WorldWideScience

Sample records for subjects researchers agreed

  1. Establishing and agreeing on research priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ian de Ia Roche

    1999-01-01

    The organizers asked me to share with you my experiences in developing and implementing a process for establishing and agreeing on research priorities in a multi-stakeholder research institute such as Forintek. The mechanism we have in place has been well received by Forintek's membership and certain aspects have been adopted by other research organizations. While...

  2. Europe agrees to boost Internet networks used by researchers

    CERN Multimedia

    Butler, D

    2000-01-01

    The member states of the EU have approved an 80 million Euro upgrade of Europe's research Internet networks. The move will ensure the necessary infrastructure for work to begin on the concept of an advanced research computing 'grid' (1 page).

  3. Paying Hypertension Research Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarett, David; Karlawish, Jason; Asch, David A

    2002-01-01

    CONTEXT Cash payments are often used to compensate subjects who participate in research. However, ethicists have argued that these payments might constitute an undue inducement. OBJECTIVES To determine whether potential subjects agree with theoretical arguments that a payment could be an undue inducement. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS Survey of 350 prospective jurors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Belief that a $500 payment for research participation would impair their own, and others' ability to think carefully about the risks and benefits of a clinical trial. RESULTS Two hundred sixty-one jurors (74.6%) believed that a $500 payment would impair subjects' ability to think carefully about the risks and benefits of research. Ninety-six of 120 (80%) expressed this concern about subjects with a low income ($50,000). In contrast, only 69 (19.7%) of jurors believed that a $500 payment would influence them. Jurors who believed that this payment would influence them reported lower incomes and less education. CONCLUSION Members of the general public share ethical concerns about the influence of payments for research, although they believe that these concerns are more applicable to others than to themselves.

  4. What the giant tells us about agreeing post-verbal subjects in Xhosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constructions with the subject following the verb are a widely studied topic in Bantu linguistics. One such construction, in which the subject is dislocated, is considered not as core subject inversion, but generally as an afterthought construction. This study takes a spoken text, in this case a narrative, as its point of departure to ...

  5. Development of an internationally agreed minimal dataset for juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) for clinical and research use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Liza J; Kirkham, Jamie J; Wedderburn, Lucy R; Pilkington, Clarissa; Huber, Adam M; Ravelli, Angelo; Appelbe, Duncan; Williamson, Paula R; Beresford, Michael W

    2015-06-12

    Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is a rare autoimmune inflammatory disorder associated with significant morbidity and mortality. International collaboration is necessary to better understand the pathogenesis of the disease, response to treatment and long-term outcome. To aid international collaboration, it is essential to have a core set of data that all researchers and clinicians collect in a standardised way for clinical purposes and for research. This should include demographic details, diagnostic data and measures of disease activity, investigations and treatment. Variables in existing clinical registries have been compared to produce a provisional data set for JDM. We now aim to develop this into a consensus-approved minimum core dataset, tested in a wider setting, with the objective of achieving international agreement. A two-stage bespoke Delphi-process will engage the opinion of a large number of key stakeholders through Email distribution via established international paediatric rheumatology and myositis organisations. This, together with a formalised patient/parent participation process will help inform a consensus meeting of international experts that will utilise a nominal group technique (NGT). The resulting proposed minimal dataset will be tested for feasibility within existing database infrastructures. The developed minimal dataset will be sent to all internationally representative collaborators for final comment. The participants of the expert consensus group will be asked to draw together these comments, ratify and 'sign off' the final minimal dataset. An internationally agreed minimal dataset has the potential to significantly enhance collaboration, allow effective communication between groups, provide a minimal standard of care and enable analysis of the largest possible number of JDM patients to provide a greater understanding of this disease. The final approved minimum core dataset could be rapidly incorporated into national and international

  6. Agreed Definitions and a Shared Vision for New Standards in Stroke Recovery Research: The Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation Roundtable Taskforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Julie; Hayward, Kathryn S; Kwakkel, Gert; Ward, Nick S; Wolf, Steven L; Borschmann, Karen; Krakauer, John W; Boyd, Lara A; Carmichael, S Thomas; Corbett, Dale; Cramer, Steven C

    2017-09-01

    The first Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation Roundtable established a game changing set of new standards for stroke recovery research. Common language and definitions were required to develop an agreed framework spanning the four working groups: translation of basic science, biomarkers of stroke recovery, measurement in clinical trials and intervention development and reporting. This paper outlines the working definitions established by our group and an agreed vision for accelerating progress in stroke recovery research.

  7. Community events as viable sites for recruiting minority volunteers who agree to be contacted for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Wendy Pechero; Tiro, Jasmin A; Lee, Simon J Craddock; Bruce, Corinne M; Skinner, Celette Sugg

    2011-05-01

    Reaching out to medically underserved racial/ethnic groups is a key challenge in population research. To increase their participation opportunities, we asked adults attending community events to complete a survey about their health concerns and invited them to join a registry of individuals agreeing to future study invitation. Approximately 66% of the 2298 survey responders joined the registry. Multivariate analysis showed that Hispanics were more likely to agree to contact than Whites. Agreers endorsed a wider range of health concerns than non-agreers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Human subjects research handbook: Protecting human research subjects. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-30

    This handbook serves as a guide to understanding and implementing the Federal regulations and US DOE Orders established to protect human research subjects. Material in this handbook is directed towards new and continuing institutional review board (IRB) members, researchers, institutional administrators, DOE officials, and others who may be involved or interested in human subjects research. It offers comprehensive overview of the various requirements, procedures, and issues relating to human subject research today.

  9. Researching Risk: Narrative, Biography, Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Henwood

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to the development of methodological practices promoting greater epistemic reflexivity in risk research and in social science generally. Knowledge of the specific practices researchers will find useful cannot exist separately from any particular empirical project. Accordingly, we report on, and provide a reflective account of, the "nuclear risk" project that was part of the Social Contexts and Responses to Risk (SCARR network in the UK (2003-2008. A key focus is exploring the value of narrative methods—especially narrative elicitation methods—for understanding people's perceptions of, and ways of living with, risk. We credit our deployment of a narrative method with producing a rich form of data on risk-biography intersections, which have carried great significance in our analytical work on the way biographical experiences, dynamically unfolding through space and time, can be interrupted by risk events. Arguments from the literature on reflexive modernity are deployed to make the case for: researching risk in everyday life as a problematic in and of itself; placing concepts of risk-biography, risk-reflexivity and risk-subjectivity at centre stage; and finding ways to inquire into the social and psychic complexities involved in the dynamic construction and reconstruction of risk phenomena. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1001201

  10. Single Subject Research: Applications to Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakiroglu, Orhan

    2012-01-01

    Single subject research is a scientific research methodology that is increasingly used in the field of special education. Therefore, understanding the unique characteristics of single subject research methodology is critical both for educators and practitioners. Certain characteristics make single subject research one of the most preferred…

  11. A quantitative study of attitudes toward the research participation of adults with intellectual disability: Do stakeholders agree?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Katherine E; Conroy, Nicole E; Olick, Robert S

    2017-12-13

    Attitudes toward the research participation of adults with intellectual disability inform research policy and practice, impact interest in and support for research participation, and promote or discourage the generation of new knowledge to promote health among adults with intellectual disability. Yet we know little about these beliefs among the public and the scientific community. We quantitatively studied attitudes among adults with intellectual disability, family and friends, disability service providers, researchers, and Institutional Review Board (IRB) members. We predicted that adults with intellectual disability, and researchers would espouse views most consistent with disability rights, whereas IRB members, and to a lesser degree family, friends, and service providers, would espouse more protective views. We surveyed five hundred and twelve members of the five participant stakeholder groups on their attitudes toward the research participation of adults with intellectual disability. We found broad support for research about people with intellectual disability, though slightly more tempered support for their direct participation therein. In general, IRB members and to some extent adults with intellectual disability endorsed direct participation less than others. We also found that adults with intellectual disability strongly believed in their consent capacity. Resources should be directed toward health-related research with adults with intellectual disability, and interventions should be pursued to address ethical challenges and promote beliefs consistent with human rights. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Subject to Form: Research Interviews, Performative Subjectivity, Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigianides, Sophia Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, I analyze teacher, literacy coach and researcher subjectivities in a five-year study of on-site professional development with middle-grade Language Arts teachers in a school designated by its district and state as severely underperforming. Interested in the role of research interviews as both research method and cultural…

  13. CELEBRATING OUR SUBJECTIVITY: Research as Lived Experience

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When we celebrate our subjectivity we are learning new ways of telling our research tales. The research becomes a ... This paper is a celebration of learning from my research at two levels. the personal and the professional. ... some value hack into their lives. (Chairperson and parent speaking at the. Annual Let Laverton ...

  14. "My favourite subject is maths. For some reason no-one really agrees with me": student perspectives of mathematics teaching and learning in the upper primary classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attard, Catherine

    2011-09-01

    The levels of engagement in mathematics experienced by students during the middle years of schooling (Years 5 to 8 in New South Wales) has been of concern in Australia for some years. Lowered engagement in school has been attributed to factors such as inappropriate teaching strategies, curricula that is unchallenging and irrelevant, and cultural and technological conditions that continue to evolve (Sullivan et al. Australian Journal of Education 53(2):176-191, 2009). There is currently a gap in this field of research in terms of a lack of longitudinal studies conducted in an Australian context that feature students' voices and their perceptions of mathematics teaching and learning during the middle years. As part of a qualitative longitudinal case study spanning 3 school years, 20 students in their final year of primary school (aged between 11 and 12 years) were asked to provide their views on mathematics teaching and learning. The aim of the study was to explore the students' perspectives of mathematics teaching and learning to discover pedagogies that engage the students. During focus group discussions and individual interviews the students discussed qualities of a "good" mathematics teacher and aspects of "good" lessons. These were found to resonate well with current Australian quality teaching frameworks. The findings of this study indicate that students in the middle years are critically aware of pedagogies that lead to engagement in mathematics, and existing standards and frameworks should be used as a starting point for quality teaching of mathematics.

  15. Single-Subject Research in Gifted Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Brandi; Little, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Single-subject research (SSR) is an experimental research tradition that is well established in other fields (e.g., special education, behavior analysis) but has rarely been applied to topics in gifted education. In this Methodological Brief, Brandi Simonsen and Catherine A. Little from the University of Connecticut highlight the key features of…

  16. The Utility of Single Subject Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kyle D.

    2016-01-01

    Single subject design (SSD) research is a quantitative approach used to investigate basic and applied research questions. It has been used for decades to examine issues of social importance such as those related to general and special education strategies, therapeutic approaches in mental health, community health practices, safety, and business…

  17. Research Education: Perspectives and subjective processes involved in educational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harm H. Tillema

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Educational research acknowledges that researcher’s beliefs and training play a role in framing the outcomes of any study. Research not only consists of defining objectives and following certain methods (search but also of making decisions over the steps taking during the inquiry process (research.Establishing a conceptual framework to guide actions on the subjective processes in research is then crucial to control them. With that purpose in mind we offer researchers and Teacher Educators a heuristic tool to be conscious on the risks that can be taken when immersed in research interpretative process. This instrument could be utilised in PhD programs, masters and research projects.

  18. Dream as a subject of psychological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Egorova,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the main theoretical concepts of a dream: dream definitions, ideas about its genesis, functions, dream location in the structure of activity. We analyze the similarities and differences between the approaches. The results of empirical studies of adolescent and adult dreams are generalized, dream functions in adolescence are analyzed. Based on the analysis of different approaches, we chose theoretical basis of our own research – A. Leontiev activity theory, L.S. Vygotsky concept, K. Lewin's model. We formulated and substantiated the definition of dream as emotionally colored image of the desired future, having a subjective significance. We show the significance and hypotheses of our research: 1 the content of dreams is connected not only with a situation of frustration, but also with the teenager abilities, 2 the dream is involved in regulating of values choice; 3 restoration and development of the ability to dream can be used in the practice of counseling and psychotherapy as an effective tool to help adolescents and adults

  19. Descriptive Analysis of Single Subject Research Designs: 1983-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Diana; Gast, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Single subject research methodology is commonly used and cited in special education courses and journals. This article reviews the types of single subject research designs published in eight refereed journals between 1983 and 2007 used to answer applied research questions. Single subject designs were categorized as withdrawal/reversal, time…

  20. [Dementia - a relevant subject in psychiatric research?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wancata, Johannes

    2011-10-01

    Demographic change calls for increased efforts in dementia research. A systematic analysis of a German-speaking psychiatric journal was performed. 18.2 % of all papers published in were related to dementia and cognition. Dementia is a main issue; only papers regarding schizophrenia were more common. Health service research is largely lacking. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Heuristic Inquiry: Intensifying Subjectivity in Art Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Lee

    1996-01-01

    Recommends using a number of qualitative research techniques, specifically for research regarding art education teaching techniques and teachers. Argues that the process of teaching and the subject of art are so subjective that researchers should embrace unabashedly qualitative approaches to research. Briefly describes these approaches. (MJP)

  2. Unraveling Researcher Subjectivity Through Multivocality in Autoethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Mizzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes and discusses the notion of including multivocality as an autoethnographic method to: (a illustrate that there is no single and temporally-fixed voice that a researcher possesses, (b unfix identity in a way that exposes the fluid nature of identity as it moves through particular contexts, and (c deconstruct competing tensions within the autoethnographer as s/he connects the personal self to the social context. After providing a short, multivocal vignette based on the author's previous work assignment as a teacher educator in Kosovo, the author offers a reflective analysis of his approach. His analysis includes a critical discussion around the benefits and challenges of using such a method in autoethnography. The author concludes that research-oriented institutions might be resistant to validating multivocality as research practice given the myopic view that "voice" is linear, categorizable, and one-dimensional. In this way, the use of multivocality in autoethnography can also be understood as a way to liberate research practices from oppressive institutional rules and restrictions.

  3. Extrapolating Subjectivity Research to Other Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banea, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Socrates articulated it best, "Speak, so I may see you." Indeed, language represents an invisible probe into the mind. It is the medium through which we express our deepest thoughts, our aspirations, our views, our feelings, our inner reality. From the beginning of artificial intelligence, researchers have sought to impart human like…

  4. Female Entrepreneurship as Subject of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almiralva Ferraz Gomes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper’s main goal is to study the literature produced about “female entrepreneurship”, so as to scrutinize and deepen scientific reasoning referring to women entrepreneurs whilst investigating the degree of theoretical consolidation this field of knowledge has achieved. To this end, and from a critical perspective, we assessed research published in Brazilian and international journals from 1970 on, so as to offer a systematic review of the object in focus. Despite the contributions given by previous research – which does, after all, provide us with relevant information and data concerning women entrepreneurs –, most of it merely describes small segments of the female entrepreneur population, and does not advance in applying or developing theories. Moreover, in most cases, research was quantitative and empirical and attempted to draw a “profile” of women entrepreneurs. Few studies specifically carried out a theoretical analysis on the topic “gender”. Apparently, the main concern of many of these studies was to focus on the sexual structure of organizations and on its impact upon business activities. Thus, it seems appropriate to use new points-of-view to study the “female entrepreneurship” phenomenon – or, at least, to establish new ideas for investigation.

  5. "Doing death": Reflecting on the researcher's subjectivity and emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Renske C

    2017-01-01

    Given that death is a universal concept, the idea that a researcher must be objective when studying this topic is common place and problematic. Thus, this article adds to the literature by discussing the complexity of subjectivity within death studies. Three key elements of subjectivity form the basis of this discussion: (a) the researcher's cultural background, (b) the researcher's personal experiences, and (c) the emotional impact of research on the researcher. It is argued that transparency about the subjective nature of death studies research can be fruitful in understanding the research process before, during, and after fieldwork.

  6. The Use of Randomization Tests in Single-Subject Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haardorfer, Regine; Gagne, Phill

    2010-01-01

    Some researchers have argued for the use of or have attempted to make use of randomization tests in single-subject research. To address this tide of interest, the authors of this article describe randomization tests, discuss the theoretical rationale for applying them to single-subject research, and provide an overview of the methodological…

  7. Ethics of Research Involving Human Subjects in Criminal Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Seth Allan; Wilkins, Leslie T.

    1977-01-01

    Research in criminal justice involving human subjects has increased greatly, yet we have no code of ethics to guide such research. This paper argues that the primary purpose of a code should be protection of these research subjects, who are especially susceptible to mistreatment because of their prisoner status. (Author)

  8. Do we all agree what "good health care" looks like? Views from those who are "seldom heard" in health research, policy and service improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Sara; Hislop, Jenny; Ziebland, Sue

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to ask whether there are shared ideas about what good health care looks like that apply across different populations and conditions. Do priorities among "seldom heard" groups differ from mainstream views and, if so, how might we understand these differences? Focus groups were recruited with the help of our study patient representatives. Participants discussed and prioritized a set of eight "core components" of good care. We recorded and transcribed the data for thematic analysis. We recruited people who are seldom heard in health and policy research for separate focus group discussions (one each with illegal drug users, Irish Travellers, migrant workers, young men and learning disabled people). We also ran a reference group of educated, older adults and an online group with people with long-term conditions. There were few differences in what participants thought was important in health care but considerable differences in their expectations that they might personally receive good care. Differences related to participants' previous experiences. The drug users group reported particularly poor experiences and low expectations of good care. Differences in what is regarded as an entitlement or privilege in health care underline the persistence of structural and relational differences in how services are experienced. While we can be reassured that core aspects of care are similarly prioritized across different patient groups, including those who are seldom heard, a more intractable challenge remains: how to provide equitable health care for marginalized groups in an unequal society. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Subjectivity and Reflexivity: Locating the Self in Research on Dislocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosselson, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    I argue in this article that recognizing the role of subjectivity and bringing in the researcher's positionality as a tool in the research process can not only enhance the ethical integrity of the research but also enhance both the research process and the analysis and interpretation of the data. Cultural studies theorists have long argued that…

  10. Human subject research for engineers a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    de Winter, Joost C F

    2017-01-01

    This Brief introduces engineers to the main principles in ethics, research design, statistics, and publishing of human subject research. In recent years, engineering has become strongly connected to disciplines such as biology, medicine, and psychology. Often, engineers (and engineering students) are expected to perform human subject research. Typical human subject research topics conducted by engineers include human-computer interaction (e.g., evaluating the usability of software), exoskeletons, virtual reality, teleoperation, modelling of human behaviour and decision making (often within the framework of ‘big data’ research), product evaluation, biometrics, behavioural tracking (e.g., of work and travel patterns, or mobile phone use), transport and planning (e.g., an analysis of flows or safety issues), etc. Thus, it can be said that knowledge on how to do human subject research is indispensable for a substantial portion of engineers. Engineers are generally well trained in calculus and mechanics, but m...

  11. [The request for consent in clinical research: a randomized study in healthy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, F; De Placido, S; Giusti, C; Gallo, C

    1995-09-01

    To compare two strategies of consent requirement (classical informed consent and randomised consent according to Zelen), the Clinical Data Elaboration Centre of South Italy, within the special project Clinical Application of Oncological Research of the National Research Council of Italy (CNR-ACRO) invited healthy people visiting the 7th edition of the scientific exhibition "Futuro Remoto" to simulate of being ill and receiving the offer of entering a clinical trial. Within informed consent strategy patients are asked to agree to the randomisation process, while, in the randomised consent, randomised treatment assignment is performed before consent requirement and patients should agree directly to the assigned therapy. Major aims of the study were (a) to compare the strategies in terms of refusal rate to a hypothetical clinical trial, and (b) to estimate whether severity of prognosis affected subjects' decision. 3,217 visiting people participated to the simulation; they were prevalently young, males and with a high level of school education. The study was performed in two different scenarios. In the first one, with one choice option, subject refusing consent could receive standard therapy only; refusal rate was 16% after informed consent and 13.4% after randomised consent (for experimental therapy). In the other scenario, with two choice options, subjects refusing consent could choose the preferred therapy; refusal rate was 20.6% after informed consent, 48.1% after randomised consent (for standard therapy) and 13.4% after randomised consent (for experimental therapy).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Lacan, Subjectivity and the Task of Mathematics Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tony

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of subjectivity in the context of mathematics education research. It introduces the psychoanalyst and theorist Jacques Lacan whose work on subjectivity combined Freud's psychoanalytic theory with processes of signification as developed in the work of de Saussure and Peirce. The paper positions Lacan's subjectivity…

  13. 76 FR 44512 - Human Subjects Research Protections: Enhancing Protections for Research Subjects and Reducing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... organizations (CROs), data and safety monitoring committees, community-based organizations, and other entities... neuroscience has led to substantial advances in the understanding of human physiology, cognition, and behavior... subjects? What entity or organization should develop and disseminate such standardized document formats...

  14. Subject reactivity effects and alcohol treatment outcome research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, P R; Maisto, S A

    2000-11-01

    Attributions regarding alcohol treatment research protocols influencing clinical outcomes have persisted for more than 25 years. Although well-designed alcohol treatment outcome studies typically involve frequent, and often comprehensive, research assessment protocols, procedures are seldom in place to control or account for possible subject reactivity to the research protocol. This article presents a theoretical basis for a relationship between research protocols and treatment outcomes. The article reviews the relevant alcohol treatment outcome literature and presents a "weight of evidence" regarding subject reactivity effects and alcohol treatment outcome research assessment protocols. Also, the FRAMES (feedback, responsibility, advice, menu, empathy and self-efficacy) model was coupled with self-regulation theory to provide a theoretical explanation of how research assessment protocols might contribute to clinically relevant behavioral change. Researcher attributions, empirical investigations and theoretical considerations all provide evidence that is consistent with the existence of subject reactivity to research assessment protocols. Recommendations are made regarding interpretation of data collected as part of an alcohol treatment outcome study, control of potential subject reactivity confounding variables and directions for future research.

  15. Subjective Response to Alcohol as a Research Domain Criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Lara A; Bujarski, Spencer; Roche, Daniel J O

    2016-01-01

    Individual differences in the subjective experience of the pharmacological effects of alcohol have long been implicated in the likelihood that one will drink heavily and develop alcoholism. The theme of this conceptual review and perspective article is to synthesize the literature on subjective responses to alcohol and to set an agenda for the next generation of research in the area. Specifically, we contend that in order for subjective response to alcohol to play a prominent role in alcoholism research, it is critical that it be studied as a multimodal phenotype. First, we review the human research on subjective response to alcohol measured under controlled laboratory conditions and draw recommendations for the application of these findings to understanding alcoholism neurobiology in humans. Second, we highlight multimodal approaches, including studies of the genetic and neural substrates of individual differences in subjective response to alcohol. Third, we review treatment implications with a focus on subjective response to alcohol as an intervention target. Upon review of the research on subjective response to alcohol across levels of analyses, we provide recommendations for leveraging these phenotypes in a systematic and methodologically rigorous fashion that can address central questions about alcoholism etiology, disease progression, and personalized treatment. The approach recommended herein is largely consistent with the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative across the National Institute of Mental Health. The defining feature of such domains is that they inform behavior yet be amenable to examination through multiple units of analysis, such as molecular, genetic, circuit-level, and behavioral measurements. To that end, we contend that subjective response to alcohol represents a behaviorally and biologically plausible phenotype upon which to build using the RDoC framework for understanding alcohol use disorder. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society

  16. Subject Didactic Studies of Research Training in Biology and Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lybeck, Leif

    1984-01-01

    The objectives and design of a 3-year study of research training and supervision in biology and physics are discussed. Scientific problems arising from work on the thesis will be a focus for the postgraduate students and their supervisors. Attention will be focused on supervisors' and students' conceptions of science, subject range, research,…

  17. Computer science security research and human subjects: emerging considerations for research ethics boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Elizabeth; Aycock, John; Dexter, Scott; Dittrich, David; Hvizdak, Erin

    2011-06-01

    This paper explores the growing concerns with computer science research, and in particular, computer security research and its relationship with the committees that review human subjects research. It offers cases that review boards are likely to confront, and provides a context for appropriate consideration of such research, as issues of bots, clouds, and worms enter the discourse of human subjects review.

  18. Single Subject Research: A Synthesis of Analytic Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alresheed, Fahad; Hott, Brittany L.; Bano, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the synthesis of single subject design has employed visual inspection to yield significance of results. However, current research is supporting different techniques that will facilitate the interpretation of these intervention outcomes. These methods can provide more reliable data than employing visual inspection in isolation. This…

  19. Current Research in Bookkeeping/Accounting and Basic Business Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanassy, Louis C., Comp.

    1976-01-01

    Listed are 26 doctoral and masters theses completed during the years 1974-5 involving research in bookkeeping/accounting and basic business subjects. The entries are arranged alphabetically by author and include the title of the study and the name of the associated institution. (MS)

  20. Human subjects protection issues in QUERI implementation research: QUERI Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritchie Mona

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Subjects protections approaches, specifically those relating to research review board oversight, vary throughout the world. While all are designed to protect participants involved in research, the structure and specifics of these institutional review boards (IRBs can and do differ. This variation affects all types of research, particularly implementation research. Methods In 2001, we began a series of inter-related studies on implementing evidence-based collaborative care for depression in Veterans Health Administration primary care. We have submitted more than 100 IRB applications, amendments, and renewals, and in doing so, we have interacted with 13 VA and University IRBs across the United States (U.S.. We present four overarching IRB-related themes encountered throughout the implementation of our projects, and within each theme, identify key challenges and suggest approaches that have proved useful. Where applicable, we showcase process aids developed to assist in resolving a particular IRB challenge. Results There are issues unique to implementation research, as this type of research may not fit within the traditional Human Subjects paradigm used to assess clinical trials. Risks in implementation research are generally related to breaches of confidentiality, rather than health risks associated with traditional clinical trials. The implementation-specific challenges discussed are: external validity considerations, Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles, risk-benefit issues, the multiple roles of researchers and subjects, and system-level unit of analysis. Discussion Specific aspects of implementation research interact with variations in knowledge, procedures, and regulatory interpretations across IRBs to affect the implementation and study of best methods to increase evidence-based practice. Through lack of unambiguous guidelines and local liability concerns, IRBs are often at risk of applying both variable and inappropriate or

  1. Issues in conducting cross-cultural research: implementation of an agreed international protocol [corrected] designed by the WHOQOL Group for the conduct of focus groups eliciting the quality of life of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Graeme; Davidson, Natasha; Quinn, Kathryn; McCrate, Farah; Winkler, Ines; Lucas, Ramona; Kilian, Reinhold; Molzahn, Anita

    2006-09-01

    Multi-centre and cross-cultural research require the use of common protocols if the results are to be either pooled or compared. All too often adherence to protocols is not discussed in reports and where it is reported poor adherence is frequently noted. This paper discusses the use of international guidelines developed by WHOQOL Field Centres to conduct and report focus groups aimed at eliciting key concepts of quality of life among older adults. This was the first step in the development of the WHOQOL-OLD instrument. Although there was overall adherence to the agreed guidelines, there were some differences in the level of reporting, even after participating Field Centres had the opportunity to explain their reports. The reasons for these discrepancies are reported. It is concluded that because of local situations, it is difficult to achieve identical implementation of multi-centre cross-cultural protocols and that the highest standards of auditing are required if findings are to be compared. Suggestions for how such protocols can be improved are given.

  2. Who is the research subject in cluster randomized trials in health research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brehaut Jamie C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article is part of a series of papers examining ethical issues in cluster randomized trials (CRTs in health research. In the introductory paper in this series, we set out six areas of inquiry that must be addressed if the CRT is to be set on a firm ethical foundation. This paper addresses the first of the questions posed, namely, who is the research subject in a CRT in health research? The identification of human research subjects is logically prior to the application of protections as set out in research ethics and regulation. Aspects of CRT design, including the fact that in a single study the units of randomization, experimentation, and observation may differ, complicate the identification of human research subjects. But the proper identification of human research subjects is important if they are to be protected from harm and exploitation, and if research ethics committees are to review CRTs efficiently. We examine the research ethics literature and international regulations to identify the core features of human research subjects, and then unify these features under a single, comprehensive definition of human research subject. We define a human research subject as any person whose interests may be compromised as a result of interventions in a research study. Individuals are only human research subjects in CRTs if: (1 they are directly intervened upon by investigators; (2 they interact with investigators; (3 they are deliberately intervened upon via a manipulation of their environment that may compromise their interests; or (4 their identifiable private information is used to generate data. Individuals who are indirectly affected by CRT study interventions, including patients of healthcare providers participating in knowledge translation CRTs, are not human research subjects unless at least one of these conditions is met.

  3. Older adults’ attitudes toward noncompetent subjects participating in Alzheimers research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlawish, Jason; Rubright, Jonathan; Casarett, David; Cary, Mark; TenHave, Thomas; Sankar, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    Objective Since research that enrolls noncompetent patients with Alzheimers disease and does not present potential benefit to subjects is the source of substantial ethical controversy, we assessed willingness to have a proxy for research decision making, and, for each of two Alzheimers disease biomarker studies (minimal risk blood draw and a greater than minimal risk blood draw and lumbar puncture), willingness to grant an advance consent, and willingness to grant a proxy leeway over advance consent. Methods Face to face survey of 538 persons 65 and over who resided in the Southeastern Pennsylvania region Results The majority 83% (445/538) granted advance consent to a blood draw study and nearly half to a blood draw plus lumbar puncture 259 (48%). Most persons (96%) were willing to identify a proxy for research decision making and most were willing to grant their proxy leeway over their advance consent: blood draw 434 (81%), and 375 (70%) blood draw plus lumbar puncture. Combining the preferences for advance consent and leeway, the proportion who would permit being enrolled in the blood draw and spinal fluid sample studies were, respectively, 92% (497/538) and 75% (404/538). Multi-variate models showed that willingness to be enrolled in research was most strongly associated with a favorable attitude about biomedical research. Conclusions Older adults generally support enrolling noncompetent persons with Alzheimers disease into research that does not present a benefit to subjects. Willingness to grant their proxy leeway over advance consent and a favorable attitude about biomedical research substantially explain this willingness. PMID:18923066

  4. The Applied Behavior Analysis Research Paradigm and Single-Subject Designs in Adapted Physical Activity Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegele, Justin A; Hodge, Samuel Russell

    2015-10-01

    There are basic philosophical and paradigmatic assumptions that guide scholarly research endeavors, including the methods used and the types of questions asked. Through this article, kinesiology faculty and students with interests in adapted physical activity are encouraged to understand the basic assumptions of applied behavior analysis (ABA) methodology for conducting, analyzing, and presenting research of high quality in this paradigm. The purposes of this viewpoint paper are to present information fundamental to understanding the assumptions undergirding research methodology in ABA, describe key aspects of single-subject research designs, and discuss common research designs and data-analysis strategies used in single-subject studies.

  5. Anencephalic fetuses and research embryos: subjects of rights?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naara Luna

    Full Text Available The present article analyzes the emergence of social subjects in the form of beings which had previously been embedded in mother's bodies and which have later become defined and circumscribed by biomedicine: extracorporeal embryos, created by in vitro fertilization, and anencephalic fetuses. The embryos were at the center of the controversy regarding their use in scientific research during the debates for the approval of Brazil's new biosecurity law. Anencephalic fetuses became the center of a debate regarding the relaxing of Brazil's abortion laws. This article analyzes mass media news stories provided mostly by a systematic review of articles published in O Globo newspaper between 2000 and 2005 in order to recover the arguments presented in these debates. The arguments to justify or ban embryo research or to anticipate the birth of anencephalic fetuses coincide, in large part, because the are derived from the same value configuration and are founded upon the person: Dumont's individual-as-value.

  6. User Experience Research: Modelling and Describing the Subjective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Glanznig

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available User experience research in the field of human-computer interaction tries to understand how humans experience the interaction with technological artefacts. It is a young and still emerging field that exists in an area of tension. There is no consensus on how the concept of user experience should be defined or on how it should be researched. This paper focuses on two major strands of research in the field that are competing. It tries to give an overview over both and relate them to each other.Both start from the same premise: usability (focusing on performance is not enough. It is only part of the interaction with technological artefacts. And further: user experience is not very different from experience in general. Then they develop quite different accounts of the concept. While one focuses more on uncovering the objective in the subjective, on the precise and the formal, the other one stresses the ambiguous, the human and suggests to live with the subjectivity that is inherent in the concept of (user experience. One focuses more on evaluation rather than design and the other more on design than evaluation. One is a model and the other one more a framework of thought.Both can be criticised. The model can be questioned in terms of validity and the results of the other approach do not easily generalize across contexts – the reliability can be questioned. Sometimes the need for a unified view in user experience research is emphasized. While I doubt the possibility of a unified view I think it is possible to combine the two approaches. This combination has only rarely been attempted and not been critically reflected.

  7. Archives of Medical Research: an historical and subject coverage overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozoya, X; Rivera-Arce, E; Domínguez, F; Arellano, M L; Muñoz, O

    1995-01-01

    A bibliometric study about the subject content of the articles published in the Mexican scientific journal Archives of Medical Research is reported. The journal, published by the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS), is comprised of 100 regular issues and 12 special supplements giving a total amount of 1,424 reports on medical research performed in Mexico during the last 25 years. According to the type of studies published during this period, we found that there is a similar percent of biomedical and clinical reports in the journal (47 and 42%, respectively) and a low proportion of epidemiological and medical educational reports (8 and 3%, respectively). Six thematic areas of research have been permanently published in this journal: investigations on infectious and neurological diseases being the areas mainly represented (34% of the total, corresponding to 17% in each area), followed by studies in reproductive biology (10%) and endocrine (7%), oncological (5%) and cardiovascular (3%) diseases. The tendency of the subjects covered by the journal during this period shows an increment in reports on infectious and parasitic disorders together with an increase in publications related to medicinal plant pharmacology; reproductive biology and endocrine studies show also an increasing tendency. On the other hand, a moderate decrease in studies related to neurological, oncological and cardiovascular diseases is observed. The origin of contributions during the last five years has balanced the proportion of papers published from IMSS scientists, other Mexican biomedical researchers and foreign contributions, thus reflecting favorably the recent changes in the journal's policies. This journal represents a clear example of a scientific publication edited in a developing country, originating as a national publication that evolved progressively into an international biomedical journal.

  8. Research ethics in Internet-enabled research: human subjects issues and methodological myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Joseph B

    2002-01-01

    As Internet resources are used more frequently for research on social and psychological behavior, concerns grow about whether characteristics of such research affect human subjects protections. Early efforts to address such concerns have done more to identify potential problems than to evaluate them or to seek solutions, leaving bodies charged with human subjects oversight in a quagmire. This article critiques some of these issues in light of the US Code of Federal Regulations' policies for the Protection of Human Subjects, and argues that some of the issues have no pertinence when examined in the context of common methodological approaches that previous commentators failed to consider. By separating applicable contexts from those that are not, and by identifying cases where subjects' characteristics are irrelevant and/or impossible to provide, oversight committees may be able to consider research applications more appropriately, and investigators may be less ethically bound to ascertain and demonstrate those characteristics.

  9. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  10. The Use of Single-Subject Research to Identify Evidence-Based Practice in Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Robert H.; Carr, Edward G.; Halle, James; McGee, Gail; Odom, Samuel; Wolery, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Single-subject research plays an important role in the development of evidence-based practice in special education. The defining features of single-subject research are presented, the contributions of single-subject research for special education are reviewed, and a specific proposal is offered for using single-subject research to document…

  11. Magnetic Nanoparticles: A Subject for Both Fundamental Research and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bedanta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Single domain magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs have been a vivid subject of intense research for the last fifty years. Preparation of magnetic nanoparticles and nanostructures has been achieved by both bottom-up and top-down approaches. Single domain MNPs show Néel-Brown-like relaxation. The Stoner-Wohlfarth model describes the angular dependence of the switching of the magnetization of a single domain particle in applied magnetic fields. By varying the spacing between the particles, the inter-particle interactions can be tuned. This leads to various supermagnetic states such as superparamagnetism, superspin glass, and superferromagnetism. Recently, the study of the magnetization dynamics of such single domain MNPs has attracted particular attention, and observations of various collective spin wave modes in patterned nanomagnet arrays have opened new avenues for on-chip microwave communications. MNPs have the potential for various other applications such as future recording media and in medicine. We will discuss the various aspects involved in the research on MNPs.

  12. Agreeing Probability Measures for Comparative Probability Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1981-01-01

    textabstractIt is proved that fine and tight comparative probability structures (where the set of events is assumed to be an algebra, not necessarily a σ-algebra) have agreeing probability measures. Although this was often claimed in the literature, all proofs the author encountered are not valid

  13. Single-Subject Studies in Translational Nutrition Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schork, Nicholas J; Goetz, Laura H

    2017-08-21

    There is a great deal of interest in personalized, individualized, or precision interventions for disease and health-risk mitigation. This is as true of nutrition-based intervention and prevention strategies as it is for pharmacotherapies and pharmaceutical-oriented prevention strategies. Essentially, technological breakthroughs have enabled researchers to probe an individual's unique genetic, biochemical, physiological, behavioral, and exposure profile, allowing them to identify very specific and often nuanced factors that an individual might possess, which may make it more or less likely that he or she responds favorably to a particular intervention (e.g., nutrient supplementation) or disease prevention strategy (e.g., specific diet). However, as compelling and intuitive as personalized nutrition might be in the current era in which data-intensive biomedical characterization of individuals is possible, appropriately and objectively vetting personalized nutrition strategies is not trivial and requires novel study designs and data analytical methods. These designs and methods must consider a very integrated use of the multiple contemporary biomedical assays and technologies that motivate them, which adds to their complexity. Single-subject or N-of-1 trials can be used to assess the utility of personalized interventions and, in addition, can be crafted in such a way as to accommodate the necessarily integrated use of many emerging biomedical technologies and assays. In this review, we consider the motivation, design, and implementation of N-of-1 trials in translational nutrition research that are meant to assess the utility of personalized nutritional strategies. We provide a number of example studies, discuss appropriate analytical methods given the complex data they generate and require, and consider how such studies could leverage integration of various biomarker assays and clinical end points. Importantly, we also consider the development of strategies and

  14. COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE AS THE SUBJECT OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya I. Аleyevskaya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the issue of development of the communicative competence is well studied in pedagogical theory and practice. Nevertheless there is no consensus among researchers regarding the interpretation of the notion. This fact determines the relevance of the subject in the context of the reform of the national higher education. The labour market puts forward increasing requirements to graduates’ adaption potential within the system “human – human”. This draws special attention to the problem of communicative co mpetence. Materials and Methods: the authors carried out a sociological research on the communicative component of the competence cluster among master’s degree students who specialise in pedagogical education in order to determine “the importance of weight indicators” of separate competencies. Results: the authors substantiate the necessity of broadening a communicative competence in conditions of transition to a multilevel system of higher education; define its essence and structure taking into account the generic unity of Bachelor’s and Master’s degree programmes. The article presents the informative content of communication components in accordance with the proposed structure of communicative competence, containing motivation-value-based, cognitive, activity-based, reflective and evaluative components. The authors show the potential of communicative competence in the context of the new federal state educational standards (FGOS VO 3+. Further the authors make analysis of the requirements set to graduates upon completion of undergraduate and graduate programmes in “Pedagogical Education”, specify the role of separate competencies in extending graduates’ communicative competence. Discussion and Conclusions: the results of the research presented in the article enable to specify the structure and content of the communicative competence of a university graduate, reflecting the willingness and ability to productive

  15. Enterprising or altruistic selves? Making up research subjects in genetics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, Richard; Prainsack, Barbara

    2011-11-01

    The emergence of direct-to-consumer (DTC) personal genomics companies in 2007 was accompanied by considerable media attention and criticism from clinical geneticists and other health professionals, regulators, policy advisors, and ethicists. As well as offering genetic testing services, some firms are also engaged in building their own databases and conducting research with the data obtained from their customers. In this paper, we examine how one of these companies, 23andMe, is creating a certain kind of 'research subject' in opposition to that constituted in conventional forms of disease research. Drawing on debates about neoliberalism, contemporary health discourses and subjectivity, we consider two kinds of subjectivities produced through the discursive and material practices of 23andMe and UK Biobank, namely, 'enterprising' and 'altruistic' selves. We argue that the 23andMe model promotes the idea that curiosity about one's genome on the one hand, and participation in research on the other, are not only compatible but complementary aspects of being an entrepreneurial subject of contemporary health and medicine framed by the technologies of web 2.0. © 2011 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2011 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. 34 CFR 97.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Research undertaken without the intention of involving... Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it is...

  17. A Justification for Subjectivity in Art Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Rob

    1996-01-01

    Highlights some of the fundamental differences between positivistic and qualitative research methods regarding art education. Defends qualitative research and argues that applying natural science research principles to human endeavors is often futile. Discusses the special problems and advantages of qualitative research. (MJP)

  18. Rethinking the Subject of Higher Education: Subjectivity, Normativity and Desire in Student Equity Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Anita

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I reflect on three questions arising from my recent research on student equity in higher education and gender in education. These questions relate to the goals, focus and politics of student equity research in the context of a changing higher education landscape in Australia. The paper concludes with an argument for student equity…

  19. 75 FR 57469 - Guidance on Withdrawal of Subjects From Research: Data Retention and Other Related Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Guidance on Withdrawal of Subjects From Research: Data Retention and Other Related Issues... availability of a guidance document entitled, ``Guidance on Withdrawal of Subjects From Research: Data... guidance document entitled, ``Guidance on Withdrawal of Subjects From Research: Data Retention and Other...

  20. 45 CFR 46.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research undertaken without the intention of... Subjects § 46.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it is later proposed to...

  1. 32 CFR 219.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Research undertaken without the intention of... undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it is later proposed to involve human subjects in the research...

  2. 49 CFR 11.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research undertaken without the intention of... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 11.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it is...

  3. 28 CFR 46.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Research undertaken without the intention... (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 46.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects...

  4. 16 CFR 1028.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research undertaken without the intention of... GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1028.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects...

  5. 7 CFR 1c.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research undertaken without the intention of involving... HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it is later proposed...

  6. 22 CFR 225.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Research undertaken without the intention of... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 225.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it is...

  7. 40 CFR 26.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... intention of involving human subjects. 26.119 Section 26.119 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects...

  8. Behavioral obesity research: Where have all the single subjects gone?

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Jean E.; Gross, Alan M.

    1988-01-01

    Many recent reviews of the literature concerning behavioral treatments of obesity have concluded that behavioral methods have not been as successful in treating this problem as might have been predicted in the early years of behavior modification. Among the many potential reasons for this lack of success is the growing trend to utilize group statistical designs rather than single subject designs to examine the problem of obesity, in spite of the fact that single case methodology has provided ...

  9. In Europe, hooligans are prime subjects for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmann, M

    2000-07-28

    CAMBRIDGE, U.K.--One of the few burgeoning areas of violence research here and in Europe is football hooliganism. With lower homicide rates than in the United States and fewer incidences of killing sprees such as the Littleton school shooting, Europeans are less concerned about violence than Americans are--and that translates into less money for research on the topic. Moreover, some scientists argue that strict regulation of animal studies has dealt a severe blow to a once-proud European tradition of behavioral research on animal aggression.

  10. ARCO and Sun agree to settle Iranian claims

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-24

    This paper reports that ARCO and Sun Co. Inc. have agreed to separate settlements totaling almost $261 million that resolve their claims over oil field assets expropriated by Iran in 1978--80. The agreements are subject to approval by the Iran-U.S. claims tribunal at The Hague. The tribunal was set up in 1981 to resolve foreign claims to assets nationalized by the government of Ayatollah Khomeini following the fall of the Shah of Iran as a result of the 1978-79 Iranian revolution. The settlements are seen as the latest steps Iran has taken to normalize relations with the U.S., notably through petroleum related deals.

  11. Protecting the Teaching and Learning Environment: A Hybrid Model for Human Subject Research Public Policy Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hottenstein, Kristi N.

    2017-01-01

    Regulations for research involving human subjects have long been a critical issue in higher education. Federal public policy for research involving human subjects impacts institutions of higher education by requiring all federally funded research to be passed by an Institutional Review Board (IRB). Undergraduate research is no exception. Given the…

  12. 15 CFR 27.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... intention of involving human subjects. 27.119 Section 27.119 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 27.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human...

  13. Historic Preservation An unusual way to protect human subjects in research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prendergast, Ellen L.

    2001-09-15

    The Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) at the Hanford Site interacts with human subjects in a variety of ways, some of which constitute human subjects research. A key element in this work is determining what constitutes 'research' and thus requires application of special measures to protect human subjects.

  14. The Journal Project and the I in Qualitative Research: Three Theoretical Lenses on Subjectivity and Self

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Judith

    2012-01-01

    From the beginnings of qualitative research in the late 19th century to today, researchers have struggled to make sense of the notion of self or subjectivity; in other words, the I in the research. We ask ourselves: Who is the researcher? How is their notion of self present during research? How is research a site for contested notions of self? Who…

  15. [Disability studies: social exclusion a research subject].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Michael

    2016-09-01

    The article presents disability studies and elaborates, as their central feature, the distinction between societal disability and impairment which can be described on an individual and medical level. Disability studies define disability as socially caused exclusion. Participation and inclusion, seen as sociopolitical control and counter-terms, do, in fact, have a different content, depending on usage and context. Using the example of the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UN CRPD), the respective understanding of disability is depicted. Against this background, the deficits of implementation of the UN CRPD, as criticized by the responsible UN Committee, are shown. Finally, a research agenda for disability studies is outlined, that deals with, among other things, implementation strategies and conflicts of interest in terms of inclusion, furthering widely unquestioned economic conditions and especially the negative impact of European austerity politics.

  16. [Literature review of the subject of a research project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilanova, J C

    2012-01-01

    It can be very complicated to obtain relevant information through searching the medical literature if you do not know how it is organized and indexed or if you do not know how to use the specialized databases. For a successful review of the literature, you need to know what you are looking for and the key words for an effective search of the specialized databases and libraries and especially of the internet. It is essential to critically evaluate the information selected. Finally, using a reference manager can facilitate the gathering, organization, systematization, and integration of the bibliographic references in the documents generated in the study. This article aims to provide guidelines for efficient searching for information and for accurate, critical use of the literature. It makes recommendations about strategies for managing references to help to ensure the success of a research project. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. 48 CFR 752.7012 - Protection of the individual as a research subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in Research Supported by USAID”, issued April 19, 1995, as from time to time amended (a copy of which... Policy when humans are the subject of research, as defined in 22 CFR 225.102(d), performed as part of the... individual as a research subject. 752.7012 Section 752.7012 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR...

  18. 14 CFR 1230.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research undertaken without the intention... SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving...

  19. 10 CFR 745.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research undertaken without the intention of involving....119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it is later proposed to involve human...

  20. Single-Subject Designs and Action Research in the K-12 Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Sean A.; Ross, Margaret E.; Chesser, Svetlana S.

    2011-01-01

    In as much as educational research is concerned with individual student assessment and development, it is surprising that single-subject designs are not more readily utilized in classroom-based action research. The purpose of this article is to emphasize benefits of single-subject research in the K-12 setting, given that teachers teach and assess…

  1. Subject of research on effects of tourism on population development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devedžić Mirjana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of tourism in the context of economic and demographic recovery of certain regions has created an image of tourism as a development catalyst. Thus strategies of revitalization in depopulated and passive regions often consider tourism as an activity that can speed up the development and successfully valorize existing natural, cultural and demographic potentials. This "key" is used mainly in the absence of other development resources since tourism valorizes issues that other industries ignore (landscape features, ethnical heritage, authentic folk architecture, etc. In addition it is more difficult to recommend the right forms of tourism to be developed in depopulated regions, as well as to estimate the resulting economic and demographic effects. To this end, there are success stories, but there is also evidence of non-rational initiatives and projects that were never completed. This paper attempts to discover the most logical links between population development and tourism development, based on some important characteristics of population development. The characteristics used are overall population increase, population migrations, population structures and changes in households. They were selected because they best reflect not only direct, but also indirect multiplicative effects of tourism. Along with the theoretical and methodological background, the research is also supported by selected examples, interviews, and demographic analyzes. The effects are not universal. They depend on the region, the kind of tourism and the degree of its development, the demographic situation as it is, and the research approach, since global and local effects need not necessarily be unidirectional. Population increase initiated by tourism development is achieved due to the migration component, but the effects are most obvious at the level of tourist regions and their tourist centers. One can also note counter processes in some places that have tourist

  2. The "Subject of Ethics" and Educational Research OR Ethics or Politics? Yes Please!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzul, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    This paper outlines a theoretical context for research into "the subject of ethics" in terms of how students come to see themselves as self-reflective actors. I maintain that the "subject of ethics," or ethical subjectivity, has been overlooked as a necessary aspect of creating politically transformative spaces in education. At…

  3. Using Single-Subject Research to Establish the Evidence Base of Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankersley, Melody; Harjusola-Webb, Sanna; Landrum, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Research in the field of special education often incorporates single-subject designs to investigate the effectiveness of educational practices for students with disabilities. As such, it is important that educators and educational professionals understand the characteristics of single-subject research methodologies and how those characteristics…

  4. 38 CFR 17.85 - Treatment of research-related injuries to human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-related injuries to human subjects. 17.85 Section 17.85 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Research-Related Injuries § 17.85 Treatment of research-related injuries... apply to: (1) Treatment for injuries due to noncompliance by a subject with study procedures, or (2...

  5. 45 CFR 690.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. 690.119 Section 690.119 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention...

  6. 38 CFR 16.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. 16.119 Section 16.119 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention...

  7. European Fissure Sealant Guidelines: assessment using AGREE II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martin-Galindo, L; Rodríguez-Lozano, F J; Abalos-Labruzzi, C; Niederman, R

    2017-02-01

    Pit and fissure sealants are effective in reducing the incidence of occlusal caries, and multiple clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have been developed for recommending their proper use. The usefulness of CPGs depends on their quality and on the rigour of the guideline development process. A study was made to assess the quality of current European CPGs based on the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) instrument, which uses 23 key items rated on a 7-point scale to assess practice guideline development and the quality of reporting. A search was conducted for fissure sealant guidelines for preventing caries in children and adults at high and low risk published in the last 10 years. Calibration was carried out before scoring to assess agreement between the appraisers using the AGREE II instrument. The searches identified 19 relevant guidelines, and following application of the inclusion/exclusion criteria, three guidelines were retained for evaluation. The proportion of observed agreement was calculated, expressed by the agreement separately for positive and negative ratings (PA = 0.89, NA = 0-91). The results of the guideline assessments revealed the highest score for the Irish guideline, a moderate score for the French guideline and the lowest score for the European guideline. Based on the AGREE II instrument, the results obtained show significant variation in the quality assessment of the three European Fissure Sealant Guidelines. Future studies should be carried out both to develop quality dental CPGs and to investigate effective ways of adopting them. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. 24 CFR 241.560 - Agreed interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agreed interest rate. 241.560... § 241.560 Agreed interest rate. (a) The mortgage shall bear interest at the rate agreed upon by the lender and the borrower. (b) Interest shall be payable in monthly installments on the principal amount of...

  9. 24 CFR 242.26 - Agreed interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agreed interest rate. 242.26... MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Mortgage Requirements § 242.26 Agreed interest rate. (a) The mortgage shall bear interest at the rate or rates agreed upon by the mortgagee and the mortgagor. (b) The amount...

  10. 24 CFR 241.1070 - Agreed interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agreed interest rate. 241.1070...-Eligibility Requirements § 241.1070 Agreed interest rate. The equity or acquisition loan shall bear interest at the rate agreed upon by the borrower and the lender. ...

  11. 24 CFR 203.20 - Agreed interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agreed interest rate. 203.20... § 203.20 Agreed interest rate. (a) The mortgage shall bear interest at the rate agreed upon by the mortgagee and the mortgagor. (b) Interest shall be payable in monthly installments on the principal amount...

  12. Longitudinal research on subjective aging, health, and longevity : Current evidence and new directions for research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Gerben J.; Wurm, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we carry out a narrative review of the longitudinal impact of subjective aging on health and survival. We have a specifi c focus on the different pathways which can explain the relation of subjective aging to health and survival. We focus on the three most common conceptualizations

  13. Hans Jonas' thought on the ethics of research on human subjects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    The thinking and teachings of Hans Jonas was on the need for medical research to advance beyond the use animals for research and experimentations to research on human subjects. Jonas upholds the established view that medicine is an experimental science and that most medical advances are product of trial and error ...

  14. Hans Jonas' thought on the ethics of research on human subjects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thinking and teachings of Hans Jonas was on the need for medical research to advance beyond the use animals for research and experimentations to research on human subjects. Jonas upholds the established view that medicine is an experimental science and that most medical advances are product of trial and error ...

  15. The Role of Subjectivity in Teacher Expertise Development: Mindfully Embracing the "Black Sheep" of Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Noriyuki

    2016-01-01

    In Western cultures, subjectivity has often been seen as the "black sheep" of educational research because of its heavy emphasis on objectivity. Consequently many research initiatives in education share the assumption that objective reasoning should play a central role. However, mentoring teachers' practice improvement research often…

  16. Emerging Evidence from Single-Subject Research in the Field of Deaf-Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Amy T.; Davidson, Roseanna; Banda, Devender R.

    2007-01-01

    Professionals in the field of deaf-blindness are challenged to use instructional practices that have been tested using experimental methodology. Single-subject design has been examined as a form of research that assists in substantiating practice. In a review of the literature, the authors identified 54 single-subject studies from 1969 to 2006…

  17. Studies Using Single-Subject Designs in Sport Psychology: 30 Years of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G. L.; Thompson, K.; Regehr, K.

    2004-01-01

    A prominent feature of behavior-analytic research has been the use of single-subject designs. We examined sport psychology journals and behavioral journals published during the past 30 years, and located 40 studies using single-subject designs to assess interventions for enhancing the performance of athletes and coaches. In this paper, we…

  18. A method to evaluate performance reliability of individual subjects in laboratory research applied to work settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-01

    This report presents a method that may be used to evaluate the reliability of performance of individual subjects, particularly in applied laboratory research. The method is based on analysis of variance of a tasks-by-subjects data matrix, with all sc...

  19. A 15-Year Review of Trends in Representation of Female Subjects in Islamic Bioethics Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Zeenat; Kuzian, Edyta; Hussain, Naveed

    2017-02-01

    Gender representation in Islamic bioethics research in the twenty-first century has not been studied. To study temporal trends in representation of female subjects in Islamic bioethics research, PubMed-listed publications on Islamic bioethics from years 2000 to 2014 were reviewed for gender participation in human subjects' research. There were temporal trends of increasing publications of Islamic bioethics-related human subjects' research (64 papers over 15 years; R (2) = 0.72; p < 0.0004). Female subjects were well represented with a trend toward increasing participation. This was true for women from Muslim-majority countries even in non-gender-focused studies over the past 15 years.

  20. Cancer fear and fatalism: how African American participants construct the role of research subject in relation to clinical cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somayaji, Darryl; Cloyes, Kristin Gates

    2015-01-01

    Lack of African American participation in cancer clinical trials has been identified as a critical problem. Historical interactions related to race, identity, and power may contribute to continued inequity in healthcare and research participation. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of African Americans regarding cancer and research and how these perceptions shape their beliefs about participating as cancer research subjects. Three African American focus groups were conducted including people who had never participated in cancer research, those who had, and those who were asked but refused (n = 16). Discussion focused on their perceptions of cancer research and actual or potential participation as research subjects. Data were coded using both structured and inductive coding methods. Fear and fatalism emerged in relation to research, race, power, and identity and were related to larger historical and social issues rather than only individual thoughts or feelings. Participants described fears of the unknown, death, mistrust, conspiracy, and discrimination together with positive/negative tensions between self, family, and community responsibilities. Complex identities linked perceptions of cancer and cancer research with broader historical and cultural issues. Fear, fatalism, and current and historical relationships influence how people perceive themselves as research subjects and may influence their decisions to participate in cancer research. Acknowledging how complex factors including race and racism contribute to health disparities may give nurses and other healthcare providers a better appreciation of how historical, social, and cultural dynamics at individual, community, and organizational levels influence access to and participation in cancer research.

  1. Ethics in action: Approving and improving medical research with human subjects

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, Jean Philippe de Jong presents a new understanding of ethical oversight on medical research with human subjects and proposes that two philosophies for ethical oversight exist: '(dis)approving' and 'improving'. Systems for ethical oversight on medical research have been in place for many years, with Research Ethics Committees as their cornerstone. Although these oversight systems aim to ensure that the ethical quality of research is in order, they have been criticized for imped...

  2. Research in the hospital setting on human subjects. Protecting the patient and the institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuer, R

    1993-10-01

    A hospital's institutional review board is charged with the responsibility of fully protecting the rights of research subjects. In doing so, the board establishes that research protocols are based on sound scientific principles, that benefits to research subjects outweigh the risks, and that the subject's consent is informed and not coerced. Although it has been argued that risk management has no role in the activities of such boards, the literature indicates that risk management and quality assurance principles apply to all areas of the institution, including the activities of the board. The institution must ensure that its researchers and board members are as fully protected as possible from civil and criminal liability and that the integrity of those conducting the research is established and maintained. The institution must also provide sufficient support for the board to conduct its reviews and educate the research community and board members on current and evolving laws and regulations governing human research. Risk prevention and quality assurance strategies should recognize the rights of the research subject as paramount while protecting the institution, its researchers, and the community served.

  3. The Research on Coordinated Decision-Making Method Tax System Based on Subject Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoji Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Academically, the research of subject database of tax system aims to set up an efficient, harmonious virtual data application environment. Subject data, in application and management, has been on demand polymerized and autonomously collaborated and has reached a balance between instantaneity and accuracy. This paper defines the connotation and characteristics enterprise informationization, designs a value system of enterprise informationization which is subject database oriented, and builds a model for the import of the subject database of enterprise informationization. Meantime, this paper describes the structure of the subject database based information import model and forges the model’s theoretical basis of subject data import in tax system. Using the model can make an analysis on the information of data warehouse, storage information, and tax information to provide decision support for the tax administrators.

  4. AGREED-UPON PROCEDURES, PROCEDURES FOR AUDITING EUROPEAN GRANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Petru VARTEIU

    2016-12-01

    The audit of EU-funded projects is an audit based on agreed-upon procedures, which are established by the Managing Authority or the Intermediate Body. Agreed-upon procedures can be defined as engagements made in accordance with ISRS 4400, applicable to agreed-upon procedures, where the auditor undertakes to carry out the agreed-upon procedures and issue a report on factual findings. The report provided by the auditor does not express any assurance. It allows users to form their own opinions about the conformity of the expenses with the project budget as well as the eligibility of the expenses.

  5. Evaluation of pediatric dentistry guidelines using the AGREE instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Purvi; Moles, David R; Parekh, Susan; Ashley, Paul; Siddik, Dania

    2011-01-01

    Guidelines are used to inform clinical practice and improve the quality of health care. Poorly developed guidelines may emphasize the incorrect intervention. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the quality of pediatric dentistry guidelines using the AGREE instrument. A search was carried out to identify pediatric dentistry guidelines up to November 2007. Three independent assessors evaluated the guidelines using the AGREE tool. Fifty-seven guidelines produced by 11 organisations were evaluated. Most guidelines assessed were of poor quality, as determined by the AGREE instrument. Consideration should be given to using the AGREE instrument in the development of new guidelines and review of existing guidelines.

  6. Profiles of Urine Drug Test in Clinical Pain Patients vs Pain Research Study Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheng-ting; Vo, Trang T; Cohen, Abigail S; Ahmed, Shihab; Zhang, Yi; Mao, Jianren; Chen, Lucy

    2016-04-01

    To examine similarities and differences in urine drug test (UDT) results in clinical pain patients and pain subjects participating in pain research studies. An observational study with retrospective chart review and data analysis. We analyzed 1,874 UDT results obtained from 1) clinical pain patients (Clinical Group; n = 1,529) and 2) pain subjects consented to participate in pain research studies (Research Group; n = 345). Since several medications such as opioids used in pain management are drugs of abuse (DOA) and can result in a positive UDT, we specifically identified those cases of positive UDT due to nonprescribed DOA and designated these cases as positive UDT with DOA (PUD). We found that 1) there was a higher rate of PUD in clinical pain patients (41.3%) than in pain research study subjects (14.8%); 2) although subjects in the Research Group were informed ahead of time that UDT will be conducted as a screening test, a substantial number (14.8%) of pain research study subjects still showed PUD; 3) there were different types of DOA between clinical pain patients (cannabinoids as the top DOA) and research study subjects (cocaine as the top DOA); and 4) a common factor associated with PUD was opioid therapy in both Clinical Group and Research Group. These results support previous findings that PUD is a common finding in clinical pain patients, particularly in those prescribed opioid therapy, and we suggest that UDT be used as routine screening testing in pain research studies. © 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Single-subject research design: recommendations for levels of evidence and quality rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeiser Logan, Lynne; Hickman, Robbin R; Harris, Susan R; Heriza, Carolyn B

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this article is to present a set of evidence levels, accompanied by 14 quality or rigor questions, to foster a critical review of published single-subject research articles. In developing these guidelines, we reviewed levels of evidence and quality/rigor criteria that are in wide use for group research designs, e.g. randomized controlled trials, such as those developed by the Treatment Outcomes Committee of the American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine. We also reviewed methodological articles on how to conduct and critically evaluate single-subject research designs (SSRDs). We then subjected the quality questions to interrater agreement testing and refined them until acceptable agreement was reached. We recommend that these guidelines be implemented by clinical researchers who plan to conduct single-subject research or who incorporate SSRD studies into systematic reviews, and by clinicians who aim to practise evidence-based medicine and who wish to critically review pediatric single-subject research.

  8. Identifying Evidence-Based Special Education Interventions from Single-Subject Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jennifer; Sugai, George

    2013-01-01

    Special educators are required to use evidence-based academic and behavioral interventions in their classrooms (U.S. Department of Education, 2010). No rigorous and comprehensive database currently exists to support educators. Within the field of special education, single-subject research is the primary research methodology (Horner, Carr, Halle,…

  9. "Biosphere Reserve"--The Actual Research Subject of the Sustainable Development Process"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasaev, Gabibulla R.; Sadovenko, Marina Yu.; Isaev, Roman O.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the analyzed issue is caused by the growing slippage of research funds of sustainable development in its practice. The purpose of the article is the theoretical basis of the biosphere reserve as a scientific research subject that is relevant to rules of the scientific activity. The leading approach to the study of this issue is…

  10. Use of the single subject design for practice based primary care research

    OpenAIRE

    Janosky, J.

    2005-01-01

    The use of a single subject research design is proposed for practice based primary care research. An overview of the rationale of the design, an introduction to the methodology, strengths, limitations, a sample of recent literature citations, a working example, and possible clinical applications are presented.

  11. Ethics in action: Approving and improving medical research with human subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, Jean Philippe de Jong presents a new understanding of ethical oversight on medical research with human subjects and proposes that two philosophies for ethical oversight exist: '(dis)approving' and 'improving'. Systems for ethical oversight on medical research have been in place for

  12. The self as subject autoethnographic research into identity, culture, and academic librarianship

    CERN Document Server

    Deitering, Anne-Marie; Stoddart, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Using autoethnography as their research method, the 21 academic librarian authors of The Self as Subject: Autoethnographic Research into Identity, Culture, and Academic Librarianship investigate aspects of what it means to be a librarian. Starting with a reflective examination of themselves, they each investigate questions of culture, values, and identity. The Self as Subject presents a collection of reflective narratives that, taken together, explore the varied dimensions of librarianship in the present moment. It also examines autoethnography's potential to help librarians answer questions that cannot be answered by traditional, empirical research methods and to reveal voices that are obscured by aggregations of data.

  13. Deliberate Microbial Infection Research Reveals Limitations to Current Safety Protections of Healthy Human Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, David L; Fowler, Carol B; Mason, Jeffrey T; Mimnall, Rebecca K

    2015-08-01

    Here we identify approximately 40,000 healthy human volunteers who were intentionally exposed to infectious pathogens in clinical research studies dating from late World War II to the early 2000s. Microbial challenge experiments continue today under contemporary human subject research requirements. In fact, we estimated 4,000 additional volunteers who were experimentally infected between 2010 and the present day. We examine the risks and benefits of these experiments and present areas for improvement in protections of participants with respect to safety. These are the absence of maximum limits to risk and the potential for institutional review boards to include questionable benefits to subjects and society when weighing the risks and benefits of research protocols. The lack of a duty of medical care by physician-investigators to research subjects is likewise of concern. The transparency of microbial challenge experiments and the safety concerns raised in this work may stimulate further dialogue on the risks to participants of human experimentation.

  14. Human Subjects Protections in Community-Engaged Research: A Research Ethics Framework1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lainie Friedman; Loup, Allan; Nelson, Robert M.; Botkin, Jeffrey R.; Kost, Rhonda; Smith, George R.; Gehlert, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    in the 30 years since the belmont Report, the role of the community in research has evolved and has taken on greater moral significance. Today, more and more translational research is being performed with the active engagement of individuals and communities rather than merely upon them. This engagement requires a critical examination of the range of risks that may arise when communities become partners in research. In attempting to provide such an examination, one must distinguish between established communities (groups that have their own organizational structure and leadership and exist regardless of the research) and unstructured groups (groups that may exist because of a shared trait but do not have defined leadership or internal cohesiveness). In order to participate in research as a community, unstructured groups must develop structure either by external means (by partnering with a Community-Based Organization) or by internal means (by empowering the group to organize and establish structure and leadership). When groups participate in research, one must consider risks to well-being due to process and outcomes. These risks may occur to the individual qua individual, but there are also risks that occur to the individual qua member of a group and also risks that occur to the group qua group. There are also risks to agency, both to the individual and the group. A 3-by-3 grid including 3 categories of risks (risks to well-being secondary to process, risks to well-being secondary to outcome and risks to agency) must be evaluated against the 3 distinct agents: individuals as individual participants, individuals as members of a group (both as participants and as non-participants) and to communities as a whole. This new framework for exploring the risks in community-engaged research can help academic researchers and community partners ensure the mutual respect that community-engaged research requires. PMID:20235860

  15. Validity and reliability of subjective wellbeing indicators in sociological research: The measurement of life satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mentus Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the level of accuracy i.e. validity and reliability of subjective well-being indicators in sociological research, in case of life satisfaction. First, the relationship between subjective and objective indicators of well-being is presented. Second, the concept of life satisfaction is defined, and the findings of research related to the validity (convergent, discriminant, and predictive and reliability (test-retest, and internal consistency of life satisfaction measures are presented. Third, these findings were reassessed using data originating from large international surveys, which have not been used for this purpose yet. The results in this paper generally contribute to, in quite a large extent existing agreement within the scientific literature about the satisfactory level of validity and reliability of life satisfaction measures i.e. subjective indicators of well-being.

  16. Where are human subjects in Big Data research? The emerging ethics divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Metcalf

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There are growing discontinuities between the research practices of data science and established tools of research ethics regulation. Some of the core commitments of existing research ethics regulations, such as the distinction between research and practice, cannot be cleanly exported from biomedical research to data science research. Such discontinuities have led some data science practitioners and researchers to move toward rejecting ethics regulations outright. These shifts occur at the same time as a proposal for major revisions to the Common Rule—the primary regulation governing human-subjects research in the USA—is under consideration for the first time in decades. We contextualize these revisions in long-running complaints about regulation of social science research and argue data science should be understood as continuous with social sciences in this regard. The proposed regulations are more flexible and scalable to the methods of non-biomedical research, yet problematically largely exclude data science methods from human-subjects regulation, particularly uses of public datasets. The ethical frameworks for Big Data research are highly contested and in flux, and the potential harms of data science research are unpredictable. We examine several contentious cases of research harms in data science, including the 2014 Facebook emotional contagion study and the 2016 use of geographical data techniques to identify the pseudonymous artist Banksy. To address disputes about application of human-subjects research ethics in data science, critical data studies should offer a historically nuanced theory of “data subjectivity” responsive to the epistemic methods, harms and benefits of data science and commerce.

  17. Subjective soundscapes qualitative research in the experience and evaluation of environmental noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flick, Uwe

    2004-05-01

    If the subjective experience and evaluation of environmental noise shall be considered and integrated into the current soundscape research, the use of qualitative research methods used in sociology and psychology will become necessary. A triangulation of research methods for measuring objective noise and for the subjective evaluation of noises and sounds on the background of subjective meanings of health and healthy living will be a fruitful way to a more comprehensive understanding of the phenomenon of soundscapes in the context of health and quality of life. In this contribution, a selection of qualitative research methods will be presented that allows for analyzing subjective experiences with environmental noise. Interviews focusing on narratives of episodes and situations (e.g., the episodic interview, Flick, 2002) will be outlined. Issues of how to assess the quality of qualitative research and its results will be addressed and finally the benefits and limits of the triangulation of different methods (e.g., interviews and focus groups or interviews and physical measures) will be discussed. Research experiences from the author's recent studies on health concepts of health professionals will be used for illustration.

  18. Evaluating Single-Subject Treatment Research: Lessons Learned from the Aphasia Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeson, Pélagie M.; Robey, Randall R.

    2007-01-01

    The mandate for evidence-based practice has prompted careful consideration of the weight of the scientific evidence regarding the therapeutic value of various clinical treatments. In the field of aphasia, a large number of single-subject research studies have been conducted, providing clinical outcome data that are potentially useful for clinicians and researchers; however, it has been difficult to discern the relative potency of these treatments in a standardized manner. In this paper we describe an approach to quantify treatment outcomes for single-subject research studies using effect sizes. These values provide a means to compare treatment outcomes within and between individuals, as well as to compare the relative strength of various treatments. Effect sizes also can be aggregated in order to conduct meta-analyses of specific treatment approaches. Consideration is given to optimizing research designs and providing adequate data so that the value of treatment research is maximized. PMID:17151940

  19. Health Benefits of Animal Research: The Dog as a Research Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, William I.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the role of dogs in research, considering their use in studies related to: behavior; aging; anesthesia; gastrointestinal surgery; the brain; organ transplants; radiobiology; trauma and shock; arterial diseases; hemophelia; ophthalmology; diabetes; nutrition; cancer; lupus; cyclic neutropenia; thyroiditis; hepatitis; skeletal system,…

  20. Designing oversight for nanomedicine research in human subjects: systematic analysis of exceptional oversight for emerging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Susan M.; Jones, Cortney M.

    2011-04-01

    The basic procedures and rules for oversight of U.S. human subjects research have been in place since 1981. Certain types of human subjects research, however, have provoked creation of additional mechanisms and rules beyond the Department of Health & Human Services (DHHS) Common Rule and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) equivalent. Now another emerging domain of human subjects research—nanomedicine—is prompting calls for extra oversight. However, in 30 years of overseeing research on human beings, we have yet to specify what makes a domain of scientific research warrant extra oversight. This failure to systematically evaluate the need for extra measures, the type of extra measures appropriate for different challenges, and the usefulness of those measures hampers efforts to respond appropriately to emerging science such as nanomedicine. This article evaluates the history of extra oversight, extracting lessons for oversight of nanomedicine research in human beings. We argue that a confluence of factors supports the need for extra oversight, including heightened uncertainty regarding risks, fast-evolving science yielding complex and increasingly active materials, likelihood of research on vulnerable participants including cancer patients, and potential risks to others beyond the research participant. We suggest the essential elements of the extra oversight needed.

  1. Designing Oversight for Nanomedicine Research in Human Subjects: Systematic Analysis of Exceptional Oversight for Emerging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Susan M.; Jones, Cortney

    2012-01-01

    The basic procedures and rules for oversight of U.S. human subjects research have been in place since 1981. Certain types of human subjects research, however, have provoked creation of additional mechanisms and rules beyond the Department of Health & Human Services (DHHS) Common Rule and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) equivalent. Now another emerging domain of human subjects research—nanomedicine—is prompting calls for extra oversight. However, in 30 years of overseeing research on human beings, we have yet to specify what makes a domain of scientific research warrant extra oversight. This failure to systematically evaluate the need for extra measures, the type of extra measures appropriate for different challenges, and the usefulness of those measures hampers efforts to respond appropriately to emerging science such as nanomedicine. This article evaluates the history of extra oversight, extracting lessons for oversight of nanomedicine research in human beings. We argue that a confluence of factors supports the need for extra oversight, including heightened uncertainty regarding risks, fast-evolving science yielding complex and increasingly active materials, likelihood of research on vulnerable participants including cancer patients, and potential risks to others beyond the research participant. We suggest the essential elements of the extra oversight needed. PMID:23226969

  2. UK Library and Information Science Research is Having a Significant Influence on Research in Other Subject Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Lee Stone

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To quantify the value of librarianship and information science (LIS exports knowledge to other subject disciplines. Design – Bibliometric study. Setting – LIS departments in U.K. universities. Subjects – 232 LIS research articles published between 2001 and 2007. Methods – Data from the 2008 U.K. Research Assessment Exercise were checked to identify 405 research articles submitted by 10 selected university departments (out of a total of 21, which submitted research in the LIS category. The Web of Science database was then searched to see how many of these articles had been cited in other articles (n=232. If the citing article was published in a non-LIS journal it was considered a knowledge export. Journals were defined as non-LIS if they had not been assigned the subject category of Information Science & Library Science by the Journal of Citation Reports. The journal Impact Factors (IFs of citing journals were then normalized to measure the value of individual knowledge exports to their respective subject disciplines. This was done by comparing a citing journal’s IF with the median journal IF within that subject category. If the citing journal’s IF was above this median it was considered to be a valuable knowledge export. Main Results – The sample of LIS research articles produced a total of 1,061 knowledge exports in 444 unique non-LIS journals. These non-LIS journals covered 146 unique subject categories of which those related to computer science and chemistry/pharmacology cited LIS research with the greatest frequency. Just over three-quarters (n=798 of these citations were considered to be valuable knowledge exports. A sub-analysis showed that LIS articles published in non-LIS journals were significantly more valuable than the knowledge exports published in LIS journals. Conclusion – The validity of bibliometric studies can be improved by adopting the two methodological innovations presented in this study. The

  3. Nurse leaders' perceptions of the ethical recruitment of study subjects in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmi, Sanna-Maria; Pietilä, Anna-Maija; Kangasniemi, Mari; Halkoaho, Arja

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe nurse leaders' perceptions of ethical recruitment in clinical research. Nurse leaders are expected to get involved in clinical research, but there are few studies that focus on their role, particularly the ethical issues. Qualitative data were collected from ten nurse leaders using thematic one-to-one interviews and analysed with content analysis. Nurse leaders considered clinical research at their workplace in relation to the key issues that enabled ethical recruitment of study subjects in clinical research. These were: early information and collaboration for incorporating clinical research in everyday work, an opportune and peaceful recruitment moment and positive research culture. Getting involved in clinical research is part of the nurse leader's professional responsibility in current health care. They have an essential role to play in ensuring that recruitment is ethical and that the dignity of study subjects is maintained. The duty of nurse leaders is to maintain good contact with other collaborators and to ensure good conditions for implementing clinical research at their site. This requires a comprehensive understanding of the overall situation on their wards. Implementing clinical research requires careful planning, together with educating, supporting and motivating nursing staff. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The case for evidence-based rulemaking in human subjects research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Benjamin

    2010-06-01

    Here I inquire into the status of the rules promulgated in the canonical pronouncements on human subjects research, such as the Declaration of Helsinki and the Belmont Report. The question is whether they are ethical rules or rules of policy. An ethical rule is supposed to accurately reflect the ethical fact (the fact that the action the rule prescribes is ethically obligatory), whereas rules of policy are implemented to achieve a goal. We should be skeptical, I argue, that the actions prescribed by the rules are ethically obligatory, and consequently we should focus our attention on how to craft the rules so as to promote the legitimate goals of human subjects research. Unfortunately, this cannot be done without evidence about the likely effects of various candidate policies-evidence we currently lack. Therefore, we should take the rules as mere starting points, subject to revision as the evidence comes in.

  5. Hierarchical Linear Modeling Meta-Analysis of Single-Subject Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Nicholas A.; Lewis, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    The identification of evidence-based practices continues to provoke issues of disagreement across multiple fields. One area of contention is the role of single-subject design (SSD) research in providing scientific evidence. The debate about SSD's utility centers on three issues: sample size, effect size, and serial dependence. One potential…

  6. Comparison of Nonoverlap Methods for Identifying Treatment Effect in Single-Subject Experimental Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakap, Salih; Snyder, Patricia; Pasia, Cathleen

    2014-01-01

    Debate is occurring about which result interpretation aides focused on examining the experimental effect should be used in single-subject experimental research. In this study, we examined seven nonoverlap methods and compared results using each method to judgments of two visual analysts. The data sources for the present study were 36 studies…

  7. New Findings and Future Directions for Subjective Well-Being Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings on subjective well-being (SWB) are presented, and I describe the important questions for future research that these raise. Worldwide predictors of SWB such as social support and fulfillment of basic needs have been uncovered, and there are large differences in SWB between societies. A number of culture-specific predictors of SWB…

  8. Implementation of Subjective Probability Estimates in Army Intelligence Procedures: A Critical Review of Research Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    subjective probabil- ity estimates have been incorporated routinely into tactical intelligence comunications . Research in the area of intelligence...analysis: Report on Phase I. Report FSC-71-5047. Gaithersburg, Md.: International Business Machines (IBM), Federal Systems Division, 1971. Kelly, C. W

  9. Reporting of ethical protection in recent oral and maxillofacial surgery research involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitak-Arnnop, P; Sader, R; Hervé, C; Dhanuthai, K; Bertrand, J-Ch; Hemprich, A

    2009-07-01

    This retrospective observational study investigated the frequency of reporting ethical approval and informed consent in recently published oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS) research involving human subjects. All research involving human subjects published in the International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, and Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery during January to June 2005-2007 were analysed for disclosure of ethical approval by a local ethical committee and obtaining informed consent from the subjects. 534 articles were identified; ethical approval was documented in 118 (22%) and individual patient consent in 135 (25%). 355 reports (67%) did not include a statement on ethical approval or informed consent and only 74 reports (14%) disclosed statements of both. Ethical documentation in retrospective and observational studies was scant; 12% of randomised controlled trials and 38% of non-random trials did not report both of ethical protections. Most recent OMS publications involving humans failed to mention ethical review or subjects' consent. Authors must adhere to the international research ethics guidelines and journal instructions, while editors should play a gatekeeper role to protect research participants, uphold scientific integrity and maintain public trust in the experimental process and OMS profession.

  10. Schrodinger's Cat: Empirical Research into the Radical Subjective solution of the Measurement problem.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bierman, D.; Whitmarsh, S.

    2007-01-01

    Schrodinger's Cat: Empirical research into the radical subjective solution of the measurement problem Dick J. Bierman & Stephen Whitmarsh The most controversial of all solutions of the measurement problem holds that a measurement is not completed until a conscious observation is made. In other

  11. Research monitoring by US medical institutions to protect human subjects: compliance or quality improvement?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Jean Philippe; van Zwieten, Myra C. B.; Willems, Dick L.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, to protect the rights and welfare of human subjects, institutions in the USA have begun to set up programmes to monitor ongoing medical research. These programmes provide routine, onsite oversight, and thus go beyond existing oversight such as investigating suspected misconduct or

  12. Perceptions of sexual responsibility: do young men and women agree?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, M K; Ostwald, S K; Rothenberger, J

    1986-01-01

    A nonprobability, convenience sample of 248 subjects of a large midwestern university agreed to participate in this study designed to investigate the perception of responsibility for contraception among late adolescents (over age 17), to determine whether age, gender, or sexual activity influences perceptions of responsibility, and to explore the relationship between perceived contraceptive responsibility and subsequent contraceptive choice among late adolescent males and females. The students were enrolled in an undergraduate public health class during the 1984 spring quarter. After initial data examination, 28 married subjects were eliminated from analysis. Of the final sample size of 220 students, 131 were female and 89 were male. The majority of the students, 57.5%, were between the ages of 20-22; 19% were between the ages of 17-19; and the remaining 23% were older than 22. The students completed a questionnaire anonymously as part of the development of a slide-tape program entitled "Young Men's Sexual Responsibility." Contraceptive responsibility was defined as perceived responsibility for pregnancy control, perceived responsibility to initiate conversation about contraception in a dating relationship, and perceived responsibility for who should pay for contraceptives. 63% of the students indicated that they had engaged in sexual intercourse at least once. Male students were significantly more likely to have had sexual intercourse than female students. Only 7% of the entire sample reported having had intercourse before the age of 15, but this sample consisted primarily of white, middle-class college students who may not represent students in inner-city school districts reported to have had 1st intercourse at earlier ages. 91% of the students perceived contraceptive responsibility as a shared responsibility. Of the small number of students who perceived 1 sex or the other responsible for pregnancy control, most (7%) perceived that it was the woman

  13. Relevant Information and Informed Consent in Research: In Defense of the Subjective Standard of Disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dranseika, Vilius; Piasecki, Jan; Waligora, Marcin

    2017-02-01

    In this article, we seek to contribute to the debate on the requirement of disclosure in the context of informed consent for research. We defend the subjective standard of disclosure and describe ways to implement this standard in research practice. We claim that the researcher should make an effort to find out what kinds of information are likely to be relevant for those consenting to research. This invites researchers to take empirical survey information seriously, attempt to understand the cultural context, talk to patients to be better able to understand what can be potentially different concerns and interests prevalent in the target population. The subjective standard of disclosure should be seen as a moral ideal that perhaps can never be perfectly implemented but still can and should be used as a normative ideal guiding research practice. In the light of these discussions, we call for more empirical research on what considerations are likely to be perceived as relevant by potential research participants recruited from different socio-economic and cultural groups.

  14. Reflexivity and the "Acting Subject": Conceptualizing the Unit of Analysis in Qualitative Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, James A

    2016-07-06

    The ways in which social scientists conceptualize the "reflexive" human subject have important consequences for how we go about our research. Whether and how we understand human subjects to be the authors of our own actions helps to structure what we say about health, health care, and the many other topics addressed in qualitative health research. In this article, I critically discuss assumptions of human reflexivity that are built into qualitative social science of health and medicine. I describe three alternative ways of understanding reflexive thought and human action derived from the theoretical works of Pierre Bourdieu, Bruno Latour, and George Lakoff and Mark Johnson, respectively. I then apply these three different ways of thinking about reflexivity and the acting subject to the analysis of an excerpt of participant observation data from a health services research study of transitions from hospital to home, illuminating the different kinds of analyses that arise from each perspective. I conclude with a call for social scientists to commit to the search for better ways of understanding the human subject, resisting the temptation to "settle" on theoretical statements that close down the path to more sophisticated conceptualizations of human thought and action. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. The persistence of the subjective in neuropsychopharmacology: observations of contemporary hallucinogen research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlitz, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    The elimination of subjectivity through brain research and the replacement of so-called "folk psychology" by a neuroscientifically enlightened worldview and self-conception has been both hoped for and feared. But this cultural revolution is still pending. Based on nine months of fieldwork on the revival of hallucinogen research since the "Decade of the Brain," this paper examines how subjective experience appears as epistemic object and practical problem in a psychopharmacological laboratory. In the quest for neural correlates of (drug-induced altered states of) consciousness, introspective accounts of test subjects play a crucial role in neuroimaging studies. Firsthand knowledge of the drugs' flamboyant effects provides researchers with a personal knowledge not communicated in scientific publications, but key to the conduct of their experiments. In many cases, the "psychedelic experience" draws scientists into the field and continues to inspire their self-image and way of life. By exploring these domains the paper points to a persistence of the subjective in contemporary neuropsychopharmacology.

  16. The Patient-Worker: A Model for Human Research Subjects and Gestational Surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryman, Emma; Fulfer, Katy

    2017-01-13

    We propose the 'patient-worker' as a theoretical construct that responds to moral problems that arise with the globalization of healthcare and medical research. The patient-worker model recognizes that some participants in global medical industries are workers and are owed worker's rights. Further, these participants are patient-like insofar as they are beneficiaries of fiduciary relationships with healthcare professionals. We apply the patient-worker model to human subjects research and commercial gestational surrogacy. In human subjects research, subjects are usually characterized as either patients or as workers. Through questioning this dichotomy, we argue that some subject populations fit into both categories. With respect to commercial surrogacy, we enrich feminist discussions of embodied labor by describing how surrogates are beneficiaries of fiduciary obligations. They are not just workers, but patient-workers. Through these applications, the patient-worker model offers a helpful normative framework for exploring what globalized medical industries owe to the individuals who bear the bodily burdens of medical innovation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Therapeutic misconception in research subjects: development and validation of a measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Paul S; Anatchkova, Milena; Albert, Karen; Dunn, Laura B; Lidz, Charles W

    2012-12-01

    Therapeutic misconception (TM), which occurs when research subjects fail to appreciate the distinction between the imperatives of clinical research and ordinary treatment, may undercut the process of obtaining meaningful consent to clinical research participation. Previous studies have found that TM is widespread, but progress in addressing TM has been stymied by the absence of a validated method for assessing its presence. The goal of this study was to develop and validate a theoretically grounded measure of TM, assess its diagnostic accuracy, and test previous findings regarding TM's prevalence. A total of 220 participants were recruited from clinical trials at four academic medical centers in the United States. Participants completed a 28-item Likert-type questionnaire to assess the presence of beliefs associated with TM, and a semistructured TM interview designed to elicit their perceptions of the nature of the clinical trial in which they were participating. Data from the questionnaires were subjected to factor analysis, and items with poor factor loadings were excluded. This resulted in a 10-item scale, with three strongly correlated factors and excellent internal consistency; the fit indices of the model across 10 training sets were consistent with the original results, suggesting a stable factor solution. The scale was validated against the TM interview, with significantly higher scores among subjects coded as displaying evidence of TM. Receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis based on a 10-fold internal cross-validation yielded area under the ROC (AUC) = 0.682 for any evidence of TM. When sensitivity (0.72) and specificity (0.61) were both optimized, positive predictive value was 0.65 and negative predictive value was 0.68, with a positive likelihood ratio of 1.89 and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.47. In all, 50.5% (n = 101) of the participants manifested evidence of TM on the TM interview, a somewhat lower rate than in most previous studies. The

  18. A review of safety, side-effects and subjective reactions to intranasal oxytocin in human research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Elayne; Dadds, Mark R; Brennan, John L; Williams, Katrina; Levy, Florence; Cauchi, Avril J

    2011-09-01

    Human research investigating the impact of intranasal oxytocin on psychological processes has accelerated over the last two decades. No review of side effects, subjective reactions and safety is available. A systematic review of 38 randomised controlled trials conducted between 1990 and 2010 that investigated the central effects of intranasal oxytocin was undertaken. A systematic search for reports of adverse reactions involving intranasal oxytocin was also completed. Since 1990, research trials have reported on N=1529 (79% male) of which 8% were participants with developmental or mental health difficulties. Dosages ranged from 18 to 40 IU, mainly in single doses but ranged up to 182 administrations. Diverse methods have been used to screen and exclude participants, monitor side effects and subject reactions. Side effects are not different between oxytocin and placebo and participants are unable to accurately report on whether they have received oxytocin and placebo. Three case reports of adverse reactions due to misuse and longer-term use of intranasal oxytocin were reported. The evidence shows that intranasal oxytocin: (1) produces no detectable subjective changes in recipients, (2) produces no reliable side-effects, and (3) is not associated with adverse outcomes when delivered in doses of 18-40 IU for short term use in controlled research settings. Future research directions should include a focus on the dosage and duration of use, and application with younger age groups, vulnerable populations, and with females. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Teaching Earth Sciences as an interdisciplinary subject: Novel module design involving research literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Vincent C. H.

    2010-05-01

    The study of Earth Sciences requires an interdisciplinary approach as it involves understanding scientific knowledge originating from a wide spectrum of research areas. Not only does it include subjects ranging from, for instance, hydrogeology to deep crustal seismology and from climate science to oceanography, but it also has many direct applications in closely related disciplines such as environmental engineering and natural resources management. While research crossing traditional disciplinary boundaries in geosciences is becoming increasingly common, there is only limited integration of interdisciplinary research in the teaching of the subject. Given that the transition from undergraduate education based on subject modules to postgraduate interdisciplinary research is never easy, such integration is a highly desirable pedagogical approach at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. My presentation is based on a recent teaching project involving novel design of an undergraduate course. The course is implemented in order to address the synergy between research and teaching (Tong, 2009). This project has been shown to be effective and successful in teaching geosciences undergraduates at the University of London. The module consists of studying core geophysical principles and linking them directly to a selection of recently published research papers in a wide range of interdisciplinary applications. Research reviewing and reporting techniques are systematically developed, practised and fully integrated into teaching of the core scientific theories. A fully-aligned assignment with a feedback website invites the students to reflect on the scientific knowledge and the study skills related to research literature they have acquired in the course. This teaching project has been recognized by a teaching award (http://www.clpd.bbk.ac.uk/staff/BETA). In this presentation, I will discuss how undergraduate teaching with a focus on research literature in Earth Sciences can

  20. Improving the reliability of clinical practice guideline appraisals: effects of the Korean AGREE II scoring guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Moo-Kyung; Jo, Heuisug; Lee, You Kyoung

    2014-06-01

    The Korean translated Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (Korean AGREE II) instrument was distributed into Korean medical societies in 2011. However, inter-rater disagreement issues still exist. The Korean AGREE II scoring guide was therefore developed to reduce inter-rater differences. This study examines the effects of the Korean AGREE II scoring guide to reduce inter-rater differences. Appraisers were randomly assigned to two groups (Scoring Guide group and Non-Scoring Guide group). The Korean AGREE II instrument was provided to both groups. However, the scoring guide was offered to Scoring Guide group only. Total 14 appraisers were participated and each guideline was assessed by 8 appraisers. To evaluate the reliability of the Korean AGREE II scoring guide, correlation of scores among appraisers and domain-specific intra-class correlation (ICC) were compared. Most scores of two groups were comparable. Scoring Guide group showed higher reliability at all guidelines. They showed higher correlation among appraisers and higher ICC values at almost all domains. The scoring guide reduces the inter-rater disagreement and improves the overall reliability of the Korean-AGREE II instrument.

  1. If, Why, and When Subjective Well-Being Influences Health, and Future Needed Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Ed; Pressman, Sarah D; Hunter, John; Delgadillo-Chase, Desiree

    2017-07-01

    We review evidence on whether subjective well-being (SWB) can influence health, why it might do so, and what we know about the conditions where this is more or less likely to occur. This review also explores how various methodological approaches inform the study of the connections between subjective well-being and health and longevity outcomes. Our review of this growing literature indicates areas where data are substantial and where much more research is needed. We conclude that SWB can sometimes influence health, and review a number of reasons why it does so. A key open question is when it does and does not do so-in terms of populations likely to be affected, types of SWB that are most influential (including which might be harmful), and types of health and illnesses that are most likely to be affected. We also describe additional types of research that are now much needed in this burgeoning area of interest, for example, cross-cultural studies, animal research, and experimental interventions designed to raise long-term SWB and assess the effects on physical health. This research area is characterised both by potentially extremely important findings, and also by pivotal research issues and questions. © 2017 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Association of Applied Psychology.

  2. Recent research activities and future subjects on stable- and radio-isotopes of chlorine in environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushita, Kouhei [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-12-01

    This report reviews the recent studies on the stable- and radio-isotopes of chlorine from a viewpoint of environmental science, partly including historic references on this element. First, general properties, occurrence, and utilization of chlorine are described. Secondly, current status and research works on chlorine-compounds, which attract special attention in recent years as environmentally hazardous materials, are reported. Thirdly, research works on stable chlorine isotopes, {sup 35}Cl and {sup 37}Cl, are described with a focus laid on the newly-developed techniques; isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Fourthly, recent research works on chlorine radioisotopes, {sup 36}Cl etc., are described, focusing on the development of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and its application to geochemistry and others. Finally, taking account of the above-mentioned recent works on Cl isotopes, possible future research subjects are discussed. (author)

  3. Subject oriented and problem based text materials as a subject of flexible foreign language reading in research projects

    OpenAIRE

    SEROVA TAMARA S.; PIPCHENKO ELENA L.

    2014-01-01

    The article introduces the academic research work of students within the competence based approach, the models of academic problem based research projects taken up as a means to develop flexible foreign language reading skills. The authors reveal selection principles and corpus didactic design of text materials in the form of a macrotext, hypertext, and video course.

  4. Effect Sizes as Result Interpretation Aids in Single-Subject Experimental Research: Description and Application of Four Nonoverlap Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakap, Salih

    2015-01-01

    Single-subject experimental research (SSER), one of the most commonly used research methods in special education and applied behaviour analysis, is a scientific, rigorous and valid method to evaluate the effectiveness of behavioural, educational and psychological treatments. However, studies using single-subject experimental research designs are…

  5. Single-subject research designs in pediatric rehabilitation: a valuable step towards knowledge translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeiser-Logan, Lynne; Slaughter, Rebecca; Hickman, Robbin

    2017-06-01

    Knowledge translation may be particularly challenging in pediatric rehabilitation, where study findings are often ambiguous owing to low statistical power or inconsistent responses to intervention. Disconnection between research protocols and clinical practicality, as well as variability of responsiveness in heterogeneous pediatric populations, may further impede integration of research findings into everyday practice. Use of single-subject research designs (SSRDs) may bridge the gap between research and practice, with robust design options that better identify and preserve patterns of responsiveness to specific interventions and offer protocols that are more readily implemented in practice settings than can be done in traditional randomized controlled trials. This review defines SSRD, provides examples of research questions that can be answered using SSRD, details the experimental designs that can be used and the level of evidence of each design, and describes statistical analysis approaches and clinical application. This analysis will aid researchers, reviewers, clinicians, and others in better understanding SSRD methodology and its application in everyday practice. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  6. Older adults' attitudes toward enrollment of non-competent subjects participating in Alzheimer's research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlawish, Jason; Rubright, Jonathan; Casarett, David; Cary, Mark; Ten Have, Thomas; Sankar, Pamela

    2009-02-01

    Research that seeks to enroll noncompetent patients with Alzheimer's disease without presenting any potential benefit to participants is the source of substantial ethical controversy. The authors used hypothetical Alzheimer's disease studies that included either a blood draw or a blood draw and lumbar puncture to explore older persons' attitudes on this question. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 538 persons age 65 and older. Questions explored participants' understanding of research concepts, their views on enrolling persons with Alzheimer's disease in research, and their preferences regarding having a proxy decision maker, granting advance consent, and granting their proxy leeway to override the participant's decision. Additional questions assessed altruism, trust, value for research, and perceptions of Alzheimer's disease. The majority (83%) were willing to grant advance consent to a blood draw study, and nearly half (48%) to a blood draw plus lumbar puncture study. Most (96%) were willing to identify a proxy for research decision making, and most were willing to grant their proxy leeway over their advance consent: 81% for the blood draw study and 70% for the blood draw plus lumbar puncture study. Combining the preferences for advance consent and leeway, the proportion who would permit being enrolled in the blood draw and lumbar puncture studies, respectively, were 92% and 75%. Multivariate models showed that willingness to be enrolled in research was most strongly associated with a favorable attitude toward biomedical research. Older adults generally support enrolling noncompetent persons with Alzheimer's disease into research that does not present a benefit to subjects. Willingness to grant their proxy leeway over advance consent and a favorable attitude about biomedical research substantially explain this willingness.

  7. Some recent developments in the international guidelines on the ethics of research involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, R J

    2000-11-01

    We are in a period of reconsideration and revision of international ethical guidelines for the conduct of biomedical research involving human subjects. The proximate cause of much of this activity is the recent controversy over the ethics of the use of a placebo control in the clinical trials of the short-duration regimen of zidovudine for prevention of perinatal transmission of HIV infection, trials that were carried out in several so-called technologically developing countries. Critics of these trials claimed that they were in violation of Article II.3 of the Declaration of Helsinki, which states: "In any medical study, every patient--including those of a control group, if any--should be assured of the best proven diagnostic and therapeutic method. This does not exclude the use of inert placebo in studies where no proven diagnostic or therapeutic method exists." The critics claimed that since the "best proven ... method" is the 076 regimen, this is what must be provided to members of the control groups. Failure to do so, they asserted, was a serious breach of ethics. In response to this allegation, several major international and national agencies convened multidisciplinary groups to consider the ethics of multinational clinical research. The first thing they realized was that Article II.3 was in error in that it did not reflect contemporary ethical thinking. Moreover, it was routinely violated in research conducted in developed as well as in developing countries. What replaces this standard? The 1993 CIOMS International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects include several criteria for justification of research carried out in developing countries. Most importantly, the research must be responsive to the health needs and priorities of the host country. They also require that any therapeutic products developed in such research must be made "reasonably available" to residents of the host country. A new standard is emerging for

  8. RESEARCHING CITY AND SUBJECTIVITY: BODIES AND WANDERINGS OF A FLÂNEUR- CARTOGRAPHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Linck de Romero

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In light of the cartographic method of research proposed by Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari (2011, we present reflections on the study on subjectivity and the contemporary city with an approach to its process and production dimensions. The cartographer’s body is crucial for the methodology and is created along the research process in order to allow for the existence of universes of reference (Rolnik, 1993 of modes of existence in urban life. We then develop relationships between the cartographer’s practice and that of the flâneur as examples of urban wandering (Jacques, 2012 that problematize the possibilities of body experiences in the urban space as a resistance to the contemporary spectacularization of the city. For such, we use concepts-tools from the field of schizoanalysis and those of the authors mentioned in this abstract, developing the idea that urban experiences, in some ways, can prove to be a source of production and knowledge of subjectivity, the city, the body and the relationships between them.

  9. NASA's Universe of Learning: The Integral Role of Research Astronomers and Other Subject Matter Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Janice; Universe of Learning Team

    2018-01-01

    Astronomy seeks to understand the workings of the Universe on its largest scales, and to answer fundamental questions about the story of our origins. The science of astronomy thus naturally lends itself to informal education and public outreach activities, as it broadly captures the human imagination. There are at least three overall goals for investment of resources in Astronomy E/PO: to interest students in pursuing STEM education and careers; to develop Astronomy as context for teaching more basic physical and computer science in service of US National Education Goals; to help motivate continued public support of federally funded Astronomy research and technology development. Providing a full spectrum of opportunities for the public to learn about recent Astronomy discoveries is key to achieving these societal goals. Thus, the E/PO professional community must have an understanding of recent scientific/technological results, and engage with the researchers who are creating new knowledge to explicate that knowledge to the public. It stands to reason that researchers (or “subject matter experts, SMEs”) must be involved in and remain connected to the E/PO endeavor. In this talk, I will describe how research astronomers and other SMEs play an integral role in a full range of informal education programming developed by the NASA Universe of Learning collaboration, and opportunities to get involved.

  10. How children can be respected as 'ends' yet still be used as subjects in non-therapeutic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmon, R B

    1986-01-01

    The question of whether or not children may be used as subjects in non-therapeutic research projects has generated a great deal of debate and received answers varying from 'no, never' to 'yes, if societal interests are served'. It has been claimed that a Kantian, deontological ethics would necessarily rule out such research, since valid consent would be impossible. The present paper gives a deontological argument for allowing children to be subjects in certain types of research. PMID:3735361

  11. Psychometric evaluation and establishing norms of Croatian SF-36 health survey: framework for subjective health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslić Sersić, Darja; Vuletić, Gorka

    2006-02-01

    To provide population norms and evaluate metric characteristics of the Croatian version of SF-36 Health Survey, an internationally used instrument for assessing subjective health. The questionnaire was administered to a representative sample of Croatian adult population (n=9070). Three standard techniques were used in data analysis: reliability tests, descriptive statistics, and factor analysis. The population norms were presented in two standard forms--the SF-36 Health Profile and percentile values for different age groups of men and women. The Croatian version of the SF-36 had generally acceptable metric characteristics including its construct validity. The internal consistency of the SF-36 scales ranged from 0.78 to 0.94. Pearson bivariate correlations showed moderate associations between SF-36 scales, and factor analysis provided one latent dimension underlying all SF-36 scales which explained 63.3% of the score variance. Less favorable results were obtained concerning its discriminative validity. All SF-36 scales showed negative asymmetry of score distributions, and some had high floor and ceiling effects--skewness estimations ranged from -0.12 to -0.91, with the highest floor effect of 30% and ceiling effect of 63%. Presented population norms for the Croatian version of SF-36 Health Survey showed that SF-36 may be used as a valid and reliable instrument in research in subjective health of Croatian population.

  12. Documentation of ethical conduct of human subject research published in Saudi medical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gaai, E A; Hammami, M M; Al Eidan, M

    2012-07-01

    We evaluated the documentation of ethical conduct (obtaining institutional review board approval and consent and following ethical guidelines) of human subject research studies published in Saudi Arabian medical journals between 1979 and 2007. Studies were classified as retrospective, prospective noninterventional, interventional or survey/interview. Of 1838 studies published in 286 journal issues of 11 Saudi Arabian medical journals, only 0.9% documented the ethical guidelines followed, with a significantly higher rate for studies published after year 2000 (1.7%). Of 821 studies requiring institutional review board approval, 8.6% documented obtaining the approval and informed consent, with a significantly higher rate for interventional studies (19.4%), post-year 2000 studies (19.7%) and studies performed outside Saudi Arabia (15.9%). The low documentation rate suggests editor's lack of rigor and/or investigators' ignorance of guidelines. The higher documentation rate after year 2000 suggests an ongoing improvement.

  13. An empirical research on relationships between subjective judgement, technology acceptance tendency and knowledge transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chien-Yun; Chen, Hsiao-Ming; Chen, Wan-Fei; Wu, Chia-Huei; Li, Guodong; Wang, Jiangtao

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among employees' usage intention pertaining to mobile information devices, focusing on subjective judgement, technology acceptance tendency, information sharing behavior and information transfer. A research model was established to verify several hypotheses. The research model based on integrated concepts of knowledge management and technology acceptance modeling. Participants were employees of enterprises in Taiwan, selected by combining snowball and convenience sampling. Data obtained from 779 e-surveys. Multiple-regression analysis was employed for hypothesis verification. The results indicate that perceived ease-of-use of mobile devices was affected by computer self-efficacy and computer playfulness directly; meanwhile, perceived ease-of-use directly affects perceived usefulness. In addition, perceived ease-of-use and perceived usefulness can predict information-sharing behavior in a positive manner, and impact knowledge transfer as well. Based on the research findings, it suggested that enterprises should utilize mobile information devices to create more contact with customers and enrich their service network. In addition, it is recommended that managers use mobile devices to transmit key information to their staff and that they use these devices for problem-solving and decision-making. Further, the staff’s skills pertaining to the operation of mobile information devices and to fully implement their features are reinforced in order to inspire the users' knowledge transfer. Enhancing the playfulness of the interface is also important. In general, it is useful to promote knowledge transfer behavior within an organization by motivating members to share information and ideas via mobile information devices. In addition, a well-designed interface can facilitate employees' use of these devices. PMID:28886088

  14. An empirical research on relationships between subjective judgement, technology acceptance tendency and knowledge transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yu-Hsi; Tsai, Sang-Bing; Dai, Chien-Yun; Chen, Hsiao-Ming; Chen, Wan-Fei; Wu, Chia-Huei; Li, Guodong; Wang, Jiangtao

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among employees' usage intention pertaining to mobile information devices, focusing on subjective judgement, technology acceptance tendency, information sharing behavior and information transfer. A research model was established to verify several hypotheses. The research model based on integrated concepts of knowledge management and technology acceptance modeling. Participants were employees of enterprises in Taiwan, selected by combining snowball and convenience sampling. Data obtained from 779 e-surveys. Multiple-regression analysis was employed for hypothesis verification. The results indicate that perceived ease-of-use of mobile devices was affected by computer self-efficacy and computer playfulness directly; meanwhile, perceived ease-of-use directly affects perceived usefulness. In addition, perceived ease-of-use and perceived usefulness can predict information-sharing behavior in a positive manner, and impact knowledge transfer as well. Based on the research findings, it suggested that enterprises should utilize mobile information devices to create more contact with customers and enrich their service network. In addition, it is recommended that managers use mobile devices to transmit key information to their staff and that they use these devices for problem-solving and decision-making. Further, the staff's skills pertaining to the operation of mobile information devices and to fully implement their features are reinforced in order to inspire the users' knowledge transfer. Enhancing the playfulness of the interface is also important. In general, it is useful to promote knowledge transfer behavior within an organization by motivating members to share information and ideas via mobile information devices. In addition, a well-designed interface can facilitate employees' use of these devices.

  15. MARKETING RESEARCH OF THE SUBJECTIVE AND MOTIVATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CONSUMERS OF TOURIST SERVICES OF THE YAROSLAVL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Алексей Николаевич Минеев

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available For today one of the most dynamically developing spheres is tourism. According to the Rosstat, the share of tourist sector in the total volume of GDP is already 4%, and with the allied industries - by 7%. The industry is fraught with deep potential and has the value of the national scale, but for further development it is necessary to understand the needs, desires, and motives of potential tourists at the level of separate territorial entities. Research devoted to the subject of the analysis of user characteristics and features of demand for tourist services is extremely small, which gives it the real theme of the novel.The relevance of the theme is determined by the analysis of the demand for tourist services. The aim of the work is a marketing analysis of the Yaroslavl consumers of tourism products. For realization of this goal, a study was conducted by the method of questioning. The survey has identified the most popular kinds of tourism, the main parameters and motives, which are used by consumers when planning your vacation and tourism, as well as describes and analyses the main types of consumers and their quantitative composition. Study of consumer characteristics will allow organizations to better Orient themselves in them and the values of the clients.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-27

  16. Discourse, Subject, and Agency. Linking Discourse Analysis and Biographical Research with the Help of the Concept of Articulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Spies

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available For a significant period of time biographical research did not focus on the influence of discourses on biographical narratives. In contrast, discourse analysis often disregarded the subject-constituting impact of discourses. This article deals with the theoretical question of how to work with both: discourse and subject. Therefore, I will introduce Stuart HALL's concept of articulation. Since the early 1990's HALL has been working on questions of (cultural identity. In this context he developed an understanding of subjects that enables them not only to be seen as effects of discourses, but also allows focusing on discourses in subject conceptions. Neither biographical research nor discourse analysis In German speaking countries have embraced the work of HALL. But his concept of articulation could link biographical research and discourse analysis, and could also be used for further empirical work. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0902369

  17. Guidelines to Classify Female Subject Groups in Sport-Science Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decroix, Lieselot; De Pauw, Kevin; Foster, Carl; Meeusen, Romain

    2016-03-01

    To review current cycling-related sport-science literature to formulate guidelines to classify female subject groups and to compare this classification system for female subject groups with the classification system for male subject groups. A database of 82 papers that described female subject groups containing information on preexperimental maximal cycle-protocol designs, terminology, biometrical and physiological parameters, and cycling experience was analyzed. Subject groups were divided into performance levels (PLs), according to the nomenclature. Body mass, body-mass index, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), peak power output (PPO), and training status were compared between PLs and between female and male PLs. Five female PLs were defined, representing untrained, active, trained, well-trained, and professional female subjects. VO2max and PPO significantly increased with PL, except for PL3 and PL4 (P groups. Relative VO2max is the most cited parameter for female subject groups and is proposed as the principal parameter to classify the groups. This systematic review shows the large variety in the description of female subject groups in the existing literature. The authors propose a standardized preexperimental testing protocol and guidelines to classify female subject groups into 5 PLs based on relative VO2max, relative PPO, training status, absolute VO2max, and absolute PPO.

  18. An empirical research on relationships between subjective judgement, technology acceptance tendency and knowledge transfer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yu-Hsi Yuan; Sang-Bing Tsai; Chien-Yun Dai; Hsiao-Ming Chen; Wan-Fei Chen; Chia-Huei Wu; Guodong Li; Jiangtao Wang

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among employees' usage intention pertaining to mobile information devices, focusing on subjective judgement, technology acceptance tendency...

  19. A Meta-Analysis of Single-Subject Research on Behavioral Momentum to Enhance Success in Students with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Richard J.; Abel, Leah; Candel, Lindsay

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of single-subject research studies investigating the effectiveness of antecedent strategies grounded in behavioral momentum for improving compliance and on-task performance for students with autism. First, we assessed the research rigor of those studies meeting our inclusionary criteria. Next, in order to apply a…

  20. Myofascial treatment for patients with acetabular labral tears: a single-subject research design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Glenn E; Mortenson, W Ben; Gilbart, Michael K

    2014-08-01

    Single-subject research design using 4 consecutive patients. To assess whether treatment using soft tissue therapy (ART or Active Release Technique), stretching, and strengthening of the hip abductors, hip external rotators, and tensor fascia latae muscles reduces pain and improves self-reported hip function in patients with acetabular labral tears who also have posterolateral hip pain of suspected myofascial origin. Acetabular labral tears cause pain in some but not all patients. Pain commonly presents anteriorly but may also present posteriorly and laterally. The standard of care is arthroscopic repair, which helps many but not all patients. It is possible that these patients may present with extra-articular contributions to their pain, such as myofascial pain, making their clinical presentation more complex. No previous study has assessed soft tissue therapy as a treatment option for this subset of patients. This A-B-A design used repeated measures of the Hip Outcome Score and visual analog scale for pain. Four patients were treated for 6 to 8 weeks, using a combination of soft tissue therapy, stretching, and strengthening for the hip abductors, external rotators, and tensor fascia latae. Data were assessed visually, statistically, and by comparing mean differences before and after intervention. All 4 patients experienced both statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in posterolateral hip pain and hip-related function. Three patients also experienced reduction in anteromedial hip pain. Myofascial hip pain may contribute to hip-related symptoms and disability in patients with acetabular labral tears and posterolateral hip pain. These patients may benefit from soft tissue therapy combined with stretching and strengthening exercises targeting the hip abductors, tensor fascia latae, and hip external rotator muscles. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 4.

  1. The human capacity to reflect and decide: bioethics and the reconfiguration of the research subject in the British biomedical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reubi, David

    2012-06-01

    This article examines how a fundamental element of the British bioethical assemblage - the literature on informed consent published between 1980 and 2000, a period when bioethics became a powerful force in the UK--has influenced contemporary understandings of the research subject. Drawing on Foucault, the article argues that this corpus of texts has created a sphere of possibilities in which research subjects can imagine themselves as human beings who reflect and decide whether they want to participate in medical experimentation. In particular, it shows how the narratives found in these texts portray relationships between researchers and their human subjects as 'paternalistic', and calls for their replacement by new, more ethical relationships characterized by both 'dialogue' and 'respect' and articulated around subjects who can 'think and take decisions'. It also discusses the different strategies- using patient information sheets, a list of possible questions and invitations to take time to reflect--which the bioethical literature has developed in order to realise these new, ethical relationships. As the article suggests, these narratives and strategies provide researchers and research subjects with models and examples of how to interact with each other that are very different from the ones that prevailed before the emergence of bioethics.

  2. The impact factor-based quality assessment of biomedical research institutes in Iran: effect of impact factor normalization by subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei-Ghaleh, Nasrollah; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2007-04-01

    The journal impact factor is increasingly employed to evaluate the quality of scientific research. This is in contrary to its critical limitations, e.g., its marked variation across scientific disciplines. This study was conducted to describe, in both quantitative and qualitative terms, the contribution of Iranian universities and research institutes to biomedical publications in 2004 and to examine the possible effect of impact factor normalization by subject on their rankings. The Iranian biomedical articles were recruited from Thomson Science Citation Index Expanded and PubMed databases according to Thomson Scientific subject categorization of journals. Three subject-normalized impact factors were employed: rank-normalized impact factor, journal to field impact score, and standardized impact factor. Tehran and Shiraz Universities of Medical Sciences and University of Tehran were the top three institutes regarding the sum of impact factor in 2004. On the basis of the mean crude impact factor, Sharif University of Technology, University of Shiraz, and Baqiyatollah University were ranked as the first to third. However, the subject normalization of impact factor made some considerable changes in impact factor-based rankings of research institutes. The Iranian scientific community and science development policy makers are recommended to employ subject-normalized impact factor, rather than crude impact factor, in quality assessment of biomedical research held in various academic and research institutes.

  3. Employees as Individually and Collectively Acting Subjects-Key Contributions from Nordic Working Life Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peter Hasle; Ole Henning Sørensen

    2013-01-01

    .... The paper poses the question whether the distinct character of the Nordic societies has generated working life research that is clearly distinguishable from similar research in other countries...

  4. Subjective Time Perceptions and Aging Well: A Review of Concepts and Empirical Research - A Mini-Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrian, Martina; Dutt, Anne J; Wahl, Hans-Werner

    2017-01-01

    understanding of human development across the lifespan. To this end, we call for theoretical and empirical interlinkages between yet loosely connected conceptual developments related to subjective time. These endeavors should be paralleled by an extension of methodological procedures (e.g., implementation of longitudinal research designs as well as a focus on the oldest-old) in order to inform a "lifespan theory of subjective time." © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Neither Objective nor Neutral? Reflecting on My Subjectivity throughout the Research Process in Takiwa School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Vicki

    An educational researcher describes and reflects on a qualitative research project she conducted, focusing on her positioning, neutrality, and objectivity throughout the research process and during subsequent data analysis. The research took place in a K-12 school in a remote rural New Zealand community inhabited by Maori, 1970s…

  6. From the ideal market to the ideal clinic: constructing a normative standard of fairness for human subjects research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Trisha

    2011-02-01

    Preventing exploitation in human subjects research requires a benchmark of fairness against which to judge the distribution of the benefits and burdens of a trial. This paper proposes the ideal market and its fair market price as a criterion of fairness. The ideal market approach is not new to discussions about exploitation, so this paper reviews Wertheimer's inchoate presentation of the ideal market as a principle of fairness, attempt of Emanuel and colleagues to apply the ideal market to human subjects research, and Ballantyne's criticisms of both the ideal market and the resulting benchmark of fairness. It argues that the criticism of this particular benchmark is on point, but the rejection of the ideal market is mistaken. After presenting a complete account of the ideal market, this paper proposes a new method for applying the ideal market to human subjects research and illustrates the proposal by considering a sample case.

  7. Using AGREE II to Evaluate the Quality of Traditional Medicine Clinical Practice Guidelines in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei; Li, Le; Wang, Zixia; Chang, Xiaonan; Li, Rui; Fang, Ziye; Wei, Dang; Yao, Liang; Wang, Xiaoqin; Wang, Qi; An, Guanghui

    2016-03-15

    To evaluate/assess the quality of the Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) of traditional medicine in China. We systematically searched the literature databases WanFang Data, VIP, CNKI and CBM for studies published between 1978 and 2012 to identify and select CPGs of traditional medicine. We used the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II) instrument to evaluate these guidelines. A total of 75 guidelines were included, of which 46 guidelines (62%) were on Traditional Chinese Medicine, 19 (25%) on Chinese Integrated Medicine, and 10 (13%) on Uyghur Medicine. Most traditional medicine CPGs published in domestic journals scored medicine. In each domain of AGREE II, traditional Medicine CPGs performed clearly better than international CPGs. The same trend was seen in guidelines of Modern Medicine. An increasing amount of CPGs are being published, but their quality is low. Referring to the key points of international guidelines development, supervision through AGREE II, cooperating with international groups and exploring the strategy of guideline development could improve the quality of CPGs on traditional medicine. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. The Deaconess Informed Consent Comprehension Test: an assessment tool for clinical research subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C K; O'Donnell, D C; Searight, H R; Barbarash, R A

    1996-01-01

    We developed an instrument to assess comprehension of informed consent information among 275 adults entering one of four ambulatory trials. At the conclusion of trial enrollment, subjects rated their understanding of the information presented and completed the Deaconess Informed Consent Comprehension Test (DICCT). Subjects completed the vocabulary subtest of the revised Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-R) and the reading subtest of the revised Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT-R). The DICCT for 50 subjects was scored by 2 blinded investigators. Interrater agreement was 0.84 (df = 49, p < 0.001). To investigate the DICCT's potential validity, its scores were correlated with WAIS-R vocabulary scores (r = 0.44, df = 199, p < 0.01) and WRAT-R reading scores (r = 0.39, df = 268, p < 0.01). Understanding of consent information was rated as thorough by 70% of subjects. The mean +/- SD DICCT score was 20.4 +/- 3.9. The DICCT is a reliable instrument to assess comprehension of informed consent information. There is preliminary evidence for the scale's validity. The subjects believed that they had greater understanding of study information than was shown by the DICCT.

  9. 78 FR 10538 - Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ...) with Sec. 26.109); and whether the ``special problems'' of research involving vulnerable populations...) of the 2006 rule, which defines the scope of the rule as applying to ``all research initiated after... defined in Executive Order 12866. The 2006 rule applies to the conduct and review of research involving...

  10. Children as Subjects in Nutrition Research: A Retrospective Look at Their Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafka, Tamar; Economos, Christina; Folta, Sara; Sacheck, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore children's motivations for and perceived benefits and barriers to nutrition research participation. To explore children's perspectives on how to improve the research experience. Design: Seven focus group sessions were conducted during March 2008 with research participants from a trial that examined the effects of pre-exercise…

  11. Differing to Agree: A Reply to Hammersley and Abraham

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewirtz, Sharon; Cribb, Alan

    2008-01-01

    In this paper Gewirtz and Cribb offer a response to Hammersley and Abraham's criticisms of their arguments about the place of values in social research published in this issue of BJSE. In doing so, they make clear that most of the positions that Hammersley and Abraham attribute to them are ones that they do not identify with and that, like…

  12. Do First and Later Borns Agree with Psychologists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Diane

    Research has found firstborns to be more ambitious, rule-oriented, authority-oriented, helpful, and responsible, and less oriented toward peers, their own needs, social activities, and group cooperation than are laterborns. To explore whether those occupying different birth order positions perceive themselves as psychologists have described them,…

  13. Subjective Reactions to International Research Participation: An Illustration of Ethical Considerations With Women Heading Households in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Jessica E; Banford Witting, Alyssa; Ponnamperuma, Lakmal; Wickrama, Thulitha

    2017-06-19

    here are unique ethical considerations in conducting international research with war and disaster-affected populations that are important for ensuring adequate protection of participants. Of particular importance is the distress that participants may experience as a result of being asked about traumatic stressors, psychological symptoms, and life problems. In this study, trauma-affected Tamil women in Eastern Sri Lanka were asked to report on their research-participation experience after taking part in a larger study on risk and resiliency. Results indicated that most participants experienced emotional upset as a result of taking part in the study. However, the degree of distress was generally not more than they anticipated, and most participants reported they would have participated had they known in advance how they would feel. Most participants perceived some benefit as a result of participating and agreed that items were personally relevant. Emotional distress from participation positively correlated with culturally specific symptoms of anxiety and depression. Contextual stressors and social support were not associated with participation-related distress. We discuss these findings as well as general issues that might arise in international research with trauma-affected populations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. The SAT® and SAT Subject Tests™: Discrepant Scores and Incremental Validity. Research Report 2012-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobrin, Jennifer L.; Patterson, Brian F.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines student performance on the SAT and SAT Subject Tests in order to identify groups of students who score differently on these two tests, and to determine whether certain demographic groups score higher on one test compared to the other. Discrepancy scores were created to capture individuals' performance differences on the…

  15. Are research subjects adequately protected? A review and discussion of studies conducted by the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Nancy E; Sugarman, Jeremy

    1996-09-01

    In light of information uncovered about human radiation experiments conducted during the Cold War, an important charge for the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments was to assess the current state of protections for human research subjects. This assessment was designed to enhance the Committee's ability to make informed recommendations for the improvement of future policies and practices for the protection of research subjects. The Committee's examination of current protections revealed great improvement over those from the past, yet some problems remain. Although the data collected by the Committee highlight specific areas in need of attention, the Committee's work should be viewed in part as the beginning of a series of ongoing assessments of the adequacy and effectiveness of the protections afforded to human subjects.

  16. Foucault, the subject and the research interview: a critique of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadyl, Joanna K; Nicholls, David A

    2013-03-01

    Research interviews are a widely used method in qualitative health research and have been adapted to suit a range of methodologies. Just as it is valuable that new approaches are explored, it is also important to continue to examine their appropriate use. In this article, we question the suitability of research interviews for 'history of the present' studies informed by the work of Michel Foucault - a form of qualitative research that is being increasingly employed in the analysis of healthcare systems and processes. We argue that several aspects of research interviewing produce philosophical and methodological complications that can interfere with achieving the aims of the analysis in this type of study. The article comprises an introduction to these tensions and examination of them in relation to key aspects of a Foucauldian philosophical position, and discussion of where this might position researchers when it comes to designing a study. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Self-Management Interventions on Students with Autism: A Meta-Analysis of Single-Subject Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Monica E.; Moore, Dennis W.; Anderson, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    Self-management interventions aimed at skill acquisition and/or improving behavior of students diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders were examined. Twenty-three single-subject research design studies met inclusion criteria. Quality assessment of these studies was conducted using the What Works Clearinghouse guidelines, and treatment effect…

  18. An Analysis of Effect Sizes for Single-Subject Research: A Statistical Comparison of Five Judgemental Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Lee L.

    2010-01-01

    Effect sizes for single-subject research were examined to determine to what extent they measure similar aspects of the effects of the treatment. Seventy-five articles on the reduction of problem behavior in children with autism were recharted on standard celeration charts. Pearson product-moment correlations were then conducted between two…

  19. The researcher as experimental subject: using self-experimentation to access experiences, understand social phenomena, and stimulate reflexivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Kevin; Reddy, Geetha; Choi, Ellen; Gillespie, Alex

    2015-06-01

    The current article argues that researcher-as-subject self-experimentation can provide valuable insight and systematic knowledge to social psychologists. This approach, the modus operandi of experimental psychology when the field was in its infancy, has been largely eclipsed by an almost exclusive focus on participant-as-subject other-experimentation. Drawing from the non-experimental first-person traditions of autoethnography, participant observation, and phenomenology, we argue that participating as both observer and subject within one's own social psychological experiment affords researchers at least three potential benefits: (1) access to "social qualia," that is, the subjective experience of social phenomena; (2) improved mental models of social phenomena, potentially stimulating new research questions; and (3) an enhanced ability to be reflexive about the given experiment. To support our position, we provide first-person self-reflections from researchers who have self-experimented with transformed social interactions involving Milgram's cyranoid method. We close by offering guidelines on how one might approach self-experimentation, and discuss a variety of first-person perspective ethnographic technologies that can be incorporated into the practice.

  20. Subjectivity in Education and Health: Research Notes on School Learning Area and Physical Education in Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Marilia; da Costa, Jonatas Maia

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of two studies researching the theory of subjectivity from a cultural-historical perspective. The studies are situated in the fields of education and health and are conducted using Qualitative Epistemology. The first study discusses the pathological movement problems of learning disabilities in Brazilian schools and…

  1. Bibliography of Research Involving Female Subjects; A Compilation of Theses and Dissertations in Physical Education, Health, and Recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirduso, Waneen Wyrick, Ed.

    This bibliography is comprised of theses and dissertations which were written by women or which used women as subjects of investigation. The theses were solicited by the National Association for Girls and Women in Sport (NAGWS) Research Committee from 200 colleges and universities. The entries include papers written during the past 30 years. They…

  2. Subject, function, and trend in medical ethics research: a comparative study of Chinese and non-Chinese literature using bibliometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lanhui; Shen, Jiantong; Li, Youping; Deng, Shaolin; Wu, Taixiang; Chen, Baoqing; Xie, Zhiyi; Qin, Chaoyi; Yu, Zhiyuan; Qin, Chuan; Huang, Jin; Liu, Xuemei; Li, Yan; Jiang, Jie

    2012-05-01

    To perform a comparative quantitative and qualitative analysis of Chinese and non-Chinese medical ethics literature using systematic research and literature analysis in order to discern research trends in the area and provide baseline data as a reference for relevant decision making and further study. We retrieved articles using MeSH terms and keywords related to medical ethics in PubMed and CNKI, and then constructed a set of charts by applying word co-occurrence, The Pathfinder Networks algorithms, an included subject chart, a research field relationship chart, and strategy coordination charts. The total of number of papers retrieved from PubMed was six times that retrieved from CNKI. Outside China, medical ethics has been studied in eight fully shaped subject fields, including morals, ethical review, physician-patient relationships, clinical trials, euthanasia, ethics education, clinical ethics, and health policy. In contrast, medical ethics research in China is still confined to five subject fields: morals, physician-patient relations, medical ethics education, ethical review, and medical research. Medical ethics research outside China emphasizes the application of medical ethics to solve emerging problems in clinical and medical research. It is mainly centered on morals, ethical review, and physician-patient relations. By comparison, medical ethics research in China places greater emphasis on morals and medical education. In order to narrow this gap between China and other countries, we should broaden the research scope of medical ethics and add more applied research, such as ethical review and medical education. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University.

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2016-04-20

    Apr 20, 2016 ... were reviewed using an agreed data collection pro forma considering 3 main outcomes; i) quantity of complete entries, ii) percentage completeness of individual sections, iii) documentation ... impossible to evaluate the reliability of this data and the utility of these books as a tool for research. A clinical audit ...

  4. Cultural-psychological and clinical perspectives of research on phenomena of subjective uncertainty and ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolova, Elena T.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes certain socio-cultural and personal predispositions, which determine the modern diversity of subjective uncertainty and ambiguity manifestations. It stresses that for the creation of ‘realistic’ clinical psychology (in terms of A.R. Luria one needs to retrace the relations between the resourceful and the psychopathological aspects of the ambiguity phenomenon and the cultural environment with its destructive ideals and mythologems, manipulative media-technologies and all-pervading idea of ‘deconstruction’. Methods for modeling the experiences of ambiguity in experimental settings, in pathopsychological examination and in projective psychological diagnostics are put in comparison. The arguments are adduced for the interpretation of deficient manifestations of subjective uncertainty as a criterion for diagnostics of the severity of personality disorder.

  5. RESEARCHES ON THE ACTIVITY OF SOME ENZYMES WITH DIAGNOSIS VALUE IN SUBJECTS SUFFERING FROM HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Mirela Amariei

    2012-06-01

    deviations from the physiologically normal values were noticed, all the other investigated subjects show values higher than the superior limit of the reference interval while, statistically, the values of the seric enzymes are highly significant (p<0.001, with the exception of those of aspartat-aminotransferase (in the 71-86 years group and of Ȗ-glutamyl- transferase (the 41-50 year group, which are insignificant.

  6. A Preliminary Examination to Identify the Presence of Quality Indicators in Single-Subject Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankersley, Melody; Cook, Bryan G.; Cook, Lysandra

    2008-01-01

    Scholars in the field of special education put forth a series of papers that proposed quality indicators for specific research designs that must be present for a study to be considered of high quality, as well as standards for evaluating a body of research to determine whether a practice is evidence-based. The purpose of this article was to pilot…

  7. Bias in Amputation Research; Impact of Subjects Missed from a Prospective Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortington, Lauren V.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Bosmans, Joline C.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.

    2012-01-01

    For research findings to be generalized, a sample must be representative of the actual population of interest. Lower limb amputation is most frequently performed in older patients with vascular disease, a population that is often underrepresented in research. The aim of this study was to explore the

  8. Certificates of Confidentiality: Protecting Human Subject Research Data in Law and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Leslie E; Patel, Mayank J; Williams Tarver, Brett A; Austin, Jeffrey L; Dame, Lauren A; Beskow, Laura M

    2015-01-01

    The federal Certificate of Confidentiality plays an important role in research on sensitive topics by authorizing researchers to refuse to disclose identifiable research data in response to subpoenas in any legal setting. However, there is little known about how effective Certificates are in practice. This article draws on our legal and empirical research on this topic to fill this information gap. It includes a description of the purpose of Certificates, their legislative and regulatory history, and a summary of the few reported and unreported cases that have dealt with Certificates. In addition, we outline other statutory confidentiality protections, compare them to the Certificate's protections, and analyze some of the vulnerabilities of a Certificate's protections. This analysis allows us to make specific recommendations for strengthening the protections afforded to research data. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  9. Conceptual Terminological Structure of Pedagogy as the Subject of Historical Pedagogic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Koshkina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the formation and development of pedagogic terminology. The author theoretically substantiates the potential of the historical pedagogic research concerning the conceptual and terminological structure of the Russian pedagogy. The research is based on the following ideas: correlation between the scientific terminology formation and scientific knowledge genesis; philosophic concept as a form and result of reality reflection; linguistic concept of the term as a functional unit of a scientific language; specifics of pedagogic knowledge reflection in conceptual form. The main research findings include identifying methodological requirements for analyzing the conceptual scientific formation in historical context; substantiating the resource basis; revealing the investigation principles; describing the tools and their implementation peculiarities with regard to the specifics of pedagogical concepts and terms. The acquired results can be used while exploring the pedagogic history problems, pedagogic methodology and terminology. In conclusion, the actual research trends of pedagogic terminology formation are reviewed from the historical pedagogic perspective. 

  10. Conceptual Terminological Structure of Pedagogy as the Subject of Historical Pedagogic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Koshkina

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the formation and development of pedagogic terminology. The author theoretically substantiates the potential of the historical pedagogic research concerning the conceptual and terminological structure of the Russian pedagogy. The research is based on the following ideas: correlation between the scientific terminology formation and scientific knowledge genesis; philosophic concept as a form and result of reality reflection; linguistic concept of the term as a functional unit of a scientific language; specifics of pedagogic knowledge reflection in conceptual form. The main research findings include identifying methodological requirements for analyzing the conceptual scientific formation in historical context; substantiating the resource basis; revealing the investigation principles; describing the tools and their implementation peculiarities with regard to the specifics of pedagogical concepts and terms. The acquired results can be used while exploring the pedagogic history problems, pedagogic methodology and terminology. In conclusion, the actual research trends of pedagogic terminology formation are reviewed from the historical pedagogic perspective. 

  11. What are Agricultural Economics Ph.D. Students Learning about Agribusiness Research Methods and Subject Areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lisa House; James Sterns

    2003-01-01

    .... This ambiguity not only limits any assessment of agribusiness Ph.D.-level training, but also undermines the academic endeavors of those interested in pursuing agribusiness-focused research and graduate instruction...

  12. 42 CFR 2.21 - Relationship to Federal statutes protecting research subjects against compulsory disclosure of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.21 Relationship to Federal statutes protecting... of the research. (b) Effect of concurrent coverage. These regulations restrict the disclosure and use...

  13. 38 CFR 1.468 - Relationship to Federal statutes protecting research subjects against compulsory disclosure of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Abuse, Infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (hiv), Or Sickle Cell Anemia § 1.468 Relationship... on the Attorney General, respectively, the power to authorize researchers conducting certain types of...

  14. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  15. Mining activities abroad, a subject of teaching and research; Auslandsbergbau in Lehre und Forschung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drebenstedt, C. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau

    2008-04-15

    As globalisation extends in all fields of life, university teaching must cope by integrating internationalisation in its teaching subjects. In the case of raw materials resources and mining, the case is quite clear: Industrialized countries like Germany are big consumers of raw materials, most of which must be imported. Mining companies, including German mining companies, have extended their activities world-wide, and German producers of mining machinery and sytems, consultants and mining specialists are exporting technology and know-how into raw materials producing countries. Universities must take account of these trends if they are to train students for tomorrow's international market. The TU Bergakademie Freiberg is presented as an example. (orig.)

  16. The One or the Many: Quantified Subjectivity and Aggregated Uniqueness in Qualitative Rehabilitation Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juritzen, Truls I; Soberg, Helene L; Røe, Cecilie; Saebu, Martin; Engen, Grace; Bliksvaer, Trond; Engebretsen, Eivind

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to identify and critically assess qualitative intervention studies of rehabilitation processes that target young adults. By applying a meta-epistemological approach inspired by the works of Michel Foucault and Julia Kristeva, we examine how the included studies present qualitative knowledge and whether they adhere to their own stated principles of qualitative knowledge. Through their stated aims and theoretical framing, the articles draw attention to individual processes of meaning making. Nonetheless, we find that the articles to a great extent emphasize frequencies of the qualitative data they present. Individual processes and experiences are subject to subdivisions and categorization and transformed into manageable objects of knowledge. In conclusion, these studies, with one important exception, contribute to self-marginalization of the knowledge they themselves promote: They undermine the uniqueness of the qualitative knowledge they proclaim by focusing on frequency and the general patterns and categories encompassing the unique. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. HEURISTIC POSSIBILITIES OF IN RESEARCH CO-OPERATIONS OF ECONOMIC SUBJECTS INSITUCIONALISM

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    О. Belokrulova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The possibilities of institutionalism are explored as an interdisciplinary methodology, synthesizing the modern achievements of philosophy and political science, economic theory, institutional economics and sociology, which describes the interactions between economic subjects more accurately, including the goverment and business on the market of public procurement. There are received solutions for problem situations in the system of the russian public procument on the way of institutionalization of centralized model on the micro level (for example, the Southern Federal University, as well as on the macrolevel in the frame of formation of Federal Contract System, aimed to integrate all stages of goverment contracting – planning, placing the order, controlling and enforcement of state contract.

  18. Subjective perceptions of ESP (English for Specific Purposes university teachers’ professional beginnings: Quantitative research into pedagogical content knowledge

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    Jašková Jana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present methodology and results of a quantitative phase within a research into English for Specific Purposes university teachers and their subjectively perceived changes in pedagogical content knowledge from a retrospective view of their professional beginnings. The introduction describes the investigated issues and explains key concepts. The first chapter refers to the theoretical background of teacher professional development. Since the quantitative research phase is a part of a mixed research design, the second chapter deals with the whole research including the research objective and questions. The third chapter is devoted to the quantitative research phase during which an anonymous electronic questionnaire was sent to the whole population of Czech university teachers of English for Specific Purposes and processed statistically as well as descriptively. The fourth chapter presents the obtained quantitative data discussed within the individual components of pedagogical content knowledge - conceptions of purposes for teaching subject matter, curricular knowledge, knowledge of instructional strategies, and knowledge of students’ understanding. The conclusion summarises all the information and proposes some recommendations for pedagogical practice.

  19. Carbon monoxide exposure of subjects with documented cardiac arrhythmias. Research report, August 1987-July 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaitman, B.R.; Dahms, T.E.; Byers, S.; Carroll, L.W.; Younis, L.T.

    1992-09-01

    The authors studied 30 subjects with well-documented coronary artery disease who had an average of at least 30 ventricular ectopic beats per hour over a 20-hour monitoring interval. Subjects were selected and enrolled in a randomized double-blind study; the carbon monoxide exposure was designed to result in 3% or 5% carboxyhemoglobin levels, as measured by gas chromatography. Total and repetitive ventricular arrhythmias were measured for four specific time intervals: (1) two hours before carbon monoxide exposure; (2) during the two-hour carbon monoxide exposure; (3) six hours after carbon monoxide exposure; and (4) approximately 10 hours after exposure, or the remaining recording interval on the Holter monitor. There was no increase in ventricular arrhythmia frequency after carbon monoxide exposure, regardless of the level of carboxyhemoglobin or the type of activity. During steady-state conditions at rest, the number of ventricular ectopic beats per hour was 115 + or - 153 (SD) for room air exposure (0.7% carboxyhemoglobin), 121 + or - 171 for the lower carbon monoxide exposure (3.2% carboxyhemoglobin), and 94 + or - 129 for the higher carbon monoxide exposure (5.1% carboxyhemoglobin). The frequency of complex ventricular ectopy was not altered at the levels of carbon monoxide studied. Secondary analysis of the impact of carbon monoxide on ventricular ectopic beat frequency stratified by baseline ejection fraction, baseline ventricular ectopic beat frequency, and exercise-induced ST-segment changes did not indicate an effect of carbon monoxide on ventricular arrhythmias. However, patients with symptomatic ventricular arrhythmias and symptomatic myocardial ischemia were excluded from the present study.

  20. Bias in amputation research; impact of subjects missed from a prospective study.

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    Lauren V Fortington

    Full Text Available For research findings to be generalized, a sample must be representative of the actual population of interest. Lower limb amputation is most frequently performed in older patients with vascular disease, a population that is often under-represented in research. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of selection bias by comparing characteristics from a sample included in a prospective study of phantom pain with the actual population who underwent amputation. Only 27% of all potential patients were referred during the first year of the prospective study. The referred patients were 8 years younger (p<0.001 and less likely to have had amputation because of a vascular condition, diabetes or infection (p=0.003 than those not referred. There was also a significant difference in one year survival between the groups; 67% of referred patients survived compared with just 40% of non-referred patients (p=0.004. The biased population in the phantom pain study may have resulted in an underestimation of phantom pain in the original study and subsequent protective factors should be considered within the context of the younger population reported. Selection bias is common in amputation research, and research methods to minimize its impact must be given greater attention.

  1. A Meta-Analysis of Single Subject Design Writing Intervention Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Leslie Ann; Graham, Steve

    2008-01-01

    There is considerable concern that students do not develop the writing skills needed for school, occupational, or personal success. A frequent explanation for this is that schools do not do a good job of teaching this complex skill. A recent meta-analysis of true- and quasi-experimental writing intervention research (S. Graham & D. Perin,…

  2. Art Interpretation as Subject Constitution: Research on the Role of Critical Art History in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traf, Laura

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the foundations, development and some of the findings from a research project about how the use of the gaze, as a key idea from critical art history, might affect the understanding of art by art educators. It shows how the use of this key idea involved not just the disruption of a modernist model of art interpretation (based…

  3. From the Form to the Face to Face: IRBs, Ethnographic Researchers, and Human Subjects Translate Consent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metro, Rosalie

    2014-01-01

    Based on my fieldwork with Burmese teachers in Thailand, I describe the drawbacks of using IRB-mandated written consent procedures in my cross-cultural collaborative ethnographic research on education. Drawing on theories of intersubjectivity (Mikhail Bakhtin), ethics (Emmanuel Levinas), and translation (Naoki Sakai), I describe face-to-face…

  4. Project Management Practices as a Subject of Research for CSCW: Status and Future Opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus; Leimbach, Timo

    2017-01-01

    The ‘project’ is a prevalent form for organising endeavours of construction, innovation, IT development and organisational change. ‘Projects’ involve coordination and cooperation between colocated and distributed actors, and are relevant for CSCW (computer supported cooperative work) research as ...

  5. Issues to consider for preparing ferrets as research subjects in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Roberta Scipioni

    2006-01-01

    The domestic or European ferret (Mustela putorius furo) has been domesticated for thousands of years. Ferrets have been used for hunting and fur production, as pets, and as models in biomedical research. Despite the relatively small numbers used in the laboratory, ferrets have some unique applications including study of human influenza and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-associated corona virus. They have served as models for peptic ulcer disease, carotenoid metabolism, cystic fibrosis, and drug emesis screening, among others. Most research ferrets are males, due to estrus-related health problems in females. They may be housed conventionally and are easy to care for when their biology and behavior are understood. Due to the small number of ferret suppliers, animals are often shipped long distances, requiring air transport and intermediate handlers. It is important to minimize shipment stress, especially with weanling and pregnant animals. Additional expertise is required for success with pregnant and whelping ferrets and for rearing of neonates. The animals have specific dietary requirements, and proper nutrition is key. Successful housing requires knowledge of ferret behaviors including social behavior, eating habits, a general inquisitive nature, and a species-typical need to burrow and hide. Regular handling is necessary to maintain well-being. A ferret health care program consists of physical examination, immunization, clinical pathology, and a working knowledge of common ferret diseases. Various research methodologies have been described, from basic procedures such as blood collection to major invasive survival surgery. Ferrets have a distinct niche in biomedical research and are hardy animals that thrive well in the laboratory.

  6. Subject and discipline-specific publication trends in South African medical research, 1996�2011

    OpenAIRE

    Tahir S. Pillay

    2013-01-01

    Medical and health sciences institutions and organisations are faced with challenges in resource allocation for research and publishing. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyse South African publication trends in medicine to provide guidance for future strategic planning in academic medicine. We used the Scimago database spanning the years 1996–2011 to analyse South African publication outputs in a number of categories in medicine, as defined in the Scopus database. The data reve...

  7. Subject and discipline-specific publication trends in South African medical research, 1996�2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir S. Pillay

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Medical and health sciences institutions and organisations are faced with challenges in resource allocation for research and publishing. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyse South African publication trends in medicine to provide guidance for future strategic planning in academic medicine. We used the Scimago database spanning the years 1996–2011 to analyse South African publication outputs in a number of categories in medicine, as defined in the Scopus database. The data reveal a number of significant growth areas but also reveal areas that should potentially be growing but remain static. In some areas, growth has aligned with the expectations of health and disease trends, but other areas, in which growth would have been expected, have remained static. Interesting features are also revealed when the data are compared with those of other developed and developing countries. For 1996–2011, South African medical publication output ranked 33 in the world based on the number of publications, but 28 based on the h-index. Interestingly, whilst South Africa produced less than 25% of the output of India, the h-index for South Africa is 153 compared with 145 for India. South Africa’s medical publication output has steadily increased over the 14-year period but the number of citations per document has declined. This analysis provides a useful strategic overview for medical institutions and government funding organisations to guide the allocation of research budgets and resources in a discipline- or category-specific manner to influence research outputs.

  8. Research and Development on Automatic Information Organization and Subject Analysis in Recent Decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen-Hsien Tseng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Information organization and subject analysis (IOSA is an important issue in the field of library and information science(LIS.As the fast advance in information technology, more and more digital documents are emerging in a pace such that automated IOSA become inevitable. This article firstly introduces the development of related automatic techniques in recent decades and promotes a tranditional viewpoint based on the workflow of:(1 data collection and aggregation, (2 cataloguing, (3 regulation, (4 archving, and (5 usage,to regulate the whole process when applying automated techniques to any IOSA task.Some application examples are then described to let the readers have a feel of the feasibility of these techniques; specifically the applications of keyword extraction, association analysis, document clustering, and topic categorization are mentioned.We conclude that the related techniques and applications are still developing in a quick pace such that only a few percentages of them can be mentioned.This article is intended to promote the mutual cooperation among the LIS and other fields.

  9. Experimental Research on the Dynamic Response of Floating Structures with Coatings Subjected to Underwater Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental investigation into the dynamic response of three free floating stiffened metal boxes with protective coatings subjected to underwater explosion (UNDEX. One box was kept intact while the other two were, respectively, covered with monolithic coatings and chiral honeycomb coatings. Three groups of live fire tests with different attack angles and stand-off distances were conducted. The acceleration on the stiffener and strain peak on the bottom hull were selected as the major comparative criterions. Test results show that the impulse transmitted to the structure at the initial stage can be reduced, owing to the coating flexibility and fluid-structure interaction mechanism. Consequently, the acceleration peaks induced by both shock wave and bubble pulse were reduced. The shock environment can be more effectively improved by honeycomb coating when compared with monolithic coating. Most of the strain peaks decreased to a certain extent, but some of them were notably manifested, especially for honeycomb coating. The test affirms the fact that soft coating can cause stress concentration on the shell that is in direct contact with the coating due to the impedance mismatch between the interfaces of materials. A softer rubber coating induces a greater magnitude of strain.

  10. THE PROFILE OF THE ACCOUNTING RESEARCH ABOUT IFRS: A BIBLIOMETRIC REVIEW OF INTERNATIONAL ARTICLES ON THE SUBJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Iovine Martins

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to identify what is currently being researched in the area of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS around the world; who is carrying on such researches; which researches has caused stronger impact; which journals shows more articles about this issue and the ones that cause more impacts; the time frames and places this subject is more often produced. The applied methodology was based on the metrics precepts, using as data base platform the Web of Science (WoS of Citation Indexes from the Institute for Scientific Information – ISI – Citation Indexes. It was found 150 articles for the research lookout of “International Financial Reporting Standards” and 147 for “IFRS” found in the four main categories of WoS related to that subject. According to the two used terms for research, the result was quite conflicting. It was observed that the more productive writers are not necessarily the most influential ones, which also occurred in regard to periodic publications. The large majority of the production occurred from 2006 on, and the countries that stood out more, in quantity terms, were the United States of America, Germany, Australia and England.

  11. Current outlook of ethics in research with human subjects Panorama atual da ética em pesquisa em seres humanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marystella Tomoe Takahashi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, medical care has been increasingly permeated by the concept of evidence-based-medicine, in which clinical research plays a crucial role in establishing diagnostic and treatment. Following the improvements in clinical research, we have a growing concern and understanding that some ethical issues must be respected when the subjects are human beings. Research with human subjects relies on the principles of autonomy, beneficence, no maleficence and justice. Ordinance 196/96 from the National Health Board adds to the Brazilian legislation such renowned bioethical principles. AIM: Discuss the main ethical aspects involved in research with human subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Critical analysis of Ordinance 196/96 and related literature. CONCLUSION: Ordinance 196/96 rules research with human subjects; nevertheless, it requires more in-depth discussions regarding the informed consent, use of placebo, research with vulnerable populations and research in developing countries.Nas últimas décadas, a medicina tem sido cada vez mais permeada pelo conceito de medicina baseada em evidências, na qual a pesquisa clínica possui papel crucial no estabelecimento de diretrizes diagnósticas e terapêuticas. Com o avanço da pesquisa clínica, surgiu a preocupação e o entendimento que certos padrões éticos devam ser obedecidos quando o objeto de estudo é o ser humano. A pesquisa em seres humanos baseia-se nos princípios da autonomia, beneficência, não maleficência e justiça. A Resolução 196/96 do Conselho Nacional de Saúde incorpora à legislação brasileira tais princípios bioéticos consagrados. OBJETIVO: Discutir os principais aspectos éticos envolvidos na pesquisa em seres humanos. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Análise crítica da Resolução 196/96 do CNS e literatura correlata. CONCLUSÃO: A Resolução 196/96 do Conselho Nacional de Saúde regulamenta a experimentação em seres humanos, no entanto necessita de discussões mais

  12. Correlation Between Insight and Capacity to Consent to Research in Subjects With Bipolar Disorder Type I and Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Jaramillo, Carlos; Tobler, Chantal Aristizábal; Gómez, Constanza Ovalle; Triana, Jaime Escobar

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder type I (BD-I) can affect patient autonomy and capacity to consent to participate in research. Other variables associated with the autonomy of patients must be explored in order to improve the quality of the currently available tools. To evaluate the relationship between insight and the capacity to consent to participate in research in patients with BD-I and schizophrenia. A cross-sectional and longitudinal study was conducted with 120 subjects (40 subjects with schizophrenia, 40 with BD-I, and 40 healthy controls). The tools used were the Scale Assessment Insight-Expanded (SAI-E) and the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Treatment (MacCAT-CR), which was first adapted culturally, and its validity and reliability assessed. The results obtained on each scale were compared and the association between them were evaluated. There is a direct correlation between the capacity to consent to research, measured using the MacCAT-CR tool, and the degree of insight, measured using the SAI-E scale, with an effect size of 1.3 for BD-I and 2.03 for schizophrenia. The results suggest that there is a correlation between the degree of insight and the capacity to consent to research in subjects with schizophrenia and BD-I. Insight should therefore be included as a relevant variable to assess the capacity to consent, and future studies should include it when researching on or designing new tools which aim at a greater respect of patient autonomy. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. NINE KEY FUNCTIONS FOR A HUMAN SUBJECTS PROTECTION PROGRAM FOR COMMUNITY-ENGAGED RESEARCH: POINTS TO CONSIDER1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lainie Friedman; Loup, Allan; Nelson, Robert M.; Botkin, Jeffrey R.; Kost, Rhonda; Smith, George R.; Gehlert, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    The Ethical Conduct of Community-engaged research (CEnR), of which the Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) model is the partnership model most widely discussed in the CEnR literature and is the primary model we draw upon in this discussion, requires an integrated and comprehensive human subjects protection (HSP) program that addresses the additional concerns salient to CEnR where members of a community are both research partners and participants. As delineated in the federal regulations, the backbone of a HSP program is the fulfillment of nine functions: (1) minimize risks; (2) reasonable benefit-risk ratio; (3) fair subject selection; (4) adequate monitoring; (5) informed consent; (6) privacy and confidentiality; (7) conflicts of interest; (8) address vulnerabilities; and (9) HSP training. The federal regulations, however, do not consider the risks and harms that may occur to groups, and these risks have not traditionally been included in the benefit: risk analysis nor have they been incorporated into an HSP framework. We explore additional HSP issues raised by CEnR within these nine ethical functions. Various entities exist that can provide HSP—the investigator, the Institutional Review Board, the Conflict of Interest Committee, the Research Ethics Consultation program, the Research Subject Advocacy program, the Data and Safety Monitoring Plan, and the Community Advisory Board. Protection is best achieved if these entities are coordinated to ensure that no gaps exist, to minimize unnecessary redundancy, and to provide checks and balances between the different entities of HSP and the nine functions that they must realize. The document is structured to provide a “points-to-consider” roadmap for HSP entities to help them adequately address the nine key functions necessary to provide adequate protection of individuals and communities in CEnR. PMID:20235862

  14. "Qualitative" Methods of Social Research in France: Reconstructing the Actor, Deconstructing the Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Angermüller

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This contribution gives an overview of the numerous tendencies of open non-standardised social research in France. For various reasons, the label "qualitative" seems to be less distinctive than in the Anglo-Saxon world and Germany. While the interpretive-hermeneutic (verstehend ap­proa­ches have recently come to play a certain role as a result of international reception, a strong tradition that does not fit into the quantitative-qual­itative divide has to be noted: discourse analysis which I will label "quasi-qualitative". A comparison between the interpretive-hermeneutic tendencies of qual­itative sociology and the semiologically informed strands of discourse analysis reveals fundamental differences as well as points of convergence. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503194

  15. Impact of Open Data Policies on Consent to Participate in Human Subjects Research: Discrepancies between Participant Action and Reported Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jorden A; Zagrodney, Jessica M; Day, T Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Research outlets are increasingly adopting open data policies as a requisite for publication, including studies with human subjects data. We investigated whether open data policies influence participants' rate of consent by randomly assigning participants to view consent forms with and without discussion of open data policies. No participants declined to participate, regardless of condition, nor did rates of drop-out vs. completion vary between conditions. Furthermore, no significant change in potential consent rates was reported when participants were openly asked about the influence of open data policies on their likelihood of consent. However, follow-up analyses indicated possible poor attention to consent forms, consistent with previous research. Moreover, thematic analysis of participants' considerations of open data policy indicated multiple considerations such as concerns regarding confidentiality, anonymity, data security, and study sensitivity. The impact of open data policies on participation raises complex issues at the intersection of ethics and scientific innovation. We conclude by encouraging researchers to consider participants as stakeholders in open data policy and by providing recommendations for open data policies in human subjects research.

  16. Research on carbon fiber–reinforced plastic bumper beam subjected to low-velocity frontal impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yefa Hu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight and safety performance of automobiles are two important factors for automobile designs. In this article, a research on lightweight and crashworthiness of automotive bumper has been conducted. The carbon fiber–reinforced plastic bumper beam is considered to replace the traditional high-strength steel one. The low-velocity impact finite element simulations for the above two bumper beams are performed via LS-DYNA. Furthermore, the energy absorption capabilities and dynamic response characteristics of the carbon fiber–reinforced plastic bumper beam are investigated and compared with the steel one. The results show that the carbon fiber–reinforced plastic bumper beam is of the better energy absorption capabilities and dynamic response characteristics than those of the steel one; the weight has decreased remarkably close to 50%. Meanwhile, the effect of lay-up and wall thickness on the crashworthiness of the carbon fiber–reinforced plastic bumper beam under low-velocity impact is also studied in this article to select appropriate design schemes.

  17. Geospatial cryptography: enabling researchers to access private, spatially referenced, human subjects data for cancer control and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquez, Geoffrey M; Essex, Aleksander; Curtis, Andrew; Kohler, Betsy; Sherman, Recinda; Emam, Khaled El; Shi, Chen; Kaufmann, Andy; Beale, Linda; Cusick, Thomas; Goldberg, Daniel; Goovaerts, Pierre

    2017-07-01

    As the volume, accuracy and precision of digital geographic information have increased, concerns regarding individual privacy and confidentiality have come to the forefront. Not only do these challenge a basic tenet underlying the advancement of science by posing substantial obstacles to the sharing of data to validate research results, but they are obstacles to conducting certain research projects in the first place. Geospatial cryptography involves the specification, design, implementation and application of cryptographic techniques to address privacy, confidentiality and security concerns for geographically referenced data. This article defines geospatial cryptography and demonstrates its application in cancer control and surveillance. Four use cases are considered: (1) national-level de-duplication among state or province-based cancer registries; (2) sharing of confidential data across cancer registries to support case aggregation across administrative geographies; (3) secure data linkage; and (4) cancer cluster investigation and surveillance. A secure multi-party system for geospatial cryptography is developed. Solutions under geospatial cryptography are presented and computation time is calculated. As services provided by cancer registries to the research community, de-duplication, case aggregation across administrative geographies and secure data linkage are often time-consuming and in some instances precluded by confidentiality and security concerns. Geospatial cryptography provides secure solutions that hold significant promise for addressing these concerns and for accelerating the pace of research with human subjects data residing in our nation's cancer registries. Pursuit of the research directions posed herein conceivably would lead to a geospatially encrypted geographic information system (GEGIS) designed specifically to promote the sharing and spatial analysis of confidential data. Geospatial cryptography holds substantial promise for accelerating the

  18. Protection of human subjects of biomedical research in the United States. A contrast with recent experience in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, R J

    1988-01-01

    In the U.S., the development of extensive regulations for the protection of human subjects of research began in the 1960s and continued through the 1970s. The substance of these regulations reflects the American social and political climate of the time. There is a focus on rights--e.g., to be left alone, to be self-determining--reflected in elaborate requirements to assure the validity and documentation of informed consent. There is also a focus on systems of disinterested review and monitoring procedures to assure uniform adherence to the requirements of the regulations. To the extent that the U.S. has developed extensive regulations in this field, it may be viewed as more advanced than the U.K. And yet, it is apparent that there remain on both sides of the Atlantic very difficult and similar problems regarding the definition of responsible research. Such problems are illustrated by consideration of current controversies about the ethical justification of RCTs. There are some features of the U.S. regulatory system that I can commend to the attention of other nations as they develop policies for the protection of human research subjects. For example, a uniform requirement for informed consent and committee review appears to be responsive to some problems currently encountered in the conduct of RCTs in the U.K. A note of caution is in order, however. Some features of our regulatory policy and practices are excessively inflexible, wasteful of human resources, and occasionally counterproductive.

  19. Naming the Ethological Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Etienne S

    2016-03-01

    Argument In recent decades, through the work of Jane Goodall and other ethologists, the practice of giving personal names to nonhuman animals who are the subjects of scientific research has become associated with claims about animal personhood and scientific objectivity. While critics argue that such naming practices predispose the researcher toward anthropomorphism, supporters suggest that it sensitizes the researcher to individual differences and social relations. Both critics and supporters agree that naming tends to be associated with the recognition of individual animal rights. The history of the naming of research animals since the late nineteenth century shows, however, that the practice has served a variety of purposes, most of which have raised few ethical or epistemological concerns. Names have been used to identify research animals who play dual roles as pets, workers, or patients, to enhance their market value, and to facilitate their identification in the field. The multifaceted history of naming suggests both that the use of personal names by Goodall and others is less of a radical break with previous practices than it might first appear to be and that the use of personal names to recognize the individuality, sentience, or rights of nonhuman animals faces inherent limits and contradictions.

  20. Guideline appraisal with AGREE II: Systematic review of the current evidence on how users handle the 2 overall assessments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke Hoffmann-Eßer

    Full Text Available The Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation (AGREE II instrument is the most commonly used guideline appraisal tool. It includes 23 appraisal criteria (items organized within 6 domains and 2 overall assessments (1. overall guideline quality; 2. recommendation for use. The aim of this systematic review was twofold. Firstly, to investigate how often AGREE II users conduct the 2 overall assessments. Secondly, to investigate the influence of the 6 domain scores on each of the 2 overall assessments.A systematic bibliographic search was conducted for publications reporting guideline appraisals with AGREE II. The impact of the 6 domain scores on the overall assessment of guideline quality was examined using a multiple linear regression model. Their impact on the recommendation for use (possible answers: "yes", "yes, with modifications", "no" was examined using a multinomial regression model.118 relevant publications including 1453 guidelines were identified. 77.1% of the publications reported results for at least one overall assessment, but only 32.2% reported results for both overall assessments. The results of the regression analyses showed a statistically significant influence of all domains on overall guideline quality, with Domain 3 (rigour of development having the strongest influence. For the recommendation for use, the results showed a significant influence of Domains 3 to 5 ("yes" vs. "no" and Domains 3 and 5 ("yes, with modifications" vs. "no".The 2 overall assessments of AGREE II are underreported by guideline assessors. Domains 3 and 5 have the strongest influence on the results of the 2 overall assessments, while the other domains have a varying influence. Within a normative approach, our findings could be used as guidance for weighting individual domains in AGREE II to make the overall assessments more objective. Alternatively, a stronger content analysis of the individual domains could clarify their importance in terms of

  1. Clinical guidelines in pediatric headache: evaluation of quality using the AGREE II instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Pasquale; Vanacore, Nicola; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Carotenuto, Marco; Del Giudice, Ennio; Mariani, Rosanna; Papetti, Laura; Pavone, Piero; Savasta, Salvatore; Striano, Pasquale; Toldo, Irene; Tozzi, Elisabetta; Verrotti, Alberto; Raucci, Umberto

    2014-09-01

    The Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) tool is a validated questionnaire used to assess the methodological quality of clinical guidelines (CGs). We used the AGREE II tool to assess the development process, the methodological quality, and the quality of reporting of available pediatric CGs for the management of headache in children. We also studied the variability in responses related to the characteristics of eleven Italian neuropediatric centers, showing similarities and differences in the main recommendations reported in CGs. A systematic literature search was conducted from January 2002 to June 2013 on Mediline, the Cochrane database, the National Guideline Clearinghouse website and the NHS evidence search tool, using the following terms: headache, cephalalgia, guidelines and children (MESH or text words). Six CGs providing information on the diagnosis and management of headache and specific recommendations for children were selected. Eleven neuropediatric centers assessed the overall quality and the appropriateness of all available CGs using of the AGREE II instrument. Six CGs meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were identified and assessed by 11 reviewers. Our study showed that the NICE CGs was "strongly recommended" while the French and Danish CGs were mainly "not recommended". The comparison between the overall quality score of the French CGs and the NICE CGs was statistically significant (6.54 ± 0.69 vs. 4.18 ± 1.08; p =0.001). The correlation analysis between quality domain score and guideline publication date showed a statistically significant association only for the "editorial independence" domain (r = 0.842 p = 0.035). The intra-class coefficients showed that the 11 reviewers had the highest agreement for the Lewis CGs (r = 0.857), and the lowest one for the NICE CGs (r = 0.656). Statistical analyses showed that professionals from outpatient services dedicated pediatric headache assigned a

  2. The Fiction of Respect Individual Autonomy as a Kind Of Clínical Research Human Subject Explotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Petersen Nascimento Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article promotes a discussion of western legal concept which sees individuals as subjects of rights, discussing the advisability of such a formulation in the context of clinical trials in humans, since the commonly borderline situation of vulnerability in which they are volunteers who submit to such procedures. For this purpose, it was used as a theoretical framework to work "Critical Introduction to Law" Michel Mialle, in which the author states in a forceful way that the construction of the legal institute of the "subject of law" and the imposition of unrestricted recognition of individual autonomy constitute a construction of the bourgeois state to facilitate the domination of vulnerable, so that this, although not legally obliged to practice certain behaviors, see forced by circumstances to act in line with the interests of that institution. It is argued, therefore, that autonomy to consent to participation in scientific trials must be assessed in each case, with special attention to circumstances which might vulnerabilizar voluntary research and mitigate their individual autonomy in the face of the experiments, under penalty to be subjecting the individual to harmful procedures to their lives and health for the benefit of capital society's interests.

  3. Subjective Cognitive Decline in Older Adults: An Overview of Self-Report Measures Used Across 19 International Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Laura A.; Smart, Colette M.; Crane, Paul K.; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Berman, Lorin M.; Boada, Mercè; Buckley, Rachel F.; Chételat, Gaël; Dubois, Bruno; Ellis, Kathryn A.; Gifford, Katherine A.; Jefferson, Angela L.; Jessen, Frank; Katz, Mindy J.; Lipton, Richard B.; Luck, Tobias; Maruff, Paul; Mielke, Michelle M.; Molinuevo, José Luis; Naeem, Farnia; Perrotin, Audrey; Petersen, Ronald C.; Rami, Lorena; Reisberg, Barry; Rentz, Dorene M.; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.; Risacher, Shannon L.; Rodriguez, Octavio; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Slavin, Melissa J.; Snitz, Beth E.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Tandetnik, Caroline; van der Flier, Wiesje M.; Wagner, Michael; Wolfsgruber, Steffen; Sikkes, Sietske A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Research increasingly suggests that subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in older adults, in the absence of objective cognitive dysfunction or depression, may be a harbinger of non-normative cognitive decline and eventual progression to dementia. Little is known, however, about the key features of self-report measures currently used to assess SCD. The Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I) Working Group is an international consortium established to develop a conceptual framework and research criteria for SCD (Jessen et al., 2014, Alzheimers Dement 10, 844–852). In the current study we systematically compared cognitive self-report items used by 19 SCD-I Working Group studies, representing 8 countries and 5 languages. We identified 34 self-report measures comprising 640 cognitive self-report items. There was little overlap among measures—approximately 75% of measures were used by only one study. Wide variation existed in response options and item content. Items pertaining to the memory domain predominated, accounting for about 60% of items surveyed, followed by executive function and attention, with 16% and 11% of the items, respectively. Items relating to memory for the names of people and the placement of common objects were represented on the greatest percentage of measures (56% each). Working group members reported that instrument selection decisions were often based on practical considerations beyond the study of SCD specifically, such as availability and brevity of measures. Results document the heterogeneity of approaches across studies to the emerging construct of SCD. We offer preliminary recommendations for instrument selection and future research directions including identifying items and measure formats associated with important clinical outcomes. PMID:26402085

  4. Original article Agentic and communal narcissism and subjective well-being: are narcissistic individuals unhappy? A research report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Żemojtel-Piotrowska

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The communal/agentic model of narcissism is well accepted in the current research literature (Gebauer, Sedikides, Verplanken & Maio, 2012. This model could be particularly useful in examining the relation between narcissism and hedonistic and eudaimonic subjective well-being (SWB; Deci & Ryan, 2008. Participants and procedure In an effort to examine the relationship between narcissism and SWB, correlational analyses of survey responses obtained from students (n = 138 were conducted. Agentic narcissism was measured using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI; Raskin & Terry, 1988 and communal narcissism by the Communal Narcissism Inventory (CNI; Gebauer et al., 2012. Subjective well-being measures included the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen & Griffin, 1985, Positive And Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; Watson, Clark & Tegellen, 1988, and the Social Well-being Scale (SWBS; Keyes, 1998. Self-esteem was included in the study in order to examine the potential mediating role of self-esteem in the relationship between narcissism and subjective well-being. Results Agentic narcissism was positively related to the affective component of SWB whereas communal narcissism was positively related to the cognitive component of SWB. Both forms of narcissism were positively related to social well-being. All relationships were mediated by the participant’s self-esteem level. Conclusions The results indicate that both agentic narcissism and communal narcissism are positively related to SWB. The results are discussed in the context of the agentic/communal model of narcissism (Gebauer et al., 2012 and hedonistic/eudaimonic well-being (Deci & Ryan, 2008.

  5. DNA Damage Response and Radiosensitivity of Immune Cells from Subjects Undergoing Confinement in the NASA Human Exploration Research Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Villanueva, Maria

    2017-01-01

    The Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) represents an analog for simulation of isolation, confinement and remote conditions of mission exploration scenarios. HERA aims at investigating team performance and cooperation, reaction to stress, signs of early depression, anxiety and anger and their impact on human health. HERA is a collaborative project involving experts in different fields. Not only psychological but also clinical biomarkers of stress, e.g. adrenaline has been measured. It is known that stress hormones induce DNA strand breaks thus, within this project, my tasks was to determine the level of DNA strand breaks as well as expression of genes involved in DNA damage response in immune cells obtained from HERA subjects. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the cells to ex vivo radiation was also assessed.

  6. Subjectivities in Research in Science Education presented at the National Symposium of Physics Education of the last five years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Choiti Yamazaki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a survey conducted in a public university in the country, which aimed to identify the presence elements ordinarily related to subjective phenomena, in the works published in National Symposium of Physics Education, an event that provides meeting between teachers, researchers and students from around the country. The elements to which we have referred are found in contemporary didactic and pedagogical proposals, because it is identified that purely cognitive or even cultural rights are not sufficient to understand the phenomena that happen in the classroom, or more broadly, in education as a whole. The analysis contemplated the publications of the past 3 symposia, and the results infer a small increase of citations of these elements. However, this growth must be questioned because the quotes are made in isolation, not being taken to support the analysis of the authors. In addition, this research also shows that the presence of these elements is very small compared with the total number of papers published in the events.

  7. Two Springfield, Mass. Facilities Agree to Improve Handling and Reporting of Hazardous Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two facilities located in Springfield, Mass. have agreed with the U.S. EPA to come into compliance with federal requirements designed to protect the public and first responders from exposure to hazardous chemicals.

  8. Report: Agreed-Upon Procedures on EPA’s Fiscal Year 2009 First Quarter Financial Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #09-2-0161, June 8, 2009. We compared the statements with EPA’s crosswalk, recomputed them for mathematical accuracy, and compared them with balances separately generated by us. Except for immaterial rounding differences, the amounts agreed.

  9. Subject description of non-fiction literature for adults: expert-theoretical basis for the realisation of the »Hidden Treasure« research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Pogorelec

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Library users searching through non-fiction library material by subject in online OPACs, expect to be able to search fiction by subject as well. The research project Skriti zaklad (Hidden Treasure was launched in 2002 and was aimed at improving the current subject description of non-juvenile literary works in Slovenian libraries. An overview of the current practice of fiction subject description in Slovenian libraries revealed that Universal Decimal Classification class numbers are usually assigned, while subject headings or abstracts are scarce. The article presents a model designed for subject description of fiction, with special emphasis on subject headings, for the Bežigrad High School Library and the Bežigrad Public Library (both in Ljubljana.

  10. A Quantitative Synthesis of Methodology in the Meta-Analysis of Single-Subject Research for Students with Disabilities: 1985-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggin, Daniel M.; O'Keeffe, Breda V.; Johnson, Austin H.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to examine the methods used to conduct meta-analyses of single-subject research involving students with and at-risk for disabilities. Specifically, the procedures used for preparing, aggregating, analyzing, and evaluating single-subject data across 68 primary syntheses were examined. In addition to these…

  11. Guideline appraisal with AGREE II: Systematic review of the current evidence on how users handle the 2 overall assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siering, Ulrich; Neugebauer, Edmund A. M.; Brockhaus, Anne Catharina; Lampert, Ulrike; Eikermann, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument is the most commonly used guideline appraisal tool. It includes 23 appraisal criteria (items) organized within 6 domains and 2 overall assessments (1. overall guideline quality; 2. recommendation for use). The aim of this systematic review was twofold. Firstly, to investigate how often AGREE II users conduct the 2 overall assessments. Secondly, to investigate the influence of the 6 domain scores on each of the 2 overall assessments. Materials and methods A systematic bibliographic search was conducted for publications reporting guideline appraisals with AGREE II. The impact of the 6 domain scores on the overall assessment of guideline quality was examined using a multiple linear regression model. Their impact on the recommendation for use (possible answers: “yes”, “yes, with modifications”, “no”) was examined using a multinomial regression model. Results 118 relevant publications including 1453 guidelines were identified. 77.1% of the publications reported results for at least one overall assessment, but only 32.2% reported results for both overall assessments. The results of the regression analyses showed a statistically significant influence of all domains on overall guideline quality, with Domain 3 (rigour of development) having the strongest influence. For the recommendation for use, the results showed a significant influence of Domains 3 to 5 (“yes” vs. “no”) and Domains 3 and 5 (“yes, with modifications” vs. “no”). Conclusions The 2 overall assessments of AGREE II are underreported by guideline assessors. Domains 3 and 5 have the strongest influence on the results of the 2 overall assessments, while the other domains have a varying influence. Within a normative approach, our findings could be used as guidance for weighting individual domains in AGREE II to make the overall assessments more objective. Alternatively, a stronger content analysis

  12. Pelvic joint fusion in patients with severe pelvic girdle pain - a prospective single-subject research design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibsgård, Thomas J; Røise, Olav; Stuge, Britt

    2014-03-15

    The fusion of the pelvic joints in patients with severe pelvic girdle pain (PGP) is a controversial and insufficiently studied procedure. The aims of this study were to evaluate physical function and pain after sacroiliac joint (SIJ) fusion. A single-subject research design study with repeated measurements was conducted; pre-operatively and at 3, 6 and 12 months post-operatively. The outcome measures considered were the Oswestry disability index (ODI), visual analogue scale (VAS), and SF-36. Eight patients with severe PGP received open-accessed unilateral anterior SIJ fusion and fusion of the pubic symphysis. Seven patients reported positive results from the surgery. At 1 year post-operation, significant (p < 0.001) reductions in ODI (54 to 37) and VAS (82 to 57) were reported. The physical functioning, bodily pain, and social functioning scores in the SF-36 were also improved. Positive and significant changes in disability and pain at 1 year after SIJ fusion were observed. Despite these positive results, open accessed anterior fusion of the SIJ was associated with adverse events and complications such as infection and nerve damage.

  13. Pelvic joint fusion in patients with severe pelvic girdle pain – a prospective single-subject research design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The fusion of the pelvic joints in patients with severe pelvic girdle pain (PGP) is a controversial and insufficiently studied procedure. The aims of this study were to evaluate physical function and pain after sacroiliac joint (SIJ) fusion. Methods A single-subject research design study with repeated measurements was conducted; pre-operatively and at 3, 6 and 12 months post-operatively. The outcome measures considered were the Oswestry disability index (ODI), visual analogue scale (VAS), and SF-36. Eight patients with severe PGP received open-accessed unilateral anterior SIJ fusion and fusion of the pubic symphysis. Results Seven patients reported positive results from the surgery. At 1 year post-operation, significant (p < 0.001) reductions in ODI (54 to 37) and VAS (82 to 57) were reported. The physical functioning, bodily pain, and social functioning scores in the SF-36 were also improved. Conclusion Positive and significant changes in disability and pain at 1 year after SIJ fusion were observed. Despite these positive results, open accessed anterior fusion of the SIJ was associated with adverse events and complications such as infection and nerve damage. PMID:24629145

  14. Recent Research and Applications of Numerical Simulation for Dynamic Response of Long-Span Bridges Subjected to Multiple Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many long-span bridges have been built throughout the world in recent years but they are often subject to multiple types of dynamic loads, especially those located in wind-prone regions and carrying both trains and road vehicles. To ensure the safety and functionality of these bridges, dynamic responses of long-span bridges are often required for bridge assessment. Given that there are several limitations for the assessment based on field measurement of dynamic responses, a promising approach is based on numerical simulation technologies. This paper provides a detailed review of key issues involved in dynamic response analysis of long-span multiload bridges based on numerical simulation technologies, including dynamic interactions between running trains and bridge, between running road vehicles and bridge, and between wind and bridge, and in the wind-vehicle-bridge coupled system. Then a comprehensive review is conducted for engineering applications of newly developed numerical simulation technologies to safety assessment of long-span bridges, such as assessment of fatigue damage and assessment under extreme events. Finally, the existing problems and promising research efforts for the numerical simulation technologies and their applications to assessment of long-span multiload bridges are explored.

  15. A research regarding the relationship among intensive care nurses' self-esteem, job satisfaction and subjective well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Huihui Liu; Xiaohong Zhang; Rui Chang; Weining Wang

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The paper aims to explore the status of intensive care unit (ICU) nurses' self-esteem, job satisfaction, and subjective well-being and to investigate the relationship among the three elements. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 224 nurses from five teaching hospitals in Tianjin, China, was conducted. Self-esteem scale, job satisfaction scale, and subjective well-being scale were used to explore the status of ICU nurses' self-esteem, job satisfaction, and subjective well-being....

  16. A research regarding the relationship among intensive care nurses' self-esteem, job satisfaction and subjective well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihui Liu

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: The study shows that the prevalence of subjective well-being and self-esteem with ICU nurses are at a low level, and job satisfaction is at the median level. Associations among self-esteem, job satisfaction, and subjective well-being in ICUs have been confirmed. Self-esteem and job satisfaction positively correlated with nurse subjective well-being. The higher the self-esteem and job satisfaction levels are, the stronger the subjective well-being is. The working pressure in ICUs cannot be alleviated temporarily; hence, to promote a high subjective well-being, managers and ICU nurses increase their self-esteem and job satisfaction through taking strategies that strengthen psychological construction.

  17. The Five Principles of Successful Meetings: First, Have Everyone Agree on the Ground Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmston, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents five principles for conducting effective, successful meetings, which include: address only one topic at a time, use only one process at a time, achieve interactive and balanced participation, use cognitive conflict productively, and have all understand and agree to meeting roles. (SM)

  18. EPA, Albuquerque Water Utility Agree to Penalties for Sewage Overflows and E. Coli Violations

    Science.gov (United States)

    DALLAS - (March 22, 2016) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority (ABCWUA) have agreed to a settlement for violations of the Clean Water Act. ABCUWA will pay a civil penalty of $33

  19. Agree-Disagree Activities for Stimulating Student Analysis of Science Related Issues and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Gerald

    This document discusses the need for agree-disagree, consensus science activities for teaching students skills in resolving differences and arriving at positions acceptable to all members of a group. Three activity sets are included, each containing ten exercises. The sets deal with human problems, life style problems, and problems of scientific…

  20. The influence of race and ethnicity on becoming a human subject: Factors associated with participation in research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary A. Garza, PhD

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: Results suggest that African Americans and Latinos have no automatic predisposition to decline participation in research studies. These results can inform culturally tailored interventions for ethical recruitment of minorities into research and clinical trials.

  1. Bibliometric Analysis of Anatolia Turizm Araştırmaları Dergisi: An Analysis of Research Subjects and Institutional Collabration through Social Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Karagöz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Research subjects and collaboration between universities are important knowledge fields about forms of knowledge networks structures in a scientific community and flow of knowledge traffic. The aims of this study revealed to tourism knowledge network structure and institutional collaboration and examined to the roles of research subjects and collaboration into tourism network structure based on published articles in Anatolia Turizm Araştırmaları Dergisi. The data was collected from refereed articles in Anatolia Turizm Araştırmaları Dergisi between years of 1997-2010. Social Network Analysis is used to define network structure and to examine links between structures. For that purpose, UCINET and Netdraw programs were utilized. At the end of this study, tourism knowledge structure generally has central structure rather than interdisciplinary structure. Management, marketing, economy, education, accounting-finance, health and transportation research subjects are to be linked with each other rather than other research subjects. In this research, institutional collaborations are determined in low degree. In addition important roles are determined of University of Dokuz Eylül, University of Gazi and University of Mersin at institutional collaboration and separation of knowledge to other universities.

  2. Research Project "Subject Developing Environment of Preschool Education" for Russian Preschool Bilinguals (By the Example of Textile Educational Materials)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latipova, Liliya A.; Krapotkina, Irene E.; Koudrjavtseva, Ekaterina L.

    2016-01-01

    The problem's relevance stated in the article is determined by the following: forming preschool bilinguals' subject developing environment is connected with their active education and development, as well as with flexible preparation for studying at school. The purpose of this article is to develop methodology of textile developing materials' use…

  3. The influence of the design matrix on treatment effect estimates in the quantitative analyses of single-subject experimental design research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeyaert, Mariola; Ugille, Maaike; Ferron, John M; Beretvas, S Natasha; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2014-09-01

    The quantitative methods for analyzing single-subject experimental data have expanded during the last decade, including the use of regression models to statistically analyze the data, but still a lot of questions remain. One question is how to specify predictors in a regression model to account for the specifics of the design and estimate the effect size of interest. These quantitative effect sizes are used in retrospective analyses and allow synthesis of single-subject experimental study results which is informative for evidence-based decision making, research and theory building, and policy discussions. We discuss different design matrices that can be used for the most common single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs), namely, the multiple-baseline designs, reversal designs, and alternating treatment designs, and provide empirical illustrations. The purpose of this article is to guide single-subject experimental data analysts interested in analyzing and meta-analyzing SSED data. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Mapping out the subject of Brazilian social psychology in the production of the national association of research and post-graduate studies in psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Adegas de Azambuja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper problematizes the Brazilian Social Psychology and its knowledge production on the registers of the Work Group (WG of symposiums of the National Association of Research and Post-Graduation in Psychology (ANPEPP, during 1988 to 2010. Using Michel Foucault's archeo-genealogical perspective and the contributions by Ian Hacking about the historical ontology of subjects, we analyzed technologies of power and knowledge in the disciplines of Social Psychology. We selected the WG abstracts in which circulate the utterances that make up the discursive field of Brazilian Social Psychology. Using the narrative of WGs we outlined a discursive formation of identities/technologies of the subject. The knowledges of Social Psychology in the history of the ANPEPP's WGs contribute to the constitution of categories and psychological classifications which objectivize subjects. We think Social Psychology, in its criticisms related to psychological and social concepts comprises practices and regimes of truth about the subject of Social Psychology.

  5. Evaluation of the quality of guidelines for myasthenia gravis with the AGREE II instrument.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenchang Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs are systematically developed statements to assist practitioners in making decisions about appropriate healthcare in specific clinical circumstances. The methodological quality of CPGs for myasthenia gravis (MG are unclear. OBJECTIVE: To critically evaluate the methodological quality of CPGs for MG using AGREE II instrument. METHOD: A systematical search strategy on PubMed, EMBASE, DynaMed, the National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC and the Chinese Biomedical Literature database (CBM was performed on September 20th 2013. All guidelines related to MG were evaluated with AGREE II. The software used for analysis was SPSS 17.0. RESULTS: A total of 15 CPGs for MG met the inclusion criteria (12 CPGs in English, 3 CPGs in Chinese. The overall agreement among reviews was moderate or high (ICC >0.70. The mean scores (mean ± SD for al six domains were presented as follows: scope and purpose (60.93% ± 16.62%, stakeholder involvement (40.93% ± 20.04%, rigor of development (37.22% ± 30.46%, clarity of presentation (64.26% ± 16.36%, applicability (28.19% ± 20.56% and editorial independence (27.78% ± 28.28%. Compared with non-evidence-based CPGs, evidence-based CPGs had statistically significant higher quality scores for all AGREE II domains (P0.05. The quality scores of CPGs developed by NGC/AAN were higher than the quality scores of CPGs developed by other organizations for all domains. The difference was statistically significant for all domains with the exception of clarity of presentation (P = 0.07. CONCLUSIONS: The qualities of CPGs on MG were generally acceptable with several flaws. The AGREE II instrument should be adopted by guideline developers, particularly in China.

  6. Blending genetics and sociocultural historical inquiry: ethics, culture, and human subjects protection in international cross cultural research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Deborah A; Caldwell, Dennis; Taylor, Andre D; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we examine the implementation and difficulties when conducting genetics research in a rural, traditional West African culture within the frame of the United States' grounded research ethics. Research challenges are highlighted by Western researchers following U.S. Institutional Review Board (IRB) guidelines and practices in a non-Western country. IRB concepts are culture bound in Western ideals that may not have synchronicity and compatibility with non-Western cultures. Differences in sociocultural norms, traditions, language, and geography were influencing factors that can affect application of IRB principles. Suggestions for change are offered, which will potentially aid researchers considering application of IRB requirements when conducting research in non-Westernized, non-industrialized countries.

  7. From objects to research subjects: contributions of childhood sociology to the development of an ethnography of indigenous peoples’ children education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Elisa Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An ethnographic research with children requires the precision of the thick description of facts observed, such as those involving other social groups. Researches with children, however, are recent, especially considering the use of the preposition with, which means recognizing them as social actors and including them as active participants in the research process, possibilities opened up by the Childhood Sociology. Adopting this perspective, one seeks to develop a differentiated position in the research area, the atypical adult one (CORSARO, 1990; 2002; 2005; FERREIRA, 2008, in order to deepen the cultures of children, as the meanings closest to their worldview are investigated. The theoretic-methodological concepts developed by the studies on Childhood Sociology, their relations to the studies on Anthropology, and the ethnographic research with indigenous people’s children constitute the basis of this paper, whose aim is to reflect on the entry in the area and the adult’s position in researches with children.

  8. Strengthening the educational value of undergraduate participation in research as part of a psychology department subject pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Anne; Franklin, Nancy

    2011-03-01

    Participating in research must be an educational experience for students in order to ethically justify its inclusion as a requirement in college courses. Introductory Psychology students (N = 280) completed a written class assignment describing their research participation as a means to enhance this educational mission. Approximately half of students spontaneously mentioned something positive about the significance of the research or what they learned, with the remainder providing neutral, mixed, or negative comments. Students could articulate clearly and knowledgeably about the research in which they had participated. Such an assignment is an effective means to foster an understanding of the science of psychology.

  9. Health-related quality of life and subjective well-being : A cross-cultural perspective <Research Article>

    OpenAIRE

    Greimel, Elfriede

    2015-01-01

    Perspectives regarding the concept of health have changed from a pathogenic to a salutogenic model. The salutogenic approach considers different dimensions of well-being as determinants of health within individuals and societies. The relationship among health, subjective well-being, and the environment is broadly conceptualized within a transactional model of stress and coping, which recognizes the potential influence of the external environment on individual well-being. The salutogenic model...

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF RESEARCH COMPETENCE OF STUDENTS OF HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS ON THE BASIS OF INTER-SUBJECT APPROACH TO TRAINING

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    Pavel E. Shenderey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern researches show that intersubject communications atinitial stages of their inclusion in cognitive activity of studentsplay a role of the situational starting, inducing incentive. The knowledge gained by students as a result of the previousexperience of assimilation of intersubject communicationsbecomes regulators of its informa-tive activity at any stage ofinclusion of intersubject communications in cognitive activityand developments of research competence.

  11. Subject oriented and problem based text materials as an object of a flexible foreign language reading in research projects

    OpenAIRE

    SEROVA TAMARA S.; PIPCHENKO ELENA L.

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces the academic research work of students within competence based approach, the models of academic problem based research projects taken up as means to develop flexible foreign language reading skills; reveals selection principles and corpus didactic design of text materials in a form of a macrotext, hypertext, and video course.

  12. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... (SD) age of the male subjects was 38.4(14.9) years and that of the females was 40.8(13.9) years (p> 0.05). The overall ... Published in partnership with the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET). (www.afenet.net) ... Trained research assistants administered questionnaires and obtained the ...

  13. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-01-15

    Jan 15, 2015 ... diagnosed cases with FNAB as either benign or malignant when correlated with histology were 95% and 100% respectively. Conclusion: FNAB is ... foot). This study was conducted in compliance with the guidelines of the Helsinki declaration on biomedical research in human subjects. Confidentiality of the ...

  14. Do People with Intellectual Disability Require Special Human Subjects Research Protections? The Interplay of History, Ethics, and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feudtner, Chris; Brosco, Jeffrey P.

    2011-01-01

    People with intellectual disability (ID) have a long history of discrimination and stigmatization, and a more recent history of pride and self-advocacy. The early history suggests that people with ID are a vulnerable population and deserve special research protections as do some other groups; the disability rights movement of the late 20th century…

  15. 數位學習領域主題分析之研究 Subject Analysis on the Field of E-Learning Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Fu Lee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available 近年來數位化資訊技術應用於教與學情況已成為趨勢,各國紛紛將數位學習的推動列為國家重要政策,對數位學習領域之研究發展極為重視。本研究採廣義數位學習定義之檢索策略,蒐集2000~2009年間合計2,125篇數位學習領域SSCI期刊文獻,以自動化內容探勘工具CATAR進行剖析,再分別以共現字及書目對進行研究主題分析,藉此歸納數位學習領域的研究主題架構。本研究歸納結果,除幫助研究人員檢視自己的領域專長、掌握數位學習各研究主題發展脈絡、做為學者專家選定研究主題之參考,更有助於瞭解國際間數位學習領域的研究發展現況。With the digital development and the global trend of information technology applying teaching and learning in recent years, every country around the world regards the promotion of e-learning as a very important policy of the country. They lay special emphasis on the development of the subject research in e-learning. The present study adopts the search strategy of generalized definition of e-learning and collects 2,125 SSCI periodical literature in total on e-learning field from the years of 2000 till 2009. They are analyzed with automatic context exploration tool CATAR to proceed to dissection. Then they are respectively analyzed with co-occurrence words and bibliographic coupling to proceed to the research subject analysis. Thus it can integrate the frames of research subjects of e-learning field. Not only can the results of the present study help the researchers to look into their own field specialty, to master the development situation of research subject dimensions and to make reference to the scholars and experts to determine their research subjects, but it can also help understand the research development status of international e-learning field.

  16. Influence of specific muscle training on pain, activity limitation and kinesiophobia in women with back pain post-partum--a 'single-subject research design'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Johanna; Nilsson-Wikmar, Lena

    2008-03-01

    Many women suffer from back pain and experience activity limitation post-partum. To our knowledge the physiological factors and physiotherapy related to back pain post-partum have received limited evaluation and the effectiveness of specific physiotherapeutic approaches to exercise should be tested. In addition, there has been limited research on kinesiophobia in women with back pain post-partum. The purpose of the current study was to test the influence of specific trunk muscle training on pain, activity limitation and kinesiophobia in 10 subjects with back pain post-partum. The treatment consisted of specific deep muscle training of the transversus abdominus and multifidus muscles. Pain was rated based on the visual analogue scale (VAS) and pain drawings. Activity limitation was recorded using the Disability Rating Index. Kinesiophobia was evaluated using the Swedish version of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia. An A-B-A single-subject research design was used and a number of measurements were obtained during each phase. The analysis consisted of a visual inspection and a two standard deviation band test (2-SD). The visual analysis showed a trend towards reduced pain and activity limitation for all 10 subjects. The 2-SD test showed mixed results among all subjects. In addition, all subjects reported kinesiophobia before and after treatment. Individual specific deep muscle training of the transversus abdominus and multifidus muscles reduced pain and activity limitation in women with back pain post-partum. Further research is needed to determine more precisely how kinesiophobia affects women with back pain post-partum.

  17. Outcomes of compulsorily admitted schizophrenia patients who agreed or disagreed to prolong their hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivoy, Amir; Fischel, Tsvi; Zahalka, Hazar; Shoval, Gal; Weizman, Abraham; Valevski, Avi

    2012-10-01

    Compulsory admission is practiced around the world with legislative variations. The legal status during compulsory hospitalization might be changed to consent or the patient might be discharged against medical advice (AMA), if he no longer poses a risk. In the present study, we investigated the outcome of compulsory admitted patients who left the hospital after commitment period despite request by the treating psychiatrist to remain in the hospital (AMA) vs those who agreed to prolong their hospitalization. Of 320 patients with schizophrenia admitted involuntarily, 157 (49%) were discharged without converting to consent, and 163 (51%) agreed to stay in the hospital. There was no difference in baseline clinical and demographic characteristics and outcome measures (rate of readmission, legal status of next admission, and length of stay in the next admission) between the 2 groups. Prolongation of length of stay in compulsorily psychiatrist-ordered schizophrenia patients did not affect their rate of rehospitalizations or the length of next admission compared with those who left the hospital immediately after the change in their legal status AMA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Decisions to Perform Emergency Caesarean Sections at a University Hospital; Do obstetricians agree?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowri Vaidyanathan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was undertaken to assess the degree of agreement amongst obstetricians regarding decisions to perform emergency Caesarean section (CS procedures at a university hospital. Methods: This retrospective clinical audit was carried out on 50 consecutive emergency CS procedures performed between November 2012 and March 2013 on women with singleton pregnancies at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital in Muscat, Oman. Data on each procedure were collected from electronic patient records and independently reviewed by six senior obstetricians to determine agreement with the decision. Results: Of the 50 women who underwent CS procedures, the mean age was 28.9 ± 5.1 years and 48% were primigravidae. A total of 65% of the CS procedures were category I. The most common indications for a CS was a non-reassuring fetal heart trace (40% and dystocia (32%. There was complete agreement on the decision to perform 62% of the CS procedures. Five and four obstetricians agreed on 80% and 95% of the procedures, respectively. The range of disagreement was 4–20%. Disagreement occurred primarily with category II and III procedures compared to category I. Additionally, disagreement occurred in cases where the fetal heart trace pattern was interpreted as an indication for a category II CS. Conclusion: The majority of obstetricians agreed on the decisions to perform 94% of the emergency CS procedures. Obstetric decision-making could be improved with the implementation of fetal scalp pH testing facilities, fetal heart trace interpretation training and cardiotocography review meetings.

  19. Research on Consciousness of Choosing Subjects and Future Course in Curriculum of High School Students: Comparing Students between Science Course and Normal Course

    OpenAIRE

    山﨑, 保寿

    2015-01-01

    Based on importance of the science and mathematics education, following six conclusions became clear by the research about the course awareness of the studentscomparingbetween science course and normalcoursein high schools.(1) About the reason that decided the entrance subject, there is significantly difference between the students who entered the science course and normal course. The students in science course are recommended to select the science course by the parents or teachers ofjunior h...

  20. Mapping out the subject of Brazilian social psychology in the production of the national association of research and post-graduate studies in psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Adegas de Azambuja; Carolina dos Reis; Neuza Maria de Fátima Guareschi; Simone Maria Hüning

    2013-01-01

    This paper problematizes the Brazilian Social Psychology and its knowledge production on the registers of the Work Group (WG) of symposiums of the National Association of Research and Post-Graduation in Psychology (ANPEPP), during 1988 to 2010. Using Michel Foucault's archeo-genealogical perspective and the contributions by Ian Hacking about the historical ontology of subjects, we analyzed technologies of power and knowledge in the disciplines of Social Psychology. We selected the WG abstract...

  1. The Effects of Objective and Subjective Socioeconomic Status on Subjective Well-Being among Rural-to-Urban Migrants in China: The Moderating Role of Subjective Social Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Silin; Hou, Jiawei; Sun, Ling; Dou, Donghui; Liu, Xia; Zhang, Hongchuan

    2017-01-01

    Although previous investigations have agreed that Chinese rural-to-urban migrants' socioeconomic status (SES) increases with their migration, the association between SES and subjective well-being is uncertain. To address this research gap, the present study proposed that the association between objective SES and subjective well-being is mediated by subjective SES. This model was tested with a sample of 432 Chinese rural-to-urban migrants. The results indicate a significant association between objective SES and subjective well-being and a partial mediating effect of subjective SES. Furthermore, subjective social mobility, which is one's expectation about the possibility to move upward in the social hierarchy, was found to moderate both the direct path from objective SES to subjective well-being and the indirect path from subjective SES to subjective well-being. These findings suggest that Chinese rural-to-urban migrants gained in subjective well-being not only because of direct financial achievement but also because of their perceptions and beliefs about their relative social status.

  2. ¿Quién es el sujeto en la investigación educativa? / Who is the Subject in Educational Research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Gurdián-Fernández

    2011-12-01

    also the teaching processes and, therefore, training of future researchers. Secondly, it states that schools and teachers play a central role in the construction of identities. Third, this paper emphasizes that those engaged in educational research are not released from this responsibility, so this is an invitation to reflect on the following: What are our responsibilities in the process of identity construction? Who is the subject of education? Who is the subject of educational research? How inclusive is our notion of both the educational and the empirical subjects?Through the analysis of questions on topics such us: the subject-object relationship; the subject in educational research; the contribution of subjectivity; the contribution of phenomenology; among others, this paper explains that: a the intellectual autobiography is a great potential instrument to understand the direction of a research process and b focusing on people, their history, social relationships and environment, as subjects and not just as objects of study, is an epistemological, political and ethical movement, which recognizes the subject’s action in and on the world. Finally, this paper states that qualitative researchers should not only understand who they are, they are ethically obliged to make it explicitly.

  3. Clinical research, comparison of the subjective visual function in patients with epiphora and patients with second-eye cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafil-Hussain, Namir; Khooshebah, Ramona

    2005-03-01

    To assess the subjective visual disability of patients with epiphora and to compare the results with that of patients waiting for second eye cataract surgery. A prospective, randomised, questionnaire-based study. Forty-six patients with epiphora listed for dacryocystorhinostomy and 50 patients having second eye cataract extraction were enrolled. A questionnaire focusing on functional visual disability in daily life and based on VF-14 was completed for each participant. Eighty-six percent of patients with epiphora and 41% of second-eye cataracts had difficulty reading small print (P vs. 42%) (P watching television (63.1% vs. 19%) (P vs. 10%) (P reading signs (39.1% vs. 4%) (P < 0.05), respectively. There is widespread recognition of the effect of cataract on visual function. This has resulted in substantial government funding to improve access to cataract surgery. In comparison, epiphora is rarely considered as a significant cause of visual disability. This study suggests that patients with epiphora suffer the same if not more of a visual handicap than patients awaiting second eye cataract surgery.

  4. Student Research in an Introductory Psychology Course: Outcomes of Two Experiential Learning Projects and Implications for Instruction of Human Subjects Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Christina A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes student learning and personal outcomes associated with learning research methods in introductory psychology, via one of two semester-long projects: one involving performing naturalistic observation of the behavior of community members, and the other involving performing a 60-minute interview of local veterans regarding…

  5. Email-Based Informed Consent: Innovative Method for Reaching Large Numbers of Subjects for Data Mining Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lesley R.; Mason, Sara S.; Babiak-Vazquez, Adriana; Ray, Stacie L.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Since the 2010 NASA authorization to make the Life Sciences Data Archive (LSDA) and Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) data archives more accessible by the research and operational communities, demand for data has greatly increased. Correspondingly, both the number and scope of requests have increased, from 142 requests fulfilled in 2011 to 224 in 2014, and with some datasets comprising up to 1 million data points. To meet the demand, the LSAH and LSDA Repositories project was launched, which allows active and retired astronauts to authorize full, partial, or no access to their data for research without individual, study-specific informed consent. A one-on-one personal informed consent briefing is required to fully communicate the implications of the several tiers of consent. Due to the need for personal contact to conduct Repositories consent meetings, the rate of consenting has not kept up with demand for individualized, possibly attributable data. As a result, other methods had to be implemented to allow the release of large datasets, such as release of only de-identified data. However the compilation of large, de-identified data sets places a significant resource burden on LSAH and LSDA and may result in diminished scientific usefulness of the dataset. As a result, LSAH and LSDA worked with the JSC Institutional Review Board Chair, Astronaut Office physicians, and NASA Office of General Counsel personnel to develop a "Remote Consenting" process for retrospective data mining studies. This is particularly useful since the majority of the astronaut cohort is retired from the agency and living outside the Houston area. Originally planned as a method to send informed consent briefing slides and consent forms only by mail, Remote Consenting has evolved into a means to accept crewmember decisions on individual studies via their method of choice: email or paper copy by mail. To date, 100 emails have been sent to request participation in eight HRP

  6. ON DECOMPOSITION OF PROBLEM OF CONSTRUCTING THE AGREED TIMETABLE IN PROJECT ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey S. Dobrynin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most productions scheduling problems in the planning of operations or worksdo not consider the factor of activity associated with the project activities ofindividual agents. Based on the elements of an open (agreed managementand to promote the theory of active systems, the article presents specification and decomposition of the new task scheduling, which is a fundamental difference from earlier in the literature (including the previously published works ofauthors [3,4,5] is the use of matching elements in target functions synthesisschedules. Evolution of approaches scheduling involves the transition froma purely technical aspects of the synthesis to the semantic and technicalsystems, taking into account the functioning of the «human factor» in theface of considerable uncertainty.

  7. Verifying the agreed framework between the United States and North Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, M.M. [Center for International Security and Cooperation, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Under the 1994 Agreed Framework (AF) between the United States and the Democratic People Republic of Korea (DPRK), the US and its allies will provide two nuclear-power reactors and other benefits to the DPRK in exchange for an agreement by the DPRK to declare how much nuclear-weapon material it has produced; to identify, freeze, and eventually dismantle specified facilities for producing this material; and to remain a party to the nuclear Non- Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and allow the implementation of its safeguards agreement. This study assesses the verifiability of these provisions. The study concludes verification can be accomplished, given cooperation and openness from the DPRK. Special effort will be needed from the IAEA, as well as support from the US and the Republic of Korea. (author)

  8. 45 CFR 164.510 - Uses and disclosures requiring an opportunity for the individual to agree or to object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... persons who ask for the individual by name. (2) Opportunity to object. A covered health care provider must... the individual to agree or to object. 164.510 Section 164.510 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... individual to agree or to object. A covered entity may use or disclose protected health information, provided...

  9. Number Agreement in British and American English : Disagreeing to Agree Collectively

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bock, K.; Butterfield, S.; Cutler, A.; Cutting, J.C.; Eberhard, K.M.; Hunphreys, K.R.

    2006-01-01

    British and American speakers exhibit different verb number agreement patterns when sentence subjects have collective head nouns. From linguistic and psycholinguistic accounts of how agreement is implemented, three alternative hypotheses can be derived to explain these differences. The hypotheses

  10. Assessing and improving health in the workplace: an integration of subjective and objective measures with the STress Assessment and Research Toolkit (St.A.R.T. method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panari Chiara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this work was to introduce a new combined method of subjective and objective measures to assess psychosocial risk factors at work and improve workers’ health and well-being. In the literature most of the research on work-related stress focuses on self-report measures and this work represents the first methodology capable of integrating different sources of data. Method An integrated method entitled St.A.R.T. (STress Assessment and Research Toolkit was used in order to assess psychosocial risk factors and two health outcomes. In particular, a self-report questionnaire combined with an observational structured checklist was administered to 113 workers from an Italian retail company. Results The data showed a correlation between subjective data and the rating data of the observational checklist for the psychosocial risk factors related to work contexts such as customer relationship management and customer queue. Conversely, the factors related to work content (workload and boredom measured with different methods (subjective vs. objective showed a discrepancy. Furthermore, subjective measures of psychosocial risk factors were more predictive of workers’ psychological health and exhaustion than rating data. The different objective measures played different roles, however, in terms of their influence on the two health outcomes considered. Conclusions It is important to integrate self-related assessment of stressors with objective measures for a better understanding of workers’ conditions in the workplace. The method presented could be considered a useful methodology for combining the two measures and differentiating the impact of different psychological risk factors related to work content and context on workers’ health.

  11. [Sulfonamide-research on human subjects in Nazi concentration camps: a critical re-evaluation of the epistemological and ethical dimension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelcke, Volker

    2009-01-01

    Existing scholarship on the experiments performed in concentration camps beginning in 1942 on the value of sulfonamides in treatment of wound infections, in which inmates were used as experimental subjects, maintains that not only were the experiments ethically and legally completely reprehensible and unacceptable, but that they were also bad science in the sense that they were investigating questions that had already been resolved by valid medical research. In contrast to this, the paper argues on the basis of contemporary publications that the value of sulfonamides in the treatment of wound infections, including gas gangrene infections, was not yet established, that is, that the questions pursued by the experiments had not been resolved. It also argues that regarding their "design" and methodical principles, the experiments directly followed the rationality of contemporary clinical trials and animal experiments. However, for the step from animal to the human experiment, the experimental "objects" were only in regard to their body, but not to their individuality and subjectivity regarded as "human". In a concluding section, the paper lines out some implications for an adequate historical reconstruction of medical research on humans, in particular the importance of a combined focus on the scientific rationality as well as explicit or implicit value hierarchies. Further, the article points to the potential impact of such a revised image of the sulfonamide experiments for present day debates on the ethics of medical research.

  12. What About Their Performance Do Free Jazz Improvisers Agree Upon? A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Pras

    2017-06-01

    . But these kinds of statements were polarizing; the performers were more likely to agree with each other in their ratings of statements about the music itself and negative statements. As in Schober and Spiro (2014, the evidence supports a view that fully shared understanding is not needed for joint improvisation by professional musicians in this genre and that performing partners can agree with an outside listener more than with each other.

  13. What About Their Performance Do Free Jazz Improvisers Agree Upon? A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pras, Amandine; Schober, Michael F; Spiro, Neta

    2017-01-01

    were polarizing; the performers were more likely to agree with each other in their ratings of statements about the music itself and negative statements. As in Schober and Spiro (2014), the evidence supports a view that fully shared understanding is not needed for joint improvisation by professional musicians in this genre and that performing partners can agree with an outside listener more than with each other.

  14. Supply Chain Cooperation by Agreed Reduction of Behavior Variability: A Simulation-based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Chew Hernandez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain echelons normally base their operational decisions on average values of the parameters that depend on other members. However, in real-life operation the variability of said parameters decreases the link profits. Thus, a cooperative arrangement may be devised in which a link agrees to reduce the variability of its behavior to enhance the performance of other links, receiving compensation in return. This work shows the application of simulation and decision trees to assess the feasibility of this cooperation scheme, from the perspective of the central link of a three member supply chain. First, the operational parameters of the link are optimized for mean values of the variables set by adjacent members. Then, by simulating the system for different probability distributions of these variables, graphs of the expected link gain versus the variances of the distributions are plotted. The results are incorporated to decision trees to evaluate the collaboration feasibility. It was found that the increased variability of the behavior of one neighboring member decreases the benefit of lowering the variability of the behavior of the other. The manuscript closes with a discussion of the practical viability of this collaboration scheme.

  15. Clinical practice guidelines for treatment of acne vulgaris: a critical appraisal using the AGREE II instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanclemente, Gloria; Acosta, Jorge-Luis; Tamayo, Maria-Eulalia; Bonfill, Xavier; Alonso-Coello, Pablo

    2014-04-01

    A significant number of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) about the treatment of acne vulgaris in adolescents and adults have been published worldwide. However, little is known about the quality of CPGs in this field. The aim of this study was to appraise the methodological quality of published acne vulgaris CPGs. We performed a systematic review of published CPGs on acne vulgaris therapy from July 2002 to July 2012. Three reviewers independently assessed each CPG using the AGREE II instrument. A standardized score was calculated for each of the six domains. Our search strategy identified 103 citations but just six met our inclusion criteria. Agreement among reviewers was very good: 0.981. The domains that scored better were: "scope and purpose" and "clarity and presentation". Those that scored worse were "stakeholder involvement", "rigor of development", and "applicability". The European and the Malaysian CPGs were the only recommended with no further modifications. In addition, the Mexican, Colombian and the United States guidelines were recommended with provisos, with lower scores regarding stakeholder involvement, rigor of development and applicability. Only two guidelines clearly reported outcome measures for evaluating efficacy or included quality of life outcomes. CPGs varied regarding the consideration of light/laser therapy or consideration of complementary/alternative medicines. None of them included cost considerations of drugs such as systemic isotretinoin. In conclusion, published acne vulgaris CPGs for acne therapy vary in quality with a clear need to improve their methodological rigor. This could be achieved with the adherence to current CPGs development standards.

  16. Response Suppression in V1 Agrees with Psychophysics of Surround Masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenger-Landolt, Barbara; Heeger, David J.

    2008-01-01

    When a target stimulus is embedded in a high contrast surround, the target appears reduced in contrast and is harder to detect, and neural responses in visual cortex are suppressed. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and psychophysics to quantitatively compare these physiological and perceptual effects. Observers performed a contrast discrimination task on a contrast-reversing sinusoidal target grating. The target was either presented in isolation or embedded in a high-contrast surround. While observers performed the task, we also measured fMRI responses as a function of target contrast, both with and without a surround. We found that the surround substantially increased the psychophysical thresholds while reducing fMRI responses. The two data sets were compared, on the basis of the assumption that a fixed response difference is required for correct discrimination, and we found that the psychophysics accounted for 96.5% of the variance in the measured V1 responses. The suppression in visual areas V2 and V3 was stronger, too strong to agree with psychophysics. The good quantitative agreement between psychophysical thresholds and V1 responses suggests V1 as a plausible candidate for mediating surround masking. PMID:12890783

  17. Do health professionals agree on the parenting potential of pregnant women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerfeld, D P; Hughes, J R

    1987-01-01

    Although retrospective studies have suggested that the signs of potential parenting problems are present well before the child is born, successful prenatal screening is infrequent or absent in most clinical settings. For the most part, this lack of screening reflects the inherent difficulties in developing and using practical and reliable tools of assessment. Problems of reliability suggest that professionals from related disciplines often differ in their evaluations of clinical samples. This pilot study was designed to determine whether 12 professionals, four from each of three health disciplines concerned with child-abuse detection (nursing, medicine and social work), could agree on parenting risk status of 15 pregnant women. Assessment protocols were comprised of the most frequently cited predictive signs of poor parenting. Each rater evaluated the transcript of 15 prenatal interviews. The results indicate inconsistencies in rating both among and within the professional groups. These inconsistencies extended not only to the individual criteria from which the final scores were derived, but also to the total risk status. Even though specific instructions were given for the use of risk criteria, the raters often violated the instructions for coding in favor of their own idiosyncratic judgements.

  18. Mason Tenders agrees to pay $1 million to end ADA litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-12-29

    The [name removed] District Council Welfare Fund has agreed to pay $1 million to construction workers who have been denied medical coverage for AIDS-related care. The decision establishes self-insured health care benefits programs as covered entities under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The settlement ends a three-year battle which began in 1992 between [name removed] and fourteen HIV-positive construction workers who were refused medical coverage. The first suit was filed by [name removed]., a construction worker who lost coverage for his HIV-related care in July 1991. At that time, the union fund decided to exclude care for HIV on the grounds that it was too expensive. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) filed an ADA lawsuit that challenged disability-based distinctions in health insurance. The U.S. Attorney's Office filed a complaint against the union under the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO) statute to end organized crime associated with the union. In late 1994, the government announced a consent decree, settling its racketeering suit against the union. Under the terms of the settlement, [name removed] was awarded $16,000 in damages. In the EEOC case, damages for plan members ranged as high as $50,000.

  19. Coccidioides species determination: does sequence analysis agree with restriction fragment length polymorphism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Suzanne M; Carlson, Erin L; Pappagianis, Demosthenes

    2015-06-01

    Fifteen Coccidioides isolates were previously examined for genetic diversity using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP); two fragment patterns were observed. Two isolates demonstrated one banding pattern (designated RFLP group I), while the remaining 13 isolates demonstrated a second pattern (designated RFLP group II). Recently, molecular studies supported the division of the genera Coccidioides into two species: Coccidioides posadasii and Coccidioides immitis. It has been assumed that the species division corresponds to the RFLP grouping. We tested this hypothesis by amplifying the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region as well as the dioxygenase, serine proteinase, and urease genes from 13 isolates previously examined by RFLP and then sequencing the PCR products. The appropriate species for each isolate was assigned using phylogenetically informative sites. The RFLP grouping agreed with the Coccidioides species assignment for all but one isolate, which may represent a hybrid. In addition, polymorphic sites among the four genes examined were in agreement for species assignment such that analysis of a single gene may be sufficient for species assignment.

  20. [Clinical Practice Guidelines for Management of Schizophrenia: Evaluation Using AGREE II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Hoz Bradford, Ana María; Ávila, Mauricio J; Bohórquez Peñaranda, Adriana Patricia; García Valencia, Jenny; Arenas Borrero, Álvaro Enrique; Vélez Traslaviña, Ángela; Jaramillo González, Luis Eduardo; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Colombia is developing multiple national practice guidelines from a range of diseases. Clinical practice guidelines represent a very useful tool to be able to take decision over a patient care that is widely available for the clinician. In psychiatry there are a good number of international clinical guidelines for the treatment of schizophrenia nevertheless there is no article that evaluate them scientifically In the settings of developing a Colombian schizophrenia practice guideline, a systematic search was performed in multiple databases and the results were then evaluated by two trained persons. We present the results globally and by domains. We found 164 matches for possible guidelines. After screening 7 guidelines were evaluated with the AGREE II instrument. Globally and by the different domains, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) was the guideline that got the best score. From the guidelines that were reviewed, 4 were from Europe and only 2 were from Latin America. None of the guidelines used GRADE methodology for the recommendations. The diversity of the schizophrenia treatment guidelines does not allow an easy adoption of the recommendation by a psychiatrist in Colombia. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. [Plansalud: Decentralized and agreed sector plan for the capacity development in health, Peru 2010-2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huamán-Angulo, Lizardo; Liendo-Lucano, Lindaura; Nuñez-Vergara, Manuel

    2011-06-01

    Human resources are the backbone of health sector actions; however, they are not necessarily the area with the greatest attention, therefore, the Ministry of Health of Peru (MINSA) together with regional governments, led the Decentralized and Agreed Sector Plan for the Capacity Development in Health 2010-2014 (PLANSALUD) with the aim of strengthening the capacities of Human Resources for Health (HRH) and contribute to health care efficient development, quality, relevance, equity and multiculturalism, in the context of descentralization, the Universal Health Insurance (AUS) and health policies. To achieve this goal, they have proposed three components (technical assistance, joint training and education - health articulation) that bring together an important set of interventions, which are planned and defined according to the national, regional and local levels, thus contributing to improve the government capacity, capability management and delivery of health services. This paper presents a first approach of PLANSALUD, including aspects related to planning, management, financing, structure and functioning, as well as monitoring and evaluation measures.

  2. Three counting methods agree on cell and neuron number in chimpanzee primary visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel James Miller

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Determining the cellular composition of specific brain regions is crucial to our understanding of the function of neurobiological systems. It is therefore useful to identify the extent to which different methods agree when estimating the same properties of brain circuitry. In this study, we estimated the number of neuronal and non-neuronal cells in the primary visual cortex (area 17 or V1 of both hemispheres from a single chimpanzee. Specifically, we processed samples distributed across V1 of the right hemisphere after cortex was flattened into a sheet using two variations of the isotropic fractionator cell and neuron counting method. We processed the left hemisphere as serial brain slices for stereological investigation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the agreement between these methods in the most direct manner possible by comparing estimates of cell density across one brain region of interest in a single individual. In our hands, these methods produced similar estimates of the total cellular population (approximately 1 billion as well as the number of neurons (approximately 675 million in chimpanzee V1, providing evidence that both techniques estimate the same parameters of interest. In addition, our results indicate the strengths of each distinct tissue preparation procedure, highlighting the importance of attention to anatomical detail. In summary, we found that the isotropic fractionator and the stereological optical fractionator produced concordant estimates of the cellular composition of V1, and that this result supports the conclusion that chimpanzees conform to the primate pattern of exceptionally high packing density in V1. Ultimately, our data suggest that investigators can optimize their experimental approach by using any of these counting methods to obtain reliable cell and neuron counts.

  3. Pesquisa em contracepção: opinião de pesquisadores, sujeitos e defensoras dos direitos das mulheres Research on contraception: opinion of researchers, subjects and advocates of women rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Hardy

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conhecer a opinião de pesquisadores, de mulheres - sujeitos de pesquisa, e de defensoras dos direitos das mulheres sobre o significado de "pesquisa" e "cobaia". MÉTODOS: Pesquisadores (11, mulheres (18 e defensoras (10 foram entrevistados. O estudo foi qualitativo e a análise dos dados foi temática. RESULTADOS: Os participantes tiveram dificuldade em explicar o que é pesquisa; alguns não conseguiram. Para pesquisadores e maioria das mulheres, sujeitos de pesquisa não são cobaias, porque têm liberdade de escolha. Para a maioria das defensoras, sujeitos são cobaias, ainda que consintam em participar de um estudo. CONCLUSÕES: Foi surpreendente a dificuldade dos pesquisadores em explicar o que é pesquisa. As diferentes opiniões sobre o termo "cobaia" refletem a controvérsia sobre seu significado em pesquisa. Seguramente o termo "cobaia" não se aplica à maior parte dos estudos realizados hoje no Brasil, mas os diferentes significados identificados servem para alertar os pesquisadores a prestar atenção aos aspectos éticos de seus estudos.OBJECTIVE: To survey the opinion of researchers, women - subjects of research- and of advocates of women's rights about the meaning of "research" and "guinea pigs". Methods: Researchers (11, women (18 and advocates (10 were interviewed. The study was qualitative and a thematic analysis was carried out. RESULTS: Participants experienced difficulty to explain what research meant and some were unable to do so. For the researchers and most of the women, subjects are not guinea pigs, because they have freedom of choice. Most of the advocates, however, said that subjects are guinea pigs, even when they consent to participate in a study. CONCLUSIONS: The difficulty experienced by researchers when explaining the meaning of research was surprising. The different opinions about "guinea pig" reflect the controversy about its meaning in research. Certainly the expression "guinea pig" does not apply to

  4. The Denuclearization of North Korea: The 1994 Agreed Framework--From Penning to Present and Alternative Options

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Minnich, James

    2002-01-01

    The denuclearization of North Korea, a formalized policy objective of the United States since the signing of the 1994 Agreed Framework, is the singularly most important objective of Washington regarding Pyongyang...

  5. 'Nothing is agreed until everything is agreed'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQuaid, Sara Dybris

    In terms of conflict resolution, we may think of Northern Ireland as a case of (deferring conflict by) institutionalising radical disagreement, in particular through the Agreement from 1998. The violence has largely if not completely stopped, but the key constitutional question of whether Northern...... established, which responds to but also perpetuates the disagreements between unionists and nationalists and their accompanying discourses. This makes NI a useful prism for thinking about sequencing in conflict resolution structuring the kinds of political dialogues that are possible....

  6. E-learning interventions are comparable to user's manual in a randomized trial of training strategies for the AGREE II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durocher Lisa D

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Practice guidelines (PGs are systematically developed statements intended to assist in patient and practitioner decisions. The AGREE II is the revised tool for PG development, reporting, and evaluation, comprised of 23 items, two global rating scores, and a new User's Manual. In this study, we sought to develop, execute, and evaluate the impact of two internet interventions designed to accelerate the capacity of stakeholders to use the AGREE II. Methods Participants were randomized to one of three training conditions. 'Tutorial'--participants proceeded through the online tutorial with a virtual coach and reviewed a PDF copy of the AGREE II. 'Tutorial + Practice Exercise'--in addition to the Tutorial, participants also appraised a 'practice' PG. For the practice PG appraisal, participants received feedback on how their scores compared to expert norms and formative feedback if scores fell outside the predefined range. 'AGREE II User's Manual PDF (control condition'--participants reviewed a PDF copy of the AGREE II only. All participants evaluated a test PG using the AGREE II. Outcomes of interest were learners' performance, satisfaction, self-efficacy, mental effort, time-on-task, and perceptions of AGREE II. Results No differences emerged between training conditions on any of the outcome measures. Conclusions We believe these results can be explained by better than anticipated performance of the AGREE II PDF materials (control condition or the participants' level of health methodology and PG experience rather than the failure of the online training interventions. Some data suggest the online tools may be useful for trainees new to this field; however, this requires further study.

  7. Why do individuals agree to enrol in clinical trials? A qualitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study of Malawian adults who had participated in research projects of various kinds during the preceding years, we found that the majority participated in research for the sake of obtaining better quality treatment made available through the clinical trials as ancillary care. Their consent to participate was not due to a ...

  8. Agreeing the content of a patient-reported outcome measure for primary care: a Delphi consensus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Mairead; Hollinghurst, Sandra; Salisbury, Chris

    2017-04-01

    As the first contact for any health-related need, primary care clinicians often address multiple patient problems, with a range of possible outcomes. There is currently no patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) which covers this range of outcomes. Therefore, many research studies into primary care services use PROMs that do not capture the full impact of these services. The study aim was to identify outcomes sought by primary care patients which clinicians can influence, thus providing the basis for a new primary care PROM. We used a Delphi process starting with an outcomes list inductively derived in a prior qualitative study. Thirty-five experts were recruited into patient, clinician and academic panels. Participants rated each outcome on whether it was (i) relevant to health, (ii) influenced by primary care and (iii) detectable by patients. In each round, outcomes which passed/failed preset levels of agreement were accepted/rejected. Remaining outcomes continued to the next round. The process resulted in a set of outcomes occupying the domains of health status, health empowerment (internal and external), and health perceptions. Twenty-six of 36 outcomes were accepted for inclusion in a PROM. Primary care having insufficient influence was the main reason for exclusion. To our knowledge, this is the first time PROM outcomes have been agreed through criteria which explicitly exclude outcomes less relevant to health, uninfluenced by primary care or undetected by patients. The PROM in development covers a unique set of outcomes and offers an opportunity for enhanced research into primary care. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. A multidisciplinary systematic review of the use of diagrams as a means of collecting data from research subjects: application, benefits and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umoquit, Muriah J; Tso, Peggy; Burchett, Helen E D; Dobrow, Mark J

    2011-01-27

    In research, diagrams are most commonly used in the analysis of data and visual presentation of results. However there has been a substantial growth in the use of diagrams in earlier stages of the research process to collect data. Despite this growth, guidance on this technique is often isolated within disciplines. A multidisciplinary systematic review was performed, which included 13 traditional healthcare and non-health-focused indexes, non-indexed searches and contacting experts in the field. English-language articles that used diagrams as a data collection tool and reflected on the process were included in the review, with no restriction on publication date. The search identified 2690 documents, of which 80 were included in the final analysis. The choice to use diagrams for data collection is often determined by requirements of the research topic, such as the need to understand research subjects' knowledge or cognitive structure, to overcome cultural and linguistic differences, or to understand highly complex subject matter. How diagrams were used for data collection varied by the degrees of instruction for, and freedom in, diagram creation, the number of diagrams created or edited and the use of diagrams in conjunction with other data collection methods. Depending on how data collection is structured, a variety of options for qualitative and quantitative analysis are available to the researcher. The review identified a number of benefits to using diagrams in data collection, including the ease with which the method can be adapted to complement other data collection methods and its ability to focus discussion. However it is clear that the benefits and challenges of diagramming depend on the nature of its application and the type of diagrams used. The results of this multidisciplinary systematic review examine the application of diagrams in data collection and the methods for analyzing the unique datasets elicited. Three recommendations are presented. Firstly

  10. A multidisciplinary systematic review of the use of diagrams as a means of collecting data from research subjects: application, benefits and recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burchett Helen ED

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In research, diagrams are most commonly used in the analysis of data and visual presentation of results. However there has been a substantial growth in the use of diagrams in earlier stages of the research process to collect data. Despite this growth, guidance on this technique is often isolated within disciplines. Methods A multidisciplinary systematic review was performed, which included 13 traditional healthcare and non-health-focused indexes, non-indexed searches and contacting experts in the field. English-language articles that used diagrams as a data collection tool and reflected on the process were included in the review, with no restriction on publication date. Results The search identified 2690 documents, of which 80 were included in the final analysis. The choice to use diagrams for data collection is often determined by requirements of the research topic, such as the need to understand research subjects' knowledge or cognitive structure, to overcome cultural and linguistic differences, or to understand highly complex subject matter. How diagrams were used for data collection varied by the degrees of instruction for, and freedom in, diagram creation, the number of diagrams created or edited and the use of diagrams in conjunction with other data collection methods. Depending on how data collection is structured, a variety of options for qualitative and quantitative analysis are available to the researcher. The review identified a number of benefits to using diagrams in data collection, including the ease with which the method can be adapted to complement other data collection methods and its ability to focus discussion. However it is clear that the benefits and challenges of diagramming depend on the nature of its application and the type of diagrams used. Discussion/Conclusion The results of this multidisciplinary systematic review examine the application of diagrams in data collection and the methods for analyzing

  11. Development of a Farsi translation of the AGREE instrument, and the effects of group discussion on improving the reliability of the scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidian, Arash; Yousefi-Nooraie, Reza

    2012-06-01

    We aimed to develop a formal Farsi (Persian) translation of the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) clinical guideline appraisal instrument. We considered the effect of group discussion in improving the reliability of scores. We followed a multi-step process of translation including independent translations of the instrument and extensive assessment of face validity and fluency. We used the instruments to appraise 11 guidelines from three specialities. After the first appraisal, the raters discussed about each guideline in groups, and had the opportunity to revise their scores individually. In total 96 appraisals were conducted. The intra-class correlations (1,1) were calculated for domain scores obtained by two versions at each time point. We observed no statistically significant differences between the mean values obtained from the English and the translated versions of AGREE, and the scores at two time points. The average domain scores, as well as the reliability rose significantly after discussion. The Farsi version of the AGREE instrument yields in the scores comparable to the original version, despite a lower reliability. Revision of scores after group discussion leads to higher reliability, probably by helping the raters recognize what they might have overlooked during the short time of assessment. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Comparing Repository Types - Challenges and barriers for subject-based repositories, research repositories, national repository systems and institutional repositories in serving scholarly communication

    CERN Document Server

    Armbruster, Chris

    2010-01-01

    After two decades of repository development, some conclusions may be drawn as to which type of repository and what kind of service best supports digital scholarly communication, and thus the production of new knowledge. Four types of publication repository may be distinguished, namely the subject-based repository, research repository, national repository system and institutional repository. Two important shifts in the role of repositories may be noted. With regard to content, a well-defined and high quality corpus is essential. This implies that repository services are likely to be most successful when constructed with the user and reader uppermost in mind. With regard to service, high value to specific scholarly communities is essential. This implies that repositories are likely to be most useful to scholars when they offer dedicated services supporting the production of new knowledge. Along these lines, challenges and barriers to repository development may be identified in three key dimensions: a) identific...

  13. Quality assessment of recent evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults using the AGREE II instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwer, Muhammad A; Al-Fahed, Ousama B; Arif, Samir I; Amer, Yasser S; Titi, Maher A; Al-Rukban, Mohammed O

    2017-09-25

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a worldwide and national public health problem that has a great impact on the population in Saudi Arabia. High-quality clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are cornerstones in improving the health care provided for patients with diabetes. This study evaluated the methodological rigour, transparency, and applicability of recently published CPGs. Our group conducted a systematic search for recently published CPGs for T2DM. The searching and screening for Source CPGs were guided by tools from the ADAPTE methods with specific inclusion/exclusion criteria. Five reviewers using the second version of the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) Instrument independently assessed the quality of the retrieved Source CPGs. Domains of Scope and purpose and Clarity of presentation received the highest scores in all CPGs. Most of the assessed CPGs (86%) were considered with high overall quality and were recommended for use. Rigour of development and applicability domains were together highest in 3 CPGs (43%). The overall high quality of DM CPGs published in the last 3 years demonstrated the continuous development and improvement in CPG methodologies and standards. Health care professionals should consider the quality of any CPG for T2DM before deciding to use it in their daily clinical practice. Three CPGs have been identified, using the AGREE criteria, as high-quality and trustworthy. Ideally, the resources provided by the AGREE trust including the AGREE II Instrument should be used by a clinician to scan through the large number of published T2DM CPGs to identify the CPGs with high methodological quality and applicability. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Exercise capacity and physical activity in patients with COPD and healthy subjects classified as Medical Research Council dyspnea scale grade 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Warrington, Vicki; Harrison, Samantha; Mitchell, Katy; Steiner, Mick; Morgan, Mike; Singh, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are often classified by Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnea grade and comparisons thus made to healthy individuals. The MRC grade of a healthy population is assumed to be grade 1, although this may be inaccurate. Physical activity and exercise capacity are not well-defined for those with MRC grade 2. This study was undertaken to establish whether there are differences in physical activity and exercise capacity between individuals with COPD and healthy controls, who have all assessed themselves as MRC grade 2. Patients with COPD (n = 83) and 19 healthy controls, with a self-selected MRC grade of 2, completed the Incremental Shuttle Walk Test (ISWT) and wore a SenseWear (BodyMedia, Pittsburgh, PA) activity monitor for 12 hours for 2 weekdays. Adjusting for age, step count and ISWT were significantly reduced for those with COPD, compared with healthy controls (P < .05). Patients with COPD achieved mean (SD) 425.5 (131.3) m on ISWT and took 6022 (3276) steps per day compared with 647.8 (146.3) m and 9462 (4141) steps per day for healthy controls. For subjects achieving 10 000 steps per day, 8 (42.11%) healthy controls achieved this level compared with 7 (8.43%) patients with COPD (P < .01). Healthy individuals may report functional limitations and categorize themselves as MRC grade 2. However, despite both groups subjectively considering themselves similarly functionally limited, exercise capacity and physical activity were significantly reduced in patients with COPD compared with healthy participants. This highlights the importance of early interventions to increase physical performance and prevent functional decline for patients with COPD.

  15. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  16. Teaching Residents to Teach: Do Program Directors and Trainees Agree on Format and Content?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Lacasse

    2010-03-01

    Methods: This needs assessment was an observational study with a cross-sectional design. Online or printed questionnaires were used to assess the preferred format and content for this curriculum among MS, residents from most postgraduate medical training programs, and PD from Faculté de médecine de l’Université Laval. Results: The questionnaires were completed by 26 PD (response rate 72.2%, 146 residents (response rate 21.9% and 154 MS (response rate 15.7%. Among the list of potential subjects that could be included in the curriculum, Learning styles, Working with students in difficulty and Self-directed learning were scored high by both residents and PD. MS favored Learning styles, Teaching in the ambulatory care setting, Teaching health promotion and prevention, Teaching with time constraints and Direct supervision strategies. PD also favored Teaching conflict management and Teaching professionalism, however these were both among the residents’ lower scores. The preferred formats were One half-day, One day and Online learning for PD and One day, Two consecutive days and A few one-day sessions over several months for residents. Conclusion: The PD and MS perception of the optimal format and content for residents’ teaching-skills training showed some discrepancies when compared with residents’ preferences. Since PD are largely involved in curriculum development for their respective specialties and since MS are also well positioned to assess residents’ teaching performance, we suggest that PD, residents and MS should all be consulted locally before organizing any intervention for teaching curricula.

  17. How well do clinicians and patients agree on depression treatment outcomes? Implications for personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Boadie W; McCabe, Bhrett; Eudicone, James M; Sheehan, John J; Baker, Ross A

    2014-11-01

    In order to inform outcomes assessments in personalized medicine research, we evaluated the level of agreement between self-reported (SR) and clinician-rated (CR) measures of depression severity before and after treatment with an antidepressant medication. We pooled data from three trials (totaling 2075 patients) assessing the efficacy of antidepressant monotherapy in major depressive disorder. Differences between CR (17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression [HAM-D17]) and SR (30-item Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Rated) scale scores were used to determine concordance between CR-SR ratings. The effect of anxiety (HAMD17 anxiety-somatization subscale score ≥7) on SR-CR agreement was also assessed. The CR-SR scale agreement was good for response (κ = 0.64) and moderate for remission (κ = 0.57). Patients who rated their depression as less severe than the clinician were significantly more likely to respond to treatment than over-reporters (odds ratio = 1.62; 95% confidence interval: 1.17-2.25). Although anxiety did not impact the level of agreement, among patients with SR-CR discordance, high anxiety was associated with over-reporting of depression severity. The levels of disagreement for response and remission were too high for CR and SR scales to be considered interchangeable for research on patient-level outcomes. Anxiety does not meaningfully impact SR-CR agreement.

  18. 40 CFR 80.131 - Agreed upon procedures for GTAB, certain conventional gasoline imported by truck, previously...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., certain conventional gasoline imported by truck, previously certified gasoline used to produce gasoline... Agreed upon procedures for GTAB, certain conventional gasoline imported by truck, previously certified... truck imports. The following are the attest procedures to be carried out in the case of an importer who...

  19. The scientific motivation of the internationally agreed ‘well below 2 °C’ climate protection target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemans, Rik; Vellinga, Pier

    2017-01-01

    The UNFCCC parties in their last 2015-meeting in Paris agreed to hold the increase in the global average temperature well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels. However, how this target came about is rarely substantiated in the scientific literature. We review and document the history of this

  20. Research and technological development in the subject of the wind power generation; Investigacion y desarrollo tecnologico en el tema de la generacion eoloelectrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borja Diaz, Marco A.; Gonzalez Galarza, Raul [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The wind power technology has advanced in an important way during the last decade. In the industrialized countries the annual sales of aero generators reach surprising numbers and increase annually at a rate of 30%. But, is this the direct product of the maturity of this technology?, is at the moment the wind power technology economically competitive with the conventional options? Do necessities exist of Research and Technological Development in the subject? This article presents some facts and indicators that will help the reader to deduce his own conclusions. [Spanish] La tecnologia eoloelectrica ha avanzado de manera importante durante la ultima decada. En los paises industrializados las ventas anuales de aerogeneradores alcanzan cifras sorprendentes y se incrementan al 30% anual. Pero, es esto el producto directo de la madurez de esta tecnologia?, actualmente la tecnologia eoloelectrica es economicamente competitiva con las opciones convencionales?, existen necesidades de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en el tema? Este articulo presenta algunos hechos e indicadores que ayudaran al lector a deducir sus propias conclusiones.

  1. Objective assessment of surgical training in flexor tendon repair: the utility of a low-cost porcine model as demonstrated by a single-subject research design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetlitz, Elisabeth; Wearing, Scott Cameron; Nicol, Alexander; Hart, Andrew Mackay

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the utility of a porcine flexor tendon model and standard biomechanical testing procedures to quantify the acquisition of surgical skills associated with Zone II flexor tendon repair in a trainee by benchmarking task performance outcomes relative to evidence-based standards. Single-subject repeated measures research design. Bench-top set-up of apparatus undertaken in a University Research laboratory. After initial directed learning, a trainee repaired 70 fresh flexor digitorum profundus tendons within the flexor sheath using either a Pennington or ventral-locking-loop modification of a two-strand Kessler core repair. Tendon repairs were then preconditioned and distracted to failure. Key biomechanical parameters of the repair, including the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), yield strength, 3 mm gap force and stiffness, were calculated. Repairs were divided into 3 categories, early (first 10 days), intermediate (ensuing 10 days), and late repairs (final 10 days), and potential changes in repair properties over the training period were evaluated using a general linear modeling approach. There was a significant change in the mechanical characteristics of the repairs over the training period, evidencing a clear learning effect (p < 0.05). Irrespective of the repair technique employed, early and intermediate repairs were characterized by a significantly lower UTS (29% and 20%, respectively), 3 mm gap (21% and 16%, respectively), and yield force (18% and 23%, respectively), but had a higher stiffness (33% and 38%, respectively) than late repairs (p < 0.05). The UTS of late repairs (47-48 N) were comparable to those published within the literature (45-51 N), suggesting surgical competence of the trainee. This simple, low-cost porcine model appears to be useful for providing preclinical training in flexor tendon repair techniques and has the potential to provide a quantitative index to evaluate the competency of surgical trainees. Further research is now

  2. Subject marking, coordination and noun classes in ciNsenga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subject marking on the Bantu verb seems to be a straightforward process in clauses with simple subject noun phrases (NP) as the verb only has to agree with a single NP. With conjoined NPs, on the other hand, subject-verb agreement is more complicated as there are three possibilities for such agreement: (i) agreement ...

  3. Automated Scoring of Short-Answer Open-Ended GRE® Subject Test Items. ETS GRE® Board Research Report No. 04-02. ETS RR-08-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attali, Yigal; Powers, Don; Freedman, Marshall; Harrison, Marissa; Obetz, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the development, administration, and scoring of open-ended variants of GRE® Subject Test items in biology and psychology. These questions were administered in a Web-based experiment to registered examinees of the respective Subject Tests. The questions required a short answer of 1-3 sentences, and responses were automatically…

  4. Characterizing Race/Ethnicity and Genetic Ancestry for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Yambazi; Kvale, Mark N.; Hoffmann, Thomas J.; Hesselson, Stephanie E.; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Tang, Hua; Sabatti, Chiara; Croen, Lisa A.; Dispensa, Brad P.; Henderson, Mary; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Ludwig, Dana; Olberg, Diane; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C.; Sciortino, Stanley; Shen, Ling; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Walter, Lawrence; Whitmer, Rachel A.; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Schaefer, Catherine; Risch, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Using genome-wide genotypes, we characterized the genetic structure of 103,006 participants in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California multi-ethnic Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging Cohort and analyzed the relationship to self-reported race/ethnicity. Participants endorsed any of 23 race/ethnicity/nationality categories, which were collapsed into seven major race/ethnicity groups. By self-report the cohort is 80.8% white and 19.2% minority; 93.8% endorsed a single race/ethnicity group, while 6.2% endorsed two or more. Principal component (PC) and admixture analyses were generally consistent with prior studies. Approximately 17% of subjects had genetic ancestry from more than one continent, and 12% were genetically admixed, considering only nonadjacent geographical origins. Self-reported whites were spread on a continuum along the first two PCs, indicating extensive mixing among European nationalities. Self-identified East Asian nationalities correlated with genetic clustering, consistent with extensive endogamy. Individuals of mixed East Asian–European genetic ancestry were easily identified; we also observed a modest amount of European genetic ancestry in individuals self-identified as Filipinos. Self-reported African Americans and Latinos showed extensive European and African genetic ancestry, and Native American genetic ancestry for the latter. Among 3741 genetically identified parent–child pairs, 93% were concordant for self-reported race/ethnicity; among 2018 genetically identified full-sib pairs, 96% were concordant; the lower rate for parent–child pairs was largely due to intermarriage. The parent–child pairs revealed a trend toward increasing exogamy over time; the presence in the cohort of individuals endorsing multiple race/ethnicity categories creates interesting challenges and future opportunities for genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:26092716

  5. Characterizing Race/Ethnicity and Genetic Ancestry for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Yambazi; Kvale, Mark N; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Hesselson, Stephanie E; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Tang, Hua; Sabatti, Chiara; Croen, Lisa A; Dispensa, Brad P; Henderson, Mary; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H; Ludwig, Dana; Olberg, Diane; Quesenberry, Charles P; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C; Sciortino, Stanley; Shen, Ling; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Walter, Lawrence; Whitmer, Rachel A; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Schaefer, Catherine; Risch, Neil

    2015-08-01

    Using genome-wide genotypes, we characterized the genetic structure of 103,006 participants in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California multi-ethnic Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging Cohort and analyzed the relationship to self-reported race/ethnicity. Participants endorsed any of 23 race/ethnicity/nationality categories, which were collapsed into seven major race/ethnicity groups. By self-report the cohort is 80.8% white and 19.2% minority; 93.8% endorsed a single race/ethnicity group, while 6.2% endorsed two or more. Principal component (PC) and admixture analyses were generally consistent with prior studies. Approximately 17% of subjects had genetic ancestry from more than one continent, and 12% were genetically admixed, considering only nonadjacent geographical origins. Self-reported whites were spread on a continuum along the first two PCs, indicating extensive mixing among European nationalities. Self-identified East Asian nationalities correlated with genetic clustering, consistent with extensive endogamy. Individuals of mixed East Asian-European genetic ancestry were easily identified; we also observed a modest amount of European genetic ancestry in individuals self-identified as Filipinos. Self-reported African Americans and Latinos showed extensive European and African genetic ancestry, and Native American genetic ancestry for the latter. Among 3741 genetically identified parent-child pairs, 93% were concordant for self-reported race/ethnicity; among 2018 genetically identified full-sib pairs, 96% were concordant; the lower rate for parent-child pairs was largely due to intermarriage. The parent-child pairs revealed a trend toward increasing exogamy over time; the presence in the cohort of individuals endorsing multiple race/ethnicity categories creates interesting challenges and future opportunities for genetic epidemiologic studies. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  6. Fetos anencefálicos e embriões para pesquisa: sujeitos de direitos? Anencephalic fetuses and research embryos: subjects of rights?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naara Luna

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa a emergência de sujeitos sociais em seres antes embutidos na figura materna, depois definidos e circunscritos pela biomedicina: os embriões extracorporais formados por fertilização in vitro e os fetos anencefálicos. Os embriões estiveram no centro de controvérsia nos debates para a aprovação da Lei de Biossegurança, que autorizou o seu uso em pesquisa. Já os fetos anencefálicos foram objeto do debate quanto à possibilidade de ampliação dos permissivos para o aborto. Analisando notícias da grande imprensa, principalmente em levantamento sistemático do jornal O Globo, entre 2000 e 2005, o objetivo é retratar os argumentos que integraram esses debates. Os argumentos que justificam ou recusam o uso de embriões para pesquisa e a antecipação de parto de anencéfalo coincidem em vários pontos porque são tributários da mesma configuração de valores e se fundamentam na figura de pessoa: o indivíduo como valor segundo Dumont.The present article analyzes the emergence of social subjects in the form of beings which had previously been embedded in mother's bodies and which have later become defined and circumscribed by biomedicine: extracorporal embryos, created by in vitro fertilization, and anencephalic fetuses. The embryos were at the center of the controversy regarding their use in scientific research during the debates for the approval of Brazil's new biosecurity law. Anencephalic fetuses became the center of a debate regarding the relaxing of Brazil's abortion laws. This article analyzes mass media news stories provided mostly by a systematic review of articles published in O Globo newspaper between 2000 and 2005 in order to recover the arguments presented in these debates. The arguments to justify or ban embryo research or to anticipate the birth of anencephalic fetuses coincide, in large part, because they are derived from the same value configuration and are founded upon the person: Dumont's individual-as-value.

  7. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Creative research in the chemical industry – Four decades in retrospect. 291. Crystal structure. Two new polyoxovanadate clusters templated through cysteamine. 159. A chiral Mn(IV) complex and its supramolecular as- sembly: Synthesis, characterization and properties 311 meso-Tetrathienylporphyrins: Steady-state ...

  8. Agreeing in Ignorance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Thomas; Holm, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Many ICT services require that users explicitly consent to conditions of use and policies for the protection of personal information. This consent may become 'routinised'. We define the concept of routinisation and investigate to what extent routinisation occurs as well as the factors influencing...... routinisation in a survey study of internet use. We show that routinisation is common and that it is influenced by factors including gender, age, educational level and average daily internet use. We further explore the reasons users provide for not reading conditions and policies and show that they can...

  9. Agreeing on expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Bentsen, Martin Juul

    involved. Despite this, our initial probing indicated that such covenants rarely exist. As such, this paper draws on project management theory and proposes the possibility of structuring assessments of potential partners before university-industry collaborations are brought to life. Our analysis suggests...

  10. Interaction, transference, and subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Fieldwork is one of the important methods in educational, social, and organisational research. In fieldwork, the researcher takes residence for a shorter or longer period amongst the subjects and settings to be studied. The aim of this is to study the culture of people: how people seem to make...... sense of their lives and which moral, professional, and ethical values seem to guide their behaviour and attitudes. In fieldwork, the researcher has to balance participation and observation in her attempts at representation. Consequently, the researcher’s academic and life-historical subjectivity...... are important filters for fieldwork. In general, fieldwork can be understood as processes where field reports and field analysis are determined by how the researcher interacts with and experiences the field, the events and informants in it, and how she subsequently develops an ethnography. However, fieldwork...

  11. On a popular myth: “Scientific research cannot be subject to quality management”. Think again! Who says it cannot be?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theron, B

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available projects with the expectation of achievement of scientifically valid results, efficiently obtained; and the credibility of researchers, research groups and their managers depend on the scientific validity of their results. Furthermore, product design...

  12. The sensitivity of stratocumulus-capped mixed layers to cloud droplet concentration: do LES and mixed-layer models agree?

    OpenAIRE

    Uchida, J.; C. S. Bretherton; Blossey, P.N.

    2010-01-01

    The sensitivity of a stratocumulus-capped mixed layer to a change in cloud droplet concentration is evaluated with a large-eddy simulation (LES) and a mixed layer model (MLM), to see if the two model types agree on the strength of the second aerosol indirect effect. Good agreement can be obtained if the MLM entrainment closure explicitly reduces entrainment efficiency proportional to the rate of cloud droplet sedimentation at cloud top for cases in which the LES-simulated boundary layer remai...

  13. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-03-02

    Mar 2, 2015 ... Using a critical leadership theory framework, we conducted a qualitative ... or basic science research career (Socio-Behavioral Research, ... AITRP was to develop HIV research leaders at the University of ..... Wellcome-Trust.

  14. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-05-27

    (38.4%) about intra uterine contraceptive device. Seventy two ... female sterilization. The awareness level of study subjects were supported by qualitative study. Most discussants expressed their view that there is very low.

  15. Research Examination of the Options to Increase the Education Effectiveness in the Technical Subjects at the 7th Grade of Elementary School Using Hypertext Educational Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žácok, L'ubomir

    2010-01-01

    The utilization of hypertext educational material is going to be solved in this paper as a source using which the effectiveness of education the technical subjects at the 7th grade of elementary school can be increased. As a comparison between reached results in the control and experimental groups of pupils we used final didactical examination,…

  16. Effect of Health Literacy on Help-seeking Behavior in Morbidly Obese Patients Agreeing to Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayci, Haci Murat; Erdogdu, Umut Eren; Demirci, Hakan; Ardic, Aykut; Topak, Nevruz Yildirim; Taymur, İbrahim

    2018-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of health literacy on agreement for bariatric surgery among morbidly obese patients. The data of 242 morbidly obese patients (body mass index-BMI ≥ 40 kg/m 2 ) were evaluated in a cross-sectional case-control pattern. The patients were classified into two groups as those who were attending the clinic for the purpose of receiving bariatric surgery (n = 138) and those who did not (n = 104). The Turkish version of the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q47), consisting of 47 questions, was used for the health literacy evaluation. It was seen that patients who accepted bariatric surgery were younger and had higher weight and BMI values (p bariatric surgery and 26.04 (8.33:46.88) in the group who did not agree to bariatric surgery, and a statistically significant difference was determined between the two groups (p bariatric surgery and 45.2% of the group who did not (p  25-33) (respectively, 36.2%, 37.5%, p = 0.840). A sufficient level (> 33-42) and a perfect level were higher in the group who agreed to bariatric surgery (respectively, 42.8%, 18.1%, p bariatric surgery in morbidly obese patients. The higher the health literacy level, the more the agreement to bariatric surgery increased.

  17. The quantity and quality of complementary and alternative medicine clinical practice guidelines on herbal medicines, acupuncture and spinal manipulation: systematic review and assessment using AGREE II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Jeremy Y; Liang, Laurel; Gagliardi, Anna R

    2016-10-29

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use is often not disclosed by patients, and can be unfamiliar to health care professionals. This may lead to underuse of beneficial CAM therapies, and overuse of other CAM therapies with little proven benefit or known contraindications. No prior research has thoroughly evaluated the credibility of knowledge-based resources. The purpose of this research was to assess the quantity and quality of CAM guidelines. A systematic review was conducted to identify CAM guidelines. MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL were searched in January 2016 from 2003 to 2015. The National Guideline Clearinghouse, National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health web site, and two CAM journals were also searched. Eligible guidelines published in English language by non-profit agencies on herbal medicine, acupuncture, or spinal manipulation for adults with any condition were assessed with the Appraisal of Guidelines, Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II) instrument. From 3,126 unique search results, 17 guidelines (two herbal medicine, three acupuncture, four spinal manipulation, eight mixed CAM therapies) published in 2003 or later and relevant to several clinical conditions were eligible. Scaled domain percentages from highest to lowest were clarity of presentation (85.3 %), scope and purpose (83.3 %), rigour of development (61.2 %), editorial independence (60.1 %), stakeholder involvement (52.0 %) and applicability (20.7 %). Quality varied within and across guidelines. None of the 17 guidelines were recommended by both appraisers; 14 were recommended as Yes or Yes with modifications. Guidelines that scored well could be used by patients and health care professionals as the basis for discussion about the use of these CAM therapies. In future updates, guidelines that achieved variable or lower scores could be improved according to specifications in the AGREE II instrument, and with insight from a large number of resources that are available

  18. 41 CFR 102-85.155 - What does a customer agency do if it does not agree with a Rent bill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... agency do if it does not agree with a Rent bill? 102-85.155 Section 102-85.155 Public Contracts and... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 85-PRICING POLICY FOR OCCUPANCY IN GSA SPACE Rent Charges § 102-85.155 What does a customer agency do if it does not agree with a Rent bill? (a) If a customer agency does not agree with the...

  19. Methodological Reflections on Researching Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender University Students in Hong Kong: To What Extent Are They Vulnerable Interview Subjects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Yiu Tung

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, the importance of reflexivity has been acknowledged in higher education research. In this paper, I reflect on my experience of researching lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) university students in Hong Kong. The focus is not on the findings that emerge from the in-depth interviews conducted per se, but on the…

  20. Current Trends in Education: How Single-Subject Research Can Help Middle and High School Educators Keep up with the Zeitgeist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Laura Baylot; Meindl, James N.; Frame, Kimberley; Elswick, Susan; Hayes, Jenny; Wyatt, Jenni

    2012-01-01

    Trends in educational research, teaching practices, and teacher responsibilities change over time. There is currently a movement away from relying on summative assessment and large-group research to assessing individual students on a formative basis. This push is partially legal, and the 2004 Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act…

  1. The subject marker in Bantu as an antifocus marker*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KATEVG

    Why does the subject end up in [Spec, T] when there is an agreeing SM, and why is the SM absent when the subject has remained in situ? Interestingly, in the Government-Binding Theory (Chomsky 1981; 1986) and early versions of the Minimalist Program (Chomsky 1995), it was assumed that agreement is only licensed if.

  2. Cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiological data have established an association between cardiovascular disease and psoriasis. Only one general population study has so far compared prevalences of cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with psoriasis and control subjects. We aimed to determine the prevalence...... of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with and without psoriasis in the general population. Methods During 2006-2008, a cross-sectional study was performed in the general population in Copenhagen, Denmark. A total of 3471 subjects participated in a general health examination that included assessment of current...... between subjects with and without psoriasis with regard to traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions Our results contrast with the hitherto-reported increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in subjects with psoriasis in the general US population. However, our results agree with those of other...

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research was aimed at improving the current practice of radiation safety training of radiographers and was, therefore, considered action research.[18] The processes of action and research was integrated because the teaching activities and assessment were developed after the Delphi survey and aligned with the ...

  4. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the Western Cape (UWC), Cape Town, South Africa the students are exposed to research in various modules where they are trained in epidemiology, research methods and literature appraisal. In addition, they personally conduct a research project, performing relevant statistical analyses. The relevant modules for.

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-05-13

    May 13, 2015 ... Systems (SEEDS)-INDEPTH Network Accra, Ghana, 3KEMRI/Wellcome Trust Research Programme, The Centre of Geographical Medicine Research-. Coast, Kilifi, Kenya, 4Population Health Sciences/Research Support Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aga Khan University- East Africa, Nairobi,. Kenya ...

  6. Do clinicians and patients agree regarding symptoms? A comparison after definitive radiochemotherapy in 223 uterine cervical cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchheiner, K.; Poetter, R. [Medical Univ. Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Nout, R. [University Medical Center Leiden (Netherlands). Dept. of Clinical Oncology; Lindegaard, J. [University Hospital Aarhus (Denmark). Dept. of Oncology; Petric, P. [Institute of Oncology Ljubljana (Slovenia). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Limbergen, E.V. [University Hospital Leuven (Belgium). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Juergenliemk-Schulz, I.M. [University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Haie-Meder, C. [Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Doerr, W. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology

    2012-10-15

    Background: In clinical cancer research of morbidity, low associations between clinician-assessed toxicity/morbidity and patient-reported symptoms are consistently described in the literature. While morbidity grading systems are supposed to follow more or less objective criteria, patient reported symptoms inherently are based on a subjective self-evaluation of the impact on quality of life. The aim of this study was to focus on major discrepancies with high clinical relevance and to evaluate its impact with regard to underreporting of morbidity. Material and methods: Early morbidity assessed by clinicians with CTCAEv.3 and patient reported quality of life (EORTC-QLQ-C30/CX24) were compared regarding 12 overlapping symptoms in 223 patients with uterine cervical cancer 3 months after definitive radio(chemo)therapy in the ongoing EMBRACE study. Mismatches showing discrepancies between both grading systems were classified, if patients reported substantial symptoms (quite a bit/very much) and CTCAE grading was rated G0. Results: In total, 360 substantial symptoms were reported by patients by EORTC-QLQ; 159 (44%) of those were not recognized by CTCAE. Symptoms with the highest occurrence of mismatches overall are urinary frequency, fatigue, and insomnia. Large institutional differences were found, showing two centers with 4 vs. 71% of patients with at least one mismatch. Conclusion: Analysis of mismatches indicated a high risk of underestimation of early morbidity. Thus, nearly half of the patient-reported substantial symptoms were not recognized by CTCAE scoring (G0) 3 months after treatment. Prospective assessment of morbidity in clinical studies should, therefore, integrate patient reported symptoms to receive a complete and comprehensive picture. (orig.)

  7. Promoting human subjects training for place-based communities and cultural groups in environmental research: curriculum approaches for graduate student/faculty training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Dianne

    2015-02-01

    A collaborative team of environmental sociologists, community psychologists, religious studies scholars, environmental studies/science researchers and engineers has been working together to design and implement new training in research ethics, culture and community-based approaches for place-based communities and cultural groups. The training is designed for short and semester-long graduate courses at several universities in the northeastern US. The team received a 3 year grant from the US National Science Foundation's Ethics Education in Science and Engineering in 2010. This manuscript details the curriculum topics developed that incorporate ethical principles, particularly for group protections/benefits within the field practices of environmental/engineering researchers.

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    7 juil. 2016 ... Albuminuria and its correlates in an Iranian type 2 diabetic population. Lipids Health Dis. 2008; 7:28. PubMed | Google Scholar. 16. Meisinger C, Heier M, Landgraf R, Happich H et al. Albuminuria, cardiovascular risk factors and disease management in subjects with type 2 diabetes: a cross sectional study.

  9. RESEARCH

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IN THE VAAL TRIANGLE, SOUTH AFRICA. W. H. Oldewage-Ther0n*], E. Dicks2 and M. Selepe3. ABSTRACT. This study formed part of a larger project in which food and beverage fortification as a way to address specific micronutrient. deficiencies was evaluated in selected subjects in the Vaal Triangle. The objective of this.

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    13 avr. 2016 ... Introduction: Ensuring a good haemovigilance remains a major public health problem in low income countries. Transfusion-transmissible infectious agents such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis must be subject to regular and permanent ...

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-02

    Mar 2, 2017 ... traditional didactic teacher-centred lectures.[3] It allows ... interest ed in a subject are likely to use efficient self-regulatory strategies to .... in English. Questions used to guide the interviews and focus group discussions were open-ended and semi-structured, which allowed participants to freely express their ...

  12. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-12-03

    Dec 3, 2015 ... eye closure and mental activity. Each subject was required to have both a sleep and an awake record and each recording lasted 30 minutes. Each EEG record was evaluated first by the EEG technologist and later analyzed by the paediatric neurologist who has had a formal training in electrophysiology.

  13. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-01-30

    Jan 30, 2017 ... The midstream urine samples of these women were subjected to microscopy, culture and sensitivity. Results: A total of 1020 of ... number, educational level, marital status, parity, gestational age, and human immune virus .... while 85% had either attained a primary, secondary, college or university education ...

  14. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theatre and laboratory workers' awareness of and safety practices against hepatitis B .... Therefore, the adoption of universal and consistent safety practices is important in .... Pakistan, barriers to complete vaccination in spite of good knowledge of subject were negligence (38.8%), work pressure (39.8%), high cost of.

  15. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-05-24

    May 24, 2014 ... Abstract. Introduction: Case control studies that assess the burden and factors associated with undernutrition and anaemia among HAART naïve HIV .... while proportions and ratios were compared using the Pearson Chi squared tests (with .... Malaysian study being on HAART while our subjects are HAART.

  16. Should protections for research with humans who cannot consent apply to research with nonhuman primates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, David

    2017-01-01

    Research studies and interventions sometimes offer potential benefits to subjects that compensate for the risks they face. Other studies and interventions, which I refer to as “nonbeneficial” research, do not offer subjects a compensating potential for benefit. These studies and interventions have the potential to exploit subjects for the benefit of others, a concern that is especially acute when investigators enroll individuals who are unable to give informed consent. US regulations for research with human subjects attempt to address this concern by mandating strict protections for nonbeneficial research with subjects who cannot consent. Typically, humans who cannot consent, such as children, may be enrolled in nonbeneficial research only when it poses low risks and has the potential to gather information of sufficient value to justify the risks, an appropriate surrogate gives permission on the individual’s behalf and the individual agrees (assents). In contrast, US regulations for nonbeneficial research with nonhuman primates do not include these protections, even though it too involves subjects who cannot consent and who face risks for the benefit of others. Is this difference in regulatory protections justified? Or does the principle of fairness—treat like cases alike—imply that regulations for nonbeneficial research with nonhuman primates should include protections similar to those that apply to nonbeneficial research with humans who cannot consent? PMID:24647873

  17. Brief Report: Under-Representation of African Americans in Autism Genetic Research: A Rationale for Inclusion of Subjects Representing Diverse Family Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Robert T.; Jackson, Kelley M.; Maxim, Rolanda A.; Bosworth, Christopher C.; Shattuck, Paul T.; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Constantino, John N.

    2013-01-01

    African American children with autism are seriously under-represented in existing genetic registries and biomedical research studies of autism. We estimated the number of African American children with autism in the St. Louis region using CDC surveillance data and present the outcomes of a concerted effort to enroll approximately one-third of that population into either of two large national genetic autism registries. The results revealed that even after traditional barriers to research participation were addressed and all contacted families expressed a willingness to participate, 67% of the reachable families were disqualified from participation because of family structure alone. Comprehensive efforts—including expansion of eligibility to families of diverse structure—are warranted to facilitate the inclusion of African American children in biomedical research. PMID:19936905

  18. Research as a pedagogical principle in professional technical education of secondary level for the constitution of the social and professional subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salete Valer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The official documents written in the last decade for Basic Education have reinforced the need for polytechnic and universal education. They propose research as a pedagogical principle, including in the Professional Technical Education of Secondary Level. This article aims to detect which literacy practices and technologies are involved in that principle, in the teaching object of the Languages (mother tongue and additional languages disciplines. The theoretical basis for the analysis of the object under study relied on BRASIL (2013, BRASIL (2015, Demo (2006, 2015, Martins (2009 e Rojo (2005, 2013 among others, and utilized documentary research. The results indicate that the Languages disciplines have a fundamental role concerning literacy teaching involved in the research practice. It was concluded literacy related to investigative practices and the use of digital technologies should be used as pedagogical resources also in other disciplines of the courses, so that the proposed education may be effective in the modality of education discussed here.

  19. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    5 janv. 2017 ... subject of relevance. Letters in Applied Microbiology. 2014;. 59(5): 464-470. PubMed | Google Scholar. 18. Amaral do LA , Nader Filho A, Rossi Júnior OD, Ferreira FLA,. Barros LSS. Água de consumo humano como fator de risco à saúde em propriedades rurais. Rev Saúde Pública. 2003; 37(4):. 510-514.

  20. Spinal manipulation for low-back pain: a treatment package agreed to by the UK chiropractic, osteopathy and physiotherapy professional associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, E; Burton, A K; Moffett, J K; Breen, A

    2003-02-01

    Trials of manipulative treatment have been compromised by, amongst other things, different definitions of the therapeutic procedures involved. This paper describes a spinal manipulation package agreed by the UK professional bodies that represent chiropractors, osteopaths and physiotherapists. It was devised for use in the UK Back pain Exercise And Manipulation (UK BEAM) trial--a national study of physical treatments in primary care funded by the Medical Research Council and the National Health Service Research and Development Programme. Although systematic reviews have reported some beneficial effects of spinal manipulation for low-back pain, due to the limited methodological quality of primary studies and difficulties in defining manipulation, important questions have remained unanswered. The UK BEAM trial was designed to answer some of those questions. Early in the design of the trial, it was acknowledged that the spinal manipulation treatment regimes provided by practitioners from the three professions shared more similarities than differences. Because the trial design specifically precluded comparison of the effect between the professions, it was necessary to devise a homogenous package representative of, and acceptable to, all three. The resulting package is 'pragmatic', in that it represents what happens to most people undergoing manipulation, and 'explanatory' in that it excludes discipline-specific variations and other ancillary treatments.

  1. Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudenbush, Stephen

    In May of 1999, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences hosted a conference on ways to improve the scientific quality of educational research. In medicine, thanks to work 40 years ago by 2 researchers, Howard Hyatt and Frederick Mosteller, the commitment of medical professionals to base their diagnoses and prescriptions on clinical trials in…

  2. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results. Three emergent themes were identified from the results of this study: a lack of standardised guidelines for nurse academics to effectively supervise postgraduate research; the pressure that nurse academics experience regarding postgraduate research supervision; other demanding roles of an academic, such as a ...

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    first time, on the findings of a research study on the implementation of field trips in a management module in the BPharm curriculum and to conclude whether this intervention changed pharmacy students' perception of the module. Method. A mixed-method sequential exploratory research design was followed,.

  4. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-04-29

    Apr 29, 2016 ... Anonymity of respondents was assured by concealing their identity and research data was kept confidential for research purposes only. The study was conducted by full adherence of the ..... Samwel K. Misoi, Richard K. Rotich, Anthony K. Mwanthi and George. M. Mwita for their moderation throughout the ...

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An interview guide approach was implemented in face-to-face in-depth interviews ... Dependability of the data collected was ensured through an audit trail. The main researcher and supervisor served as peer .... [16] A growing body of research reports that students with high academic resilience and self-efficacy are more ...

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research. 108 September 2017, Vol. 9, No. 3 AJHPE. Methods. This is a qualitative descriptive study that explored nursing students' experiences. ..... Challenges and lessons learned. Clin. Simulation Nursing 2013;9(5):e157-e162. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecns.2011.11.011. 12. Creswell JW. Research Design. 4th ed.

  7. Regulating stem-cell research and human cloning in an Australian context: an exercise in protecting the status of the human subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Olivia

    2005-01-01

    Over 12 months prior to the recent United Nations decision to defer a decision about what type of international treaty should be developed in the global stem-cell research and human cloning debate, the Federal Parliament of Australia passed two separate pieces of legislation relating to both these concerns. After a five-year long process of community consultation, media spectacle and parliamentary debate, reproductive cloning has been banned in Australia and only embryos considered to be excess to assisted reproductive technologies in existence on the 5th of April 2002 are currently valid research material. This paper argues that underpinning both pieces of legislation is a profound belief in the disruptive potential of all types of human cloning for the very nature and integrity of human species being. A belief, moreover, that is based on a presumption that it is apparently possible to conceptualise what being human even means for all Australians.

  8. US/French Joint Research Program regarding the behavior of polymer base materials subjected to beta radiation. Volume 1. Phase-1 normalization results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyant, F.J.; Buckalew, W.H.; Chenion, J.; Carlin, F.; Gaussens, G.; Le Tutour, P.; Le Meur, M.

    1986-06-01

    As part of the ongoing multi-year joint NRC/CEA international cooperative test program to investigate the dose-damage equivalence of gamma and beta radiation on polymer base materials, dosimetry and ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) specimens were exchanged, irradiated, and evaluated for property changes at research facilities in the US (Sandia National Laboratories) and France (Compagnie ORIS Industrie). The purpose of this Phase-1 test series was to normalize and cross-correlate the results obtained by one research center to the other, in terms of exposure (1.0 MeV accelerated electrons and /sup 60/Co gammas) and postirradiation testing (ultimate elongation and tensile strength, hardness, and density) techniques. The dosimetry and material specimen results indicate good agreement between the two countries regarding the exposure conditions and postirradiation evaluation techniques employed.

  9. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-09-09

    Sep 9, 2015 ... Traumatology, Umraniye Research and Education Hospital, 34899 ... This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons .... and major complication such as pain, seroma, dog ears, widening of.

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that should promote basic capabilities and functionings as well as academic achievement. ... for development and wellbeing on an educational, personal and social level.[2] ... Research indicates that academic stressors, living circumstances, working conditions and where students undertake leisure activities affect.

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-08-28

    Aug 28, 2015 ... Ethiopia, 2Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center, Department ... of Public Health, 4Institute of Medical Microbiology and Epidemiology of Infectious .... active ingredient x 10,000 dilution rate of product): 0.1%.

  12. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-11-14

    Nov 14, 2011 ... Background: For many women in Kenya, their husbands act as ... and researching whether men are translating this knowledge into action ..... older participants, and participants with multiparous wives, reflecting personal.

  13. Do you agree with the doctor's decision to continue treatment?: A scenario-based study of hospital nurses in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Ingravallo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A lack of social consensus on the duty to comply with a patient's request to forgo treatment was reported in Italy, but little is known about the nurses' attitudes regarding this issue. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Questionnaire including two clinical scenarios regarding doctor's decision to not comply with a competent patient's request to forgo treatment was administered to all nurses (n = 487 of an Italian medium-sized hospital. RESULTS: Eighty-five percent of nurses completed the study. Although 83% of participants supported a general right to self-determination, around 40% of them agreed with the doctor's decision in both scenarios. The multivariate analyses adjusted for gender, age, length of professional experience, and care setting showed that the agreement with the doctor's decision was significantly associated with nurses' personal background beliefs about self-determination and quality of life. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Many nurses have difficulty in accepting a patient's request to forgo treatment. Increasing ethical reflection and discussion at both educational and professional level, and introducing ethical consultation services would be essential to develop a consistent approach to end-of-life decisions in Italian hospitals.

  14. Do you agree with the doctor's decision to continue treatment? A scenario-based study of hospital nurses in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingravallo, Francesca; Sandroni, Sara; D'Addio, Laura; Miccinesi, Guido

    2015-01-01

    A lack of social consensus on the duty to comply with a patient's request to forgo treatment was reported in Italy, but little is known about the nurses' attitudes regarding this issue. Questionnaire including two clinical scenarios regarding doctor's decision to not comply with a competent patient's request to forgo treatment was administered to all nurses (n = 487) of an Italian medium-sized hospital. Eighty-five percent of nurses completed the study. Although 83% of participants supported a general right to self-determination, around 40% of them agreed with the doctor's decision in both scenarios. The multivariate analyses adjusted for gender, age, length of professional experience, and care setting showed that the agreement with the doctor's decision was significantly associated with nurses' personal background beliefs about self-determination and quality of life. Many nurses have difficulty in accepting a patient's request to forgo treatment. Increasing ethical reflection and discussion at both educational and professional level, and introducing ethical consultation services would be essential to develop a consistent approach to end-of-life decisions in Italian hospitals.

  15. Expert agreed standards for the selection and development of cancer support group leaders: an online reactive Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomery, Amanda; Schofield, Penelope; Xhilaga, Miranda; Gough, Karla

    2017-07-21

    The aim of this study was to develop pragmatic, consensus-based minimum standards for the role of a cancer support group leader. Secondly, to produce a structured interview designed to assess the knowledge, skills and attributes of the individuals who seek to undertake the role. An expert panel of 73 academics, health professionals, cancer agency workers and cancer support group leaders were invited to participate in a reactive online Delphi study involving three online questionnaire rounds. Participants determined and ranked requisite knowledge, skills and attributes (KSA) for cancer support group leaders, differentiated ideal from required KSA to establish minimum standards, and agreed on a method of rating KSA to determine suitability and readiness. Forty-five experts (62%) participated in round 1, 36 (49%) in round 2 and 23 (31%) in round 3. In round 1, experts confirmed 59 KSA identified via a systemic review and identified a further 55 KSA. In round 2, using agreement ≥75%, 52 KSA emerged as minimum standards for support group leaders. In round 3, consensus was reached on almost every aspect of the content and structure of a structured interview. Panel member comments guided refinement of wording, re-ordering of questions and improvement of probing questions. Alongside a novel structured interview, the first consensus-based minimum standards have been developed for cancer support group leaders, incorporating expert consensus and pragmatic considerations. Pilot and field testing will be used to appraise aspects of clinical utility and establish a rational scoring model for the structured interview.

  16. Efficacy of behavioral interventions for reducing problem behavior in persons with autism: an updated quantitative synthesis of single-subject research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Saenen, Lore; Campbell, Jonathan M; Maes, Bea; Onghena, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    Problem or challenging behaviors are highly prevalent among persons with autism and bring along major risks for the individual with autism and his/her family. In order to reduce the problem behavior, several behavioral interventions are used. We conducted a quantitative synthesis of single-subject studies to examine the efficacy of behavioral interventions for reducing problem behavior in persons with autism. Two hundred and thirteen studies representing 358 persons with autism met the inclusion criteria and were included in the statistical analyses. Overall, we found that behavioral interventions were on average effective in reducing problem behavior in individuals with autism, but some interventions were significantly more effective than others. The results further showed that the use of positive (nonaversive) behavioral interventions was increasing over time. The behavioral interventions were on average equally effective regardless of the type of problem behavior that was targeted. Interventions preceded by a functional analysis reduced problem behavior significantly more than interventions not preceded by a functional analysis. Finally, treatment and experimental characteristics, but not participant characteristics, were statistically significant moderators of the behavioral treatment effectiveness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Knowledge of results and learning to tell the time in an adult male with an intellectual disability: a single-subject research design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Samantha L; Rice, Martin S; Stein, Franklin; Maitra, Kinsuk K

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated whether knowledge of results, in the form of visual and audible feedback, would increase the accuracy of time-telling in an individual with an intellectual disability. A 19-year-old male with mild intellectual disability participated in this A1-B1-A2-B2 single-subject study design. The task involved correctly identifying the time given on a computer. Data, based on the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, showed that the participant demonstrated a greater number of correct responses during the intervention phases. Incorporating knowledge of results into a learning strategy for this individual with intellectual disability resulted in an increased ability to accurately identify the correct time on an analogue clock. There is a need to replicate the study design to increase the external validity and generalization of results. The strategies described in the present study may also be useful for occupational therapists who teach individuals with intellectual disability to gain skills in their everyday activities of daily living (ADLs). (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Effect of self-selected music on adults' anxiety and subjective experiences during initial radiotherapy treatment: a randomised controlled trial and qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Clare; Sproston, Michael; Wilkinson, Kate; Willis, David; Milner, Alvin; Grocke, Denise; Wheeler, Greg

    2012-08-01

    Patients may experience radiotherapy as anxiety provoking, especially during unfamiliar initial treatment. This study examines whether patients' use of self-selected music while undergoing first radiotherapy treatment reduces anxiety, and how patients describe their first radiotherapy experience with or without self-selected music. Using quantitative and qualitative methods, 100 participants preparing to commence radiotherapy were assigned to the initial radiotherapy session either with self-selected music or without music. In both participant groups, the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory measured pre- and post-radiotherapy levels, music preference questions examined future music desires during treatment and a semistructured questionnaire examined additional subjective experiences. Overall, participants were not highly anxious pre-radiotherapy, anxiety decreased in both music and control groups following radiotherapy (P = 0.008) and this change was not different between groups (P = 0.35). However, music group participants were significantly more likely to want music in future radiotherapy sessions (P = 0.007). Some reported a benefit from the music in terms of feeling supported, distracted or that treatment time seemed faster. Participants in both groups often commended helpful staff. Negative reactions were only occasional. Although preferred music does not reduce anxiety, it can support some patients undergoing initial radiotherapy and departmental staff should invite patients to bring music to radiotherapy, provide music libraries and offer to play patient selected music during treatments. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology © 2012 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  19. Environmental Aspect of Research in Ukraine as Background of the «Green» Economic Growth Subject Forming on the Present Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lykholat

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The ecological problems of Ukraine are examined as priority and complex, requiring the self-weighted ecologically-economic approaches, activations of scientific researches and on their basis of realization of strategy of «green» height. Modern ecological potential of Ukraine can be characterized as anthropogenicexhausted. That’s why state institutes, scientists and all society are to understand and to make practical steps in relation to ecological approach application on all levels of planning and management, development of «green» economy doctrine both on state and on regional levels. The prepared recipes of realization of «green» strategies are not increased. Their realization directly depends on the row of political and institutional terms and eventually from the economy development level. During development of innovative strategy for an acco politics of the state on a prospect it follows to provide realization of geoeconomic advantages of Ukraine, among that basic is a presence of rich naturally-resource potential, complete use of home fundamental and applied researches of past years and modern period taking into account international experience of innovative-technological collaboration.

  20. Future subjects on earthquake research in the Geological Survey of Japan; Chishitsu chosasho ni okeru jishin ni kansuru chosa kenkyu no kongo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinugasa, Y. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    For the study of earthquake occurrence potentials attributable to active faults, etc., researches are being made concerning the assessment of hazard due to active faults, monitoring of underground water, explanation of fault shapes and rock fracture mechanism, geological surveys, and the development of methods for evaluating active faults in the sea. As the results, active fault structural charts have been compiled; underground water monitor data have been collected; relations have been disclosed between the occurrence of plural events, change in the number of events, and the sectional shapes of faults, these thanks to fault simulation using rock specimens; part has been completed of geological maps; profiles have been obtained through application of a high-resolution sound source-aided seismic reflection method to active faults in the sea; and a 2-dimensional extensive distortion analysis program has been substantiated. Studies in the future will deal with the disclosure of the history of activities of active faults, paleoseismological surveys, establishment of methods for evaluating the activity of active faults in the sea and for analyzing earthquake-produced sediments, development of technologies for exploring seismic bedrocks in the flatland, preparation of geological charts for observation-enhanced areas and monitoring of underground water in the same, and the basic research into the process of earthquake occurrence

  1. Research supervision

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the development of postgraduate (PG) students as competent knowledge generators ... is expected to transform research candidates into knowledge producers and .... review was higher compared with that received for the theoretical or conceptual framework. A quarter of the respondents (25%; n=14) strongly agreed, while.

  2. Web-based reference databases and subject gateways to locate current research information in agricultural and food sciences - a Finnish perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-L. AALTONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Databases and the World Wide Web have overwhelmed the information market. Bibliographic reference databases with links to electronic journals that publish full text manuscripts provide information seekers with a wide range of fast and convienient searching methods. Increasingly organisations present their activities on the WWW which allows them to disseminate updated information about their experts, publications and on-going research projects better than was possible previously. The web technology has a major advantage over printed products since it allows end-users to search, browse and print the information in different formats according to their own specific needs. Agricultural and food science papers published in Finland have been documented annually in this journal for a number of years, but the advent of web technologies have made this much less valuable.;

  3. Centralization of politrauma. Study of Ferrara’s reality and simulation of an agreed-upon protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Melcarne

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In a time in which everybody’s asked a big effort to use hospitals, resources and emergency departments in a rational way, the Centralization – that is sending the right patient to the right hospital at the right time – allows an optimization of the resources and a better management of medical patients. In this study we examined the actual state of Centralization in the city of Ferrara where an experimental protocol of “centralization” has been introduced. This study has the purpose of simulating reality if the protocol had been introduced in the years 2008/2009. The results confirm not only that an important number of patients that were meant to be sent to the CTZ of Ferrara where instead sent to the PST but also that, on the contrary, patients from the suburbs that didn’t require advanced treatments were sent to the Sant’Anna hospital of Ferrara. So if medical literature already points out the advantages of a correct Centralization for patients with polytraumas; the study, based on the reality in Ferrara , shows how the creation of an agreed protocol with the goal to guide health workers at sending polytrauma patients to the right destination , instead of creating an excessive flow th the main hub, can improve the overall organization of health services, with an equal distribution between hub and spoke. When considering First Aid not always speed and rapidity guarantee survival; this is so much more real in the case of patients with polytrauma, where quality of cures assumes more importance than time.

  4. Where fMRI and electrophysiology agree to disagree: corticothalamic and striatal activity patterns in the WAG/Rij rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Asht Mangal; Ellens, Damien J.; Schridde, Ulrich; Motelow, Joshua E.; Purcaro, Michael J.; DeSalvo, Matthew N.; Enev, Miro; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G.; Hyder, Fahmeed; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between neuronal activity and hemodynamic changes plays a central role in functional neuroimaging. Under normal conditions and in neurological disorders such as epilepsy it is commonly assumed that increased functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals reflect increased neuronal activity, and that fMRI decreases represent neuronal activity decreases. Recent work suggests these assumptions usually hold true in the cerebral cortex. However, less is known about the basis of fMRI signals from subcortical structures such as the thalamus and basal ganglia. We used Wistar Albino Glaxo rats of Rijswijk (WAG/Rij), an established animal model of human absence epilepsy, to perform fMRI studies with blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) contrasts at 9.4 Tesla; as well as laser Doppler cerebral blood flow (CBF), local field potential (LFP), and multiunit activity (MUA) recordings. We found that during spike-wave discharges, the somatosensory cortex and thalamus showed increased fMRI, CBV, CBF, LFP and MUA signals. However, the caudate-putamen showed fMRI, CBV and CBF decreases despite increases in LFP and MUA signals. Similarly, during normal whisker stimulation the cortex and thalamus showed increases in CBF and MUA, while the caudate-putamen showed decreased CBF with increased MUA. These findings suggest that neuroimaging-related signals and electrophysiology tend to agree in the cortex and thalamus, but disagree in the caudate-putamen. These opposite changes in vascular and electrical activity indicate that caution should be applied when interpreting fMRI signals in both health and disease from the caudate-putamen, as well as possibly from other subcortical structures. PMID:22016539

  5. The sensitivity of stratocumulus-capped mixed layers to cloud droplet concentration: do LES and mixed-layer models agree?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Uchida

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of a stratocumulus-capped mixed layer to a change in cloud droplet concentration is evaluated with a large-eddy simulation (LES and a mixed layer model (MLM. The strength of the second aerosol indirect effect simulated by the two model types agrees within 50% for cases in which the LES-simulated boundary layer remains well mixed, if the MLM entrainment closure includes the effects of cloud droplet sedimentation.

    To achieve this agreement, parameters in the MLM entrainment closure and the drizzle parameterization must be retuned to match the LES. This is because the LES advection scheme and microphysical parameterization significantly bias the entrainment rate and precipitation profile compared to observational best guesses. Before this modification, the MLM simulates more liquid water path and much more drizzle at a given droplet concentration than the LES and is more sensitive to droplet concentration, even undergoing a drizzle-induced boundary layer collapse at low droplet concentrations. After this modification, both models predict a comparable decrease of cloud liquid water path as droplet concentration increases, cancelling 30–50% of the Twomey effect for our case. The agreement breaks down at the lowest simulated droplet concentrations, for which the boundary layer in the LES is not well mixed.

    Our results highlight issues with both types of model. Potential LES biases due to inadequate resolution, subgrid mixing and parameterized microphysics must be carefully considered when trying to make a quantitative inference of the second indirect effect from an LES of a stratocumulus-topped boundary layer. On the other hand, even slight internal decoupling of the boundary layer invalidates the central assumption of an MLM, substantially limiting the range of conditions that MLM-predicted sensitivities to droplet concentration are meaningful.

  6. The sensitivity of stratocumulus-capped mixed layers to cloud droplet concentration: do LES and mixed-layer models agree?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, J.; Bretherton, C. S.; Blossey, P. N.

    2010-05-01

    The sensitivity of a stratocumulus-capped mixed layer to a change in cloud droplet concentration is evaluated with a large-eddy simulation (LES) and a mixed layer model (MLM). The strength of the second aerosol indirect effect simulated by the two model types agrees within 50% for cases in which the LES-simulated boundary layer remains well mixed, if the MLM entrainment closure includes the effects of cloud droplet sedimentation. To achieve this agreement, parameters in the MLM entrainment closure and the drizzle parameterization must be retuned to match the LES. This is because the LES advection scheme and microphysical parameterization significantly bias the entrainment rate and precipitation profile compared to observational best guesses. Before this modification, the MLM simulates more liquid water path and much more drizzle at a given droplet concentration than the LES and is more sensitive to droplet concentration, even undergoing a drizzle-induced boundary layer collapse at low droplet concentrations. After this modification, both models predict a comparable decrease of cloud liquid water path as droplet concentration increases, cancelling 30-50% of the Twomey effect for our case. The agreement breaks down at the lowest simulated droplet concentrations, for which the boundary layer in the LES is not well mixed. Our results highlight issues with both types of model. Potential LES biases due to inadequate resolution, subgrid mixing and parameterized microphysics must be carefully considered when trying to make a quantitative inference of the second indirect effect from an LES of a stratocumulus-topped boundary layer. On the other hand, even slight internal decoupling of the boundary layer invalidates the central assumption of an MLM, substantially limiting the range of conditions that MLM-predicted sensitivities to droplet concentration are meaningful.

  7. Sunshine duration and global radiation trends in Italy (1959-2013): To what extent do they agree?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manara, V.; Brunetti, M.; Maugeri, M.; Sanchez-Lorenzo, A.; Wild, M.

    2017-04-01

    Two Italian homogenized data sets of sunshine duration (SD) and global radiation (Eg↓) relative anomalies are used to investigate to what extent these two variables agree with respect to their temporal evolution. They are compared for northern and southern Italy over the period 1959-2013. Both under all-sky and clear-sky conditions, the SD records tend to show a shorter and less intense decrease until the 1980s ("global dimming") with respect to the Eg↓ ones, while there is a better agreement in the subsequent period when both variables increase ("brightening period"). To investigate whether such behavior can be explained by a different sensitivity of SD and Eg↓ to atmospheric turbidity variations, the observed clear-sky trends are compared to those estimated by a model based both on Lambert-Beer's law and on a simple estimation of diffuse radiation. Results show that most of the differences observed in the trends of the clear-sky SD and Eg↓ records can be explained considering a realistic pattern of atmospheric turbidity in the 1959-2013 period. The only exception concerns winter and autumn in northern Italy where clear-sky SD does not decrease in the dimming period as much as it would be expected on the basis of the corresponding increase in atmospheric turbidity. One reason for this discrepancy could be the influence of other variables like relative humidity. This case study highlights that changes in atmospheric turbidity have to be kept in mind when SD is used to investigate the multidecadal evolution of Eg↓.

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-11-06

    Nov 6, 2013 ... 1University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana, 2Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Kyoto, Japan, 3School of Public Health, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, South Africa, 4Japan Overseas Christian Medical Co-operative Services, C/o Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Tabora,. Private Bag ...

  9. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    212-218. [http:// dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15430421tip4104_2]. 22. Pepper C. 'There's a lot of learning going on but NOT much teaching!': Student perceptions of problem-based learning in science. Higher Education Research & Development 2010 ...

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-24

    Mar 24, 2017 ... 26 March 2017, Vol. 9, No. 1 AJHPE. Research were distributed among varying levels of advancement within the EM training programme (Table 1). Responses to the qualitative section of the survey were categorised into major themes, providing insight into the overall acceptability of small-group education.

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research. December 2017, Vol. 9, No. 4 AJHPE 189. Community-based education (CBE) is a learning approach that enables students to acquire skills by means of ... of CBE include early contact with the community, improved teamwork of ... A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted at the University of Zimbabwe.

  12. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-08-06

    Aug 6, 2015 ... permanent contraceptive methods and women's education (AOR=1.72, 95%CI = 1.02 - 3.05), women's occupation (AOR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.11 -. 3.58), number of live .... NGO's and presence of different Medias in the area. The result of this .... Social and Behavior Change Communication. Research Brief.

  13. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    YouTube, TED and other podcast websites. Other researchers have also documented their procedures. Corl et al.[5] describe the basic process of producing a podcast, and Jham et al.[6] list a number of universities actively doing podcasts. Besides the lecture podcasts, we have also captured numerous clinical.

  14. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-01-05

    Jan 5, 2015 ... Methods: this was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in Talensi district in the Upper East Region of Ghana. Systematic random ..... 14. Saunders MNK, Lewis P and Thornhill A. Research methods for business students. FT Prentice Hall. (2003); 3rd Edition. Harlow. Google Scholar. 15. Allen K ...

  15. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2012-02-17

    Feb 17, 2012 ... Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes. 2000; 50: 79-211. 13. Montano DE and Kasprzyk D. The Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behaviour Glanz, K Lewis, FM Rimer, BK eds. Health Behaviour and Health Education, Theory, Research and Practice: Jossy Bass ...

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-04-15

    Apr 15, 2016 ... 1National Reference Center in Neonatology and Nutrition, Children's Hospital, University Hospital, Rabat, Morocco, 2Research Team on Health and ... This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons .... were globally performed in older mothers with a mean age of 31.5.

  17. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the standard of future practice. Therefore, it is imperative for healthcare educators to understand the issues students face in their everyday fieldwork practice and equip them to deal with these ethical issues. Objectives. The objective of this research was to determine the issues that students face in their fieldwork practice and ...

  18. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-12-16

    Dec 16, 2015 ... of this policy, there is need to monitor the implementation progress, identify the challenges and mitigate them and determine better strategies for implementation .... Ethical Considerations: ethical Clearance to carry out the research ... 10% of the respondents reported that the government was doing enough ...

  19. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    Received: 03/12/2014 - Accepted: 15/01/2015 - Published: 13/03/2015. Abstract. Introduction: ... Studies have called on the need for further additional research to establish how supportive supervision in health systems should be best carried out effectively .... male to female medical practitioners in Kenya stood at 60% and.

  20. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-06-09

    Jun 9, 2015 ... The authors sincerely thank the staff of Clinical Research Education,. Networking and Consultancy (CRENC), Douala Cameroon for statistical analysis, data interpretation and assistance in drafting the manuscript. Tables and figures. Table 1: Characteristics (socio-demographic and clinical) of women.

  1. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-10-29

    Oct 29, 2013 ... mosquito-borne diseases, however, limited research has been documented on infections with dengue. This study ... presence of antibodies against dengue virus 2 (denv-2) in a cross-section of febrile out-patients visiting three selected hospitals to assess the level .... treatments prescribed was recorded.

  2. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-05-10

    May 10, 2017 ... (Approval number B/874), Joint Research Ethics Committee, Health Studies Office and the Manicaland Directorate Institutional Review Board. Written informed .... parasites, but without any features of severe malaria between. September ..... T-lymphocytes, impairment of antibody formulation and atrophy of.

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-04-14

    Apr 14, 2016 ... Methods: A mixed methods study was conducted using both .... Methods. Study design: A mixed method cross-sectional design using both quantitative and qualitative research methods as described by. Hanson et al [33] was employed. ..... Musheke M, Ntalasha H, Gari S, McKenzie O, Bond V, Martin-.

  4. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-08-25

    Aug 25, 2011 ... euthanasia were also queried. Data was analyzed using Epidata, SPSS 16.0 and Microsoft Excel. Results: Thirty-eight (97.4%) of thirty-nine institutions reported using animals for education and/or research. Thirty (76.9%) institutions reported using analgesics or anesthetics on a regular basis. Thirteen ...

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-04-28

    Apr 28, 2016 ... Published in partnership with the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET). (www.afenet.net). Research .... interstitial compartment and may lead to distal tubular damage, some with attendant nephrogenic diabetes ..... Model Summary R=0.861, R2=0.742, Standard error of estimate=0.046, p<0.001.

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-01-30

    Jan 30, 2015 ... Published in partnership with the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET). (www.afenet.net). Research. Open Access ... compartment syndrome [4,5]. According to the literature, incidence ... fed into a multiple regression model to assess the odds ratio. Results. Between March 2012 and March 31, ...

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 AJHPE 43. Research. Patient-centredness requires pharmacists to view their patients as individuals with unique experiences.[1] Each patient in their social context responds uniquely to ... To determine the prevalence of the 16 different Myers-Briggs Type Indicator®(MBTI®) communication styles, and compare them with.

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mixed-methods approach was selected as the most appropriate research design for data collection and analysis. The use of multiple data collection instruments and sources provided a broader perspective and deeper understanding of the core concepts of the evaluation from the perspective of multiple sources. Results ...

  9. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During Phase I of the mixed-methods research design, data were collected by means of a nominal group technique. Nominal group discussions were held with the class leaders to identify possible themes/ topics to describe the perceptions of health sciences students with regard to. CBE and SL. These themes and topics ...

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    than student assessment.[12,13] One needs to ... Cut scores for students' assessments have always been arbitrarily determined in many institutions. Some institutions ..... Research. December 2017, Vol. 9, No. 4 AJHPE 175 correct answers to the judges before the scoring exercise, an observation that arguably creates bias.

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2 AJHPE. Research. The Ugandan Ministry of Health (MOH) identified lack of leadership and management skills, rather than lack of resources, as the main reason for poor healthcare delivery in the country.[1] Healthcare professionals, as an integral component of Uganda's healthcare system, receive a high level of training ...

  12. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2012-01-11

    Jan 11, 2012 ... 1MPH Programme, Department of Community Medicine, University of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe, 2Department of Epidemiology and Disease Control,. Ministry ... Pan African Medical Journal. 2012; 11: ..... Mufuta Tshimanga: Had oversight of all the stages of the research and critically reviewed the final draft for.

  13. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research. Clinical teaching is a technique used in the education of nurses. It involves the exposure of students to authentic clinical environments and guiding them to attain specific requirements applicable in that particular environment.[1] The clinical environment is a platform for the application of knowledge and skills that ...

  14. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This model involves the allocation of nursing students to a qualified professional nurse who, in the course of ... who qualified in general nursing and midwifery at a rural hospital in. Lesotho. Eight professional .... research that explored the experiences and perceptions of healthcare workers in clinical environments about the ...

  15. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-05-01

    May 1, 2017 ... p=0.019) respectively. Conclusion: Patient's perceived attitude and stigma towards treatment observers contribute to non-adherence on TB treatment. For improved local TB control, ... Published in partnership with the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET). (www.afenet.net). Research. Open Access ...

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tions as their reality.[14]. Research context. At Stellenbosch University (SU), Cape Town,. SA, final-year physiotherapy students each spend. 6 weeks at a community site learning to integrate and apply the principles of PHC and community- based rehabilitation. Approximately 5 - 10 clients are seen in their homes per week.

  17. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acquire public health, clinical, and/or research skills, usually through applied learning in a community setting,[1] with goals that include: creating knowledge, skills and attitudes among students to ensure they are capable of providing high- quality health services to local, underserved communities, often in rural areas.

  18. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Communities provide the reality of social and health challenges and therefore provide the platform for learning and exploring their authentic challenges.[1] Community-university partnerships are thus intended to bring together academic researchers and communities, share power, establish trust, foster co-learning, enhance ...

  19. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    good) and the weaknesses (things that need to be improved) of students' performance, and possible things that can be improved after the mini-CEX assessment. The existence of this reflection on experience indicates that there has been a deep learning process.[12,14] We suggest that future research should elaborate on ...

  20. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-07-13

    Jul 13, 2016 ... definitions of invasive fungal disease of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycosis Study Group. (EORTC/MSG) [15]. In total, 91 patients were identified that among them, 16 were excluded because of discharge against medical advice. The cases that were diagnosed on an ...

  1. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-05-13

    May 13, 2016 ... based study that enrolled breast cancer patients from catchment area of an oncology service hospital in Nigeria between 2007 and 2013. ... ISSN: 1937- 8688 (www.panafrican-med-journal.com). Published in partnership with the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET). (www.afenet.net). Research.

  2. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2012-02-17

    Feb 17, 2012 ... Psychology and Health. 2001; 16(4): 423-441. 15. Creswell J: Research Design. Qualitative & Quantitative Approaches. 1994; Sage Publications. 16. Biomedical communication. Avalable at http://www.bmc.med.utoronto.ca/bmc/index.php. Accessed 1 February 2012. 17. Glaser BG. Emergence vs. Forcing.

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-02

    Mar 2, 2017 ... In summary, this study explored the perceptions and experiences of nurse educators' use of HFS in teaching, as its acceptability by educators as a teaching strategy is important for effective use. Methods. Research design. A descriptive, qualitative case study design was utilised to explore nursing.

  4. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-02

    May 2, 2014 ... the quality of graduates and providing them with the necessary skills and competencies to ... However, most of the aforementioned evaluation studies focus on the training process .... except two areas, i.e. X-ray image interpretation and research skills. All 72 respondents ... Ultrasound. Mammography.

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-26

    May 26, 2016 ... [5] At the nucleus of systems thinking is the ability 'to balance the interests of several conflicting interests with an ultimate focus on the benefit of the institution as a whole'. ... The longitudinal series of interviews formed part of the first author's action research design,[8] aimed at her professional development.

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-03-13

    Mar 13, 2014 ... Published in partnership with the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET). (www.afenet.net). Research ..... Artisan. 361(15.1). Civil servant. 348(14.6). Professional/Business Executive. 138(5.8). Mode of acquisition of HIV. Heterosexual Contact. 1876(78.5). Blood and Blood product. 129(5.4). MTCT.

  7. Perfil de sujeitos de pesquisa clínica em um centro ambulatorial independente Profile of clinical research subjects in an independent outpatient center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Gustavo Sampaio Lacativa

    2008-06-01

    in the IC. The main reasons for participating were "to know more about ones health" (59% and to "to benefit other people in the future" (47%. The participants´ income varied from 3 to 5 minimum wages (48% and most (66% concluded at least the 4th grade of basic education in Brazil. The subjects showed the economical characteristics of the average population of Rio de Janeiro. Their level of education allowed them to sign and to understand what they were signing. They were aware of the existence of the IC and its content. The main reason for participating was for one´s own benefit and for the benefit of others.

  8. Cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with psoriasis: a cross-sectional general population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Peter; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus; Hansen, Peter R; Linneberg, Allan; Skov, Lone

    2013-06-01

    Epidemiological data have established an association between cardiovascular disease and psoriasis. Only one general population study has so far compared prevalences of cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with psoriasis and control subjects. We aimed to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with and without psoriasis in the general population. During 2006-2008, a cross-sectional study was performed in the general population in Copenhagen, Denmark. A total of 3471 subjects participated in a general health examination that included assessment of current smoking status, weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, resting heart rate, and plasma lipids, hemoglobin A1c, fasting glucose, and insulin levels. Physician-diagnosed psoriasis was reported by 238 (7.1%) of 3374 participants. There were no differences between subjects with and without psoriasis with regard to traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Our results contrast with the hitherto-reported increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in subjects with psoriasis in the general U.S. population. However, our results agree with those of other previous studies in which the association between mild psoriasis and cardiovascular risk factors is often non-significant. Further controlled research is needed to describe the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with mainly mild to moderate psoriasis in the general population. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  9. Inter-observer agreement on subjects' race and race-informative characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather J H Edgar

    Full Text Available Health and socioeconomic disparities tend to be experienced along racial and ethnic lines, but investigators are not sure how individuals are assigned to groups, or how consistent this process is. To address these issues, 1,919 orthodontic patient records were examined by at least two observers who estimated each individual's race and the characteristics that influenced each estimate. Agreement regarding race is high for African and European Americans, but not as high for Asian, Hispanic, and Native Americans. The indicator observers most often agreed upon as important in estimating group membership is name, especially for Asian and Hispanic Americans. The observers, who were almost all European American, most often agreed that skin color is an important indicator of race only when they also agreed the subject was European American. This suggests that in a diverse community, light skin color is associated with a particular group, while a range of darker shades can be associated with members of any other group. This research supports comparable studies showing that race estimations in medical records are likely reliable for African and European Americans, but are less so for other groups. Further, these results show that skin color is not consistently the primary indicator of an individual's race, but that other characteristics such as facial features add significant information.

  10. Bioinformatics Approach Based Research of Profile Protein Carbonic Anhydrase II Analysis as a Potential Candidate Cause Autism for The Variation of Learning Subjects Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Eka A. F. Ningrum

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the needs of learning variations on Biotechnology courses using bioinformatics approaches. One example of applied use of bioinformatics in biotechnology course is the analysis of protein profiles carbonic anhydrase II as a potential cause of autism candidate. This research is a qualitative descriptive study consisted of two phases. The first phase of the data obtained from observations of learning, student questionnaires, and questionnaires lecturer. Results from the first phase, namely the need for variations learning in Biotechnology course using bioinformatics. Collecting data on the second stage uses three webserver to predict the target protein and scientific articles. Visualization of proteins using PyMOL software. 3 based webserver which is used, the candidate of target proteins associated with autism is carbonic anhydrase II. The survey results revealed that the protein carbonic anhydrase II as a potential candidate for the cause of autism classified metaloenzim are able to bind with heavy metals. The content of heavy metals in autistic patients high that affect metabolism. This prediction of protein candidate cause autism is applied use to solve the problem in society, so that can achieve the learning outcome in biotechnology course.

  11. Plastic Deformation of Metal Tubes Subjected to Lateral Blast Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kejian Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When subjected to the dynamic load, the behavior of the structures is complex and makes it difficult to describe the process of the deformation. In the paper, an analytical model is presented to analyze the plastic deformation of the steel circular tubes. The aim of the research is to calculate the deflection and the deformation angle of the tubes. A series of assumptions are made to achieve the objective. During the research, we build a mathematical model for simply supported thin-walled metal tubes with finite length. At a specified distance above the tube, a TNT charge explodes and generates a plastic shock wave. The wave can be seen as uniformly distributed over the upper semicircle of the cross-section. The simplified Tresca yield domain can be used to describe the plastic flow of the circular tube. The yield domain together with the plastic flow law and other assumptions can finally lead to the solving of the deflection. In the end, tubes with different dimensions subjected to blast wave induced by the TNT charge are observed in experiments. Comparison shows that the numerical results agree well with experiment observations.

  12. Young Adult Perceptions of the British American Tobacco New Zealand Agree/Disagree Plain Packaging Counter-Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCool, Judith; Wong-Cornall, Cecilia; Freeman, Becky

    2017-10-01

    In 2012, British American Tobacco New Zealand (BATNZ) launched a mass media campaign branded "Agree/ Disagree" as a response to the New Zealand government's plans to introduce plain packaging. We examined young adult's views about the campaign to assist tobacco control policymakers in planning future interventions. Interviews with young adults living in the Auckland area were conducted. Interviews covered existing knowledge about plain packaging of tobacco, knowledge about the tobacco industry, and perceptions of specific advertisements included in the campaign. Interview data were analyzed to determine the dominant views about the campaign. Perspectives from 12 interviews reflect the dominant discourse in New Zealand on the benefits of serving economic progress and international trade. Pervasive views about the campaigns reflected perceptions of the risk to the New Zealand image, trade, and economy. Similarly, participants expressed concern about the potential for plain packaging to creep toward other products, such as alcohol. Perceptions of the tobacco industry were mixed but reflect a tolerant view of the ethics of business if viewed to be beneficial to the economy. Participants were broadly accepting of the campaign messages. We identified a tendency toward quasi-libertarian leanings when discussing economics and trade, commercial versus personal responsibility, and the value of freedom (commercial and social). These perspectives were often held simultaneously with conflicting socially responsive values and references to the hegemonic position of "big business." This study affirms the importance of closely monitoring public opinion about tobacco control and of broadening denormalization strategies to reflect the critical role the tobacco industry plays in prolonging the tobacco epidemic. To date there is little evidence on the perceptions young adults hold toward to the tobacco industry and their arguments regarding the introduction of plain packaged

  13. Effect of ezetimibe add-on therapy over 52 weeks extension analysis of prospective randomized trial (RESEARCH study) in type 2 diabetes subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kentaro; Kawamura, Mitsunobu; Watanabe, Takayuki; Ashidate, Keiko; Kohro, Takahide; Tanaka, Akira; Mori, Yasumichi; Tagami, Motoki; Hirano, Tsutomu; Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Shiba, Teruo

    2017-06-24

    Lowering cholesterol levels decreases the risk of atherosclerotic diseases. Effective ways to stably reduce LDL-C level are warranted in type 2 diabetic patients, a high-risk population for CVD, with various anti-diabetic therapeutic background. The RESEARCH study focuses on LDL-C reduction in this population along with modifications of the lipid profiles. We evaluated long-term ezetimibe add-on therapy in T2DM patients with hypercholesterolemia. In a randomized, multicenter, open-label, prospective study, a total of 109 T2DM patients not attaining LDL-C target value despite first-line dose statin (10 mg of atorvastatin or 1 mg of pitavastatin) therapy in Japan were recruited. We investigated the difference in cholesterol lowering effect between ezetimibe (10 mg) add-on statin (EAT) group and double-dose statin (DST) group. Changes of parameters related to atherosclerotic event risks were assessed. The reduction of LDL-C was larger in the EAT group (28.3%) than in the DST group (9.2%) at 52 weeks as well as the primary endpoint of 12 weeks. EAT achieved significant lower levels of TC and apo B, respectively. Both treatments attained significant reduction in sd-LDL-C or hsCRP on this long-term basis. Notably, sd-LDL-C in EAT reduced as low as 36.1 ± 14.9 mg/dl to reach near the threshold (35.0 mg/dl) for atherosclerosis with significantly higher achievement rate (55.6%) than DST treatment. Simultaneously, hsCRP reduction by EAT attained as low value as 0.52 ± 0.43 mg/l. In the present 52-week long-term period, ezetimibe add-on therapy showed a robust advantage in lowering LDL-C and in attaining target LDL-C values compared with the doubling of statin dose. Moreover, it's meaningful that sd-LDL, powerfully atherogenic lipoprotein, exhibited prominent decrease consistently prominently by ezetimibe add-on therapy. DM patients with hypercholesterolemia are at high risk for CAD, and adding ezetimibe onto usual-dose statin treatment in Japan has been

  14. [Subjective cognition in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, S; Aubin, G; Stip, E

    2017-02-01

    . Visual learning performance was the most consistent predictor of most SSTICS subscores (e.g. episodic memory, attention, executive functioning, language and praxis). Modest associations were found between the PANSS cognitive factor and objective cognition (e.g. Stroop interference, visual learning, and working memory). Finally, the factor analysis revealed a 6-factor solution that echoes the classification of the items of the SSTICS based on the neuropsychological literature. Using a scale having good internal validity, as shown by the factor analysis, the current study highlighted modest associations between subjective and objective cognitive performance, which suggests that schizophrenia patients are only partially aware of their own cognitive deficits. The results also showed a lack of correspondence between the impaired cognitive domain and the domain of cognitive awareness. It should be noted that clinicians were not better than patients at evaluating their cognitive deficits. Future research will need to determine if the observations reported here are schizophrenia-specific or not. Copyright © 2016 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Mathematics in Vocational Education: Revisiting a Developmental Research Project, Analysis of One Development Research Project about the Integration of Mathematics in Vocational Subjects in Upper Secondary Education in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Lisbeth; Grevholm, Barbro

    2011-01-01

    In this article we describe and discuss the analyses of a developmental research project that took place in Sweden during 1998 to 2002. We carried out four different analyses in order to explore the learning outcomes from the project that could inform long term curriculum change and teacher collaboration in vocational education in Sweden. The…

  16. CELEBRATING OUR SUBJECTIVITY: Research as Lived Experience

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The area is a small island of humanity in a sea of industry and freeways. Bordered on all fronts by built environments that serve as barriers to isolate it from other .... school hell rings at the end of the day I drive to my own place, far away fhlm the smoke stacks, the freeway and the struggles (Personal. Journal entry September ...

  17. AN ANALYSIS OF SUBJECT AGREEMENT ERRORS IN ENGLISH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows User

    however, continuing prevalence of a wide range of errors in students' writing. ... were written before. In English, as in many other languages, one of the grammar rules is that the subjects and the verbs must agree both in number and in person. .... The incorrect sentences which were picked were the ones which had types of.

  18. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  19. Is Piaget's epistemic subject dead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    Niaz (1990) presents arguments in favor of the retention of Piaget's epistemic subject as a theoretical construct to guide research and practice in science education and psychology. The intent of this article is to point out the weaknesses of those arguments and to suggest that the weight of evidence argues against the existence of the logical thinker postulated by Piaget. Therefore, contrary to Niaz's conclusion that the acceptance of Piaget's epistemic subject will facilitate the development of cognitive theories with greater explanatory power, the conclusion is reached that Piaget's epistemic subject is dead and that continued acceptance of this aspect of Piagetian theory would be counterproductive.

  20. Application of radioactive substances in research in nuclear medicine: current trends and radiation exposure to the study subjects; Anwendung radioaktiver Stoffe in der nuklearmedizinischen Forschung: aktuelle Trends und Strahlenexposition der Probanden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minkov, V.; Schwarz, E.R.; Bauer, B.; Nosske, D.; Erzberger, A.; Brix, G. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Inst. fuer Strahlenhygiene, Abt. fuer Medizinische Strahlenhygiene, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2001-08-01

    Aim: Analysis of the application of radioactive substances in research in the field of nuclear medicine in human beings and of the resulting radiation exposure to study subjects. Methods: Assessment of applications for approval submitted in accordance with Paragraph 41 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance, evaluated by the Federal office for Radiation Protection together with the Federal Institute for Pharmaceuticals and Medical Products, within the period from 1997 to 1999. Results: The focus of the studies on the diagnostic application of radioactive substances in medicine evaluated has, since 1998, shifted from oncological to neurological and psychological aspects, while, at the same time, the number of PET studies increased constantly The proportion of healthy study subjects included in the diagnostic studies increased from 7 to 22%. The number of therapeutic applications of radioactive substances has, since 1997, undergone a three-fold increase, and in the process of this, the focus of attention lay within the area of radioimmuno-therapy and endovascular brachytherapy. The effective dose was, among up to 49% of the investigated healthy study subjects higher than 5 mSv, and among up to 6% of these subjects was at levels of over 20 mSv. Up to 22% of the patients received, within the scope of diagnostic studies, an effective dose of between 20 and 50 mSv. An exceeding of the 50 mSv limit occurred among up to 3% of the patients. Conclusions: In spite of the increasing numbers of PET applications, conventional nuclear medicine has maintained its importance in the field of medical research. Further developments in the areas of radiochemistry and molecular biology led to an increase in the importance of radio-immuno therapy. The evaluation of new radiopharmaceuticals and the extension of basic biomedical research, resulted in an increase in the proportion of healthy study subjects included in the studies. The radiation exposure among subjects resulting directly from

  1. Electromyographic and neuromuscular variables in unstable postpolio subjects, stable postpolio subjects, and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, A A; Agre, J C; Franke, T M

    1997-09-01

    To compare strength and endurance variables obtained in the quadriceps muscles of postpolio and control subjects over a 7-year interval with macro and single fiber electromyography (EMG) variables. A controlled inception cohort study. Neuromuscular research laboratory of a university hospital. A cohort of 23 postpolio and 14 control subjects. All postpolio subjects had a history, physical examination, and EMG consistent with previous poliomyelitis, and had greater than antigravity strength in the quadriceps muscle tested. Unstable postpolio subjects acknowledged new quadriceps weakness over the 7-year period of the study (n = 11), and stable postpolio subjects denied new weakness of the quadriceps over the same period (n = 12). All subjects had tests of neuromuscular function of the quadriceps muscles at the onset of this study and yearly over a 7-year period. EMG variables were determined on a separate day after the seventh year of neuromuscular measurements. Neuromuscular variables measured were isometric knee extension peak torque, isometric endurance (time to inability to maintain knee extensor contraction at 40% of maximal torque), tension time index (TTI) (product of isometric endurance time and 40% of maximal torque), and recovery of torque at 10 minutes after the endurance test. EMG variables were macro EMG and single fiber EMG (jitter, fiber density, and percent blocking). Unstable postpolio subjects did not lose strength more rapidly than stable postpolio subjects or control subjects. Unstable postpolio subjects were significantly weaker, had decreased TTI, larger macro EMG amplitude, greater jitter, blocking, and fiber density in comparison with stable postpolio subjects (all p postpolio group (p .05) with neuromuscular or EMG variables in control, stable, or unstable postpolio subjects.

  2. Ethics in research involving prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pont, Jörg

    2008-01-01

    Research involving prisoners repeatedly went astray during the last century, culminating in the cruel medical experiments inside the Nazi concentration camps that gave rise to the Nuremberg Code. However, prisoners continued to become victims of scientific exploitation by the rapidly evolving biomedical research industry. The common roots of these abuses were the flawed philosophy that the needs of the society outweigh the needs of the individual and the researchers' view that prisoners are cheap, easy to motivate and stable research subjects. Prisoners are vulnerable to exploitation and abuse by research because their freedom for consent can easily be undermined, and because of learning disabilities, illiteracy and language barriers prevailing within prisoner populations. Therefore, penal laws of some countries supported by a number of internationally agreed documents prohibit research involving prisoners completely. However, prisoners must also be regarded as vulnerable to the specific health problems in prisons, e.g. transmissible diseases, mental disorders and suicide - problems that need to be addressed by research involving prisoners. Additionally, the participation of prisoner patients in research they directly can benefit from should be provided. Hence, it must be a common objective to find the right balance between protection from exploitation and access to research beneficial to prisoners.

  3. Towards an agreed quality standard for rental housing: field testing of a New Zealand housing WOF tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Julie; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Chisholm, Elinor; Keall, Michael; Baker, Michael G

    2016-10-01

    Report on a field test of a rental housing warrant of fitness (WOF) to assess its practicality and utility for supporting improved quality of housing. Five councils each recruited at least 25 rental houses to undergo a WOF assessment. The assessment included housing features that, based on a combination of research and practicality, were considered to have an important impact on health, safety and energy efficiency. Assessors were interviewed to get their feedback on the process. Landlords representing 81% of the rental properties were interviewed on their attitudes to the WOF. Of the sample of 144 houses, 94% failed at least one of 31 criteria. The most common reasons were: unsafe water temperature; no security stays; no smoke alarms; no fixed heating; and unsuitable handrails/balustrades. If items that required little (houses (36%) would have passed. All WOF items could be checked in a variety of dwellings. The houses had numerous health and safety defects, many of which could be rectified relatively easily at a low cost. Implementing a rental housing WOF on a national scale has potential to improve the health and safety of tenants, as well as making energy efficiency gains. Future decisions on how to intervene to protect health and safety will be informed by data collected. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  4. Opções teórico-metodológicas em pesquisas qualitativas: representações sociais e discurso do sujeito coletivo Theoretical-methodological options in qualitative research: social representations and discourse of the collective subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Junior Henrique Duarte

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo, de natureza bibliográfica, objetivou apresentar a Teoria das Representações Sociais e o Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo como opções teórico-metodológicas para o desenvolvimento de pesquisas em enfermagem que tomam por base o saber comum. As Representações Sociais são consideradas como saber popular, mitos, crenças, costumes, que convergem no senso comum e que são socialmente compartilhados. O Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo é uma técnica de organização do material resultante do trabalho de campo, geralmente de falas oriundas de entrevistas, questionários, papers, materiais gráficos etc. Realizou-se busca na literatura pertinente às Representações Sociais e ao Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo, de modo que pudesse contribuir com o entendimento da teoria e do método. Foram apresentados aspectos relevantes sobre tais referenciais, buscando identificar as relações entre ambos no processo de construção da realidade dos participantes, permitindo conhecer o modo como as pessoas pensam, vivem, agem, reagem e compartilham esses saberes populares. As considerações finais apontam que as Representações Sociais e o Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo são ferramentas essenciais em estudos de natureza qualitativa.The present bibliographical study aimed to introduce Social Representations Theory and the Discourse of the Collective Subject as theoretical-methodological options for the development of research in nursing that is based on common knowledge. Social Representations are popular knowledge, myths, beliefs, customs, which converge on common sense and are socially shared. The Discourse of the Collective Subject is a technique to organize material resulting from fieldwork, generally discourses deriving from interviews, questionnaires, papers, graphic materials, etc. A search in the literature was made regarding Social Representations and the Discourse of the Collective Subject, so as to contribute to the understanding of the

  5. 48 CFR 1352.235-70 - Protection of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... subjects research protocol, all questionnaires, surveys, advertisements, and informed consent forms... . (f) In addition, if the contractor modifies a human subjects research protocol, questionnaire, survey... of Human Subjects (APR 2010) (a) Research involving human subjects is not permitted under this award...

  6. The Societal Nature of Subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2013-01-01

    The HSR Focus presents a psycho-societal approach to qualitative empirical research in several areas of everyday social life. It is an approach which integrates a theory of subjectivity and an interpretation methodology which integrates hermeneutic experiences from text analysis and psychoanalysis...

  7. Clarifying integrative research concepts in landscape ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tress, G.; Tress, B.; Fry, G.

    2005-01-01

    Integrative research approaches are intensely discussed in landscape ecology, in academia and in research policy. However, confusion over the terminology hampers communication. Many current landscape ecological research projects have difficulties to agree on a common understanding of the core

  8. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  9. Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a binary lottery procedure for inducing risk neutral behavior in a subjective belief elicitation task. Prior research has shown this procedure to robustly induce risk neutrality when subjects are given a single risk task defined over objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from...... the same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure also induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation of subjective probabilities in subjects...

  10. An investigation into the strength of the association and agreement levels between subjective and objective sleep duration in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Arora

    Full Text Available STUDY OBJECTIVES: The majority of adolescent sleep research has utilized self-reported sleep duration and some have based information on a solitary question. Whilst some have claimed to have validated sleep survey data with objective actigraphy measures in adolescents, the statistical approach applied only demonstrates the strength of the association between subjective and objective sleep duration data and does not reflect if these different methods actually agree. METHODS: Data were collected as part of the Midlands Adolescents Schools Sleep Education Study (MASSES. Adolescents (n=225 aged 11-13 years provided estimates for weekday, weekend and combined sleep duration based on self-reported survey data, a 7-day sleep diary, and wrist-worn actigraphy. RESULTS: We assessed the strength of the relationship as well as agreement levels between subjective and objectively determined sleep duration (weekday, weekend and combined. Subjective diary sleep duration was significantly correlated with actigraphy estimates for weekday and weekend sleep duration r=0.30, p ≤ 0.001 and r=0.31, p ≤ 0.001 respectively. Pitman's test demonstrated no significant difference in the variance between weekend sleep duration (r=0.09, p=0.16 and combined sleep duration (r=0.12, p=0.08 indicating acceptable agreement between actigraphy and sleep diary sleep duration only. Self-reported sleep duration estimates (weekday, weekend and combined did not agree with actigraphy determined sleep duration. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep diaries are a cost-effective alternative to survey/questionnaire data. Self-reported measures of sleep duration in adolescents do not agree with actigraphy measures and should be avoided where possible. Previous adolescent sleep studies that have utilized self-reported survey data may not provide a complete representation of sleep on the outcome measure of interest.

  11. Subjectivity and severe psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, John

    2011-01-01

    To have a complete human science in the mental health field it is essential to give adequate attention to both the objective and the subjective data related to people with psychiatric disorders. The tendency in the past has been to ignore or discount one or the other of these data sources. Subjective data are particularly neglected, sometimes considered (only) part of the "art" of medicine since the usual methodologies of the physical sciences in themselves are not adequate to reflect the nature, elusiveness, and complexity of human subjective experience. The complete experience of hallucinated voices, for instance, often includes not only the voices themselves but also terrible anguish and terrifying inability to concentrate. But even such descriptors fall unnecessarily short of reflecting the data of the experience, thus leaving research, theory, and treatment with incomplete information. To represent adequately the subjective data it is essential to recognize that besides the usual discursive knowledge and methods of traditional physical science, a second kind of knowledge and method is required to reflect the depth of human experience. To accomplish this, we must employ approaches to narrative and the arts that are uniquely capable of capturing the nature of these experiences. Only by attending seriously in our research, training, theory, and practice to the unique nature of subjective data is it possible to have a true human science for our field.

  12. Is there a cut-off for high-quality guidelines? A systematic analysis of current guideline appraisals using the AGREE II instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann-Eßer, Wiebke; Siering, Ulrich; Neugebauer, Edmund A M; Lampert, Ulrike; Eikermann, Michaela

    2017-12-26

    To investigate whether AGREE II users apply a cut-off based on standardized domain scores or overall guideline quality in order to distinguish between high- and low-quality guidelines, as well as to investigate which criteria they use to generate this cut-off and which type of cut-off they apply. We conducted a systematic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, DARE, and the HTA-Database for German- and English-language studies appraising guidelines with AGREE II. Information on cut-offs was extracted and analyzed descriptively. We identified 118 relevant publications. 39 (33%) used a cut-off, of which 24 (62%) used a 2-step and 13 (33%) used a 3-step approach. The cut-off for high quality lay between 50%-70% (2-step) and 60%-83% (3-step) of the highest possible rating. 24 (62%) publications applied a cut-off based on standardized domain scores and 7 (18%) based on overall guideline quality. 11 (28%) applied cut-offs to derive the recommendation for guideline use. A third of AGREE II users apply a cut-off to distinguish between high- and low-quality guidelines, often without clearly describing how the cut-off is generated. Many users might welcome a clear distinction between high- and low-quality guidelines; specifying a cut-off for this purpose might be useful. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. International Energy: Subject Thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raridon, M.H. (ed.)

    1990-01-01

    The International Energy Subject Thesaurus contains the standard vocabulary to indexing terms (descriptors) developed and structured to build and maintain energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and (2) the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) staff representing the more than ninety countries and organizations recording and indexing information for the international nuclear information community. ETDE member countries are also members of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). Nuclear information indexed and recorded for INIS by these ETDE member countries is also included in the ETDE Energy Data Base, and indexing terminology is therefore cooperatively standardized for use in both information systems. This structured vocabulary reflects the scope of international energy research, development, and technological programs and encompasses terminology derived not only from the basic sciences but also from the areas of energy resources, conservation, safety, environmental impact, and regulation.

  14. Research Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research. May 2014, Vol. 6, No. 1 AJHPE 33. Research. Currently, radiography students are faced with the challenge of having to learn factual information, while ... A descriptive exploratory research design was used to collect both ..... Creswell J. Research Design: Quantitative, Qualitative and Mixed Methods Approaches.

  15. Strongly Agree or Strongly Disagree?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrizosa, Emilio; Nogales-Gómez, Amaya; Morales, Dolores Romero

    2016-01-01

    In linear classifiers, such as the Support Vector Machine (SVM), a score is associated with each feature and objects are assigned to classes based on the linear combination of the scores and the values of the features. Inspired by discrete psychometric scales, which measure the extent to which a ...

  16. I Agree--Well, Mostly!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    In this essay, I reply to my five commentators in the October 2017 issue of the "Roeper Review" [see EJ1157141, EJ1157168, EJ1157169, and EJ1157171] to my July 2017 article: "ACCEL: A New Model for Identifying the Gifted". I respond to each in turn. I end with the question I believe most important for those of us interested in…

  17. Energy data base: subject thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redford, J.S. (ed.)

    1981-10-01

    The technical staff of the DOE Technical Information Center, during its subject indexing activities, develops and structures a vocabulary that allows consistent machine storage and retrieval of information necessary to the accomplishment of the DOE mission. This thesaurus incorporates that structured vocabulary. The terminology of this thesaurus is used for the subject control of information announced in DOE Energy Research Abstracts, Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis, and various update journals and bulletins in specialized areas. This terminology also facilitates subject searching of the DOE Energy Data Base on the DOE/RECON on-line retrieval system and on other commercial retrieval systems. The rapid expansion of the DOE's activities will result in a commitant thesaurus expansion as information relating to new activities is indexed. Only the terms used in the indexing of documents at the Technical Information Center to date are included. (JSR)

  18. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions, and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must...

  19. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2014-01-01

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must ...

  20. Subjective meaning: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen-Huitink, Janneke; van Wijbergen-Huitink, Janneke; Meier, Cécile

    This introductory chapter traces some of the considerations on the basis of which relativistic approaches to subjective meaning became en vogue. In doing so, the chapter provides an overview of the relevant linguistic and philosophical issues when developing a treatment of subjectivity. In addition,

  1. Subjective safety in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The term ‘subjective safety in traffic’ refers to people feeling unsafe in traffic or, more generally, to anxiety regarding being unsafe in traffic for oneself and/or others. Subjective safety in traffic can lead to road users limiting their mobility and social activities, which is one of the

  2. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  3. Inter-individual variability of oscillatory responses to subject's own name. A single-subject analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höller, Yvonne; Kronbichler, Martin; Bergmann, Jürgen; Crone, Julia Sophia; Schmid, Elisabeth Verena; Golaszewski, Stefan; Ladurner, Gunther

    2011-06-01

    In previous studies event-related potentials and oscillations in response to subject's own name have been analyzed extensively on group-level in healthy subjects and in patients with a disorder of consciousness. Subject's own name as a deviant produces a P3. With equiprobable stimuli, non-phase-locked alpha oscillations are smaller in response to subject's own name compared to other names or subject's own name backwards. However, little is known about replicability on a single-subject level. Seventeen healthy subjects were assessed in an own-name paradigm with equiprobable stimuli of subject's own name, another name, and subject's own name backwards. Event-related potentials and non-phase locked oscillations were analyzed with single-subject, non-parametric statistics. No consistent results were found either for ERPs or for the non-phase locked changes of oscillatory activities. Only 4 subjects showed a robust effect as expected, that is, a lower activity in the alpha-beta range to subject's own name compared to other conditions. Four subjects elicited a higher activity for subject's own name. Thus, analyzing the EEG reactivity in the own-name paradigm with equiprobable stimuli on a single-subject level yields a high variance between subjects. In future research, single-subject statistics should be applied for examining the validity of physiologic measurements in other paradigms and for examining the pattern of reactivity in patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Unifying Subjectivity and Objectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Chandrasekaran

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of modern science to the progress of civilization is immeasurable. Even its tendency toward exclusive concentration on the objective world has had salutary effects of great value. Modern science has wiped away much that was merely superstitious or speculative. Its rejection of unfounded opinions and prejudices has helped the thinking mind question conventional beliefs, shed preferences and prejudices, and challenge established authority. But modern systems thinking inherited from natural science is the suppression of the subjective dimension of reality. Many complex systems are an attempt to define and represent all subjective experience in physical terms. The modern man has a bias towards objectivity. The powerful influence of sense impressions on his mind and thinking makes him ignore the subjective experience and consider only objective facts as a valid, legitimate and representation of reality. Observing objective factors that are physical is easier than observing subjective factors that are subtle. The mechanistic view of reality has led to the rejection of the role of the individual in social development as insignificant. The individuals determine the development of society. Their social power has its roots both in subjective factors and objective factors. Economy, politics, society, and culture are inseparable dimensions of a single integrated reality. Subject and object constitute an integrated whole. The mind sees them as separate and independent. Or it views one as completely subordinate to the other. Unbiased approach to the study of all human experiences may prove that subject and object are interdependent dimensions or elements of reality.

  5. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  6. The Data Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article considers whether it is fortunate that data protection rules, as a starting point, apply to all physical persons as data subjects, or whether it would be better to differentiate between kinds of persons on grounds of their ability to act as a data subject. In order to protect all...... persons, it is argued that a principle of care should be part of data protection law....

  7. Researching research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pais, Alexandre; Valero, Paola

    2012-01-01

    of research by deploying Foucault’s notion of bio-politics - mainly to address the object “learning” - and Žižek’s ideology critique - to address the object “mathematics”. These theories, which have already been used in the field to research teaching and learning, have a great potential to contribute...

  8. Discovering new knowledge about trees and forests. Selected papers from a meeting of IUFRO subject group 6.09: Philosophy and methods of forest research; 1985 August 19-23; Houghton, MI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe E. Leary

    1989-01-01

    Presents fifteen papers and four abstracts in five topic areas: the research process, forestry constructs and innovations, interdisciplinarity, emerging research areas, and assessing research productivity, quality, and motivating scientists.

  9. 48 CFR 1352.235-71 - Protection of human subjects-exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...; (2) Documentation of approval for the human subjects research protocol, questionnaires, surveys..., if the contractor modifies a human subjects research protocol, questionnaire, survey, advertisement... forth in solicitation #____, related to the Protection of Human Subjects in research. The Government has...

  10. Introductory Programming Subject in European Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksic, Veljko; Ivanovic, Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    Programming is one of the basic subjects in most informatics, computer science mathematics and technical faculties' curricula. Integrated overview of the models for teaching programming, problems in teaching and suggested solutions were presented in this paper. Research covered current state of 1019 programming subjects in 715 study programmes at…

  11. Innovativeness and Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Martin

    2013-01-01

    What are the effects of innovativeness on well-being? This paper argues that research on subjective well-being has progressed to a point where measures of subjective well-being (or: happiness) can usefully be employed to assess the welfare effects of innovative change. Based on a discussion of the prospects and pitfalls associated with subjective…

  12. Selecting a strategy for prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in clinical practice: an evaluation of different clinical practice guidelines using the AGREE tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanommeslaeghe, Floris; De Mulder, Elien; Van de Bruaene, Cedric; Van de Bruaene, Laurens; Lameire, Norbert; Van Biesen, Wim

    2015-08-01

    Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is a potential complication of radio-contrast investigations. Many organisations have published guidance documents on the prevention of CI-AKI. Our aim is to explore the scope, content, consistency, practicality in clinical practice and reasons for eventual underlying discrepancies of these documents. We searched the literature for guidance documents developed to guide prevention of CI-AKI up to 09/2014. Four reviewers appraised guideline quality using the 23-item AGREE-II instrument, which rates reporting of the guidance development process across six domains: scope and purpose, stakeholder involvement, rigour of development, clarity of presentation, applicability and editorial independence. Total scores were calculated as standardised averages by domain. Twenty-four guidance documents were evaluated. The guidance documents were produced by radiologists (N = 7), intensivists (N = 2), nephrologists (N = 6) or multidisciplinary teams (N = 9). One document did not mention the background of the authors. Only guidance documents (N = 15) that were not mere adaptations of existing guidelines were evaluated more in depth, using the AGREE tool. Overall, quality was mixed: only one clinical practice guidance document obtained an average score of >50% for all domains. The evidence was rated in a systematic way in only 11, and only 7 graded the strength of the recommendations. The Kidney Diseases Improving Global Outcomes guideline was the only one recommended without adaptions by all assessors. The guidance documents agreed in recommending pre-hydration as the main preventive measure, but there was difference in recommended total volumes, composition, rate and duration of the infused solutions. There was no consensus on the use of NaHCO3, with eight recommending it, six considering it and one not. Five guidance documents mentioned oral pre-hydration as a possibility, and none recommended N-acetylcysteine as solitary preventive

  13. Energy Data Base: Subject Thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raridon, M.H. (ed.)

    1987-09-01

    This seventh edition of the subject thesaurus contains the standard vocabulary of indexing terms (descriptors) developed and structured by the technical staff of the Office of Scientific and Technical Information as part of its subject indexing activities for building and maintaining the Energy Data Base (EDB) and other energy information data bases for the Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this thesaurus is to enhance the efficiency of information retrieval from these data bases. This structured vocabulary reflects the scope of DOE's research, development, and technological programs and encompasses terminology derived not only from the basic sciences for also from areas of energy resources, conservation, safety, environmental impact, and regulation. There are 21,080 valid descriptors and 5683 forbidden terms in this edition of the Thesaurus. These descriptors are listed alphabetically.

  14. Subject (of documents)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    such as concepts, aboutness, topic, isness and ofness are also briefly presented. The conclusion is that the most fruitful way of defining “subject” (of a document) is the documents informative or epistemological potentials, that is, the documents potentials of informing users and advance the development......This article presents and discuss the concept “subject” or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document......-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts...

  15. Science of the subjective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, R G; Dunne, B J

    2007-01-01

    Over the greater portion of its long scholarly history, the particular form of human observation, reasoning, and technical deployment we properly term "science" has relied at least as much on subjective experience and inspiration as it has on objective experiments and theories. Only over the past few centuries has subjectivity been progressively excluded from the practice of science, leaving an essentially secular analytical paradigm. Quite recently, however, a compounding constellation of newly inexplicable physical evidence, coupled with a growing scholarly interest in the nature and capability of human consciousness, are beginning to suggest that this sterilization of science may have been excessive and could ultimately limit its epistemological reach and cultural relevance. In particular, an array of demonstrable consciousness-related anomalous physical phenomena, a persistent pattern of biological and medical anomalies, systematic studies of mind/brain relationships and the mechanics of human creativity, and a burgeoning catalogue of human factors effects within contemporary information processing technologies, all display empirical correlations with subjective aspects that greatly complicate, and in many cases preclude, their comprehension on strictly objective grounds. However, any disciplined re-admission of subjective elements into rigorous scientific methodology will hinge on the precision with which they can be defined, measured, and represented, and on the resilience of established scientific techniques to their inclusion. For example, any neo-subjective science, while retaining the logical rigor, empirical/theoretical dialogue, and cultural purpose of its rigidly objective predecessor, would have the following requirements: acknowledgment of a proactive role for human consciousness; more explicit and profound use of interdisciplinary metaphors; more generous interpretations of measurability, replicability, and resonance; a reduction of ontological

  16. The Subjectivity of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    What is a 'we' – a collective – and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity – and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas...... practices. Through this dialogue, it develops an original trans-disciplinary critical theory and practice of collective subjectivity for which the ongoing construction and overcoming of common sense, or ideology, is central. It also points to ways of relating discourse with agency, and fertilizing insights...... from interactionism and ideology theories in a cultural-historical framework....

  17. Subjects, Models, Languages, Transformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Bézivin, J.; Heckel, R.

    2005-01-01

    Discussions about model-driven approaches tend to be hampered by terminological confusion. This is at least partially caused by a lack of formal precision in defining the basic concepts, including that of "model" and "thing being modelled" - which we call subject in this paper. We propose a minimal

  18. Subjective Duration and Psychophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, Hannes

    1975-01-01

    Three models are proposed to describe the strategy applied by a subject when he is confronted with two successive time intervals and is required to deal with some relation between them, for example, by telling which was the longer by adjusting the second to match the first. (Author)

  19. Barron's SAT subject test

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, MA, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Includes one diagnostic test and three complete tests, all questions answered and explained, self-assessment guides, and subject reviews. Also features test strategies, QR codes to short instructional videos, and a detailed appendix with equations, physical constants, and a basic math review.

  20. Multiple Image Arrangement for Subjective Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Zhai, Guangtao

    2017-12-01

    Subjective quality assessment serves as the foundation for almost all visual quality related researches. Size of the image quality databases has expanded from dozens to thousands in the last decades. Since each subjective rating therein has to be averaged over quite a few participants, the ever-increasing overall size of those databases calls for an evolution of existing subjective test methods. Traditional single/double stimulus based approaches are being replaced by multiple image tests, where several distorted versions of the original one are displayed and rated at once. And this naturally brings upon the question of how to arrange those multiple images on screen during the test. In this paper, we answer this question by performing subjective viewing test with eye tracker for different types arrangements. Our research indicates that isometric arrangement imposes less duress on participants and has more uniform distribution of eye fixations and movements and therefore is expected to generate more reliable subjective ratings.

  1. CLASSIFIED BY SUBJECT IN SPORT SCIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Protić

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available High school and academic libraries users need precise classifi cation and subject access review of printed and electronic resources. In library catalogue since, Universal Decimal Classifi cation (UDC -similar to Dewey system - ex classifi es research and scientifi c areas. in subject areas of 796 Sport and 371 Teaching. Nowadays, users need structure of subjects by disciplines in science. Full-open resources of library must be set for users in subject access catalogue, because on the example of bachelors degree thesis in Faculty of Physical Education in Novi Sad they reaches for disciplines in database with 36 indexes sort by fi rst letters in names (Athletics, Boxing, Cycling, etc. This database have single and multiplied index for each thesis. Users in 80% cases of research according to the subject access catalogue of this library.

  2. Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-18

    Jun 18, 2016 ... e. Libraries Resource Directory. We are listed under Research ... business on the Web,E-learning, increasing the users' communication with each other and .... selected domain frequency, subject, and profile keywords will be ...

  3. Writing and the 'Subject'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Charlotte

    /reading subject) manifests itself in the material mark on the page. The study shows how this indexical reference to a ‘subject’ is manipulated and used as a mask through which a writer/painter can perform a certain ‘subject’. Through analyses of the various levels on which the ‘subject’ is represented...... in the early as well as the contemporary avant-garde, it becomes clear that the ‘subject’ is an unstable category that can be exposed to manipulation and play. Handwriting is performing as a signature (as an index), but is at the same time similar to the signature of a subject (an icon) and a verbal construct...

  4. Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Lowering With Evolocumab and Outcomes in Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease: Insights From the FOURIER Trial (Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research With PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects With Elevated Risk).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaca, Marc P; Nault, Patrice; Giugliano, Robert P; Keech, Anthony C; Pineda, Armando Lira; Kanevsky, Estella; Kuder, Julia; Murphy, Sabina A; Jukema, J Wouter; Lewis, Basil S; Tokgozoglu, Lale; Somaratne, Ransi; Sever, Peter S; Pedersen, Terje R; Sabatine, Marc S

    2017-11-13

    BACKGROUND : The PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) inhibitor evolocumab reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and cardiovascular events in the FOURIER trial (Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research With PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects With Elevated Risk). We investigated the efficacy and safety of evolocumab in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) as well as the effect on major adverse limb events. METHODS : FOURIER was a randomized trial of evolocumab versus placebo in 27 564 patients with atherosclerotic disease on statin therapy followed for a median of 2.2 years. Patients were identified as having PAD at baseline if they had intermittent claudication and an ankle brachial index of <0.85 or if they had a prior peripheral vascular procedure. The primary end point was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, hospital admission for unstable angina, or coronary revascularization. The key secondary end point was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. An additional outcome of interest was major adverse limb events defined as acute limb ischemia, major amputation, or urgent peripheral revascularization for ischemia. RESULTS : Three thousand six hundred forty-two patients (13.2%) had PAD (1505 with no prior myocardial infarction or stroke). Evolocumab significantly reduced the primary end point consistently in patients with PAD (hazard ratio [HR] 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66-0.94; P=0.0098 and without PAD (HR 0.86; 95% CI, 0.80-0.93; P=0.0003; Pinteraction=0.40). For the key secondary end point, the HRs were 0.73 (0.59-0.91; P=0.0040) for those with PAD and 0.81 (0.73-0.90; P<0.0001) for those without PAD (Pinteraction=0.41). Because of their higher risk, patients with PAD had larger absolute risk reductions for the primary end point (3.5% with PAD, 1.6% without PAD) and the key secondary end point (3.5% with PAD, 1.4% without PAD). Evolocumab reduced the risk of

  5. Interview without a subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rittenhofer, Iris

    2010-01-01

    for the accomplishment of interviews. The paper focuses on a discussion of theoretical and methodological considerations of design, approach and research strategy. These discussions are specified in relation to a project on gender and ethnicity in cultural encounters at Universities. In the paper, I introduce a research...

  6. The Subject of Exemption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamre, Bjørn; Fristrup, Tine; Christensen, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    ’s understanding of the relation between normality and deviancy. On the other hand, an examination of Danish Foucauldian disability research shows that this conception of ‘the deviant subject’ has changed over time. Hence, the present expectations of ‘the disabled’ are – more or less – influenced by contemporary...... discourses of general education. Thus, this article argues that Foucauldian disability studies could benefit from taking into account Foucauldian research in the field of general education. Until recently, the two research fields have been mutually isolated....

  7. Subject Sensitive Invariantism: In Memoriam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Subject sensitive invariantism is the view that whether a subject knows depends on what is at stake for that subject: the truth-value of a knowledge-attribution is sensitive to the subject's practical interests. I argue that subject sensitive invariantism cannot accept a very plausible principle for

  8. Subjective well-being in schizophrenia as measured with the Subjective Well-Being under Neuroleptic Treatment scale : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vothknecht, Sylke; Schoevers, Robert A.; de Haan, Lieuwe

    Objective: The Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptic Treatment scale (SWN) is the most widely used self-rating scale in recent research of subjective well-being in schizophrenia. We reviewed all available publications on relevant research of subjective well-being using the SWN, in order to

  9. Subjective well-being in schizophrenia as measured with the Subjective Well-Being under Neuroleptic Treatment scale: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vothknecht, Sylke; Schoevers, Robert A.; de Haan, Lieuwe

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptic Treatment scale (SWN) is the most widely used self-rating scale in recent research of subjective well-being in schizophrenia. We reviewed all available publications on relevant research of subjective well-being using the SWN, in order to

  10. Conducting research about sensitive subjects: The case of homeless youth [Dirigiendo la investigación acerca de asuntos sensibles: el caso de la juventud sin casa ni hogar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Helena Koller

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest and importance in addressing the logistical and ethical challenges of conducting research with disenfranchised populations, including homeless and working street youth. Drawing upon established international standards on human rights, we review legal and ethical codes for research on disenfranchised populations established by national and international research and professional organizations. Then we explore how university-based researchers can apply these standards to children and adolescents growing up in situations characterized by physical and psycho- logical neglect, lack of adult supervision, limited protection from local law enforcement, and drug use and violence. We reflect upon on our experi- ences in conducting research with vulnerable Brazilian youth to illustrate the challenges of implementing ethical guidelines in real-world situations and propose possible solutions to ethical dilemmas encountered in the field.

  11. 45 CFR 164.512 - Uses and disclosures for which an authorization or opportunity to agree or object is not required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... types of wounds or other physical injuries, except for laws subject to paragraph (b)(1)(ii) or (c)(1)(i... or receive such information for the purpose of preventing or controlling disease, injury, or disability, including, but not limited to, the reporting of disease, injury, vital events such as birth or...

  12. “White spots” of the generational analysis: Objective and subjective meaning of the age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I V Trotsuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As a rule, it goes without saying that the generational analysis is one of the major tasks of sociology, which aims to diagnose the state and trends of the social development by comparing value priorities, attitudes and behavioral patterns of the age subgroups that constitute the society. Despite the lack of a common definition of ‘generation’ in the scientific discourse and the differences in its interdisciplinary interpretations researchers agree that in sociology we define ‘generation’ not so much as a demographic group of the same age, but as a certain symbolic community whose members were raised in the similar social conditions. Unfortunately, the Russian sociology adheres to the fragmented version of generational analysis focusing mainly on the youth (less often on the working population as a whole and ‘forgets’ about the elderly and children due to several reasons, but the main ones are evident in both cases - the older generations are largely ignored, and for the youngest it is difficult to choose an adequate methodological approach. The article indicates the thematic priorities of generational analysis in its sociological format (focus on the social status and symbolic features of generations rather than on the culture of childhood, which is the subject of historical research, identifies its key concepts (generation and cohort and problems, summarized the differences of the methodological approaches (primarily quantitative and qualitative and research orientations especially in the study of older ages.

  13. How do Swiss general practitioners agree with and report adhering to a top-five list of unnecessary tests and treatments? Results of a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, Kevin; Cornuz, Jacques; Cohidon, Christine; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Senn, Nicolas

    2018-12-01

    In 2014, the 'Smarter Medicine' campaign released a top five list of unnecessary tests and treatments in Swiss primary care, such as imaging for acute low-back pain and long-term prescribing of proton pump inhibitors. Measure general practitioners' (GPs) agreement with the recommendations and self-reported adherence. Cross-sectional, online survey of GPs in the 'Swiss primary care active monitoring' (SPAM) network, which assessed awareness of 'Smarter Medicine' and views on each recommendation. Questions included whether the clinical situation is common, whether the recommendation is followed, whether GPs agree with the recommendation and reasons why the recommendation would not be followed. One-hundred-and-sixty-seven of 277 GPs from the SPAM network participated (60%), of which 104 (62%) knew of 'Smarter Medicine', including 79% in German areas, 49% in French areas and 38% in Italian areas (P < 0.001). Agreement with the five recommendations was high, with scores around nine out of 10. The proportion saying they typically follow each recommendation was 68 to 74%, except not continuing long-term PPI prescriptions without attempting dose reduction, with only 34%. Common reasons for not following the recommendations were patient or other provider requests and situations that might suggest the need for more aggressive care. Two years after the launch of the campaign, awareness and acceptance of 'Smarter Medicine' appear to be high among Swiss GPs. By self-report, the recommendations are adhered to by most of the respondents but there may be room for improvement, especially for long-term PPI prescriptions.

  14. Action research in public schools: is it research? Should it be reviewed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigler, Ellen

    2009-06-01

    TEACHERS CONDUCT IN-CLASS ACTION research to solve classroom problems. Cases of K-12 classroom action research were examined to determine which of them require ethics review. A variety of action research projects were collected and transformed into fictitious examples that could be systematically examined to answer these questions pertinent to whether ethics review is required. The resulting analysis suggested that much classroom action research is a local curriculum development activity, which solves important problems but does not require ethics review for various reasons. If it is human research, as defined in the U.S. Common Rule, and is funded by an agency covered by the Common Rule, or if it is not funded but is human research conducted within an institution that has agreed to review all human research, ethics review is legally required unless the intervention is normal educational practice. However, since some action research may trigger other legal requirements, such as the U.S. Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1979 (FERPA), it may be desirable to have some form of school-based review, but typically not human subjects ethics review.

  15. Research on the subject of air pollution and forest damage in the period from 1984 to 1995. Report on results; Forschung zum Schwerpunkt Luftverunreinigungen und Waldschaeden 1984-1995. Ergebnisbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuther, M.; Kirchner, M.; Roesel, K.; Weissgerber, K.

    1996-02-01

    In the period from 1984 to 1993 the Bavarian Project Group for Research into the Effects of Pollutants (PBWU), a division of the GSF Research Centre, coordinated research activities on forest damage on behalf of the Bavarian Ministry for Agriculture and Environment (StMLU). These activities comprised a total of approximately 80 research projects which were conducted by Bavarian reserach institutes. Most of the projects were dedicated to research into the effects of pollution. The complex interactions prevailing in forest ecosystems are reflected in the wide variety of research topics dealt with, which ranged form the determination of pollutant deposition, atmospheric chemistry, over biochemical and physiological mechanisms of pollutant uptake in tree to soil analyses taking fibrous roots and mycorrhiza into account. The field studies were conducted at the interdisciplinary research bases of the Bavarian forest damage research programme, among which the Wank research base plays an outstanding role. They were flanked by laboratory work and controlled experiments performed in the exposition chambers of the GSF. Even though numerous questions relating to material processes and to alterations in forest ecosystems remain to be solved, at lest in some research areas it is now possible to derive conclusive statements from the results of the conducted forest damage research. This report sums up the results obtained. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Projektgruppe Bazern zur Erforschungs der Wirkung von Umweltschadstoffen (PBWU) im GAS-Forschungszentrum koordinierte in den Jahren 1984 bis 1993 im Auftrag des StMLU Waldschadenforschung in Bayern. Ueber die Projektgruppe wurden insgesamt rund 80 Forschungsvorhaben durch bayerische Forschungsinstitutionen bearbeitet. Die Forschungsvorhaben waren ueberwiegend im Bereich der Wirkungsforschung angesiedelt. Entsprechend den komplexen Zusammenhaengen im Waldoekosystem reichten die Forschungsansaetze von der Ermittlung der Immissionsituation

  16. Praxis, subjectivity and sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Gómez-Muller

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A primordial aspect of the Sartrian critique of alienation concerns understanding the analytic ideology as the domination of materiality over the symbolic, in other words as the reification of the human, and therefore as anticulture. In the context of contemporary nihilism, the decoding of the mechanisms which consign praxis to the practico-inert requires a critique of the relations between the social sciences and philosophy, which in its turn implies a new theory of the relation between what Sartre calls the "notion" (the area of subjectivity and the "concept" (objectivity, From this perspective, the deconstruction of the established frontiers between the social sciences and philosophy, and between the conceptual and the narrative, is corelative to a redefinition of the relation between theory and practice.

  17. Enforcement Alert: U.S. EPA Encourages Iron and Steel Minimills to Self Audits to Address Noncompliance with Environmental Requirements; Nucor Corp. agrees to Control Practices; Provides Model for Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the enforcement alert for U.S. EPA Encourages Iron and Steel Minimills to Self Audits to Address Noncompliance with Environmental Requirements; Nucor Corp. agrees to Control Practices; Provides Model for Industry

  18. Artmaking, Subjectivity, and Signification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sydney

    2009-01-01

    Drawing upon Lacanian psychoanalytic theory, neuroscience brain research, and the practices of contemporary artists Ann Hamilton, Jasper Johns, Elizabeth Murray, and Oliver Herring, this article argues for the relevance of conscious and unconscious knowledge in artistic practice. Parallels drawn between Lacanian psychoanalytic clinical practice…

  19. Pattern of neuropathic pain induced by topical capsaicin application in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lötsch, Jörn; Dimova, Violeta; Hermens, Hanneke; Zimmermann, Michael; Geisslinger, Gerd; Oertel, Bruno G; Ultsch, Alfred

    2015-03-01

    Human experimental pain models are widely used to study drug effects under controlled conditions, but they require further optimization to better reflect clinical pain conditions. To this end, we measured experimentally induced pain in 110 (46 men) healthy volunteers. The quantitative sensory testing (QST) battery (German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain) was applied on untreated ("control") and topical capsaicin-hypersensitized ("test") skin. Z-transformed QST-parameter values obtained at the test site were compared with corresponding values published from 1236 patients with neuropathic pain using Bayesian statistics. Subjects were clustered for the resemblance of their QST pattern to neuropathic pain. Although QST parameter values from the untreated site agreed with reference values, several QST parameters acquired at the test site treated with topical capsaicin deviated from normal. These deviations resembled in 0 to 7 parameters of the QST pattern observed in patients with neuropathic pain. Higher degrees (50%-60%) of resemblance to neuropathic QST pattern were obtained in 18% of the subjects. Inclusion in the respective clusters was predictable at a cross-validated accuracy of 86.9% by a classification and regression tree comprising 3 QST parameters (mechanical pain sensitivity, wind-up ratio, and z-transformed thermal sensory limen) from the control sites. Thus, we found that topical capsaicin partly induced the desired clinical pattern of neuropathic pain in a preselectable subgroup of healthy subjects to a degree that fuels expectations that experimental pain models can be optimized toward mimicking clinical pain. The subjects, therefore, qualify for enrollment in analgesic drug studies that use highly selected cohorts to enhance predictivity for clinical analgesia.

  20. Research Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooly, Melinda; Moore, Emilee; Vallejo, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Qualitative research, especially studies in educational contexts, often brings up questions of ethics because the study design involves human subjects, some of whom are under age (e.g. data collected in primary education classrooms). It is not always easy for young researchers to anticipate where ethical issues might emerge while designing their…

  1. Remote Research

    CERN Document Server

    Tulathimutte, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Remote studies allow you to recruit subjects quickly, cheaply, and immediately, and give you the opportunity to observe users as they behave naturally in their own environment. In Remote Research, Nate Bolt and Tony Tulathimutte teach you how to design and conduct remote research studies, top to bottom, with little more than a phone and a laptop.

  2. Postural control in blind subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vinicius Soares

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. Methods: A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. Results: On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Conclusion: Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.

  3. Contributing to research via biobanks: what it means to cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Isabelle; Chabannon, Christian; Mancini, Julien; Viret, Frederic; Vey, Norbert; Julian‐Reynier, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Context and objective  Biobanks have become strategic resources for biomedical and genetic research. The aim of the present empirical qualitative study was to investigate how patients with cancer perceive and experience the process of donation to biobanks, focussing on the subjective meanings associated with their decisions when they are asked in a routine context to agree to their own biological specimens being used for research projects. Design  A qualitative study, using semi‐structured interviews to explore in depth the reasons why patients with cancer agree to participating in biobanking. Participants  Nineteen patients (aged 28–82 years) being treated for colorectal cancer or leukaemia at a French cancer centre participated in this study. Results  Contributing to biobanks was experienced here as a rewarding and empowering individual experience because of the psychological issues involved, such as feelings of hope associated with research, because it makes the relationship with researchers and clinicians less asymmetrical, revalorization of otherwise ‘wasted’ tissue, and also as an act of solidarity and reciprocity, which makes patients part of a community. Discussion and conclusion  Patients seem to regard contributing to biobanks as an act of benevolence, which they are motivated to perform because of societal welfare considerations as well as the hope of subjective benefits. Knowledge about the patients’ perspective and of the psychological rewards associated with tumour donation should be taken into account by physicians and caregivers discussing this topic with their patients. PMID:22512791

  4. A Subjective Rational Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, G. P.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of constructing a choice model of an agent with endogenous purposes of evolution is under debate. It is demonstrated that its solution requires the development of well-known methods of decision-making while taking into account the relation of action mode motivation to an agent’s ambition to implement subjectively understood interests and the environment state. The latter is submitted for consideration as a purposeful state situation model that exists only in the mind of an agent. It is the situation that is a basis for getting an insight into the agent’s ideas on the possible selected action mode results. The agent’s ambition to build his confidence in the feasibility of the action mode and the possibility of achieving the desired state requires him to use the procedures of forming an idea model based on the measured values of environment state. This leads to the gaming approach for the choice problem and its solution can be obtained on a set of trade-off alternatives.

  5. Laboratory instruction and subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Barolli

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific aspects which determined the way some groups of students conducted their work in a university laboratory, made us understand the articulation of these groups´s dynamics, from elements that were beyond the reach of cognition. In more specific terms the conduction and the maintenance of the groups student´s dynamics were explicited based on a intergame between the non conscious strategies, shared anonymously, and the efforts of the individuals in working based on their most objective task. The results and issues we have reached so far, using a reference the work developed by W.R.Bion, with therapeutical groups, gave us the possibility for understanding the dynamics of the student´s experimental work through a new approach that approximates the fields of cognition and subjectivity. This approximation led us to a deeper reflection about the issues which may be involved in the teaching process, particularly in situations which the teacher deals with the class, organised in groups.

  6. Measuring Subjective Happiness by Newly Developed Scale in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Abachizadeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Happiness as one of the main positive health indicators has drawn more attention in recent years among policy makers and health system managers. There are few studies performed to measure happiness in population-based settings in Iran. In response to this need, our study tends to assess Iranians subjective happiness in Tehran, Capital city of Iran.Materials and Methods: Present study was conducted in Tehran, Capital of Iran, with more than 7 Million populations in January 2013, using a two-step approach. In first step c conceptual framework of Iranians’ happiness was developed. In the second phase of study, a survey recruiting 700 participants was conducted. Stratified cluster sampling method was employed. Participants were recruited from all the 22 municipal divisions of Tehran as strata, proportional to the population size and its gender and age distribution. Happiness was measure by a 40-item questionnaire with scores ranged among 40 to 200.Results: Conceptual framework of Iranians’ happiness based on reviewed documents and consensus building process was the product of first step. At second step, from a pool of 700 persons, 696 (97% agreed to participate and filled out the questionnaire completely.  The mean of happiness score was 143.9 (95% confidence interval, 142.5 to 145.4. The results show that the happiness score of jobless people (135.1, 95%CI: 128.1-142.0 and widowed singles (126.6, 95%CI: 113.0-140.2 were significantly lower than other corresponding groups. There was no significant association between gender, age group, educational level as determinants and happiness.Conclusion: Happiness level of Tehranians is somewhat higher than the moderate level. This finding is consistent with findings of other conducted studies in country. However, it is not consistent with some of international reports of happiness, For instance, Happy Planet Index. Due to inadequate information, it is necessary to conduct more research to

  7. What’s the Harm? Harms in Research with Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Katherine E.; Conroy, Nicole E.; Olick, Robert S.

    2017-01-01

    Scientific advances can improve the lives of adults with intellectual disability, yet concerns that research participation may impose harm impede scientific progress. What counts as harmful can be subjective and perceptions of harm may vary among stakeholders. We studied perspectives on the harmfulness of research events among adults with intellectual disability, family members and friends, disability service providers, researchers, and Institutional Review Board members. We found considerable variance. For example, adults with intellectual disability see exclusion from research as more harmful, but most psychosocial harms as less significant than others. All stakeholders agree that having someone else make the participation decision is harmful. Findings provide insights into the concept of harm and ethical research with adults with intellectual disability. PMID:28095059

  8. What's the Harm? Harms in Research With Adults With Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Katherine E; Conroy, Nicole E; Olick, Robert S; Panel, The Project Ethics Expert

    2017-01-01

    Scientific advances can improve the lives of adults with intellectual disability, yet concerns that research participation may impose harm impede scientific progress. What counts as harmful can be subjective and perceptions of harm may vary among stakeholders. We studied perspectives on the harmfulness of research events among adults with intellectual disability, family members and friends, disability service providers, researchers, and Institutional Review Board members. We found considerable variance. For example, adults with intellectual disability see exclusion from research as more harmful, but most psychosocial harms as less significant than others. All stakeholders agree that having someone else make the participation decision is harmful. Findings provide insights into the concept of harm and ethical research with adults with intellectual disability.

  9. Towards a definition of SUBJECT in binding domains and subject ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards a definition of SUBJECT in binding domains and subject-oriented anaphors 27 and it holds little explanatory value. At best, EPP ensures that the highest argument will move to subject position. The final property I will discuss here is the fact that, in some languages (e.g. Icelandic and. Dutch), there is a subset of ...

  10. Achievement report for fiscal 1997 on the research and development of human sensory measurement application technology. 2. Subject; 1997 nendo ningen kankaku keisoku oyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2. Honronhen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Efforts continue from the previous fiscal year to analyze time-dependent correlations between changes in fatigue/alertness-related psychological quantities and combined physiological changes. Using an office space as a sample, an augmented model is completed concerning a relative method of measurement, analysis of impression structure, scaling of the degree, and simultaneous relationship analysis. The environmental compatibility indexing is improved by analyzing physical quantities and brain waves that influence psychological sensation. In the indexing of product compatibility wherein the compatibility between products and human beings is evaluated from the viewpoint of affinity or friendliness, the index structure dependent on subjectivity and physiological reaction is enhanced in precision. Application case studies in which indices of physiological sensation, environments, and product compatibility are reflected on the designs of daily-use products and living/working circumstances, and a human sensory database prototype is experimentally constructed. The indexing prototype, related to muscular fatigue due to a restrained working attitude and mental fatigue due to the load of mental activities, is enhanced in precision. In the study of product compatibility indexing technology, improvement and evaluation are carried out on the practical attitude/sight line evaluation system. (NEDO)

  11. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 1

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1EPA, 1Agrotourism, 148AHP, 148balance scorecard, 63batik tulis Rolla Junior, 23Broiler, 90business model canvas, 137business performance,32capital structure, 81cashew industry,158CHAID,106CLI,42coal transportation service,63company’s characteristics, 81competitive advantage, 12competitive strategy, 127consumer satisfaction, 51CSI, 42customer loyalty, 42customer satisfaction,42decision of visitors, 72development strategy, 23development,158entrepreneurship, 32Feasibility studies, 90FEM, 81gap analysis, 1Indonesia Stock Exchange, 177Indosat, 137investor,177Kawah Putih, 72kedai sop durian lodaya (KSDL,51klassen typology, 96leading sector, 96less cash society, 137liquidity ratio, 165location quotient, 96logistic regression, 115market, 177marketing development strategy, 148Marketing mix, 72mobile payment, 137modern and Traditional cage, 90multiple regression analyse,165multiple regression, 177net working capital, 165organic tofu product, 115Padang, 106paired comparison, 63partnership, 1, 32Pecking Order Theory, 81PLS, 81Portfolio, 96power, 32product quality, 51profitability ratio, 165Prol Tape Primadona, 127purchase decision, 115purchase intention, 51purchasing interest,115QSPM, 23, 127refilled drinking water, 106seed,1segmentation, 106SEM, 42, 51service quality, 51SMEs, 96specialty coffee, 12stock,177strategic diagnosis,137strategy, 158Sukorambi Botanic Garden, 148SWOT, 23, 127, 148, 158SWOT-AHP, 12tourists,72UD. Primadona, 127value chain, 12VRIO,12 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1Adiningsih, Kartika Puspitasari,42Aknesia, Vharessa,12Amalia, Firda Rachma,90Andati, Trias, 177Anggraeni, Lukytawati,23Asriani,158Daryanto, Arief,12, 90Djamaludin, MD., 42Djohar, Setiadi,96Fachrodji, Achmad,72Fahmi, Idqan,1, 63, 127Fasyni, Awisal,106Hubeis, Musa,148Iskandar, Dodi,51Juanda, Bambang, 165Kirbrandoko, 12, 106, 115Lumbantoruan, Dewi Margareth,96Maulana, TB Nur Ahmad,81Muksin, 148Mukti Soleh, Cecep,63Najib, Mukhamad,106Noor, Tajudin,81

  12. Subjective appraisal of music: neuroimaging evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattico, Elvira; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    In the neurosciences of music, a consensus on the nature of affective states during music listening has not been reached. What is undeniable is that subjective affective states can be triggered by various and even opposite musical events. Here we review the few recent studies on the neural determinants of subjective affective processes of music, contrasted with early automatic neural processes linked to the objective universal properties of music. In particular, we focus on the evaluative judgments of music by subjects according to its aesthetic and structural values, on music-specific emotions felt by listeners, and on conscious liking. We then discuss and seek to stimulate further research on the interplay between the emotional attributes of music and the subjective cognitive, psychological, and biographic factors, such as personality traits and cognitive strategies of listening. We finally draw the neuroscientist's attention to the sociocultural context as a relevant variable to study when considering music as an aesthetic domain.

  13. Florida Master Teacher Program: Testing Teacher Subject Matter Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavely, Carolyn; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The efforts of the Florida Institute for Instructional Research and Practice in designing, developing, and analyzing the subject area knowledge tests of the Florida Master Teacher Program are described. A total of 13 subject area examinations was developed in 1984-85, and 5 additional tests were developed the following year. For each subject area…

  14. Homeownership and subjective well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloze, Gintautas; Skak, Morten

    Favouring homeownership is an important part of housing policies in many countries. Although this may be explained by the preferences of the majority of voters, it may also be because homeownership is believed to have positive effects on individuals’ behaviour and welfare. Previous research seems...... and subjective well-being....

  15. Subjective socioeconomic status and health in cross-national comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Praeg, Patrick; Mills, Melinda C.; Wittek, Rafael

    Research has established a robust association between subjective socioeconomic status (SES) and health outcomes, which holds over and above the associations between objective markers of SES and health. Furthermore, comparative research on health inequalities has shown considerable variation in the

  16. Researcher Story: Stuttering

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Quick Links NIH News in Health NIH Research Matters NIH Record Research & Training Medical Research Initiatives Science ... work with speech therapy organizations in the United States that have provided a steady flow of subjects ...

  17. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 2

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2access credit, 93acquisition, 177AHP, 61, 82, 165arena simulation,43BMC, 69Bojonegoro, 69brand choice, 208brand image, 208brand positioning, 208bullwhip effect, 43burger buns, 1business synergy and financial reports, 177capital structure, 130cluster, 151coal reserves, 130coffee plantation, 93competitiveness, 82consumer behaviour, 33consumer complaint behavior, 101cooking spices, 1crackers, 1cross sectional analytical, 139crosstab, 101CSI, 12direct selling, 122discriminant analysis, 33economic value added, 130, 187employee motivation, 112employee performance, 112employees, 139EOQ, 23farmer decisions, 93farmer group, 52financial performance evaluation, 187financial performance, 52, 177financial ratio, 187financial report, 187fiva food, 23food crops, 151horticulture, 151imports, 151improved capital structure, 177IPA, 12leading sector, 151life insurance, 165LotteMart, 43main product, 61marketing mix, 33, 165matrix SWOT, 69MPE, 61multiple linear regression, 122muslim clothing, 197Ogun, 139Pangasius fillet, 82Pati, 93pearson correlation, 101perceived value, 208performance suppy chain, 23PLS, 208POQ, 23portfolio analyzing, 1product, 101PT SKP, 122pulp and papers, 187purchase decision, 165purchase intention, 33remuneration, 112re-purchasing decisions, 197sales performance, 122sawmill, 52SCOR, 23sekolah peternakan rakyat, 69SEM, 112SERVQUAL, 12Sido Makmur farmer groups, 93SI-PUHH Online, 12small and medium industries (IKM, 61socio-demographic, 139sport drink, 208stress, 139supply chain, 43SWOT, 82the mix marketing, 197Tobin’s Q, 130trade partnership, 52uleg chili sauce, 1 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2Achsani, Noer Azam, 177Andati, Trias, 52, 177Andihka, Galih, 208Arkeman, Yandra, 43Baga, Lukman M, 69Cahyanugroho, Aldi, 112Daryanto, Arief, 12David, Ajibade, 139Djoni, 122Fahmi, Idqan, 1Fattah, Muhammad Unggul Abdul, 61Hakim, Dedi Budiman, 187Harianto, 93Hartoyo, 101Homisah, 1Hubeis, Musa, 112Hutagaol, M. Parulian, 93Jaya, Stevana

  18. Addressing ecological effects of radiation on populations and ecosystems to improve protection of the environment against radiation: Agreed statements from a Consensus Symposium☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréchignac, François; Oughton, Deborah; Mays, Claire; Barnthouse, Lawrence; Beasley, James C.; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Bradshaw, Clare; Brown, Justin; Dray, Stéphane; Geras’kin, Stanislav; Glenn, Travis; Higley, Kathy; Ishida, Ken; Kapustka, Lawrence; Kautsky, Ulrik; Kuhne, Wendy; Lynch, Michael; Mappes, Tapio; Mihok, Steve; Møller, Anders P.; Mothersill, Carmel; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Otaki, Joji M.; Pryakhin, Evgeny; Rhodes, Olin E.; Salbu, Brit; Strand, Per; Tsukada, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the output of a consensus symposium organized by the International Union of Radioecology in November 2015. The symposium gathered an academically diverse group of 30 scientists to consider the still debated ecological impact of radiation on populations and ecosystems. Stimulated by the Chernobyl and Fukushima disasters’ accidental contamination of the environment, there is increasing interest in developing environmental radiation protection frameworks. Scientific research conducted in a variety of laboratory and field settings has improved our knowledge of the effects of ionizing radiation on the environment. However, the results from such studies sometimes appear contradictory and there is disagreement about the implications for risk assessment. The Symposium discussions therefore focused on issues that might lead to different interpretations of the results, such as laboratory versus field approaches, organism versus population and ecosystemic inference strategies, dose estimation approaches and their significance under chronic exposure conditions. The participating scientists, from across the spectrum of disciplines and research areas, extending also beyond the traditional radioecology community, successfully developed a constructive spirit directed at understanding discrepancies. From the discussions, the group has derived seven consensus statements related to environmental protection against radiation, which are supplemented with some recommendations. Each of these statements is contextualized and discussed in view of contributing to the orientation and integration of future research, the results of which should yield better consensus on the ecological impact of radiation and consolidate suitable approaches for efficient radiological protection of the environment. PMID:27058410

  19. The Effect of Environmental Change in Single-Subject Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    RD-RI725 779 THE EFFECT 0F ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE IN SINGLE - SUBJECT - i/i EXPERINENTS(U) DESNATICS INC STATE COLLEGE PA U AS K C BURNS ET AL. FEB 83 TR...238-9621 Applied Research in Statistics - Mathematics - Operations Research THE EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE IN SINGLE - SUBJECT EXPERIMENTS by Kevin...necessary to analyze repeated measurements taken on a single subject . In some situations, such an analysis may be carried out under the assumption that

  20. Criminological and criminalistic research opportunities in Spain on the subject of the spanish civil war/Oportunidades de investigación criminológica y criminalística bajo la guerra civil española

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Congram (Canadá

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Tens of thousands of Spanish and foreign non-combatants were illegally detained and executed during the Spanish Civil War and postwar repression. Their bodies are believed to lie in unmarked mass graves throughout the country. The need for criminological and criminalistic research is great. This article discusses different aspects of the work and suggests the involvement of Mexican academics and forensic practitioners. Justifications for such foreign involvement are outlined as are points of mutual Spanish-Mexican benefit. Decenas de miles de no-combatientes españoles y extranjeros fueron ilegalmente detenidos y ejecutados durante la guerra civil española y durante la represión de la posguerra. Muchos de los cuerpos yacen en fosas comunes no marcadas en todo el país. La necesidad de investigación criminológica y criminalística es grande en este contexto. Este articulo habla de aspectos diferentes del trabajo y sugiere la participación de académicos y forenses mexicanos. Se resumen las justificaciones para tal colaboración y los aspectos del beneficio mutuo Español-Mexicano.