation with Luseogliflozin in Healthy Japanese Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Kumagai

    Full Text Available Luseogliflozin is a selective sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibitor. To evaluate the cardiac safety of luseogliflozin, a thorough QT/QTc study was conducted in healthy Japanese subjects. The effects of moxifloxacin on QT prolongation in Japanese subjects were also evaluated. In this double-blind, placebo- and open-label positive-controlled, 4-way crossover study, 28 male and 28 female subjects received a single dose of luseogliflozin 5 mg (therapeutic dose, luseogliflozin 20 mg (supratherapeutic dose, placebo, and moxifloxacin 400 mg. Serial triplicate digital 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs were recorded before and after dosing, and results were analyzed using the Fridericia correction (QTcF method. Serial blood sampling was performed for pharmacokinetic analyses of luseogliflozin and moxifloxacin to analyze the relationship between QTcF interval and plasma concentration. The upper limits of the two-sided 90% confidence intervals (CIs for baseline and placebo-adjusted QTcF intervals (ΔΔQTcF in the 5 mg and 20 mg luseogliflozin groups were less than 10 ms at all time points. No correlation between plasma luseogliflozin concentrations and ΔΔQTcF was observed. In the moxifloxacin group, the lower limits of the two-sided 90% CIs for ΔΔQTcF were greater than 5 ms at all time points. A positive relationship was observed between plasma moxifloxacin concentration and change in ΔΔQTcF. Luseogliflozin was well tolerated at both dose levels. The majority of adverse events were mild in severity, and no serious or life-threatening adverse events occurred. Neither therapeutic (5 mg nor supratherapeutic (20 mg doses of luseogliflozin affected QT prolongation in healthy Japanese subjects.

  19. Depression in older people: visual impairment and subjective ratings of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, Karen J; Kerse, Ngaire M; La Grow, Steven J; Wouldes, Trecia; Robertson, M Clare; Campbell, A John

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of depression in a sample of older adults with impaired vision and investigate associations between physical and visual disability and depression. We analyzed cross-sectional baseline data from 391 participants aged >or=75 years with visual acuity of 6/24 (20/80) or less, recruited for a randomized controlled trial of interventions to prevent falls (the VIP trial). Measures included the geriatric depression scale (GDS-15), the state-trait anxiety index, activities of daily living (Nottingham extended ADL scale), physical activity (human activity profile), an index of visual functioning (VF-14), health-related quality of life (SF-36), objective measures of physical ability, and a measure of visual acuity. Regression models were developed to investigate the association between depression scores and physical, psychological, and visual disability. About 29.4% (115 of 391) of participants were identified as potentially depressed (GDS-15 score >4). Physical function, physical activity, physical ability, visual function, anxiety, and self-reported physical and mental health were significantly worse for those with depressive symptomatology. Physical, visual, and psychological factors collectively explained 41% of the variance in the depression score in a linear regression model (R=0.421, adjusted R=0.410, F (7,382)=39.680, pvisual impairment. Impaired visual and physical functions were associated with symptoms of depression. The effect of visual disability was independent of the effect of physical disability. The strength of this relationship, and the results of the regression analyses, indicate that a person who is visually or physically disabled is more likely to suffer from depression.

  20. Impaired TCA cycle flux in mitochondria in skeletal muscle from type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael; Nehlin, Jan O; Minet, Ariane D

    2012-01-01

    The diabetic phenotype is complex, requiring elucidation of key initiating defects. Recent research has shown that diabetic myotubes express a primary reduced tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux. A reduced TCA cycle flux has also been shown both in insulin resistant offspring of T2D patients...... and exercising T2D patients in vivo. This review will discuss the latest advances in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating the TCA cycle with focus on possible underlying mechanism which could explain the impaired TCA flux in insulin resistant human skeletal muscle in type 2 diabetes....... A reduced TCA is both a marker and a maker of the diabetic phenotype....

  1. The association between the subjective memory complaints scale and depressive state and cognitive impairment: a factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Tetsu; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Sugawara, Norio; Takahashi, Ippei; Sawada, Kaori; Nakamura, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to discriminate individuals with depressive state from individuals with cognitive impairment among community-dwelling people using the subjective memory complaints (SMC) scale. The study group consisted of 289 volunteers (over 60 years old; 104 males and 185 females). Participants' SMCs were assessed using the SMC scale. The Japanese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression scale and the Mini-Mental State Examination were administered. Participants whose Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression scores were 16 or higher were defined as the depressive group and participants whose Mini-Mental State Examination scores were less than 24 were defined as the cognitive impairment group. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to identify the factor structure of the items of the SMC scale. A multiple logistic regression analysis of the association between depressive state and cognitive impairment and the score of each factor was performed. In the final factor analysis model, six items of the SMC scale remained, and a two-factor structure was adequate. Factor 1 included the items 8, 9, and 10 about thought or the ability to think; thus, Factor 1 was defined as "thought disturbance factor". Factor 2 included the items 1, 2, and 4 about memory or forgetfulness; thus, Factor 2 was defined as "memory disturbance factor". In the multiple logistic regression analysis, Factor 1 was significantly associated with depressive state and Factor 2 was significantly associated with cognitive impairment. For individuals with SMCs, we might be able to discriminate depressive state or depression from cognitive impairment or dementia through a detailed investigation using the SMC scale.

  2. Impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia in subjects with type 1 diabetes. Results of an online survey in a diabetes web site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conget, Ignacio; Ávila, Dalia; Giménez, Marga; Quiros, Carmen; Salaverria, Vanesa; Dueñas, Belen

    2016-03-01

    To assess the frequency of impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia (IAH) using a specific questionnaire (Spanish version) in a free access diabetes-related web site. Data from a free access Spanish version of the Clarke test previously uploaded to the website of the Fundación para la Diabetes (March 2014-January 2015) were assessed. In addition to the eight questions in Clarke's questionnaire, information on type of diabetes, age, and disease duration was obtained. The Clarke test divided participants into three categories: normal awareness, uncertain and IAH. Of the 418 participants with type 1 diabetes, 51.2% were aged 36-55 years. In 34.7%, diabetes had been diagnosed >15 years before, while disease duration was 2 years in 11%. According to Clarke categories, 23.4% had IAH, 15.3% uncertain awareness, and 61.3% normal awareness. The longer the duration of diabetes, the higher the Clarke test score. According to the Clarke test, 14.1% of participants had experienced at least one episode of severe hypoglycaemia in the previous year, and half of these (7.4%) had suffered severe hypoglycaemia two or more times. All but one of the participants with two or more episodes of severe hypoglycaemia had IAH. Our study shows that the rate of IAH using an online survey is similar (25%) to that previously reported in other geographical areas, increases with diabetes duration, and identifies subjects prone to severe hypoglycaemia. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Vitamin B1-deficient mice show impairment of hippocampus-dependent memory formation and loss of hippocampal neurons and dendritic spines: potential microendophenotypes of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Hiroyoshi; Kishimoto, Takuya; Oishi, Satoru; Nagata, Kan; Hasegawa, Shunsuke; Watanabe, Tamae; Kida, Satoshi

    2016-12-01

    Patients with severe Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) associated with vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency (TD) show enduring impairment of memory formation. The mechanisms of memory impairment induced by TD remain unknown. Here, we show that hippocampal degeneration is a potential microendophenotype (an endophenotype of brain disease at the cellular and synaptic levels) of WKS in pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency (PTD) mice, a rodent model of WKS. PTD mice show deficits in the hippocampus-dependent memory formation, although they show normal hippocampus-independent memory. Similarly with WKS, impairments in memory formation did not recover even at 6 months after treatment with PTD. Importantly, PTD mice exhibit a decrease in neurons in the CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus (DG) regions of the hippocampus and reduced density of wide dendritic spines in the DG. Our findings suggest that TD induces hippocampal degeneration, including the loss of neurons and spines, thereby leading to enduring impairment of hippocampus-dependent memory formation.

  4. Exercise training with dietary counselling increases mitochondrial chaperone expression in middle-aged subjects with impaired glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindström Jaana

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin resistance and diabetes are associated with increased oxidative stress and impairment of cellular defence systems. Our purpose was to investigate the interaction between glucose metabolism, antioxidative capacity and heat shock protein (HSP defence in different skeletal muscle phenotypes among middle-aged obese subjects during a long-term exercise and dietary intervention. As a sub-study of the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS, 22 persons with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT taking part in the intervention volunteered to give samples from the vastus lateralis muscle. Subjects were divided into two sub-groups (IGTslow and IGTfast on the basis of their baseline myosin heavy chain profile. Glucose metabolism, oxidative stress and HSP expressions were measured before and after the 2-year intervention. Results Exercise training, combined with dietary counselling, increased the expression of mitochondrial chaperones HSP60 and glucose-regulated protein 75 (GRP75 in the vastus lateralis muscle in the IGTslow group and that of HSP60 in the IGTfast group. In cytoplasmic chaperones HSP72 or HSP90 no changes took place. In the IGTslow group, a significant positive correlation between the increased muscle content of HSP60 and the oxygen radical absorbing capacity values and, in the IGTfast group, between the improved VO2max value and the increased protein expression of GRP75 were found. Serum uric acid concentrations decreased in both sub-groups and serum protein carbonyl concentrations decreased in the IGTfast group. Conclusion The 2-year intervention up-regulated mitochondrial HSP expressions in middle-aged subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. These improvements, however, were not correlated directly with enhanced glucose tolerance.

  5. GLP-1 and peptide YY secretory response after fat load is impaired by insulin resistance, impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes in morbidly obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-García, José C; Murri, Mora; Coin-Aragüez, Leticia; Alcaide, Juan; El Bekay, Rajaa; Tinahones, Francisco J

    2014-05-01

    Both glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) are gut hormones involved in energy homoeostasis. Obesity, insulin resistance and hyperglycaemia are significant confounders when GLP-1 and PYY secretion is assessed. Thus, we evaluated GLP-1 and PYY response after fat load in morbidly obese patients with different degrees of insulin resistance and glycemic status. We studied 40 morbidly obese subjects (mean age, 40·6 ± 1·3 years; mean BMI, 53·1 ± 1·2 kg/m(2) ) divided into groups according to their glycemic status: normal fasting glucose (NFG) group, impaired fasting glucose (IFG) group and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) group. NFG patients were additionally subclassified, according to the homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR ), into a low insulin-resistance (LIR) group (HOMAIR response to fat load. The implications of this attenuated enteroendocrine response should be elucidated by further studies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A pilot study to examine the feasibility of insulin glargine in subjects with impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance or new-onset type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbury, T C; Schwartz, S; Rosenberg, M A; Jariwala, N; Becker, R H A; Johnston, P S

    2008-05-01

    People with early type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes (impaired glucose tolerance [IGT] and/or impaired fasting glucose [IFG]) are at risk of hyperglycaemia-related complications, including cardiovascular disease. Insulin, traditionally reserved as late treatment in type 2 diabetes, may also be a useful therapy in this population. We examined the short-term efficacy and tolerability of insulin glargine (glargine) in individuals with early or pre-type 2 diabetes. In this multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, parallel group, 12-day study, subjects with IGT/IFG (n=9), newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (n=9) or normal glucose tolerance (n=3) (confined to a clinical research unit taking a prescribed diet) were randomized to once-daily glargine (n=16) or placebo (saline; n=5) at bedtime. Dose was titrated to achieve target fasting blood glucose (FBG) 80-95 mg/dL. Over the treatment period, mean FBG decreased in glargine-treated subjects (from 100.0+/-18.8 to 85.6+/-18.4 mg/dL), but was unchanged in placebo-treated subjects (from 112.5+/-10.6 to 111.3+/-17.5 mg/dL). Mean eight-point blood glucose value decreased by 9.7 mg/dL in the glargine group, but increased by 8.1 mg/dL in the placebo group. Mean post-exercise blood glucose was similar before and after glargine treatment, but increased after placebo treatment. Five subjects receiving glargine experienced 16 mild symptomatic hypoglycaemia episodes; however, no hypoglycaemia occurred during exercise. Mean body weight decreased in both the glargine (-0.44 kg) and placebo (-0.25 kg) groups, in line with dietary restrictions. The results of this pilot study suggest that glargine can be used by people with IFG, IGT or new-onset type 2 diabetes for management of hyperglycaemia with low risk of hypoglycaemia. However titration of insulin in people on dietary restrictions should be more cautious as they may be more prone to hypoglycaemia. Further studies are warranted to determine the clinical benefits of this

  7. Students with visual impairments in Israel: quality of life as a subjective experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Itay

    2011-01-01

    The present paper is based on research that investigated the quality of life of students with visual impairments, included in the regular education system, according to their own perceptions as reported in individual open interviews. The research comprised 19 students between the ages of 14 and 19 years. The main findings revealed three major themes: life in school with a focus on teachers' behavior towards the pupil; peers' reactions and the impact of stigma; family coping with the disability. Mixed feelings appeared in the first two themes. Regarding their teachers, the students reported support while at the same time they also felt a lack of sincere respect. Concerning peers, students felt that stigma affected their friendship behavior. Finally, most reports indicated satisfaction with the family bonds. Yet, there is almost no direct reference to the visual problem.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of a Single Oral Dose of the MEK1/2 Inhibitor Selumetinib in Subjects With End-Stage Renal Disease or Varying Degrees of Hepatic Impairment Compared With Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, Angela W; Martin, Paul; So, Karen; Huang, Yifan; Severin, Paul; Holmes, Victoria; Mariani, Gabriella; Marbury, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Two phase I open-label studies were conducted to investigate the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and tolerability of single oral doses of selumetinib in subjects with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing hemodialysis and subjects with varying degrees of hepatic impairment; both studies included a matched control group comprised of healthy individuals. In the renal impairment study, subjects received single doses of selumetinib 50 mg; those with ESRD received selumetinib before and after dialysis (with a between-treatment washout period of ≥7 days). In the hepatic impairment study, subjects received varying single doses of selumetinib (20-50 mg) depending on liver dysfunction (mild, moderate, or severe as per Child-Pugh classification). PK, safety, and tolerability data were collected from both studies. Overall, 24 subjects were included in the renal impairment study (ESRD, N = 12; healthy subjects, N = 12). Selumetinib exposure (AUC and C max ) was not increased in the ESRD group vs healthy subjects. Selumetinib exposure was lower when selumetinib was dosed before vs after dialysis, although individual exposure was variable. Overall, 32 subjects were included in the hepatic impairment study (mild, moderate, and severe impairment, N = 8 per group; healthy subjects, N = 8). Generally, dose-normalized total selumetinib exposure was increased by 25% to 59% in subjects with moderate and severe hepatic impairment compared with healthy subjects. Increasing Child-Pugh score, decreasing serum albumin, and increasing prothrombin time correlated with increasing unbound selumetinib exposure. In both studies, selumetinib was well tolerated with no new safety concerns. These studies will inform dose adjustment considerations in patients. © 2016, The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  9. ATP synthesis is impaired in isolated mitochondria from myotubes established from type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minet, Ariane D; Gaster, Michael

    2010-01-01

    To date, it is unknown whether mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle from subjects with type 2 diabetes is based on primarily reduced mitochondrial mass and/or a primarily decreased mitochondrial ATP synthesis. Mitochondrial mass were determined in myotubes established from eight lean, eig...

  10. Compensatory viewing training improves practical fitness to drive of subjects with impaired vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, Aart C.; Brouwer, Wiebo H.; Coeckelbergh, Tanja R.M.; Tant, Mark L.M.; Cornelissen, Frans W.; Bredewoud, Ruud A.; Melis-Dankers, Bart J.M.

    2004-01-01

    In many countries strict legal requirements for obtaining a driver’s license are in effect for visual acuity and visual field.We studied the relationship between these characteristics and driving safety and driving proficiency in an on-the-road test of practical fitness to drive in subjects with

  11. Core subjects at the end of primary school: identifying and explaining relative strengths of children with specific language impairment (SLI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Kevin; Mok, Pearl L H; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2015-01-01

    In general, children with specific language impairment (SLI) tend to fall behind their typically developing (TD) peers in educational attainment. Less is known about how children with SLI fare in particular areas of the curriculum and what predicts their levels of performance. To compare the distributions of performance of children with SLI in three core school subjects (English, Mathematics and Science); to test the possibility that performance would vary across the core subjects; and to examine the extent to which language impairment predicts performance. This study was conducted in England and reports historical data on educational attainments. Teacher assessment and test scores of 176 eleven-year-old children with SLI were examined in the three core subjects and compared with known national norms. Possible predictors of performance were measured, including language ability at ages 7 and 11, educational placement type, and performance IQ. Children with SLI, compared with national norms, were found to be at a disadvantage in core school subjects. Nevertheless, some children attained the levels expected of TD peers. Performance was poorest in English; relative strengths were indicated in Science and, to a lesser extent, in Mathematics. Language skills were significant predictors of performance in all three core subjects. PIQ was the strongest predictor for Mathematics. For Science, both early language skills at 7 years and PIQ made significant contributions. Language impacts on the school performance of children with SLI, but differentially across subjects. English for these children is the most challenging of the core subjects, reflecting the high levels of language demand it incurs. Science is an area of relative strength and mathematics appears to be intermediate, arguably because some tasks in these subjects can be performed with less reliance on verbal processing. Many children with SLI do have the potential to reach or exceed educational targets that are set

  12. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy shows lower intramyocellular lipid accumulation in middle-aged subjects predisposed to familial longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijsman, C. A.; van Opstal, A. M.; Kan, H. E.; Maier, A. B.; Westendorp, R. G.J.; Slagboom, P. E.; Webb, A. G.; Mooijaart, S. P.; van Heemst, D.

    Families predisposed to longevity show enhanced glucose tolerance and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity compared with controls, independent of body composition and physical activity. Intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) accumulation in skeletal muscle has been associated with insulin resistance. Here, we

  13. Insulin secretion and incretin hormones after oral glucose in non-obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, E; Olsson, T; Söderberg, S

    2004-01-01

    Subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are usually overweight and exhibit insulin resistance with a defective compensation of insulin secretion. In this study, we sought to establish the interrelation between insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity after oral glucose in non-obese subjects...... with IGT and we also examined this interrelation in relation to the 2 main incretins, glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP). To that end, 13 women with IGT and 17 women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with measurements...... of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, GLP-1, and GIP. Insulin secretion (TIS) and insulin sensitivity (OGIS) were assessed using models describing the relationship between glucose, insulin and C-peptide data. These models allowed estimation also of the hepatic extraction of insulin. The age (54.2 +/- 9.7 [mean...

  14. Early-onset and classical forms of type 2 diabetes show impaired expression of genes involved in muscle branched-chain amino acids metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández-Alvarez, María Isabel; Díaz-Ramos, Angels; Berdasco, María

    2017-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms responsible for the pathophysiological traits of type 2 diabetes are incompletely understood. Here we have performed transcriptomic analysis in skeletal muscle, and plasma metabolomics from subjects with classical and early-onset forms of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Focused...... that the BCAA genes are relevant in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes, and that mitochondrial BCAA management is impaired in skeletal muscle from T2D patients. In diabetic mice model we detected alterations in skeletal muscle proteins involved in BCAA metabolism but not in obese mice. Metabolomic analysis...

  15. PET/CT shows subjective pain in shoulder joints to be associated with uptake of (18)F-FDG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamasaki, Toshihiko; Hayashida, Naomi; Miyamoto, Izumi; Usui, Toshiya; Chiba, Kenya; Kudo, Takashi; Takamura, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the capability of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in the screening of musculoskeletal inflammation and injury of the shoulder region. The study included 122 participants (69 men and 53 women) who complained of shoulder pain at rest and 122 age-matched and sex-matched controls who did not experience pain at rest. Standardized uptake values (SUVs) were calculated for both the left and right shoulders and compared using a four-point visual analog scale of subjective shoulder pain. Correlations between SUVs and uric acid and C-reactive proteins were also evaluated. SUVs for shoulder joints with rest and/or motion pain were significantly higher than those for pain-free shoulder joints. SUVs associated with mild and severe pain at rest were significantly higher than those associated with absence of pain at rest, and SUVs associated with moderate and severe pain on motion were significantly higher than those associated with absence of motion pain. Furthermore, SUVs were significantly correlated with uric acid in men (β=0.21, P=0.02) and in all participants (β=0.22, Pshoulder region. As shoulder pain is common, especially among elderly individuals, we should carefully consider the necessity of further examination when identifying the uptake of F-FDG in shoulder joints.

  16. Fish Oil Supplementation Increases Event-Related Posterior Cingulate Activation in Older Adults with Subjective Memory Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boespflug, E L; McNamara, R K; Eliassen, J C; Schidler, M D; Krikorian, R

    2016-02-01

    To determine the effects of long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acids found in fish oil, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on cortical blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activity during a working memory task in older adults with subjective memory impairment. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Academic medical center. Healthy older adults (62-80 years) with subjective memory impairment, but not meeting criteria for mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Fish oil (EPA+DHA: 2.4 g/d, n=11) or placebo (corn oil, n=10) for 24 weeks. Cortical BOLD response patterns during performance of a sequential letter n-back working memory task were determined at baseline and week 24 by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). At 24 weeks erythrocyte membrane EPA+DHA composition increased significantly from baseline in participants receiving fish oil (+31%, p ≤ 0.0001) but not placebo (-17%, p=0.06). Multivariate modeling of fMRI data identified a significant interaction among treatment, visit, and memory loading in the right cingulate (BA 23/24), and in the right sensorimotor area (BA 3/4). In the fish oil group, BOLD increases at 24 weeks were observed in the right posterior cingulate and left superior frontal regions during memory loading. A region-of-interest analysis indicated that the baseline to endpoint change in posterior cingulate cortex BOLD activity signal was significantly greater in the fish oil group compared with the placebo group during the 1-back (p=0.0003) and 2-back (p=0.0005) conditions. Among all participants, the change in erythrocyte EPA+DHA during the intervention was associated with performance in the 2-back working memory task (p = 0.01), and with cingulate BOLD signal during the 1-back (p = 0.005) with a trend during the 2-back (p = 0.09). Further, cingulate BOLD activity was related to performance in the 2-back condition. Dietary fish oil supplementation increases red blood cell omega-3 content

  17. Subjective memory impairment, objective cognitive functioning and social activity in French older people: findings from the Three Cities study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genziani, Mirella; Stewart, Robert; Béjot, Yannick; Amieva, Hélène; Artero, Sylvaine; Ritchie, Karen

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the association between subjective memory impairment (SMI) and objective cognitive impairment in later life, and to ascertain whether this is modified by level of social activity, education or living alone. Data were analyzed from three French community surveys carried out in Bordeaux, Dijon and Montpellier. Representative samples of 9294 residents aged 65 years and over were included in the study. SMI was ascertained and investigated in relation to performance on the Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), the Isaac Set Test (IST) and Trail Making Test B (TMT). Adjustments were made for age, sex, education, depressive symptoms (Centre for Epidemiological Depression scale), site where study was carried out and living alone. Stratified analyses investigated modification by high or low social activity, education or living arrangement. SMI was reported by 21.9% of the sample, and was significantly associated with lower scores on BVRT and TMT after adjustment for age, sex, education, depressive symptoms, site and living alone. These associations were not significantly modified by social activity, education or living alone. Worse subjective memory was associated independently with worse performance on two tests of cognitive function; however, in these cohorts, no evidence was found for modification of associations by social activity/support or education. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  18. Improved cardiac function and dietary fatty acid metabolism after modest weight loss in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé, Sébastien M; Noll, Christophe; Grenier-Larouche, Thomas; Kunach, Margaret; Bouffard, Lucie; Phoenix, Serge; Guérin, Brigitte; Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice; Langlois, Marie-France; Turcotte, Eric E; Carpentier, André C

    2014-06-15

    Using a novel positron emission tomography (PET) method with oral administration of 14(R,S)-[¹⁸F]-fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid (¹⁸FTHA), we recently demonstrated that subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) display an impairment in cardiac function associated with increased myocardial uptake of dietary fatty acids. Here, we determined whether modest weight loss induced by lifestyle changes might improve these cardiac metabolic and functional abnormalities. Nine participants with IGT, enrolled in a one-year lifestyle intervention trial, were invited to undergo determination of organ-specific postprandial dietary fatty acids partition using the oral ¹⁸FTHA method, and cardiac function and oxidative metabolic index using PET [¹¹C]acetate kinetics with ECG-gated PET ventriculography before and after the intervention. The intervention resulted in significant weight loss and reduction of waist circumference, with reduced postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, and triglycerides excursion. We observed a significant increase in stroke volume, cardiac output, and left ventricular ejection fraction associated with reduced myocardial oxidative metabolic index and fractional dietary fatty acid uptake. Modest weight loss corrects the exaggerated myocardial channeling of dietary fatty acids and improves myocardial energy substrate metabolism and function in IGT subjects. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Subjective cognitive impairment and brain structural networks in Chinese gynaecological cancer survivors compared with age-matched controls: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yingchun; Cheng, Andy S K; Song, Ting; Sheng, Xiujie; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Xiangyu; Chan, Chetwyn C H

    2017-11-28

    Subjective cognitive impairment can be a significant and prevalent problem for gynaecological cancer survivors. The aims of this study were to assess subjective cognitive functioning in gynaecological cancer survivors after primary cancer treatment, and to investigate the impact of cancer treatment on brain structural networks and its association with subjective cognitive impairment. This was a cross-sectional survey using a self-reported questionnaire by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cognitive Function (FACT-Cog) to assess subjective cognitive functioning, and applying DTI (diffusion tensor imaging) and graph theoretical analyses to investigate brain structural networks after primary cancer treatment. A total of 158 patients with gynaecological cancer (mean age, 45.86 years) and 130 age-matched non-cancer controls (mean age, 44.55 years) were assessed. Patients reported significantly greater subjective cognitive functioning on the FACT-Cog total score and two subscales of perceived cognitive impairment and perceived cognitive ability (all p values impairment (r = -0.388, p = 0.034). When compared with non-cancer controls, a considerable proportion of gynaecological cancer survivors may exhibit subjective cognitive impairment. This study provides the first evidence of brain structural network alteration in gynaecological cancer patients at post-treatment, and offers novel insights regarding the possible neurobiological mechanism of cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) in gynaecological cancer patients. As primary cancer treatment can result in a more random organisation of structural brain networks, this may reduce brain functional specificity and segregation, and have implications for cognitive impairment. Future prospective and longitudinal studies are needed to build upon the study findings in order to assess potentially relevant clinical and psychosocial variables and brain network measures, so as to more accurately understand the

  20. Serum Galanin Concentration is Increased in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenwen; Fang, Penghua; Yu, Mei; Wang, Yan; Li, Yin; Shi, Mingyi; Bo, Ping; Gu, Xuewen; Zhu, Yan

    2017-04-14

    Although extensive data have shown that galanin can regulate the food intake and glucose metabolism of animals, little is known regarding the galanin concentration in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate whether serum galanin levels and other metabolic parameters are changed in patients with IGT compared with controls with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Data regarding serum galanin levels and relative metabolic parameters were collected in 12 patients with IGT and 12 healthy patients with NGT. At 1 hour and 2 hours after dinner, serum galanin, insulin and glucose levels were significantly higher in patients with IGT than in controls with NGT. Additionally, the body weights of patients with IGT was higher than those of the controls. Furthermore, a negative correlation was found between galanin levels and 1-hour glucose concentrations (r=-0.580; p=0.048) in patients with IGT. The higher serum galanin levels as well as the negative correlation between galanin levels and 1-hour glucose content in patients with IGT may result from the interaction between insulin and galanin in differing conditions, suggesting that the galanin level may be used as a potential biomarker for the prediction of IGT in clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prediction of Neurocognitive Deficits by Parkinsonian Motor Impairment in Schizophrenia: A Study in Neuroleptic-Naïve Subjects, Unaffected First-Degree Relatives and Healthy Controls From an Indigenous Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Juan L; González Alemán, Gabriela; Florenzano, Néstor; Padilla, Eduardo; Calvó, María; Guerrero, Gonzalo; Kamis, Danielle; Stratton, Lee; Toranzo, Juan; Molina Rangeon, Beatriz; Hernández Cuervo, Helena; Bourdieu, Mercedes; Sedó, Manuel; Strejilevich, Sergio; Cloninger, Claude Robert; Escobar, Javier I; de Erausquin, Gabriel A

    2016-11-01

    Neurocognitive deficits are among the most debilitating and pervasive symptoms of schizophrenia, and are present also in unaffected first-degree relatives. Also, multiple reports reveal parkisonian motor deficits in untreated subjects with schizophrenia and in first-degree relatives of affected subjects. Yet, the relation between motor and cognitive impairment and its value as a classifier of endophenotypes has not been studied. To test the efficacy of midbrain hyperechogenicity (MHE) and parkinsonian motor impairment (PKM) as predictors of neurocognitive impairment in subjects with or at risk for schizophrenia, that could be used to segregate them from first-degree relatives and healthy controls. Seventy-six subjects with chronic schizophrenia never exposed to antipsychotic medication, 106 unaffected first-degree relatives, and 62 healthy controls were blindly assessed for cognitive and motor function, and transcranial ultrasound. Executive function, fluid intelligence, motor planning, and hand coordination showed group differences. PKM and MHE were significantly higher in untreated schizophrenia and unaffected relatives. Unaffected relatives showed milder impairment, but were different from controls. PKM and MHE predict cognitive impairment in neuroleptic-naive patients with schizophrenia and their unaffected first-degree relatives and may be used to segregate them from first-degree relatives and healthy controls. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Physical and Cognitive Stimulation Using an Exergame in Subjects with Normal Aging, Mild and Moderate Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Sadoun, Grégory; Sacco, Guillaume; Manera, Valeria; Bourgeois, Jérémy; König, Alexandra; Foulon, Pierre; Fosty, Baptiste; Bremond, François; d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne; Robert, Philippe

    2016-06-30

    The use of Serious exerGames (SeG) as enriched environments (EE), which promotes cognitive simulation with physical activity in a positive emotional context, has been proposed to represent a powerful method to slow down the decline due to neurodegenerative diseases (ND), such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, so far, no SeG targeting EE has been tested in ND subjects. This study aimed at evaluating the usability and short-term training effects of X-Torp, an action SeG designed for elderly ND subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD. X-Torp is a SeG played using the Microsoft® Kinect™. 10 ND subjects and 8 healthy elderly controls (HEC) were enrolled in a 1-month program with three training sessions per week. Usability was evaluated through game time, game performance, the aerobic intensity level reached, perceived emotions, and perceived usability. All participants successfully completed the training program. ND subjects played less and had a lower game performance compared to HEC. During the sessions, ND subjects maintained a light intensity of aerobic activity, while HEC maintained a moderate intensity. Both groups experienced only positive emotions, and reported a 'moderate' to 'high' perceived competence, a 'moderate' game difficulty, and a 'high' interest in the game. Usability results suggest that X-Torp represents a usable EE for healthy subjects and persons with MCI and AD. However, in order to reach moderate or high intensity of aerobic activity, X-Torp control modes should be adapted to become more physically stimulating.

  3. Impaired Sleep Mediates the Negative Effects of Training Load on Subjective Well-Being in Female Youth Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew; Brickson, Stacey

    2018-02-01

    Although increased training load (TL) and impaired sleep are associated with decreases in subjective well-being in adult athletes, these relationships among female youth athletes are unclear. It is unknown whether the effects of sleep and TL on well-being are independent or whether alterations in sleep mediate the effects of TL on subjective well-being. Sleep and TL exert independent effects on subjective well-being among youth athletes, although alterations in sleep mediate a significant portion of the effect of TL on well-being in female youth athletes. Prospective cohort study. Level 4. A total of 65 female soccer athletes (age range, 13-18 years) were monitored for 1 year. Daily TL was determined by session rating of perceived exertion and converted to z-scores. Every morning, participants recorded sleep duration in hours and rated stress, mood, fatigue, and soreness on a scale from -3 to +3 (worst to best). Linear mixed-effects models and mediation analysis were used to evaluate the independent effects of TL and sleep on well-being. Average sleep duration was 7.9 ± 1.4 hours during the study period. In the multivariable model, TL and sleep duration were independently associated with fatigue (TL: β = -0.19, P < 0.001; sleep: β = 0.15, P < 0.001), mood (TL: β = -0.030, P = 0.014; sleep: β = 0.13, P < 0.001), stress (TL: β = -0.055, P = 0.001; sleep: β = 0.13, P < 0.001), and soreness (TL: β = -0.31, P < 0.001; sleep: β = 0.022, P = 0.042). Sleep duration mediated a significant portion of the effect of TL on mood (26.8%, P < 0.001), fatigue (12.6%, P < 0.001), and stress (24.5%, P < 0.001). Among female youth athletes, decreased sleep duration and increased TL are independently associated with impairments of subjective well-being. In addition, decreased sleep mediates a significant portion of the negative effect of increases in TL on subjective well-being. Monitoring and promoting sleep among female adolescent athletes may significantly improve

  4. Nasal obstruction and smell impairment in nasal polyp disease: correlation between objective and subjective parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hox, V; Bobic, S; Callebaux, I; Jorissen, M; Hellings, P W

    2010-12-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (NP) represents an invalidating disorder that causes mainly nasal blockage and loss of smell. The aim of this study is to investigate correlations between individual subjective and objective parameters of stable NP disease. 65 NP patients scored their sinonasal symptoms on a visual analogue scale (VAS) and questionnaires (SNOT-22 and SF-36). Peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) measurement, Sniffinatm Sticks (SS) smell test, blood analysis for eosinophilia, total IgE and culture for Staphylococcus aureus (SA) were performed. VAS scores for nasal blockage correlated with the SNOT-22 and SF-36 scores, which was not observed for VAS of other symptoms. VAS scores for nasal blockage correlated well with PNIF values as well as VAS scores for smell dysfunction and SS results (both psmell reduction (psmell reduction in NP disease. Nasal blockage is the only symptom that correlates well with NP size and SNOT-22 scores, whereas smell reduction correlates with blood eosinophilia.

  5. Brevican-deficient mice display impaired hippocampal CA1 long-term potentiation but show no obvious deficits in learning and memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brakebusch, Cord; Seidenbecher, Constanze I; Asztely, Fredrik

    2002-01-01

    to be less prominent in mutant than in wild-type mice. Brevican-deficient mice showed significant deficits in the maintenance of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). However, no obvious impairment of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission was found, suggesting a complex cause for the LTP defect....... Detailed behavioral analysis revealed no statistically significant deficits in learning and memory. These data indicate that brevican is not crucial for brain development but has restricted structural and functional roles....

  6. Donepezil Impairs Memory in Healthy Older Subjects: Behavioural, EEG and Simultaneous EEG/fMRI Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsters, Joshua H.; O'Connell, Redmond G.; Martin, Mary P.; Galli, Alessandra; Cassidy, Sarah M.; Kilcullen, Sophia M.; Delmonte, Sonja; Brennan, Sabina; Meaney, Jim F.; Fagan, Andrew J.; Bokde, Arun L. W.; Upton, Neil; Lai, Robert; Laruelle, Marc; Lawlor, Brian; Robertson, Ian H.

    2011-01-01

    Rising life expectancies coupled with an increasing awareness of age-related cognitive decline have led to the unwarranted use of psychopharmaceuticals, including acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs), by significant numbers of healthy older individuals. This trend has developed despite very limited data regarding the effectiveness of such drugs on non-clinical groups and recent work indicates that AChEIs can have negative cognitive effects in healthy populations. For the first time, we use a combination of EEG and simultaneous EEG/fMRI to examine the effects of a commonly prescribed AChEI (donepezil) on cognition in healthy older participants. The short- and long-term impact of donepezil was assessed using two double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. In both cases, we utilised cognitive (paired associates learning (CPAL)) and electrophysiological measures (resting EEG power) that have demonstrated high-sensitivity to age-related cognitive decline. Experiment 1 tested the effects of 5 mg/per day dosage on cognitive and EEG markers at 6-hour, 2-week and 4-week follow-ups. In experiment 2, the same markers were further scrutinised using simultaneous EEG/fMRI after a single 5 mg dose. Experiment 1 found significant negative effects of donepezil on CPAL and resting Alpha and Beta band power. Experiment 2 replicated these results and found additional drug-related increases in the Delta band. EEG/fMRI analyses revealed that these oscillatory differences were associated with activity differences in the left hippocampus (Delta), right frontal-parietal network (Alpha), and default-mode network (Beta). We demonstrate the utility of simple cognitive and EEG measures in evaluating drug responses after acute and chronic donepezil administration. The presentation of previously established markers of age-related cognitive decline indicates that AChEIs can impair cognitive function in healthy older individuals. To our knowledge this is the first study to identify the precise

  7. Atf3 mutant mice show reduced axon regeneration and impaired regeneration-associated gene induction after peripheral nerve injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gey, Manuel; Wanner, Renate; Schilling, Corinna; Pedro, Maria T.; Sinske, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Axon injury in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) induces a regeneration-associated gene (RAG) response. Atf3 (activating transcription factor 3) is such a RAG and ATF3's transcriptional activity might induce ‘effector’ RAGs (e.g. small proline rich protein 1a (Sprr1a), Galanin (Gal), growth-associated protein 43 (Gap43)) facilitating peripheral axon regeneration. We provide a first analysis of Atf3 mouse mutants in peripheral nerve regeneration. In Atf3 mutant mice, facial nerve regeneration and neurite outgrowth of adult ATF3-deficient primary dorsal root ganglia neurons was decreased. Using genome-wide transcriptomics, we identified a neuropeptide-encoding RAG cluster (vasoactive intestinal peptide (Vip), Ngf, Grp, Gal, Pacap) regulated by ATF3. Exogenous administration of neuropeptides enhanced neurite growth of Atf3 mutant mice suggesting that these molecules might be effector RAGs of ATF3's pro-regenerative function. In addition to the induction of growth-promoting molecules, we present data that ATF3 suppresses growth-inhibiting molecules such as chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2. In summary, we show a pro-regenerative ATF3 function during PNS nerve regeneration involving transcriptional activation of a neuropeptide-encoding RAG cluster. ATF3 is a general injury-inducible factor, therefore ATF3-mediated mechanisms identified herein might apply to other cell and injury types. PMID:27581653

  8. Older Adults Show Preserved Equilibrium but Impaired Step Length Control in Motor-Equivalent Stabilization of Gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrel, Julius; Lövdén, Martin; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2012-01-01

    Stable walking depends on the coordination of multiple biomechanical degrees of freedom to ensure the dynamic maintenance of whole-body equilibrium as well as continuous forward progression. We investigated adult age-related differences in whole-body coordination underlying stabilization of center of mass (CoM) position and step pattern during locomotion. Sixteen younger (20-30 years) and 16 healthy older men (65–80 years) walked on a motorized treadmill at 80%, 100% and 120% of their self-selected preferred speed. Preferred speeds did not differ between the age groups. Motor-equivalent stabilization of step parameters (step length and width) and CoM position relative to the support (back and front foot) was examined using a generalized covariation analysis. Across age groups, covariation indices were highest for CoM position relative to the front foot, the measure most directly related to body equilibrium. Compared to younger adults, older adults showed lower covariation indices with respect to step length, extending previous findings of age-related differences in motor-equivalent coordination. In contrast, no reliable age differences were found regarding stabilization of step width or any of the CoM parameters. The observed pattern of results may reflect robust prioritization of balance over step pattern regularity, which may be adaptive in the face of age-associated sensorimotor losses and decline of coordinative capacities. PMID:23272200

  9. Frequency and spectrum of mitochondrial 12S rRNA variants in 440 Han Chinese hearing impaired pediatric subjects from two otology clinics

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    Zhou Jianjin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aminoglycoside ototoxicity is one of the common health problems. Mitochondrial 12S rRNA mutations are one of the important causes of aminoglycoside ototoxicity. However, the incidences of 12S rRNA mutations associated with aminoglycoside ototoxicity are less known. Methods A total of 440 Chinese pediatric hearing-impaired subjects were recruited from two otology clinics in the Ningbo and Wenzhou cities of Zhejiang Province, China. These subjects underwent clinical, genetic evaluation and molecular analysis of mitochondrial 12S rRNA. Resultant mtDNA variants were evaluated by structural and phylogenetic analysis. Results The study samples consisted of 227 males and 213 females. The age of all participants ranged from 1 years old to 18 years, with the median age of 9 years. Ninety-eight subjects (58 males and 40 females had a history of exposure to aminoglycosides, accounting for 22.3% cases of hearing loss in this cohort. Molecular analysis of 12S rRNA gene identified 41 (39 known and 2 novel variants. The incidences of the known deafness-associated 1555A > G, 1494C > T and 1095T > C mutations were 7.5%, 0.45% and 0.91% in this entire hearing-impaired subjects, respectively, and 21.4%, 2% and 2% among 98 subjects with aminoglycoside ototoxicity, respectively. The structural and phylogenetic evaluations showed that a novel 747A > G variant and known 839A > G, 1027A > G, 1310C > T and 1413T > C variants conferred increased sensitivity to aminoglycosides or nonsyndromic deafness as they were absent in 449 Chinese controls and localized at highly conserved nucleotides of this rRNA. However, other variants were polymorphisms. Of 44 subjects carrying one of definite or putative deafness-related 12S rRNA variants, only one subject carrying the 1413T > C variant harbored the 235DelC/299DelAT mutations in the GJB2 gene, while none of mutations in GJB2 gene was detected in other 43 subjects. Conclusions Mutations in mitochondrial 12S r

  10. Impaired decision-making in opiate-dependent subjects: effect of pharmacological therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirastu, R; Fais, R; Messina, M; Bini, V; Spiga, S; Falconieri, D; Diana, M

    2006-06-28

    Cognitive dysfunction is a major feature of drug addiction. In the present paper, we compared the decision-making ability using the Iowa gambling task of methadone- and buprenorphine-maintained individuals to non opiate-dependent drug-free controls. Buprenorphine-maintained individuals performed better than methadone-maintained individuals, and not differently than non opiate-dependent controls. In addition, methadone-maintained individuals had more perseverative errors on the Wisconsin card sorting task (WCST) as compared with non opiate-dependent drug-free controls whereas buprenorphine-maintained individuals had intermediate scores. Scores on Weschler adult intelligence scale (WAIS-R) were similar for methadone- and buprenorphine-maintained individuals whereas drug-free controls had significantly higher scores. In addition, both opiate-dependent groups performed more poorly than drug-free controls on the Benton visual retention test (BVRT). The results suggest that buprenorphine in contrast to methadone improves decision-making, and thus may be more effective in rehabilitation programs of opiate-dependent subjects and this improvement may be related to its distinct pharmacological action as a k antagonist.

  11. Increased Brain Connectivity In Early Postmenopausal Women with Subjective Cognitive Impairment

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    Jennifer N Vega

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive changes after menopause are a common complaint, especially as the loss of estradiol at menopause has been hypothesized to contribute to the higher rates of dementia in women. To explore the neural processes related to subjective cognitive complaints, this study examined resting state functional connectivity in 31 postmenopausal women (aged 50-60 in relationship to cognitive complaints following menopause. A cognitive complaint index was calculated using responses to a 120-item questionnaire. Seed regions were identified for resting state brain networks important for higher-order cognitive processes and for areas that have shown differences in volume and functional activity associated with cognitive complaints in prior studies. Results indicated a positive correlation between the executive control network and cognitive complaint score, weaker negative functional connectivity within the frontal cortex, and stronger positive connectivity within the right middle temporal gyrus in postmenopausal women who report more cognitive complaints. While longitudinal studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis, these data are consistent with previous findings suggesting that high levels of cognitive complaints may reflect changes in brain connectivity and may be a potential marker for the risk of late-life cognitive dysfunction in postmenopausal women with otherwise normal cognitive performance.

  12. Macrophage inflammatory protein-1α shows predictive value as a risk marker for subjects and sites vulnerable to bone loss in a longitudinal model of aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Daniel H; Markowitz, Kenneth; Fairlie, Karen; Tischio-Bereski, Debbie; Ferrandiz, Javier; Godboley, Dipti; Furgang, David; Gunsolley, John; Best, Al

    2014-01-01

    Improved diagnostics remains a fundamental goal of biomedical research. This study was designed to assess cytokine biomarkers that could predict bone loss (BL) in localized aggressive periodontitis. 2,058 adolescents were screened. Two groups of 50 periodontally healthy adolescents were enrolled in the longitudinal study. One group had Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), the putative pathogen, while the matched cohort did not. Cytokine levels were assessed in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). Participants were sampled, examined, and radiographed every 6 months for 2-3 years. Disease was defined as radiographic evidence of BL. Saliva and GCF was collected at each visit, frozen, and then tested retrospectively after detection of BL. Sixteen subjects with Aa developed BL. Saliva from Aa-positive and Aa-negative healthy subjects was compared to subjects who developed BL. GCF was collected from 16 subjects with BL and from another 38 subjects who remained healthy. GCF from BL sites in the 16 subjects was compared to healthy sites in these same subjects and to healthy sites in subjects who remained healthy. Results showed that cytokines in saliva associated with acute inflammation were elevated in subjects who developed BL (i.e., MIP-1α MIP-1β IL-α, IL-1β and IL-8; psites were below that level (Specificity); whereas, 93% of sites with BL were higher (Sensitivity), with comparable Predictive Values of 98%; psite vulnerability to BL.

  13. Cortical atrophy rates in Alzheimer's patients and subjects with mild cognitive impairment from the AddNeuroMed data collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Westman, Eric; Gwadry-Sridhar, Femida

    Background: The AddNeuroMed project is a multi-centre European project which aims to identify biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study we measured the rate of cortical atrophy in AD patients, subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy controls (HC) using MRI. Methods......: High resolution sagittal 3D T1w MP-RAGE scans were acquired from patients diagnosed with AD (n = 58,MMSE:21.6 ± 4.4), MCI subjects (n = 85,MMSE:27.2 ± 1.6), and HC (n = 75,MMSE:29.0 ± 1.3) at baseline, and at three and 12 months follow-up. Only subjects with three completed scans which all passed...... rates can be found in AD patients compared to HC and MCI. Even three months after baseline accelerated atrophy can be observed in AD compared to HC, however, the results indicate that three months is too short a period to distinguish the atrophy rates in AD and MCI. The results suggest that atrophy...

  14. Cassia cinnamon does not change the insulin sensitivity or the liver enzymes in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickenberg, Jennie; Lindstedt, Sandra; Nilsson, Jan; Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2014-09-24

    Published studies have reported conflicting results regarding the effects of cinnamon on glucose, lipids and insulin. To gain further insight into the metabolic effects of Cinnamomum cassia we performed randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled study using euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp. Twenty-one subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) were included in the study (10 or 11 subjects in each group). The study groups were matched for age, gender and body mass index (BMI). Waist-to-hip ratio, BMI, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein , HbA1c, ASAT, ALAT, bilirubin, ALP, GT and PK were measured before and after the intake of capsules equivalent to 6 g cinnamon twice a day for 12 weeks. The changes in insulin resistance were measured by euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp. The Wilcoxon signed rank sum test, the Mann-Whitney U test and Pearson's chi-squared test were used to analyse the data. Values of p cassia twice a day for 12 weeks did not change the insulin sensitivity or liver enzymes in subjects with IGT.

  15. A look at risk factors of proteinuria in subjects without impaired renal filtration function in a general population in Owerri, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyabolu, Ernest Ndukaife; Chukwuonye, Innocent Ijezie; Anyabolu, Arthur Ebelenna; Enwere, Okezie

    2016-01-01

    Proteinuria is a common marker of kidney damage. This study aimed at determining predictors of proteinuria in subjects without impaired renal filtration function in Owerri, Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study involving 136 subjects, consecutively drawn from Federal Medical Centre (FMC), Owerri, Nigeria. Relevant investigations were performed, including 24-hour urine protein (24HUP). Correlation and multivariate linear regression analysis were used to determine the association and strength of variables to predict proteinuria. Proteinuria was defined as 24HUP ≥0.300g and impaired renal filtration function as creatinine clearance (ClCr) proteinuria in this study. The risk factors of proteinuria in subjects without impaired renal filtration function in Owerri, Nigeria, included 24HUV, SUPCR, 24HUPCR, 24HUPOR, 24HUCOR and SUPOR. Further research should explore the relationship between urine creatinine and urine osmolality, and how this relationship may affect progression of kidney damage, with or without impaired renal filtration function.

  16. Reduced Sympathetic Response to Head-Up Tilt in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment or Mild Alzheimer's Dementia

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    Marte Rognstad Mellingsæter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemodynamic control was compared in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI or mild Alzheimer's dementia (AD as well as in healthy elderly subjects. Methods: Noninvasive, continuous hemodynamic recordings were obtained from 14 patients and 48 controls during supine rest (tilt of 30 and 70°. Cardiac output, end-diastolic volume, total peripheral resistance, heart rate variability (HRV, systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV, and baroreceptor sensitivity were calculated. Results: At 70° tilt, the HRV indices differed significantly, with higher high-frequency (HF variability as well as lower low-frequency (LF variability and LF/HF ratios in the patients. The patients had significantly lower SBPV in the LF range at 30° tilt. Conclusions: The results indicate a poorer sympathetic response to orthostatic stress in MCI and mild AD.

  17. A pilot study of a new method of cognitive stimulation using abacus arithmetic in healthy and cognitively impaired elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matías-Guiu, J A; Pérez-Martínez, D A; Matías-Guiu, J

    2016-06-01

    This study explores the applicability of a cognitive stimulation method based on abacus arithmetic in elderly people with and without cognitive impairment. This observational and prospective pilot study was performed in 2 hospitals. The study assessed the applicability of a programme of arithmetic training developed for use in the elderly population. The primary endpoint was an evaluation of the stimulation programme, in terms of usability, satisfaction, and participation, in healthy elderly controls and elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer disease. Secondary endpoints were family satisfaction, caregiver burden, and the behaviour and cognition of patients. Usability, satisfaction, and degree of participation were high. The Mini-Mental State Examination showed significant changes (23.1±4.8 before the intervention vs 24.9±4.2 afterwards, P=.002); there were no changes on the Trail Making Test parts A and B, Yesavage Geriatric Depression scale, and Zarit caregiver burden scale. The study suggests that cognitive stimulation with abacus arithmetic may be used in elderly people with and without cognitive impairment. Further studies will be needed to evaluate the efficacy of this kind of programmes. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Elevated 1-h post-challenge plasma glucose levels in subjects with normal glucose tolerance or impaired glucose tolerance are associated with whole blood viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Maria Adelaide; Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa; Andreozzi, Francesco; Mannino, Gaia Chiara; Perticone, Maria; Sciacqua, Angela; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2017-08-01

    It has been suggested that glucose levels ≥155 mg/dl at 1-h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) may predict development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events among adults with normal glucose tolerance (NGT 1 h-high). Studies showed a link between increased blood viscosity and type 2 diabetes. However, whether blood viscosity is associated with dysglycemic conditions such as NGT 1 h-high, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is unsettled. 1723 non-diabetic adults underwent biochemical evaluation and OGTT. A validated formula based on hematocrit and total plasma proteins was employed to estimate whole blood viscosity. Subjects were categorized into NGT with 1 h glucose h-low), NGT-1 h-high, IFG and/or IGT. Hematocrit and blood viscosity values appeared significantly higher in individuals with NGT 1 h-high, IFG and/or IGT as compared to NGT 1 h-low subjects. Blood viscosity was significantly correlated with age, waist circumference, blood pressure, HbA1c, fasting, 1- and 2-h post-challenge insulin levels, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, fibrinogen, white blood cell, and inversely correlated with high-density lipoprotein and insulin sensitivity. Of the four glycemic parameters, 1-h post-challenge glucose showed the strongest correlation with blood viscosity (β = 0.158, P h post-challenge plasma glucose. They also suggest that a subgroup of NGT individuals with 1-h post-challenge plasma >155 mg/dl have increased blood viscosity comparable to that observed in subjects with IFG and/or IGT.

  19. Macrophage inflammatory protein-1α shows predictive value as a risk marker for subjects and sites vulnerable to bone loss in a longitudinal model of aggressive periodontitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H Fine

    Full Text Available Improved diagnostics remains a fundamental goal of biomedical research. This study was designed to assess cytokine biomarkers that could predict bone loss (BL in localized aggressive periodontitis. 2,058 adolescents were screened. Two groups of 50 periodontally healthy adolescents were enrolled in the longitudinal study. One group had Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa, the putative pathogen, while the matched cohort did not. Cytokine levels were assessed in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF. Participants were sampled, examined, and radiographed every 6 months for 2-3 years. Disease was defined as radiographic evidence of BL. Saliva and GCF was collected at each visit, frozen, and then tested retrospectively after detection of BL. Sixteen subjects with Aa developed BL. Saliva from Aa-positive and Aa-negative healthy subjects was compared to subjects who developed BL. GCF was collected from 16 subjects with BL and from another 38 subjects who remained healthy. GCF from BL sites in the 16 subjects was compared to healthy sites in these same subjects and to healthy sites in subjects who remained healthy. Results showed that cytokines in saliva associated with acute inflammation were elevated in subjects who developed BL (i.e., MIP-1α MIP-1β IL-α, IL-1β and IL-8; p<0.01. MIP-1α was elevated 13-fold, 6 months prior to BL. When MIP-1α levels were set at 40 pg/ml, 98% of healthy sites were below that level (Specificity; whereas, 93% of sites with BL were higher (Sensitivity, with comparable Predictive Values of 98%; p<0.0001; 95% C.I. = 42.5-52.7. MIP-1α consistently showed elevated levels as a biomarker for BL in both saliva and GCF, 6 months prior to BL. MIP-1α continues to demonstrate its strong candidacy as a diagnostic biomarker for both subject and site vulnerability to BL.

  20. Effect of repaglinide on endothelial dysfunction during a glucose tolerance test in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance

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    Wascher Thomas C

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The pathophysiological mechanisms linking post-challenge hyperglycemia to accelerated atherosclerosis, however remain to be elucidated. Methods A prospective, open, randomised, cross-over study was performed to investigate the effect of 2 mg repaglinide on hyperglycemia and endothelial function during an oral glucose tolerance test (75 g glucose in 12 subjects with diagnosed IGT. Blood samples for determination of plasma glucose were drawn fasting, 1 and 2 hours after glucose ingestion. Endothelial function was assessed by measuring flow-mediated dilatation (FMD of the brachial artery with high-resolution ultrasound. Results Administration of repaglinide resulted in a significant reduction of plasma glucose at 2 hours (172.8+/-48.4 vs. 138.3+/-41.2 mg/dl; p Conclusion In subjects with IGT, the endothelial dysfunction observed after a glucose challenge is related to the extent of hyperglycemia. Reduction of hyperglycemia by repaglinide reduces endothelial dysfunction in a glucose dependent manner.

  1. The Apathy Evaluation Scale: A Comparison of Subject, Informant, and Clinician Report in Cognitively Normal Elderly and Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guercio, Brendan J; Donovan, Nancy J; Munro, Catherine E; Aghjayan, Sarah L; Wigman, Sarah E; Locascio, Joseph J; Amariglio, Rebecca E; Rentz, Dorene M; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A; Marshall, Gad A

    2015-01-01

    Apathy is a common neuropsychiatric symptom in Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Detecting apathy accurately may facilitate earlier diagnosis of AD. The Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) is a promising tool for measurement of apathy in prodromal and possibly preclinical AD. To compare the three AES sub-scales - subject-reported (AES-S), informant-reported (AES-I), and clinician-reported (AES-C) - over time in individuals at risk for AD due to MCI and advanced age (cognitively normal [CN] elderly). Mixed effects longitudinal models were used to assess predictors of score for each AES sub-scale. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess which AES sub-scales predict progression from MCI to AD dementia. Fifty-seven MCI and 18 CN subjects (ages 53-86) were followed for 1.4 ± 1.2 years and 0.7 ± 0.7 years, respectively. Across the three mixed effects longitudinal models, the common findings were associations between greater apathy and greater years in study, a baseline diagnosis of MCI (compared to CN), and male gender. CN elderly self-reported greater apathy compared to that reported by informants and clinicians, while individuals with MCI under-reported their apathy compared to informants and clinicians. Of the three sub-scales, the AES-C best predicted transition from MCI to AD dementia. In a sample of CN elderly and elderly with MCI, apathy increased over time, particularly in men and those with MCI. AES-S scores may be more sensitive than AES-I and AES-C scores in CN elderly, but less reliable if subjects have MCI. Moreover, the AES-C sub-scale predicted progression from MCI to AD dementia.

  2. Altered functional connectivity of fusiform gyrus in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a resting state fMRI study

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    SuPing eCai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Visual cognition such as face recognition requires a high level of functional interaction between distributed regions of a network. It has been reported that the fusiform gyrus (FG is an important brain area involved in facial cognition; altered connectivity of FG to some other regions may lead to a deficit in visual cognition especially face recognition. However, whether functional connectivity between the FG and other brain regions changes remains unclear during the resting state in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI subjects. Here, we employed a resting state functional MRI (fMRI to examine changes in functional connectivity of left/right FG comparing aMCI patients with age-matched control subjects. Forty-eight aMCI and thirty-eight control subjects from the Alzheimer’s disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI were analyzed. We focused on the correlation between low frequency fMRI signal fluctuations in the FG and those in all other brain regions. Compared to the control group, we found some discrepant regions in the aMCI group which presented increased or decreased connectivity with the left/right FG including the left precuneus, left lingual gyrus, right thalamus, supramarginal gyrus, left supplementary motor area, left inferior temporal gyrus, and left parahippocampus. More importantly, we also obtained that both left and right FG have increased functional connections with the left middle occipital gyrus (MOG and right anterior cingulate gyrus (ACC in aMCI patients. That was not a coincidence and might imply that the MOG and ACC also play a critical role in visual cognition, especially face recognition. These findings in a large part supported our hypothesis and provided a new insight in understanding the important subtype of MCI.

  3. Neovascular deterioration, impaired NADPH oxidase and inflammatory cytokine expression in adipose-derived multipotent cells from subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Olivera, Wilfredo; Lhamyani, Said; Coín-Aragüez, Leticia; Castellano-Castillo, Daniel; Alcaide-Torres, Juan; Yubero-Serrano, Elena María; El Bekay, Rajaa; Tinahones, Francisco José

    2017-06-01

    Expansion of adipose tissue depends on the growth of its vascular network and it has been shown that adipose tissue dysfunction in obese subjects with the metabolic syndrome is associated with decreased angiogenesis. However, some subjects with a high body mass index do not develop metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity. In this study we examined the neovascular properties, expression levels of proteins involved in cellular redox balance and inflammatory cytokines in adipose-derived multipotent mesenchymal cells (ASCs) of subjects with different metabolic profiles. We applied cell culture, flow cytometry, RT-qPCR and ELISA techniques to characterize the ASCs isolated from paired biopsies of visceral (visASCs) and subcutaneous (subASCs) adipose tissue from 39 subjects grouped into normal weight (Nw), obese without metabolic syndrome (NonMS) and with metabolic syndrome (MS). VisASCs and subASCs from MS subjects showed a decrease in tubules formation capacity compared to ASCs from NonMS subjects as well as changes in the expression levels of proteins involved in cell redox balance and secretion levels of proteins linked to the senescence-associated secretory phenotype. Deterioration in the neovascular properties of subASCs from the MS subjects was also evident in the decreased levels of VEGF secretion during adipogenesis and in the effects of the conditioned medium on endothelial cell tubule formation. Our findings suggest a redox imbalance status in ASCs from subjects with metabolic syndrome and decreased their neovascular function that probably contributes to the vascular insufficiency of adipose depots. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Automated mapping of hippocampal atrophy in 1-year repeat MRI data from 490 subjects with Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment, and elderly controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morra, Jonathan H; Tu, Zhuowen; Apostolova, Liana G; Green, Amity E; Avedissian, Christina; Madsen, Sarah K; Parikshak, Neelroop; Toga, Arthur W; Jack, Clifford R; Schuff, Norbert; Weiner, Michael W; Thompson, Paul M

    2009-03-01

    As one of the earliest structures to degenerate in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the hippocampus is the target of many studies of factors that influence rates of brain degeneration in the elderly. In one of the largest brain mapping studies to date, we mapped the 3D profile of hippocampal degeneration over time in 490 subjects scanned twice with brain MRI over a 1-year interval (980 scans). We examined baseline and 1-year follow-up scans of 97 AD subjects (49 males/48 females), 148 healthy control subjects (75 males/73 females), and 245 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; 160 males/85 females). We used our previously validated automated segmentation method, based on AdaBoost, to create 3D hippocampal surface models in all 980 scans. Hippocampal volume loss rates increased with worsening diagnosis (normal=0.66%/year; MCI=3.12%/year; AD=5.59%/year), and correlated with both baseline and interval changes in Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores and global and sum-of-boxes Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR) scores. Surface-based statistical maps visualized a selective profile of ongoing atrophy in all three diagnostic groups. Healthy controls carrying the ApoE4 gene atrophied faster than non-carriers, while more educated controls atrophied more slowly; converters from MCI to AD showed faster atrophy than non-converters. Hippocampal loss rates can be rapidly mapped, and they track cognitive decline closely enough to be used as surrogate markers of Alzheimer's disease in drug trials. They also reveal genetically greater atrophy in cognitively intact subjects.

  5. Concentrations of alprazolam in blood from impaired drivers and forensic autopsies were not much different but showed a high prevalence of co-ingested illicit drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alan Wayne; Holmgren, Anita

    2013-03-01

    Alprazolam is a benzodiazepine anxiolytic widely prescribed for treatment of panic-disorder and social phobias, although this medication is also subject to abuse. In this paper, the concentrations of alprazolam in venous blood samples from impaired drivers were compared with femoral blood samples from forensic autopsies classified as intoxication or other causes of death (e.g. natural, trauma). After liquid-liquid extraction (n-butyl acetate) alprazolam was determined in blood by capillary gas chromatography with a nitrogen-phosphorous detector. The mean (median) and range of alprazolam concentrations in blood from impaired drivers (n = 773) were 0.08 mg/L (0.05 mg/L) and 0.02-3.9 mg/L, respectively. Many traffic offenders had co-ingested ethanol (13%), amphetamine (46%), cannabis (32%), or heroin (14%), as well as other drugs. In deaths attributed to drug intoxication, the mean (median) and range of alprazolam concentrations in blood (n = 438) were 0.10 mg/L (0.06 mg/L) and 0.02-1.6 mg/L, respectively, which were not much different from other causes of death (n = 278); 0.08 mg/L (0.05 mg/L) and 0.02-0.9 mg/L. Median concentrations of alprazolam in blood from living and deceased persons did not seem to depend on the number of co-ingested substances. The result of this pharmacoepidemiological study suggests that alprazolam is a fairly innocent drug when used as monotherapy, but toxicity problems arise when co-ingested with illicit drugs and/or psychoactive medication.

  6. COL8A1 rs13095226 polymorphism shows no association with neovascular age-related macular degeneration or polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in Chinese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Huang, Lvzhen; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Chunfang; Bai, Yujing; Li, Xiaoxin

    2015-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the main cause of visual impairment and legal blindness in older individuals. COL8A1 rs13095226 variants have recently been implicated associated with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) and Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy (PCV) in American studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the COL8A1 rs13095226 Polymorphism and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) in Chinese people. 900 Chinese subjects-300 cases with nAMD, 300 cases with PCV and 300 controls, were enrolled in a cross-sectional observational study. The diagnoses of nAMD and PCV were confirmed by Fundus photography, Fluorescence Fundus Angiography (FFA) and Indocyanine Green Angiography (ICGA). Genomic DNA was extracted from venous blood leukocytes and genotypes of rs13095226 were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Differences in allele distribution between cases and controls were tested by chi-square tests, with age and gender adjusted by logistic regression analysis. The COL8A1 rs13095226 polymorphism was not statistically significantly different from the nAMD or PCV to the normal controls (P>0.05) in Chinese Population. The association remained insignificant after adjustment for age and gender differences (P>0.05). This case-control study indicated that the COL8A1 rs13095226 polymorphism is not associated with nAMD or PCV, which suggesting this gene maybe not a susceptibility gene locus for nAMD or PCV in Chinese subjects.

  7. Differential Phenotypes of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor and T Regulatory Cells and Cytokine Levels in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment Subjects Compared to Mild Alzheimer Diseased Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Le Page

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer disease (AD is the most prevalent form of dementia although the underlying cause(s remains unknown at this time. However, neuroinflammation is believed to play an important role and suspected contributing immune parameters can be revealed in studies comparing patients at the stage of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI to healthy age-matched individuals. A network of immune regulatory cells including regulatory T cells (Tregs and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs maintains immune homeostasis but there are very few data on the role of these cells in AD. Here, we investigated the presence of these cells in the blood of subjects with aMCI and mild AD (mAD in comparison with healthy age-matched controls. We also quantitated several pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in sera which can influence the development and activation of these cells. We found significantly higher levels of MDSCs and Tregs in aMCI but not in mAD patients, as well as higher serum IL-1β levels. Stratifying the subjects based on CMV serostatus that is known to influence multiple immune parameters showed an absence of differences between aMCI subjects compared to mAD patients and healthy controls. We suggest that the increase in MDSCs and Tregs number in aMCI subjects may have a beneficial role in modulating inflammatory processes. However, this protective mechanism may have failed in mAD patients, allowing progression of the disease. This working hypothesis obviously requires testing in future studies.

  8. Evidence-Based Communication Practices for Children with Visual Impairments and Additional Disabilities: An Examination of Single-Subject Design Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Amy T.; Grimmett, Eric S.; Summers, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    This review examines practices for building effective communication strategies for children with visual impairments, including those with additional disabilities, that have been tested by single-subject design methodology. The authors found 30 studies that met the search criteria and grouped intervention strategies to align any evidence of the…

  9. Speech understanding and directional hearing for hearing-impaired subjects with in-the-ear and behind-the-ear hearing aids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, A. R.; Dreschler, W. A.

    1987-01-01

    With respect to acoustical properties, in-the-ear (ITE) aids should give better understanding and directional hearing than behind-the-ear (BTE) aids. Also hearing-impaired subjects often prefer ITEs. A study was performed to assess objectively the improvement in speech understanding and directional

  10. A randomized lifestyle intervention with 5-year follow-up in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance: pronounced short-term impact but long-term adherence problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl, Bernt; Nilssön, Torbjörn K; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2009-01-01

    between 1995 and 2000, in 168 individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and body mass index above 27 at start. The intensive intervention group (n = 83) was subjected to a 1-month residential lifestyle programme. The usual care group (n = 85) participated in a health examination ending...

  11. Purging behaviors relate to impaired subjective sleep quality in female patients with anorexia nervosa: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahashi, Tokusei; Kawai, Keisuke; Tatsushima, Keita; Saeki, Chihiro; Wakabayashi, Kunie; Tamura, Naho; Ando, Tetsuya; Ishikawa, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    We examined how purging behaviors relate to subjective sleep quality and sleep patterns and how symptoms of disordered eating behaviors relate to global sleep quality in female patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). Participants were new consecutive female inpatients with a primary diagnosis of AN admitted to the Department of Psychosomatic Medicine at Kohnodai Hospital between June 26 and December 25, 2015. We recorded patients' habitual eating behaviors, laxative overuse, or uretic misuse, and administered the Japanese versions of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI-J) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Raw PSQI-J data were used to determine sleep patterns (sleep-onset time, wake-up time, and sleep duration). To examine how purging behaviors related to sleep quality, we compared variables between AN restricting type (ANr) and AN binge-eating/purging type (ANbp). Spearman's rank correlation analysis was used to examine which potential factors influence global PSQI-J score. Participants were 20 patients, of whom 12 had ANbp. Two ANr patients (25%) had global PSQI-J scores greater than 5, compared to 9 ANbp patients (75%; P < 0.05). Circadian rhythm disruption and abnormal sleep duration were significantly greater in ANbp patients than in ANr patients (P < 0.05). Global PSQI-J was significantly correlated with a diagnosis of ANbp (ρ = 0.525; P < 0.05), vomiting (ρ = 0.561; P < 0.05), and duration of illness (ρ = 0.536; P < 0.05). ANbp patients had worse global sleep quality and greater disrupted sleep than did ANr patients. This suggests that treatments focusing on sleep would be useful, especially for ANbp patients. Furthermore, vomiting and duration of illness should be considered essential factors related to impaired global sleep quality. Not applicable.

  12. Circulating obestatin levels in normal subjects and in patients with impaired glucose regulation and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiaoya; Li, Ling; Yang, Gangyi; Liu, Jianlei; Li, Ke; Tang, Yi; Liou, Hua; Boden, Guenther

    2007-04-01

    Obestatin is a novel hormone that is encoded by the Ghrelin gene and produced in the gut. Ghrelin is profoundly orexogenic and adipogenic, increasing food intake and body weight. This new ghrelin-associated peptide behaves as a physiological opponent of ghrelin in rodent animals, but its pathophysiological role in humans remains unknown In this study we investigate whether plasma obestatin level is different in patients with impaired glucose regulation (IGR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Forty-seven patients with T2DMu, 30 subjects with IGR, and 38 sex- and age-matched normal controls participated in the study. Plasma obestatin levels were measured with a radioimmunoassay. The relationship between plasma obestatin levels and anthropometric and metabolic parameters was also analysed. Plasma obestatin levels were lower in patients with T2DM and IGR than in controls (37.5 +/- 9.2 ng/l and 39.2 +/- 9.7 ng/l vs. 43.8 +/- 8.0 ng/l, P = 0.002 and P = 0.039, respectively). Decreasing concentrations of obestatin were independently and significantly associated with IGR and T2DM. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed obestatin to be independently associated with IGR and T2DM. In a multiple linear regression analysis, only waist-to-hip ratio and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were independently associated with plasma obestatin level. Our results suggest that obestatin may play a role in appetite regulation in patients with IGR and T2DM.

  13. Impaired synthesis and antioxidant defense of glutathione in the cerebellum of autistic subjects: alterations in the activities and protein expression of glutathione-related enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Feng; Chauhan, Ved; Chauhan, Abha

    2013-12-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with social deficits and behavioral abnormalities. Recent evidence in autism suggests a deficit in glutathione (GSH), a major endogenous antioxidant. It is not known whether the synthesis, consumption, and/or regeneration of GSH is affected in autism. In the cerebellum tissues from autism (n=10) and age-matched control subjects (n=10), the activities of GSH-related enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) involved in antioxidant defense, detoxification, GSH regeneration, and synthesis, respectively, were analyzed. GCL is a rate-limiting enzyme for GSH synthesis, and the relationship between its activity and the protein expression of its catalytic subunit GCLC and its modulatory subunit GCLM was also compared between the autistic and the control groups. Results showed that the activities of GPx and GST were significantly decreased in autism compared to that of the control group (Pautism and control groups, 40% of autistic subjects showed lower GR activity than 95% confidence interval (CI) of the control group. GCL activity was also significantly reduced by 38.7% in the autistic group compared to the control group (P=0.023), and 8 of 10 autistic subjects had values below 95% CI of the control group. The ratio of protein levels of GCLC to GCLM in the autism group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P=0.022), and GCLM protein levels were reduced by 37.3% in the autistic group compared to the control group. A positive strong correlation was observed between GCL activity and protein levels of GCLM (r=0.887) and GCLC (r=0.799) subunits in control subjects but not in autistic subjects, suggesting that regulation of GCL activity is affected in autism. These results suggest that enzymes involved in GSH homeostasis have impaired activities in the cerebellum in autism, and lower GCL activity in autism may be

  14. Oxytocin can impair memory for social and non-social visual objects: a within-subject investigation of oxytocin's effects on human memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzmann, Grit; Young, Brent; Bird, Christopher W; Curran, Tim

    2012-04-27

    Oxytocin is important to social behavior and emotion regulation in humans. Oxytocin's role derives in part from its effect on memory performance. More specifically, previous research suggests that oxytocin facilitates recognition of social (e.g., faces), but not of non-social stimuli (e.g., words, visual objects). We conducted the first within-subject study to this hypothesis in a double-blind, placebo-controlled design. We administered oxytocin (24IU) and placebo (saline) in two separate sessions and in randomized order to healthy men. To obtain a baseline measure for session-dependent memory effects, which are caused by proactive interference, an additional group of male subjects in each session received placebo unbeknownst to them and the experimenter. After administration, participants studied faces and houses. Exactly one day after each study session, participants were asked to make memory judgments of new and old items. In the first study-test session, participants administered with oxytocin showed reduced recollection of previously studied faces and houses. Oxytocin also interacted with proactive-interference effects. By impeding memory in the first session, it reduced proactive interference in the second. But oxytocin contributed additionally to the memory-reducing effect of proactive interference when administered in the second session. These results demonstrate that oxytocin can have a memory-impairing effect on both social and non-social visual objects. The present study also emphasizes the necessity of including a non-treated, baseline group in within-subject designs when investigating oxytocin's effects on human memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. MyD88-, but not Nod1- and/or Nod2-deficient mice, show increased susceptibility to polymicrobial sepsis due to impaired local inflammatory response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Sônego

    Full Text Available Pathogen recognition and triggering of the inflammatory response following infection in mammals depend mainly on Toll-like and Nod-like receptors. Here, we evaluated the role of Nod1, Nod2 and MyD88-dependent signaling in the chemokine production and neutrophil recruitment to the infectious site during sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP in C57Bl/6 mice. We demonstrate that Nod1 and Nod2 are not involved in the release of chemokines and recruitment of neutrophils to the infectious site during CLP-induced septic peritonitis because these events were similar in wild-type, Nod1-, Nod2-, Nod1/Nod2- and Rip2-deficient mice. Consequently, the local and systemic bacterial loads were not altered. Accordingly, neither Nod1 nor Nod2 was involved in the production of the circulating cytokines and in the accumulation of leukocytes in the lungs. By contrast, we showed that MyD88-dependent signaling is crucial for the establishment of the local inflammatory response during CLP-induced sepsis. MyD88-deficient mice were susceptible to sepsis because of an impaired local production of chemokines and defective neutrophil recruitment to the infection site. Altogether, these data show that Nod1, Nod2 and Rip2 are not required for local chemokine production and neutrophil recruitment during CLP-induced sepsis, and they reinforce the importance of MyD88-dependent signaling for initiation of a protective host response.

  16. A comprehensive visual rating scale of brain magnetic resonance imaging: application in elderly subjects with Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment, and normal cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jae-Won; Park, So Young; Park, Young Ho; Baek, Min Jae; Lim, Jae-Sung; Youn, Young Chul; Kim, SangYun

    2015-01-01

    Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows cerebral structural changes. However, a unified comprehensive visual rating scale (CVRS) has seldom been studied. Thus, we combined brain atrophy and small vessel disease scales and used an MRI template as a CVRS. The aims of this study were to design a simple and reliable CVRS, validate it by investigating cerebral structural changes in clinical groups, and made comparison to the volumetric measurements. Elderly subjects (n = 260) with normal cognition (NC, n = 65), mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 101), or Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 94) were evaluated with brain MRI according to the CVRS of brain atrophy and small vessel disease. Validation of the CVRS with structural changes, neuropsychological tests, and volumetric analyses was performed. The CVRS revealed a high intra-rater and inter-rater agreement and it reflected the structural changes of subjects with NC, MCI, and AD better than volumetric measures (CVRS-coronal: F = 13.5, p < 0.001; CVRS-axial: F = 19.9, p < 0.001). The area under the receiver operation curve (aROC) of the CVRS showed higher accuracy than volumetric analyses. (NC versus MCI aROC: CVRS-coronal, 0.777; CVRS-axial, 0.773; MCI versus AD aROC: CVRS-coronal, 0.680; CVRS-axial, 0.681). The CVRS can be used clinically to conveniently measure structural changes of brain. It reflected cerebral structural changes of clinical groups and correlated with the age better than volumetric measures.

  17. The mechanism of 5-lipoxygenase in the impairment of learning and memory in rats subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ying; Kuang, Shengnan; Xue, Lai; Yang, Junqing

    2016-12-01

    To examine the mechanism of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) in the learning and memory dysfunction in rats subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Eighty rats were divided into eight groups: the 0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose solution (NaCMC)-treated group, empty vector (LV-Mock)-treated group, CUMS+NaCMC-treated group, CUMS+sertraline-treated group, CUMS+caffeic acid (10mg/kg)-treated group, CUMS+caffeic acid (30mg/kg)-treated group, CUMS+LV-Mock-treated group, and CUMS+5-LO-silencers lentiviral vectors (LV-si-5-LO)-treated group, n=10. Sucrose preference tests were performed to assess depression-like behavior. The Morris water maze and step-down tests were used to evaluate learning and memory performance. The levels of inflammatory cytokines, malondialdehyde, and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were detected to estimate inflammation and oxidative stress. Changes in 5-LO mRNA and protein were detected using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. The expression of synaptophysin, postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus were measured using immunohistochemical staining. Treatment with caffeic acid or LV-si-5-LO increased sucrose consumption, decreased escape latency and increased the number of platform crosses in the Morris water maze test, and decreased the number of errors and prolonged the latency in the step-down test. We observed a decreased expression of 5-LO, and levels of malondialdehyde, leukotriene-B4, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6, while the protein levels of synaptophysin, PSD-95, BDNF, and the activity of SOD were increased in the hippocampus of the CUMS-treated rats. CUMS-induced impairment in learning and memory could be triggered by an inflammatory response in the rat hippocampus, which results in oxidative stress injury and impacts the synaptic plasticity of hippocampal neurons. Inhibition of the activity or expression of 5-LO

  18. T-type calcium channel Cav3.2 deficient mice show elevated anxiety, impaired memory and reduced sensitivity to psychostimulants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe eGangarossa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The fine-tuning of neuronal excitability relies on a tight control of Ca2+ homeostasis. The low voltage-activated T-type calcium channels (Cav3.1, Cav3.2 and Cav3.3 isoforms play a critical role in regulating these processes. Despite their wide expression throughout the central nervous system, the implication of T-type Cav3.2 isoform in brain functions is still poorly characterized. Here we investigate the effect of genetic ablation of this isoform in affective disorders, including anxiety, cognitive functions as well as sensitivity to drugs of abuse. Using a wide range of behavioral assays we show that genetic ablation of the cacna1h gene results in an anxiety-like phenotype, whereas novelty-induced locomotor activity is unaffected. Deletion of the T-type channel Cav3.2 also triggers impairment of hippocampus-dependent recognition memories. Acute and sensitized hyperlocomotion induced by d-amphetamine and cocaine are dramatically reduced in T-type Cav3.2 deficient mice. In addition, the administration of the T-type blocker TTA-A2 prevented the expression of locomotor sensitization observed in wildtype mice. In conclusion, our data reveal that physiological activity of this specific Ca2+ channel is required for affective and cognitive behaviors. Moreover, our work highlights the interest of T-type channel blockers as therapeutic strategies to reverse drug-associated alterations.

  19. Immature dendritic cells generated from cryopreserved human monocytes show impaired ability to respond to LPS and to induce allogeneic lymphocyte proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Ferreira Silveira

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells play a key role in the immune system, in the sensing of foreign antigens and triggering of an adaptive immune response. Cryopreservation of human monocytes was investigated to understand its effect on differentiation into immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (imdDCs, the response to inflammatory stimuli and the ability to induce allogeneic lymphocyte proliferation. Cryopreserved (crp-monocytes were able to differentiate into imdDCs, albeit to a lesser extent than freshly (frh-obtained monocytes. Furthermore, crp-imdDCs had lower rates of maturation and cytokine/chemokine secretion in response to LPS than frh-imdDCs. Lower expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (at 24 and 48 h and higher susceptibility to apoptosis in crp-imdDCs than in fresh cells would account for the impaired maturation and cytokine/chemokine secretion observed. A mixed leukocyte reaction showed that lymphocyte proliferation was lower with crp-imdDCs than with frh-imdDCs. These findings suggested that the source of monocytes used to generate human imdDCs could influence the accuracy of results observed in studies of the immune response to pathogens, lymphocyte activation, vaccination and antigen sensing. It is not always possible to work with freshly isolated monocytes but the possible effects of freezing/thawing on the biology and responsiveness of imdDCs should be taken into account.

  20. IgE, IgG1 and IgG4 response to specific allergens in sensitized subjects showing different clinical reactivity to Anisakis simplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, M T; Rodriguez-Perez, R; Caballero, M L; Garcia-Alonso, M; Antonicelli, L; Asero, R

    2017-03-01

    Background. Anisakis simplex hypersensitive subjects may be sensitized without clinical allergy, or experience acute symptoms or chronic urticaria induced by raw fish. We studied whether the 3 subgroups differ in IgE, IgG1 or IgG4 reactivity to specific Anisakis simplex allergens. Methods. 28 Anisakis simplex-hypersensitive adults, 11 with acute symptoms, 9 with chronic urticaria, and 8 sensitized were studied. IgE, IgG1 and IgG4 to rAni s 1, 5, 9 and 10 were sought by ELISA. IgE and IgG4 to nAni s 4 were determined by WB. Results. IgE to Ani s 1, 4, 5, 9, and 10 were found in 8, 3, 2, 5, and 9 sera, respectively. Nine sera did not react to any allergen. IgG1 to Ani s 1, 5, 9, and 10 were detected in 5, 16, 14, and 4 sera, respectively. Four sera did not react to any of the 4 allergens. IgG4 to Ani s 1, 4, 5, 9, and 10 were detected in 10, 0, 2, 6 and 1 sera, respectively. Fifteen subjects did not react to any of the 5 allergens. On ELISA sensitized subjects showed lower IgE and IgG1 levels than patients. IgG4 levels were highest in the sensitized group. The prevalence of IgE, IgG1 or IgG4 reactivity to any of the studied allergens did not differ between the 3 subgroups. Conclusion. The clinical expression of Anisakis simplex sensitization does not seem to depend on IgE reactivity to a specific allergen of the parasite, nor on the presence of IgG antibodies possibly related with blocking activity.

  1. Evaluation of Evolocumab (AMG 145), a Fully Human Anti-PCSK9 IgG2 Monoclonal Antibody, in Subjects With Hepatic Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, John P; Slatter, J Greg; Egbuna, Ogo; Geller, Michelle; Hamilton, Lisa; Dias, Clapton S; Xu, Ren Y; Johnson, Jessica; Wasserman, Scott M; Emery, Maurice G

    2017-04-01

    Evolocumab binds PCSK9, increasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) receptors and lowering LDL-C. Target-mediated evolocumab elimination is attributable to PCSK9 binding. As circulating PCSK9 and LDL-C levels are primarily regulated by the liver, we compared evolocumab pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety in individuals with and without hepatic impairment. An open-label, parallel-group study evaluated the pharmacokinetics of evolocumab in hepatic-impaired (Child-Pugh Class A or B) or healthy adults. Participants were classified as having no, mild, or moderate hepatic impairment (n = 8/group) and received a single 140-mg evolocumab dose. Assessments of unbound evolocumab and PCSK9 were made predose and postdose. Adverse events were monitored throughout the study. No significant association was observed between baseline PCSK9 and increasing level of hepatic impairment. No difference in extent and time course of PCSK9 or LDL-C reduction was observed despite an apparent decrease in mean unbound evolocumab exposure with increasing hepatic impairment (Jonckheere-Terpstra trend test; maximum serum concentration P = .18; area under the curve P = .09). Maximum reductions were observed in moderately impaired subjects vs healthy individuals: mean maximum serum concentration -34%; mean area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) -47%. On average, unbound PCSK9 serum concentrations fell by >80% at 4 hours after a single evolocumab dose. Mean (95% confidence interval) maximum LDL-C reductions in the healthy, mild, and moderate groups were -57% (-64% to -48%), -70% (-75% to -63%), and -53% (-61% to -43%), respectively. No safety risks were identified. These results support evolocumab use without dose adjustment in patients with active liver disease and mild or moderate hepatic impairment. © 2016, The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  2. Subjective Memory Complaints are Associated with Incident Dementia in Cognitively Intact Older People, but Not in Those with Cognitive Impairment: A 24-Month Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Hotta, Ryo; Nakakubo, Sho; Makino, Keitaro; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Takao

    2017-06-01

    Although subjective memory complaints (SMCs) are considered a risk factor for incident dementia in older people, the effect might differ based on cognitive function. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the effect of SMCs on the incidence of dementia in older people differed based on cognitive function. A 24-month follow-up cohort study. Japanese community. Prospective, longitudinal data for incident dementia were collected for 3,672 participants (mean age: 71.7 years; 46.5% men) for up to 24 months. Baseline measurements included covariates for incident dementia, SMCs, and cognitive function. Associations between SMCs, cognitive impairment, and incident dementia were examined using Cox proportional hazards models. Incidences of dementia in the cognitively intact without SMC, cognitively intact with SMC, cognitive impairment without SMC, and cognitive impairment with SMC groups were 0.3%, 1.8%, 3.4%, and 4.8%, respectively. In the cognitively intact participants, SMCs were associated with a significantly higher risk of dementia (hazard ratio [HR]: 4.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.52-16.11, p = 0.008). Incident dementia with cognitive impairment was not significantly different based on SMC presence (p = 0.527). Participants with cognitive impairment in multiple domains had a significantly higher risk of incident dementia (HR: 2.07, 95% CI: 1.01-4.24, p = 0.046) CONCLUSION: SMCs were related with dementia in cognitively intact older people, but not in those with cognitive impairment.Multiple domains of cognitive impairment were associated with a higher risk of incident dementia. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Alcohol Levels Do Not Accurately Predict Physical or Mental Impairment in Ethanol-Tolerant Subjects: Relevance to Emergency Medicine and Dram Shop Laws

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, James R.; Dollard, Denis

    2010-01-01

    The human body and the central nervous system can develop tremendous tolerance to ethanol. Mental and physical dysfunctions from ethanol, in an alcohol-tolerant individual, do not consistently correlate with ethanol levels traditionally used to define intoxication, or even lethality, in a nontolerant subject. Attempting to relate observed signs of alcohol intoxication or impairment, or to evaluate sobriety, by quantifying blood alcohol levels can be misleading, if not impossible. We report a ...

  4. Pharmacodynamics assessment of Bemiparin after multiple prophylactic and single therapeutic doses in adult and elderly healthy volunteers and in subjects with varying degrees of renal impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Salvador; Antonijoan, Rosa-María; Ballester, Maria Rosa; Gutierro, Ibon; Ayani, Ignacio; Martinez-Gonzalez, Javier; Borrell, Montserrat; Fontcuberta, Jordi; Gich, Ignasi

    2014-06-01

    Aging and renal impairment may prolong the half-life and lead to accumulation of low molecular weight heparins. Correct dosing is critical to prevent bleeding or thrombosis. Open, parallel study. Healthy adult [n=13] and elderly (>65yrs) [n=12] volunteers; and subjects with mild (ClCr≥50 to ≤80mL/min, n=8), moderate (ClCr≥30 to <50mL/min, n=7), and severe (ClCr<30mL/min, n=8) renal impairment received four prophylactic doses (3,500IU/24h) and a single therapeutic dose (115IU/kg) of bemiparin with an interim washout period. Anti-FXa activity and the potential need for dose adjustment were evaluated. There were statistically significant differences in the severe renal impairment group vs. adult volunteers in all anti-FXa related parameters, but no significant differences in any of the anti-FXa related parameters between the adult and the elderly. Anti-FXa simulations after 10 prophylactic doses predicted mean Amax=0.59IU/mL in subjects with severe renal impairment and 0.33-0.39IU/mL in the rest. Simulations in the severe renal impairment group with dose adjustment (2,500IU/24h) predicted all individual Amax<0.60IU/mL (mean Amax=0.42IU/ml). Simulations after 10 therapeutic doses predicted mean Amax=1.22IU/mL in severe renal impairment group and 0.89-0.98IU/mL in the rest. Simulations in the severe renal impairment group with 75% dose adjustment predicted individual Amax≤1.60IU/mL (mean Amax=0.91IU/mL). No dose adjustments are required in elderly with preserved renal function. A dose adjustment of bemiparin is only advisable in patients with severe renal impairment when using prophylactic or therapeutic doses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Symptoms of apathy are associated with progression from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease in non-depressed subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, E.; Schmand, B.; Eikelenboom, P.; Yang, S.C.; Ligthart, S.A.; Moll van Charante, E.P.; van Gool, W.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Apathy is a common symptom in various neuropsychiatric diseases including mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. Apathy may be associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline. The objective of this study was to investigate if apathy predicts the progression from MCI to

  6. Core Subjects at the End of Primary School: Identifying and Explaining Relative Strengths of Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Kevin; Mok, Pearl L. H.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Background: In general, children with specific language impairment (SLI) tend to fall behind their typically developing (TD) peers in educational attainment. Less is known about how children with SLI fare in particular areas of the curriculum and what predicts their levels of performance. Aims: To compare the distributions of performance of…

  7. Brief Report: Impaired Differentiation of Vegetative/Affective and Intentional Nonverbal Vocalizations in a Subject with Asperger Syndrome (AS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Susanne; Hertrich, Ingo; Riedel, Andreas; Ackermann, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    The Asperger syndrome (AS) includes impaired recognition of other people's mental states. Since language-based diagnostic procedures may be confounded by cognitive-linguistic compensation strategies, nonverbal test materials were created, including human affective and vegetative sounds. Depending on video context, each sound could be interpreted…

  8. Impaired hippocampal acetylcholine release parallels spatial memory deficits in Tg2576 mice subjected to basal forebrain cholinergic degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bettina; Mørk, Arne; Plath, Niels

    2013-01-01

    (BFCD) in 3 months old male Tg2576 mice to co-express cholinergic degeneration with Aβ overexpression as these characteristics constitutes key hallmarks of AD. At 9 months, SAP lesioned Tg2576 mice were cognitively impaired in two spatial paradigms addressing working memory and mid to long-term memory...

  9. Fel d 1-derived synthetic peptide immuno-regulatory epitopes show a long-term treatment effect in cat allergic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couroux, P; Patel, D; Armstrong, K; Larché, M; Hafner, R P

    2015-05-01

    Cat-PAD, the first in a new class of synthetic peptide immuno-regulatory epitopes (SPIREs), was shown to significantly improve rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms in subjects with cat allergy up to 1 year after the start of a short course of treatment. To evaluate the long-term effects of Cat-PAD on rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms following standardized allergen challenge 2 years after treatment. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study, subjects were exposed to cat allergen in an environmental exposure chamber (EEC) before and after treatment with two regimens of Cat-PAD (either eight doses of 3 nmol or four doses of 6 nmol) given intradermally over a 3-month period. In this follow-up study, changes from baseline in rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms were reassessed 2 years after the start of treatment. The primary endpoint showed a mean reduction in total rhinoconjunctivitis symptom scores of 3.85 units in the 4 × 6 nmol Cat-PAD group compared to placebo 2 years after the start of treatment (P = 0.13), and this difference was statistically significant in the secondary endpoint at the end of day 4 when the cumulative allergen challenge was greatest (P = 0.02). Consistent reductions in nasal symptoms of between 2 and 3 units were observed for 4 × 6 nmol Cat-PAD compared to placebo between the 2 and 3 h time points on days 1-4 of EEC challenge at 2 years (P Cat-PAD. This study is the first to provide evidence of a long-term therapeutic effect with this new class of SPIREs. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical & Experimental Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Sex differences in subjective and objective measures of pain, functional impairment, and health-related quality of life in patients with lumbar degenerative disc disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautschi, Oliver P; Corniola, Marco V; Smoll, Nicolas R; Joswig, Holger; Schaller, Karl; Hildebrandt, Gerhard; Stienen, Martin N

    2016-05-01

    Sex differences in pain perception are known to exist; however, the exact pathomechanism remains unclear. This work aims to elucidate sex differences in subjective and objective measures of pain, functional impairment, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with lumbar degenerative disc disease. In a prospective 2-center study, back and leg pain (visual analogue scale [VAS]), functional disability (Oswestry Disability Index and Roland-Morris Disability Index), and HRQoL (EuroQol-5D and Short Form [SF12]) were collected for consecutive patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery. Objective functional impairment (OFI) was estimated using age-adjusted and sex-adjusted cutoff values for the timed-up-and-go (TUG) test. A healthy cohort of n = 110 subjects served as the control group. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to test the association between sex and pain, subjective and OFIs, and HRQoL. The study comprised n = 305 patients (41.6% females). Female patients had more VAS back pain (P = 0.002) and leg pain (P = 0.014). They were more likely to report higher functional impairment in terms of Oswestry Disability Index (P = 0.005). Similarly, HRQoL measured with the EuroQol-5D index (P = 0.012) and SF12 physical composite score (P = 0.005) was lower in female patients. Female patients reported higher VAS back and leg pain, functional impairment, and reduced HRQoL than male patients. However, there were no sex differences with respect to the presence and degree of OFI measured by the TUG test using age-adjusted and sex-adjusted cutoff values. As such, the TUG may be a good test to overcome sex bias for the clinical assessment of patients with degenerative disc disease.

  11. Mean Length of Utterance in Children with Specific Language Impairment and in Younger Control Children Shows Concurrent Validity and Stable and Parallel Growth Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Mabel L.; Redmond, Sean M.; Hoffman, Lesa

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Although mean length of utterance (MLU) is a useful benchmark in studies of children with specific language impairment (SLI), some empirical and interpretive issues are unresolved. The authors report on 2 studies examining, respectively, the concurrent validity and temporal stability of MLU equivalency between children with SLI and…

  12. Impaired incretin effect and fasting hyperglucagonaemia characterizing type 2 diabetic subjects are early signs of dysmetabolism in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Filip K; Aaboe, K; Vilsbøll, T

    2012-01-01

    subjects with NGT [BMI: 33 (35-38) kg/m(2) ]; (iii) Eight lean patients with T2DM [BMI: 24 (22-25) kg/m(2) ]; and (iv) Eight lean healthy subjects [BMI: 23 (20-25) kg/m(2) ]. Results: The incretin effect was significantly (p error...

  13. Torque steadiness and muscle activation are bilaterally impaired during shoulder abduction and flexion in chronic post-stroke subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Gabriela Lopes; García-Salazar, Luisa Fernanda; Souza, Matheus Bragança; Oliveira, Ana Beatriz; Camargo, Paula Rezende; Russo, Thiago Luiz

    2016-10-01

    To characterize sensorimotor control and muscle activation in the shoulder of chronic hemiparetic during abduction and flexion in maximal and submaximal isometric contractions. Furthermore, to correlate submaximal sensorimotor control with motor impairment and degree of shoulder subluxation. Thirteen chronic hemiparetic post-stroke age-gender matched with healthy were included. Isometric torques were assessed using a dynamometer. Electromyographic activity of the anterior and middle deltoid, upper trapezius, pectoralis major and serratus anterior muscles were collected. Variables were calculated for torque: peak, time to target, standard deviation (SD), coefficient of variation (CV), and standard error (RMSE); for muscle activity: maximum and minimum values, range and coefficient of activation. Motor impairment was determined by Fugl-Meyer and shoulder subluxation was measured with a caliper. Paretic and non-paretic limbs reduced peak and muscle activation during maximal isometric contraction. Paretic limb generated lower force when compared with non-paretic and control. Paretic and non-paretic presented higher values of SD, CV, RMSE, and CV for prime mover muscles and minimum values for all muscles during steadiness. No correlation was found between sensorimotor control, motor impairment and shoulder subluxation. Chronic hemiparetic presented bilateral deficits in sensorimotor and muscle control during maximal and submaximal shoulder abduction and flexion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The impact of depressive symptoms on health-related quality of life in patients with subjective cognitive decline, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusswald, G; Moser, D; Pflüger, M; Gleiss, A; Auff, E; Stögmann, E; Dal-Bianco, P; Lehrner, J

    2016-12-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important issue in the context of dementia care. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between HRQOL and depressive symptoms in patients with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and subtypes of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer´s disease (AD). In this cross-sectional, observational study, a control group and four experimental groups (SCD, non-amnestic MCI, amnesticMCI, AD) were compared. Neuropsychological measurers (NTBV) and psychological questionnaires were used for data collection. The control group scored higher than patients with SCD, naMCI, aMCI, or AD for the Mental Health Component Score (MHCS) of the Short Form of the Health Survey (SF-36). The Physical Health Component Score (PHCS) of the SF-36 differed only between some groups. Furthermore, cognitive variables were more strongly associated with the physical aspects of HRQOL, whereas depressive symptoms were more strongly related with the mental aspects of HRQOL. HRQOL and depressive symptoms are closely related in patients with cognitive impairments. Therefore, it is of great importance to assess patients with subjective impairment carefully in terms of depressive symptoms.

  15. Camelina Sativa Oil, but not Fatty Fish or Lean Fish Improved Serum Lipid Profile in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Metabolism - a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Ursula S; Lankinen, Maria A; de Mello, Vanessa D; Manninen, Suvi M; Kurl, Sudhir; Pulkki, Kari J; Laaksonen, David E; Erkkilä, Arja T

    2017-12-22

    The aim of the study was to examine whether lean fish (LF), fatty fish (FF) and camelina sativa oil (CSO), a plant-based source of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), differ in their metabolic effects in subjects with impaired glucose metabolism. Altogether 79 volunteers with impaired fasting glucose, BMI 25-36 kg/m2 , age 43-72 years, participated in a 12-week randomized controlled trial with four parallel groups, i.e. the FF (4 fish meals/week), LF (4 fish meals/week), CSO (10 g/day ALA) and control (limited intakes of fish and source of ALA) groups. The proportions of EPA and DHA increased in plasma lipids in the FF group, and the proportion of ALA increased in the CSO group (P < 0.0001 for all). In the CSO group total and LDL-cholesterol (C) concentrations decreased compared with the FF and LF groups, LDL-C/HDL-C and ApoB/ApoA-I ratios decreased compared with the LF group. There were no significant changes in glucose metabolism or markers of low-grade inflammation. A diet enriched in CSO improves serum lipid profile as compared with a diet enriched in FF or LF in subjects with impaired fasting glucose, with no differences in glucose metabolism or concentrations of inflammatory markers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Machine Learning classification of MRI features of Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment subjects to reduce the sample size in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Javier; Zajicek, John P; Ifeachor, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for objective tools to help clinicians to diagnose Alzheimer's Disease (AD) early and accurately and to conduct Clinical Trials (CTs) with fewer patients. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a promising AD biomarker but no single MRI feature is optimal for all disease stages. Machine Learning classification can address these challenges. In this study, we have investigated the classification of MRI features from AD, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), and control subjects from ADNI with four techniques. The highest accuracy rates for the classification of controls against ADs and MCIs were 89.2% and 72.7%, respectively. Moreover, we used the classifiers to select AD and MCI subjects who are most likely to decline for inclusion in hypothetical CTs. Using the hippocampal volume as an outcome measure, we found that the required group sizes for the CTs were reduced from 197 to 117 AD patients and from 366 to 215 MCI subjects.

  17. Impaired cognitive performance in subjects with methamphetamine dependence during exposure to neutral versus methamphetamine-related cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolliver, Bryan K; Price, Kimber L; Baker, Nathaniel L; LaRowe, Steven D; Simpson, Annie N; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Saladin, Michael E; DeSantis, Stacia M; Chapman, Elizabeth; Garrett, Margaret; Brady, Kathleen T

    2012-05-01

    Chronic methamphetamine abuse is associated with cognitive deficits that may impede treatment in methamphetamine-dependent patients. Exposure to methamphetamine-related cues can elicit intense craving in chronic users of the drug, but the effects of exposure to drug cues on cognitive performance in these individuals are unknown. This study assessed whether exposure to methamphetamine-related visual cues can elicit craving and/or alter dual task cognitive performance in 30 methamphetamine-dependent subjects and 30 control subjects in the laboratory. Reaction time, response errors, and inhibition errors were assessed on an auditory Go-No Go task performed by adult participants (total N = 60) while watching neutral versus methamphetamine-related video cues. Craving was assessed with the Within-Session Rating Scale modified for methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Exposure to methamphetamine-related cues elicited craving only in methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Even in the absence of methamphetamine cues, methamphetamine-dependent subjects exhibited slower reaction times and higher rates of both inhibition and response errors than control subjects did. Upon exposure to methamphetamine cues, rates of both response errors and inhibition errors increased significantly in methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Control subjects exhibited no increase in inhibition errors and only slightly increased rates of response errors upon exposure to methamphetamine cues. Response error rates, but not inhibition error rates or reaction times, during methamphetamine cue exposure were significantly associated with craving scores in methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Methamphetamine-dependent individuals exhibit cognitive performance deficits that are more pronounced during exposure to methamphetamine-related cues. Interventions that reduce cue reactivity may have utility in the treatment of methamphetamine dependence.

  18. The effect of DPP-4 inhibition with sitagliptin on incretin secretion and on fasting and postprandial glucose turnover in subjects with impaired fasting glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bock, Gerlies; Man, Chiara Dalla; Micheletto, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Low Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentrations have been observed in impaired fasting glucose (IFG). It is uncertain if these abnormalities contribute directly to the pathogenesis of IFG and impaired glucose tolerance. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors raise incretin...... period, the mixed meal was repeated. Results: As expected, subjects with IFG who received placebo did not experience any change in glucose concentrations. Despite raising intact GLP-1 concentrations, treatment with sitagliptin did not alter either fasting or postprandial glucose, insulin or C....... Conclusions: DPP-4 inhibition did not alter fasting or postprandial glucose turnover in people with IFG. Low incretin concentrations are unlikely to be involved in the pathogenesis of IFG....

  19. "I'm afraid I have bad news for you…" Estimating the impact of different health impairments on subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Martin; Coad, Alex

    2013-06-01

    Bad health decreases individuals' happiness, but few studies measure the impact of specific illnesses. We apply matching estimators to examine how changes in different (objective) conditions of bad health affect subjective well-being for a sample of 100,265 observations from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) database (1996-2006). The strongest effect is for alcohol and drug abuse, followed by anxiety, depression and other mental illnesses, stroke and cancer. Adaptation to health impairments varies across health impairments. There is also a puzzling asymmetry: strong adverse reactions to deteriorations in health appear alongside weak increases in well-being after health improvements. In conclusion, our analysis offers a more detailed account of how bad health influences happiness than accounts focusing on how bad self-assessed health affects individual well-being. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Optimising drug prescribing and dispensing in subjects at risk for drug errors due to renal impairment: improving drug safety in primary healthcare by low eGFR alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Hanneke; Drion, Iefke; Boogerd, Kees J; van der Pijl, Emiel V; Slingerland, Robbert J; Slaets, Joris P J; Jansen, Tiele J; Schwantje, Olof; Gans, Reinold O B; Bilo, Henk J G

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess the risk of medication errors in subjects with renal impairment (defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≤40 ml/min/1.73 m2) and the effectiveness of automatic eGFR ≤40-alerts relayed to community pharmacists. Design Clinical survey. Setting The city of Zwolle, The Netherlands, in a primary care setting including 22 community pharmacists and 65 general practitioners. Participants All adults who underwent ambulatory creatine measurements which triggered an eGFR ≤40-alert. Primary and secondary outcome measures The total number of ambulatory subjects with an eGFR ≤40-alert during the study period of 1 year and the number of medication errors related to renal impairment. The type and number of proposed drug adjustments recommended by the community pharmacist and acceptance rate by the prescribing physicians. Classification of all medication errors on their potential to cause an adverse drug event (ADE) and the actual occurrence of ADEs (limited to those identified through hospital record reviews) 1 year after the introduction of the alerts. Results Creatine measurements were performed in 25 929 adults. An eGFR ≤40-alert was indicated for 5.3% (n=1369). This group had a median (IQR) age of 78 (69, 84) years, and in 73% polypharmacy (≥5 drugs) was present. In 15% (n=211) of these subjects, a medication error was detected. The proportion of errors increased with age. Pharmacists recommended 342 medication adjustments, mainly concerning diuretics (22%) and antibiotics (21%). The physicians’ acceptance rate was 66%. Of all the medication errors, 88% were regarded as potential ADEs, with most classified as significant or serious. At follow-up, the ADE risk (n=40) appeared highest when the proposed medication adjustments were not implemented (38% vs 6%). Conclusions The introduction of automatic eGFR-alerts identified a considerable number of subjects who are at risk for ADEs due to renal impairment in an

  1. Progression from impaired fasting glucose to type 2 diabetes mellitus among Chinese subjects with and without hypertension in a primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Sau Nga; Luk, Wan; Wong, Carlos King Ho; Cheung, Kwok Leung

    2014-09-01

    The progression from impaired fasting glucose (IFG) to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Chinese subjects, with and without hypertension, in a primary care setting was unknown. The present retrospective multicenter 5-year (2002-2007) cohort study was performed on IFG subjects attending 23 general outpatient clinics who were identified by their elevated fasting blood glucose laboratory results. Development of T2DM was determined by physician diagnosis of T2DM or starting of oral antidiabetic drugs within 5 years. The relationship between the time of T2DM diagnosis and subject characteristics was assessed by adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) from Cox hazards model. Of the 9161 IFG subjects, 4080 (45%) were men and 5081 (55%) were women. There were 1998 subjects who developed T2DM. The 5-year cumulative incidence was 0.218, whereas the overall annual incidence rate was 5.981/100 person-years. Subjects were more likely to develop T2DM if they were hypertensive (aHR = 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28-1.62; P primary care setting developed T2DM within 5 years. Health care professionals can target interventions to patients with risk factors for disease progression. © 2014 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. [The biopolitical production "impaired" subjects within the scope of "Action T4" - a re-reading of "I accuse"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermann, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    , the examination of the subjetivization process of the "T4" victims is expanded upon through the incorporation of discursive and imaginative procedures. For this reason, the film is analysed from a narratological and aesthetic perspective. The article starts with a description of the spatial structure of the narrative, which serves to establish an ideal of a "life worth living". Subsequently, the analysis focuses on the staging of Hanna's body and her self-description - both mean to show Hanna's regression from the norm of a "life worth living". Then, the case of Hanna is contextualized by the "T4" subjects. Due to the fact that incurable illness was a necessary feature of the victims, Hanna's husband's search for a cure for multiple sclerosis is also examined. The final part of the article deals with the research controversies regarding the importance of racial hygiene for the "euthanasia programme". Even in regard to this last question, which is also important in order to understand the subjectivization of the "T4" victims, the film offers interesting answers.

  3. Decreased Thioredoxin-1 and Increased HSP90 Expression in Skeletal Muscle in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes or Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venojärvi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In diabetes, the endogenous defence systems are overwhelmed, causing various types of stress in tissues. In this study, newly diagnosed or diet-treated type 2 diabetics (T2D (n=10 were compared with subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT (n=8. In both groups, at resting conditions, blood samples were drawn for assessing metabolic indices and skeletal muscle samples (m. vastus lateralis were taken for the measurements of cellular defence markers: thioredoxin-1 (TRX-1 and stress proteins HSP72, HSP90. The protein level of TRX-1 was 36.1% lower (P=0.031 and HSP90 was 380% higher (P<0.001 in the T2D than in the IGT subjects, with no significant changes in HSP72. However, after the adjustment of both analyses with HOMA-IR only HSP90 difference remained significant. In conclusion, level of TRX-1 in skeletal muscle tissue was lower while that of HSP90 was higher in T2D than in IGT subjects. This may impair antioxidant defence and lead to disruptions of protein homoeostasis and redox regulation of cellular defences. Because HSP90 may be involved in sustaining functional insulin signalling pathway in type 2 diabetic muscles and higher HSP90 levels can be a consequence of type 2 diabetes, our results are potentially important for the diabetes research.

  4. Sensorimotor impairments of paretic upper limb correlates with activities of daily living in subjects with chronic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng S.M. Shamay

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The  main objective  of  this  study  was  to  investigate  the correlations  between sensorimotor  impairments  of  paretic  upper  limb  and the  hand  functions of  activities of daily  living  (ADLs  scores  in  persons  with chronic stroke.This is a cross-sectional  study  with  19  chronic  stroke  survivors.  Hand function was measured by the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test (JTHFT. Impairments in upper extremity motor function were measured by upper limb items  of  Fugl-Meyer  Assessment  (FMA-UE.  Forearm  muscles  strength, handgrip  and  pinch  grip  power  were  assessed  using  handheld  dynamo-meters. Tactile sensation threshold was measured by monofilaments.Significant differences were found between the affected and unaffected side in the total JTHFT scores, forearm muscle strength, handgrip and pinch grip (p≤0.017, but not the tactile sensa-tion threshold.  The total JTHFT scores were found to be correlated with total score of FMA-UE (rs = -0.789, hand-grip  power  (rs = -0.588 and pinch grip power (rs = -0.657 on the affected side, but not the tactile sensation. The total JTHFT scores were correlated with FMA-UE scores, handgrip and pinch grip of the affected side.  This is the first study in documenting the correlation between the sensorimotor impairments and JTHFT scores in persons with  chronic stroke. Our findings highlights the importance of including upper limb and grip strength training in stroke rehabilitation program in order to improve hand functions in activities of daily living in patients with chronic stroke.

  5. Subject-Verb Agreement and Verbal Short-Term Memory: A Perspective from Greek Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalioti, Marina; Stavrakaki, Stavroula; Manouilidou, Christina; Talli, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of school age Greek-speaking children with SLI on verbal short-term memory (VSTM) and Subject-Verb (S-V) agreement in comparison to chronological age controls and younger typically developing children. VSTM abilities were assessed by means of a non-word repetition task (NRT) and an elicited production task,…

  6. Effects of different proportion of carbohydrate in breakfast on postprandial glucose excursion in normal glucose tolerance and impaired glucose regulation subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xin; Wang, Chun; Lifang, Lv; Chen, Dawei; Yang, Yanzhi; Liu, Guanjian; Wen, Hu; Chen, Lihong; He, Liping; Li, Xiujun; Tian, Haoming; Jia, Weiping; Ran, Xingwu

    2013-07-01

    The variability of postprandial plasma glucose is an independent risk factor for diabetes. The type and amount of carbohydrate may be important determinants of glycemic control. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of different proportions of carbohydrate in breakfast on postprandial blood glucose fluctuations in impaired glucose regulation (IGR) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) subjects. This is a cross-sectional study of two groups including 55 subjects with IGR and 78 individuals with NGT. Their recorded breakfast was sorted into low-carbohydrate (LC) (carbohydrate 65%) meals according to the proportion of carbohydrate. Glucose concentrations were continuously measured with a continuous glucose monitoring system, and parameters such as the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of glucose and postprandial glucose excursion (PPGE) were calculated to evaluate postprandial glucose fluctuations. The postprandial fluctuations of glucose increased gradually with increased proportions of carbohydrate in breakfast in both IGR and NGT subjects. For the MC and HC meals, iAUC, PPGE, postprandial glucose spike (PGS), and mean blood glucose were significantly greater than those in the NGT group (Pglucose concentrations decreased to baseline after the MC and HC meals in the IGR group were significantly longer than those in the NGT group (Pglucose concentrations, SD, and PPGE (Pglucose excursions in the NGT and IGR subjects. In the IGR subjects, a HC meal should be avoided and a LC meal should be recommended to prevent development of diabetes.

  7. Objective-subjective disparity in cancer-related cognitive impairment: does the use of change measures help reconcile the difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Farrell, Erin; Smith, Andra; Collins, Barbara

    2017-10-01

    Studies to date have found little correlation between subjective and objective measures of cognitive function in cancer patients, making it difficult to interpret the significance of their cognitive complaints. The purpose of this study was to determine if a stronger correlation would be obtained using measures of cognitive change rather than static scores. Sixty women with early stage breast cancer underwent repeated cognitive assessment over the course of chemotherapy with a neuropsychological test battery (objective measure) and with the FACT-Cog (subjective measure). Their results were compared to 60 healthy women matched on age and education and assessed at similar intervals. We used multilevel modeling, with FACT-Cog as the dependent measure and ordinary least squares slopes of a neuropsychological summary score as the independent variable, to evaluate the co-variation between the subjective and objective measures over time RESULTS: Measures of both objective and subjective cognitive function declined over the course of chemotherapy in the breast cancer patients but there was no significant relationship between them, even when using change measures. Change in objective cognitive function was not related to change in anxiety or fatigue scores but the decline in perceived cognitive function was associated with greater anxiety and fatigue. The discrepancy in objective and subjective measures of cognition in breast cancer patients cannot be accounted for in terms of a failure to use change measures. Although the results are negative, we contend that this is the more appropriate methodology for analyzing cancer-related changes in cognition. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of wrist and finger joints in healthy subjects occasionally shows changes resembling erosions and synovitis as seen in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejbjerg, Bo; Narvestad, Eva; Rostrup, Egill

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the presence of changes resembling rheumatoid arthritis erosions and synovitis in metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and wrist joints of healthy individuals on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to compare the MRI findings with conventional radiographic, clinical, and biochemical.......5%), while only minimal early synovial enhancement was detected by dynamic MRI. Three subjects had elevated serum levels of C-reactive protein, and these subjects displayed 44.5% of the synovitis-like changes and 41.7% of the erosion-like changes. Bone marrow edema-like changes were not found in any joints...

  9. Insulin Resistance in Non-Obese Subjects Is Associated with Activation of the JNK Pathway and Impaired Insulin Signaling in Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masharani, Umesh B.; Maddux, Betty A.; Li, Xiaojuan; Sakkas, Giorgos K.; Mulligan, Kathleen; Schambelan, Morris; Goldfine, Ira D.; Youngren, Jack F.

    2011-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis of insulin resistance in the absence of obesity is unknown. In obesity, multiple stress kinases have been identified that impair the insulin signaling pathway via serine phosphorylation of key second messenger proteins. These stress kinases are activated through various mechanisms related to lipid oversupply locally in insulin target tissues and in various adipose depots. Methodology/Principal Findings To explore whether specific stress kinases that have been implicated in the insulin resistance of obesity are potentially contributing to insulin resistance in non-obese individuals, twenty healthy, non-obese, normoglycemic subjects identified as insulin sensitive or resistant were studied. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies obtained during euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp were evaluated for insulin signaling and for activation of stress kinase pathways. Total and regional adipose stores and intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) were assessed by DXA, MRI and 1H-MRS. In muscle of resistant subjects, phosphorylation of JNK was increased (1.36±0.23 vs. 0.78±0.10 OD units, Pincreased (1.30±0.09 vs. 0.22±0.03 OD units, Pinsulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation decreased (10.97±0.95 vs. 0.89±0.50 OD units, Pinsulin resistant subjects (3.26±0.48 vs. 1.58±0.35% H2O peak, Pincreased total fat and abdominal fat when compared to insulin sensitive controls. Conclusions This is the first report demonstrating that insulin resistance in non-obese, normoglycemic subjects is associated with activation of the JNK pathway related to increased IMCL and higher total body and abdominal adipose stores. While JNK activation is consistent with a primary impact of muscle lipid accumulation on metabolic stress, further work is necessary to determine the relative contributions of the various mediators of impaired insulin signaling in this population. PMID:21589939

  10. Anatomical substrate and scalp EEG markers are correlated in subjects with cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    davide v Moretti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is a syndromic diagnosis, encompassing various stage of severity and different anatomo-physiological substrates. The hippocampus is one of the first and most affected brain regions affected by both Alzheimer’s disease (AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Morevoer, cronic cerebrovascular disease (CVD is one of the major risk factor for developing dementia. Recent studies have demonstrated different relationship between the anatomical substrate and scalp electroencephalography (EEG markers. Indeed, modifications of EEG rhythmicity is not proportional to the hippocampal atrophy, whereas changes in EEG activity are directly proportional to the load of subcortical CVD.Quantitative EEG have been demonstrated a reliable tool in identifying specific patterns in dementia research (Coburn et al., 2006; John and Prichep, 2006. The computation of the spectral power and the analysis of the functional coupling of brain areas, through linear coherence, are two of the most known processing methods in EEG research. Two specific EEG markers, theta/gamma and alpha3/alpha2 frequency ratio have been reliable associated to the atrophy of amygdalo-hippocampal complex. Moreover, theta/gamma ratio has been related to MCI conversion i

  11. An open-label study to estimate the effect of steady-state erythromycin on the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of a single dose of rivaroxaban in subjects with renal impairment and normal renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kenneth T; Vaidyanathan, Seema; Natarajan, Jaya; Ariyawansa, Jay; Haskell, Lloyd; Turner, Kenneth C

    2014-12-01

    Two previously conducted rivaroxaban studies showed that, separately, renal impairment (RI) and concomitant administration of erythromycin (P-glycoprotein and moderate cytochrome P450 3A4 [CYP3A4] inhibitor) can result in increases in rivaroxaban exposure. However, these studies did not assess the potential for combined drug-drug-disease interactions, which-in theory-could lead to additive or synergistic increases in exposure. This study investigated rivaroxaban pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics when co-administered with steady-state (SS) erythromycin in subjects with either mild or moderate RI. Similar to previous studies, rivaroxaban administered alone in RI subjects, or when co-administered with SS erythromycin in normal renal function (NRF) subjects, increased rivaroxaban exposure. When combined, the co-administration of rivaroxaban 10 mg with SS erythromycin in subjects with mild or moderate RI produced mean increases in rivaroxaban AUC∞ and Cmax of approximately 76% and 56%, and 99% and 64%, respectively, relative to NRF subjects, with PD changes displaying a similar trend. No serious adverse events occurred and no persistent adverse events were reported at the end of study. Although these increases were slightly more than additive, rivaroxaban should not be used in patients with RI receiving concomitant combined P-glycoprotein and moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors, unless the potential benefit justifies the potential risk. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  12. Increase of theta frequency is associated with reduction in regional cerebral blood flow only in subjects with mild cognitive impairment with higher upper alpha/low alpha EEG frequency power ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Davide V; Prestia, Annapaola; Binetti, Giuliano; Zanetti, Orazio; Frisoni, Giovanni B

    2013-01-01

    Several biomarkers have been proposed for detecting Alzheimer's disease (AD) in its earliest stages, that is, in the predementia stage. In an attempt to find noninvasive biomarkers, researchers have investigated the feasibility of neuroimaging tools, such as MRI, SPECT as well as neurophysiological measurements using EEG. Moreover, the increase of EEG alpha3/alpha2 frequency power ratio has been associated with AD-converters subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). To study the association of alpha3/alpha2 frequency power ratio with regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes in subjects with MCI. Twenty-seven adult subjects with MCI underwent EEG recording and perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) evaluation. The alpha3/alpha2 frequency power ratio was computed for each subject. Two groups were obtained according to the median values of alpha3/alpha2, at a cut-off of 1.17. Correlation between brain perfusion and EEG markers were detected. Subjects with higher alpha3/alpha2 frequency power ratio showed a constant trend to a lower perfusion than low alpha3/alpha2 group. The two groups were significantly different as about the hippocampal volume and correlation with the theta frequency activity. There is a complex interplay between cerebral blood flow, theta frequency activity, and hippocampal volume in MCI patients with prodromal Alzheimer's disease, characterized by higher EEG alpha3/alpha2 frequency power ratio.

  13. Occupation and communication programs for post-coma persons with or without consciousness disorders who show extensive motor impairment and lack of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; D'Amico, Fiora; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; Megna, Marisa

    2014-05-01

    These two studies were aimed at extending the assessment of technology-aided programs for post-coma persons with extensive motor impairment and lack of speech. Specifically, Study I assessed a new program arrangement, in which stimulation access and caregiver attention could be obtained with variations of the same response (i.e., single- versus double-hand closure) by three participants who were diagnosed at the upper level of the minimally conscious state at the start of the study. Study II was aimed at enabling two persons who had emerged from a minimally conscious state to engage in leisure activities, listen to audio-recordings of family members, and send and receive messages. The responses selected for these participants were hand pressure and eyelid closure, respectively. The results of both studies were positive. The participants of Study I increased their responding to increase their stimulation input and caregiver interaction. The participants of Study II managed to successfully select all the options the program included (i.e., the leisure options, as well as the family and communication options). General implications of the programs and the related technology packages for intervention with post-coma persons with multiple disabilities are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairments Show Less Driving Errors after a Multiple Sessions Simulator Training Program but Do Not Exhibit Long Term Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasdale, Normand; Simoneau, Martin; Hudon, Lisa; Germain Robitaille, Mathieu; Moszkowicz, Thierry; Laurendeau, Denis; Bherer, Louis; Duchesne, Simon; Hudon, Carol

    2016-01-01

    The driving performance of individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is suboptimal when compared to healthy older adults. It is expected that the driving will worsen with the progression of the cognitive decline and thus, whether or not these individuals should continue to drive is a matter of debate. The aim of the study was to provide support to the claim that individuals with MCI can benefit from a training program and improve their overall driving performance in a driving simulator. Fifteen older drivers with MCI participated in five training sessions in a simulator (over a 21-day period) and in a 6-month recall session. During training, they received automated auditory feedback on their performance when an error was noted about various maneuvers known to be suboptimal in MCI individuals (for instance, weaving, omitting to indicate a lane change, to verify a blind spot, or to engage in a visual search before crossing an intersection). The number of errors was compiled for eight different maneuvers for all sessions. For the initial five sessions, a gradual and significant decrease in the number of errors was observed, indicating learning and safer driving. The level of performance, however, was not maintained at the 6-month recall session. Nevertheless, the initial learning observed opens up possibilities to undertake more regular interventions to maintain driving skills and safe driving in MCI individuals. PMID:28082883

  15. Adults with developmental dyslexia show selective impairments in time-based and self-initiated prospective memory: Self-report and clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Spark, James H; Zięcik, Adam P; Sterling, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    Prospective memory (PM; memory for delayed intentions) would seem to be impaired in dyslexia but evidence is currently limited in scope. There is a need, therefore, firstly, to explore PM under controlled conditions using a broader range of PM tasks than used previously and, secondly, to determine whether objectively measured and self-reported PM problems can be found in the same individuals with dyslexia. The responses of 30 adults with dyslexia were compared with those of 30 IQ-matched adults without dyslexia on a self-report and a clinical measure of PM. Dyslexia-related deficits were shown on the clinical measure overall and, more particularly, when PM responses had to be made to cues based on time rather than environmental events. Adults with dyslexia were also more likely to forget to carry out an intention under naturalistic conditions 24h later. On the self-report questionnaire, the group with dyslexia reported significantly more frequent problems with PM overall, despite using more techniques to aid their memory. In particular, problems were identified with longer-term PM tasks and PM which had to be self-initiated. Dyslexia-related PM deficits were found under both laboratory and everyday conditions in the same participants; the first time that this has been demonstrated. These findings support previous experimental research which has highlighted dyslexia-related deficits in PM when the enacting of intentions is based on time cues and/or has to be self-initiated rather than being in prompted by environmental events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mapping correlations between ventricular expansion and CSF amyloid and tau biomarkers in 240 subjects with Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment and elderly controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yi-Yu; Leporé, Natasha; Avedissian, Christina; Madsen, Sarah K; Parikshak, Neelroop; Hua, Xue; Shaw, Leslie M; Trojanowski, John Q; Weiner, Michael W; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M

    2009-06-01

    We aimed to improve on the single-atlas ventricular segmentation method of (Carmichael, O.T., Thompson, P.M., Dutton, R.A., Lu, A., Lee, S.E., Lee, J.Y., Kuller, L.H., Lopez, O.L., Aizenstein, H.J., Meltzer, C.C., Liu, Y., Toga, A.W., Becker, J.T., 2006. Mapping ventricular changes related to dementia and mild cognitive impairment in a large community-based cohort. IEEE ISBI. 315-318) by using multi-atlas segmentation, which has been shown to lead to more accurate segmentations (Chou, Y., Leporé, N., de Zubicaray, G., Carmichael, O., Becker, J., Toga, A., Thompson, P., 2008. Automated ventricular mapping with multi-atlas fluid image alignment reveals genetic effects in Alzheimer's disease, NeuroImage 40(2): 615-630); with this method, we calculated minimal numbers of subjects needed to detect correlations between clinical scores and ventricular maps. We also assessed correlations between emerging CSF biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease pathology and localizable deficits in the brain, in 80 AD, 80 mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 80 healthy controls from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Six expertly segmented images and their embedded parametric mesh surfaces were fluidly registered to each brain; segmentations were averaged within subjects to reduce errors. Surface-based statistical maps revealed powerful correlations between surface morphology and 4 variables: (1) diagnosis, (2) depression severity, (3) cognitive function at baseline, and (4) future cognitive decline over the following year. Cognitive function was assessed using the mini-mental state exam (MMSE), global and sum-of-boxes clinical dementia rating (CDR) scores, at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Lower CSF Abeta(1-42) protein levels, a biomarker of AD pathology assessed in 138 of the 240 subjects, were correlated with lateral ventricular expansion. Using false discovery rate (FDR) methods, 40 and 120 subjects, respectively, were needed to discriminate AD and MCI from normal groups

  17. Optimization of Statistical Single Subject Analysis of Brain FDG PET for the Prognosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment-to-Alzheimer's Disease Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Catharina; Suppa, Per; Frings, Lars; Brenner, Winfried; Spies, Lothar; Buchert, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with the glucose analog F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is widely used in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases. Guidelines recommend voxel-based statistical testing to support visual evaluation of the PET images. However, the performance of voxel-based testing strongly depends on each single preprocessing step involved. To optimize the processing pipeline of voxel-based testing for the prognosis of dementia in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The study included 108 ADNI MCI subjects grouped as 'stable MCI' (n = 77) or 'MCI-to-AD converter' according to their diagnostic trajectory over 3 years. Thirty-two ADNI normals served as controls. Voxel-based testing was performed with the statistical parametric mapping software (SPM8) starting with default settings. The following modifications were added step-by-step: (i) motion correction, (ii) custom-made FDG template, (iii) different reference regions for intensity scaling, and (iv) smoothing was varied between 8 and 18 mm. The t-sum score for hypometabolism within a predefined AD mask was compared between the different settings using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis with respect to differentiation between 'stable MCI' and 'MCI-to-AD converter'. The area (AUC) under the ROC curve was used as performance measure. The default setting provided an AUC of 0.728. The modifications of the processing pipeline improved the AUC up to 0.832 (p = 0.046). Improvement of the AUC was confirmed in an independent validation sample of 241 ADNI MCI subjects (p = 0.048). The prognostic value of voxel-based single subject analysis of brain FDG PET in MCI subjects can be improved considerably by optimizing the processing pipeline.

  18. Obtaining Information from Family Caregivers Is Important to Detect Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms and Caregiver Burden in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment

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    Tetsuya Yamagami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objectives of this study are to clarify the differences between the difficulties in daily life experienced by patients with both mild cognitive impairment (MCI and chronic disease and those experienced by healthy elderly individuals. Methods: We assessed (a cognitive function; (b gait ability; (c behavioral and psychological symptoms (observed at home; (d activities of daily living (observed at home; (e family caregiver burden, and (f intention to continue family caregiving of 255 cognitively normal and 103 MCI subjects attending adult day care services covered by long-term care insurance, and compared the two groups. Results: Subjects with MCI display more behavioral and psychological symptoms than cognitively normal subjects, posing a heavy caregiver burden (p Conclusion: Information regarding the behavioral and psychological symptoms displayed at home by patients with MCI can only be obtained from family caregivers living with the patients. To provide early-stage support for elderly patients with MCI, adult day care workers should collect information from family caregivers regarding behavioral and psychological symptoms observed at home.

  19. Mice lacking Ras-GRF1 show contextual fear conditioning but not spatial memory impairments: convergent evidence from two independently generated mouse mutant lines

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    Raffaele ed'Isa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ras-GRF1 is a neuronal specific guanine exchange factor that, once activated by both ionotropic and metabotropic neurotransmitter receptors, can stimulate Ras proteins, leading to long-term phosphorylation of downstream signaling. The two available reports on the behavior of two independently generated Ras-GRF1 deficient mouse lines provide contrasting evidence on the role of Ras-GRF1 in spatial memory and contextual fear conditioning. These discrepancies may be due to the distinct alterations introduced in the mouse genome by gene targeting in the two lines that could differentially affect expression of nearby genes located in the imprinted region containing the Ras-grf1 locus. In order to determine the real contribution of Ras-GRF1 to spatial memory we compared in Morris Water Maze learning the Brambilla’s mice with a third mouse line (GENA53 in which a nonsense mutation was introduced in the Ras-GRF1 coding region without additional changes in the genome and we found that memory in this task is normal. Also, we measured both contextual and cued fear conditioning, which were previously reported to be affected in the Brambilla’s mice, and we confirmed that contextual learning but not cued conditioning is impaired in both mouse lines. In addition, we also tested both lines for the first time in conditioned place aversion in the Intellicage, an ecological and remotely controlled behavioral test, and we observed normal learning. Finally, based on previous reports of other mutant lines suggesting that Ras-GRF1 may control body weight, we also measured this non-cognitive phenotype and we confirmed that both Ras-GRF1 deficient mutants are smaller than their control littermates. In conclusion, we demonstrate that Ras-GRF1 has no unique role in spatial memory while its function in contextual fear conditioning is likely to be due not only to its involvement in amygdalar functions but possibly to some distinct hippocampal connections specific to

  20. High prevalence of impaired glucose homeostasis and myopathy in asymptomatic and oligosymptomatic 3243A>G mitochondrial DNA mutation-positive subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, A.L.; Jeppesen, T.D.; Vissing, J.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The point mutation of 3243A>G mtDNA is the most frequent cause of mitochondrial diabetes, often presenting as the syndrome maternally inherited diabetes and deafness (MIDD). The mutation may also cause myopathy, ataxia, strokes, ophthalmoplegia, epilepsy, and cardiomyopathy in vario...... correlated with the age for diagnosis of impaired glucose homeostasis and hearing impairment (rho = -0.71 to -0.78; P G mutation carriers should be screened for diabetes and myopathy Udgivelsesdato: 2009/8...... for the different phenotypes associated with this mutation. AIM: The aim of the study was to screen asymptomatic and oligosymptomatic 3243A>G mtDNA carriers for diabetes and myopathy. METHODS: The study is a case-control study. Nineteen adult 3243A>G carriers presumed to be normoglycemic and matched healthy...... controls were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test. Twenty-six adult 3243A>G carriers with unknown myopathy status and 17 healthy controls had a maximal cycle test and a muscle biopsy performed. The mutation loads were quantified in blood and muscle biopsies and correlated to the clinical...

  1. Subjective Cognitive Impairment Is a Predominantly Benign Condition in Memory Clinic Patients Followed for 6 Years: The Gothenburg-Oslo MCI Study

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    Erik Hessen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In the quest for prevention or treatment, there is a need to find early markers for preclinical dementia. This study observed memory clinic patients with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI and normal cognitive function at baseline. The primary aim was to address SCI as a potential risk factor for cognitive decline. The secondary aim was to address a potential relation between (1 baseline cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and (2 a decline in memory performance over the first 2 years of follow-up, with a possible cognitive decline after 6 years. Methods: Eighty-one patients (mean age 61 years were recruited from university memory clinics and followed up for 6 years. Results: Eighty-six percent of the cohort remained cognitively stable or improved, 9% developed mild cognitive impairment, and only 5% (n = 4 developed dementia. Regression analysis revealed that low levels of Aβ42 at baseline and memory decline during the first 2 years predicted dementia. When combined, these variables were associated with a 50% risk of developing dementia. Conclusions: Cognitive stability for 86% of the cohort suggests that SCI is predominantly a benign condition with regard to neuropathology. The low number of individuals who developed dementia limits the generalizability of the results and discussion of progression factors.

  2. Berufskrankheiten, die Schaffung am Subjekt und politische Arbeit im Talkshow-Format Occupational Hazards, Work on the Subject and Politics in Talk Show Format

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    Ruben Marc Hackler

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In ihrer Analyse der Sprecherpositionen, die subalternen Frauen in Indien zugestanden wird, formuliert Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak eine Kritik am fehlenden Verantwortungsbewusstsein westlicher Intellektueller. Zugleich entwickelt sie eine anspruchsvolle Vorgabe für die Untersuchung kolonialer Herrschaftspraktiken. Während die Forderung nach Verantwortung allerdings hinter dem eigenen Anspruch zurückbleibt, die institutionellen und historischen Bedingungen akademischer Arbeit zu berücksichtigen, birgt ihre Theorie des unterworfenen Subjektes ein großes Analysepotential. Das Gespräch zwischen Spivak und Judith Butler enttäuscht hingegen die Erwartungen an eine informierte politische Öffentlichkeit.In her analysis of those speaker-positions given to subaltern women in India, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak formulates a critique of the missing sense of responsibility found in western intellectuals. At the same time she develops an ambitious standard for the examination of colonial practices of dominance. While although her call for responsibility lags behind the individual necessity to take into account the institutional and historical requirements of academic work, her theory on the subordinate subject carries great analytical potential. Conversely, the conversation between Spivak and Judith Butler is disappointing and does not live up to the expectations of a politically informed public.

  3. Insulin resistance in non-obese subjects is associated with activation of the JNK pathway and impaired insulin signaling in skeletal muscle.

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    Umesh B Masharani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of insulin resistance in the absence of obesity is unknown. In obesity, multiple stress kinases have been identified that impair the insulin signaling pathway via serine phosphorylation of key second messenger proteins. These stress kinases are activated through various mechanisms related to lipid oversupply locally in insulin target tissues and in various adipose depots.To explore whether specific stress kinases that have been implicated in the insulin resistance of obesity are potentially contributing to insulin resistance in non-obese individuals, twenty healthy, non-obese, normoglycemic subjects identified as insulin sensitive or resistant were studied. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies obtained during euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp were evaluated for insulin signaling and for activation of stress kinase pathways. Total and regional adipose stores and intramyocellular lipids (IMCL were assessed by DXA, MRI and (1H-MRS. In muscle of resistant subjects, phosphorylation of JNK was increased (1.36±0.23 vs. 0.78±0.10 OD units, P<0.05, while there was no evidence for activation of p38 MAPK or IKKβ. IRS-1 serine phosphorylation was increased (1.30±0.09 vs. 0.22±0.03 OD units, P<0.005 while insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation decreased (10.97±0.95 vs. 0.89±0.50 OD units, P<0.005. IMCL levels were twice as high in insulin resistant subjects (3.26±0.48 vs. 1.58±0.35% H(2O peak, P<0.05, who also displayed increased total fat and abdominal fat when compared to insulin sensitive controls.This is the first report demonstrating that insulin resistance in non-obese, normoglycemic subjects is associated with activation of the JNK pathway related to increased IMCL and higher total body and abdominal adipose stores. While JNK activation is consistent with a primary impact of muscle lipid accumulation on metabolic stress, further work is necessary to determine the relative contributions of the various mediators of impaired

  4. Investigation of mean platelet volume in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and in subjects with impaired fasting glucose: a cost-effective tool in primary health care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozder, Aclan; Eker, Hasan Huseyin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare mean platelet volume (MPV) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), in subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), and in non-diabetic controls. A total of 201 adults with T2DM and 201 subjects with IFG from the Family Medicine out-patient clinic as well as 201 healthy controls were included in the study. We measured blood fasting glucose, complete blood count and LDL-cholesterol and compared the results between the groups enrolled. In the patients with diabetes and subjects with IFG, MPV was significantly higher (10.66 ± 0.94 fL and 10.49 ± 0.96 fL, respectively ) as compared to the non-diabetic group (10.04 ± 1.01 fL) (p = 0.000). Among the diabetic subjects, a positive statistical Pearson correlation was seen between MPV and HbA1c levels (r = 0.357; p = 0.000) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels (r = 0.306; p = 0.000). The mean MPV in patients having HbA1C < 7.5% was 10.17 ± 0.83 fL and significantly lower than that of patients with HbA1c ≥ 7.5% (10.80 ± 0.92 fL) (p = 0.001). MPV could be used as a simple and cost-effective tool to monitor the progression and control of T2DM and thereby in preventing vascular events in primary health care. PMID:25232423

  5. Kinetics of the Tau PET Tracer 18F-AV-1451 (T807) in Subjects with Normal Cognitive Function, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbinin, Sergey; Schwarz, Adam J; Joshi, Abhinay; Navitsky, Michael; Flitter, Matthew; Shankle, William R; Devous, Michael D; Mintun, Mark A

    2016-10-01

    We report kinetic modeling results of dynamic acquisition data from 0 to 100 min after injection with the tau PET tracer (18)F-AV-1451 in 19 subjects. Subjects were clinically diagnosed as 4 young cognitively normal, 5 old cognitively normal, 5 mild cognitive impairment, and 5 Alzheimer disease (AD). Kinetic modeling was performed using Logan graphical analysis with the cerebellum crus as a reference region. Voxelwise binding potential ([Formula: see text]) and SUV ratio ([Formula: see text]) images were compared. In AD subjects, slower and spatially nonuniform clearance from cortical regions was observed as compared with the controls, which led to focal uptake and elevated retention in the imaging data from 80 to 100 min after injection. BP from the dynamic data from 0 to 100 min correlated strongly (R(2) > 0.86) with corresponding regional [Formula: see text] values. In the putamen, the observed kinetics (positive [Formula: see text] at the tracer delivery stage and plateauing time-SUVR curves for all diagnostic categories) may suggest either additional off-target binding or a second binding site with different kinetics. The kinetics of the (18)F-AV-1451 tracer in cortical areas, as examined in this small group of subjects, differed by diagnostic stage. A delayed 80- to 100-min scan provided a reasonable substitute for a dynamic 0- to 100-min acquisition for cortical regions although other windows (e.g., 75-105 min) may be useful to evaluate. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  6. Automated 3D mapping of hippocampal atrophy and its clinical correlates in 400 subjects with Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment, and elderly controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morra, Jonathan H; Tu, Zhuowen; Apostolova, Liana G; Green, Amity E; Avedissian, Christina; Madsen, Sarah K; Parikshak, Neelroop; Hua, Xue; Toga, Arthur W; Jack, Clifford R; Schuff, Norbert; Weiner, Michael W; Thompson, Paul M

    2009-09-01

    We used a new method we developed for automated hippocampal segmentation, called the auto context model, to analyze brain MRI scans of 400 subjects from the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative. After training the classifier on 21 hand-labeled expert segmentations, we created binary maps of the hippocampus for three age- and sex-matched groups: 100 subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 200 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 100 elderly controls (mean age: 75.84; SD: 6.64). Hippocampal traces were converted to parametric surface meshes and a radial atrophy mapping technique was used to compute average surface models and local statistics of atrophy. Surface-based statistical maps visualized links between regional atrophy and diagnosis (MCI versus controls: P = 0.008; MCI versus AD: P = 0.001), mini-mental state exam (MMSE) scores, and global and sum-of-boxes clinical dementia rating scores (CDR; all P < 0.0001, corrected). Right but not left hippocampal atrophy was associated with geriatric depression scores (P = 0.004, corrected); hippocampal atrophy was not associated with subsequent decline in MMSE and CDR scores, educational level, ApoE genotype, systolic or diastolic blood pressure measures, or homocysteine. We gradually reduced sample sizes and used false discovery rate curves to examine the method's power to detect associations with diagnosis and cognition in smaller samples. Forty subjects were sufficient to discriminate AD from normal and correlate atrophy with CDR scores; 104, 200, and 304 subjects, respectively, were required to correlate MMSE with atrophy, to distinguish MCI from normal, and MCI from AD. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Effects of sugar-sweetened beverage intake on the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance: the Mihama diabetes prevention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshima, Nobuko; Shimo, Miho; Miyazawa, Kae; Konegawa, Sachi; Matsumoto, Aki; Onishi, Yuki; Sasaki, Ryoma; Suzuki, Toshinari; Yano, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Kazutaka; Yamada, Tomomi; Gabazza, Esteban Cesar; Takei, Yoshiyuki; Sumida, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing for several reasons, including increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). However, whether SSBs cause T2DM by excess of energy production resulting in obesity remains unclear. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the effects of SSB intake on the development of T2DM in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Ninety-three subjects (30 males and 63 females) with IGT aged 40-69 y and residing in the Mihama district (southern Mie Prefecture, Japan) were included in the study. The mean observational period was 3.6 y. All subjects underwent the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and completed a lifestyle questionnaire survey related to SSB intake. OGTT results and SSB intake were evaluated before and after the observational period. In addition, the correlation between SSB intake and development of T2DM was investigated. Of the 93 subjects, 20 (21.5%) developed T2DM (T2DM group) and demonstrated a significantly high SSB intake compared with the group that did not develop the disease (non-T2DM group). The odds ratio for the incidence of T2DM based on SSB intake was 3.26 (95% confidence interval, 1.17-9.06). The body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) and the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-R) values was significantly higher in the T2DM group than in the non-T2DM group, while the insulinogenic indices were significantly lower in the former than in the latter group. The sum of insulin secretion levels during OGTT was not significantly different between groups. SSB intake correlated with the predisposition for developing T2DM, possibly by influencing body weight, insulin resistance, and the ability of the pancreatic beta cells to effectively compensate for the insulin resistance.

  8. The rate of second electron transfer to QB(-) in bacterial reaction center of impaired proton delivery shows hydrogen-isotope effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maróti, Ágnes; Wraight, Colin A; Maróti, Péter

    2015-02-01

    The 2nd electron transfer in reaction center of photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides is a two step process in which protonation of QB(-) precedes interquinone electron transfer. The thermal activation and pH dependence of the overall rate constants of different RC variants were measured and compared in solvents of water (H2O) and heavy water (D2O). The electron transfer variants where the electron transfer is rate limiting (wild type and M17DN, L210DN and H173EQ mutants) do not show solvent isotope effect and the significant decrease of the rate constant of the second electron transfer in these mutants is due to lowering the operational pKa of QB(-)/QBH: 4.5 (native), 3.9 (L210DN), 3.7 (M17DN) and 3.1 (H173EQ) at pH7. On the other hand, the proton transfer variants where the proton transfer is rate limiting demonstrate solvent isotope effect of pH-independent moderate magnitude (2.11±0.26 (WT+Ni(2+)), 2.16±0.35 (WT+Cd(2+)) and 2.34±0.44 (L210DN/M17DN)) or pH-dependent large magnitude (5.7 at pH4 (L213DN)). Upon deuteration, the free energy and the enthalpy of activation increase in all proton transfer variants by about 1 kcal/mol and the entropy of activation becomes negligible in L210DN/M17DN mutant. The results are interpreted as manifestation of equilibrium and kinetic solvent isotope effects and the structural, energetic and kinetic possibility of alternate proton delivery pathways are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Disability, Physical Inactivity, and Impaired Health-Related Quality of Life Are Not Different in Metabolically Healthy vs. Unhealthy Obese Subjects

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    Lorenzo M. Donini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity represents a major health hazard, affecting morbidity, psychological status, physical functionality, quality of life, and mortality. The aim of the present study was to explore the differences between metabolically healthy (MHO and metabolically unhealthy (MUO obese subjects with regard to physical activity, disability, and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL. Methods: All subjects underwent a multidimensional evaluation, encompassing the assessment of body composition, metabolic biomarkers and inflammation, physical activity level (IPAQ questionnaire, disability (TSD-OC test, and HR-QoL (SF-36 questionnaire. MHO and MUO were defined based on the absence or the presence of the metabolic syndrome, respectively. Results: 253 subjects were included (54 men and 199 women; age: 51.7 ± 12.8 vs. 50.3 ± 11.7 years, p = 0.46; BMI: 38.1 ± 5.7 vs. 38.9 ± 6.7 kg/m2, p = 0.37. No significant difference was observed in body composition. There was no difference between MHO and MUO considering inflammation (hs-CRP: 6517.1 ± 11,409.9 vs. 5294.1 ± 5612.2 g/L; p = 0.37, physical inactivity (IPAQ score below 3000 METs-min/week in 77.6% of MHO vs. 80% of MUO subjects; p = 0.36, obesity-related disability (TSD-OC score > 33%, indicating a high level of obesity-related disability, in 20.2% of MHO vs. 26.5% of MUO subjects; p = 0.28, and the HR-QoL (SF-36 total score: 60 ± 20.8 vs. 62.8 ± 18.2, p = 0.27. Discussion and Conclusion: The metabolic comorbidity and the impairment of functional ability and psycho-social functioning may have a different timing in the natural history of obesity. Alterations in the physical activity level and mobility disabilities may precede the onset of metabolic abnormalities. (Trial registration 2369 prot 166/12—registered 23 February 2012; Amendment 223/14—registered 13 February 2014.

  10. Kanji and Kana agraphia in mild cognitive impairment and dementia: A trans-cultural comparison of elderly Japanese subjects living in Japan and Brazil

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    Kyoko Akanuma

    Full Text Available Abstract This study verifies the environmental effects on agraphia in mild cognitive impairment and dementia. We compared elderly Japanese subjects living in Japan and Brazil. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the database of the Prevalence Study 1998 in Tajiri (n=497, Miyagi, Japan and the Prevalence Study 1997 of elderly Japanese immigrants living in Brazil (n=166, migrated from Japan and living in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area. In three Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR groups, i.e., CDR 0 (healthy, CDR 0.5 (questionable dementia, and CDR 1+ (dementia , the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE item of spontaneous writing and the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI domain of dictation were analyzed with regard to the number of Kanji and Kana characters. Formal errors in characters and pragmatic errors were also analyzed. Results: The immigrants in Brazil wrote similar numbers of Kanji or Kana characters compared to the residents of Japan. In spontaneous writing, the formal Kanji errors were greater in the CDR 1+ group of immigrants. In writing from dictation, all the immigrant CDR groups made more formal errors in Kana than the Japan residents. No significant differences in pragmatic errors were detected between the two groups. Conclusions: Subjects living in Japan use Kanji frequently, and thus the form of written characters was simplified, which might be assessed as mild formal errors. In immigrants, the deterioration in Kanji and Kana writing was partly due to decreased daily usage of the characters. Lower levels of education of immigrants might also be related to the number of Kanji errors.

  11. A robot hand testbed designed for enhancing embodiment and functional neurorehabilitation of body schema in subjects with upper limb impairment or loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, Randall B; Chang, Eric; Tanner, Justin; Helms Tillery, Stephen I; Santos, Veronica J

    2015-01-01

    Many upper limb amputees experience an incessant, post-amputation "phantom limb pain" and report that their missing limbs feel paralyzed in an uncomfortable posture. One hypothesis is that efferent commands no longer generate expected afferent signals, such as proprioceptive feedback from changes in limb configuration, and that the mismatch of motor commands and visual feedback is interpreted as pain. Non-invasive therapeutic techniques for treating phantom limb pain, such as mirror visual feedback (MVF), rely on visualizations of postural changes. Advances in neural interfaces for artificial sensory feedback now make it possible to combine MVF with a high-tech "rubber hand" illusion, in which subjects develop a sense of embodiment with a fake hand when subjected to congruent visual and somatosensory feedback. We discuss clinical benefits that could arise from the confluence of known concepts such as MVF and the rubber hand illusion, and new technologies such as neural interfaces for sensory feedback and highly sensorized robot hand testbeds, such as the "BairClaw" presented here. Our multi-articulating, anthropomorphic robot testbed can be used to study proprioceptive and tactile sensory stimuli during physical finger-object interactions. Conceived for artificial grasp, manipulation, and haptic exploration, the BairClaw could also be used for future studies on the neurorehabilitation of somatosensory disorders due to upper limb impairment or loss. A remote actuation system enables the modular control of tendon-driven hands. The artificial proprioception system enables direct measurement of joint angles and tendon tensions while temperature, vibration, and skin deformation are provided by a multimodal tactile sensor. The provision of multimodal sensory feedback that is spatiotemporally consistent with commanded actions could lead to benefits such as reduced phantom limb pain, and increased prosthesis use due to improved functionality and reduced cognitive burden.

  12. Prevention of type 2 diabetes in a primary healthcare setting: Three-year results of lifestyle intervention in Japanese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance

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    Usui Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A randomized control trial was performed to test whether a lifestyle intervention program, carried out in a primary healthcare setting using existing resources, can reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes in Japanese with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT. The results of 3 years' intervention are summarized. Methods Through health checkups in communities and workplaces, 304 middle-aged IGT subjects with a mean body mass index (BMI of 24.5 kg/m2 were recruited and randomized to the intervention group or control group. The lifestyle intervention was carried out for 3 years by public health nurses using the curriculum and educational materials provided by the study group. Results After 1 year, the intervention had significantly improved body weight (-1.5 ± 0.7 vs. -0.7 ± 2.5 kg in the control; p = 0.023 and daily non-exercise leisure time energy expenditure (25 ± 113 vs. -3 ± 98 kcal; p = 0.045. Insulin sensitivity assessed by the Matsuda index was improved by the intervention during the 3 years. The 3-year cumulative incidence tended to be lower in the intervention group (14.8% vs.8.2%, log-rank test: p = 0.097. In a sub-analysis for the subjects with a BMI > 22.5 kg/m2, a significant reduction in the cumulative incidence was found (p = 0.027. Conclusions The present lifestyle intervention program using existing healthcare resources is beneficial in preventing diabetes in Japanese with IGT. This has important implications for primary healthcare-based diabetes prevention. Trial registration number UMIN000003136

  13. A robot hand testbed designed for enhancing embodiment and functional neurorehabilitation of body schema in subjects with upper limb impairment or loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall B. Hellman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Many upper limb amputees experience an incessant, post-amputation phantom limb pain and report that their missing limbs feel paralyzed in an uncomfortable posture. One hypothesis is that efferent commands no longer generate expected afferent signals, such as proprioceptive feedback from changes in limb configuration, and that the mismatch of motor commands and visual feedback is interpreted as pain. Non-invasive therapeutic techniques for treating phantom limb pain, such as mirror visual feedback (MVF, rely on visualizations of postural changes. Advances in neural interfaces for artificial sensory feedback now make it possible to combine MVF with a high-tech rubber hand illusion, in which subjects develop a sense of embodiment with a fake hand when subjected to congruent visual and somatosensory feedback. We discuss clinical benefits that could arise from the confluence of known concepts such as MVF and the rubber hand illusion, and new technologies such as neural interfaces for sensory feedback and highly sensorized robot hand testbeds, such as the BairClaw presented here. Our multi-articulating, anthropomorphic robot testbed can be used to study proprioceptive and tactile sensory stimuli during physical finger-object interactions. Conceived for artificial grasp, manipulation, and haptic exploration, the BairClaw could also be used for future studies on the neurorehabilitation of somatosensory disorders due to upper limb impairment or loss. A remote actuation system enables the modular control of tendon-driven hands. The artificial proprioception system enables direct measurement of joint angles and tendon tensions while temperature, vibration, and skin deformation are provided by a multimodal tactile sensor. The provision of multimodal sensory feedback that is spatiotemporally consistent with commanded actions could lead to benefits such as reduced phantom limb pain, and increased prosthesis use due to improved functionality and reduced

  14. Effect of colesevelam and niacin on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and glycemic control in subjects with dyslipidemia and impaired fasting glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Michael H; Rooney, Michael; Pollock, Elisabeth; Drucker, Joan; Choy, Young

    2013-01-01

    Niacin monotherapy in patients with dyslipidemia and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) may result in hyperglycemia. Colesevelam has the unique dual approvals to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and to improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of combined colesevelam and niacin treatment on LDL-C-lowering and glycemic control in subjects with IFG and dyslipidemia. Men or women ≥ 18 years of age, with dyslipidemia (non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥ 100 mg/dL and ≤ 220 mg/dL; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol niacin titration (n = 70) or placebo with niacin titration (n = 70) over 12 weeks. Niacin was titrated from 500 mg/d up to a maximum of 2000 mg/d as tolerated, and all subjects took enteric-coated aspirin daily. Lipid and glycemic efficacy parameters were assessed as well as safety evaluations of adverse events, vital signs, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, hematology, and urinalysis. Adjunct colesevelam had significantly greater LDL-C-lowering effect than niacin alone (placebo); -20.67% vs -12.86%, respectively (P = .0088). Niacin-mediated increases in FPG were significantly less with adjunct colesevelam (1.8 mg/dL vs 6.7 mg/dL; P = .0046), and fewer colesevelam subjects had increases of ≥ 10 mg/dL in FPG (8 vs 17, respectively). Adjunct colesevelam resulted in significantly smaller increases in hemoglobin A1c than placebo (0.06% vs 0.18%, respectively; P = .005). Consistent with hemoglobin A1c and FPG changes, fructosamine levels significantly decreased with colesevelam treatment (-5.0 μmol/L) but increased with placebo (3.0 μmol/L; P =.0255). Colesevelam as an adjunct to niacin therapy further lowers LDL-C while obviating the adverse effects of niacin on glucose metabolism in patients with dyslipidemia and IFG. Copyright © 2013 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Tradução e validação do Walking Impairment Questionnaire em brasileiros com claudicação intermitente Traducción y validación del Walking Impairment Questionnaire en brasileños con claudicación intermitente Translation and validation of the walking impairment questionnaire in Brazilian subjects with intermittent claudication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Mendes Ritti-Dias

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O Walking Impairment Questionnaire (WIQ tem sido utilizado para a obtenção de informações sobre a percepção de locomoção dos indivíduos com claudicação intermitente (CI. Entretanto, esse questionário ainda não foi traduzido para o idioma português, o que limita sua utilização em amostra brasileira. OBJETIVO: Traduzir e verificar a validade e reprodutibilidade do WIQ em brasileiros com CI. MÉTODOS: Participaram deste estudo 42 indivíduos com CI, diagnosticados pelo índice tornozelo-braço FUNDAMENTO: El Walking Impairment Questionnaire (WIQ se utiliza para la obtención de informaciones sobre la percepción de locomoción de los individuos con claudicación intermitente (CI. No obstante, este cuestionario aún no ha sido traducido al portugués, lo que limita su utilización en muestra brasileña. OBJETIVO: Traducir y verificar la validez y reproducibilidad del WIQ en brasileños con CI. MÉTODOS: Participaron en este estudio 42 individuos con CI, diagnosticados por el índice tobillo-brazo BACKGROUND: The Walking Impairment Questionnaire (WIQ has been used to evaluate walking impairment in subjects with intermittent claudication (IC. However, this questionnaire has yet to be translated to Brazilian Portuguese, which limits its use in Brazilian subjects. OBJECTIVE: To translate and analyze the validity and reliability of WIQ in Brazilian subjects with IC. METHODS: Forty-two patients with IC, determined by the ankle-brachial index < 0.90, participated in the study. After translation and re-translation, carried out by two independent translators, the construct validity of the WIQ was analyzed by correlating the WIQ scores with the Medical Outcome Study Questionnaire Short Form 36 (SF-36 scores and the physical fitness performance (treadmill and strength tests. The reliability was analyzed with a 7-day interval between two questionnaire applications. RESULTS: Significant correlations between the WIQ domains and the SF

  16. Mice haploinsufficient for Map2k7, a gene involved in neurodevelopment and risk for schizophrenia, show impaired attention, a vigilance decrement deficit and unstable cognitive processing in an attentional task: impact of minocycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Openshaw, R L; Thomson, D M; Penninger, J M; Pratt, J A; Morris, B J

    2017-01-01

    Members of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) family of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, and the upstream kinase MKK7, have all been strongly linked with synaptic plasticity and with the development of the neocortex. However, the impact of disruption of this pathway on cognitive function is unclear. In the current study, we test the hypothesis that reduced MKK7 expression is sufficient to cause cognitive impairment. Attentional function in mice haploinsufficient for Map2k7 (Map2k7 +/- mice) was investigated using the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT). Once stable performance had been achieved, Map2k7 +/- mice showed a distinctive attentional deficit, in the form of an increased number of missed responses, accompanied by a more pronounced decrement in performance over time and elevated intra-individual reaction time variability. When performance was reassessed after administration of minocycline-a tetracycline antibiotic currently showing promise for the improvement of attentional deficits in patients with schizophrenia-signs of improvement in attentional performance were detected. Overall, Map2k7 haploinsufficiency causes a distinctive pattern of cognitive impairment strongly suggestive of an inability to sustain attention, in accordance with those seen in psychiatric patients carrying out similar tasks. This may be important for understanding the mechanisms of cognitive dysfunction in clinical populations and highlights the possibility of treating some of these deficits with minocycline.

  17. Long-term test-retest reliability of resting-state networks in healthy elderly subjects and with amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blautzik, Janusch; Keeser, Daniel; Berman, Albert; Paolini, Marco; Kirsch, Valerie; Mueller, Sophia; Coates, Ute; Reiser, Maximilian; Teipel, Stefan J; Meindl, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of cerebral resting-state networks (RSNs) by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a promising tool for the early diagnosis and follow-up of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this context, the determination of inter-session reliability of these networks is crucial. However, data on network reliability in healthy elderly subjects is rare and does not exist for patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), a prodromal stage of AD. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the long-term test-retest reliability of RSNs in both groups. Twelve healthy controls (HC) and 13 aMCI patients underwent resting-state fMRI and neuropsychological testing (CERAD test battery) twice, at baseline and after 13-16 months. Resting-state fMRI data was decomposed into independent components using independent component analysis. Inter-session test-retest reliability of the resulting RSNs was determined by calculating voxel-wise intra-class correlation coefficients. Overall test-retest reliability of corresponding RSNs was moderate to high in both groups, but significantly higher in the HC group compared to the aMCI group (p < 0.001), while the cognitive performance within the CERAD test battery remained stable over time in either group. Most reliable RSNs derived from the HC group and were associated with sensory and motor as well as higher order cognitive and the default-mode function. Particularly low reliability was found in basal frontal regions, which are known to be prone to susceptibility-induced noise. We conclude that stable RSNs may represent healthy aging, whereas decreased RSN reliability may indicate progressive neuro-functional alterations before the actual manifestation of clinical symptoms.

  18. A Six-Month Supplementation of Mulberry, Korean Red Ginseng, and Banaba Decreases Biomarkers of Systemic Low-Grade Inflammation in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-J. Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We sought the long-term efficacy of traditionally used antidiabetic herbs in controlling blood glucose homeostasis and low-grade inflammation. Ninety-four subjects with either impaired glucose tolerance or mild T2D were randomized either to treatment arm or placebo arm and received 1 : 1 : 1 mixture of ginseng roots, mulberry leaf water extract, and banaba leaf water extract (6 g/d for 24 weeks. Oral 75 g glucose tolerance test was performed to measure glucose and insulin responses. Blood biomarkers of low-grade inflammation were also determined. Results found no significant difference in glucose homeostasis control measure changes. However, plasma intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 concentration was decreased showing a significant between-treatment changes (P=0.037. The concentrations of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 (P=0.014 and ICAM-1 (P=0.048 were decreased in the treatment group at week 24, and the oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL concentration was reduced at week 24 compared to the baseline value in the treatment group (P=0.003. These results indicate a long-term supplementation of ginseng, mulberry leaf, and banaba leaf suppresses inflammatory responses in T2D.

  19. Impaired fasting glucose as an independent risk factor for hypertension among healthy middle-aged Japanese subjects with optimal blood pressure: the Yuport Medical Checkup Centre retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morio, Masaaki; Inoue, Machiko; Inoue, Kazuo; Akimoto, Kimihiko

    2013-12-20

    This study aimed at investigating whether impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is an independent risk factor for incident hypertension among middle-aged Japanese subjects with optimal blood pressure (OBP). This retrospective cohort study was conducted in 2943 non-diabetic and non-hypertensive subjects aged 40-64 years, who participated in a voluntary health check-up program during the baseline (1998-2002) and follow-up periods (2002-2006). A multiple logistic regression model was utilized to calculate the odds ratio (OR) of incident hypertension among men and women with IFG and OBP. OBP was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) <120 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) <80 mmHg, with no known history of hypertension. In this study, hypertension was defined as SBP ≥140 mmHg and DBP ≥90 mmHg or by a self-reported clinical diagnosis of hypertension. After the mean follow-up period of 5.6 years, the incidence of hypertension in men and women was 5.7% (73/1270) and 3.8% (62/1673), respectively. The age-adjusted ORs for incident hypertension in men and women with IFG were 1.95 (95% CI, 1.21-3.15) and 3.54 (95% CI, 2.00-6.27), respectively. After adjusting for age, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and uric acid, the ORs for hypertension were 1.66 (95% CI; 1.02-2.70) for men and 2.62 (95% CI, 1.45-4.73) for women. The study results show that IFG may act as an independent risk factor for developing hypertension in individuals with OBP.

  20. Reduced glucose tolerance and insulin resistance induced by steroid treatment, relative physical inactivity, and high-calorie diet impairs the incretin effect in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K B; Vilsbøll, T; Bagger, J I

    2010-01-01

    The loss of incretin effect in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus may be secondary to impaired glucose homeostasis. We investigated whether reduced glucose tolerance and insulin resistance induced by steroid treatment, relative physical inactivity, and high-calorie diet in healthy young males...

  1. Minimal Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic and Drug-Drug-Disease Interaction Model of Rivaroxaban and Verapamil in Healthy and Renally Impaired Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Mohamed; Lee, Vincent H; Chow, Christina R; Rubino, Christopher M

    2017-12-14

    Current dosing recommendations for rivaroxaban advocate dosage reduction in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment and avoidance of concomitant strong inhibitors of CYP3A or P-glycoprotein. However, rivaroxaban dosing in patients with mild renal impairment taking concomitant moderate inhibitors of CYP3A and P-glycoprotein is not addressed. To quantify the impacts of concomitant verapamil administration and renal impairment on rivaroxaban pharmacokinetics, a minimal physiologically based pharmacokinetic model system was developed and used to evaluate potential increases in rivaroxaban exposure and the consequent increase in risk of major bleeding. Data from a phase 1, drug-drug interaction study were used to qualify the minimal physiologically based pharmacokinetic model system. Model-based simulations indicate that coadministration of rivaroxaban with verapamil substantially increases rivaroxaban exposure across all renal function categories, resulting in an exponential increase in bleeding risk. Reduction of the daily rivaroxaban dose to 10 to 15 mg reduces the major bleeding risk below the designated 4.5% threshold in the majority of patients with normal or mildly impaired renal function. A reduction to 10 mg daily in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment provides additional risk reduction so that 90% of those patients fall below the 4.5% threshold. A risk threshold of 4.5% was selected because it is the median predicted risk in patients treated concomitantly with ketoconazole, which is contraindicated for use with rivaroxaban. Patients taking both rivaroxaban and verapamil should take a reduced daily dose of rivaroxaban to minimize bleeding risk. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  2. Inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1/2 prevented cognitive impairment and energetic metabolism changes in the hippocampus of adult rats subjected to polymicrobial sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comim, Clarissa M; Freiberger, Viviane; Ventura, Letícia; Mina, Francielle; Ferreira, Gabriela K; Michels, Monique; Generoso, Jaqueline S; Streck, Emílio L; Quevedo, João; Barichello, Tatiana; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe

    2017-04-15

    Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection that may affect the brain. We investigated the role of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO-1/2) inhibition on long-term memory and energetic metabolism after experimental sepsis by caecal ligation and perforation (CLP). Experimental sepsis increased the activity of complexes I, II-III and IV at 24h after CLP, and IDO-1/2 inhibition normalized the activity of these complexes in the hippocampus. Wistar rats presented impairment of habituation and aversive memories 10days after CLP. Adjuvant treatment with the IDO inhibitor prevented long-term cognitive impairment triggered by sepsis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Combined MRI and ³¹P-MRS investigations of the ACTA1(H40Y mouse model of nemaline myopathy show impaired muscle function and altered energy metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Gineste

    Full Text Available Nemaline myopathy (NM is the most common disease entity among non-dystrophic skeletal muscle congenital diseases. Mutations in the skeletal muscle α-actin gene (ACTA1 account for ∼25% of all NM cases and are the most frequent cause of severe forms of NM. So far, the mechanisms underlying muscle weakness in NM patients remain unclear. Additionally, recent Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI studies reported a progressive fatty infiltration of skeletal muscle with a specific muscle involvement in patients with ACTA1 mutations. We investigated strictly noninvasively the gastrocnemius muscle function of a mouse model carrying a mutation in the ACTA1 gene (H40Y. Skeletal muscle anatomy (hindlimb muscles and fat volumes and energy metabolism were studied using MRI and (31Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Skeletal muscle contractile performance was investigated while applying a force-frequency protocol (from 1-150 Hz and a fatigue protocol (80 stimuli at 40 Hz. H40Y mice showed a reduction of both absolute (-40% and specific (-25% maximal force production as compared to controls. Interestingly, muscle weakness was associated with an improved resistance to fatigue (+40% and an increased energy cost. On the contrary, the force frequency relationship was not modified in H40Y mice and the extent of fatty infiltration was minor and not different from the WT group. We concluded that the H40Y mouse model does not reproduce human MRI findings but shows a severe muscle weakness which might be related to an alteration of intrinsic muscular properties. The increased energy cost in H40Y mice might be related to either an impaired mitochondrial function or an alteration at the cross-bridges level. Overall, we provided a unique set of anatomic, metabolic and functional biomarkers that might be relevant for monitoring the progression of NM disease but also for assessing the efficacy of potential therapeutic interventions at a preclinical level.

  4. Impaired TCA cycle flux in mitochondria in skeletal muscle from type 2 diabetic subjects: marker or maker of the diabetic phenotype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaster, Michael; Nehlin, Jan O; Minet, Ariane D

    2012-07-01

    The diabetic phenotype is complex, requiring elucidation of key initiating defects. Recent research has shown that diabetic myotubes express a primary reduced tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux. A reduced TCA cycle flux has also been shown both in insulin resistant offspring of T2D patients and exercising T2D patients in vivo. This review will discuss the latest advances in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating the TCA cycle with focus on possible underlying mechanism which could explain the impaired TCA flux in insulin resistant human skeletal muscle in type 2 diabetes. A reduced TCA is both a marker and a maker of the diabetic phenotype.

  5. Benefits in cognitive function, blood pressure, and insulin resistance through cocoa flavanol consumption in elderly subjects with mild cognitive impairment: the Cocoa, Cognition, and Aging (CoCoA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desideri, Giovambattista; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Grassi, Davide; Necozione, Stefano; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo; Mastroiacovo, Daniela; Raffaele, Angelo; Ferri, Livia; Bocale, Raffaella; Lechiara, Maria Carmela; Marini, Carmine; Ferri, Claudio

    2012-09-01

    Flavanol consumption is favorably associated with cognitive function. We tested the hypothesis that dietary flavanols might improve cognitive function in subjects with mild cognitive impairment. We conducted a double-blind, parallel arm study in 90 elderly individuals with mild cognitive impairment randomized to consume once daily for 8 weeks a drink containing ≈990 mg (high flavanols), ≈520 mg (intermediate flavanols), or ≈45 mg (low flavanols) of cocoa flavanols per day. Cognitive function was assessed by Mini Mental State Examination, Trail Making Test A and B, and verbal fluency test. At the end of the follow-up period, Mini Mental State Examination was similar in the 3 treatment groups (P=0.13). The time required to complete Trail Making Test A and Trail Making Test B was significantly (Pflavanols (38.10±10.94 and 104.10±28.73 seconds, respectively) and intermediate flavanols (40.20±11.35 and 115.97±28.35 seconds, respectively) in comparison with those assigned to low flavanols (52.60±17.97 and 139.23±43.02 seconds, respectively). Similarly, verbal fluency test score was significantly (Pflavanols in comparison with those assigned to low flavanols (27.50±6.75 versus 22.30±8.09 words per 60 seconds). Insulin resistance, blood pressure, and lipid peroxidation also decreased among subjects in the high-flavanol and intermediate-flavanol groups. Changes of insulin resistance explained ≈40% of composite z score variability through the study period (partial r(2)=0.4013; Pflavanols might be effective in improving cognitive function in elderly subjects with mild cognitive impairment. This effect appears mediated in part by an improvement in insulin sensitivity.

  6. Bone structure in two adult subjects with impaired minor spliceosome function resulting from RNU4ATAC mutations causing microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type 1 (MOPD1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigård, Anne Bruun; Frost, Morten; Larsen, Martin Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type 1 (MOPD1), or Taybi-Linder syndrome is characterized by distinctive skeletal dysplasia, severe intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, microcephaly, dysmorphic features, and neurological malformations. It is an autosomal recessive...... disorder caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the RNU4ATAC gene resulting in impaired function of the minor spliceosome.Here, we present the first report on bone morphology, bone density and bone microstructure in two adult MOPD1 patients and applied radiographs, dual energy X......, cortical thickness, total bone density, cortical bone density, trabecular bone density and trabecular bone volume per tissue volume (BV/TV) were all low. These findings may correlate to the short stature and low body weight of the MOPD1 patients. Our findings suggest that minor spliceosome malfunction may...

  7. Lifestyle intervention and adipokine levels in subjects at high risk for type 2 diabetes: the study on lifestyle intervention and impaired glucose tolerance Maastricht (SLIM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corpeleijn, E.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Jansen, E.H.; Mensink, M.R.; Saris, W.H.M.; Blaak, E.E.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE¿We investigated whether circulating adipokine concentrations can be altered by lifestyle intervention according to general recommendations in subjects at risk for diabetes as well as the potential of leptin, adiponectin, and resistin as biomarkers for lifestyle-induced improvements in

  8. Renal response to graded intravenous hypertonic NaCl infusion in healthy and hypertensive subjects:dose-related impairment in distal NaCl reabsorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radó, J.P.; Juhos, E.; Dorhout Mees, E.J.

    The effects of graded acute intravenous hypertonic NaCl loads on the baseline relationship between osmolal clearance and free water reabsorption established during high NaCl dietary intake and on the fractional excretion of various ions were investigated in 15 healthy subjects and in 12 “normal

  9. Pre-diagnostic genotyping identifies T1D subjects with impaired Treg IL-2 signaling and an elevated proportion of FOXP3+IL-17+cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, A K; Panagiotopoulos, C; Biggs, C M; Staiger, S; Del Bel, K L; Hirschfeld, A F; Priatel, J J; Turvey, S E; Tan, R

    2017-01-01

    T-regulatory cells (Tregs) are essential for immune tolerance, and animal studies implicate their dysfunction in type 1 diabetes (T1D) pathogenesis. Tregs require interleukin-2 (IL-2) for their suppressive function, and variants in IL-2/IL-2R pathway genes have been associated with T1D. We previously reported that recent-onset T1D subjects have an increased population of FOXP3 lo Tregs that secrete the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-17 (IL-17). We hypothesize that IL-2 signaling defects may drive T1D development by skewing protective Tregs towards an inflammatory Th17 phenotype. Overall, we found that the proportion of FOXP3 + IL-17 + cells in T1D subjects pre-diagnosis was unchanged compared with healthy controls. However, stratification by IL2RA single-nucleotide polymorphisms revealed that T1D subjects with the rs3118470 CC risk variant have Tregs with IL-2 signaling defects and an increased proportion of FOXP3 + IL-17 + cells before diagnosis. These data suggest a potential mechanism for genetically controlled loss of Treg function via dysfunctional IL-2 signaling in T1D.

  10. Evaluation of the single radiosensitivity in patients subjected to medical exposure that show severe skin reactions; Evaluacion de la radiosensibilidad individual en pacientes sometidos a exposiciones medicas que manifiestan reacciones cutaneas severas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M.B. [Laboratorio de Dosimetria Biologica, Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Del Libertador 8250 (C1429BNP), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Portas, M. [Hospital de Quemados del Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Perez, M.R. [Laboratorio de Radiopatologia, Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. e-mail: mdigiorg@cae.arn.gov.ar

    2006-07-01

    The Burnt Hospital of the Buenos Aires City Government (HQGCBA) it is a hospital of reference of the Net of Medical Responses in Radiological Emergencies of the Argentine Republic. In the mark of an agreement among the HQGCBA and the Authority Regulatory Nuclear (ARN), it is in execution a study protocol for the one boarding diagnoses and therapeutic of radioinduced cutaneous leisure. They exist individual variations that can condition the response to the ionizing radiations (IR), so much in accidental exposures as having programmed (radiotherapy, radiology interventionist). In this context, the individual radiosensitivity is evaluated in the patients signed up in this protocol that presented sharp or late cutaneous reactions, with grades of severity 3-4 (approaches EORTC/RTOG). The capacity of repair of the DNA was evaluated in outlying blood lymphocytes irradiated in vitro (2 Gy, gamma of Co-60) by means of the micronucleus techniques and comet essay in alkaline conditions. In this work two cases in those that is applied this study protocol, the therapeutic answer and its correlate with the discoveries of the radiosensitivity tests is presented. Case 1: patient of feminine sex, subjected to external radiotherapy by a breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma; developed sharp cutaneous radiotoxicity grade 3 (confluent humid epithelitis) that motivate the interruption of the treatment. Case 2: patient of masculine sex, subjected to a coronary angioplasty (interventionist radiology); developed late cutaneous radiotoxicity grade 4 (ulceration in dorsal region). Both patients were treated with topical trolamine associated to systemic administration of pentoxiphiline and antioxidants. The therapeutic answer is evaluated by means of clinical pursuit, photographic serial register and complementary exams (thermography and ultrasonography of high frequency). In the case 1 the answer was very favorable, with precocious local improvement and complete remission of symptoms and

  11. Effects of the dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitor vildagliptin on incretin hormones, islet function, and postprandial glycemia in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstock, Julio; Foley, James E; Rendell, Marc

    2008-01-01

    comparing vildagliptin (50 mg q.d.) and placebo was conducted in 179 subjects with IGT (2-h glucose 9.1 mmol/l, A1C 5.9%). Plasma levels of intact glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon were measured during standard meal tests...... performed at baseline and at week 12. Insulin secretory rate (ISR) was estimated by C-peptide deconvolution. The between-group differences (vildagliptin - placebo) in the adjusted mean changes from baseline to end point in the total and incremental (Delta) area under the curve (AUC)(0-2 h...

  12. Differences in metabolic parameters and cardiovascular risk between American Diabetes Association and World Health Organization definition of impaired fasting glucose in European Caucasian subjects: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippatos, Theodosios D; Rizos, Evangelos C; Gazi, Irene F; Lagos, Konstantinos; Agouridis, Dimitrios; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Elisaf, Moses S

    2013-10-31

    The American Diabetes Association (ADA) defines impaired fasting glucose (IFG) as fasting plasma glucose concentration of 100-125 mg/dl, whereas the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) define IFG as fasting plasma glucose levels of 110-125 mg/dl. We identified differences in metabolic parameters and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk according to the ADA or WHO/IDF definition of IFG. Healthy drug-naive Caucasian (Greek) subjects (n = 396; age 55 ±12 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and uric acid levels were higher in the subjects with glucose 100-109 mg/dl compared with those with glucose definition recognized subjects with significantly increased 10-year CVD risk estimation (SCORE risk calculation) compared with their respective controls (5.4% (IQR = 0.9-7.3) vs. 4.1% (IQR = 0.7-5.8), p = 0.002). The ADA IFG definition recognized more subjects with significantly increased CVD risk (SCORE model) compared with the WHO/IDF definition.

  13. Genetic polymorphism of glucokinase on the risk of type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose regulation: evidence based on 298,468 subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Fu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glucokinase (GCK is the key glucose phosphorylation enzyme which has attracted considerable attention as a candidate gene for type 2 diabetes (T2D based on its enzyme function as the first rate-limiting step in the glycolysis pathway and regulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In the past decade, the relationship between GCK and T2D has been reported in various ethnic groups. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship and the effect of factors that might modify the risk, we performed this meta-analysis. METHODS: Databases including Pubmed, EMBASE, Web of Science and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI were searched to find relevant studies. Odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to assess the strength of association. RESULTS: A total of 24 articles involving 88,229 cases and 210,239 controls were included. An overall random-effects per-allele OR of 1.06 (95% CI: 1.03-1.09; PA polymorphism. Significant results were also observed using dominant or recessive genetic models. In the subgroup analyses by ethnicity, significant results were found in Caucasians; whereas no significant associations were found among Asians. In addition, we found that the -30G>A polymorphism is a risk factor associated with increased impaired glucose regulation susceptibility. Besides, -30G>A homozygous was found to be significantly associated with increased fasting plasma glucose level with weighted mean difference (WMD of 0.15 (95%: 0.05-0.24, P = 0.001 compared with G/G genotype. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis demonstrated that the -30G>A polymorphism of GCK is a risk factor associated with increased T2D susceptibility, but these associations vary in different ethnic populations.

  14. The Implicit Function as Squashing Time Model: A Novel Parallel Nonlinear EEG Analysis Technique Distinguishing Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease Subjects with High Degree of Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Buscema

    2007-01-01

    (2007, this protocol includes a new type of artificial organism, named TWIST. The working hypothesis was that compared to the results presented by the workgroup (2007; the new artificial organism TWIST could produce a better classification between AD and MCI. Material and methods. Resting eyes-closed EEG data were recorded in 180 AD patients and in 115 MCI subjects. The data inputs for the classification, instead of being the EEG data, were the weights of the connections within a nonlinear autoassociative ANN trained to generate the recorded data. The most relevant features were selected and coincidently the datasets were split in the two halves for the final binary classification (training and testing performed by a supervised ANN. Results. The best results distinguishing between AD and MCI were equal to 94.10% and they are considerable better than the ones reported in our previous study (∼92% (2007. Conclusion. The results confirm the working hypothesis that a correct automatic classification of MCI and AD subjects can be obtained by extracting spatial information content of the resting EEG voltage by ANNs and represent the basis for research aimed at integrating spatial and temporal information content of the EEG.

  15. High prevalence of impaired glucose homeostasis and myopathy in asymptomatic and oligosymptomatic 3243A>G mitochondrial DNA mutation-positive subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anja Lisbeth; Jeppesen, Tina Dysgaard; Vissing, John

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The point mutation of 3243A>G mtDNA is the most frequent cause of mitochondrial diabetes, often presenting as the syndrome maternally inherited diabetes and deafness (MIDD). The mutation may also cause myopathy, ataxia, strokes, ophthalmoplegia, epilepsy, and cardiomyopathy in various...... combinations. Consequently, it is difficult to predict the "phenotypic risk profile" of 3243A>G mutation-positive subjects. The 3243A>G mutation coexists in cells with wild-type mtDNA, a phenomenon called heteroplasmy. The marked variability in mutation loads in different tissues is the main explanation...... for the different phenotypes associated with this mutation. AIM: The aim of the study was to screen asymptomatic and oligosymptomatic 3243A>G mtDNA carriers for diabetes and myopathy. METHODS: The study is a case-control study. Nineteen adult 3243A>G carriers presumed to be normoglycemic and matched healthy...

  16. Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Visual Impairment KidsHealth / For Teens / Visual Impairment What's in ... with the brain, making vision impossible. What Is Visual Impairment? Many people have some type of visual ...

  17. Do you hear the noise? The German matrix sentence test with a fixed noise level in subjects with normal hearing and hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardenga, Nina; Batsoulis, Cornelia; Wagener, Kirsten C; Brand, Thomas; Lenarz, Thomas; Maier, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between hearing loss and speech reception threshold (SRT) in a fixed noise condition using the German Oldenburg sentence test (OLSA). After training with two easily-audible lists of the OLSA, SRTs were determined monaurally with headphones at a fixed noise level of 65 dB SPL using a standard adaptive procedure, converging to 50% speech intelligibility. Data was obtained from 315 ears of 177 subjects with hearing losses ranging from -5 to 90 dB HL pure-tone average (PTA, 0.5, 1, 2, 3 kHz). Two domains were identified with a linear dependence of SRT on PTA. The SRT increased with a slope of 0.094 ± 0.006 dB SNR/dB HL (standard deviation (SD) of residuals = 1.17 dB) for PTAs hearing losses. With 65 dB SPL fixed noise presentation level the SRT is determined by listening in noise for PTAs < ∼47 dB HL, and above it is determined by listening in quiet.

  18. Anticholinergic drugs and functional, cognitive impairment and behavioral disturbances in patients from a memory clinic with subjective cognitive decline or neurocognitive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauphinot, Virginie; Mouchoux, Christelle; Veillard, Sébastien; Delphin-Combe, Floriane; Krolak-Salmon, Pierre

    2017-08-01

    Drugs with anticholinergic properties may be associated with various adverse clinical effects. The relationship between the anticholinergic (AC) burden and functional, global cognitive performance and behavior disturbances was assessed among elderly patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2012 and June 2014 in a memory clinic among outpatients living at home and with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) or neurocognitive disorders (NCD). The AC burden was measured using the Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS), the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), the Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden (ACB), Chew's score, Han's score, and the number of drugs with AC activity. Functional, cognitive performance and behavior disturbances were assessed using the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scale (IADL), the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). Among 473 included patients, 46.3% were at major NCD. Patients took on average 5.3 ± 2.6 drugs. MMSE was lower when Han's score (p = 0.04) and number of AC drugs were higher (p drugs were higher. After adjustment, all AC scores remained associated with IADL, while Han's score and number of drugs with AC remained associated with the MMSE. In patients with SCD or NCD, AC burden is associated with lower functional score, whereas the cross-sectional association between AC burden and cognitive performance or behavioral disturbance varies according to AC scores. Particular attention should be paid when prescribing drugs with AC properties, especially among patients with memory complaints.

  19. Indium-labelled human gut-derived T cells from healthy subjects with strong in vitro adhesion to MAdCAM-1 show no detectable homing to the gut in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer, Johanne Lade

    2004-01-01

    assay. We studied the homing pattern after autologous infusion of 3 x 10(8 111)Indium ((111)In)-labelled T cells in five healthy subjects using scintigraphic imaging. The cultured CD4(+)CD45RO(+) gut-derived T cells express higher levels of integrin alpha4beta 7 than peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs...

  20. Metacognitions are associated with subjective memory problems in patients with chronic fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Børsting Jacobsen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Subjective cognitive impairments are frequent, but poorly understood in patients with chronic fatigue. We hypothesized that maladaptive metacognitive beliefs at baseline were associated with baseline subjective cognitive impairments, that they predict subjective cognitive impairments at treatment termination, and that a reduction in maladaptive metacognitive beliefs was associated with less subjective cognitive impairments at treatment termination, independent of changes in fatigue, pain, insomnia, depression, and anxiety.Methods: In this non-controlled study, patients (n=137 on sick leave due to chronic fatigue received a 3.5-week inpatient RTW rehabilitation program. Of these patients 69 (50.4 % was referred with a ICPC-2 diagnosis of chronic fatigue. Patients completed questionnaires about metacognitive beliefs, somatic complaints, psychological complaints, and cognitive impairments before and after treatment. To test the hypotheses we performed paired t tests of change, as well as seven hierarchical linear regressions.Results: Results showed that baseline maladaptive metacognitive beliefs were significantly associated with subjective cognitive impairments at baseline, controlling for symptoms. Score on baseline metacognitive beliefs did not predict impairments post-treatment. Testing specific maladaptive beliefs, pre-treatment scores on cognitive confidence were associated with subjective cognitive impairments both pre and post-treatment, controlling for symptoms. Post-treatment metacognitive beliefs and post-treatment cognitive confidence were associated with post-treatment subjective cognitive impairments, controlling for pre-treatment impairments and pre-treatment metacognitive beliefs, as well as pre and post scores on symptom measures. Conclusion: This study reports associations between maladaptive metacognitive beliefs and subjective cognitive impairments in patients with chronic fatigue. Targeting metacognitive beliefs

  1. Decreased diabetes risk over 9 year after 18-month oral L-arginine treatment in middle-aged subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and metabolic syndrome (extension evaluation of L-arginine study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Lucilla D; Galluccio, Elena; Villa, Valentina; Fontana, Barbara; Spadoni, Serena; Piatti, Pier Marco

    2017-10-20

    This study aimed to determine whether L-arginine supplementation lasting for 18 months maintained long-lasting effects on diabetes incidence, insulin secretion and sensitivity, oxidative stress, and endothelial function during 108 months among subjects at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. One hundred and forty-four middle-aged subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and metabolic syndrome were randomized in 2006 to an L-arginine supplementation (6.4 g orally/day) or placebo therapy lasting 18 months. This period was followed by a 90-month follow-up. The primary outcome was a diagnosis of diabetes during the 108 month study period. Secondary outcomes included changes in insulin secretion (proinsulin/c-peptide ratio), insulin sensitivity (IGI/HOMA-IR), oxidative stress (AOPPs), and vascular function. After the 18 month participation, subjects that were still free of diabetes and willing to continue their participation (104 subjects) were further followed until diabetes diagnosis, with a time span of about 9 years from baseline. Although results derived from the 18 month of the intervention study demonstrated no differences in the probability of becoming diabetics, at the end of the study, the cumulative incidence of diabetes was of 40.6% in the L-arginine group and of 57.4% in the placebo group. The adjusted HR for diabetes (L-arginine vs. placebo) was 0.66; 95% CI 0.48, 0.91; p L-arginine compared to placebo. These results may suggest that the administration of L-arginine could delay the development of T2DM for a long period. This effect could be mediated, in some extent, by L-arginine-induced reduction in oxidative stress.

  2. Recognition of telegraphy in hearing-impaired telegraph operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montnemery, P; Harris, S

    1995-01-01

    Recognition of Morse signs masked by noise was measured in five hearing-impaired telegraph operators with a high-frequency hearing loss. They all described problems typical for subjects with high-frequency hearing loss, i.e. problems with recognition of speech in noisy environments. Telegraphy speed, listening level, bandwidth of the masking-noise, frequency and interaural phase were systematically varied. At narrow-band masking with a bandwidth of 230 Hz (1/3 octave 891-1121 Hz) centred at 1000 Hz no statistical significant difference in recognition of telegraphy signs was found between the hearing-impaired subjects and the normal-hearing subjects investigated in our earlier studies at any telegraphy speed or at any S/N ratio. All hearing-impaired subjects improved in recognition when the telegraphy speed was lowered. When a broad-band noise (100-2500 Hz) was used as a masker all the hearing-impaired subjects improved in recognition when the frequency was lowered from 2000 to 500 Hz. At 40 signs/min telegraphy speed the hearing-impaired subjects showed a significantly lower recognition (p < 0.05) at low S/N ratios both at 2000 and 500 Hz frequency compared to the normal-hearing subjects investigated in our earlier studies. At monaural listening the normal-hearing subjects were significantly better (p < 0.01) in recognition. When the telegraphy signs were presented 180 degrees out of phase between the two ears, all subjects improved in recognition compared to when the telegraphy signs were presented in phase. This improvement was equal in hearing-impaired subjects and in the normal-hearing subjects investigated in our earlier studies.

  3. Psychophysical evidence for impaired Magno, Parvo, and Konio-cellular pathways in dyslexic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazar Ahmadi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: We may suggest that dyslexic subjects might suffer from both magnocellular and parvocellular deficits. Moreover, our results show partial impairment of the koniocellular pathway. Thus, dyslexia might be associated with deficits in all three visual pathways.

  4. Neural substrates of normal and impaired preattentive sensory discrimination in large cohorts of nonpsychiatric subjects and schizophrenia patients as indexed by MMN and P3a change detection responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Rissling, Anthony J; Pascual-Marqui, Roberto; Kirihara, Kenji; Pela, Marlena; Sprock, Joyce; Braff, David L; Light, Gregory A

    2013-02-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) patients have information processing deficits, spanning from low level sensory processing to higher-order cognitive functions. Mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a are event-related potential (ERP) components that are automatically elicited in response to unattended changes in ongoing, repetitive stimuli that provide a window into abnormal information processing in SZ. MMN and P3a are among the most robust and consistently identified deficits in SZ, yet the neural substrates of these responses and their associated deficits in SZ are not fully understood. This study examined the neural sources of MMN and P3a components in a large cohort of SZ and nonpsychiatric control subjects (NCS) using Exact Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography Analyses (eLORETA) in order to identify the neural sources of MMN and P3a as well as the brain regions associated with deficits commonly observed among SZ patients. 410 SZ and 247 NCS underwent EEG testing using a duration-deviant auditory oddball paradigm (1-kHz tones, 500ms SOA; standard p=0.90, 50-ms duration; deviant tones P=0.10, 100-ms duration) while passively watching a silent video. Voxel-by-voxel within- (MMN vs. P3a) and between-group (SZ vs. NCS) comparisons were performed using eLORETA. SZ had robust deficits in MMN and P3a responses measured at scalp electrodes consistent with other studies. These components mapped onto neural sources broadly distributed across temporal, frontal, and parietal regions. MMN deficits in SZ were associated with reduced activations in discrete medial frontal brain regions, including the anterior-posterior cingulate and medial frontal gyri. These early sensory discriminatory MMN impairments were followed by P3a deficits associated with widespread reductions in the activation of attentional networks (frontal, temporal, parietal regions), reflecting impaired orienting or shifts of attention to the infrequent stimuli. MMN and P3a are dissociable responses associated with broadly

  5. Neural substrates of normal and impaired preattentive sensory discrimination in large cohorts of nonpsychiatric subjects and schizophrenia patients as indexed by MMN and P3a change detection responses☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Rissling, Anthony J.; Pascual-Marqui, Roberto; Kirihara, Kenji; Pela, Marlena; Sprock, Joyce; Braff, David L.; Light, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Schizophrenia (SZ) patients have information processing deficits, spanning from low level sensory processing to higher-order cognitive functions. Mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a are event-related potential (ERP) components that are automatically elicited in response to unattended changes in ongoing, repetitive stimuli that provide a window into abnormal information processing in SZ. MMN and P3a are among the most robust and consistently identified deficits in SZ, yet the neural substrates of these responses and their associated deficits in SZ are not fully understood. This study examined the neural sources of MMN and P3a components in a large cohort of SZ and nonpsychiatric control subjects (NCS) using Exact Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography Analyses (eLORETA) in order to identify the neural sources of MMN and P3a as well as the brain regions associated with deficits commonly observed among SZ patients. Methods 410 SZ and 247 NCS underwent EEG testing using a duration-deviant auditory oddball paradigm (1-kHz tones, 500 ms SOA; standard p=0.90, 50-ms duration; deviant tones P=0.10, 100-ms duration) while passively watching a silent video. Voxel-by-voxel within- (MMN vs. P3a) and between-group (SZ vs. NCS) comparisons were performed using eLORETA. Results SZ had robust deficits in MMN and P3a responses measured at scalp electrodes consistent with other studies. These components mapped onto neural sources broadly distributed across temporal, frontal, and parietal regions. MMN deficits in SZ were associated with reduced activations in discrete medial frontal brain regions, including the anterior–posterior cingulate and medial frontal gyri. These early sensory discriminatory MMN impairments were followed by P3a deficits associated with widespread reductions in the activation of attentional networks (frontal, temporal, parietal regions), reflecting impaired orienting or shifts of attention to the infrequent stimuli. Conclusions MMN and P3a are

  6. Comparable Attenuation of Sympathetic Nervous System Activity in Obese Subjects with Normal Glucose Tolerance, Impaired Glucose Tolerance, and Treatment Naïve Type 2 Diabetes following Equivalent Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straznicky, Nora E; Grima, Mariee T; Sari, Carolina I; Lambert, Elisabeth A; Phillips, Sarah E; Eikelis, Nina; Mariani, Justin A; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Hering, Dagmara; Dixon, John B; Lambert, Gavin W

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Elevated sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity is a characteristic of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) that contributes to target organ damage and cardiovascular risk. In this study we examined whether baseline metabolic status influences the degree of sympathoinhibition attained following equivalent dietary weight loss. Methods: Un-medicated obese individuals categorized as normal glucose tolerant (NGT, n = 15), impaired glucose tolerant (IGT, n = 24), and newly-diagnosed T2D (n = 15) consumed a hypocaloric diet (29% fat, 23% protein, 45% carbohydrate) for 4-months. The three groups were matched for baseline age (56 ± 1 years), body mass index (BMI, 32.9 ± 0.7 kg/m2), and gender. Clinical measurements included whole-body norepinephrine kinetics, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA, by microneurography), spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), and oral glucose tolerance test. Results: Weight loss averaged -7.5 ± 0.8, -8.1 ± 0.5, and -8.0 ± 0.9% of body weight in NGT, IGT, and T2D groups, respectively. T2D subjects had significantly greater reductions in fasting glucose, 2-h glucose and glucose area under the curve (AUC0-120) compared to NGT and IGT (group effect, P weight, Δ insulin AUC0-120 was independently associated with reduction in arterial norepinephrine concentration, whilst Δ LDL-cholesterol and improvement in BRS were independently associated with decrease in MSNA. Conclusions: Equivalent weight loss through hypocaloric diet is accompanied by similar sympathoinhibition in matched obese subjects with different baseline glucose tolerance. Attenuation of hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia, rather than glycemic indices, is associated with reduction in SNS activity following weight loss intervention.

  7. Individuals with Visual Impairments Teaching in Nepal's Mainstream Schools: A Model for Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the challenges and strengths of teachers with a visual impairments teaching in Nepal's mainstream schools, using qualitative interviews of teachers and principals, as well as a student survey data set. Results showed that teachers with visual impairments tend not to teach subjects such as science and mathematics that require…

  8. My mind is as clear as it used to be: A pilot study illustrating the difficulties of employing a single-item subjective screen to detect cognitive impairment in outpatients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibiger, Gail; Kirsh, Kenneth L; Wall, Jacqueline R; Passik, Steven D

    2003-08-01

    Oncology patients often complain that their "mind does not seem to be clear." This subjective perception, sometimes referred to as "chemo brain," may be due to situational stressors, psychological disorders, organic factors, or effects of neurotoxic medications. Cognitive decline cannot only diminish quality of life, but can also interfere with a patient's ability to make decisions regarding complex treatment issues. The current study investigated the utility of using item 11 of the Zung Self-Rating Depression Screen (ZSDS) as a cognitive screen. A sample of 61 ambulatory cancer patients completed this study. Participants were recruited from four sites of Community Cancer Care, Inc., in Indiana. A battery of cognitive instruments and psychosocial inventories was administered in a standardized order. The sample had a mean age of 58.6 years and comprised 57.4% (n=35) women and 42.6% (n=26) men. Item 11 of the ZSDS was not significantly correlated to the cognitive measures. Correlates of the perception of cognitive impairment were the Dementia Rating Scale (DRS) Attention Scale (r=-0.26, PStroop test (F=19.8, Pcancer patients, there may be problems in interpreting the nature of these complaints, particularly in separating them from depressive preoccupation.

  9. Training-related brain plasticity in subjects at risk of developing Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belleville, Sylvie; Clément, Francis; Mellah, Samira; Gilbert, Brigitte; Fontaine, Francine; Gauthier, Serge

    2011-06-01

    Subjects with mild cognitive impairment are at risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. Cognitive stimulation is an emerging intervention in the field of neurology and allied sciences, having already been shown to improve cognition in subjects with mild cognitive impairment. Yet no studies have attempted to unravel the brain mechanisms that support such improvement. This study uses functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure the effect of memory training on brain activation in older adults with mild cognitive impairment and to assess whether it can reverse the brain changes associated with mild cognitive impairment. Brain activation associated with verbal encoding and retrieval was recorded twice prior to training and once after training. In subjects with mild cognitive impairment, increased activation was found after training within a large network that included the frontal, temporal and parietal areas. Healthy controls showed mostly areas of decreased activation following training. Comparison with pre-training indicated that subjects with mild cognitive impairment used a combination of specialized areas; that is, areas activated prior to training and new alternative areas activated following training. However, only activation of the right inferior parietal lobule, a new area of activation, correlated with performance. Furthermore, the differences between the brain activation patterns of subjects with mild cognitive impairment and those of healthy controls were attenuated by training in a number of brain regions. These results indicate that memory training can result in significant neural changes that are measurable with brain imaging. They also show that the brains of people with mild cognitive impairment remain highly plastic.

  10. Neural correlates of taste perception in congenital olfactory impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Léa; Vestergaard, Martin; Madsen, Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    Olfaction and gustation contribute both to the appreciation of food flavours. Although acquired loss of smell has profound consequences on the pleasure of eating, food habits and body weight, less is known about the impact of congenital olfactory impairment on gustatory processing. Here we examined...... taste identification accuracy and its neural correlates using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 12 congenitally olfactory impaired individuals and 8 normosmic controls. Results showed that taste identification was worse in congenitally olfactory impaired compared to control subjects. The f......MRI results demonstrated that olfactory impaired individuals had reduced activation in medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) relative to normosmic subjects while tasting. In addition, olfactory performance as measured with the Sniffin׳ Sticks correlated positively with taste-induced BOLD signal increases...

  11. Psychiatric impairment and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-12-03

    Dec 3, 2002 ... Impairment and disability assessment on psychiatric grounds has always been subjective, controversial ... informed medical advisors doing their disability assessments. Many of these advisors have expressed ..... that will empower the affected employee and that is non- stigma- tising. In order to do so it is ...

  12. Comparable attenuation of sympathetic nervous system activity in obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance and treatment naïve type 2 diabetes following equivalent weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora E. Straznicky

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Elevated sympathetic nervous system (SNS activity is a characteristic of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D that contributes to target organ damage and cardiovascular risk. In this study we examined whether baseline metabolic status influences the degree of sympathoinhibition attained following equivalent dietary weight loss. Methods: Un-medicated obese individuals categorized as normal glucose tolerant (NGT, n=15, impaired glucose tolerant (IGT, n=24 and newly-diagnosed T2D (n=15 consumed a hypocaloric diet (29% fat, 23% protein, 45% carbohydrate for 4-months. The three groups were matched for baseline age (56 + 1 years, body mass index (BMI, 32.9 + 0.7 kg/m2 and gender. Clinical measurements included whole-body norepinephrine kinetics, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA, by microneurography, spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (BRS and oral glucose tolerance test. Results: Weight loss averaged -7.5 + 0.8, -8.1 + 0.5 and -8.0 + 0.9 % of body weight in NGT, IGT and T2D groups, respectively. T2D subjects had significantly greater reductions in fasting glucose, 2-h glucose and glucose area under the curve (AUC0-120 compared to NGT and IGT (group effect, P<0.001. Insulinogenic index decreased in IGT and NGT groups and increased in T2D (group x time, P=0.04. The magnitude of reduction in MSNA (-7 + 3, -8 + 4, -15 + 4 burst/100hb, respectively and whole-body norepinephrine spillover rate (-28 + 8, -18 + 6 and -25 + 7 %, respectively, time effect both P<0.001, did not differ between groups. After adjustment for age and change in body weight, ∆ insulin AUC0-120 was independently associated with reduction in arterial norepinephrine concentration, whilst ∆ LDL-cholesterol and improvement in BRS were independently associated with decrease in MSNA. Conclusions: Equivalent weight loss through hypocaloric diet is accompanied by similar sympathoinhibition in matched obese subjects with different baseline glucose tolerance

  13. [Subjective cognition in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, S; Aubin, G; Stip, E

    2017-02-01

    . Visual learning performance was the most consistent predictor of most SSTICS subscores (e.g. episodic memory, attention, executive functioning, language and praxis). Modest associations were found between the PANSS cognitive factor and objective cognition (e.g. Stroop interference, visual learning, and working memory). Finally, the factor analysis revealed a 6-factor solution that echoes the classification of the items of the SSTICS based on the neuropsychological literature. Using a scale having good internal validity, as shown by the factor analysis, the current study highlighted modest associations between subjective and objective cognitive performance, which suggests that schizophrenia patients are only partially aware of their own cognitive deficits. The results also showed a lack of correspondence between the impaired cognitive domain and the domain of cognitive awareness. It should be noted that clinicians were not better than patients at evaluating their cognitive deficits. Future research will need to determine if the observations reported here are schizophrenia-specific or not. Copyright © 2016 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Impaired Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impaired driving is dangerous. It's the cause of more than half of all car crashes. It means operating ... texting Having a medical condition which affects your driving For your safety and the safety of others, do not drive while impaired. Have someone else drive you or take public ...

  15. Burnout and cognitive impairment: Associated with serum BDNF in a Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, S C; Zhang, Y Y; Zhan, J Y; Wang, C; Du, X D; Yin, G Z; Cao, B; Ning, Y P; Soares, J C; Zhang, X Y

    2017-03-01

    Some studies have demonstrated that subjects with chronic burnout showed cognitive impairments; however, cognitive performance in burnout has been under-investigated. Increasing evidence show that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in cognitive function. We hypothesized that decreased BDNF may be associated with cognitive impairments in burnout, which has not been investigated yet. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of BDNF with cognitive impairment in burnout. Using a cross-sectional design, 712 healthy subjects were recruited from a general hospital and they were all measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). We assessed part of subjects on the repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS) (n=192) and serum BDNF levels (n=127). 30.5% of the subjects had burnout. Compared to those non-burnout subjects, the burnout subjects were younger, had significant lower BDNF levels (p=0.003) and scored lower on immediate memory, RBANS total score and attention (all pburnout and cognitive impairments. Our results suggest that burnout is associated with significant cognitive impairments and decreased BDNF. Moreover, decreased BDNF is associated with cognitive impairments in burnout. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Gender-related dissociations of categorical fluency in normal subjects and in subjects with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Camillo; Ferraccioli, Monica; Gainotti, Guido

    2007-03-01

    Semantic fluency tasks, with the categories of birds and furniture as stimuli, were administered to normal subjects and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Normal subjects showed a gender-related double dissociation consistent with the literature data because men were more fluent with the birds category and women with the furniture category. Also, patients with AD showed a Gender x Category interaction, but the double dissociation between birds and furniture was not present because of a prevalent impairment of the living category birds that was irrespective of gender. This pattern of impairment in patients with AD was independent from the disease stage. The authors conclude that (a) gender-related categorical effects cannot be considered as inborn, sex-related cognitive differences but as familiarity effects and (b) both lesion-related and familiarity-related factors must be taken into account to explain category-specific effects of patients with brain damage and patients with AD.

  17. Communication Skills and Learning in Impaired Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliöz, Murat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the communication skills of individuals with different disabilities with athletes and sedentary people and to examine their learning abilities which influence the development of communication. A total of 159 male subjects 31 sedentary, 30 visually impaired, 27 hearing impaired, 40 physically impaired and 31…

  18. The impact of visual impairment on health, function and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jeremy M; Hammerman-Rozenberg, Robert; Maaravi, Yoram; Cohen, Aaron; Stessman, Jochanan

    2005-08-01

    Our aim was to determine the impact of visual impairment on self-rated health, function and mortality amongst a community-dwelling elderly cohort. The study design was prospective and longitudinal, subjects being taken from an age-homogeneous, community-dwelling cohort comprising 452 subjects aged 70 in 1990 and 839 subjects aged 77 in 1998. Comprehensive data were collected by structured interviews and medical examinations carried out during home visits. Data included each subject's demographic and socio-economic profile, medical history, physical findings, functional status and self-rated health status. Visual acuity was measured using a Snellen chart and visual impairment was defined as best-eye corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or worse on Snellen chart testing. Measured and self-reported visual impairment correlated closely, and were significantly more prevalent amongst subjects with low education and poor financial status. Visually impaired subjects showed significantly greater dependence in ADL and IADL, poor self-rated health, less ability to rely on friends, increased loneliness and, in men aged 77, increased visits to the emergency room and hospital admissions. Visual impairment at age 70 significantly predicted poor self-rated health (p=0.029, OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.09-5.10), dependence in ADL (p=0.007, OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.34-6.33), general tiredness (p=0.037, OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.06-5.44), and mortality, with a two-and-a-half-fold increase in risk of death at seven years (p=0.0017,OR 2.84, 95% CI 1.48-5.46). Visual impairment in the elderly increases the risk of social, functional and medical decline.

  19. Physical Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewin, Shari

    Many health conditions can lead to physical impairments that impact computer and Web access. Musculoskeletal conditions such as arthritis and cumulative trauma disorders can make movement stiff and painful. Movement disorders such as tremor, Parkinsonism and dystonia affect the ability to control movement, or to prevent unwanted movements. Often, the same underlying health condition also has sensory or cognitive effects. People with dexterity impairments may use a standard keyboard and mouse, or any of a wide range of alternative input mechanisms. Examples are given of the diverse ways that specific dexterity impairments and input mechanisms affect the fundamental actions of Web browsing. As the Web becomes increasingly sophisticated, and physically demanding, new access features at the Web browser and page level will be necessary.

  20. Do subjective memory complaints predict senile Alzheimer dementia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungwirth, Susanne; Zehetmayer, Sonja; Weissgram, Silvia; Weber, Germain; Tragl, Karl Heinz; Fischer, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Many elderly complain about their memory and undergo dementia screening by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). While objective memory impairment always precedes Alzheimer dementia (AD) it is unclear whether subjective memory complaints are predicting AD. We tried to answer this question in a prospective cohort study. The 75-years old non-demented inhabitants of Vienna-Transdanube were investigated for conversion to AD after 30 months. The predictive value of subjective memory complaints was analysed in two groups: subjects with high MMSE-score (28-30) and subjects with low MMSE-score (23-27). Only in subjects with high MMSE univariate analyses showed an association between subjective memory complaints and incident AD. In both groups the verbal memory test was the main predictor of AD in multivariate analyses. We suggest to perform memory testing in subjects complaining about memory irrespective of their performance in a screening procedure like the MMSE.

  1. Hearing Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavender, Anna; Ladner, Richard E.

    For many people with hearing impairments, the degree of hearing loss is only a small aspect of their disability and does not necessarily determine the types of accessibility solutions or accommodations that may be required. For some people, the ability to adjust the audio volume may be sufficient. For others, translation to a signed language may be more appropriate. For still others, access to text alternatives may be the best solution. Because of these differences, it is important for researchers in Web accessibility to understand that people with hearing impairments may have very different cultural-linguistic traditions and personal backgrounds.

  2. Factores metabólicos asociados con la progresión hacia la diabetes mellitus en sujetos con tolerancia a la glucosa alterada Metabolic factors associated with the progression of diabetes mellitus in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto M. González Suárez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio prospectivo en 84 pacientes con tolerancia a la glucosa alterada (TGA, diagnosticada 18 años antes, para identificar factores metabólicos identificados en el estudio inicial, que pudieran estar asociados a la progresión hacia la diabetes mellitus (DM detectada en el estudio evolutivo. Como factores de riesgo metabólicos se consideraron la gravedad del trastorno de la tolerancia a la glucosa, la disminución o incremento de la secreción de insulina en ayunas y durante una PTG oral, así como la resistencia a la insulina detectada en ayunas o durante la PTG, todos ellos determinados con métodos y criterios de interpretación previamente establecidos y validados. Se encontró que la presencia de una baja respuesta insulínica inicial (II0-30 disminuido se asocia significativamente con la progresión hacia la diabetes en el grupo de sujetos con TGA estudiados. Este hallazgo es consistente en todos los aspectos del fenómeno evaluado (valores absolutos de las variables en los grupos de sujetos clasificados de acuerdo con su evolución, riesgo de evolución hacia la DM y tiempo hasta el diagnóstico de DM y está de acuerdo con el criterio de que el factor genéticamente determinado que condiciona el desarrollo de la DM es un defecto de la capacidad inicial de respuesta insulinosecretora a los cambios de la glicemia.A prospective study was conducted in 84 patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT diagnosed 18 years before to identify metabolic factors found in the initial study that could be associated with the progression to diabetes mellitus (DM detected in the evolutive study. The severity of the glucose tolerance disorder, the reduction or increase of insulin secretion on fasting or during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, as well as the resistance to insulin detected on fasting or during the OGTT, were considered as risk factors. All of them were determined by methods and criteria of interpretation that were

  3. All Vision Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statistics and Data > All Vision Impairment All Vision Impairment Vision Impairment Defined Vision impairment is defined as the best- ... 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence Rates for Vision Impairment by Age and Race/Ethnicity Table for 2010 ...

  4. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games......, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  5. Empathy in schizophrenia: impaired resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haker, Helene; Rössler, Wulf

    2009-09-01

    Resonance is the phenomenon of one person unconsciously mirroring the motor actions as basis of emotional expressions of another person. This shared representation serves as a basis for sharing physiological and emotional states of others and is an important component of empathy. Contagious laughing and contagious yawning are examples of resonance. In the interpersonal contact with individuals with schizophrenia we can often experience impaired empathic resonance. The aim of this study is to determine differences in empathic resonance-in terms of contagion by yawning and laughing-in individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls in the context of psychopathology and social functioning. We presented video sequences of yawning, laughing or neutral faces to 43 schizophrenia outpatients and 45 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Participants were video-taped during the stimulation and rated regarding contagion by yawning and laughing. In addition, we assessed self-rated empathic abilities (Interpersonal Reactivity Index), psychopathology (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale in the schizophrenia group resp. Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire in the control group), social dysfunction (Social Dysfunction Index) and executive functions (Stroop, Fluency). Individuals with schizophrenia showed lower contagion rates for yawning and laughing. Self-rated empathic concern showed no group difference and did not correlate with contagion. Low rate of contagion by laughing correlated with the schizophrenia negative syndrome and with social dysfunction. We conclude that impaired resonance is a handicap for individuals with schizophrenia in social life. Blunted observable resonance does not necessarily reflect reduced subjective empathic concern.

  6. The comprehension of deictic terms in normal and language impaired children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Mentis

    1981-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the comprehension of four pairs of deictic terms in a group of language impaired children and compared their interpretation of these terms with those of non-language impaired children of the same age range. Each group was comprised of ten subjects within the age range of 9,6 to 10,6 years. Two tasks were administered, one to assess the comprehension of the terms here, there, this, and that and the other to assess the comprehension of the terms, come, go, bring and take. The results showed that while the non-language impaired subjects comprehended the full deictic contrast between the pairs of terms tested, the language impaired group did not. A qualitative analysis of the data revealed that the language impaired subjects appeared to follow the same developmental sequence as normal children in their acquisition of these terms and responded by using the same strategies that younger non-language impaired children use at equivalent stages of development. Furthermore, the language impaired subjects appeared to comprehend the deictic terms in a predictable order based on their relative semantic complexity.

  7. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  8. Paying Hypertension Research Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarett, David; Karlawish, Jason; Asch, David A

    2002-01-01

    CONTEXT Cash payments are often used to compensate subjects who participate in research. However, ethicists have argued that these payments might constitute an undue inducement. OBJECTIVES To determine whether potential subjects agree with theoretical arguments that a payment could be an undue inducement. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS Survey of 350 prospective jurors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Belief that a $500 payment for research participation would impair their own, and others' ability to think carefully about the risks and benefits of a clinical trial. RESULTS Two hundred sixty-one jurors (74.6%) believed that a $500 payment would impair subjects' ability to think carefully about the risks and benefits of research. Ninety-six of 120 (80%) expressed this concern about subjects with a low income ($50,000). In contrast, only 69 (19.7%) of jurors believed that a $500 payment would influence them. Jurors who believed that this payment would influence them reported lower incomes and less education. CONCLUSION Members of the general public share ethical concerns about the influence of payments for research, although they believe that these concerns are more applicable to others than to themselves.

  9. Balance Impairments in Different Subgroups of Patients With Migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gabriela F; Bonato, Paolo; Florencio, Lidiane L; Pinheiro, Carina F; Dach, Fabiola; Bigal, Marcelo E; Bevilaqua-Grossi, Debora

    2017-03-01

    Patients with migraine often experience balance impairments. However, the relationship between clinical features - like aura and chronicity - and the severity of balance impairments is not well established. The objective of this study was to assess balance impairments in different subgroups of migraine patients. One hundred five subjects diagnosed according to the ICHD-III were recruited in the study. They were uniformly distributed among three groups: migraine with aura, migraine without aura, and chronic migraine. Thirty-five controls were also recruited in the study. Balance impairments were assessed in all subjects via the modified Sensory Organization test and the Limits of Stability test. The results in the four groups were compared using ANCOVA tests with age, BMI, presence of dizziness, level of physical activity, time of migraine onset, and medication intake as covariates. Subjects in the migraine with aura and the chronic migraine groups showed poorer balance control than control subjects in three of the four conditions tested using the modified Sensory Organization test: FirmCE: CG: 1.5 cm2 , 95%CI 1.3 to 1.7; M: 2.1 cm2 , 95%CI 1.6 to 2.6; MA: 4.5 cm2 , 95%CI 3.2 to 5.8; CM: 4.5 cm2 , 95%CI 3.0 to 6.0; P migraine without aura group (P migraine groups were found in the reaction time, movement velocity, endpoint excursion, and maximal excursion parameters (P  .05). There is evidence of balance control impairments in subjects with all subtypes of migraine compared to control subjects. The presence of aura and frequent migraine attacks reflect negatively in the postural control performance and may have a significant clinical impact in patients with migraine that should be addressed with appropriate clinical interventions. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  10. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies...... are made from digital scans of the original dias slides located in the collection of the Museum of Contemporary Art in Roskilde. In front of the audience entering the space and placed on it’s own stand, is an original 60s style telephone with turning dial. Action begins when the audience lift the phone...... and dial a number. Any number will make the Dias change. All numbers are also assigned to specific sound documents: clips form rare interviews and the complete sound-re-enactment of the Show-Bix piece ‘Omringning’ (‘Surrounding’) in five channels (a quintophonie). This was originally produced...

  11. Show and Tell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Fredag d. 1 november blev Kunsthal Charlottenborg indtaget af performanceprogrammet Show & Tell med et bredspektret program af danske og internationale kunstnere indenfor performance-, lyd- og installationskunst. Programmet præsenterer værker, der undersøger kroppens stadig mere symbiotiske forhold...... og studienævnet på Performance-design. Show & Tell - Performance program: kl. 16.30-19 Adresse: Kunsthal Charlottenborg, Nyhavn 2, 1051 København K...

  12. Social and nonsocial cognition in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: relative levels of impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junghee; Altshuler, Lori; Glahn, David C; Miklowitz, David J; Ochsner, Kevin; Green, Michael F

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the relative extent of impairment in social and nonsocial cognitive domains in patients with bipolar disorder compared with schizophrenia patients and healthy comparison subjects. Sixty-eight clinically stable outpatients with bipolar disorder, 38 clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia, and 36 healthy comparison subjects completed a range of social (facial affect perception, emotional regulation, empathic accuracy, mental state attribution, and self-referential memory) and nonsocial (speed of processing, attention/vigilance, working memory, verbal memory, visual memory, and reasoning/problem solving) cognitive tasks. For each social cognitive task, patients with bipolar disorder did not differ significantly from comparison subjects, and both groups performed better than schizophrenia patients. Within the bipolar group, clinical features and medication status were not related to social cognitive performance. Bipolar patients showed performance patterns across tasks (i.e., profiles) that were similar to those of comparison subjects on both social and nonsocial cognitive domains, whereas both groups differed from schizophrenia patients for both domains. Regarding relative impairment across the two cognitive domains, results revealed a significant group-by-domain interaction in which bipolar patients showed less impaired social than nonsocial cognition, while schizophrenia patients showed the opposite pattern. Bipolar patients showed less impairment on social relative to nonsocial cognitive performance, whereas schizophrenia patients showed more impairment on social relative to nonsocial cognitive performance. These results suggest that these two cognitive domains play different roles in bipolar disorder compared with in schizophrenia.

  13. Single-nucleotide polymorphism rs7754840 of CDKAL1 is associated with impaired insulin secretion in nondiabetic offspring of type 2 diabetic subjects and in a large sample of men with normal glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stancáková, Alena; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Kuusisto, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    -sectional study including subjects from five white populations in Europe (Denmark, Finland, Germany, Italy, and Sweden). Study 2 is an ongoing prospective study of Finnish men. PARTICIPANTS: In study 1, 846 nondiabetic offspring of type 2 diabetic patients (age 40 +/- 10 yr; body mass index 26.7 +/- 5.0 kg/m(2......)) participated. In study 2, subjects included 3900 middle-aged men (533 type 2 diabetic and 3367 nondiabetic subjects). Interventions: Interventions included iv glucose-tolerance test (IVGTT), oral glucose-tolerance test (OGTT), and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp in study 1 and OGTT in study 2. MAIN OUTCOME...

  14. Sleep, Torpor and Memory Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palchykova, S.; Tobler, I.

    It is now well known that daily torpor induces a sleep deficit. Djungarian hamsters emerging from this hypometabolic state spend most of the time in sleep. This sleep is characterized by high initial values of EEG slow-wave activity (SWA) that monotonically decline during recovery sleep. These features resemble the changes seen in numerous species during recovery after prolonged wakefulness or sleep deprivation (SD). When hamsters are totally or partially sleep deprived immediately after emerging from torpor, an additional increase in SWA can be induced. It has been therefore postulated, that these slow- waves are homeostatically regulated, as predicted by the two-process model of sleep regulation, and that during daily torpor a sleep deficit is accumulated as it is during prolonged waking. The predominance of SWA in the frontal EEG observed both after SD and daily torpor provides further evidence for the similarity of these conditions. It has been shown in several animal and human studies that sleep can enhance memory consolidation, and that SD leads to memory impairment. Preliminary data obtained in the Djungarian hamster showed that both SD and daily torpor result in object recognition deficits. Thus, animals subjected to SD immediately after learning, or if they underwent an episode of daily torpor between learning and retention, displayed impaired recognition memory for complex object scenes. The investigation of daily torpor can reveal mechanisms that could have important implications for hypometabolic state induction in other mammalian species, including humans.

  15. Impaired decisional impulsivity in pathological videogamers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Irvine

    Full Text Available Pathological gaming is an emerging and poorly understood problem. Impulsivity is commonly impaired in disorders of behavioural and substance addiction, hence we sought to systematically investigate the different subtypes of decisional and motor impulsivity in a well-defined pathological gaming cohort.Fifty-two pathological gaming subjects and age-, gender- and IQ-matched healthy volunteers were tested on decisional impulsivity (Information Sampling Task testing reflection impulsivity and delay discounting questionnaire testing impulsive choice, and motor impulsivity (Stop Signal Task testing motor response inhibition, and the premature responding task. We used stringent diagnostic criteria highlighting functional impairment.In the Information Sampling Task, pathological gaming participants sampled less evidence prior to making a decision and scored fewer points compared with healthy volunteers. Gaming severity was also negatively correlated with evidence gathered and positively correlated with sampling error and points acquired. In the delay discounting task, pathological gamers made more impulsive choices, preferring smaller immediate over larger delayed rewards. Pathological gamers made more premature responses related to comorbid nicotine use. Greater number of hours played also correlated with a Motivational Index. Greater frequency of role playing games was associated with impaired motor response inhibition and strategy games with faster Go reaction time.We show that pathological gaming is associated with impaired decisional impulsivity with negative consequences in task performance. Decisional impulsivity may be a potential target in therapeutic management.

  16. Talking with TV shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Laursen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    User interaction with radio and television programmes is not a new thing. However, with new cross-media production concepts such as X Factor and Voice, this is changing dramatically. The second-screen logic of these productions encourages viewers, along with TV’s traditional one-way communication...... mode, to communicate on interactive (dialogue-enabling) devices such as laptops, smartphones and tablets. Using the TV show Voice as our example, this article shows how the technological and situational set-up of the production invites viewers to engage in new ways of interaction and communication....... More specifically, the article demonstrates how online comments posted on the day of Voice’s 2012 season finale can be grouped into four basic action types: (1) Invitation to consume content, (2) Request for participation, (3) Request for collaboration and (4) Online commenting. These action types...

  17. Um show de cacau

    OpenAIRE

    Rezende, José Francisco; UNIGRANRIO / PPGA; Mello, Simone; UNIGRANRIO

    2016-01-01

    O caso de ensino apresenta a trajetória de Alexandre Tadeu da Costa e da chocolateria Cacau Show. Seu objetivo é levar os estudantes a identificar alternativas e tomar decisões sobre posicionamento para continuidade do desenvolvimento de vantagens competitivas, sustentação de competência logística e possíveis abordagens ao mercado externo. 

  18. Taking in a Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    Many medical practices have cut back on education and staff development expenses, especially those costs associated with conventions and conferences. But there are hard-to-value returns on your investment in these live events--beyond the obvious benefits of acquired knowledge and skills. Major vendors still exhibit their services and wares at many events, and the exhibit hall is a treasure-house of information and resources for the savvy physician or administrator. Make and stick to a purposeful plan to exploit the trade show. You can compare products, gain new insights and ideas, and even negotiate better deals with representatives anxious to realize returns on their exhibition investments.

  19. The Prevalence and Causes of Visual Impairment and Blindness Among Older Adults in the City of Lodz, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Michal S.; Smigielski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness in a sample of Polish older adults. The study was designed in a cross-sectional and observational manner. Data concerning the vision status were assessed in 2214 eyes from 1107 subjects of European Caucasian origin; most of whom live in the city of Lodz, in central Poland. Visual impairment was defined as distance visual acuity 20/200 in better-seeing eye, and blindness was defined as BCVA ≤20/200 in both eyes (United States criteria). Visual impairment was found in 27.5% subjects in the worse-seeing eye. Multiple regression analysis showed that increasing age (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97–0.99) and female gender (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.11–1.93) were independent risk factors. No association was found between visual impairment and socioeconomic status of subjects. Noncorrectable visual impairment was found in 7.0% of subjects, including 5.2% of subjects with unilateral and 1.8% of subjects with bilateral visual impairment. Low vision and blindness accounted for 1.3% and 0.5%, respectively, and were only associated with older age (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.02–1.10). Retinal diseases represented the major cause of noncorrectable visual impairment and accounted for more than half of causes of blindness. Provision of appropriate refractive correction improves visual acuity in 75% subjects presenting with visual impairment. Retinal diseases are a major cause of noncorrectable visual impairment and blindness in this older population. PMID:25654398

  20. The prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness among older adults in the city of Lodz, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Michal S; Smigielski, Janusz

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness in a sample of Polish older adults. The study was designed in a cross-sectional and observational manner. Data concerning the vision status were assessed in 2214 eyes from 1107 subjects of European Caucasian origin; most of whom live in the city of Lodz, in central Poland. Visual impairment was defined as distance visual acuity visual acuity (BCVA) 20/200 in better-seeing eye, and blindness was defined as BCVA ≤20/200 in both eyes (United States criteria). Visual impairment was found in 27.5% subjects in the worse-seeing eye. Multiple regression analysis showed that increasing age (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99) and female gender (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.11-1.93) were independent risk factors. No association was found between visual impairment and socioeconomic status of subjects. Noncorrectable visual impairment was found in 7.0% of subjects, including 5.2% of subjects with unilateral and 1.8% of subjects with bilateral visual impairment. Low vision and blindness accounted for 1.3% and 0.5%, respectively, and were only associated with older age (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.02-1.10). Retinal diseases represented the major cause of noncorrectable visual impairment and accounted for more than half of causes of blindness. Provision of appropriate refractive correction improves visual acuity in 75% subjects presenting with visual impairment. Retinal diseases are a major cause of noncorrectable visual impairment and blindness in this older population.

  1. Social Inequality and Visual Impairment in Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whillans, Jennifer; Nazroo, James

    2016-02-03

    Visual impairment is the leading cause of age-related disability, but the social patterning of loss of vision in older people has received little attention. This study's objective was to assess the association between social position and onset of visual impairment, to empirically evidence health inequalities in later life. Visual impairment was measured in 2 ways: self-reporting fair vision or worse (moderate) and self-reporting poor vision or blindness (severe). Correspondingly, 2 samples were drawn from the English Longitudinal Study on Ageing (ELSA). First, 7,483 respondents who had good vision or better at Wave 1; second, 8,487 respondents who had fair vision or better at Wave 1. Survival techniques were used. Cox proportional hazards models showed wealth and subjective social status (SSS) were significant risk factors associated with the onset of visual impairment. The risk of onset of moderate visual impairment was significantly higher for the lowest and second lowest wealth quintiles, whereas the risk of onset of severe visual impairment was significantly higher for the lowest, second, and even middle wealth quintiles, compared with the highest wealth quintile. Independently, lower SSS was associated with increased risk of onset of visual impairment (both measures), particularly so for those placing themselves on the lowest rungs of the social ladder. The high costs of visual impairment are disproportionately felt by the worst off elderly. Both low wealth and low SSS significantly increase the risk of onset of visual impairment. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. A methodology for the characterization and diagnosis of cognitive impairments-Application to specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Jesús; Serrano, J Ignacio; del Castillo, M Dolores; Iglesias, Angel

    2014-06-01

    The diagnosis of mental disorders is in most cases very difficult because of the high heterogeneity and overlap between associated cognitive impairments. Furthermore, early and individualized diagnosis is crucial. In this paper, we propose a methodology to support the individualized characterization and diagnosis of cognitive impairments. The methodology can also be used as a test platform for existing theories on the causes of the impairments. We use computational cognitive modeling to gather information on the cognitive mechanisms underlying normal and impaired behavior. We then use this information to feed machine-learning algorithms to individually characterize the impairment and to differentiate between normal and impaired behavior. We apply the methodology to the particular case of specific language impairment (SLI) in Spanish-speaking children. The proposed methodology begins by defining a task in which normal and individuals with impairment present behavioral differences. Next we build a computational cognitive model of that task and individualize it: we build a cognitive model for each participant and optimize its parameter values to fit the behavior of each participant. Finally, we use the optimized parameter values to feed different machine learning algorithms. The methodology was applied to an existing database of 48 Spanish-speaking children (24 normal and 24 SLI children) using clustering techniques for the characterization, and different classifier techniques for the diagnosis. The characterization results show three well-differentiated groups that can be associated with the three main theories on SLI. Using a leave-one-subject-out testing methodology, all the classifiers except the DT produced sensitivity, specificity and area under curve values above 90%, reaching 100% in some cases. The results show that our methodology is able to find relevant information on the underlying cognitive mechanisms and to use it appropriately to provide better

  3. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  4. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  5. Localization and patterns of Cerebral dyschromatopsia: A study of subjects with prospagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, Daniel; Corrow, Sherryse L; Corrow, Jeffrey C; Barton, Alistair R S; Duchaine, Brad; Barton, Jason J S

    2016-08-01

    Cerebral dyschromatopsia is sometimes associated with acquired prosopagnosia. Given the variability in structural lesions that cause acquired prosopagnosia, this study aimed to investigate the structural correlates of prosopagnosia-associated dyschromatopsia, and to determine if such colour processing deficits could also accompany developmental prosopagnosia. In addition, we studied whether cerebral dyschromatopsia is typified by a consistent pattern of hue impairments. We investigated hue discrimination in a cohort of 12 subjects with acquired prosopagnosia and 9 with developmental prosopagnosia, along with 42 matched controls, using the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test. We found impaired hue discrimination in six subjects with acquired prosopagnosia, five with bilateral and one with a unilateral occipitotemporal lesion. Structural MRI analysis showed maximum overlap of lesions in the right and left lingual and fusiform gyri. Fourier analysis of their error scores showed tritanopic-like deficits and blue-green impairments, similar to tendencies displayed by the healthy controls. Three subjects also showed a novel fourth Fourier component, indicating additional peak deficits in purple and green-yellow regions. No subject with developmental prosopagnosia had impaired hue discrimination. In our subjects with prosopagnosia, dyschromatopsia occurred in those with acquired lesions of the fusiform gyri, usually bilateral but sometimes unilateral. The dyschromatopsic deficit shows mainly an accentuation of normal tritatanopic-like tendencies. These are sometimes accompanied by additional deficits, although these could represent artifacts of the testing procedure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Impaired consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugino, Tatsuya

    2013-06-01

    Consciousness disorder is one of the common signs that clinicians treat every day. It is further more frequently found in elderly patients, but it is often difficult to make an exact diagnosis and to give a suitable treatment for each case. There are many kinds of diseases or systemic disorders which impair consciousness, and moreover, various backgrounds (e.g. their lifestyle, mental problems, etc.) characteristic for aged people often make the diagnosis unclear. Therefore, it is very important for every physician assigned to emergency room to have broad viewpoint and to make careful examinations approaching such patients. Needless to say, if the patient is facing crisis, more priority should be given to emergency treatment than to precise diagnosis.

  7. Evidence for altered upper extremity muscle synergies in chronic stroke survivors with mild and moderate impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Jinsook; Rymer, William Z.; Beer, Randall F.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that motor coordination may be achieved by assembling task-dependent combinations of a few muscle synergies, defined here as fixed patterns of activation across a set of muscles. Our recent study of severely impaired chronic stroke survivors showed that some muscle synergies underlying isometric force generation at the hand are altered in the affected arm. However, whether similar alterations are evident in stroke survivors with lesser impairment remains unclear. Accordingly, we examined muscle synergies underlying spatial patterns of elbow and shoulder muscle activation recorded during an isometric force target matching protocol performed by 16 chronic stroke survivors, evenly divided across mild and moderate impairment levels. We applied non-negative matrix factorization to identify the muscle synergies and compared their structure across groups, including previously collected data from six age-matched control subjects and eight severely impaired stroke survivors. For all groups, EMG spatial patterns were well explained by task-dependent combinations of only a few (typically 4) muscle synergies. Broadly speaking, elbow-related synergies were conserved across stroke survivors, regardless of impairment level. In contrast, the shoulder-related synergies of some stroke survivors with mild and moderate impairment differed from controls, in a manner similar to severely impaired subjects. Cluster analysis of pooled synergies for the 30 subjects identified seven distinct clusters (synergies). Subsequent analysis confirmed that the incidences of three elbow-related synergies were independent of impairment level, while the incidences of four shoulder-related synergies were systematically correlated with impairment level. Overall, our results suggest that alterations in the shoulder muscle synergies underlying isometric force generation appear prominently in mild and moderate stroke, as in most cases of severe stroke, in an impairment level

  8. Visual impairment in the hearing impaired students

    OpenAIRE

    Gogate Parikshit; Rishikeshi Nikhil; Mehata Reshma; Ranade Satish; Kharat Jitesh; Deshpande Madan

    2009-01-01

    Background : Ocular problems are more common in children with hearing problems than in normal children. Neglected visual impairment could aggravate educational and social disability. Aim : To detect and treat visual impairment, if any, in hearing-impaired children. Setting and Design : Observational, clinical case series of hearing-impaired children in schools providing special education. Materials and Methods : Hearing-impaired children in selected schools underwent detailed vis...

  9. Screening of Visually Impaired Children for Health Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açıl, Dilay; Ayaz, Sultan

    2015-12-01

    Disability is a significant problem and is accepted globally as a health priority in childhood. Like nonvisually impaired children, visually impaired children also need to use health services during childhood. The purpose of this study was to determine the health problems of visually impaired children. A descriptive design was used. The subjects were 74 children with visual impairment attending primary school (aged 5-14 years), who agreed to participate and whose parents gave permission. Data were collected via physical examination including questionnaires and a physical assessment form. The health screening included physical measurements for height, weight, blood pressure, dental health, hearing, and scoliosis. The mean age of children was 10.43 ± 2.9 years. When the health screening results of children were examined, it was found that 25.7% of the children were overweight or obese, 35.1% of them had dental problems, 27.0% had hearing problems, and 39.2% had scoliosis risk. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were normal in 91.8% and 93.2% of the children, respectively. These findings showed the important role of school health nurses in performing health screenings directed at visually impaired children who constitute a special group for school health services. Health screening for height, weight, dental health, hearing, and scoliosis is suggested for visually impaired children. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Visual scanning and matching dysfunction in brain-damaged patients with drawing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belleza, T; Rappaport, M; Hopkins, H K; Hall, K

    1979-03-01

    Visual matching and visual exploration were examined in 7 normal subjects and 20 brain-damaged patients with drawing impairment measured by the Bender Gestalt Visual-Motor Test. Right brain-damaged patients made significantly more errors of rotation and integration than left brain-damaged patients. Selecteded Bender figures were also used as stimuli for both visual matching and visual exploration tests. The ability to match Bender figures was found to be impaired in right but not left brain-damaged patients. All patients showed eye movement and fixation patterns different from those normals. Patients essentially had more fixations and shorter fixation durations. Significant intercorrelations were found between the total Bender Gestalt score and visual matching and visual exploration scores. These findings indicate that visual matching and visual exploration measures can be used to evaluate perceptual impairment in individuals who do not have adequate motor responses or where impaired motor responses may confound interpretations about visual cognitive impairment.

  11. Self-concept, self-esteem, personality traits and psychopathological symptoms in adolescents with and without visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaigordobil, Maite; Bernarás, Elena

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze self-concept, self-esteem, and other personality traits and psychopathological symptoms in subjects with and without visual impairment. The sample was made up of 90 participants aged 12 to 17: 61 with no impairment and 29 with visual impairment. The ANOVA showed that there were no significant differences in self-concept and self-esteem in the samples, but the visually impaired adolescents scored significantly higher in various psychopathological symptoms as well as in their capacity for kind behavior. The ANOVA revealed no gender differences in any variables in adolescents without visual impairment. However, women with visual impairment scored lower in self-esteem and higher in various psychopathological symptoms. Pearson coefficients revealed negative relations between self-concept/self-esteem and all the psychopathological symptoms, and neuroticism, as well as a positive relation with extraversion. Low psychoticism, high extraversion, and low hostility were identified as predictors of high self-concept.

  12. Inferential Functioning in Visually Impaired Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puche-Navarro, Rebeca; Millan, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    The current study explores the inferential abilities of visually impaired children in a task presented in two formats, manipulative and verbal. The results showed that in the group of visually impaired children, just as with children with normal sight, there was a wide range of inference types. It was found that the visually impaired children…

  13. Pulmonary function studies in Gujarati subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, N M; Mavlankar, M G; Kulkarni, P K; Kashyap, S K

    1992-01-01

    In this study a multiple regression equation for prediction of ventilatory pulmonary function tests (FVC, FEV1%, FEF25-75% and PEFR) is developed in average healthy non-smoker male and female Gujarati subjects. The average adult female values showed a reduction varying from 21.0 to 29.0% compared to adult male subjects. There is a deviation of the present study values from other studies in Indian subjects and values from European studies are higher than the present values. This study demonstrated that the present regression equation is the most ideal and appropriate for prediction of pulmonary function values in Gujarati subjects either for assessing physical fitness in normal subjects or for determining the pattern of ventilatory impairment in respiratory disease patients. The pulmonary function values assessed by substituting the average age, height and weight of females in male regression equation revealed lower values in females ranging from 14.0 to 19.0% attributable only due to difference in sex.

  14. Impairment testing of assets according to IFRS

    OpenAIRE

    Procházka, Michal

    2014-01-01

    The main object of this thesis is to show measurement of assets and its changes under International Financial Reporting Standards with closer focus on impairment testing according to IAS 36 - Impairment of Assets. The first part of the thesis introduces definition of assets and possible measurement bases used at first time recognition and reporting date. The main part deals with impairment testing of individual assets and cash-generating units. There is described when the impairment testing m...

  15. Are empathic abilities impaired in posttraumatic stress disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nietlisbach, Gabriela; Maercker, Andreas; Rössler, Wulf; Haker, Helene

    2010-06-01

    Trauma survivors with PTSD show social interaction and relationship impairments. It is hypothesized that traumatic experiences lead to known PTSD symptoms, empathic ability impairment, and difficulties in sharing affective, emotional, or cognitive states. A PTSD group (N=16) and a nontraumatized Control group (N=16) were compared on empathic abilities, namely the Empathic Resonance Test, Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, and Faux Pas Test. The Interpersonal Reactivity Index as a self-report measure of empathy and measures of non-social cognitive functions, namely the Verbal Fluency Test, the Five-Point Test, and the Stroop Test, were also administered. The PTSD group showed lower empathic resonance. No clear indications of other impairments in social cognitive functions were found. The PTSD group had significantly higher personal distress. Empathic resonance impairments did not correlate with subjective severity of PTSD symptomatology. This article discusses whether impaired empathic resonance in PTSD trauma survivors is a consequence of trauma itself or a protective coping strategy.

  16. Subjective wellbeing, health, and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Andrew; Deaton, Angus; Stone, Arthur A

    2015-02-14

    Subjective wellbeing and health are closely linked to age. Three aspects of subjective wellbeing can be distinguished-evaluative wellbeing (or life satisfaction), hedonic wellbeing (feelings of happiness, sadness, anger, stress, and pain), and eudemonic wellbeing (sense of purpose and meaning in life). We review recent advances in the specialty of psychological wellbeing, and present new analyses about the pattern of wellbeing across ages and the association between wellbeing and survival at older ages. The Gallup World Poll, a continuing survey in more than 160 countries, shows a U-shaped relation between evaluative wellbeing and age in high-income, English speaking countries, with the lowest levels of wellbeing in ages 45-54 years. But this pattern is not universal. For example, respondents from the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe show a large progressive reduction in wellbeing with age, respondents from Latin America also shows decreased wellbeing with age, whereas wellbeing in sub-Saharan Africa shows little change with age. The relation between physical health and subjective wellbeing is bidirectional. Older people with illnesses such as coronary heart disease, arthritis, and chronic lung disease show both increased levels of depressed mood and impaired hedonic and eudemonic wellbeing. Wellbeing might also have a protective role in health maintenance. In an analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, we identify that eudemonic wellbeing is associated with increased survival; 29·3% of people in the lowest wellbeing quartile died during the average follow-up period of 8·5 years compared with 9·3% of those in the highest quartile. Associations were independent of age, sex, demographic factors, and baseline mental and physical health. We conclude that the wellbeing of elderly people is an important objective for both economic and health policy. Present psychological and economic theories do not adequately account for the variations in patterns

  17. Performance Visualization for Hearing-Impaired Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumi Hiraga

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available We have been teaching computer music to hearing impaired students of Tsukuba College of Technology for six years. Although students have hearing difficulties, almost all of them show an interest in music. Thus, this has been a challenging class to turn their weakness into enjoyment. We thought that performance visualization is a good method for them to keep their interest in music and try cooperative performances with others. In this paper, we describe our computer music class and the result of our preliminary experiment on the effectiveness of visual assistance. Though it was not a complete experiment with a sufficient number of subjects, the result showed that the show-ahead and selected-note-only types of performance visualization were necessary according to the purpose of the visual aid.

  18. [Functioning of memory in subjects with autism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras-Vincendon, A; Bursztejn, C; Danion, J-M

    2008-12-01

    , suggesting they have difficulties in relation to processes involving the self. Studies involving assessment of subjective states of awareness during recognition show less conscious recollection and more feelings of familiarity. Recent investigations are consistent in demonstrating memory impairments related to the failure of subjects with autism to use organizing strategies or meaning to support memory, an effect which grows with the increasing complexity of the material. Memory deficits in autism may be related more to retrieval and less to encoding, as deficit in source memory in participants with autism is largely eliminated when source was supported at test. The neuroanatomical basis of the specificities of memory impairment in autism is still uncertain, but it is suggested that autism involves an impairment in the conversion of limbic inputs into medial prefrontal outputs. Memory deficits found in individuals with autism may explain some of the clinical symptoms. Failure to encode all the information, especially its social aspects, may therefore contribute to dysfunction in the social, communication, and reasoning domains. Abnormal memory functioning in autism is also related to more general cognitive impairments, including executive function deficits and central coherence weakness. Evidence of the normality of certain memory capacities, at least in individuals with moderate autistic symptomatology, is encouraging for adaptive improvements in cognitive functioning.

  19. Acquired 'theory of mind' impairments following stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happé, F; Brownell, H; Winner, E

    1999-04-01

    The ability to attribute thoughts and feelings to self and others ('theory of mind') has been hypothesised to have an innate neural basis and a dedicated cognitive mechanism. Evidence in favour of this proposal has come from autism; a brain-based developmental disorder which appears to be characterised by impaired theory of mind, despite sometimes good general reasoning skills/IQ. To date no case of specific acquired theory of mind impairment has been reported. The present study examined theory of mind in adults who had suffered right hemisphere stroke, a group known to show pragmatic and social difficulties. In one study using story materials and two using cartoons, patients' understanding of materials requiring attribution of mental states (e.g. ignorance, false belief) was significantly worse than their understanding of non-mental control materials. Data from healthy elderly subjects, and a small group of left hemisphere patients (who received the tasks in modified form), suggest that this impairment on mental state tasks is not a function of task difficulty. The findings support the notion of a dedicated cognitive system for theory of mind, and suggest a role for the healthy right hemisphere in the attribution of mental states.

  20. Tactile agnosia. Underlying impairment and implications for normal tactile object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, C L; Caselli, R J; Farah, M J

    1996-06-01

    In a series of experimental investigations of a subject with a unilateral impairment of tactile object recognition without impaired tactile sensation, several issues were addressed. First, is tactile agnosia secondary to a general impairment of spatial cognition? On tests of spatial ability, including those directed at the same spatial integration process assumed to be taxed by tactile object recognition, the subject performed well, implying a more specific impairment of high level, modality specific tactile perception. Secondly, within the realm of high level tactile perception, is there a distinction between the ability to derive shape ('what') and spatial ('where') information? Our testing showed an impairment confined to shape perception. Thirdly, what aspects of shape perception are impaired in tactile agnosia? Our results indicate that despite accurate encoding of metric length and normal manual exploration strategies, the ability tactually to perceive objects with the impaired hand, deteriorated as the complexity of shape increased. In addition, asymmetrical performance was not found for other body surfaces (e.g. her feet). Our results suggest that tactile shape perception can be disrupted independent of general spatial ability, tactile spatial ability, manual shape exploration, or even the precise perception of metric length in the tactile modality.

  1. Visual memory profiling with CANTAB in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juncos-Rabadán, Onésimo; Facal, David; Pereiro, Arturo X; Lojo-Seoane, Cristina

    2014-10-01

    Although visual memory has been shown to be impaired in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), the differences between MCI subtypes are not well defined. The current study attempted to investigate visual memory profiles in different MCI subtypes. One hundred and seventy volunteers aged older than 50 years performed several visual memory tests included in the CANTAB battery. Participants were classified into four groups: (1) multiple domain aMCI (mda-MCI) (32 subjects); (2) single domain aMCI (sda-MCI)(57 subjects); (3) multiple domain non amnestic MCI (mdna-MCI) (32 subjects); and (4) controls (54 healthy individuals without cognitive impairment). Parametric and non parametric analyses were performed to compare the groups and to obtain their corresponding memory profiles. The mda-MCI group exhibited impairments in both dimensions of episodic memory (recognition and recollection/recall), and also in learning and working memory, whereas the sda-MCI only showed impairment in recollection-delayed recall and learning. The mdna-MCI group displayed impairment in working memory but good preservation of learning and episodic memory. The CANTAB visual memory profiles may contribute to better cognitive characterization of patients with different MCI subtypes, allowing comparison across several processes involved in visual memory such as attention, recognition, recollection and working memory. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Cortical Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Cortical Visual Impairment En Español Read in Chinese What is cortical visual impairment? Cortical visual impairment (CVI) is a decreased ...

  3. Speech impairment (adult)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Language impairment; Impairment of speech; Inability to speak; Aphasia; Dysarthria; Slurred speech; Dysphonia voice disorders ... but anyone can develop a speech and language impairment suddenly, usually in a trauma. APHASIA Alzheimer disease ...

  4. Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language Specific Language Impairment On this page: What is specific language ... percent of children in kindergarten. What is specific language impairment? Specific language impairment (SLI) is a language ...

  5. [Temporal orientation and cognitive impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Turrado, T; Pascual-Millan, L F; Aguilar-Palacio, I; Burriel-Rosello, A; Santolaria-Martinez, L; Perez-Lazaro, C

    2011-03-16

    Temporal orientation is a component of most screening tests for diagnosing cognitive impairment. Correct temporal orientation involves activating both semantic information (concepts of the calendar date) and episodic information (remembering the current date). The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic usefulness of a technique for evaluating temporal orientation, which was open-ended, and scoring the semantic and episodic information thus generated (0-10 points). A total of 24 subjects without impairment, 77 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 62 patients with dementia were evaluated by means of a 30-point mini-mental/mini-examination, semantic verbal fluency test, global deterioration scale, mini-mental-type temporal orientation and open-ended temporal orientation tests. The areas under the curve (aROC), sensitivity and specificity for dementia and cognitive impairment at any degree (MCI and dementia) were analysed. Open-ended temporal orientation presented a greater area under the curve (aROC: 0.90) for discrimination between patients with dementia and without dementia (MCI and without impairment) and an aROC of 0.83 for discrimination between patients with MCI or dementia and without impairment. For dementia, with a cut-off point equal to or below 6, sensitivity was 0.96 and specificity was 0.68, and for MCI with dementia, with a cut-off point equal to or below 7, sensitivity was 0.72 and specificity was 0.92. The usefulness, conciseness and strategic position of this technique in examining mental status make it suitable as an instrument for screening for cognitive impairment. It has a high level of sensitivity with low specificity for dementia and low sensitivity with high specificity for any degree of impairment.

  6. Working memory contributions to reinforcement learning impairments in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Anne G E; Brown, Jaime K; Gold, James M; Waltz, James A; Frank, Michael J

    2014-10-08

    Previous research has shown that patients with schizophrenia are impaired in reinforcement learning tasks. However, behavioral learning curves in such tasks originate from the interaction of multiple neural processes, including the basal ganglia- and dopamine-dependent reinforcement learning (RL) system, but also prefrontal cortex-dependent cognitive strategies involving working memory (WM). Thus, it is unclear which specific system induces impairments in schizophrenia. We recently developed a task and computational model allowing us to separately assess the roles of RL (slow, cumulative learning) mechanisms versus WM (fast but capacity-limited) mechanisms in healthy adult human subjects. Here, we used this task to assess patients' specific sources of impairments in learning. In 15 separate blocks, subjects learned to pick one of three actions for stimuli. The number of stimuli to learn in each block varied from two to six, allowing us to separate influences of capacity-limited WM from the incremental RL system. As expected, both patients (n = 49) and healthy controls (n = 36) showed effects of set size and delay between stimulus repetitions, confirming the presence of working memory effects. Patients performed significantly worse than controls overall, but computational model fits and behavioral analyses indicate that these deficits could be entirely accounted for by changes in WM parameters (capacity and reliability), whereas RL processes were spared. These results suggest that the working memory system contributes strongly to learning impairments in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3413747-10$15.00/0.

  7. Relações entre processamento fonológico e linguagem escrita nos sujeitos com distúrbio específico de linguagem Relations between phonological processing and written language in subjects with specific language impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paola Nicolielo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: verificar a ocorrência de alterações nas habilidades da linguagem escrita e nas habilidades do PF em criança com DEL; comparar o desempenho entre crianças com DEL e com DTL quanto às diferentes habilidades do PF; verificar se há associação entre as habilidades do Processamento Fonológico e as de linguagem escrita em crianças com DEL. MÉTODO: 40 sujeitos, sendo 20 com diagnóstico de DEL (GE e 20 com DTL (GC com idades entre 7 e 10 anos de ambos os sexos. Para avaliação das habilidades do PF foram aplicados os seguintes procedimentos: prova de repetição de não palavras para avaliação da Memória de Trabalho Fonológica, Teste de Nomeação Automatizada Rápida para avaliação do Acesso Lexical e Perfil de Habilidades Fonológicas para avaliação da Consciência Fonológica. A escrita e a leitura foram avaliadas por meio dos subtestes presentes no Teste de Análise de Leitura e Escrita (ditado e escrita espontânea; leitura de texto e de compreensão de texto, respectivamente. Para analise estatística foi utilizado o teste Qui Quadrado, sendo adotado nível de significância estatística PURPOSE: to check the occurrence of alterations in language skills and writing skills of Phonological Processing (PP in children with SLI, compare the performance between children with SLI and Typical Language Development on the different abilities of PP; check for association between PP and skills of written language in children with SLI. METHOD: 40 subjects, 20 with SLI (EG and 20 with TLD (CG aged between 7 and 10 year old for both genders. To assess the abilities of PP we applied the following tests: proof of non word repetitions to assess phonological working memory (PWM, Rapid Automated Naming test (RAN for evaluating Lexical Access (LA and Phonological Abilities Profile for assessing phonological awareness (PA. Writing and reading were evaluated using the subtests present in Test for Análising Reading and Writing Skills

  8. The Effect of Management Compensation and Debt Requirements on Earnings Management Concerning The Impairment of Assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd Kevin Co Abrigo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study determines the relationship between the impairment decision, as well as its magnitude, and two earnings management motivations, namely increasing management compensation, and meeting debt requirements. The computation of value in use in the impairment loss is subject to management’s estimate of future cash flows and choice of discount rate, which tolerates earnings management. Certain indicators and financial ratios were used to depict the effect of the two motives on impairment. In addition to this, the effect of firm size on impairment was also analyzed. The data were obtained from the OSIRIS database and the SEC form 17-A of the respective companies, as well as from telephone interviews and surveys. Probit regression was used to analyze the effect of the different motives to the impairment decision while multiple linear regression was used for the impairment magnitude. The findings show that publicly listed companies in the Philippines are engaging in “income smoothing” and “big bath” accounting with the use of impairment. Results also indicate that most “big bath” happens during periods where changes in the company’s executive officers occur. Lastly, there is also evidence that financially strong companies are deferring their impairment recognition to obtain a lower cost of financing.

  9. The perception and expression of verb morphology in bilinguals with specific language impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hourieh Ahadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Most of the researches are about bilingual children with specific language impairment and importance of it in recognition and treatment. This study aimed to assess verb morphology in bilinguals with specific language impairment (SLI and compare them with normal bilinguals.Methods: Six bilingual (Azeri and Persian children with specific language impairment at the age of 7-8 years were collected from clinics of Tehran, Iran. They were evaluated about verb morphology using narrative speech and specific language impairment test and then, compared with six age-matched and six other language-matched children as control group. Children with specific language impairment were diagnosed by exhibiting a significant delay (more than one year in language that can not be explained by intelligence deficits, hearing loss or visual impairment. We used Man-Whitney test for comparing the groups.Results: Bilingual children with specific language impairment had delay in comparison with their age-matched group in subject-verb agreement (p=0.020 and articulating tense morphemes (p=0.019. They also had meaningful delay in using proper tense of verbs (past, present, and future in comparison with language-matched control group (p=0.029.Conclusion: Comparison of typical development of bilingual children and bilinguals with specific language impairment shows that verb morphology is a good clinical marker for diagnosing and treatment of these children.

  10. Evaluation of postural balance in mild cognitive impairment through a three-dimensional electromagnetic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Ana Paula Oliveira; Carneiro, José Ailton Oliveira; Zaia, José Eduardo; Carneiro, Antonio Adilton Oliveira; Takayanagui, Osvaldo Massaiti

    2016-01-01

    Elderly people with cognitive impairment are at greater risk for falls; thus, an understanding of the earliest stages of cognitive decline is necessary. To compare postural balance between elderly people with and without mild cognitive impairment using a three-dimensional system. Thirty elderly people with mild cognitive impairment and thirty healthy elderly subjects were selected. Static posturography was performed using three-dimensional electromagnetic equipment and the following parameters were evaluated: maximum displacement, mean speed and total trajectory. Open- and closed-eye stabilometric variable comparisons between groups and within each group were carried out, and a relationship between the Mini Mental State Examination and the total trajectory of all elderly subjects was determined. The analysis among open- and closed-eye conditions showed a significant difference in maximum anteroposterior displacement in the control group and a significant difference in all stabilometric variables in the mild cognitive impairment group. A significant difference between the groups in all variables in the closed-eye condition was observed. There was a strong correlation between cognitive performance and total trajectory. Evaluations showed decrease in balance in elderly people with mild cognitive impairment. Presence of anteroposterior displacement can be an early sign of postural control impairment, and the evaluation with visual restriction can be useful in detecting small postural instabilities. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Pragmatic Language Impairment and Associated Behavioural Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketelaars, Mieke P.; Cuperus, Juliane; Jansonius, Kino; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2010-01-01

    Background: Specific language impairment (SLI) is diagnosed when a child shows isolated structural language problems. The diagnosis of pragmatic language impairment (PLI) is given to children who show difficulties with the use of language in context. Unlike children with SLI, these children tend to show relatively intact structural language skills…

  12. Executive function impairments in depression and bipolar disorder: association with functional impairment and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotrena, Charles; Branco, Laura Damiani; Shansis, Flávio Milman; Fonseca, Rochele Paz

    2016-01-15

    The neuropsychological correlates of major depressive (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD), and their association with quality of life (QOL) and functioning, have not been sufficiently studied in the literature. The present study aimed to compare executive functions, attention, processing speed, QOL and disability between patients with BD type I, BD type II, MDD and healthy controls. 205 participants (n=37 BDI, 81% female; n=35 BDII, 80% female; n=45 MDD, 69% female; n=89C, 46% female) aged between 18 and 67 years were administered an extensive neurocognitive battery consisting of widely used standardized measures such as the Trail Making Test, the Stroop Color-Word Test and a modified version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task. Z-scores were compared between groups by ANCOVA. The prevalence of impairments on each measure (Z-scorequality of life and functioning were evaluated through correlational analysis. Patients with MDD showed poor selective and sustained attention, and exhibited impairments in timed tasks, suggesting low efficiency of executive processing. Patients with BDI displayed more widespread cognitive impairment than the remaining groups, and performed worse than subjects with MDD on measures of sustained attention and inhibitory control. Decision-making ability and attentional control were able to distinguish between patients with BDI and BDII. QOL and disability were most impaired in patients with BDI, and more closely associated with cognitive impairment than in the remaining groups. No control of pharmacological variables, clinical or demographic characteristics. Our results provide important information regarding the nature and severity of the cognitive alterations associated with different mood disorders, and may contribute to the diagnosis, rehabilitation and treatment of these conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Self-reported visual impairment and impact on vision-related activities in an elderly Nigerian population: report from the Ibadan study of ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekibele, Charles O; Gureje, Oye

    2008-01-01

    Studies have shown an association between visual impairment and poor overall function. Studies from Africa and developing countries show high prevalence of visual impairment. More information is needed on the community prevalence and impact of visual impairment among elderly Africans. A multi-stage stratified sampling of households was implemented to select persons aged 65 years and over in the south-western and north-central parts of Nigeria. Impairments of distant and near vision were based on subjective self-reports obtained with the use of items derived from the World Health Organization multi-country World Health Survey questionnaire. Impairment was defined as reporting much difficulty to questions on distant and near vision. Disabilities in activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) were evaluated by interview, using standardized scales. A total of 2054 subjects 957 (46.6%) males and 1097 (53.4) females responded to the questions on vision. 22% (n = 453) of the respondents reported distant vision impairment, and 18% (n = 377) reported near vision impairment (not mutually exclusive). Fifteen percent (n = 312), however, reported impairment for both far and near vision. Impairment of distant vision increased progressively with age (P Persons with self-reported near vision impairment had elevated risk of functional disability in several IADLs and ADLs than those with out. Distant vision impairment was less associated with role limitations in both ADLs and IADLs. The prevalence of self-reported distant visual impairment was high but that for near visual impairment was less than expected in this elderly African population. Impairment of near vision was found to carry with it a higher burden of functional disability than that of distant vision.

  14. Arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxuan; Lyu, Peiyuan; Ren, Yanyan; An, Jin; Dong, Yanhong

    2017-09-15

    Arterial stiffness is one of the earliest indicators of changes in vascular wall structure and function and may be assessed using various indicators, such as pulse-wave velocity (PWV), the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), the ankle-brachial index (ABI), pulse pressure (PP), the augmentation index (AI), flow-mediated dilation (FMD), carotid intima media thickness (IMT) and arterial stiffness index-β. Arterial stiffness is generally considered an independent predictor of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. To date, a significant number of studies have focused on the relationship between arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment. To investigate the relationships between specific arterial stiffness parameters and cognitive impairment, elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the relationship between arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment and determine how to interfere with arterial stiffness to prevent cognitive impairment, we searched PUBMED for studies regarding the relationship between arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment that were published from 2000 to 2017. We used the following key words in our search: "arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment" and "arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment mechanism". Studies involving human subjects older than 30years were included in the review, while irrelevant studies (i.e., studies involving subjects with comorbid kidney disease, diabetes and cardiac disease) were excluded from the review. We determined that arterial stiffness severity was positively correlated with cognitive impairment. Of the markers used to assess arterial stiffness, a higher PWV, CAVI, AI, IMT and index-β and a lower ABI and FMD were related to cognitive impairment. However, the relationship between PP and cognitive impairment remained controversial. The potential mechanisms linking arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment may be associated with arterial pulsatility, as greater arterial pulsatility

  15. Visual personal familiarity in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Jurjanz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment are at high risk for developing Alzheimer's disease. Besides episodic memory dysfunction they show deficits in accessing contextual knowledge that further specifies a general concept or helps to identify an object or a person. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the neural networks associated with the perception of personal familiar faces and places in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and healthy control subjects. Irrespective of stimulus type, patients compared to control subjects showed lower activity in right prefrontal brain regions when perceiving personally familiar versus unfamiliar faces and places. Both groups did not show different neural activity when perceiving faces or places irrespective of familiarity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data highlight changes in a frontal cortical network associated with knowledge-based personal familiarity among patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment. These changes could contribute to deficits in social cognition and may reduce the patients' ability to transition from basic to complex situations and tasks.

  16. Effective and Efficient Stand Magnifier Use in Visually Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebrand-Schurink, Joyce; Cox, Ralf F A; van Rens, Ger H M B; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Meulenbroek, Ruud G J; Boonstra, Frouke N

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze the effectiveness and efficiency of magnifier use in children with visual impairment who did not use a low vision aid earlier, in an ecologically valid goal-directed perceptuomotor task. Participants were twenty-nine 4- to 8-year-old children with visual impairment and 47 age-matched children with normal vision. After seeing a first symbol (an Lea Hyvärinen [LH] symbol), children were instructed to (1) move the stand magnifier as quickly as possible toward a small target symbol (another LH symbol that could only be seen by using the magnifier), (2) compare the two symbols, and (3) move the magnifier to one of two response areas to indicate whether the two symbols were identical. Performance was measured in terms of accuracy, response time, identification time, and movement time. Viewing distance, as well as hand and eye dominance while using the magnifier was assessed. There were no significant differences between the two groups in accuracy, reaction time, and movement time. Contrary to the prediction, children with visual impairment required less time to identify small symbols than children with normal vision. Both within-subject and between-subject variability in viewing distance were smaller in the visually impaired group than in the normally sighted group. In the visually impaired group, a larger viewing distance was associated with shorter identification time, which in turn was associated with higher accuracy. In the normally sighted group, a faster movement with the magnifier and a faster identification were associated with increasing age. The findings indicate that children with visual impairment can use the stand magnifier adequately and efficiently. The normally sighted children show an age-related development in movement time and identification time and show more variability in viewing distance, which is not found in visually impaired children. Visually impaired children seem to choose a standard but less

  17. Effective and Efficient Stand Magnifier Use in Visually Impaired Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebrand-Schurink, Joyce; Cox, Ralf F. A.; van Rens, Ger H. M. B.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Meulenbroek, Ruud G. J.; Boonstra, Frouke N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The main objective of this study was to analyze the effectiveness and efficiency of magnifier use in children with visual impairment who did not use a low vision aid earlier, in an ecologically valid goal-directed perceptuomotor task. Methods: Participants were twenty-nine 4- to 8-year-old children with visual impairment and 47 age-matched children with normal vision. After seeing a first symbol (an Lea Hyvärinen [LH] symbol), children were instructed to (1) move the stand magnifier as quickly as possible toward a small target symbol (another LH symbol that could only be seen by using the magnifier), (2) compare the two symbols, and (3) move the magnifier to one of two response areas to indicate whether the two symbols were identical. Performance was measured in terms of accuracy, response time, identification time, and movement time. Viewing distance, as well as hand and eye dominance while using the magnifier was assessed. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in accuracy, reaction time, and movement time. Contrary to the prediction, children with visual impairment required less time to identify small symbols than children with normal vision. Both within-subject and between-subject variability in viewing distance were smaller in the visually impaired group than in the normally sighted group. In the visually impaired group, a larger viewing distance was associated with shorter identification time, which in turn was associated with higher accuracy. In the normally sighted group, a faster movement with the magnifier and a faster identification were associated with increasing age. Conclusion: The findings indicate that children with visual impairment can use the stand magnifier adequately and efficiently. The normally sighted children show an age-related development in movement time and identification time and show more variability in viewing distance, which is not found in visually impaired children. Visually impaired

  18. Impaired insight in cocaine addiction: laboratory evidence and effects on cocaine-seeking behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, S.J.; Moeller, S.J.; Maloney, T.; Parvaz, M.A.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik, P.A.; Telang, F.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2010-04-15

    Neuropsychiatric disorders are often characterized by impaired insight into behaviour. Such an insight deficit has been suggested, but never directly tested, in drug addiction. Here we tested for the first time this impaired insight hypothesis in drug addiction, and examined its potential association with drug-seeking behaviour. We also tested potential modulation of these effects by cocaine urine status, an individual difference known to impact underlying cognitive functions and prognosis. Sixteen cocaine addicted individuals testing positive for cocaine in urine, 26 cocaine addicted individuals testing negative for cocaine in urine, and 23 healthy controls completed a probabilistic choice task that assessed objective preference for viewing four types of pictures (pleasant, unpleasant, neutral and cocaine). This choice task concluded by asking subjects to report their most selected picture type; correspondence between subjects self-reports with their objective choice behaviour provided our index of behavioural insight. Results showed that the urine positive cocaine subjects exhibited impaired insight into their own choice behaviour compared with healthy controls; this same study group also selected the most cocaine pictures (and fewest pleasant pictures) for viewing. Importantly, however, it was the urine negative cocaine subjects whose behaviour was most influenced by insight, such that impaired insight in this subgroup only was associated with higher cocaine-related choice on the task and more severe actual cocaine use. These findings suggest that interventions to enhance insight may decrease drug-seeking behaviour, especially in urine negative cocaine subjects, potentially to improve their longer-term clinical outcomes.

  19. Impaired insight in cocaine addiction: laboratory evidence and effects on cocaine-seeking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Scott J; Maloney, Thomas; Parvaz, Muhammad A; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Woicik, Patricia A; Telang, Frank; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D; Goldstein, Rita Z

    2010-05-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders are often characterized by impaired insight into behaviour. Such an insight deficit has been suggested, but never directly tested, in drug addiction. Here we tested for the first time this impaired insight hypothesis in drug addiction, and examined its potential association with drug-seeking behaviour. We also tested potential modulation of these effects by cocaine urine status, an individual difference known to impact underlying cognitive functions and prognosis. Sixteen cocaine addicted individuals testing positive for cocaine in urine, 26 cocaine addicted individuals testing negative for cocaine in urine, and 23 healthy controls completed a probabilistic choice task that assessed objective preference for viewing four types of pictures (pleasant, unpleasant, neutral and cocaine). This choice task concluded by asking subjects to report their most selected picture type; correspondence between subjects' self-reports with their objective choice behaviour provided our index of behavioural insight. Results showed that the urine positive cocaine subjects exhibited impaired insight into their own choice behaviour compared with healthy controls; this same study group also selected the most cocaine pictures (and fewest pleasant pictures) for viewing. Importantly, however, it was the urine negative cocaine subjects whose behaviour was most influenced by insight, such that impaired insight in this subgroup only was associated with higher cocaine-related choice on the task and more severe actual cocaine use. These findings suggest that interventions to enhance insight may decrease drug-seeking behaviour, especially in urine negative cocaine subjects, potentially to improve their longer-term clinical outcomes.

  20. Cortical visual impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Koželj, Urša

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we discuss cortical visual impairment, diagnosis that is in the developed world in first place, since 20 percent of children with blindness or low vision are diagnosed with it. The objectives of the thesis are to define cortical visual impairment and the definition of characters suggestive of the cortical visual impairment as well as to search for causes that affect the growing diagnosis of cortical visual impairment. There are a lot of signs of cortical visual impairment. ...

  1. Subjective memory complaints and personality traits in normal elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänninen, T; Reinikainen, K J; Helkala, E L; Koivisto, K; Mykkänen, L; Laakso, M; Pyörälä, K; Riekkinen, P J

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between objectively measured memory functions and subjective complaints of memory disturbance and whether subjective complaints are affected by some personality traits or affective states. Cross-sectional two-group comparison. The city of Kuopio in Eastern Finland, considered representative of the urban elderly population of Finland. Originally 403 subjects aged 67-78 years from the random sample and then two matched study groups initially including eighteen subjects but only ten in the final analysis. Screening and follow-up examinations of subjects with and without subjective memory complaints: (1) Memory functions: Benton's visual retention test and the paired-associated learning subtest of Wechsler Memory Scale. (2) Memory complaints: Memory Complaint Questionnaire. (3) Personality traits and affective state: Two subscales from Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and Geriatric Depression Scale. Complaints of memory loss did not correlate with the actual memory performance in the tests. However, those subjects who most emphatically complained of memory disturbance had greater tendencies toward somatic complaining, higher feelings of anxiety about their physical health, and more negative feelings of their own competence and capabilities than those who did not complain of memory deterioration associated with aging. The study suggests that subjective feelings of memory impairment are more closely associated with personality traits than with actual memory performance in normal elderly people.

  2. Chemosensory impairment does not diminish eating pleasure and appetite in independently living older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arganini, Claudia; Sinesio, Fiorella

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate the impact of chemosensory impairment on diminished eating pleasure and appetite in independently living Italian older adults. 239 individuals (65 to 101 years old, 157 women), with no severe medical conditions and good cognitive performance were recruited. Olfactory and gustatory functions were measured using a short version of Sniffin' Sticks and Taste Strips tests (Burghart). Information about socio-demographic characteristics, health, perceived smell and taste impairment, diminished eating pleasure and appetite were obtained with a specially designed questionnaire. Prevalence of chemosensory impairment detected in this sample is high, being 41% for taste and 33% for olfaction. However, the frequency of self-reported impairment is consistently lower than the measured one, especially in men and in older subjects. Measured chemosensory impairment is not significantly related with eating pleasure and appetite. On the other hand, factors significantly influencing decline of eating pleasure are: living alone, dietary restriction and perceived taste impairment. Meanwhile, a significant influence of dietary restriction, dentures and subjective health status on appetite decline is observed. The results of this study show that chemosensory impairment may not be related with diminished eating pleasure and appetite, while other non-physiological factors such as loneliness, dietary restrictions and subjective health should be taken more into account in order to develop effective strategies to counteract malnutrition in the elderly. In addition, low awareness of chemosensory impairment among this sample highlights the importance of measuring sensory acuity rather than asking by questionnaire or interview, in order to obtain reliable data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Impaired Limb Proprioception in Adults With Spasmodic Dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konczak, Jürgen; Aman, Joshua E; Chen, Yu-Wen; Li, Kuan-yi; Watson, Peter J

    2015-11-01

    Focal dystonia of the head and neck are associated with a loss of kinesthetic acuity at muscles distant from the dystonic sites. That is, while the motor deficits in focal dystonia are confined, the associated somatosensory deficits are generalized. This is the first systematic study to examine, if patients diagnosed with spasmodic dystonia (SD) show somatosensory impairments similar in scope to other forms of focal dystonia. Proprioceptive acuity (ability to discriminate between two stimuli) for forearm position and motion sense was assessed in 14 spasmodic dystonia subjects and 28 age-matched controls using a passive motion apparatus. Psychophysical thresholds, uncertainty area (UA), and a proprioceptive acuity index (AI) were computed based on the subjects' verbal responses. The main findings are as follows: first, the SD group showed significantly elevated thresholds and UAs for forearm position sense compared with the control group. Second, 9 of 14 dystonia subjects (64%) exhibited an AI for position sense above the control group maximum. Three SD subjects had a motion sense AI above the control group maximum. The results indicate that impaired limb proprioception is a common feature of SD. Like other forms of focal dystonia, spasmodic dystonia does affect the somatosensation of nondystonic muscle systems. That is, SD is associated with a generalized somatosensory deficit. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Carotid intima-media thickness is associated with the progression of cognitive impairment in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jae Hoon; Lim, Soo; Han, Ji Won; Kim, Kyoung Min; Choi, Sung Hee; Park, Kyong Soo; Kim, Ki Woong; Jang, Hak Chul

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the association between cardiovascular risk factors, including carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and future risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia in elderly subjects. We conducted a population-based prospective study as a part of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging. Our study included 348 participants who were nondemented at the baseline (mean age, 71.7±6.3 years) and underwent cognitive evaluation at the 5-year follow-up. Baseline cardiovascular risk factors were compared according to the development of MCI or dementia during the study period. At the baseline evaluation, 278 subjects were cognitively normal and 70 subjects had MCI. Diagnoses of cognitive function either remained unchanged or improved during the study period in 292 subjects (nonprogression group), whereas 56 subjects showed progression of cognitive impairment to MCI or dementia (progression group). The progression group exhibited a higher prevalence of hypertension and greater CIMT compared with the nonprogression group. Other baseline cardiovascular risk factors, including sex, body mass index, diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, total cholesterol, waist-to-hip ratio, visceral fat, pulse wave velocity, and ankle-brachial index, were not significantly different between 2 groups. The association between greater baseline CIMT and the progression of cognitive impairment was maintained after adjustment for conventional baseline risk factors of cognitive impairment. Greater baseline CIMT was also independently associated with the development of MCI in the subjects whose baseline cognitive function was normal. Greater baseline CIMT was independently associated with the risk of cognitive impairment, such as MCI and dementia in elderly subjects. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Language Impairment and Generative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Stopar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with different types of language impairment from the perspective of generative grammar. The paper focuses on syntactic deficiencies observed in aphasic and SLI (specific language impairment patients. We show that the observed ungrammatical structures do not appear in a random fashion but can be predicted by that theory of universal sentence structure which posits a strict hierarchy of its constituent parts. The article shows that while the hierarchically lower elements remain unaffected, the higher positions in the hierarchy show various degrees of syntactic impairment. The paper supports the implementation of recent developments in the field of generative grammar with the intention of encouraging further theoretical, experimental and therapeutic research in the field.

  6. Steady-state pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and tolerability of donepezil hydrochloride in hepatically impaired patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Josephine F; Vargas, Ramon; Kumar, Dinesh; Cullen, Edward I; Perdomo, Carlos A; Pratt, Raymond D

    2004-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), tolerability and safety of donepezil HCl 5 mg following oral doses for 1 and 24 days in hepatically impaired patients compared with healthy controls under steady-state, multiple-dose conditions. Methods In this single-centre, multiple-dose, open-label study, patients with impaired hepatic function (Child–Pugh grade A or B) and healthy controls (matched by gender, age and weight to the hepatically impaired patients) received a single 5 mg dose of donepezil on day 1 and then donepezil HCl 5 mg once daily from days 6 to 29. PK and PD (determination of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase inhibition) parameters were evaluated on days 1 and 29. Treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs), vital signs, physical examination and clinical laboratory test parameters were monitored throughout the study. Results A total of 35 subjects (18 patients with hepatic impairment and 17 healthy controls) were enrolled and 32 subjects (16 in each group) completed the study. On day 1 (following a single dose) hepatically impaired patients showed a significant decrease in Tmax, while t½ and AUC0–∞ were significantly increased compared with the healthy controls. On day 29 (following multiple doses), AUC0–24 h, Cmax, t½, CSS, and RA were significantly increased in hepatically impaired patients compared with healthy controls. AUC0–24 h increased by 47.6% in the patients with hepatic impairment compared with the healthy controls. There were no significant differences in PD between the groups, although at steady state, the mean AChE inhibition was 16.2% higher in the hepatically impaired patients. No serious AEs were reported and no subject withdrew from the study due to AEs. The most common AEs in both groups were headache and diarrhoea. No clinically significant changes from baseline were observed in vital signs, physical examination findings or electrocardiograms. There was a significant difference in the number of

  7. [Early episodic memory impairments in Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergis, A-M; Eusop-Roussel, E

    2008-05-01

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) show early episodic memory impairments. Such deficits reflect specific impairments affecting one or several stages of encoding, storage and retrieval processes. However, AD patients not only have great difficulty retrieving memories and information but also suffer from distortions of memory, as intrusions and false recognitions. Intrusions can be defined as the unintentional recall of inappropriate information in a laboratory-learning tasks such as word-list recall and story recall. False recognition refers to the erroneous recognition of information that was not previously presented. The first objective of this review is to present studies from the literature that allowed a better understanding of the nature of episodic memory deficits in AD, and to examine recent research on false memories. The second part of this review is aimed at presenting recent research conducted on prospective memory (PM) in Alzheimer's disease. Prospective memory situations involve forming intentions and then realizing those intentions at some appropriate time in the future. Everyday examples of prospective memory include remembering to buy bread on the way home from work, remembering to give friends a message upon next encountering them, and remembering to take medication. Patients suffering from AD show difficulties in performing prospective tasks in daily life, according to the complaints of their care givers, and these difficulties are massively present at the first stages of the disease. Nevertheless, very few studies have been dedicated to this subject, although the evaluation of PM could be helpful for the early diagnosis of AD.

  8. Pragmatic language impairment and associated behavioural problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaars, M.P.; Cuperus, J.; Jansonius, K.; Verhoeven, L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Specific language impairment (SLI) is diagnosed when a child shows isolated structural language problems. The diagnosis of pragmatic language impairment (PLI) is given to children who show difficulties with the use of language in context. Unlike children with SLI, these children tend to

  9. Executive attention deficits after traumatic brain injury reflect impaired recruitment of resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhin A Shah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficits in attention are a common and devastating consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI, leading to functional impairments, rehabilitation barriers, and long-term disability. While such deficits are well documented, little is known about their underlying pathophysiology hindering development of effective and targeted interventions. Here we evaluate the integrity of brain systems specific to attentional functions using quantitative assessments of electroencephalography recorded during performance of the Attention Network Test (ANT, a behavioral paradigm that separates alerting, orienting, and executive components of attention. We studied 13 patients, at least 6 months post-TBI with cognitive impairments, and 24 control subjects. Based on performance on the ANT, TBI subjects showed selective impairment in executive attention. In TBI subjects, principal component analysis combined with spectral analysis of the EEG after target appearance extracted a pattern of increased frontal midline theta power (2.5–7.5 Hz and suppression of frontal beta power (12.5–22.5 Hz. Individual expression of this pattern correlated (r = −0.67, p < 0.001 with executive attention impairment. The grading of this pattern of spatiotemporal dynamics with executive attention deficits reflects impaired recruitment of anterior forebrain resources following TBI; specifically, deafferentation and variable disfacilitation of medial frontal neuronal populations is proposed as the basis of our findings.

  10. Visual impairment in the hearing impaired students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogate, Parikshit; Rishikeshi, Nikhil; Mehata, Reshma; Ranade, Satish; Kharat, Jitesh; Deshpande, Madan

    2009-01-01

    Ocular problems are more common in children with hearing problems than in normal children. Neglected visual impairment could aggravate educational and social disability. To detect and treat visual impairment, if any, in hearing-impaired children. Observational, clinical case series of hearing-impaired children in schools providing special education. Hearing-impaired children in selected schools underwent detailed visual acuity testing, refraction, external ocular examination and fundoscopy. Ocular motility testing was also performed. Teachers were sensitized and trained to help in the assessment of visual acuity using Snellen's E charts. Refractive errors and squint were treated as per standard practice. Excel software was used for data entry and SSPS for analysis. The study involved 901 hearing-impaired students between four and 21 years of age, from 14 special education schools. A quarter of them (216/901, 24%) had ocular problems. Refractive errors were the most common morbidity 167(18.5%), but only 10 children were using appropriate spectacle correction at presentation. Fifty children had visual acuity less than 20/80 at presentation; after providing refractive correction, this number reduced to three children, all of whom were provided low-vision aids. Other common conditions included strabismus in 12 (1.3%) children, and retinal pigmentary dystrophy in five (0.6%) children. Ocular problems are common in hearing-impaired children. Screening for ocular problems should be made mandatory in hearing-impaired children, as they use their visual sense to compensate for the poor auditory sense.

  11. [A project for the occupational reintegration of impaired subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodaglio, E M; Giorgi, I; Capodaglio, P; Morelli, L; Mattazzi, G M; Nervi, O

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we have explained the criteria for an integrated socio-medical intervention (Local Health Care Institution, Cooperation, Scientific Institute of Care and Research) within the frame of a Communitary Initiative titled "Local network for return to work of persons with social disadvantage". The goal of the Initiative is to "create and experiment new facilities to support intervention strategies for return-to-work, and to start a virtuous circle matching the demands of both the disadvantaged persons and the local labour market". In the paper we describe the functional evaluations, performed in the Medical Center of Pavia by specialists in the field of Rehabilitation, Psychology and Ergonomy, and the following return-to-work phase, performed by operators of the Cooperation.

  12. Diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, and cognitive decline in a population of elderly community residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouch, Isabelle; Roche, Frédéric; Dauphinot, Virginie; Laurent, Bernard; Antérion, Catherine Thomas; Celle, Sébastien; Krolak-Salmon, Pierre; Barthélémy, Jean-Claude

    2012-08-01

    Diabetes and impaired fasting glucose, as well as cognitive impairment, are common in the elderly. Although several cross-sectional studies have demonstrated the influence of diabetes on cognitive impairment, only a few longitudinal studies have assessed the relationship between diabetes, impaired fasting glucose and cognitive decline in non-demented elderly community dwellers, by means of extensive neuropsychological batteries. The present study assesses the relationship between baseline diabetes, impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and 2- year evolution of memory, attention and executive performance in a sample of non-demented elderly subjects. Population-based cohort study [(PROgnostic indicator OF cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (PROOF)]. One hundred and sixty-three community dwellers aged 65 years without dementia at recruitment. Memory, attention and executive performance. A significant association was observed between baseline diabetes mellitus and a higher 2-year decline in the Trial Making Test B and Stroop test exploring attention and executive function. This effect remained significant after adjusting for age, gender, education, anxiety and depressive symptoms, as well as other cardiovascular risk factors (F=2.41; p=0.007). Instead, no relationship was observed between IFG and cognitive decline. Our study showed that, in a sample of elderly non-demented community dwellers, diabetes mellitus (but not IFG) is associated with a higher decline in selective attention and executive functioning. These results emphasize the importance of detecting and man- aging diabetes and impaired fasting glucose, in order to prevent cognitive impairment and dementia.

  13. The nature of verbal short-term impairment in dyslexia: The importance of serial order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Majerus

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Verbal short-term memory (STM impairment is one of the most consistent associated deficits observed in developmental reading disorders such as dyslexia. Few studies have addressed the nature of this STM impairment, especially as regards the ability to temporarily store serial order information. This question is important as studies in typically developing children have shown that serial order STM abilities are predictors of oral and written language development. Associated serial order STM deficits in dyslexia may therefore further increase the learning difficulties in these populations. In this mini review, we show that specific serial order STM impairment is frequently reported in both dyslexic children and adults with a history of dyslexia. Serial order STM impairment appears to occur for the retention of both verbal and visuo-spatial sequence information. Serial order STM impairment is however not a characteristic of every individual dyslexic subject and is not specific to dyslexia. Future studies need to determine whether serial order STM impairment is a risk factor which, in association with phonological processing deficits, can lead to dyslexia or whether serial order STM impairment reflects associated deficits causally unrelated to dyslexia.

  14. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who Knows What? (log-in required) Select Page Visual Impairment, Including Blindness Mar 31, 2017 Links updated, ... doesn’t wear his glasses. Back to top Visual Impairments in Children Vision is one of our ...

  15. Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) Overview Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate stage between the expected cognitive decline of normal aging and the more-serious decline of dementia. It can involve ...

  16. Kids' Quest: Vision Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact Check Up Tourette Questions I Have Vision Impairment Quest Vision Fact Check Up Vision Questions I ... Tweet Share Compartir What should you know? Vision impairment means that a person’s eyesight cannot be corrected ...

  17. Intracranial stenosis in cognitive impairment and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilal, Saima; Xu, Xin; Ikram, M Kamran; Vrooman, Henri; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Chen, Christopher

    2017-06-01

    Intracranial stenosis is a common vascular lesion observed in Asian and other non-Caucasian stroke populations. However, its role in cognitive impairment and dementia has been under-studied. We, therefore, examined the association of intracranial stenosis with cognitive impairment, dementia and their subtypes in a memory clinic case-control study, where all subjects underwent detailed neuropsychological assessment and 3 T neuroimaging including three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography. Intracranial stenosis was defined as ≥50% narrowing in any of the intracranial arteries. A total of 424 subjects were recruited of whom 97 were classified as no cognitive impairment, 107 as cognitive impairment no dementia, 70 vascular cognitive impairment no dementia, 121 Alzheimer's Disease, and 30 vascular dementia. Intracranial stenosis was associated with dementia (age/gender/education - adjusted odds ratios (OR): 4.73, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.93-11.60) and vascular cognitive impairment no dementia (OR: 3.98, 95% CI: 1.59-9.93). These associations were independent of cardiovascular risk factors and MRI markers. However, the association with Alzheimer's Disease and vascular dementia became attenuated in the presence of white matter hyperintensities. Intracranial stenosis is associated with vascular cognitive impairment no dementia independent of MRI markers. In Alzheimer's Disease and vascular dementia, this association is mediated by cerebrovascular disease. Future studies focusing on perfusion and functional markers are needed to determine the pathophysiological mechanism(s) linking intracranial stenosis and cognition so as to identify treatment strategies.

  18. Anosognosia for memory deficit in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeone, Filomena; Pappalardo, Stella; Chieffi, Sergio; Iavarone, Alessandro; Carlomagno, Sergio

    2011-07-01

    to investigate patterns of anosognosia for memory deficit in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). the study involved twenty-five subjects with MCI, 15 with mild AD and 21 normal controls (NC). Subjective rating of memory functioning was assessed with a six-items questionnaire that was administered before and after memory testing; an informant version from caregivers gave a discrepancy score (SRD). In the Objective Judgement (OJ) task, aiming to evaluate memory-monitoring abilities, subjects were requested three times to predict their memory performance in recalling words from a list of ten. Then they had to recall the words. Prediction accuracy was computed by subtracting the predicted performance from the actual performance. MCI and AD showed reduced awareness of memory difficulties at the SRD and did not change their rating of these difficulties after memory testing. At the OJ task, MCI and AD consistently overestimated their memory performances as compared with NC. The SRD and OJ measures were not correlated with some patients being impaired on only one measure. Only the OJ measure was significantly related to executive functioning. AD and MCI subjects show unawareness for memory deficit and significant memory-monitoring disorder. This confirms that anosognosia is an important symptom of MCI. Similarities of patterns of impaired awareness between AD and MCI supports the view of a continuum of the anosognosia phenomenon in MCI and AD. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Etesam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment can emerge in the earliest phases of multiple sclerosis. It strongly impacts different aspects of Multiple Sclerosis (MS patients' lives, like employment, social relationships and the overall quality of life; thus, its on-time recognition and treatment is mandatory. This paper discusses issues, diagnostic methods and treatment options for cognitive dysfunctions in MS. This paper is a descriptive review of the related studies in the recent 10 years, performing a keyword search in the main databases4T. Cognitive impairment mostly involves aspects of information processing, memory and executive functioning in MS. Neuropsychological tests like MACFIMS and BRB-N are recommended for its assessment. Still, there is no fully efficient treatment for cognitive impairment. Researchers have shown some positive effects, using disease-modifying therapies and cognitive rehabilitation. Depression, pain, fatigue and other factors influencing cognitive functions must be paid attention to4T. Recognizing cognitive impairment as a major symptom for MS, makes studying this subject one of the priorities in dealing with the disease. Therefore, a consecutive research for identification and management of this part of quality of life in MS patients is obligatory4T.4T

  20. Cognitive variability in bipolar II disorder: who is cognitively impaired and who is preserved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Brisa; Jiménez, Esther; Torrent, Carla; Del Mar Bonnin, Caterina; Torres, Imma; Reinares, María; Priego, Ángel; Salamero, Manel; Colom, Francesc; Varo, Cristina; Vieta, Eduard; Martínez-Arán, Anabel

    2016-05-01

    Although it is well established that euthymic patients with bipolar disorder can have cognitive impairment, substantial heterogeneity exists and little is known about the extent and severity of impairment within the bipolar II disorder subtype. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to analyze cognitive variability in a sample of patients with bipolar II disorder. The neuropsychological performance of 116 subjects, including 64 euthymic patients with bipolar II disorder and 52 healthy control subjects, was examined and compared by means of a comprehensive neurocognitive battery. Neurocognitive data were analyzed using a cluster analysis to examine whether there were specific groups based on neurocognitive patterns. Subsequently, subjects from each cluster were compared on demographic, clinical, and functional variables. A three-cluster solution was identified with an intact neurocognitive group (n = 29, 48.3%), an intermediate or selectively impaired group (n = 24, 40.0%), and a globally impaired group (n = 7, 11.6%). Among the three clusters, statistically significant differences were observed in premorbid intelligence quotient (p = 0.002), global functional outcome (p = 0.021), and leisure activities (p = 0.001), with patients in the globally impaired cluster showing the lowest attainments. No differences in other clinical characteristics were found among the groups. These results confirm that neurocognitive variability is also present among patients with bipolar II disorder. Approximately one-half of the patients with bipolar II disorder were cognitively impaired, and among them 12% were severely and globally impaired. The identification of different cognitive profiles may help to develop cognitive remediation programs specifically tailored for each cognitive profile. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Impaired coherence of life narratives of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allé, Mélissa C; Potheegadoo, Jevita; Köber, Christin; Schneider, Priscille; Coutelle, Romain; Habermas, Tilmann; Danion, Jean-Marie; Berna, Fabrice

    2015-08-10

    Self-narratives of patients have received increasing interest in schizophrenia since they offer unique material to study patients' subjective experience related to their illness, in particular the alteration of self that accompanies schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated the life narratives and the ability to integrate and bind memories of personal events into a coherent narrative in 27 patients with schizophrenia and 26 controls. Four aspects of life narratives were analyzed: coherence with cultural concept of biography, temporal coherence, causal-motivational coherence and thematic coherence. Results showed that in patients cultural biographical knowledge is preserved, whereas temporal coherence is partially impaired. Furthermore, causal-motivational and thematic coherence are significantly impaired: patients have difficulties explaining how events have modeled their identity, and integrating different events along thematic lines. Impairment of global causal-motivational and thematic coherence was significantly correlated with patients' executive dysfunction, suggesting that cognitive impairment observed in patients could affect their ability to construct a coherent narrative of their life by binding important events to their self. This study provides new understanding of the cognitive deficits underlying self-disorders in patients with schizophrenia. Our findings suggest the potential usefulness of developing new therapeutic interventions to improve autobiographical reasoning skills.

  2. Impaired glucose effectiveness in chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Regine; Laube, Heiner; Laube, Heiner; Linn, Thomas; Pabst, Wolfgang; Damian, Maxwell S

    2002-06-01

    Mitochondrial gene mutations have been recognized to be associated with diabetes mellitus. The incidence of diabetes mellitus in patients with other mitochondrial diseases, such as chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO), seems to be several times higher than in the normal population. The aim of the present investigation was to study insulin sensitivity index (SI), insulin secretion (AIR(Glucose)), and glucose effectiveness (Sg) in patients with CPEO. Six unrelated patients with CPEO and 6 matched-pair, unrelated, healthy control subjects underwent a modified intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) (Bergman's minimal model). Three patients demonstrated an impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), 1 patient already had diabetes mellitus. No significant difference between patients and controls could be demonstrated for SI, AIR(Glucose), or fasting insulin. However, there was a significant difference for glucose effectiveness Sg (P =.016) indicating an impaired glucose effectiveness in the CPEO patients. The diabetic patient showed insulin resistance, low AIR(Glucose), and low Sg. We conclude that there is a high incidence of IGT and diabetes mellitus in patients with CPEO. Impaired glucose effectiveness seems to play a major role in early pathogenesis. Overt diabetes in CPEO seems to be a combination of insulin resistance, an insulin secretion defect, and impaired glucose effectiveness. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  3. Subclinical naming errors in mild cognitive impairment: A semantic deficit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra F. Willers

    Full Text Available Abstract Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is the transitional stage between normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD. Impairments in semantic memory have been demonstrated to be a critical factor in early AD. The Boston Naming Test (BNT is a straightforward method of examining semantic or visuo-perceptual processing and therefore represents a potential diagnostic tool. The objective of this study was to examine naming ability and identify error types in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. Methods: Twenty aMCI patients, twenty AD patients and twenty-one normal controls, matched by age, sex and education level were evaluated. As part of a further neuropsychological evaluation, all subjects performed the BNT. A comprehensive classification of error types was devised in order to compare performance and ascertain semantic or perceptual origin of errors. Results: AD patients obtained significantly lower total scores on the BNT than aMCI patients and controls. aMCI patients did not obtain significant differences in total scores, but showed significantly higher semantic errors compared to controls. Conclusion: This study reveals that semantic processing is impaired during confrontation naming in aMCI.

  4. Normal movement reading in Asperger subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avikainen, S; Kulomäki, T; Hari, R

    1999-11-26

    Patients with autism and Asperger syndrome (AS) are impaired in mindreading and imitation skills. One possibility would be that their 'mirror neuron' system, which matches action execution and observation, does not function properly. To test this hypothesis we compared action-viewing related motor cortex functions in an AS group (one autistic and four AS subjects) and eight control subjects. In both groups viewing hand actions modified the neuromagnetic approximately 20 Hz oscillatory activity in the primary motor cortex to the same extent. Thus impaired mindreading and imitation skills found in AS and autism do not seem to result from dysfunction of the motor cortex part of the action execution/observation system.

  5. Chronic Liver Disease Impairs Bacterial Clearance in a Human Model of Induced Bacteremia

    OpenAIRE

    Ashare, Alix; Stanford, Clark; Hancock, Patricia; Stark, Donna; Lilli, Kathleen; Birrer, Emily; Nymon, Amanda; Doerschug, Kevin C.; Hunninghake, Gary W

    2009-01-01

    Sepsis often causes impaired hepatic function. Patients with liver disease have an increased risk of bacteremia. This is thought to be secondary to impaired reticuloendothelial system function. However, this has not been demonstrated clinically. Since transient bacteremia occurs following toothbrushing, we hypothesized that subjects with cirrhosis would have impaired bacterial clearance following toothbrushing compared with subjects with pulmonary disease and healthy controls. After baseline ...

  6. Visual impairment in the hearing impaired students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogate Parikshit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Ocular problems are more common in children with hearing problems than in normal children. Neglected visual impairment could aggravate educational and social disability. Aim : To detect and treat visual impairment, if any, in hearing-impaired children. Setting and Design : Observational, clinical case series of hearing-impaired children in schools providing special education. Materials and Methods : Hearing-impaired children in selected schools underwent detailed visual acuity testing, refraction, external ocular examination and fundoscopy. Ocular motility testing was also performed. Teachers were sensitized and trained to help in the assessment of visual acuity using Snellen′s E charts. Refractive errors and squint were treated as per standard practice. Statistical Analysis : Excel software was used for data entry and SSPS for analysis. Results : The study involved 901 hearing-impaired students between four and 21 years of age, from 14 special education schools. A quarter of them (216/901, 24% had ocular problems. Refractive errors were the most common morbidity 167(18.5%, but only 10 children were using appropriate spectacle correction at presentation. Fifty children had visual acuity less than 20/80 at presentation; after providing refractive correction, this number reduced to three children, all of whom were provided low-vision aids. Other common conditions included strabismus in 12 (1.3% children, and retinal pigmentary dystrophy in five (0.6% children. Conclusion : Ocular problems are common in hearing-impaired children. Screening for ocular problems should be made mandatory in hearing-impaired children, as they use their visual sense to compensate for the poor auditory sense.

  7. Memory Impairment in Children with Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Gillian; Dworzynski, Katharina; Slonims, Vicky; Simonoff, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess whether any memory impairment co-occurring with language impairment is global, affecting both verbal and visual domains, or domain specific. Method: Visual and verbal memory, learning, and processing speed were assessed in children aged 6 years to 16 years 11 months (mean 9y 9m, SD 2y 6mo) with current,…

  8. Evidence for impaired visual context processing in schizotypy with thought disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlhaas, Peter J; Silverstein, Steven M; Phillips, William A; Lovell, Paul G

    2004-06-01

    Visual context processing was examined in relation to schizotypy in a large nonclinical university population. Schizotypal status was assessed with the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) [Schizophr. Bull. 17 (1991) 555]. Schizotypal (n=32) and non-schizotypal (n=37) subjects were tested on a contour integration task (where context processing is necessary for good performance) and a visual size perception task (where context processing impairs accurate performance). In addition, a short form of the Thought Disorder Index (TDI) [Psychol. Assess. 5 (1993) 75] was administered to 28 schizotypal subjects. Thought disordered schizotypal subjects showed significantly impaired performance on the contour integration task but more accurate performance on the visual size perception task. These results support the hypothesis that deficits in visual context processing are the manifestation of a larger disturbance of cognitive coordination in schizotypy and schizophrenia.

  9. Voyeurismo Televisivo, Reality Shows e Brasilidade Televisiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Kilpp

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last years we watched a boom of reality shows in the media and also in the academic production specialized in this subject. It remains, however, a epistemological gap related to the aesthetic and techniques (which are related to the televisions grammars that TV uses in these programs to enunciate ethics directions to its own voyeurism, that goes far beyond reality shows, having repercussions on social imaginary of transparency and surveillance, and the redesign of public and private spaces. In this gap, the article points out the debate of Brazilian reality shows in the perspective of the televisions grammars.

  10. Association Between Frailty and Cognitive Impairment: Cross-Sectional Data From Toulouse Frailty Day Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fougère, Bertrand; Daumas, Matthieu; Lilamand, Matthieu; Sourdet, Sandrine; Delrieu, Julien; Vellas, Bruno; Abellan van Kan, Gabor

    2017-11-01

    A consensus panel, based on epidemiologic evidence, argued that physical frailty is often associated with cognitive impairment, possibly because of common underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. The concepts of cognitive frailty and motoric cognitive risk were recently proposed in literature and may represent a prodromal stage for neurodegenerative diseases. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between cognition and the components of the physical phenotype of frailty. Participants admitted to the Toulouse frailty day hospital aged 65 years or older were included in this cross-sectional study. Cognitive impairment was identified using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR). Frailty was assessed using the physical phenotype as defined by Fried's criteria. We divided the participants into 2 groups: participants with normal cognition (CDR = 0) and participants who had cognitive impairment (CDR = 0.5). Participants with CDR >0.5 were excluded. Data from 1620 participants, mean age 82 years and 63% of women were analyzed. Cognitive impairment was identified in 52.5% of the participants. Frailty was identified in 44.7% of the sample. There were more frail subjects in the impaired group than the normal cognitive group (51% vs 38%, P impairment [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12-2.46]. Subsequent analysis showed that the association between cognitive impairment and frailty was only observed considering one of the 5 frailty criteria: gait speed (adjusted OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.55-2.32). Physical frailty and in particular slow gait speed were associated with cognitive impairment. Future research including longitudinal studies should exploit the association between cognitive impairment and frailty. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Writing Impairments in Japanese Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and with Mild Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuko Hayashi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: We investigated writing abilities in patients with the amnestic type of mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD. To examine the earliest changes in writing function, we used writing tests for both words and sentences with different types of Japanese characters (Hiragana, Katakana, and Kanji. Methods: A total of 25 aMCI patients, 38 AD patients, and 22 healthy controls performed writing to dictation for Kana and Kanji words, copied Kanji words, and wrote in response to a picture story task. Analysis of variance was used to test the subject group effects on the scores in the above writing tasks. Results: For the written Kanji words, the mild AD group performed worse than the aMCI group and the controls, but there was no difference between the aMCI group and the controls. For the picture story writing task, the mild AD and aMCI groups performed worse than the controls, but the difference between the AD and the aMCI groups was not significant. Conclusions: The mild AD group showed defects in writing Kanji characters, and the aMCI group showed impairments in narrative writing. Our study suggests that narrative writing, which demands complex integration of multiple cognitive functions, can be used to detect the subtle writing deficits in aMCI patients.

  12. Writing Impairments in Japanese Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and with Mild Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Atsuko; Nomura, Hiroshi; Mochizuki, Ruriko; Ohnuma, Ayumu; Kimpara, Teiko; Suzuki, Kyoko; Mori, Etsuro

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims We investigated writing abilities in patients with the amnestic type of mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). To examine the earliest changes in writing function, we used writing tests for both words and sentences with different types of Japanese characters (Hiragana, Katakana, and Kanji). Methods A total of 25 aMCI patients, 38 AD patients, and 22 healthy controls performed writing to dictation for Kana and Kanji words, copied Kanji words, and wrote in response to a picture story task. Analysis of variance was used to test the subject group effects on the scores in the above writing tasks. Results For the written Kanji words, the mild AD group performed worse than the aMCI group and the controls, but there was no difference between the aMCI group and the controls. For the picture story writing task, the mild AD and aMCI groups performed worse than the controls, but the difference between the AD and the aMCI groups was not significant. Conclusions The mild AD group showed defects in writing Kanji characters, and the aMCI group showed impairments in narrative writing. Our study suggests that narrative writing, which demands complex integration of multiple cognitive functions, can be used to detect the subtle writing deficits in aMCI patients. PMID:26483830

  13. Is colour vision impairment associated with cognitive impairment in solvent exposed workers?

    OpenAIRE

    Dick, F; Semple, S; Soutar, A.; Osborne, A.; Cherrie, J; Seaton, A

    2004-01-01

    Methods: A sample of 82 painters and 38 other subjects were studied. Alcohol, drug, and smoking histories were obtained. Colour vision was tested using the Lanthony D-15-d colour vision test. Cognitive impairment was measured using the Benton visual retention test, Trail making A, and Trail making B tests. Pre-morbid IQ was estimated using the National Adult Reading Test. Solvent exposure in all subjects was estimated using a previously validated, structured subjective assessment methodology.

  14. Cognitive Impairment Mediates Workplace Impairment in Persons with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Results From the Motivaction Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yena; Smofsky, Allan; Nykoliation, Priscilla; Allain, Stephen J; Lewis-Daly, Linda; Schwartz, Jeremy; Pollack, Joshua Hart; Tarride, Jean-Eric; McIntyre, Roger S

    2017-09-25

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with substantial impairments in workplace function; however, the mediators of workplace performance in DM are not well characterized. Herein, we investigate depressive symptomatology and cognitive dysfunction as mediators of workplace productivity and hypothesize that workplace impairment is mediated principally by cognitive dysfunction in DM. The Motivaction study screened individuals employed across Canada for diabetes. Subjects with impairments in glucose regulation indicative of risk for (i.e. glycated hemoglobin [A1C] levels 5.5% to 5.9%) or the presence of (i.e. A1C≥6.0%) DM were assessed on measures of depressive symptom severity [Patient Health Questionnaire, 9-item (PHQ-9)], self-rated cognitive impairment [Perceived Deficits Questionnaire, 5-item (PDQ-5)], and workplace impairment [Endicott Work Productivity Scale (EWPS)]. Multivariate regression and mediational analyses assessed for correlations between PHQ-9, PDQ-5 and EWPS total scores and the mediational role of self-reported cognitive dysfunction on the effect of depressive symptom severity on workplace impairment, respectively. A total of 3627 individuals were screened, 1738 met eligibility criteria, and 724 consented to the Motivaction study; 205 subjects with impaired glucose regulation were included in the analysis. Self-rated depressive and cognitive symptoms were positively correlated with workplace impairment among subjects with or at risk for DM. The deleterious effects of depressive symptomatology on workplace effectiveness was mediated principally by cognitive dysfunction in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Among employed Canadians, impaired glucose tolerance is highly associated with impaired workplace performance. We report a novel finding insofar as the association between depressive symptoms and workplace impairment in individuals with impaired glucose regulation is mediated principally by self-rated cognitive dysfunction. Copyright

  15. Colour Vision Impairment in Young Alcohol Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasil, Alódia; Castro, Antônio José O; Martins, Isabelle Christine V S; Lacerda, Eliza Maria C B; Souza, Givago S; Herculano, Anderson Manoel; Rosa, Alexandre Antônio M; Rodrigues, Anderson R; Silveira, Luiz Carlos L

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption among young adults is widely accepted in modern society and may be the starting point for abusive use of alcohol at later stages of life. Chronic alcohol exposure can lead to visual function impairment. In the present study, we investigated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity, colour arrangement ability, and colour discrimination thresholds on young adults that weekly consume alcoholic beverages without clinical concerns. Twenty-four young adults were evaluated by an ophthalmologist and performed three psychophysical tests to evaluate their vision functions. We estimated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity function at 11 spatial frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 30 cycles/degree. No difference in contrast sensitivity was observed comparing alcohol consumers and control subjects. For the evaluation of colour vision, we used the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test (FM 100 test) to test subject's ability to perform a colour arrangement task and the Mollon-Reffin test (MR test) to measure subject's colour discrimination thresholds. Alcohol consumers made more mistakes than controls in the FM100 test, and their mistakes were diffusely distributed in the FM colour space without any colour axis preference. Alcohol consumers also performed worse than controls in the MR test and had higher colour discrimination thresholds compared to controls around three different reference points of a perceptually homogeneous colour space, the CIE 1976 chromaticity diagram. There was no colour axis preference in the threshold elevation observed among alcoholic subjects. Young adult weekly alcohol consumers showed subclinical colour vision losses with preservation of spatial luminance contrast sensitivity. Adolescence and young adult age are periods of important neurological development and alcohol exposure during this period of life might be responsible for deficits in visual functions, especially colour vision that is very sensitive to neurotoxicants.

  16. Colour Vision Impairment in Young Alcohol Consumers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alódia Brasil

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption among young adults is widely accepted in modern society and may be the starting point for abusive use of alcohol at later stages of life. Chronic alcohol exposure can lead to visual function impairment. In the present study, we investigated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity, colour arrangement ability, and colour discrimination thresholds on young adults that weekly consume alcoholic beverages without clinical concerns. Twenty-four young adults were evaluated by an ophthalmologist and performed three psychophysical tests to evaluate their vision functions. We estimated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity function at 11 spatial frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 30 cycles/degree. No difference in contrast sensitivity was observed comparing alcohol consumers and control subjects. For the evaluation of colour vision, we used the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test (FM 100 test to test subject's ability to perform a colour arrangement task and the Mollon-Reffin test (MR test to measure subject's colour discrimination thresholds. Alcohol consumers made more mistakes than controls in the FM100 test, and their mistakes were diffusely distributed in the FM colour space without any colour axis preference. Alcohol consumers also performed worse than controls in the MR test and had higher colour discrimination thresholds compared to controls around three different reference points of a perceptually homogeneous colour space, the CIE 1976 chromaticity diagram. There was no colour axis preference in the threshold elevation observed among alcoholic subjects. Young adult weekly alcohol consumers showed subclinical colour vision losses with preservation of spatial luminance contrast sensitivity. Adolescence and young adult age are periods of important neurological development and alcohol exposure during this period of life might be responsible for deficits in visual functions, especially colour vision that is very sensitive to

  17. Depression in cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Laurel D; Peters, Matthew E; Lyketsos, Constantine G; Marano, Christopher M

    2013-09-01

    Depression and cognitive disorders, including dementia and mild cognitive impairment, are common in the elderly. Depression is also a common feature of cognitive impairment although the symptoms of depression in cognitive impairment differ from depression without cognitive impairment. Pre-morbid depression approximately doubles the risk of subsequent dementia. There are two predominant, though not mutually exclusive, constructs linking pre-morbid depression to subsequent cognitive impairment: Alzheimer's pathology and the vascular depression hypothesis. When evaluating a patient with depression and cognitive impairment, it is important to obtain caregiver input and to evaluate for alternative etiologies for depressive symptoms such as delirium. We recommend a sequential approach to the treatment of depression in dementia patients: (1) a period of watchful waiting for milder symptoms, (2) psychosocial treatment program, (3) a medication trial for more severe symptoms or failure of psychosocial interventions, and (4) possible ECT for refractory symptoms.

  18. Hypertension and cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-hang SHANG

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As a leading risk factor for stroke, hypertension is also an important risk factor for cognitive impairment. Midlife hypertension doubles the risk of dementia later in life and accelerates the progression of dementia, but the correlation between late-life blood pressure and cognitive impairment is still unclear. Beside blood pressure, the effect of pulse pressure, blood pressure variability and circadian rhythm of blood pressure on cognition is currently attracting more and more attention. Hypertension induces alterations in cerebrovascular structure and functions, which lead to brain lesions including cerebral atrophy, stroke, lacunar infarcts, diffuse white matter damage, microinfarct and microhemorrhage, resuling in cognitive impairment. Hypertension also impairs the metabolism and transfer of amyloid-β protein (Aβ, thus accelerates cognitive impairment. Individualized therapy, focusing on characteristics of hypertensive patients, may be a good choice for prevention and treatment of cognitive impairment. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.08.004

  19. The Effectiveness of a Group Counseling Program on the Mental Health of Parents of Hearing Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Mahshid Foroughan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Most of the studies indicates that the parents of the hearing impaired children show many mental health problems after the diagnosis of their children's hearing impairment. Counselling with the parents of the hearing impaired children is one of the most important goals of any early intervention program. This paper describes a study to determine the effectiveness of a group counselling programme for parents of hearing impaired children. Materials and Method: It was a semi-experimental study with a single group pretest-post test design. The participants were all the parents of hearing impaired children attending in an early intervention center. First the parents' mental health were assessed.Then the group counselling program was implemented. Program has involved six weekly 1.5 hour sessions. The format of each session included both lecture presentation and group discussion using cognitive behavioral procedure. Subjects were assessed before and immediately after group therapy by means of General Health Questionnaire(GHQ and Symptom Check List 90 (SCL-90 questionnaires. Resuts: The first part of the project had shown that over the half of the parents had considerable psychosocial morbidity. Comparisons showed a significant reduction from pretreatment to posttreatment in depression, anxiety and most of other psychological problems. Conclusion: The study supports the effectiveness of group therapy programs in the treatment of parents of hearing impaired children. Concerning the progress of early detection programs for the children's hearing impairment more studies should be done in the field of counseling with their parents.

  20. Lithium and Renal Impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, René Ernst; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Nolen, Willem A

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lithium is established as an effective treatment of mania, of depression in bipolar and unipolar disorder, and in maintenance treatment of these disorders. However, due to the necessity of monitoring and concerns about irreversible adverse effects, in particular renal impairment......, after long-term use, lithium might be underutilized. METHODS: This study reviewed 6 large observational studies addressing the risk of impaired renal function associated with lithium treatment and methodological issues impacting interpretation of results. RESULTS: An increased risk of renal impairment...

  1. Hey Teacher, Your Personality's Showing!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, James R.

    1977-01-01

    A study of 30 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade teachers and 300 of their students showed that a teacher's age, sex, and years of experience did not relate to students' mathematics achievement, but that more effective teachers showed greater "freedom from defensive behavior" than did less effective teachers. (DT)

  2. Planning a Successful Tech Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikirk, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Tech shows are a great way to introduce prospective students, parents, and local business and industry to a technology and engineering or career and technical education program. In addition to showcasing instructional programs, a tech show allows students to demonstrate their professionalism and skills, practice public presentations, and interact…

  3. Cervical Musculoskeletal Impairments and Temporomandibular Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Armijo-Olivo; David Magee

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The study of cervical muscles and their significance in the development and perpetuation of Temporomandibular Disorders has not been elucidated. Thus this project was designed to investigate the association between cervical musculoskeletal impairments and Temporomandibular Disorders. Material and Methods A sample of 154 subjects participated in this study. All subjects underwent a series of physical tests and electromyographic assessment (i.e. head and neck posture, maxima...

  4. [Working memory for music in patients with mild cognitive impairment and early stage Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerer, Manuela; Marksteiner, Josef; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Mazzola, Guerino; Kemmler, Georg; Bliem, Harald R; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2013-01-01

    A variety of studies demonstrated that some forms of memory for music are spared in dementia, but only few studies have investigated patients with early stages of dementia. In this pilot-study we tested working memory for music in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) with a newly created test. The test probed working memory using 7 gradually elongated tone-lines and 6 chords which were each followed by 3 similar items and 1 identical item. The participants of the study, namely 10 patients with MCI, 10 patients with early stage AD and 23 healthy subjects were instructed to select the identical tone-line or chord. Subjects with MCI and early AD showed significantly reduced performance than controls in most of the presented tasks. In recognizing chords MCI- participants surprisingly showed an unimpaired performance. The gradual increase of the impairment during the preclinical phase of AD seems to spare this special ability in MCI.

  5. Reading interest and information needs of persons with visual impairment in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ’Niran Adetoro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Information materials can only become usable to persons with visual impairment when they are transcribed into alternative formats. Over time, the transcription and provision of alternative formats in Nigeria by libraries has not been based on users’ reading interest and information needs. This study delves into the reading interests and information needs of persons with visual impairment in Nigeria. Survey research design was adopted and the study purposively focused on southwestern Nigeria. Using stratified proportionate random sampling techniques, data was gathered by questionnaires namely the Visually Impaired Adult Questionnaire VIAQ (= 0.75 and Visually Impaired Student Questionnaire VISQ (= 0.78 from fourteen selected libraries stratified into non-governmental, public, tertiary institutions and secondary schools. Of the 563 copies of the questionnaire that were administered, 401 (71.3% were successfully completed and used for the study. The study found that adults with visual impairment had high reading interests in religious, business, and entertainment materials, among others. Secondary school respondents had high reading interest in art subjects, reference materials, manuals and animal story materials. Both respondents showed high information needs in expected and relevant areas. Braille materials (58.3% are the most preferred source of information generally. Adult respondents preferred Braille (72.4%, while the secondary school respondents preferred Talking books/audio recordings (55%. Transcription and provision of information materials for the visually impaired through libraries should be based on knowledge of their reading interest and information needs.

  6. Writing and the 'Subject'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Charlotte

    /reading subject) manifests itself in the material mark on the page. The study shows how this indexical reference to a ‘subject’ is manipulated and used as a mask through which a writer/painter can perform a certain ‘subject’. Through analyses of the various levels on which the ‘subject’ is represented...... in the early as well as the contemporary avant-garde, it becomes clear that the ‘subject’ is an unstable category that can be exposed to manipulation and play. Handwriting is performing as a signature (as an index), but is at the same time similar to the signature of a subject (an icon) and a verbal construct...

  7. Influence of Renal Impairment on the Pharmacokinetics of Afatinib: An Open-Label, Single-Dose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Sabrina; Schnell, David; Külzer, Raimund; Gansser, Dietmar; Weber, Anne; Wallenstein, Gudrun; Halabi, Atef; Conrad, Anja; Wind, Sven

    2017-06-01

    Afatinib is an oral irreversible ErbB-Family Blocker indicated for treatment of patients with EGFR mutation positive advanced non-small cell lung cancer. This trial assessed whether renal impairment influences the pharmacokinetics and safety of afatinib. This was an open-label, single-dose study. Pharmacokinetic parameters after afatinib 40 mg were investigated in subjects with moderate (n = 8) or severe (n = 8) renal impairment (estimated glomerular filtration rate 30-59 mL/min/1.73 m2 and 15-29 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively) and healthy matched controls (n = 14). Plasma and urine samples were collected before and up to 14 days after dosing for pharmacokinetic and plasma protein-binding assessment. Primary endpoints were area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to the last quantifiable concentration (AUClast) and maximum plasma concentration (C max) between subjects with renal impairment and healthy matched controls. Pharmacokinetic profiles and plasma protein binding were similar in all groups. The extent of exposure, as indicated by AUClast and C max, was generally similar between the matched treatment groups, with the exception of the geometric mean ratio of AUClast for subjects with severe renal impairment, which showed a trend towards a higher value compared with matched healthy subjects (150.0 % [90 % CI 105.3-213.7]) Inter-individual variability was moderate (geometric mean coefficient of variation 28-39 % for moderate impairment, 34-42 % for severe impairment). Afatinib was well tolerated and urinary excretion was minimal. Moderate-to-severe renal impairment had a minor influence on the pharmacokinetics of afatinib that was within the observed inter-individual variability, suggesting that afatinib treatment can be considered in this patient population. Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT02096718.

  8. Visual behaviours of neurologically impaired children with cerebral visual impairment: an ethological study

    OpenAIRE

    Porro, G.L.; Dekker, E.M.; van Nieuwenhuizen, O; Schilder, M.B.H.; Wittebol - Post, D.; Schenk-Rootlieb, A.J.F; Treffers, W.F.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Visual functions of neurologically impaired children with permanent cerebral visual impairment (CVI) can be difficult to determine. This study investigated the behavioural profile of CVI children by means of ethological observations in order to gain a better understanding of their visual functions.
METHODS—Video registrations of nine subjects who were unable to undergo more orthodox methods of visual function testing were observed and analysed by an ethologist.
RESULTS—A serie...

  9. Impaired Fracture Healing after Hemorrhagic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Lichte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Impaired fracture healing can occur in severely injured patients with hemorrhagic shock due to decreased soft tissue perfusion after trauma. We investigated the effects of fracture healing in a standardized pressure controlled hemorrhagic shock model in mice, to test the hypothesis that bleeding is relevant in the bone healing response. Male C57/BL6 mice were subjected to a closed femoral shaft fracture stabilized by intramedullary nailing. One group was additionally subjected to pressure controlled hemorrhagic shock (HS, mean arterial pressure (MAP of 35 mmHg for 90 minutes. Serum cytokines (IL-6, KC, MCP-1, and TNF-α were analyzed 6 hours after shock. Fracture healing was assessed 21 days after fracture. Hemorrhagic shock is associated with a significant increase in serum inflammatory cytokines in the early phase. Histologic analysis demonstrated a significantly decreased number of osteoclasts, a decrease in bone quality, and more cartilage islands after hemorrhagic shock. μCT analysis showed a trend towards decreased bone tissue mineral density in the HS group. Mechanical testing revealed no difference in tensile failure. Our results suggest a delay in fracture healing after hemorrhagic shock. This may be due to significantly diminished osteoclast recruitment. The exact mechanisms should be studied further, particularly during earlier stages of fracture healing.

  10. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...... of the scale's reliability, factor structure, and validity on the basis of analyzing data from independent samples of exhibitors at the international trade shows SIAL (Paris) and ANUGA (Cologne); and it concludes with a discussion of potential managerial applications and implications for future research. New...

  11. Laryngeal Aerodynamics in Children with Hearing Impairment versus Age and Height Matched Normal Hearing Peers

    OpenAIRE

    Barshapriya Das; Suman Kumar; Indranil Chatterjee

    2013-01-01

    Lack of proper auditory feedback in hearing-impaired subjects results in functional voice disorder. It is directly related to discoordination of intrinsic and extrinsic laryngeal muscles and disturbed contraction and relaxation of antagonistic muscles. A total of twenty children in the age range of 5–10 years were considered for the study. They were divided into two groups: normal hearing children and hearing aid user children. Results showed a significant difference in the vital capacity, ma...

  12. Prognostic Value of Impaired Preoperative Ankle Reflex in Surgical Outcome of Lumbar Disc Herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Omidi-Kashani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several prognostic factors exist influencing the outcome of surgical discectomy in the patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between severity of preoperative impaired ankle reflex and outcomes of lumbar discectomy in the patients with L5-S1 LDH. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 181 patients (108 male and 73 female who underwent simple discectomy in our orthopedic department from April 2009 to April 2013 and followed them up for more than one year. The mean age of the patients was 35.3±8.9 years old. Severity of reflex impairment was graded from 0 to 4+ and radicular pain and disability were assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS and Oswestry disability index (ODI questionnaires, respectively. Subjective satisfaction was also evaluated at the last follow-up visit. Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare qualitative variables. Results: Reflex impairment existed in 44.8% preoperatively that improved to 10% at the last follow-up visit. Statistical analyses could not find a significant relationship between the severity of impaired ankle reflex and sex or age (P=0.538 and P=0.709, respectively. There was a remarkable relationship between severity of reflex impairment and preoperative radicular pain or disability (P=0.012 and P=0.002, respectively. Kruskal-Wallis test showed that a more severity in ankle reflex impairment was associated with not only less improvement in postoperative pain and disability but also less satisfaction rate (P Conclusions: In the patients with L5-S1 LDH, more severe ankle reflex impairment is associated with less improvement in postoperative pain, disability, and subjective satisfaction.

  13. The role of blood pressure in cognitive impairment in an elderly population. Osservatorio Geriatrico Campano Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, F; Abete, P; Ferrara, N; Paolisso, G; Amato, L; Canonico, S; Maggi, S; Varricchio, M; Rengo, F

    1997-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional relationship between arterial blood pressure and cognitive impairment in a group of elderly subjects, controlling for such confounding variables as age, education, depression, drug use and antihypertensive treatment. A cross-sectional survey in Campania, a region in southern Italy. A random sample of 1339 elderly subjects aged 65-95 years (mean 73.9 +/- 6.2 years) selected from the electoral rolls was interviewed by trained physicians. Sociodemographic characteristics, results of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), blood pressure and whether antihypertensive treatment was being administered were recorded. When subjects with neurological diseases and those under psychotropic therapy were excluded from the analyses, the population numbered 1106. The MMSE score was less than 24 for 27.9% of the subjects and the mean GDS score was 10.8 +/- 6.3. The mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) was 145.3 +/- 19.0 mmHg and the mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was 82.0 +/- 9.2 mmHg. Logistic regression analysis showed that female sex, age, GDS score and DBP but not SBP were predictive of cognitive impairment. Educational level and antihypertensive treatment, on the contrary, play a protective role. DBP was associated with cognitive impairment in subjects aged 75 years (odds ratio 1.62, 95% confidence interval 1.16-2.25) and over (odds ratio 5.16, 95% confidence interval 1.50-17.71) but not in those aged 65-74 years. DBP but not SBP is predictive of cognitive impairment in subjects aged 75 years and over without neurological disorders independently from sex, age, education, GDS and antihypertensive treatment

  14. Executive function in fibromyalgia: Comparing subjective and objective measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelonch, Olga; Garolera, Maite; Valls, Joan; Rosselló, Lluís; Pifarré, Josep

    2016-04-01

    There is evidence to suggest the existence of an executive dysfunction in people diagnosed with fibromyalgia, although there are certain inconsistencies between studies. Here, we aim to compare executive performance between patients with fibromyalgia and a control group by using subjective and objective cognitive tests, analyzing the influence of patient mood on the results obtained, and studying associations between the two measures. 82 patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia and 42 healthy controls, matched by age and years of education, were assessed using the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Adult Version (BRIEF-A) as a subjective measure of executive functioning. A selection of objective cognitive tests were also used to measure a series of executive functions and to identify symptoms of depression and anxiety. Patients with fibromyalgia perceived greater difficulties than the control group on all of the BRIEF-A scales. However, after adjustments were made for depression and anxiety the only differences that remained were those associated with the working memory scale and the Metacognition and Global Executive Composite index. In the case of the objective cognitive tests, a significantly worse overall performance was evidenced for the fibromyalgia patients. However, this also disappeared when adjustments were made for depression and anxiety. After this adjustment, fibromyalgia patients only performed significantly worse for the interference effect in the Stroop Test. Although there were no significant associations between most of the objective cognitive tests and the BRIEF-A scales, depression and anxiety exhibited strong associations with almost all of the BRIEF-A scales and with several of the objective cognitive tests. Patients with fibromyalgia showed executive dysfunction in subjective and objective measures, although most of this impairment was associated with mood disturbances. Exceptions to this general rule were observed in the

  15. Pharmacokinetics of eslicarbazepine acetate in patients with moderate hepatic impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Luis; Potgieter, J Hendrick; Maia, Joana; Potgieter, M Alida; Mota, Fernando; Soares-da-Silva, P

    2008-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of moderate liver impairment on the pharmacokinetics of eslicarbazepine acetate (BIA 2-093, ESL), a novel voltage-gated sodium channel blocker currently in clinical development. The pharmacokinetics of ESL following an administration regimen of 800 mg once-daily for 8 days was characterized in patients with moderate liver impairment (n = 8) and in subjects with normal liver function (n = 8, control group). Eslicarbazepine acetate was rapidly and extensively metabolized by first-pass metabolism to its main active metabolite, eslicarbazepine (S-licarbazepine). There were more subjects with measurable plasma concentrations of the parent drug (ESL) in the hepatic impairment group than in the control group, suggesting that first-pass metabolism was slightly decreased by liver impairment. However, ESL plasma concentrations remained very low, representing only about 0.01% of total systemic exposure. No differences in the pharmacokinetics of eslicarbazepine or its metabolites were found between the hepatic impairment and control groups. Urinary excretion of eslicarbazepine and its glucuronide form was similar in the liver impaired and control subjects. The sum of drug moieties recovered in the urine corresponded to 91% of the administered dose in the control group and to 84% of the administered dose in the liver impairment group. The pharmacokinetics of ESL was not affected by moderate hepatic impairment. Therefore, patients with mild to moderate liver impairment treated with ESL do not require dosage adjustment.

  16. Criteria for driver impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brookhuis, K.A.; De Waard, D.; Fairclough, S.H

    2003-01-01

    Most traffic accidents can be attributed to driver impairment, e.g. inattention, fatigue, intoxication, etc. It is now technically feasible to monitor and diagnose driver behaviour with respect to impairment with the aid of a limited number of in-vehicle sensors. However, a valid framework for the

  17. Static, dynamic balance and functional performance in subjects with and without plantar fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geiseane Aguiar Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Plantar fasciitis (PF is characterized by non-inflammatory degeneration and pain under the heel, and is one of the most common foot complaints. The compensations and adjustments made to decrease the discomfort caused by the disease are clinical findings and can be a factor that contributes to impaired balance and decreased functional performance. Objective: To compare functional performance as well as static and dynamic balance among subjects with and without PF. Methods: The sample consisted of 124 subjects of both sexes aged 20-60 years. Participants were divided into two groups: a bilateral PF group (PFG; n = 62 and a control group (CG, n = 62. The following outcomes were analyzed: static and dynamic balance (using functional tests and functional performance (using a questionnaire. We used Student’s t test for independent samples to compare variables between the groups. The alpha error was set at 0.05. Results: Subjects with PF showed greater impairment in their overall dynamic balance performance (p < 0.001 than the control group, except for left posteromedial movement (p = 0.19. The CG showed showed better functional performance (p < 0.001 than the PF group. There was no difference between groups for the variable static balance on stable (p = 0.160 and unstable surfaces (p = 0.085. Conclusion: Subjects with PF displayed smaller reach distances in the overall Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT, demonstrating a deficit in dynamic balance and functional performance when compared with healthy subjects.

  18. Teaching Strategies for Economics to the Hearing Impaired | Adu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study sought to look at the teaching strategies for economics to the hearing impaired. Economics is said to be a living and dynamic subject, which is a vehicle of strict intellectual discipline, that involves looking at the world in a way which is for most, if not all of us quite new. Hearing impairment in a generic term covering ...

  19. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  20. Self-administered screening for mild cognitive impairment: initial validation of a computerized test battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornatore, Jane B; Hill, Emory; Laboff, Jo Anne; McGann, Mary E

    2005-01-01

    The Computer-Administered Neuropsychological Screen for Mild Cognitive Impairment (CANS-MCI), a computer administered, scored, and interpreted touch screen battery was evaluated for its ability to detect mild cognitive impairment. Subjects were three hundred ten community-dwelling elders who enrolled in an National Institute on Aging (NIA)-funded study. One-month test-retest reliability correlations were all significant (pWeschler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) LMS-II test (ptests measure the intended cognitive dimensions of memory, language/spatial fluency, and executive function/mental control. Goodness-of-fit indicators were strong (Bentler Comparative Fit Index=0.99; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation=0.055). Initial validation analyses indicate that the CANS-MCI shows promise of being a reliable, valid screening tool in determining whether more intensive testing for early cognitive impairment is warranted.

  1. Comparative study between depression in Korean elderly with mild cognitive impairment and normal cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyung-Rim; Kang, Younhee; Kim, Miyoung; Jung, Dukyoo; Kim, Mijung

    2012-03-01

    This cross-sectional comparative study compares differences in depression in the elderly with mild cognitive impairment and those with normal cognitive function in a community. Study subjects were drawn from elderly people visiting one particular public health center in Seoul, South Korea and included 81 people with mild cognitive impairment and 81 with normal cognitive function who were matched based on age, sex, education, and daily living activities. Study variables, including cognitive function, activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, and depression, were measured with standardized instruments. Collected data were statistically analyzed with Student's paired t-test and χ(2) test. The results showed no significant differences between these groups in terms of depression. Therefore, in community practice settings, nurses should understand that depression is not a manifestation of cognitive impairment and should develop effective nursing strategies to assess depression while considering other factors including age, sex, education, and daily living activities. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Fine-structure processing, frequency selectivity and speech perception in hearing-impaired listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strelcyk, Olaf; Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    Hearing-impaired people often experience great difficulty with speech communication when background noise is present, even if reduced audibility has been compensated for. Other impairment factors must be involved. In order to minimize confounding effects, the subjects participating in this study...... consisted of groups with homogeneous, symmetric audiograms. The perceptual listening experiments assessed the intelligibility of full-spectrum as well as low-pass filtered speech in the presence of stationary and fluctuating interferers, the individual's frequency selectivity and the integrity of temporal...... modulation were obtained. In addition, these binaural and monaural thresholds were measured in a stationary background noise in order to assess the persistence of the fine-structure processing to interfering noise. Apart from elevated speech reception thresholds, the hearing impaired listeners showed poorer...

  3. Mental fatigue impairs emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillon, Christian; Quispe-Escudero, David; Mathur, Ambika; Ernst, Monique

    2015-06-01

    Because healthy physical and mental functioning depends on the ability to regulate emotions, it is important to identify moderators of such regulations. Whether mental fatigue, subsequent to the depletion of cognitive resources, impairs explicit emotion regulation to negative stimuli is currently unknown. This study explored this possibility. In a within-subject design over 2 separate sessions, healthy individuals performed easy (control session) or difficult (depletion session) cognitive tasks. Subsequently, they were presented with neutral and negative pictures, with instructions to either maintain or regulate (i.e., reduce) the emotions evoked by the pictures. Emotional reactivity was probed with the startle reflex. The negative pictures evoked a similar aversive state in the control and depletion sessions as measured by startle potentiation. However, subjects were able to down-regulate their aversive state only in the control session, not in the depletion session. These results indicate that mental fatigue following performance of cognitive tasks impairs emotion regulation without affecting emotional reactivity. These findings suggest that mental fatigue needs to be incorporated into models of emotion regulation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Is colour vision impairment associated with cognitive impairment in solvent exposed workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, F; Semple, S; Soutar, A; Osborne, A; Cherrie, J W; Seaton, A

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether acquired colour vision deficits in solvent exposed individuals are associated with cognitive impairment. A sample of 82 painters and 38 other subjects were studied. Alcohol, drug, and smoking histories were obtained. Colour vision was tested using the Lanthony D-15-d colour vision test. Cognitive impairment was measured using the Benton visual retention test, Trail making A, and Trail making B tests. Pre-morbid IQ was estimated using the National Adult Reading Test. Solvent exposure in all subjects was estimated using a previously validated, structured subjective assessment methodology. After exclusion of subjects with competing causes of colour vision impairment the final group of men numbered 78. There was a significant association on multiple linear regression between the mean colour confusion index (CCI) and three measures of cognitive impairment, the Benton visual retention test, Trail making A, and Trail making B tests after adjusting for the effects of age (or IQ as appropriate), alcohol, and smoking. Acquired colour vision loss is associated with cognitive impairment in solvent exposed workers. However, given the prevalence of acquired colour vision losses in the adult population, colour vision testing is unlikely to be of value as a screening test.

  5. Impairment due to alcohol, tetrahydrocannabinol, and benzodiazepines in impaired drivers compared to experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høiseth, Gudrun; Berg-Hansen, Grim Otto; Øiestad, Åse Marit L; Bachs, Liliana; Mørland, Jørg

    2017-04-03

    In some countries, per se laws for other drugs than alcohol are used to judge drunk and drugged drivers. These blood concentration limits are often derived from experimental studies on traffic relevant behavior of healthy volunteers. Knowledge about how results from experimental studies could be transferred to a real-life setting is missing. The aim of this study was to compare impairment seen in experimental studies to the impairment seen at equivalent concentrations in apprehended drunk and drugged drivers. Results from previously performed meta-analyses of experimental studies regarding impairment from alcohol, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and benzodiazepines were compared to impairment in apprehended drunk and drugged drivers as judged by a clinical test of impairment. Both experimental studies and real-life cases were divided into 4 groups according to increasing blood drug concentration intervals. The percentage of impaired test results in experimental studies was compared to the percentage of impaired subjects among drivers within the same blood drug concentration window. For ethanol, the percentage of impaired drivers (n = 1,223) increased from 59% in the lowest drug concentration group to 95% in the highest drug concentration group, compared to 7 and 72% in the respective groups in experimental studies. For THC, the percentage of impaired drivers (n = 950) increased from 42 to 58%, the corresponding numbers being 11 and 42% for experimental studies. For benzodiazepines, the percentage of impaired drivers (n = 245) increased from 46 to 76%, the corresponding numbers being 16 and 60% for experimental studies. The increased odds ratio for impairment between 2 concentration groups was comparable for experimental studies and impaired drivers. Fewer test results indicated impairment in experimental studies compared to impaired drivers in real life when influenced by similar blood concentrations of either ethanol, THC, or benzodiazepines. In addition, a comparable

  6. Adaptive behavior of children with visual impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive behavior includes a wide range of skills necessary for independent, safe and adequate performance of everyday activities. Practical, social and conceptual skills make the concept of adaptive behavior. The aim of this paper is to provide an insight into the existing studies of adaptive behavior in persons with visual impairment. The paper mainly focuses on the research on adaptive behavior in children with visual impairment. The results show that the acquisition of adaptive skills is mainly low or moderately low in children and youth with visual impairment. Children with visual impairment achieve the worst results in social skills and everyday life skills, while the most acquired are communication skills. Apart from the degree of visual impairment, difficulties in motor development also significantly influence the acquisition of practical and social skills of blind persons and persons with low vision.

  7. Reality show: um paradoxo nietzschiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O fenômeno dos reality shows - e a subseqüente relação entre imagem e verdade - assenta-se sobre uma série de paradoxos. Tais paradoxos podem ser compreendidos à luz do pensamento do filósofo alemão Friedrich Nietzsche, que, através dos usos de formulações paradoxais, concebia a realidade como um mundo de pura aparência e a verdade como um acréscimo ficcional, como um efeito. A ficção é então tomada, na filosofia de Nietzsche, não em seu aspecto falsificante e desrealizador - como sempre pleiteou nossa tradição metafísica -, mas como condição necessária para que certa espécie de invenção possa operar como verdade. Sendo assim, a própria expressão reality show, através de sua formulação paradoxal, engendra explicitamente um mundo de pura aparência, em que a verdade, a parte reality da proposição, é da ordem do suplemento, daquilo que se acrescenta ficcionalmente - como um adjetivo - a show. O ornamento, nesse caso, passa a ocupar o lugar central, apontando para o efeito produzido: o efeito-de-verdade. Seguindo, então, o pensamento nietzschiano e sua atualização na contemporaneidade, investigaremos de que forma os televisivos “shows de realidade” operam paradoxalmente, em consonância com nossas paradoxais práticas culturais.

  8. Spared and impaired spoken discourse processing in schizophrenia: effects of local and global language context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaab, Tamara Y; Boudewyn, Megan A; Long, Debra L; Luck, Steve J; Kring, Ann M; Ragland, J Daniel; Ranganath, Charan; Lesh, Tyler; Niendam, Tara; Solomon, Marjorie; Mangun, George R; Carter, Cameron S

    2013-09-25

    Individuals with schizophrenia are impaired in a broad range of cognitive functions, including impairments in the controlled maintenance of context-relevant information. In this study, we used ERPs in human subjects to examine whether impairments in the controlled maintenance of spoken discourse context in schizophrenia lead to overreliance on local associations among the meanings of individual words. Healthy controls (n = 22) and patients (n = 22) listened to short stories in which we manipulated global discourse congruence and local priming. The target word in the last sentence of each story was globally congruent or incongruent and locally associated or unassociated. ERP local association effects did not significantly differ between control participants and schizophrenia patients. However, in contrast to controls, patients only showed effects of discourse congruence when targets were primed by a word in the local context. When patients had to use discourse context in the absence of local priming, they showed impaired brain responses to the target. Our findings indicate that schizophrenia patients are impaired during discourse comprehension when demands on controlled maintenance of context are high. We further found that ERP measures of increased reliance on local priming predicted reduced social functioning, suggesting that alterations in the neural mechanisms underlying discourse comprehension have functional consequences in the illness.

  9. Cognitive impairment in COPD: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Torres-Sánchez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to characterize and clarify the relationships between the various cognitive domains affected in COPD patients and the disease itself, as well as to determine the prevalence of impairment in the various cognitive domains in such patients. To that end, we performed a systematic review using the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect. We included articles that provided information on cognitive impairment in COPD patients. The review of the findings of the articles showed a significant relationship between COPD and cognitive impairment. The most widely studied cognitive domains are memory and attention. Verbal memory and learning constitute the second most commonly impaired cognitive domain in patients with COPD. The prevalence of impairment in visuospatial memory and intermediate visual memory is 26.9% and 19.2%, respectively. We found that cognitive impairment is associated with the profile of COPD severity and its comorbidities. The articles reviewed demonstrated that there is considerable impairment of the cognitive domains memory and attention in patients with COPD. Future studies should address impairments in different cognitive domains according to the disease stage in patients with COPD.

  10. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  11. Effect of Cognitive and Central Auditory Impairments on Satisfaction of Amplification in Hearing Impaired Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younes Lotfi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Older adults show many difficulties of speech perception in noisy situations due to peripheral and central auditory impairments, and cognitive dysfunctions. One of the most common rehabilitative procedures for older adults with hearing loss is amplification. However, there is some evidence of dissatisfaction of amplification in older adults. Methods & Materials: We assessed cognitive station, central auditory function, and satisfaction of 19 participants with hearing aids using mini-mental state examination (MMSE, dichotic digits test (DDT, and the satisfaction with amplification in daily life scale respectively. Our cases had moderate sensory hearing loss in both ears. Results: Kruskal-Wallis statistics showed significant correlation between cognitive impairments (MMSE scores and satisfaction of amplification (P0.05. Conclusion: We showed central auditory processing impairments in hearing impaired older adults with cognitive dysfunctions. It is indicated that older adults with hearing loss might have cognitive impairments inducing dissatisfaction of amplification.

  12. Memory complaints with and without memory impairment: the impact of leukoaraiosis on cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamar, Melissa; Dannhauser, Thomas M; Walker, Zuzana; Rodda, Joanne E; Cutinha, Darren J; Shergill, Sukhwinder S

    2011-11-01

    White matter alterations, leukoaraiosis (LA) on structural MRI, are associated with cognitive deficits and increased risk of dementia. LA may also impact on subjective memory complaints in otherwise healthy older adults. Little is known about the interplay between LA memory complaints and cognition. We investigated cognitive phenotypes associated with LA in 42 non-demented older adults categorized as having subjective cognitive complaints with no objective cognitive impairment-the subjective cognitive impairment group (SCI; n = 12), amnesic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI; n = 20), or healthy controls (HC; n = 11). We measured LA severity on MRI with a 40-point visual rating scale. Controlling for age and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score, analyses revealed multiple between-group differences. Follow-up linear regression models investigating the underlying contributors to each clinic group's cognitive profile indicated that LA contributed to learning slope variance (after accounting for age and MMSE) but only for the SCI group. Although the SCI group showed a significantly steeper learning slope when compared to HC and aMCI, increasing LA severity negatively impacted this group's rate of learning. This, in conjunction with the significant contribution of age on SCI learning slope performance variance suggests that greater LA burden at a younger age may contribute to subtle changes in learning for individuals with subjective cognitive complaints.

  13. A constituição do sujeito na psicanálise lacaniana: impasses na separação La constitución del sujeto en el psicoanálisis lacaniano: impases en la separación The constitution of the subject in lacanian psychoanalysis: impairments in separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Ricotta Bruder

    2007-12-01

    la luz de las teorías vigentes.A theoretical research on the constitution of the subject in Lacanian Psychoanalysis is provided. The clinical aspect which motivates current research is the dealing with children bearing serious problems (psychosis, autism, mental disability, etc and with their mothers, coupled to difficulties encountered at a specific moment in the treatment, or rather, when the structural separation between mother and child occurs. There are two ways through which the subject constitutes itself: the mirror phase and the topology of alienation and separation are both carefully presented and investigated. Although alienation is analyzed, the study focuses on the emergence of the subject within the unconscious, as distinct from the ego which is essentially imaginary. Emergence is given according to the Lacanian reading of Descartes’s Cogito, ergo sum. Impairments in the clinical treatment when separation occurs - especially the emergence of physical symptoms in the mother - are taken into account and analyzed in the light of the above-mentioned theories.

  14. Reorganization of functional networks in mild cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier M Buldú

    Full Text Available Whether the balance between integration and segregation of information in the brain is damaged in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI subjects is still a matter of debate. Here we characterize the functional network architecture of MCI subjects by means of complex networks analysis. Magnetoencephalograms (MEG time series obtained during a memory task were evaluated by synchronization likelihood (SL, to quantify the statistical dependence between MEG signals and to obtain the functional networks. Graphs from MCI subjects show an enhancement of the strength of connections, together with an increase in the outreach parameter, suggesting that memory processing in MCI subjects is associated with higher energy expenditure and a tendency toward random structure, which breaks the balance between integration and segregation. All features are reproduced by an evolutionary network model that simulates the degenerative process of a healthy functional network to that associated with MCI. Due to the high rate of conversion from MCI to Alzheimer Disease (AD, these results show that the analysis of functional networks could be an appropriate tool for the early detection of both MCI and AD.

  15. Brain structural changes and neuropsychological impairments in male polydipsic schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagashima Tomohisa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polydipsia frequently occurs in schizophrenia patients. The excessive water loading in polydipsia occasionally induces a hyponatremic state and leads to water intoxication. Whether polydipsia in schizophrenic patients correlates with neuropsychological impairments or structural brain changes is not clear and remains controversial. Methods Eight polydipsic schizophrenia patients, eight nonpolydipsic schizophrenia patients, and eight healthy controls were recruited. All subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and neuropsychological testing. Structural abnormalities were analyzed using a voxel-based morphometry (VBM approach, and patients’ neuropsychological function was assessed using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, Japanese version (BACS-J. Results No significant differences were found between the two patient groups with respect to the clinical characteristics. Compared with healthy controls, polydipsic patients showed widespread brain volume reduction and neuropsychological impairment. Furthermore, the left insula was significantly reduced in polydipsic patients compared with nonpolydipsic patients. These nonpolydipsic patients performed intermediate to the other two groups in the neuropsychological function test. Conclusions It is possible that polydipsia or the secondary hyponatremia might induce left insula volume reduction. Furthermore, this structural brain change may indirectly induce more severe neuropsychological impairments in polydipsic patients. Thus, we suggest that insula abnormalities might contribute to the pathophysiology of polydipsic patients.

  16. Risk factors for psychosis: impaired social and role functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornblatt, Barbara A; Carrión, Ricardo E; Addington, Jean; Seidman, Larry; Walker, Elaine F; Cannon, Tyronne D; Cadenhead, Kristin S; McGlashan, Thomas H; Perkins, Diana O; Tsuang, Ming T; Woods, Scott W; Heinssen, Robert; Lencz, Todd

    2012-11-01

    Risk for psychosis is currently defined primarily on the basis of attenuated positive symptoms (APS), with no inclusion of the functional deficits characteristic of schizophrenia. Impaired social and role functioning have been of interest for reflecting poor outcome but far less is known about the developmental impact of these deficits as vulnerability or risk factors. Age-appropriate social and role functioning were prospectively assessed in 100 individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis included in the 8-site North American Prodromal Longitudinal Study database. A nested case-control design was used to compare changes in social and role functioning in 26 individuals converting to psychosis shortly after baseline assessment and 24 converting over a year later. Individuals in each converter subgroup were directly matched to a non-converter at the same site, controlling for time to conversion, age, gender, and severity of baseline symptoms. At baseline, CHR subjects who later became psychotic were significantly more likely to be impaired socially than matched non-converters. Onset of psychosis did not further disrupt social difficulties. Role functioning showed some of the same trends, but the overall pattern was not as consistent as for the social domain. Controlling for neurocognition did not change the pattern of group differences. Early impaired social functioning appears to be a risk factor for psychosis and, added to APS, could potentially contribute to accurate identification of CHR individuals and provide a new direction for early intervention to reduce long-term disability.

  17. Theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation to the prefrontal or parietal cortex does not impair metacognitive visual awareness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bor

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies commonly associate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and posterior parietal cortex with conscious perception. However, such studies only investigate correlation, rather than causation. In addition, many studies conflate objective performance with subjective awareness. In an influential recent paper, Rounis and colleagues addressed these issues by showing that continuous theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (cTBS applied to the DLPFC impaired metacognitive (subjective awareness for a perceptual task, while objective performance was kept constant. We attempted to replicate this finding, with minor modifications, including an active cTBS control site. Using a between-subjects design for both DLPFC and posterior parietal cortices, we found no evidence of a cTBS-induced metacognitive impairment. In a second experiment, we devised a highly rigorous within-subjects cTBS design for DLPFC, but again failed to find any evidence of metacognitive impairment. One crucial difference between our results and the Rounis study is our strict exclusion of data deemed unsuitable for a signal detection theory analysis. Indeed, when we included this unstable data, a significant, though invalid, metacognitive impairment was found. These results cast doubt on previous findings relating metacognitive awareness to DLPFC, and inform the current debate concerning whether or not prefrontal regions are preferentially implicated in conscious perception.

  18. Versão brasileira da Escala de Comprometimento do Tronco: um estudo de validade em sujeitos pós-acidente vascular encefálico Brazilian version of the Trunk Impairment Scale: a reliability study in post-stroke subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núbia Maria Freire Vieira Lima

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O controle de tronco - uma habilidade motora básica indispensável à execução de muitas tarefas funcionais - encontra-se deficitário em pacientes que sofreram acidente vascular encefálico (AVE. Há poucas referências estrangeiras, e nenhuma em português, que focalizem a avaliação de tronco de forma quantitativa. Este estudo teve como objetivo traduzir e verificar a confiabilidade inter e intra-examinador, validade construtiva e consistência interna da versão brasileira da ECT - Escala de Comprometimento do Tronco (Trunk Impairment Scale. Em 18 voluntários com hemiparesia secundária à AVE foram aplicados os seguintes instrumentos: ECT, Protocolo de Desempenho Físico de Fugl-Meyer, Medida de Independência Funcional, EEB - Escala de Equilíbrio de Berg e Classificação de Deambulação Funcional. As avaliações foram realizadas por três fisioterapeutas experientes e o reteste da ECT foi realizado após 48 horas. Foram encontradas moderada confiabilidade intra-examinador e excelente confiabilidade inter-examinador (pTrunk control - which is a basic motor ability to perform many functional tasks -is disrupted in most patients who have suffered a stroke. There are few foreign references and none in Portuguese dealing with the quantitative assessment of trunk control. The aim of this study was to translate, verify intra- and inter-examiner reliability, validity and internal consistency of the Brazilian version of the Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS. Eighteen hemiparetic, post-stroke volunteers were evaluated by means of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment Scale, Functional Independence Measure, Berg Balance Scale (BBS, and Functional Ambulation Classification; TIS was apllied by three experienced physical therapists; retest was carried out 48 hours later. Data analysis showed moderate intra-rater and an excellent inter-rater reliability (p<0.05, though low internal consistency (0.45. The only scale found to correlate with TIS was BBS (r=0.491, p

  19. Individual differences in the brain are associated with resilience versus susceptibility to lipopolysaccharide-induced memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui; Ji, Muhuo; Zong, Manman; Jia, Min; Luo, Dan; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Yang, Jianjun

    2018-01-01

    Sepsis impairs learning and memory function, yet marked interindividual variability exists in the degree to which sepsis compromises learning and memory function. Thus, testing resilience versus susceptibility to systemic inflammation induced-memory impairment and the underlying mechanism is needed. In the present study, we firstly used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce memory impairment, and then evaluated cognitive function on days 4-7 after the first LPS challenge. Subjects' scores on both behavioral measures were subjected to a hierarchical cluster analysis, identifying two clusters that differed notably on the Y-maze and fear conditioning tests. This analysis divided these subjects into two groups, one cluster (13 of 34 subjects) displayed impaired working and associative memory, named "Susceptive". The remaining cluster (21 of 34 subjects) showed normal memory, named "Resilient". We have also included another group receiving normal saline to serve as the control group. The three groups underwent a battery of biochemical detections. In addition, we investigated whether the individual differences would disappear between the "Resilient" and "Susceptive" groups by using microglia inhibitor minocycline. We showed that as compared with the "Resilient" or control group, the "Susceptive" group was accompanied by increased tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), IL-6, and biomarkers of microglia activation ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1 and cluster of differentiation 68. Notably, after decreasing the activation of microglia, the differences in cognitive function between the "Resilient" and "Susceptive" groups disappeared. Collectively, our study suggests that individual differences in the brain are associated with resilience versus susceptibility to LPS-induced memory impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Impairment in Non-Word Repetition: A Marker for Language Impairment or Reading Impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Gillian; Slonims, Vicky; Simonoff, Emily; Dworzynski, Katharina

    2011-01-01

    Aim: A deficit in non-word repetition (NWR), a measure of short-term phonological memory proposed as a marker for language impairment, is found not only in language impairment but also in reading impairment. We evaluated the strength of association between language impairment and reading impairment in children with current, past, and no language…

  1. The correlation between motor impairments and event-related desynchronization during motor imagery in ALS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasahara Takashi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The event-related desynchronization (ERD in EEG is known to appear during motor imagery, and is thought to reflect cortical processing for motor preparation. The aim of this study is to examine the modulation of ERD with motor impairment in ALS patients. ERD during hand motor imagery was obtained from 8 ALS patients with a variety of motor impairments. ERD was also obtained from age-matched 11 healthy control subjects with the same motor task. The magnitude and frequency of ERD were compared between groups for characterization of ALS specific changes. Results The ERD of ALS patients were significantly smaller than those of control subjects. Bulbar function and ERD were negatively correlated in ALS patients. Motor function of the upper extremities did was uncorrelated with ERD. Conclusions ALS patients with worsened bulbar scales may show smaller ERD. Motor function of the upper extremities did was uncorrelated with ERD.

  2. Alcohol consumption and visual impairment in a rural Northern Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijian; Xu, Keke; Wu, Shubin; Sun, Ying; Song, Zhen; Jin, Di; Liu, Ping

    2014-12-01

    To investigate alcohol drinking status and the association between drinking patterns and visual impairment in an adult population in northern China. Cluster sampling was used to select samples. The protocol consisted of an interview, pilot study, visual acuity (VA) testing and a clinical examination. Visual impairment was defined as presenting VA worse than 20/60 in any eye. Drinking patterns included drinking quantity (standard drinks per week) and frequency (drinking days in the past week). Information on alcohol consumption was obtained from 8445 subjects, 963 (11.4%) of whom reported consuming alcohol. In multivariate analysis, alcohol consumption was significantly associated with older age (p 14 drinks/week) was associated with higher odds of visual impairment. However, moderate intake (>1-14 drinks/week) was significantly associated with lower odds (adjusted odds ratio, OR, 0.7, 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.5-1.0) of visual impairment (p = 0.03). Higher drinking frequency was significantly associated with higher odds of visual impairment. Multivariate analysis showed that older age, male sex, and higher education level were associated with visual impairment among current drinkers. Age- and sex-adjusted ORs for the association of cataract and alcohol intake showed that higher alcohol consumption was not significantly associated with an increased prevalence of cataract (OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.4-3.6), whereas light and moderate alcohol consumption appeared to reduce incidence of cataract. Drinking patterns were associated with visual impairment. Heavy intake had negative effects on distance vision; meanwhile, moderate intake had a positive effect on distance vision.

  3. Impairments to Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an external Non-Government web site. Impairments to Vision Normal Vision Diabetic Retinopathy Age-related Macular Degeneration In this ... pictures, fixate on the nose to simulate the vision loss. In diabetic retinopathy, the blood vessels in ...

  4. The visually impaired patient

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosenberg, EA

    2008-01-01

    ... and independent living for the visually impaired patient. In the United States, the four most prevalent etiologies of vision loss in persons 40 years and older are age-related macular degeneration, cataracts, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy...

  5. Aids for visual impairment.

    OpenAIRE

    Dudley, N. J.

    1990-01-01

    This article provides only a flavour of the type and range of aids available to the visually impaired person. Many other aids for leisure, learning, and daily living are illustrated in the RNIB equipment and games catalogue.

  6. Speech and Language Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What? (log-in required) Select Page Speech and Language Impairments Jun 16, 2010 A legacy disability fact ... 11] Back to top Development of Speech and Language Skills in Childhood Speech and language skills develop ...

  7. Communication difficulties in teenagers with health impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samokhvalova, Anna G.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary psychological and pedagogical studies pay special attention to the socialization of physically impaired children, inclusive education and methods of providing such children with a safe environment to assist in their development. However, difficulties in interpersonal communication experienced by children with health impairments have remained beyond the research scope. The authors conducted a comparative analysis of communication difficulties in typically developed teenagers aged 12-13 years (n = 100 and the problems faced by their peers with visual (n = 30, auditory (n = 30, speech (n = 25 and motor (n = 15 impairments. Actual communication difficulties in teenagers were studied in two ways: the subjective component of impaired communication was registered through a content analysis of a sentence completion test and the objective manifestations of impaired communication were identified through expert evaluation of children’s communicative behavior (educators and psychologists who had been in close contact with the teenagers acted as experts. First, the authors identified typical standard communication problems that were characteristic of teenagers aged 12-13 years, that is, problems with aggression, tolerance, the ability to admit wrongdoing and make concessions, empathy, self-control, self-analysis and self-expression in communication. Second, typical communication difficulties characteristic of physically impaired children were revealed: failure to understand meaning; feelings of awkwardness and shame of oneself; expectations of a negative attitude toward oneself; gelotophobia; and manifestations of despotism, petulance and egotism as defensive reactions in situations of impaired communication. Third, the authors described specific communication difficulties in teenagers with auditory, visual, speech and motor impairments.

  8. Impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance in children and adolescents with overweight/obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bonito, P; Pacifico, L; Chiesa, C; Valerio, G; Miraglia Del Giudice, E; Maffeis, C; Morandi, A; Invitti, C; Licenziati, M R; Loche, S; Tornese, G; Franco, F; Manco, M; Baroni, M G

    2017-04-01

    To investigate in a large sample of overweight/obese (OW/OB) children and adolescents the prevalence of prediabetic phenotypes such as impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and to assess their association with cardiometabolic risk (CMR) factors including hepatic steatosis (HS). Population data were obtained from the CARdiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents in ITALY study. Between 2003 and 2013, 3088 youths (972 children and 2116 adolescents) received oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and were included in the study. In 798 individuals, abdominal ultrasound for identification of HS was available. The prevalence of IFG (3.2 vs. 3.3%) and IGT (4.6 vs. 5.0%) was similar between children and adolescents. Children with isolated IGT had a 2-11 fold increased risk of high LDL-C, non-HDL-C, Tg/HDL-C ratio, and low insulin sensitivity, when compared to those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). No significant association of IFG with any CMR factor was found in children. Among adolescents, IGT subjects, and to a lesser extent those with IFG, showed a worse CMR profile compared to NGT subgroup. In the overall sample, IGT phenotype showed a twofold increased risk of HS compared to NGT subgroup. Our study shows an unexpected similar prevalence of IFG and IGT between children and adolescents with overweight/obesity. The IGT phenotype was associated with a worse CMR profile in both children and adolescents. Phenotyping prediabetes conditions by OGTT should be done as part of prediction and prevention of cardiometabolic diseases in OW/OB youth since early childhood.

  9. Show Me My Health Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C. Politi PhD

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since the Affordable Care Act was passed, more than 12 million individuals have enrolled in the health insurance marketplace. Without support, many struggle to make an informed plan choice that meets their health and financial needs. Methods: We designed and evaluated a decision aid, Show Me My Health Plans (SMHP, that provides education, preference assessment, and an annual out-of-pocket cost calculator with plan recommendations produced by a tailored, risk-adjusted algorithm incorporating age, gender, and health status. We evaluated whether SMHP compared to HealthCare.gov improved health insurance decision quality and the match between plan choice, needs, and preferences among 328 Missourians enrolling in the marketplace. Results: Participants who used SMHP had higher health insurance knowledge (LS-Mean = 78 vs. 62; P < 0.001, decision self-efficacy (LS-Mean = 83 vs. 75; P < 0.002, confidence in their choice (LS-Mean = 3.5 vs. 2.9; P < 0.001, and improved health insurance literacy (odds ratio = 2.52, P < 0.001 compared to participants using HealthCare.gov . Those using SMHP were 10.3 times more likely to select a silver- or gold-tier plan (P < 0.0001. Discussion: SMHP can improve health insurance decision quality and the odds that consumers select an insurance plan with coverage likely needed to meet their health needs. This study represents a unique context through which to apply principles of decision support to improve health insurance choices.

  10. Impaired but undiagnosed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angold, A; Costello, E J; Farmer, E M; Burns, B J; Erkanli, A

    1999-02-01

    To investigate the prevalence and outcomes of individuals with psychosocial impairment not meeting DSM-III-R criteria for any of 29 well-defined disorders and to suggest operational definitions for not otherwise specified (NOS) diagnoses and V codes. Two-stage general population sampling resulted in 1,015 youths aged 9, 11, and 13 years being interviewed in the first wave of the Great Smoky Mountains Study. They were reinterviewed 1 year later using the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment. The weighted prevalence of sibling relational problems was found to be 1.4%. That of parent-child relational problems was 3.6% and that of relational problems NOS was 0.6%. The overall rate of symptomatic impairment was 9.4%. Across a variety of "caseness measures," those with symptomatic impairment proved to be more disturbed than those without either a diagnosis or impairment, and as disturbed as those with a diagnosis but without impairment. Children and adolescents who do not meet DSM-III-R criteria for any well-defined disorder but who have symptoms associated with psychosocial impairment should be regarded as suffering from a psychiatric disorder. It is suggested that researchers adopt this definition for the many NOS diagnoses included in the DSM nosology and implement it in their research diagnostic algorithms.

  11. Atypical right hemisphere specialization for object representations in an adolescent with specific language impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy T. Brown

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with a diagnosis of specific language impairment (SLI show abnormal spoken language occurring alongside normal nonverbal abilities. Behaviorally, people with SLI exhibit diverse profiles of impairment involving phonological, grammatical, syntactic, and semantic aspects of language. In this study, we used a multimodal neuroimaging technique called anatomically constrained magnetoencephalography (aMEG to measure the dynamic functional brain organization of an adolescent with SLI. Using single-subject statistical maps of cortical activity, we compared this patient to a sibling and to a cohort of typically developing subjects during the performance of tasks designed to evoke semantic representations of concrete objects. Localized, real-time patterns of brain activity within the language impaired patient showed marked differences from the typical functional organization, with significant engagement of right hemisphere heteromodal cortical regions generally homotopic to the left hemisphere areas that usually show the greatest activity for such tasks. Functional neuroanatomical differences were evident at early sensoriperceptual processing stages and continued through later cognitive stages, observed specifically at latencies typically associated with semantic encoding operations. Our findings show with real-time temporal specificity evidence for an atypical right hemisphere specialization for the representation of concrete entities, independent of verbal motor demands. More broadly, our results demonstrate the feasibility and potential utility of using aMEG to characterize individual patient differences in the dynamic functional organization of the brain.

  12. Impairment in non‐word repetition: a marker for language impairment or reading impairment?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    BAIRD, GILLIAN; SLONIMS, VICKY; SIMONOFF, EMILY; DWORZYNSKI, KATHARINA

    2011-01-01

    Aim  A deficit in non‐word repetition (NWR), a measure of short‐term phonological memory proposed as a marker for language impairment, is found not only in language impairment but also in reading impairment...

  13. Chronic Low Quality Sleep Impairs Postural Control in Healthy Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabianne Furtado

    Full Text Available The lack of sleep, both in quality and quantity, is an increasing problem in modern society, often related to workload and stress. A number of studies have addressed the effects of acute (total sleep deprivation on postural control. However, up to date, the effects of chronic sleep deficits, either in quantity or quality, have not been analyzed. Thirty healthy adults participated in the study that consisted of registering activity with a wrist actigraph for more than a week before performing a series of postural control tests. Sleep and circadian rhythm variables were correlated and the sum of activity of the least active 5-h period, L5, a rhythm variable, obtained the greater coefficient value with sleep quality variables (wake after sleep onset WASO and efficiency sleep. Cluster analysis was performed to classify subjects into two groups based on L5 (low and high. The balance tests scores used to asses postural control were measured using Biodex Balance System and were compared between the two groups with different sleep quality. The postural tests were divided into dynamic (platform tilt with eyes open, closed and cursor and static (clinical test of sensory integration. The results showed that during the tests with eyes closed, the group with worse sleep quality had also worse postural control performance. Lack of vision impairs postural balance more deeply in subjects with chronic sleep inefficiency. Chronic poor sleep quality impairs postural control similarly to total sleep deprivation.

  14. Chronic Low Quality Sleep Impairs Postural Control in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Fabianne; Gonçalves, Bruno da Silva B; Abranches, Isabela Lopes Laguardia; Abrantes, Ana Flávia; Forner-Cordero, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    The lack of sleep, both in quality and quantity, is an increasing problem in modern society, often related to workload and stress. A number of studies have addressed the effects of acute (total) sleep deprivation on postural control. However, up to date, the effects of chronic sleep deficits, either in quantity or quality, have not been analyzed. Thirty healthy adults participated in the study that consisted of registering activity with a wrist actigraph for more than a week before performing a series of postural control tests. Sleep and circadian rhythm variables were correlated and the sum of activity of the least active 5-h period, L5, a rhythm variable, obtained the greater coefficient value with sleep quality variables (wake after sleep onset WASO and efficiency sleep). Cluster analysis was performed to classify subjects into two groups based on L5 (low and high). The balance tests scores used to asses postural control were measured using Biodex Balance System and were compared between the two groups with different sleep quality. The postural tests were divided into dynamic (platform tilt with eyes open, closed and cursor) and static (clinical test of sensory integration). The results showed that during the tests with eyes closed, the group with worse sleep quality had also worse postural control performance. Lack of vision impairs postural balance more deeply in subjects with chronic sleep inefficiency. Chronic poor sleep quality impairs postural control similarly to total sleep deprivation.

  15. Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor

    2006-03-03

    Forty-three subjects worked in a private office with switchable electrochromic windows, manually-operated Venetian blinds, and dimmable fluorescent lights. The electrochromic window had a visible transmittance range of approximately 3-60%. Analysis of subject responses and physical data collected during the work sessions showed that the electrochromic windows reduced the incidence of glare compared to working under a fixed transmittance (60%) condition. Subjects used the Venetian blinds less often and preferred the variable transmittance condition, but used slightly more electric lighting with it than they did when window transmittance was fixed.

  16. Unilateral visual impairment in an urban population in Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandona Lalit

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the prevalence and causes of unilateral visual impairment in the urban population of Hyderabad city as part of the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study. Stratified, random, cluster, systematic sampling was used to select 2,954 subjects from 24 clusters representative of the population of Hyderabad. Eligible subjects underwent detailed eye examination including logMAR visual acuity, refraction, slitlamp biomicroscopy, applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, dilatation, cataract grading, and stereoscopic evaluation of fundus. Automated threshold visual fields and slitlamp and fundus photography were done when indicated by standardised criteria. Unilateral visual impairment was defined as presenting distance visual acuity <6/18 in the worse eye and ≥6/12 in the better eye, which was further divided into unilateral blindness (visual acuity <6/60 in the worse eye and unilateral moderate visual impairment (visual acuity <6/18-6/60 in the worse eye. A total of 2,522 subjects (85.4% of eligible, including 1,399 ≥30 years old, participated in the study. In addition to the 1% blindness and 7.2% moderate visual impairment (based on bilateral visual impairment criteria reported earlier in this sample, 139 subjects had unilateral visual impairment, an age-gender-adjusted prevalence of 3.8% (95% confidence interval 2.7-4.9%. The major causes of this visual impairment 39.9% were refractive error (42.9%, cataract (14.4%, corneal disease (11.5%, and retinal disease (11.2%. Of this unilateral visual impairment was blindness. The major causes of unilateral blindness were corneal disease (23.2%, cataract (22.5%, retinal disease (18%, and optic atrophy (12.9%. On the other hand, the predominant cause of unilateral moderate visual impairment was refractive error (67% followed by cataract (9%. Of the total unilateral visual impairment, 34.3% was present in those <30 years old and 36.2% in those 30-49 years old. Unilateral visual

  17. Cervical Musculoskeletal Impairments and Temporomandibular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Armijo-Olivo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study of cervical muscles and their significance in the development and perpetuation of Temporomandibular Disorders has not been elucidated. Thus this project was designed to investigate the association between cervical musculoskeletal impairments and Temporomandibular Disorders. Material and Methods: A sample of 154 subjects participated in this study. All subjects underwent a series of physical tests and electromyographic assessment (i.e. head and neck posture, maximal cervical muscle strength, cervical flexor and extensor muscles endurance, and cervical flexor muscle performance to determine cervical musculoskeletal impairments. Results: A strong relationship between neck disability and jaw disability was found (r = 0.82. Craniocervical posture was statistically different between patients with myogenous Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD and healthy subjects. However, the difference was too small (3.3º to be considered clinically relevant. Maximal cervical flexor muscle strength was not statistically or clinically different between patients with TMD and healthy subjects. No statistically significant differences were found in electromyographic activity of the sternocleidomastoid or the anterior scalene muscles in patients with TMD when compared to healthy subjects while executing the craniocervical flexion test (P = 0.07. However, clinically important effect sizes (0.42 - 0.82 were found. Subjects with TMD presented with reduced cervical flexor as well as extensor muscle endurance while performing the flexor and extensor muscle endurance tests when compared to healthy individuals. Conclusions: Subjects with Temporomandibular Disorders presented with impairments of the cervical flexors and extensors muscles. These results could help guide clinicians in the assessment and prescription of more effective interventions for individuals with Temporomandibular Disorders.

  18. Cervical musculoskeletal impairments and temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Magee, David

    2013-01-01

    The study of cervical muscles and their significance in the development and perpetuation of Temporomandibular Disorders has not been elucidated. Thus this project was designed to investigate the association between cervical musculoskeletal impairments and Temporomandibular Disorders. A sample of 154 subjects participated in this study. All subjects underwent a series of physical tests and electromyographic assessment (i.e. head and neck posture, maximal cervical muscle strength, cervical flexor and extensor muscles endurance, and cervical flexor muscle performance) to determine cervical musculoskeletal impairments. A strong relationship between neck disability and jaw disability was found (r = 0.82). Craniocervical posture was statistically different between patients with myogenous Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) and healthy subjects. However, the difference was too small (3.3º) to be considered clinically relevant. Maximal cervical flexor muscle strength was not statistically or clinically different between patients with TMD and healthy subjects. No statistically significant differences were found in electromyographic activity of the sternocleidomastoid or the anterior scalene muscles in patients with TMD when compared to healthy subjects while executing the craniocervical flexion test (P = 0.07). However, clinically important effect sizes (0.42 - 0.82) were found. Subjects with TMD presented with reduced cervical flexor as well as extensor muscle endurance while performing the flexor and extensor muscle endurance tests when compared to healthy individuals. Subjects with Temporomandibular Disorders presented with impairments of the cervical flexors and extensors muscles. These results could help guide clinicians in the assessment and prescription of more effective interventions for individuals with Temporomandibular Disorders.

  19. Postural control in blind subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vinicius Soares

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. Methods: A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. Results: On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Conclusion: Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.

  20. Comparison of reading comprehension and working memory in hearing-impaired and normal-hearing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezaei

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Reading is the most important human need for learning. In normal-hearing people working memory is a predictor of reading comprehension. In this study the relationship between working memory and reading comprehension skills was studied in hearing-impaired children, and then compared with the normal-hearing group.Methods: This was a descriptive-analytic study. The working memory and reading comprehension skills of 18 (8 male, 10 female sever hearing-impaired children in year five of exceptional schools were compared by means of a reading test with 18 hearing children as control group. The subjects in the control group were of the same gender and educational level of the sample group.Results: The children with hearing loss performed similarly to the normal-hearing children in tasks related to auditory-verbal memory of sounds (reverse, visual-verbal memory of letters, and visual-verbal memory of pictures. However, they showed lower levels of performance in reading comprehension (p<0.001. Moreover, no significant relationship was observed between working memory and reading comprehension skills.Conclusion: Findings indicated that children with hearing loss have a significant impairment in the reading comprehension skill. Impairment in language knowledge and vocabulary may be the main cause of poor reading comprehension in these children. In hearing-impaired children working memory is not a strong predictor of reading comprehension.

  1. Acute lesions that impair affective empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Kenichi; Hsu, John; Lindquist, Martin; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Jarso, Samson; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Mori, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    Functional imaging studies of healthy participants and previous lesion studies have provided evidence that empathy involves dissociable cognitive functions that rely on at least partially distinct neural networks that can be individually impaired by brain damage. These studies converge in support of the proposal that affective empathy—making inferences about how another person feels—engages at least the following areas: prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal gyrus, anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, temporal pole, amygdala and temporoparietal junction. We hypothesized that right-sided lesions to any one of these structures, except temporoparietal junction, would cause impaired affective empathy (whereas bilateral damage to temporoparietal junction would be required to disrupt empathy). We studied 27 patients with acute right hemisphere ischaemic stroke and 24 neurologically intact inpatients on a test of affective empathy. Acute impairment of affective empathy was associated with infarcts in the hypothesized network, particularly temporal pole and anterior insula. All patients with impaired affective empathy were also impaired in comprehension of affective prosody, but many patients with impairments in prosodic comprehension had spared affective empathy. Patients with impaired affective empathy were older, but showed no difference in performance on tests of hemispatial neglect, volume of infarct or sex distribution compared with patients with intact affective empathy. PMID:23824490

  2. Real-space path integration is impaired in Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mokrišová, I.; Laczó, J.; Andel, R.; Gažová, I.; Vyhnálek, M.; Nedělská, Z.; Levčík, David; Cerman, J.; Vlček, Kamil; Hort, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 307, Jul 1 (2016), s. 150-158 ISSN 0166-4328 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Alzheimer disease * mild cognitive impairment * spatial navigation * hippocampus * path integration Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.002, year: 2016

  3. Optimization of an experiment showing processes of photosynthesis for science school subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Praprotnik, Luka; Selič, Sendi; Torkar, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the experiment, which illustrates the process of photosynthesis. Teaching about processes of photosynthesis is one of the most difficult science themes, because of its complexity and abstract nature. Students often have difficulties understanding the processes of photosynthesis, mostly because of incorrect conceptualization and inappropriate simplification of the processes. For successful teaching of photosynthesis teachers are suggested to implement p...

  4. Is number sense impaired in chronic pain patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolrich, J; Poots, A J; Kuehler, B M; Rice, A S C; Rahman, A; Bantel, C

    2014-12-01

    Recent advances in imaging have improved our understanding of the role of the brain in painful conditions. Discoveries of morphological changes have been made in patients with chronic pain, with little known about the functional consequences when they occur in areas associated with 'number-sense'; thus, it can be hypothesized that chronic pain impairs this sense. First, an audit of the use of numbers in gold-standard pain assessment tools in patients with acute and chronic pain was undertaken. Secondly, experiments were conducted with patients with acute and chronic pain and healthy controls. Participants marked positions of numbers on lines (number marking), before naming numbers on pre-marked lines (number naming). Finally, subjects bisected lines flanked with '2' and '9'. Deviations from expected responses were determined for each experiment. Four hundred and ninety-four patients were audited; numeric scores in the 'moderate' and 'severe' pain categories were significantly higher in chronic compared with acute pain patients. In experiments (n=150), more than one-third of chronic pain patients compared with 1/10th of controls showed greater deviations from the expected in number marking and naming indicating impaired number sense. Line bisection experiments suggest prefrontal and parietal cortical dysfunction as cause of this impairment. Audit data suggest patients with chronic pain interpret numbers differently from acute pain sufferers. Support is gained by experiments indicating impaired number sense in one-third of chronic pain patients. These results cast doubts on the appropriateness of the use of visual analogue and numeric rating scales in chronic pain in clinics and research. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia.

  5. Transgenic poplars with reduced lignin show impaired xylem conductivity, growth efficiency and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven L. Voelker; Barbara Lachenbruch; Frederick C. Meinzer; Peter Kitin; Steven H. Strauss

    2011-01-01

    We studied xylem anatomy and hydraulic architecture in 14 transgenic insertion events and a control line of hybrid poplar (Populus spp.) that varied in lignin content. Transgenic events had different levels of down-regulation of two genes encoding 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL). Two-year-old trees were characterized after...

  6. Transgenic poplars with reduced lignin show impaired xylem conductivity, growth efficiency and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Steven L; Lachenbruch, Barbara; Meinzer, Frederick C; Kitin, Peter; Strauss, Steven H

    2011-04-01

    We studied xylem anatomy and hydraulic architecture in 14 transgenic insertion events and a control line of hybrid poplar (Populus spp.) that varied in lignin content. Transgenic events had different levels of down-regulation of two genes encoding 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL). Two-year-old trees were characterized after growing either as free-standing trees in the field or as supported by stakes in a greenhouse. In free-standing trees, a 20 to 40% reduction in lignin content was associated with increased xylem vulnerability to embolism, shoot dieback and mortality. In staked trees, the decreased biomechanical demands on the xylem was associated with increases in the leaf area to sapwood area ratio and wood specific conductivity (k(s)), and with decreased leaf-specific conductivity (k(l)). These shifts in hydraulic architecture suggest that the bending stresses perceived during growth can affect traits important for xylem water transport. Severe 4CL-downregulation resulted in the patchy formation of discoloured, brown wood with irregular vessels in which water transport was strongly impeded. These severely 4CL-downregulated trees had significantly lower growth efficiency (biomass/leaf area). These results underscore the necessity of adequate lignification for mechanical support of the stem, water transport, tree growth and survival. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Young Adult Female Fragile X Premutation Carriers Show Age- and Genetically-Modulated Cognitive Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich-Hunsaker, Naomi J.; Wong, Ling M.; McLennan, Yingratana; Srivastava, Siddharth; Tassone, Flora; Harvey, Danielle; Rivera, Susan M.; Simon, Tony J.

    2011-01-01

    The high frequency of the fragile X premutation in the general population and its emerging neurocognitive implications highlight the need to investigate the effects of the premutation on lifespan cognitive development. Until recently, cognitive function in fragile X premutation carriers (fXPCs) was presumed to be unaffected by the mutation. Here…

  8. Atopic asthmatic subjects but not atopic subjects without ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Asthma is a known risk factor for acute ozone-associated respiratory disease. Ozone causes an immediate decrease in lung function and increased airway inflammation. The role of atopy and asthma in modulation of ozone-induced inflammation has not been determined. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether atopic status modulates ozone response phenotypes in human subjects. METHODS: Fifty volunteers (25 healthy volunteers, 14 atopic nonasthmatic subjects, and 11 atopic asthmatic subjects not requiring maintenance therapy) underwent a 0.4-ppm ozone exposure protocol. Ozone response was determined based on changes in lung function and induced sputum composition, including airway inflammatory cell concentration, cell-surface markers, and cytokine and hyaluronic acid concentrations. RESULTS: All cohorts experienced similar decreases in lung function after ozone. Atopic and atopic asthmatic subjects had increased sputum neutrophil numbers and IL-8 levels after ozone exposure; values did not significantly change in healthy volunteers. After ozone exposure, atopic asthmatic subjects had significantly increased sputum IL-6 and IL-1beta levels and airway macrophage Toll-like receptor 4, Fc(epsilon)RI, and CD23 expression; values in healthy volunteers and atopic nonasthmatic subjects showed no significant change. Atopic asthmatic subjects had significantly decreased IL-10 levels at baseline compared with healthy volunteers; IL-10 levels did not significa

  9. Impaired Parahippocampus Connectivity in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jieqiong; Zhang, Xinqing; Yu, Chunshui; Duan, Yunyun; Zhuo, Junjie; Cui, Yue; Liu, Bing; Li, Kuncheng; Jiang, Tianzi; Liu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The parahippocampal gyrus (PHG) is an important region of the limbic system that plays an important role in episodic memory. Elucidation of the PHG connectivity pattern will aid in the understanding of memory deficits in neurodegenerative diseases. To investigate if disease severity associated altered PHG connectivity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) exists. We evaluated resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 18 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 35 patients with AD, and 21 controls. The PHG connectivity pattern was examined by calculating Pearson's correlation coefficients between the bilateral PHG and whole brain. Group comparisons were performed after controlling for the effects of age and gender. The functional connectivity strength in each identified region was correlated with the MMSE score to evaluate the relationship between connectivity and cognitive ability. Several brain regions of the default mode network showed reduced PHG connectivity in the AD patients, and PHG connectivity was associated with disease severity in the MCI and AD subjects. More importantly, correlation analyses showed that there were positive correlations between the connectivity strengths of the left PHG-PCC/Pcu and left PHG-left MTG and the Mini-Mental State Examination, indicating that with disease progression from MCI to severe AD, damage to the functional connectivity of the PHG becomes increasingly severe. These results indicate that disease severity is associated with altered PHG connectivity, contributing to knowledge about the reduction in cognitive ability and impaired brain activity that occur in AD/MCI. These early changes in the functional connectivity of the PHG might provide some potential clues for identification of imaging markers for the early detection of MCI and AD.

  10. The impact of psychosocial adaptation status on quality of life for Chinese patients with visual impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiu-jie; Wang, Ai-ping; Yin, An-chun

    2014-01-01

    To analyse the association of psychosocial adaptation with quality of life and to examine the influential factors for Chinese people with visual impairments. The status of psychosocial adaptation is the main influential factor for quality of life. The correlation between psychosocial adaptation and quality of life for various diseases has been studied previously. However, there have been few reports on the impact of psychosocial adaptation on quality of life in people with visual impairments. Survey. In this study, subjects with visual impairment (n = 213) were interviewed to assess their demographics, disease-related information, psychosocial adaptation status and quality of life. The psychosocial adaptation questionnaire and quality of life scale for visually impaired patients were used to survey psychosocial adaptation and quality of life. Correlation and multiple stepwise regression analyses were used to study the association of psychosocial adaptation with quality of life in visually impaired patients. Psychosocial adaptation was significantly associated with quality of life, including the sense of belonging and psychological dimensions. The results also showed that there was statistical significance for the impact of occupational status, payment, monthly income (family), vision classification and psychosocial adaptation on quality of life, and the status of psychosocial adaptation was the main factor affecting the quality of life in people with visual impairments. It was found that the status of psychosocial adaptation was conspicuously associated with multiple dimensions of quality of life. Therefore, psychosocial adaptation status should be given close attention in clinical care. Our results could be used to guide nurses in making a plan for health education and nursing that improves the quality of life for the visually impaired. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Trainable Mentally Impaired/Severely Multiply Impaired/Autistic Impaired/Severely Mentally Impaired. Product Evaluation Report 1989-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Richard N.; And Others

    The evaluation report describes special education services provided to trainable mentally impaired (TMI), autistic impaired (AI), severely multiply impaired (SXI), and severely mentally impaired (SMI) students at and through the Melvin G. Millet Learning Center (Bridgeport, Michigan). The eight program components are described individually and…

  12. Effects of Indoor Rowing Exercise on the Body Composition and the Scoliosis of Visually Impaired People: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ka-Young; Choi, Eun-Hi; Lim, Jong-Youb; Cho, Ah-Ra; Lim, Young-Ho

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of rowing exercise on body composition, laboratory data, fitness and scoliosis in visually impaired people. The majority of visually impaired people do not participate in active sports due to efficiency and safety issues. Rowing is a safe whole-body exercise with aerobic and anaerobic components. Twenty subjects were recruited from among those admitted to a facility for visually impaired people (16 men and 4 women). Laboratory data, body composition, physical fitness, Cobb's angle, and fall index were checked before and after 6 weeks (5 days a week) of indoor rowing using Concept2 Model E. After the training, fat mass and total body fat percent decreased significantly. In the fitness test, back strength and trunk flexion score increased significantly. Laboratory data showed significant increases in serum protein and albumin and decreases in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. There were 9 subjects with scoliosis and after the training Cobb's angle decreased by 1.11°±1.55°, though this was not statistically significant. Visually impaired peopl