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Sample records for subjects reporting intake

  1. Accuracy of food intake reporting in obese subjects with metabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Mette; Tonstad, Serena

    2006-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the accuracy of reported energy intake according to a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and dietary records (DR) in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome risk factors. Subjects were twenty-three men and twenty-seven women with mean BMI of 35.7 (range 30.5-43.8) kg/m(2) who participated in a dietary interview based on a FFQ and completed weighed DR. Total energy expenditure was measured with the doubly labelled water method. Total energy expenditure, measured RMR and physical activity level did not differ between under-reporters (50 % of the sample) and non-under-reporters. Under-reporters had lower median intake of sweets, desserts and snacks than non-under-reporters (100 v. 161 g/d (P = 0.0008) and 61 v. 128 g/d (P = 0.0002) according to the FFQ and DR, respectively). The DR also showed lower energy density (6.7 (sd 1.3) v. 7.9 (SD 1.6) kJ/g; P = 0.0064), lower intake of sugary drinks (0 v. 167 g/d; P = 0.0063) and higher scores for dietary restraint (9.0 (sd 5.0) v. 6.1 (SD 3.5); P = 0.0285) in under-reporters. Energy density was associated with accuracy according to the FFQ (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (RS) 0.406; P = 0.0034) and the DR (RS 0.537; P sweets, desserts and snacks measured by the FFQ was positively associated with accuracy (R(2)adjusted 0.46 (95 % CI 0.32, 0.70)). According to the DR, consumption of sweets, desserts and snacks was also associated with accuracy, as was dietary restraint (inversely) (R(2)adjusted 0.67 (95 % CI 0.54, 0.83)). In obese subjects with metabolic risk factors, intake of sweets, desserts and snacks, bread and dietary restraint were determinants of reporting accuracy.

  2. Under-reporting of energy intake affects estimates of nutrient intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmiran, Parvin; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2006-01-01

    Under-reporting of energy intake is a common problem in nutritional epidemiological studies. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of under-reporting of energy intake on the estimates of nutrient intakes. In this cross-sectional study, 901 subjects aged >16 y were randomly selected from participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Dietary intake was assessed by means of two 24-hour dietary recalls. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) was determined according to age, sex and weight. The ratio of energy intake (EI) to BMR was calculated. Under-reporting of energy intake was defined as EI:BMRintake as EI:BMR = 1.35-2.39. To obtain energy-adjusted amounts of macro- and micronutrients, the residual method was used. Under-reporting of energy intake was revealed in 31% of the subjects and was more common among females (40%) than males (19%, P intakes of macro- and micronutrients (except for B12 in females and B6 and zinc in both genders) were lower in under-reporters, but following adjustment, no significant differences were seen. The results have revealed that under-reporting of energy intake affects the estimates of nutrient intakes; thus in studies aimed at determining the association between a certain chronic disease and a nutrient intake, we suggest adjustments be made for energy intake.

  3. Electroretinography in healthy subjects in relation to systemic glucocorticoid intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappelgaard, Per; Hansen, Katrine B; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2012-01-01

    This study examined electroretinographic function in healthy subjects before and after prednisolone intake. To separate the effect of prednisolone on the retina from the potentially confounding hyperglycemia-inducing effect of prednisolone, electroretinography was made while fasting and at a pre-...

  4. Slower eating speed lowers energy intake in normal-weight but not overweight/obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Meena; Copeland, Jennifer; Dart, Lyn; Adams-Huet, Beverley; James, Ashlei; Rhea, Debbie

    2014-03-01

    The effect of eating speed on energy intake by weight status is unclear. To examine whether the effect of eating speed on energy intake is the same in normal-weight and overweight/obese subjects. The effect of slow and fast eating speed on meal energy intake was assessed in a randomized crossover design. Thirty-five normal-weight (aged 33.3±12.5 years; 14 women and 21 men) subjects and 35 overweight/obese (44.1±13.0 years; 22 women and 13 men) subjects were studied on 2 days during lunch in a metabolic kitchen. The subjects consumed the same meal, ad libitum, but at different speeds during the two eating conditions. The weight and energy content of the food consumed was assessed. Perceived hunger and fullness were assessed at specific times using visual analog scales. Effect of eating speed on ad libitum energy intake, eating rate (energy intake/meal duration), energy density (energy intake per gram of food and water consumed), and satiety were assessed by mixed-model repeated measures analysis. Meal energy intake was significantly lower in the normal-weight (804.5±438.9 vs 892.6±330.2 kcal; P=0.04) but not the overweight/obese (667.3±304.1 vs 724.8±355.5 kcal; P=0.18) subjects during the slow vs the fast eating condition. Both groups had lower meal energy density (P=0.005 and P=0.001, respectively) and eating rate (Peating condition. Both groups reported less hunger (P=0.01 and P=0.03, respectively), and the normal-weight subjects reported more fullness (P=0.02) at 60 minutes after the meal began during the slow compared with the fast eating condition. There was no eating speed by weight status interaction for any of the variables. Eating slowly significantly lowered meal energy intake in the normal-weight but not in the overweight/obese group. It lowered eating rate and energy density in both groups. Eating slowly led to lower hunger ratings in both groups and increased fullness ratings in the normal-weight group at 60 minutes from when the meal began

  5. Dairy intake-related intentions, attitudes, subjective norms and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intake of dairy-related nutrients of South Africans is low. Nutrition professionals may influence dietary behaviour. Their own disposition related to dairy is unknown, yet important in promoting the “have milk, maas or yoghurt every day” guideline. Aim: Guided by the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), this study ...

  6. Effect of food intake on pharmacokinetics of oral artemisinin in healthy Vietnamese subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dien, T. K.; de Vries, P. J.; Khanh, N. X.; Koopmans, R.; Binh, L. N.; Duc, D. D.; Kager, P. A.; van Boxtel, C. J.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of food intake on the pharmacokinetics of artemisinin was studied with six healthy Vietnamese male subjects. In a crossover study, artemisinin capsules (500 mg) were administered with and without food after an overnight fast. Plasma samples were obtained up to 24 h after intake of each

  7. Subjective food intake ability related to oral health-related quality of life and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S-H; Kim, J-S; Cha, J-Y; Lee, K-J; Yu, H-S; Hwang, C-J

    2016-09-01

    Reduced food intake ability can restrict an individual's choice of foods and might have a significant impact on the individual's quality of life and mental health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlations between self-reported masticatory ability and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL) and psychological health. The study included 72 (26 men, 46 women) adults with a mean age of 26·4 ± 8·6 years. Each participant completed the key subjective food intake ability (KFIA) test for five key foods, the Korean version of the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14K) and three questionnaires for measuring anxiety, depression and self-esteem. The participants were distributed into two groups by sex (a mean age of 23·9 ± 5·2 for men and 27·9 ± 9·8 for women) and by the median KFIA score. There were no significant differences in any of the variables according to sex. Thirty-two participants (12 men, 20 women) in the lower KFIA group had a higher total OHIP-14K (P food intake ability is associated with a poor oral health-related quality of life and higher depression level. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Food and nutrient intake of Irish community-dwelling elderly subjects: who is at nutritional risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, S E; Jeffery, I B; Ross, R P; Stanton, C; O'Toole, P W; O'Connor, E M; Fitzgerald, G F

    2014-01-01

    To assess the dietary intakes of Irish community-dwelling elderly individuals, participating in the ELDERMET project. Cross-sectional study. Cork city and county region of southern Ireland. Two hundred and eight (94 males, 114 females) community-dwelling subjects aged 64-93 yrs. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Anthropometric data were recorded. Nutritional status was assessed using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). A high rate of overweight/obesity was observed in this population group. Consumption of energy-dense, low-nutrient foods was excessive among this population group. Older elderly subjects (≥75 yrs) consumed significantly (Pelderly (64-74 yrs). Intakes of dietary fat and saturated fat were high while dairy food consumption was inadequate in both males and females. Elderly females typically had a more nutrient-dense diet than males. A considerable proportion of subjects, particularly males, had inadequate intakes of calcium, magnesium, vitamin D, folate, zinc and vitamin C. The data indicate that the diet of Irish community-dwelling elderly individuals is sub-optimal with respect to nutrient intake, and excessive in terms of fat intake, with implications for the health status of this population group. Reductions in dietary fat and increased low fat dairy food intakes are recommended for the prevention of diet-related disease in older persons. In addition, strategies to improve a number of sub-optimal micronutrient intakes need to be developed and implemented, particularly among elderly males.

  9. Dairy intake-related intentions, attitudes, subjective norms and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: An electronic survey (Qualtrics Online Survey Software) of conveniently sampled Association for Dietetics in South Africa (ADSA) and Nutrition Society of South Africa (NSSA) members determined their dairy-related behaviour, intentions, attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control regarding ...

  10. Dietary intake of subjects with diabetes is inadequate in Switzerland: the CoLaus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Vollenweider, Peter; Grange, Matthieu; Guessous, Idris; Waeber, Gérard

    2017-04-01

    To characterize the dietary intake of subjects aged 40-80 years according to self-reported diabetes and presence of an anti-diabetic diet. Cross-sectional study conducted between 2009 and 2012 on 4289 participants (2274 women) living in Lausanne. Of the 299 (7 %) participants with self-reported diabetes, only 151 (51 %) reported an anti-diabetic diet. Compared to participants not reporting diabetes, participants with self-reported diabetes (with or without a diet) had a higher consumption of artificial sweeteners (0.3 ± 0.7 vs. 0.4 ± 0.8 and 0.8 ± 1.0 times/day) and a lower consumption of honey/jam (mean ± standard deviation: 0.5 ± 0.5 vs. 0.4 ± 0.4 and 0.4 ± 0.4 times/day) or sugar (0.6 ± 0.9 vs. 0.4 ± 0.7 and 0.2 ± 0.5 times/day) for participants not reporting diabetes, participants with self-reported diabetes not on a diet and on a diet, respectively. Compared to participants not on a diet, participants on a diet had a higher consumption of vegetables (1.8 ± 1.3 vs. 1.4 ± 1.0 portions/day), while no differences were found regarding all other food groups and nutrients. Participants with self-reported diabetes on a diet had a higher consumption of meat (5.6 ± 3.6 vs. 4.8 ± 2.9 portions/week) and a lower consumption of simple carbohydrates (21.0 ± 7.9 vs. 23.5 ± 8.4 % total energy intake) than participants not reporting diabetes. People with diabetes eat less simple carbohydrates, but do not comply with current advice on fish, nuts, fruits and vegetables. Improvement of the dietary intake in persons with diabetes in Switzerland is needed.

  11. Self-Reported Appetite and Intake Adequacy In Patients With Non-dialysis Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chan

    2012-06-01

    The positive predictive value (95%CI of appetite rating for energy and protein were 0.37 (0.32–0.41 and 0.90 (0.86–0.93 respectively. In conclusion, while self-reported appetite scores were useful in ranking energy and protein intakes, subjective reporting of good appetite was associated with adequate protein but not energy intake. Report of a good appetite does not always mean adequate intake in non-dialysis ESKD patients with high symptom burden.

  12. Electroretinography in healthy subjects in relation to systemic glucocorticoid intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappelgaard, Per; Hansen, Katrine B; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2012-01-01

    to clamped hyperglycemia, neither before, nor after prednisolone (P > 0.05). The stability of ffERG performance in the face of shifting glycemia levels, which differs from what has been found in diabetes, was not influenced by the mild diabetogenic effect of the intervention on insulin resistance (P = 0......-caloric diet and by the reduction of physical activity. Full-field electroretinography (ffERG) demonstrated no significant change (P ....011) and post-prandial glycemia (P = 0.023). We conclude that prednisolone had no detectable effect on the ffERG in healthy lean men in this study. Retinal function may be less sensitive to changes in glycemia in healthy subjects than in people with diabetes, a characteristic that was unchanged by a short...

  13. Increasing water intake by 2 liters reduces crystallization risk indexes in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Guéronnière, Viviane; Le Bellego, Laurent; Jimenez, Inmaculada Buendia; Dohein, Oriane; Tack, Ivan; Daudon, Michel

    2011-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of drinking 2 additional litres of water/day on several urinary risk factors for lithiasis in healthy subjects, through measurement of crystallization risk indices (Tiselius CRI). 48 healthy subjects, aged 25 to 50 were studied for urinary parameters including CRI in the laboratory ward, for 24 hours. After this first period, they were randomized either to a 2L/d additional water intake (treated group) or usual fluid consumption (control group) for a 6 days period, which ended by a second measurement period in the laboratory ward for 24 hours. Total additional water intake was actually 1.3L/d on average in treated subjects, because subjects decreased other usual sources of fluid intake. In 24 hour urine, Tiselius CRI varied differently among treated subjects and controls between the 2 periods; male controls subjects experienced much higher values (above 2 in average in first morning urine sample) in the second period (p = 0.05). Of interest, in a transversal analysis, we observed a positive relation between BMI or waist circumference on the one hand, and with 24 hour urea excretion or osmotic load on the other hand. These results show a beneficial effect of a final 1.3L additional water intake on Tiselius CRI in healthy subjects.

  14. Reduced sleep duration affects body composition, dietary intake and quality of life in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Lubrano, Carla; Gnessi, Lucio; Marocco, Chiara; Di Lazzaro, Luca; Polidoro, Giampaolo; Luisi, Federica; Merola, Gianluca; Mariani, Stefania; Migliaccio, Silvia; Lenzi, Andrea; Donini, Lorenzo M

    2016-09-01

    Sleep duration has emerged as a crucial factor affecting body weight and feeding behaviour. The aim of our study was to explore the relationship among sleep duration, body composition, dietary intake, and quality of life (QoL) in obese subjects. Body composition was assessed by DXA. "Sensewear Armband" was used to evaluate sleep duration. SF-36 questionnaire was used to evaluate quality of life (QoL). A 3-day dietary record was administered. Subjects were divided into 2 groups: sleep duration > and ≤300 min/day. 137 subjects (105 women and 32 men), age: 49.8 ± 12.4 years, BMI: 38.6 ± 6.7 kg/m(2), were enrolled. Sleep duration was ≤300 min in 30.6 % of subjects. Absolute and relative fat mass (FM) (40.5 ± 9 vs. 36.5 ± 9.1 kg; 40.2 ± 4.7 vs. 36.9 ± 5.6 %), and truncal fat mass (19.2 ± 6.1 vs. 16.6 ± 5 kg; 38.6 ± 5.3 vs. 35.2 ± 5.5 %) were higher in subjects sleeping ≤300 min when compared to their counterparts (all p BMI was observed (p = 0.077). Even though energy intake was not different between groups, subjects sleeping ≤300 min reported a higher carbohydrate consumption per day (51.8 ± 5.1 vs. 48.4 ± 9.2 %, p = 0.038). SF-36 total score was lower in subjects sleeping ≤300 min (34.2 ± 17.8 vs. 41.4 ± 12.9, p = 0.025). Sleep duration was negatively associated with FM (r = -0.25, p = 0.01) and SF-36 total score (r = -0.31, p sleep duration and SF-36 total score was confirmed by the regression analysis after adjustment for BMI and fat mass (R = 0.43, R (2) = 0.19, p = 0.012). Reduced sleep duration negatively influences body composition, macronutrient intake, and QoL in obese subjects.

  15. Vinegar intake reduces body weight, body fat mass, and serum triglyceride levels in obese Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Tomoo; Kishi, Mikiya; Fushimi, Takashi; Ugajin, Shinobu; Kaga, Takayuki

    2009-08-01

    Acetic acid (AcOH), a main component of vinegar, recently was found to suppress body fat accumulation in animal studies. Hence we investigated the effects of vinegar intake on the reduction of body fat mass in obese Japanese in a double-blind trial. The subjects were randomly assigned to three groups of similar body weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference. During the 12-week treatment period, the subjects in each group ingested 500 ml daily of a beverage containing either 15 ml of vinegar (750 mg AcOH), 30 ml of vinegar (1,500 mg AcOH), or 0 ml of vinegar (0 mg AcOH, placebo). Body weight, BMI, visceral fat area, waist circumference, and serum triglyceride levels were significantly lower in both vinegar intake groups than in the placebo group. In conclusion, daily intake of vinegar might be useful in the prevention of metabolic syndrome by reducing obesity.

  16. Long-term wheat germ intake beneficially affects plasma lipids and lipoproteins in hypercholesterolemic human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cara, L; Armand, M; Borel, P; Senft, M; Portugal, H; Pauli, A M; Lafont, H; Lairon, D

    1992-02-01

    In previous short-term studies in rats and humans, the ingestion of raw wheat germ lowered plasma triglycerides and cholesterol. Thus, the present study was designed to investigate the possible long-term effects of wheat germ intake. Diet supplementation with raw wheat germ or partially defatted wheat germ was tested in two separate groups of 10 and 9 free-living human subjects, respectively. They all exhibited hypercholesterolemia (6.14-9.67 mmol/L cholesterol) and 11 had hypertriglyceridemia. None was diabetic. Fasting blood samples were taken at the beginning of the study, after 4 wk of 20 g/d wheat germ intake, after 14 additional weeks of 30 g/d wheat germ intake and after 12 wk without any supplementation. Dietary records were kept for seven and three consecutive days, before and during the wheat germ intake periods, respectively. Raw wheat germ intake significantly decreased plasma cholesterol (-8.7%) and tended to reduce VLDL cholesterol (-19.6%) after 4 wk. After 14 additional weeks, plasma cholesterol (-7.2%) and LDL cholesterol (-15.4%) remained lower and plasma triglycerides (-11.3%) tended to be lower. The apo B:apo A1 ratio significantly decreased after both periods. Partially defatted wheat germ transiently decreased plasma triglycerides and cholesterol after a 4-wk intake. The present data indicate that wheat germ reduces cholesterolemia in the long term and could play a beneficial role in the dietary management of type IIa and IIb hyperlipidemia.

  17. Cocoa intake and arterial stiffness in subjects with cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recio-Rodríguez José

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To analyze the relationship of cocoa intake to central and peripheral blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and carotid intima-media thickness in subjects with some cardiovascular risk factor. Findings Design: A cross-sectional study of 351 subjects (mean age 54.76 years, 62.4% males. Measurements: Intake of cocoa and other foods using a food frequency questionnaire, central and peripheral (ambulatory and office blood pressure, central and peripheral augmentation index, pulse wave velocity, ambulatory arterial stiffness index, carotid intima-media thickness, and ankle-brachial index. Results: Higher pulse wave velocity and greater cardiovascular risk were found in non-cocoa consumers as compared to high consumers (p Conclusions In subjects with some cardiovascular risk factors, cocoa consumption does not imply improvement in the arterial stiffness values. Trial Registration Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT01325064.

  18. Stress augments food 'wanting' and energy intake in visceral overweight subjects in the absence of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Sofie G; Rutters, Femke; Born, Jurriaan M; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2011-05-03

    Stress may induce eating in the absence of hunger, possibly involving changes in food reward, i.e. 'liking' and 'wanting'. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of acute psychological stress on food reward, and on energy intake, in visceral overweight (VO) vs. normal weight (NW) subjects. Subjects (27 NW, age=26 ± 9 yrs, BMI=22 ± 2 kg/m²; 15 VO, age=36 ± 12 yrs, BMI=28 ± 1 kg/m²) came to the university twice, fasted, for either a rest or stress condition (randomized cross-over design). Per test-session 'liking' and 'wanting' for 72 items divided in six categories (bread, filling, drinks, dessert, snacks, and stationery (control)) were measured twice, each time followed by a wanted meal. Appetite profile (visual analogue scales, VAS), heart rate, mood state and level of anxiety (POMS/STAI questionnaires) were measured. High hunger and low satiety (64 ± 19, 22 ± 20 mmVAS) confirmed the fasted state. Elevated heart rate, anger and confusion scores (p ≤ 0.03) confirmed the stress vs. rest condition. Consumption of the first meal decreased hunger, increased satiety, and decreased ranking of 'liking' of bread vs. increased ranking of 'liking' of the control (psnacks, energy intake, carbohydrate and fat intake for the second meal stress vs. rest relatively increased in VO vs. decreased in NW (pstress vs. rest VO showed a 6 ± 9% increase in percentage of daily energy requirements consumed over the two meals (p=0.01). To conclude, visceral overweight subjects showed stress-induced food intake in the absence of hunger, resulting in an increased energy intake. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Frequency of pancreatographic changes in subjects with upper abdominal symptoms and its relationship with alcohol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, G; Antolini, G; Bovo, P; Cavallini, G; Fratta Pasini, A; Lavarini, E; Piubello, W; Rigo, L; Scuro, L A

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the endoscopic retrograde pancreatographic (ERP) findings in respect of alcohol intake. Two hundred eleven patients consecutively submitted to ERP for upper abdominal symptomatology, with suspected pancreatic disease (SPD; 79 patients) or without (NSPD; 132 subjects), were classified in 3 groups of different ethanol intake: 1 (0-40 g/day), 2 (41-80 g/day), 3 (more than 80 g/day). The following conclusions could be drawn: (1) the frequency of ERP changes increases with the increase of alcohol intake both in SPD (34.6-63.8%) and NSPD (8.2-29.8%); (2) the frequency of pancreatic cancer was not related to alcohol intake, but in NSPD it was about 2-fold that in SPD: 12/132 (9.1%) vs 4/79 (5.06%); (3) a pancreatic morphological assessment, by means of ERP or other imaging techniques, should be performed in every subject with upper abdominal pain of unknown origin both in alcoholics (for the high incidence of chronic pancreatitis) and in non-alcoholics (for the risk of pancreatic cancer, which approximates 10%).

  20. Genetic variants in human CLOCK associate with total energy intake and cytokine sleep factors in overweight subjects (GOLDN population).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaulet, Marta; Lee, Yu-Chi; Shen, Jian; Parnell, Laurence D; Arnett, Donna K; Tsai, Michael Y; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Ordovas, Jose M

    2010-03-01

    Despite the importance of total energy intake in circadian system regulation, no study has related human CLOCK gene polymorphisms and food-intake measures. The aim of this study was to analyze the associations of CLOCK single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with food intake and to explore the specific role of the cytokine system. A total of 1100 individual participants in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) study were included. Dietary intake was estimated with a validated questionnaire. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-2 soluble receptor-alpha (IL-2sR-alpha) and adiponectin plasma concentrations were measured. Our results showed that four of five CLOCK SNPs selected were significantly associated with total energy intake (PSNP rs3749474, the energy intake and total fat, protein and carbohydrate intakes were significantly higher in minor allele carriers than in non-carriers. Frequency of the minor allele was greater in subjects with high energy intake than in those with low intake. Subjects with the minor allele were 1.33 times more likely to have high energy intake than non-carriers (95% CI 1.09-1.72, P=0.0350). All CLOCK SNPs were associated with plasma cytokine values, in particular with those that were highly correlated with energy intake: MCP1, IL-6 and adiponectin. Interestingly, minor allele carriers with high energy intake showed decreased cytokine values, which could be related with a lower anorectic effect and decreased sleep in these subjects. In conclusion, we show a novel association of genetic variation at CLOCK with total energy intake, which was particularly relevant for SNP rs3749474. Associations could be mediated through the alteration of cytokine levels that may influence energy intake and sleep pattern.

  1. Under-reporting of dietary energy intake in five populations of the African diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcholski, Lindsay; Luke, Amy; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Dugas, Lara R; Kettmann, Elizabeth; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A; Cooper, Richard S; Schoeller, Dale A

    2015-02-14

    Studies on the role of diet in the development of chronic diseases often rely on self-report surveys of dietary intake. Unfortunately, many validity studies have demonstrated that self-reported dietary intake is subject to systematic under-reporting, although the vast majority of such studies have been conducted in industrialised countries. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not systematic reporting error exists among the individuals of African ancestry (n 324) in five countries distributed across the Human Development Index (HDI) scale, a UN statistic devised to rank countries on non-income factors plus economic indicators. Using two 24 h dietary recalls to assess energy intake and the doubly labelled water method to assess total energy expenditure, we calculated the difference between these two values ((self-report - expenditure/expenditure) × 100) to identify under-reporting of habitual energy intake in selected communities in Ghana, South Africa, Seychelles, Jamaica and the USA. Under-reporting of habitual energy intake was observed in all the five countries. The South African cohort exhibited the highest mean under-reporting ( - 52·1% of energy) compared with the cohorts of Ghana ( - 22·5%), Jamaica ( - 17·9%), Seychelles ( - 25·0%) and the USA ( - 18·5%). BMI was the most consistent predictor of under-reporting compared with other predictors. In conclusion, there is substantial under-reporting of dietary energy intake in populations across the whole range of the HDI, and this systematic reporting error increases according to the BMI of an individual.

  2. Relationship among self-reported fatigue, dietary taurine intake, and dietary habits in Korean college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So Yoon; You, Jeong Soon; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among -self-reported fatigue, dietary taurine intake, and dietary habits in Korean college students. The subjects were 239 college students (142 male and 97 female) residing in the Incheon, Korea. Self-reported fatigue score was determined using a questionnaire of "Subjective Symptoms of Fatigue Test." The average physical fatigue score (p ;students were significantly higher compared to male students. Average dietary taurine intake in male and female was 102.5 mg/day and 98.0 mg/day, respectively. There was no significant correlation between self-reported fatigue score and dietary taurine intake. However, there was significantly negative correlation between self-reported fatigue scores and dietary habits such as "eating meals at regular times" (p ;eating foods such as meat, fish, eggs, and beans more than two times a day" (p ;eating greenish yellow vegetable every meal" (p ;eating sweet foods everyday" (p ;habit in Korean college students, and a further large-scale study is needed about relationship of self-reported fatigue and dietary taurine intake.

  3. Dishware size and snack food intake in a between-subjects laboratory experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Sheen, Florence; Harrold, Jo; Boyland, Emma; Halford, Jason C G; Masic, Una

    2016-03-01

    The use of smaller dishware as a way of reducing food consumption has intuitive appeal and is recommended to the general public. Recent experimental studies have failed to find an effect of plate size on food intake, although the methods used across studies have varied. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect that bowl size had on snack food consumption in a 'typical' snacking context (snacking while watching television). Between-subjects. Laboratory experiment. Sixty-one adult participants served themselves and ate popcorn while watching television. Participants were randomly assigned to serve themselves with and eat from either a small or a large bowl. The use of a smaller bowl size did not reduce food consumption. Unexpectedly, participants in the small bowl condition tended to consume more popcorn (34·0 g) than participants in the large bowl condition (24·9 g; 37 % increase, d=0·5), although the statistical significance of this difference depended on whether analyses were adjusted to account for participant characteristics (e.g. gender) associated with food intake (P=0·02) or not (P=0·07). Counter to widely held belief, the use of a smaller bowl did not reduce snack food intake. Public health recommendations advising the use of smaller dishware to reduce food consumption are premature, as this strategy may not be effective.

  4. Total Dietary Fiber, and Selected Vegetable, Fruit, Legume and Cereal Fiber Intake and Risk of Heart Attack in Periodontitis Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Wood

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological studies have found an association between periodontal disease and coronary artery disease(Arbes, Slade et al. 1999; Beck, Elter et al. 2001; Genco, Offenbacher et al. 2002, and have even implicated periodontal disease as a risk factor(Arbes, Slade et al. 1999; Beck, Elter et al. 2001, however have not proven causality(Hujoel, Drangholt et al. 2000. Although dietary amounts, sources, and types (soluble versus insoluble of fiber have been shown to reduce the risk of heart attack (Liu, Buring et al. 2002; Negri, Vecchia et al. 2003, this author is unaware of studies that have examined the association between food sources of dietary fiber and heart attack risk in subjects with periodontitis.This study was designed to determine whether total dietary fiber and fiber from different plant sources (vegetables, fruits, legumes, or cereals modified self-reported HA risk, as well as acute-phase inflammatory responses in subjects with periodontitis using NHANES III data.Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the association between total dietary fiber intake levels, and selected vegetables, fruits, legumes, and cereal fiber intake and the risk of self-reported history of heart attack (HA in periodontitis subjects using data available in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III.Materials and Methods: Adult participants in NHANES III were used in this study. Zero to thirty three (0-33 percent of sites with periodontal attachment loss > 3 mm was considered a healthy periodontium, while greater than thirty three percent (>33 of sites with periodontal attachment loss of > 3 mm as periodontitis. The outcome variable was the self-reported history of HA. Total dietary fiber, and monthly selected vegetable, fruit, legume and cereal consumption were divided into low and adequate levels. Data was analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, ANOVA and multivariate analyses using SPSS ®. P<0.05 was used to

  5. Influence of nopal intake upon fasting glycemia in type II diabetics and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati, A C; Gordillo, B E; Altamirano, P; Ariza, C R; Cortés-Franco, R; Chávez-Negrete, A; Islas-Andrade, S

    1991-01-01

    To assess if the acute hypoglycemic effect of nopal which occurs in diabetic patients also appears in healthy individuals, 500 g of nopal stems (O. streptacantha Lem.) were given orally to 14 healthy volunteers and to 14 patients with NIDDM. Serum glucose and insulin levels were measured at 0, 60, 120 and 180 minutes after nopal ingestion. A control test was performed with the intake of 400 ml of water. The intake of nopal by the NIDDM group was followed by a significant reduction of serum glucose and insulin concentration reaching 40.8 + 4.6 mg/dl (n = 14) (mean+SEM) and 7.8 + 1.5 uU/ml (n = 7) less than basal value, respectively, at 180 minutes. (P less than 0.001 vs control test). No significant changes were noticed in the healthy group as compared with the control test (P greater than 0.05). Acute hypoglycemic effect of nopal was observed in patients with NIDDM but not in healthy subjects, thus the mechanisms of this effect differs from current hypoglycemic agents.

  6. Body composition and food intake in elderly women subjected to resistance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARBOSA Aline Rodrigues

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the effects of a 10-wk resistance training program on body composition in 11 elderly women (68.91 ± 5.43 yrs. A control group of 8 women (65.13 ± 4.09 yrs served as inactive control. The body fat percentage (skinfold thickness and bioelectrical impedance, body-circumference measurements and sum of skinfolds were assessed before and after 10 weeks. Food intake was assessed immediately before week 0 and week 10, from 3-day diet records (energy, protein, carbohydrate and fat. After initial tests, the subjects began a training program consisting of eight exercises for the whole body. The training program only resulted in decrease in sum of skinfolds (p<=0.05. No significant changes in any variable were observed in the control group. In conclusion, the training program did not reduce body fat percentage, although it reduced sum of skinfolds.

  7. Increased intake of fruits and vegetables in overweight subjects: effects on body weight, body composition, metabolic risk factors and dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvi, A; Karlström, B; Vessby, B; Becker, W

    2016-05-28

    A diet rich in fruits and vegetables has been associated with several health benefits. However, the effects on body weight (BW) and metabolic markers are not fully known. The present study investigated the effects of increased intake of fruits and vegetables in overweight and obese men and women on dietary habits, anthropometry and metabolic control. In a 16-week controlled intervention, thirty-four men and thirty-four women aged 35-65 years (BMI>27 kg/m2) were randomised to an intervention (IN) or a reference (RG) group. All participants received general dietary advice, and subjects in the IN group received fruits and vegetables for free, of which ≥500 g had to be eaten daily. BW, waist circumference (WC), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), plasma insulin, blood glucose, glycated Hb (HbA1c), serum lipids, blood pressure, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity, urinary isoprostane (iso-8-PGF 2α) and serum carotenoids were measured. Diet was assessed using 3-d weighed food records. In all, thirty subjects in the IN group and thirty-two in the RG group completed the intervention. Intake of fruits and vegetables doubled in the IN group, whereas intake of fruits increased in the RG group. Serum α- and β-carotene concentrations and intakes of folate and vitamin C increased significantly in the IN group. Energy intake, BW, WC and SAD decreased significantly in both groups. Supine systolic blood pressure decreased significantly in the IN group, with no between-group differences. No significant changes were observed for other metabolic markers. Provision of fruits and vegetables led to substantially increased intakes, with subsequent favourable changes in anthropometry and insulin levels, which tended to be more pronounced in the IN group. The observed improvements may, in combination with improved nutritional markers, have health benefits in the long term.

  8. Relation between food intake and visual analogue scale ratings of appetite and other sensations in healthy older and young subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, B A; Sturm, K; MacIntosh, C G; Feinle, C; Horowitz, M; Chapman, I M

    2004-02-01

    Visual analogue scales are widely used in appetite research, yet the validity of these scales to evaluate appetite and mood has not been assessed in older subjects. The aim of this study was to determine the relations between food intake and visual analogue scale (VAS) ratings of appetite and nonappetite sensations in healthy older and young subjects. Retrospective combined analysis of four single-blind, randomised, controlled appetite studies. All studies were conducted in the University of Adelaide, Department of Medicine, Adelaide, Australia. A total of 45 healthy young men (n=24) and women (n=21) aged 18-35 y and 45 healthy older men (n=24) and women (n=21) aged 65-85 y were recruited by advertisement. Oral, intraduodenal or intravenous administration of treatments which suppressed food intake were compared to control. Up to 90 min after treatment, a test meal was offered and subjects ate freely for between 30 and 60 min. Perceptions were assessed by 100-mm visual analogue scales administered at regular intervals. Food intake at the test meal was positively related to perceptions of hunger, drowsiness, and calmness at both baseline and premeal (r>0.16, P 0.2, P<0.05) in both older and young subjects. Food intake was related to VAS ratings at least as strongly, if not more so, in older as in young subjects. These observations (i) confirm that food intake is related to perceptions of hunger and fullness as assessed by VAS in healthy older and young subjects, and (ii) suggest that sensations, not obviously associated with appetite, including 'drowsiness' and 'calmness', are also associated with food intake.

  9. The effect of duration of exercise at the ventilation threshold on subjective appetite and short-term food intake in 9 to 14 year old boys and girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pencharz Paul B

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of exercise on subjective appetite and short-term food intake has received little investigation in children. Despite a lack of reported evaluation of short-duration activity programs, they are currently being implemented in schools as a means to benefit energy balance. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of duration of exercise at the ventilation threshold (VeT on subjective appetite and short-term food intake in normal weight boys and girls aged 9 to 14 years. Methods On 4 separate mornings and in random order, boys (n = 14 and girls (n = 15 completed 2 rest or 2 exercise treatments for 15 (short-duration; SD or 45 min (long-duration; LD at their previously measured VeT, 2 h after a standardized breakfast. Subjective appetite was measured at regular intervals during the study sessions and food intake from a pizza meal was measured 30 min after rest or exercise. Results An increase in average appetite, desire to eat, and hunger (p Conclusion Neither SD nor LD exercise at the VeT increased short-term food intake and SD exercise attenuated increases in appetite. Thus, SD exercise programs in schools may be an effective strategy for maintaining healthier body weights in children.

  10. The ratio of animal protein intake to potassium intake is a predictor of bone resorption in space flight analogues and in ambulatory subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Sara R.; Hargens, Alan R.; Smith, Scott M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bone loss is a critical concern for space travelers, and a dietary countermeasure would be of great benefit. Dietary protein and potassium-associated bicarbonate precursors may have opposing effects on the acid-base balance in the body and therefore on bone loss. OBJECTIVE: In 2 studies, we examined the ability of dietary protein and potassium to predict markers of bone metabolism. DESIGN: In the first study, 8 pairs of male identical twins were assigned to 1 of 2 groups: bed rest (sedentary, or SED, group) or bed rest with supine treadmill exercise in a lower-body negative pressure chamber (EX group). In a second study, groups of 4 subjects lived in a closed chamber for 60 or 91 d, and dietary data were collected for two or three 5-d sessions. Urinary calcium, N-telopeptide, and pyridinium cross-links were measured before bed rest; on bed rest days 5-6, 12-13, 19-20, and 26-27; and daily during the chamber studies. Data were analyzed by Pearson's correlation (P animal protein intake to potassium intake was significantly correlated with N-telopeptide in the SED group during bed rest weeks 3 and 4 (r = 0.77 and 0.80) and during the 91-d chamber study (r = 0.75). The ratio of animal protein intake to potassium intake was positively correlated with pyridinium cross-links before bed rest in the EX group (r = 0.83), in the EX group during bed rest week 1 (r = 0.84), and in the SED group during bed rest week 2 (r = 0.72) but not during either chamber study. In both studies, these relations were not significant with the ratio of vegetable protein intake to potassium intake. CONCLUSIONS: The ratio of animal protein intake to potassium intake may affect bone in ambulatory and bed-rest subjects. Changing this ratio may help to prevent bone loss on Earth and during space flight.

  11. Datura stramonium intake: a report on three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Luigi; Vitelli, Maria Redenta; Palazzo, Enza; Oliva, Patrizia; De Novellis, Vito; Capuano, Annalisa; Scafuro, Maria Antonietta; Berrino, Liberato; Rossi, Francesco; Maione, Sabatino

    2010-12-01

    This article describes three cases of Datura stramonium intake on two nonconsecutive days. In the first case, the patient took a small amount of D. stramonium seeds without showing any symptoms of intoxication. The other two patients had taken a considerable amount of seeds and reported a sudden surge in strength and energy, with some aggressive compulsion towards their peers. They showed delirium as well as confusion and disorientation. The absence of any specific legislation makes D. stramonium a tempting alternative to other psychoactive substances. Thus, it is extremely important to be able to recognize its symptoms so as to be able to diagnose any signs of intoxication properly.

  12. Erythrocyte levels compared with reported dietary intake of marine n-3 fatty acids in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, Harald S.; Sandstrom, B.

    1995-01-01

    It is web established that marine n-3 fatty acids measured in erythrocyte phospholipids of non-pregnant subjects reflect the subjects' intake of these fatty acids. In 135 pregnant women in the 30th week of gestation we compared intake of marine n-3 fatty acids and energy, estimated by a combined...... acids in pregnant women may be employed as a qualitative method to rank subjects according to intake of marine n-3 fatty acids; (2) with respect to the power to explain FA-ratio variability, three simple marine food frequency questions were comparable with intake of marine n-3 fatty acids assessed...

  13. Erythrocyte levels compared with reported dietary intake of marine n-3 fatty acids in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, H.S.; Sandstrom, B.

    1995-01-01

    It is well established that marine n-3 fatty acids measured in erythrocyte phospholipids of non-pregnant subjects reflect the subjects' intake of these fatty acids. In 135 pregnant women in the 30th week of gestation we compared intake of marine n-3 fatty acids and energy, estimated by a combined...... acids in pregnant women may be employed as a qualitative method to rank subjects according to intake of marine n-3 fatty acids; (2) with respect to the power to explain FA-ratio variability, three simple marine food frequency questions were comparable with intake of marine n-3 fatty acids assessed...

  14. Beer, wine, spirits and subjective health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbaek, M; Mortensen, E L; Mygind, K

    1999-01-01

    To examine the association between intake of different types of alcoholic beverages and self reported subjective health.......To examine the association between intake of different types of alcoholic beverages and self reported subjective health....

  15. [Vitamins and minerals intake from diet and supplements among subjects with a history of cardiovascular events in Polish population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waśkiewicz, Anna; Sygnowska, Elzbieta

    2009-01-01

    Some vitamins and minerals play an important role in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The aim of this study was the assessment of dietary vitamins and minerals intake and patterns of supplement use among subjects with diagnosed CVD in Polish population. Within the frame of the WOBASZ study, a representative sample of whole Polish population aged 20-74 (7257 subjects) was screened in 2003-2005. A subsample of 803 persons with a clinical history of cardiovascular events was analyzed. It was found, that the average diet of adult Polish citizens with established CVD was not balanced concerning the intake of vitamins and minerals. Daily intake of antioxidant vitamins (A, C and E) and vitamin B12 was satisfactory the realization degree of recommended dietary allowances (RDA) was about 126-310%. The insufficient amounts of vitamins B1, B2, folates, as well as potassium, calcium, magnesium in diet of both genders and vitamin B6 in men and iron in women were noted. The highest deficiency has been noticed in vitamins B1, B2 and calcium and magnesium intake--the realization degree of RDA has stayed on 54-82% level. Around 1% of potassium, calcium and magnesium intake in both genders and more than 25% of vitamins E and B6 consumption in women derived from the supplementation.

  16. Intraduodenal administration of intact pea protein effectively reduces food intake in both lean and obese male subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maartje C P Geraedts

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human duodenal mucosa secretes increased levels of satiety signals upon exposure to intact protein. However, after oral protein ingestion, gastric digestion leaves little intact proteins to enter the duodenum. This study investigated whether bypassing the stomach, through intraduodenal administration, affects hormone release and food-intake to a larger extent than orally administered protein in both lean and obese subjects. METHODS: Ten lean (BMI:23.0±0.7 kg/m² and ten obese (BMI:33.4±1.4 kg/m² healthy male subjects were included. All subjects randomly received either pea protein solutions (250 mg/kg bodyweight in 0.4 ml/kg bodyweight of water or placebo (0.4 ml/kg bodyweight of water, either orally or intraduodenally via a naso-duodenal tube. Appetite-profile, plasma GLP-1, CCK, and PYY concentrations were determined over a 2 h period. After 2 h, subjects received an ad-libitum meal and food-intake was recorded. RESULTS: CCK levels were increased at 10(p<0.02 and 20(p<0.01 minutes after intraduodenal protein administration (IPA, in obese subjects, compared to lean subjects, but also compared to oral protein administration (OPA(p<0.04. GLP-1 levels increased after IPA in obese subjects after 90(p<0.02 to 120(p<0.01 minutes, compared to OPA. Food-intake was reduced after IPA both in lean and obese subjects (-168.9±40 kcal (p<0.01 and -298.2±44 kcal (p<0.01, respectively, compared to placebo. Also, in obese subjects, food-intake was decreased after IPA (-132.6±42 kcal; p<0.01, compared to OPA. CONCLUSIONS: Prevention of gastric proteolysis through bypassing the stomach effectively reduces food intake, and seems to affect obese subjects to a greater extent than lean subjects. Enteric coating of intact protein supplements may provide an effective dietary strategy in the prevention/treatment of obesity.

  17. Lack of Association between Self-reported Saltiness of Eating and Actual Salt Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yunryong; Chung, So-Yeon; Lee, Sun Young; Kwon, Hyuk Tae; Lee, Jung-Un

    2012-01-01

    Background Reducing salt intake is known to be an important factor for lowering blood pressure and preventing cardiovascular disease. Estimating amount of salt intake is a necessary step towards salt intake reduction. Self-reported saltiness of diet is a method most easily used to measure a patient's salt intake. The purpose of this study was to examine the value of self-reported saltiness of diet in measuring salt intake. Methods We used data from 681 participants who visited a health center at a university hospital between August 2003 and November 2005. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on self-reported saltiness of diet, other dietary habits and lifestyle factors. Salt intake was estimated on the basis of 24-hour dietary recall with a computer-aided nutritional analysis program (CAN-Pro 2.0, Korean Nutrition Society). Results There was no statistically significant difference between the mean salt intake of the self-reported salty diet group (13.7 ± 4.8 g/d) and the self-reported unsalty diet group (13.3 ± 4.4 g/d). If we assume calculated salt intake as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of self-reported saltiness were 39.5% and 63.6%, respectively. Salt intake was increased with higher calorie intake, frequency of eating breakfast (≥5 times/wk) and being satiated with usual diet in men, but it was increased only with higher calorie intake in women. Regardless of actual salt intake, the group satiated with a usual diet tended to be in the group of self-reported salty diet. Conclusion Self-reported saltiness of diet was not associated with actual salt intake. Further studies will be needed on the simpler and more objective tools to estimate salt intake. PMID:22745893

  18. Nutritional Intake of Young Italian High-Level Soccer Players: Under-Reporting is the Essential Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccialanza, Riccardo; Cameletti, Barbara; Cavallaro, Gianfranco

    2007-01-01

    It is recognized that much of the dietary data on adolescents and athletes is prone to reporting error, mostly through under-reporting. Nevertheless, in the majority of studies assessing the nutritional intake of young soccer players under-reporting has not been taken into consideration. The purpose of this study was to assess the dietary intake of a sample of young male Italian high-level soccer players on two time points to evaluate the degree of under- reporting. Seventy-five male high level soccer players (age range: 15-17 years) completed 4-day food records on two separate occasions (T0; T1, 3 months after T0). Under-reporting was assessed by the ratio of reported estimated energy intake (EEI) to estimated energy expenditure (EEE). Forty- three subjects, whose food records were judged accurate enough both at T0 and T1, were included in the data analysis (inclusion rate 57.3%). No significant weight changes were documented between T0 and T1 and in the two weeks preceding both T0 and T1. Reported mean daily energy intake was significantly lower than mean estimated daily energy expenditure both at T0 and T1 (p soccer players was in line with the available data on this age group. This study emphasizes that under-reporting is a critical issue in the evaluation of young athletes dietary intake, which should be considered in the interpretation of data, particularly when energy inadequacies are reported. Further studies with uniformed methods are needed, in order to reduce the degree of under-reporting, obtain reliable data on the dietary intake of young soccer players and evaluate the efficacy of targeted nutrition education programs. Key pointsUnder-reporting is a critical issue in the evaluation of young athletes’ dietary intake, which should be always considered in the interpretation of data.The young athletes’ motivation and parents’ co-operation are key points that should be enhanced in this kind of studies.The nutritional intakes of young Italian high

  19. Comments on: High fat intake leads to acute postprandial exposure to circulating endotoxin in type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Yu Vorotnikova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Comments on: Harte AL, Varma MC, Tripathi G, McGee KC, Al-Daghri NM, Al-Attas OS, Sabico S, O'Hare JP, Ceriello A, Saravanan P, Kumar S, McTernan PG. High fat intake leads to acute postprandial exposure to circulating endotoxin in type 2 diabetic subjects. Diabetes Care. 2012 Feb; 35(2: 375-82

  20. Validation of the Photography Method for Nutritional Intake Assessment in Hospitalized Elderly Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monacelli, F; Sartini, M; Bassoli, V; Becchetti, D; Biagini, A L; Nencioni, A; Cea, M; Borghi, R; Torre, F; Odetti, P

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to validate the photographic indirect method as an accurate and specific tool to assess nutritional intake in a cohort of elderly hospitalized patients. this is a prospective observational study. hospital (geriatric acute ward and transitional care of IRCCSS AUO San Martino Hospital, Genoa, Italy). 255 consecutive elderly hospitalized patients. assessment of malnutrition by: Mini nutritional assessment (MNA) and abbreviated Comprehensive geriatric assessment (CIRS; Barthel index, SPMSE). The direct method (Gold standard): food dish weight (before lunch) and residual (after lunch) food dish weight and estimation of the percentage of eaten food and of residual food for each dish. The percentages of food intake and residual food were calculated according to the following formula: intake %= initial weight of the dishes- residual food weight)/ initial weight dish x100. The unit of variable was the percentage. The indirect photographic method with extrapolation of the lunch food intake by photographic method confronting initial meal and residual meal (25% quartile food dish estimation). The results showed a significant correlation between the direct method (weighing residual food) and the indirect photographic method(n=255; r=0.9735; ptherapeutic interventions.

  1. Acute Consumption of Resistant Starch Reduces Food Intake but Has No Effect on Appetite Ratings in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ble-Castillo, Jorge L; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos A; García-Vázquez, Carlos; Servin-Cruz, Magda Z; Rodríguez-Hernández, Arturo; Araiza-Saldaña, Claudia I; Nolasco-Coleman, Ana M; Díaz-Zagoya, Juan C

    2017-07-04

    Previous studies have shown the benefits of native banana starch (NBS) supplementation in improving glucose metabolism and reducing body weight (BW) in humans. However, the effect of this starch on appetite regulation is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of NBS rich resistant starch on subjective measurements of appetite, energy intake, and appetite hormones in healthy subjects. Postprandial glucose and insulin responses were also assessed. In a randomized, single-blind, crossover study, 28 healthy young subjects consumed a beverage containing either 40 g of NBS or 40 g of digestible corn starch (DCS) on two separate occasions. Effects on appetite were estimated using visual analogue scales (VAS) and satiety hormone responses. At the end of the intervention, participants were provided with a pre-weighed ad libitum homogeneous test meal. After a washout period of 1 week, subjects received the alternative treatment. NBS supplementation induced a reduction in food intake, glucose area under the curve (AUC)-180 min, and insulin AUC-180 min. However, there was no associated effect on the subjective appetite ratings or gut hormones. NBS supplementation may help to reduce meal size and control BW.

  2. Changes in psychological health, subjective food intake ability and oral health-related quality of life during orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S-H; Cha, J-Y; Lee, K-J; Yu, H-S; Hwang, C-J

    2017-11-01

    Assessing changes in patient's psychological health and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) over time during orthodontic treatment may help clinicians to treat patients more carefully. To evaluate changes in mental health, self-reported masticatory ability and OHRQoL during orthodontic treatment in adults, this prospective study included 66 adults (30 men, 36 women; mean age, 24·2 ± 5·2 years). Each patient completed the Korean versions of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, Rosenberg self-esteem scale, key subjective food intake ability (KFIA) test for five key foods and Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14K) at baseline (T0), 12 months after treatment initiation (T1) and debonding (T2). All variables changed with time. Self-esteem and the total OHIP-14K score significantly decreased and increased, respectively, at T1, with a particular increase in the psychological and social disabilities scores. There were no significant differences in any questionnaire scores before and after treatment. The total OHIP-14K score was positively correlated with trait anxiety and depression, and negatively correlated with self-esteem and KFIA at T0, regardless of the treatment duration. Older patients showed a significant increase in the total OHIP-14K score at T1 and T2. OHRQoL worsened with an increase in the treatment duration. Our results suggest that OHRQoL temporarily deteriorates, with the development of psychological and social disabilities, during orthodontic treatment. This is related to the baseline age, psychological health and self-reported masticatory function. However, patients recover once the treatment is complete. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Energy density of diets reported by American adults: association with food group intake, nutrient intake, and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, A K; Graubard, B I

    2005-08-01

    Recent reports suggest that dietary energy density may play a role in regulation of food intake. However, little is known about the energy density of diets consumed by free-living populations; therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine demographic, health, and nutritional correlates of energy density of self-reported diets. Using data from the NHANES III (n=13 400), dietary energy density was defined three ways: (1) energy content (kJ/g) of all foods and beverages reported or ED1, (2) energy content (kJ/g) of all foods and energy yielding beverages or ED2, and (3) energy content (kJ/g) of all foods (no beverages) or ED3. Multiple linear or logistic regression methods were used to examine the association of energy density with intake of energy, nutrients, food groups, and body mass index (BMI). We computed the ratios of within- to between-person variance for the three energy density variables using the second recall obtained from the second exam subsample of NHANES III (n=1037). The mean ED1, ED2, and ED3, respectively, were 3.84+/-0.02, 5.45+/-0.03, and 8.03+/-0.03. Dietary intakes of energy, fat, and low-nutrient-density foods were related positively, but amounts of micronutrients, fruit, and vegetables were related inversely with all types of energy density (Pdiets in the US were characterized by low fruit and vegetable intake, and high BMI.

  4. NUTRITIONAL INTAKE OF YOUNG ITALIAN HIGH-LEVEL SOCCER PLAYERS: UNDER-REPORTING IS THE ESSENTIAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Caccialanza

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available It is recognized that much of the dietary data on adolescents and athletes is prone to reporting error, mostly through under-reporting. Nevertheless, in the majority of studies assessing the nutritional intake of young soccer players under-reporting has not been taken into consideration. The purpose of this study was to assess the dietary intake of a sample of young male Italian high-level soccer players on two time points to evaluate the degree of under- reporting. Seventy-five male high level soccer players (age range: 15-17 years completed 4-day food records on two separate occasions (T0; T1, 3 months after T0. Under-reporting was assessed by the ratio of reported estimated energy intake (EEI to estimated energy expenditure (EEE. Forty- three subjects, whose food records were judged accurate enough both at T0 and T1, were included in the data analysis (inclusion rate 57.3%. No significant weight changes were documented between T0 and T1 and in the two weeks preceding both T0 and T1. Reported mean daily energy intake was significantly lower than mean estimated daily energy expenditure both at T0 and T1 (p < 0.001. The average EEI/EEE ratio was 0.75 + 0.2 both at T0 and T1. It was < 80% in 27 subjects (62.8% at T0 and in 23 (53.4% at T1; it reached 50% in 4 subjects both at T0 and T1. The degree of under- reporting of the young soccer players was in line with the available data on this age group. This study emphasizes that under-reporting is a critical issue in the evaluation of young athletes dietary intake, which should be considered in the interpretation of data, particularly when energy inadequacies are reported. Further studies with uniformed methods are needed, in order to reduce the degree of under-reporting, obtain reliable data on the dietary intake of young soccer players and evaluate the efficacy of targeted nutrition education programs

  5. Validation of Reported Whole-Grain Intake from a Web-Based Dietary Record against Plasma Alkylresorcinol Concentrations in 8- to 11-Year-Olds Participating in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Damsgaard, Camilla T.; W. Andersen, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whole-grain (WG) intake is important for human health, but accurate intake estimation is challenging. Use of a biomarker for WG intake provides a possible way to validate dietary assessment methods. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to validate WG intake from 2 diets reported by children, using...... plasma alkylresorcinol (AR) concentrations, and to investigate the 3-mo reproducibility of AR concentrations and reported WG intake. METHODS: AR concentrations were analyzed in fasting blood plasma samples, and WG intake was estimated in a 7-d web-based diary by 750 participants aged 8-11 y in a 2 school...... meal × 3 mo crossover trial. Reported WG intake and plasma AR concentrations were compared when children ate their usual bread-based lunch (UBL) and when served a hot lunch meal (HLM). Correlations and cross-classification were used to rank subjects according to intake. The intraclass correlation...

  6. Effect of Salt Intake on Serum Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Levels in Normotensive Salt-Sensitive Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ling Zheng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Excess dietary salt is a critical risk factor of salt-sensitive hypertension. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 , a gut incretin hormone, conferring benefits for blood pressure by natriuresis and diuresis. We implemented a randomized trial to verify the effect of altered salt intake on serum GLP-1 level in human beings. Methods: The 38 subjects were recruited from a rural community of Northern China. All subjects were sequentially maintained a baseline diet period for 3 days, a low-salt diet period for 7 days (3.0g/day of NaCl , and a high-salt diet period for additional 7 days (18.0g/day of NaCl. Results: Serum GLP-1 level increased significantly with the change from the baseline period to the low-salt diet period and decreased with the change from the low-salt to high-salt diet in normotensive salt-sensitive (SS but not salt-resistant (SR individuals. There was a significant inverse correlation between the serum GLP-1 level and the MAP in SS subjects. Inverse correlation between the serum GLP-1 level and 24-h urinary sodium excretion was also found among different dietary interventions in SS subjects. Conclusions: Our study indicates that variations in dietary salt intake affect the serum GLP-1 level in normotensive salt-sensitive Chinese adults.

  7. Analysis of Fat Intake Based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture's 1994-96, 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII, Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA released the final report, Analysis of Fat Intake Based on USDA’s 1994-1996, 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII, Final Report). For this report, the EPA conducted an analysis of fat consumption across the U.S. population based on data derived...

  8. Relationship between reported carbohydrate intake and fasting blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Elevated fasting blood glucose ranges from normal glucose tolerance (under 100 mg/dL) to impaired glucose tolerance (100-125 mg/dL) to diabetes mellitus (above 126 mg/dL). Dietary intake may have a direct influence on glucose metabolism. Objective: We hypothesized that dietary carbohydra...

  9. Pre-meal screen-time activities increase subjective emotions, but not food intake in young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totosy de Zepetnek, Julia O; Pollard, Damion; Welch, Jo M; Rossiter, Melissa; Faghih, Shiva; Bellissimo, Nick

    2017-04-01

    To determine the effect of pre-meal screen-time activities on subjective emotions, subjective appetite, and food intake (FI) in 9-14 year-old girls. In this clinical study, 31 girls completed four 45-min treatment conditions of television viewing (TVV), video game playing (VGP), a challenging computer task (CT), and sitting without screen exposure (control) in a randomized order. Each treatment condition was followed immediately by an ad libitum pizza lunch, and FI was calculated from the weight of the consumed pizza. Subjective appetite was assessed at baseline, 15, 30, and 45 min during the treatment condition, and upon trial completion at 75 min. Subjective emotions were assessed at baseline and at 45 min. FI was not affected by screen type, but was positively correlated with body composition (fat mass [FM, kg], fat free mass [FFM, kg]) in all treatment conditions. Subjective appetite was not affected by screen type, but increased with time in all treatment conditions (p emotions were affected by VGP only. Anger, excitement, frustration, and upset feelings were increased at 45 min following VGP. VGP led to increased frustration compared to control (p = 0.0003), CT (p = 0.007) and TVV (p = 0.0002). Exposure to TVV or CT before eating did not affect subjective emotions, subjective appetite, or FI, and no difference was found between screen activities and the control condition for average appetite or FI. Despite a change in subjective emotions during the VGP condition, there was no increase in subjective appetite or subsequent FI. These findings suggest that physiologic signals of satiation and satiety are not overridden by environmental stimuli of pre-meal screen-time exposure among young girls. (Clinical trial number NCT01750177). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dietary Intake of Antioxidants and Serum Levels of Total Antioxidant Status (TAS in MS Patients with that of Normal Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ehsan Hejazi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Hejazi E1, Amaani R2, Sharafodin-zadeh N3 1. M.sc Student of Nutritional Sciences, Department of Nutritional, Faculty of Para-Medicine, Jondi-shapour University of Medical Sciences 2. Associate Professor, Department of Nutritional, Faculty of Para-Medicine, Jondi-shapour University of Medical Sciences 3. Assistant Professor, Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Jondi-shapour University of Medical Sciences Abstract Background: Multiple Sclerosis (MS is a chronic, immune-mediated inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the Central Nervous System (CNS, with an etiology that is not yet fully understood. Increasing evidence shows that oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of MS. The aim of this study was to compare dietary intake of antioxidants and serum levels of Total Antioxidant Status (TAS in MS patients with that of normal subjects. Materials and methods: Serum levels of TAS and dietary intake of the main antioxidants of twenty one MS patients (16 women were compared with age and gender matched healthy controls. Serum samples were collected and frozen for further spectrophotometer analysis. Food frequency questionnaires and 24-hour dietary recalls for 3 days of all subjects were obtained. Results: There was no significant difference in serum levels of TAS between the two groups. No significant difference was seen in consumption of dietary antioxidant sources between them. Additionally, daily intake of vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin A, folate and dietary fiber were not significantly different between groups. Conclusion: There is a lack of evidence on the possible relationship and benefits of dietary antioxidant in MS patients. More research is required to assess the effectiveness of diet interventions on antioxidant status in MS patients.

  11. Attention with a mindful attitude attenuates subjective appetitive reactions and food intake following food-cue exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Naomi; Lattimore, Paul; Malinowski, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Excessive energy intake that contributes to overweight and obesity is arguably driven by pleasure associated with the rewarding properties of energy-dense palatable foods. It is important to address influences of external food cues in food-abundant societies where people make over 200 food related decisions each day. This study experimentally examines protective effects of a mindful attention induction on appetitive measures, state craving and food intake following exposure to energy-dense foods. Forty females were randomly allocated to a standard food-cue exposure condition in which attention is brought to the hedonic properties of food or food-cue exposure following a mindful attention induction. Appetitive reactions were measured pre, post and 10 min after post-cue exposure, after which a plate of cookies was used as a surreptitious means of measuring food intake. Self-reported hunger remained unchanged and fullness significantly increased for the mindful attention group post-cue exposure whereas hunger significantly increased for the standard attention group and fullness remained unchanged. There was no significant between-group difference in state craving post-cue exposure and 10 min later. Significantly more cookies were eaten by the standard attention group 10 min post-cue exposure although no significant between-group differences in appetitive and craving measures were reported at that time. Our results point to a promising brief intervention strategy and highlights the importance of distinguishing mindful attention from attention. Results also demonstrate that mindful attention can influence food intake even when craving and hunger are experienced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Adherence to a Gluten-Free Diet in Mexican Subjects with Gluten-Related Disorders: A High Prevalence of Inadvertent Gluten Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Cervantes, Karen Lizzette; Romero-López, Angélica Viridiana; Núñez-Álvarez, Carlos Alberto; Uscanga-Domínguez, Luis F

    2016-01-01

    The rate of compliance with a gluten-free diet in patients with gluten-related disorders is unknown in most Latin American countries. To study the adherence to a gluten-free diet of Mexican individuals with celiac disease and nonceliac gluten sensitivity at the time of their first medical and nutritional consultation at a tertiary referral center. A cross-sectional study was performed. A specific questionnaire was used to gather information on demographics, clinical condition, and self-reported adherence to a gluten-free diet, and to determine strict compliance and intentional or inadvertent gluten consumption. All questionnaires were applied by a nutritionist with expertise in gluten-related disorders. Fifty-six patients with celiac disease and 24 with non-celiac gluten sensitivity were included. Overall, 46 (57.5%) subjects perceived themselves as strictly adherent; however, inadvertent gluten intake was frequent in both celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity patients (39.2 vs. 33.3%; p = 0.2). Intentional consumption was more prevalent in subjects with celiac disease (48.8 vs. 29.1%; p = 0.048) and individuals with non-celiac gluten sensitivity showed better adherence (37.5 vs. 12.5%; p = 0.035). The importance of a gluten-free diet is underestimated by Mexican patients with celiac disease. The role of a team with expertise in gluten-related disorders is essential to identify inadvertent gluten intake.

  13. Association of mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) intake and dietary intervention and effects on oxidative stress biomarkers of dyslipidemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaventura, Brunna Cristina Bremer; Di Pietro, Patrícia Faria; Stefanuto, Aliny; Klein, Graziela Alessandra; de Morais, Elayne Cristina; de Andrade, Fernanda; Wazlawik, Elisabeth; da Silva, Edson Luiz

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of long-term ingestion of mate tea, with or without dietary intervention, on the markers of oxidative stress in dyslipidemic individuals. Seventy-four dyslipidemic volunteers participated in this randomized clinical trial. Subjects were divided into three treatment groups: mate tea (MT), dietary intervention (DI), and mate tea with dietary intervention (MD). Biochemical and dietary variables were assessed at the beginning of the study (baseline) and after 20, 40, 60, and 90 d of treatment. Participants in the MT and MD groups consumed 1 L/d of mate tea. Those in the DI and MD groups were instructed to increase their intake of fruit, legumes and vegetables and decrease their consumption of foods rich in cholesterol and saturated and trans-fatty acids. Biomarkers of oxidative stress such as antioxidant capacity of serum (ferric reducing antioxidant potential assay), uric acid, reduced glutathione, paraoxonase-1 enzyme, lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), and protein carbonyl were analyzed. Participants in the DI group showed a significant decrease in total fat and saturated fatty acid intakes. Those in the DI and MD groups presented a significant increase in vitamin C consumption. For all groups, there was a significant increase in ferric reducing antioxidant potential and reduced glutathione concentrations but no significant changes in LOOH, protein carbonyl, and paraoxonase-1 values. The reduced glutathione concentration was positively correlated with the consumption of monounsaturated fatty acids, fiber, and vitamin C, whereas levels of LOOH were inversely correlated with intakes of vitamin C and fiber. In addition, LOOH correlated positively with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and inversely with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which had a positive association with paraoxonase-1. The ingestion of mate tea independently of the dietary intervention increased plasma and blood antioxidant protection in patients with dyslipidemia. Copyright

  14. Effect of a high intake of conjugated linoleic acid on lipoprotein levels in healthy human subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne J Wanders

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Trans fatty acids are produced either by industrial hydrogenation or by biohydrogenation in the rumens of cows and sheep. Industrial trans fatty acids lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol, raise low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol, and increase the risk of coronary heart disease. The effects of trans fatty acids from ruminants are less clear. We investigated the effect on blood lipids of cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, a trans fatty acid largely restricted to ruminant fats.Sixty-one healthy women and men were sequentially fed each of three diets for three weeks, in random order, for a total of nine weeks. Diets were identical except for 7% of energy (approximately 20 g/day, which was provided either by oleic acid, by industrial trans fatty acids, or by a mixture of 80% cis-9, trans-11 and 20% trans-10, cis-12 CLA. After the oleic acid diet, mean (+/- SD serum LDL cholesterol was 2.68+/-0.62 mmol/L compared to 3.00+/-0.66 mmol/L after industrial trans fatty acids (p<0.001, and 2.92+/-0.70 mmol/L after CLA (p<0.001. Compared to oleic acid, HDL-cholesterol was 0.05+/-0.12 mmol/L lower after industrial trans fatty acids (p = 0.001 and 0.06+/-0.10 mmol/L lower after CLA (p<0.001. The total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio was 11.6% higher after industrial trans fatty acids (p<0.001 and 10.0% higher after CLA (p<0.001 relative to the oleic acid diet.High intakes of an 80:20 mixture of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA raise the total to HDL cholesterol ratio in healthy volunteers. The effect of CLA may be somewhat less than that of industrial trans fatty acids.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00529828.

  15. Chemical gastritis after chronic bromazepam intake: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krakamp Bernd

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe a rare case of diffuse macroscopic discoloration and chemical gastritis due to chronic bromazepam intake. The chemical composition of pharmaceuticals has to be considered at endoscopy and it is evident that some chemical substances damage the epithelial tissue and lead to clinical symptoms. Case Presentation Endoscopy was performed in an 82-year-old patient due to gastroesophageal reflux symptoms and epigastric pain. Gastroscopy showed a hiatal hernia and a scarred duodenal bulb. More striking was the yellow-brownish discoloration of the gastric and the duodenal mucosa. The gastric antrum and the duodenal bulb showed local discoloration that could not be rinsed off. The medical history indicated that bromazepam (6 mg had been used daily as a sleeping aid in the previous two years. The histopathological findings showed appearances of chemical gastritis. Within the lamina propria and on the epithelial surface there were granules. There was no foreign body reaction to these granules. Corpus mucosa showed a mild chronic gastritis. Conclusions If discoloration of the mucosa at endoscopy is seen, a careful drug history must be sought. This is the first case in literature that shows a chemical gastritis after bromazepam intake.

  16. The impact of acute bouts of interval and continuous walking on energy-intake and appetite regulation in subjects with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Ida A; Wedell-Neergaard, Anne-Sophie; Solomon, Thomas P J

    2017-01-01

    . We aimed to assess the effects of two exercise interventions, differing with regards to peak intensity, on energy-intake, satiety and appetite-related hormones in subjects with T2D. Thirteen subjects with T2D completed three 60-min interventions with continuous measurement of oxygen consumption......In healthy subjects, it has been suggested that exercise may acutely suppress energy-intake and appetite, with peak intensity being an important determinant for this effect. In subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D), the effect of exercise on appetite-related variables is, however, virtually unknown...... interventions were well-matched for mean oxygen consumption (CW = 77 ± 2% of VO2peak; IW = 76 ± 1% of VO2peak, P > 0.05). No differences in appetite-related hormones or energy-intake were found (P > 0.05 for all comparisons). IW increased fullness compared to Control shortly after the intervention (P

  17. [Development and evaluation of ExSel Test to screen for excess salt intake in hypertensive subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girerd, X; Villeneuve, F; Deleste, F; Giral, P; Rosenbaum, D

    2015-06-01

    Development of a test to screen excess salt intake (ESI) in hypertensive patients. Hypertensive subjects living in Paris area have been included. A 24-hour urinary sodium collection has been performed the day before the visit for a day hospital. A food diary was completed on the day of the urine collection and validated after an interview with a dietetician. An ESI was defined by a urinary sodium ≥ 200mmol/d. Clinical or food characteristics associated to an ESI were retained for the ExSel Test variables. A ROC curve was performed to determine the optimal score for the ExSel Test in detection of ESI in hypertensive patients. One hundred and forty-eight hypertensive patients have been included living in the Île-de-France area. ESI was observed in 19% with a higher frequency in men. Seven major determinants of ESI have been identified and are the questions that constitute the ExSel Test. A positive response assigns points: man (1); BMI > 30 (2); bread 4 or 5 pieces per day (1) or more than 6 pieces; cheese at least 1 time per day (2); charcuterie at least 2 times per week (2); use of processed broth or pilaf (1); food rich in hidden salt (pizza, cheeseburger, quiche, shrimp, potato chips, smoked fish, olive) at least 2 times per week (1). The ROC curve analysis shows that a score of 5 or more has the best Youden index with a sensitivity of 0.63, specificity of 0.95, PPV of 0.75, NPV of 0.92. In hypertensive subjects, an excessive salt intake can be detected by the realization of the ExSel Test based only on a simple food-questionnaire and some clinical parameters. For a clinical use of the ExSel Test, an electronic version is available on http://www.comitehta.org. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Dietary magnesium and fiber intakes and inflammatory and metabolic indicators in middle-aged subjects from a population-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Simona; Durazzo, Marilena; Guidi, Sabrina; Carello, Monica; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Silli, Barbara; Rosato, Rosalba; Cassader, Maurizio; Gentile, Luigi; Pagano, Gianfranco

    2006-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes (DM), metabolic syndrome (MetS), and inflammation are linked to reduced magnesium and fiber intakes; these associations are attenuated by adjustment for each of these nutrients. We investigated the association among magnesium and fiber intakes, metabolic variables, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) values. Cross-sectional analyses were performed in a representative cohort of 1653 adults and in a subgroup with normal body mass index without dysmetabolisms (n = 205). A validated semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire was used; magnesium intake was computed by multiplying its content in each food by the frequency of food consumption. The prevalence of DM, MetS, and hs-CRP >/= 3 mg/L significantly decreased from the lowest to the highest tertile of magnesium and fiber intakes. Subjects within the lowest tertiles of magnesium and fiber intakes were 3-4 times as likely to have DM, MetS, and hs-CRP >/= 3 mg/L, after multiple adjustments. After the analysis was additionally controlled for fiber intake, associations with hs-CRP >/= 3 mg/L proved to be significant (odds ratio: 2.05; 95% CI: 1.30, 3.25), whereas reduced magnesium intake and DM and MetS were no longer significant. The lowest tertile of fiber intake remained associated with DM, hs-CRP >/= 3 mg/L, and MetS after adjustments for multiple confounders and magnesium intake. In the lean, healthy subject subgroup, hs-CRP values were inversely associated with magnesium and fiber intakes in a multivariate model (P /= 3 mg/L in both the entire cohort and healthy persons.

  19. A longitudinal study of the relationship between diet intake and dental caries and periodontal disease in elderly Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Akihiro; Watanabe, Reiko; Hanada, Nobuhiro; Miyazaki, Hideo

    2009-06-01

    We hypothesise that a difference in nutrition influences dental caries and periodontal disease. There are few previous studies especially longitudinal ones which have evaluated this hypothesis. This study investigated the relationship between nutritional intake, including milk and milk products (MMP), and dental disease, controlling for several confounding factors. A group of 600 subjects aged 70, randomly selected for this study, included approximately the same number of male and female subjects. The number of teeth on which root caries had occurred or where there was a periodontal event over a 6-year period was measured. To determine quantitative food intake at baseline, a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used during face-to-face interviews by dieticians. The stepwise method of multiple linear regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of the number of root caries or periodontal disease events during the 6 years. Intake of the six food groups includes (i) fish, shellfish, meat, beans and eggs; (ii) MMP; (iii) dark green and yellow vegetables (DYV); (iv) other vegetables and fruits; (v) cereals, nuts and seeds, sugar and sweeteners, confectioneries (CNSC) and (vi) fats and oils. The alcohol, gender and anthropometric evaluation including measurements of weight and height for the calculation of body mass index, educational level, the number of family members and the number of remaining teeth were used as independent variables. According to stepwise multiple regression analysis, two variables (quantity of MMP, and gender) were negatively associated with the number of root caries events during the 6 years. The standardised coefficients were -0.14 (p = 0.035) and -0.17 (p = 0.007) respectively. In addition, DYV were negatively, and three other variables (CNSC; alcohol; and the number of remaining teeth at baseline) were positively associated with the number of periodontal disease events during the 6 years. The standardised

  20. Comparison of Dietary Macro and Micro Nutrient Intake between Iranian Patients with Long-term Complications of Sulphur Mustard Poisoning and Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    -Mood, Mahdi Balali; Zilaee, Marzie; -Mobarhan, Majid Ghayour; Sheikh-Andalibi, Mohammad Sobhan; Mohades-Ardabili, Hossein; Dehghani, Hamideh; Ferns, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Patients with long-term complications of sulfur mustard (SM) poisoning are often less able to undertake optimum levels of physical activity and adequately control their dietary intake. The aim of present study was to investigate the dietary intake of patients with SM poisoning in comparison to a control group Methods: The study was undertaken on 55 Iranian male veterans, who had > 25% disabilities due to long-term complications of SM poisoning and 55 men age-matched healthy subjects. A previously validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used for measuring dietary macro/micro nutrient intake for both groups; and the results were analysed using Dietplan6 software. Analysis of macro/micro nutrients in dietary intakes of the patients versus the controls showed a significantly lower intake of several nutrients including selenium and carbohydrate. On the other hand, the dietary intake of trans-fatty acids and iodine were significantly higher in these patients. Long-term complications of SM poisoning in the Iranian veterans induce both chemical and physical disabilities. Macro/micro nutrient intake in these patients was significantly different in comparison with matched, healthy subjects. Dietary advice for these patients should be strongly recommended to these patients in order to prevent other chronic diseases.

  1. Relationship between Self-Reported Dietary Nutrient Intake and Self-Reported Sleep Duration among Japanese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Komada

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported that short sleep duration is a risk factor for obesity and metabolic disease. Moreover, both sleep duration and sleep timing might independently be associated with dietary nutrient intake. In this study, we investigated the associations between self-reported sleep duration and dietary nutrient intake, with and without adjustments for variations in sleep timing (i.e., the midpoint of sleep. We conducted a questionnaire survey, comprising a validated brief self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ and the Japanese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI among 1902 healthy Japanese adults and found that the dietary intakes of several nutrients correlated with sleep duration among men regardless of adjustment for the midpoint of sleep. Particularly, (1 small but significant correlations were observed between sleep duration and the percentage of energy from protein, regardless of adjustment for the midpoint of sleep; (2 energy-adjusted intakes of sodium, vitamin D, and vitamin B12 also significantly correlated with sleep duration; and (3 intakes of bread, pulses, and fish and shellfish correlated with sleep duration. In contrast, no significant correlations were observed between sleep duration and dietary intakes among women. This study revealed that after controlling for the midpoint of sleep, sleep duration correlated significantly with the dietary intake of specific nutrients and foods in a population of Japanese men.

  2. Self-reported, subjectively-determined breath malodor, associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Self-reported, subjectively-determined breath malodor, associated factors, treatment seeking behavior and oral hygiene practices among adults in Kinondoni, ... was a common problem, associated with not-cleaning the tongue, mobile teeth; tobacco smoking, ginger-spiced tea, and general medical problems whereby the ...

  3. Subjective Sleep Measures in Children: Self-Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Andrea M; Bashore, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) recently published a consensus statement on the recommended number of hours of sleep in infants and children. The AASM expert panel identified seven health categories in children influenced by sleep duration, a component of sleep quality. For optimal health and general function, children require a certain number of hours of sleep each night. Limited data exist to subjectively assess sleep in this population. Practitioners must evaluate overall sleep quality not simply sleep duration. The purpose of this article is to provide a mini-review of the self-report sleep measures used in children. The authors individually completed a review of the literature for this article via an independent review followed by collaborative discussion. The subjective measures included in this mini-review have been used in children, but not all measures have reported psychometrics. Several tools included in this mini-review measure subjective sleep in children but with limited reliabilities or only preliminary psychometrics. Accurate measurement of self-reported sleep in children is critical to identify sleep problems in this population and further detect associated health problems. Ongoing studies are warranted to establish reliable and valid measures of self-reported sleep in children to accurately detect health problems associated with poor sleep quality. This mini-review of the literature is an important first step to identify the most reliable subjective sleep measures in children.

  4. Self-reported vs. actual energy intake in youth with and without loss of control eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkoff, Laura E; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Shomaker, Lauren B; Kozlosky, Merel; Columbo, Kelli M; Elliott, Camden A; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M; Osborn, Robyn L; Yanovski, Susan Z; Yanovski, Jack A

    2011-01-01

    Episodes of loss of control over eating (LOC) in children and adolescents--often characterized by the consumption of highly palatable dessert and snack-type foods--have been associated with a lack of awareness while eating that could lead to under- or over-estimation of how much food is consumed. However, little is known about the reporting accuracy of food intake in youth with and without LOC eating. One hundred fifty-six girls and boys were administered the Eating Disorder Examination to assess for the presence of LOC eating. Youth were queried regarding the amounts of foods consumed directly following a multi-item, laboratory buffet test meal. Children with LOC (n=42) did not differ significantly from youth without LOC (n=114) in reporting accuracy of total food intake (reported minus actual energy intake: 153.0 ± 59.6 vs. 96.9 ± 36.0 kcal; p=0.42). However, compared to those without LOC, children with LOC were less accurate at reporting percentage of energy intake from carbohydrate (p=0.01). Youth with LOC were also less accurate at reporting their intake of desserts (p=0.04). Findings point to the possibility that youth with LOC may have poorer recall of sweet food consumption. Future research is required to examine whether poorer recall reflects a lack of awareness while eating palatable, sweet foods. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Accuracy of reporting food energy intake: influence of ethnicity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-09-24

    Sep 24, 2009 ... under-reporting is not ethnic- or culture-bound, but only relates to body composition. However, the ethnic differences in food EI reporting have also been observed in other similar international studies.10,11. The results of the current study regarding ethnic differences in food. EI reporting, however, contrast ...

  6. The influence of ethnicity and glucose tolerance status on subjective hunger sensations and prospective food intake in overweight and obese Asian and European Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhardi, Leilani; Zhao, Yun; Solah, Vicky; Fyfe, Susan; Soares, Mario J

    2017-11-01

    To examine the influence of ethnicity and glucose tolerance status on subjective sensations and food intake in overweight/obese Asian and European Australians. 18 Asians and 26 Europids were classified as normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) based on serial measures of finger-prick glucose following an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Subjective sensations of hunger and satiety were measured before and every 15min after the OGTT using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Food intake was measured covertly from consumption of a buffet style lunch and from self-maintained 24h food records. All serial measurements were converted into total area under the curve (TAUC) and comparisons adjusted for age, fat and fat-free mass. There was a significant difference interaction between ethnicity (ETH) and glucose tolerance (GTT) for subjective fullness, desire for food and prospective food intake. IGT Asians had significantly greater sensations of fullness, but lesser prospective food and desire to eat, as compared to other groups. However there were no differences in calorie and macronutrient intake at buffet lunch or over 24-h. Interactions between ethnicity and glucose tolerance status in subjective sensations did not transcribe to differences in prospective food intake. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Failure to report social influences on food intake: Lack of awareness or motivated denial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanos, Samantha; Vartanian, Lenny R; Herman, C Peter; Polivy, Janet

    2014-12-01

    Two studies examined whether people are aware of social influences on food intake, and whether recognition of those influences is driven by the observation of mimicked eating and/or matching the amount of food eaten. In Study 1, participants watched a video of 1 person eating alone, or a video of 2 people eating together that varied in the extent to which the target's eating behavior mimicked or matched that of the model. Participants then made attributions for the eating behavior of the target person. In Study 2, each participant watched a video of herself eating with a confederate and made attributions for her own eating behavior. In both studies, the outcome of interest was the extent to which each participant acknowledged the influence of the model's eating behavior on the target's (or her own) food intake. In Study 1, participants accurately recognized social influences on the food intake of the target person, and this recognition was facilitated by the presence of mimicked eating, but not by matching the total amount eaten. Study 2 showed that the extent to which people acknowledge social influences on their own food intake depended on their self-reported general responsiveness to social cues on eating. Overall, people seem to be aware that social factors can influence others' food intake. Whereas some people (high social eaters) are able to accurately report social influences on their own food intake, others (low social eaters) seem to deny those influences for reasons that merit future investigation.

  8. SELF-REPORTED DIETARY INTAKE FOLLOWING ENDURANCE, RESISTANCE AND CONCURRENT ENDURANCE AND RESISTANCE TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Shaw

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available With regards to obesity-related disease the impact of exercise training on health depends on the ability of exercise to promote a negative energy balance. Exercise's effect on promoting a negative energy balance is more likely to occur if exercise can induce a favourable dietary intake such as a reduced relative fat content in the diet. As such, the aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of aerobic training, weight training and concurrent aerobic and weight training on self-reported dietary intake. The effects of 16 weeks of aerobic (n = 12, weight (n = 13 and concurrent aerobic and weight training (n = 13 on self-reported dietary intakes were compared in previously sedentary males using the computer-based Dietary Manager® software programme. Only the concurrent aerobic and weight training group showed significant (p < 0.05 reductions in total kilocalories, carbohydrates, proteins and fats consumed while the aerobic training group showed significant reductions in fat intake at the completion of the experimental period (before: 91.0 ± 42.1g versus after: 77.1 ± 62.1g. However, no changes were observed in self-reported dietary intake in the weight training or non-exercising control groups. It is concluded that concurrent aerobic and weight training is the most effective mode of exercise at promoting a favourable improvement in self-reported dietary intake in the short term. This finding provides support for efforts to promote increases in overall physical activity in an attempt to modify the patterns of dietary intake

  9. Effects of sugar-sweetened beverage intake on the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance: the Mihama diabetes prevention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshima, Nobuko; Shimo, Miho; Miyazawa, Kae; Konegawa, Sachi; Matsumoto, Aki; Onishi, Yuki; Sasaki, Ryoma; Suzuki, Toshinari; Yano, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Kazutaka; Yamada, Tomomi; Gabazza, Esteban Cesar; Takei, Yoshiyuki; Sumida, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing for several reasons, including increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). However, whether SSBs cause T2DM by excess of energy production resulting in obesity remains unclear. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the effects of SSB intake on the development of T2DM in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Ninety-three subjects (30 males and 63 females) with IGT aged 40-69 y and residing in the Mihama district (southern Mie Prefecture, Japan) were included in the study. The mean observational period was 3.6 y. All subjects underwent the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and completed a lifestyle questionnaire survey related to SSB intake. OGTT results and SSB intake were evaluated before and after the observational period. In addition, the correlation between SSB intake and development of T2DM was investigated. Of the 93 subjects, 20 (21.5%) developed T2DM (T2DM group) and demonstrated a significantly high SSB intake compared with the group that did not develop the disease (non-T2DM group). The odds ratio for the incidence of T2DM based on SSB intake was 3.26 (95% confidence interval, 1.17-9.06). The body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) and the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-R) values was significantly higher in the T2DM group than in the non-T2DM group, while the insulinogenic indices were significantly lower in the former than in the latter group. The sum of insulin secretion levels during OGTT was not significantly different between groups. SSB intake correlated with the predisposition for developing T2DM, possibly by influencing body weight, insulin resistance, and the ability of the pancreatic beta cells to effectively compensate for the insulin resistance.

  10. Relationship between self-reported dietary intake and physical activity levels among adolescents: The HELENA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Donne Cinzia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests possible synergetic effects of multiple lifestyle behaviors on health risks like obesity and other health outcomes. Therefore it is important to investigate associations between dietary and physical activity behavior, the two most important lifestyle behaviors influencing our energy balance and body composition. The objective of the present study is to describe the relationship between energy, nutrient and food intake and the physical activity level among a large group of European adolescents. Methods The study comprised a total of 2176 adolescents (46.2% male from ten European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study. Dietary intake and physical activity were assessed using validated 24-h dietary recalls and self-reported questionnaires respectively. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA were used to compare the energy and nutrient intake and the food consumption between groups of adolescents with different physical activity levels (1st to 3rd tertile. Results In both sexes no differences were found in energy intake between the levels of physical activity. The most active males showed a higher intake of polysaccharides, protein, water and vitamin C and a lower intake of saccharides compared to less active males. Females with the highest physical activity level consumed more polysaccharides compared to their least active peers. Male and female adolescents with the highest physical activity levels, consumed more fruit and milk products and less cheese compared to the least active adolescents. The most active males showed higher intakes of vegetables and meat, fish, eggs, meat substitutes and vegetarian products compared to the least active ones. The least active males reported the highest consumption of grain products and potatoes. Within the female group, significantly lower intakes of bread and cereal products and spreads were found for those reporting to

  11. Relationship between self-reported dietary intake and physical activity levels among adolescents: the HELENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottevaere, Charlene; Huybrechts, Inge; Béghin, Laurent; Cuenca-Garcia, Magdalena; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Gottrand, Frederic; Hagströmer, Maria; Kafatos, Anthony; Le Donne, Cinzia; Moreno, Luis A; Sjöström, Michael; Widhalm, Kurt; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2011-02-06

    Evidence suggests possible synergetic effects of multiple lifestyle behaviors on health risks like obesity and other health outcomes. Therefore it is important to investigate associations between dietary and physical activity behavior, the two most important lifestyle behaviors influencing our energy balance and body composition. The objective of the present study is to describe the relationship between energy, nutrient and food intake and the physical activity level among a large group of European adolescents. The study comprised a total of 2176 adolescents (46.2% male) from ten European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. Dietary intake and physical activity were assessed using validated 24-h dietary recalls and self-reported questionnaires respectively. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) were used to compare the energy and nutrient intake and the food consumption between groups of adolescents with different physical activity levels (1st to 3rd tertile). In both sexes no differences were found in energy intake between the levels of physical activity. The most active males showed a higher intake of polysaccharides, protein, water and vitamin C and a lower intake of saccharides compared to less active males. Females with the highest physical activity level consumed more polysaccharides compared to their least active peers. Male and female adolescents with the highest physical activity levels, consumed more fruit and milk products and less cheese compared to the least active adolescents. The most active males showed higher intakes of vegetables and meat, fish, eggs, meat substitutes and vegetarian products compared to the least active ones. The least active males reported the highest consumption of grain products and potatoes. Within the female group, significantly lower intakes of bread and cereal products and spreads were found for those reporting to spend most time in moderate to vigorous physical

  12. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  13. Accidental intake of tritiated water: a report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, D.C.; Edwards, A.A.; Prosser, J.S.; Auf der Maur, A.; Etzweiler, A.; Weickhardt, U.; Goessi, U.; Geiger, L.; Noelpp, U.; Roesler, H.

    1986-01-01

    The accidental inhalation by two people of tritiated water is described. One person incorporated approximately 35 GBq (1 Ci) and was treated by forced diuresis. Her committed effective dose equivalent was approx. 0.4 Sv. The diuresis procedure and physiological monitoring of the patient is described. The other person incorporated only about 1 GBq (0.03 Ci) and accelerated his excretion of tritium by extra drinking. The clearance rates of tritium-in-urine are presented for both subjects and are used to estimate committed effective dose equivalents. These are compared with values from cytogenetic dosimetry derived from repeated blood sampling.

  14. Not salt taste perception but self-reported salt eating habit predicts actual salt intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hajeong; Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Bae, Eunjin; Kim, Yong Chul; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun

    2014-09-01

    Excessive dietary salt intake is related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although dietary salt restriction is essential, it is difficult to achieve because of salt palatability. However, the association between salt perception or salt eating habit and actual salt intake remains uncertain. In this study, we recruited 74 healthy young individuals. We investigated their salt-eating habits by questionnaire and salt taste threshold through a rating scale that used serial dilution of a sodium chloride solution. Predicted 24-hr urinary salt excretions using Kawasaki's and Tanaka's equations estimated dietary salt intake. Participants' mean age was 35 yr, and 59.5% were male. Salt sense threshold did not show any relationship with actual salt intake and a salt-eating habit. However, those eating "salty" foods showed higher blood pressure (P for trend=0.048) and higher body mass index (BMI; P for trend=0.043). Moreover, a salty eating habit was a significant predictor for actual salt intake (regression coefficient [β] for Kawasaki's equation 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 10-2.69, P=0.048; β for Tanaka's equation 0.66, 95% CI 0.01-1.31, P=0.047). In conclusion, a self-reported salt-eating habit, not salt taste threshold predicts actual salt intake.

  15. Relationship of moderate alcohol intake and type of beverage with health behaviors and quality of life in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rubio, Elizabeth; San Mauro, Ismael; López-Ruíz, Cristina; Díaz-Prieto, Ligia E; Marcos, Ascensión; Nova, Esther

    2016-08-01

    This work was aimed to study the relationships of moderate alcohol intake and the type of beverages consumed with health behaviors and quality of life in elderly people. In this observational study, 231 subjects (55-85 years) voluntarily answering to advertisements were enrolled and divided in three study groups: abstainers and occasional consumers (ABS; n = 98), moderate drinkers of beer (BEER; n = 63) and moderate drinkers of all sorts of alcoholic beverages (MIXED; n = 70). Variables assessed included physical activity, activities of daily living, Mediterranean diet-adherence score, tobacco consumption, quality of sleep, body composition, medication and perception of health through the SF-36 questionnaire. Their relationship with alcohol consumption was assessed through general linear models including confounding variables (age, sex, chronic disease prevalence and socioeconomic status). ABS were also compared to moderate drinkers (MOD = BEER + MIXED). The mean daily alcohol consumption in each group was (mean ± SD): ABS: 0.7 ± 1.1; BEER: 12.7 ± 8.1; MIXED: 13.9 ± 10.2 g/day. MOD and MIXED showed significantly higher physical activity (metabolic standard units; METs) than ABS (p = 0.023 and p = 0.004, respectively). MOD spent significantly less time doing housework activities than ABS (p = 0.032). Daily grams of alcohol consumption were significantly associated with METs (B = 21.727, p = 0.023). Specifically, wine consumption (g/day) was associated with METs (B = 46.196, p = alcohol consumption, and in particular wine consumption, is associated with a more active lifestyle and better perception of own health in the Spanish elderly subjects studied.

  16. The use of a tri-axial accelerometer to validate reported food intakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goris, A.H.C.; Meijer, E.P.; Kester, A.D.M.; Westerterp, K.R.

    2001-01-01

    : Am J Clin Nutr 2001 Mar;73(3):549-53 Related Articles, Books, LinkOut Use of a triaxial accelerometer to validate reported food intakes. Goris AH, Meijer EP, Kester A, Westerterp KR. Departments of Human Biology and Methodology and Statistics, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands.

  17. Examining Plausibility of Self-Reported Energy Intake Data: Considerations for Method Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinan C. Banna

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Self-reported dietary intake data contain valuable information and have long been used in the development of nutrition programs and policy. Some degree of measurement error is always present in such data. Biological plausibility, assessed by determining whether self-reported energy intake (rEI reflects physiological status and physical activity level, must be examined and accounted for before drawing conclusions about intake. Methods that may be used to account for plausibility of rEI include crude methods such as excluding participants reporting EIs at the extremes of a range of intake and individualized methods such as statistical adjustment and applying cutoffs that account for the errors associated with within-participant variation in EI and total energy expenditure (TEE. These approaches allow researchers to determine how accounting for under- and overreporting affects study results and to appropriately address misreporting in drawing conclusions with data collected and in interpreting reported research. In selecting a procedure to assess and account for plausibility of intake, there are a number of key considerations, such as resources available, the dietary-report instrument, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each method. While additional studies are warranted to recommend one procedure as superior to another, researchers should apply one of the available methods to address the issue of implausible rEI. If no method is applied, then at minimum, mean TEE or rEI/TEE should be reported to allow readers to ascertain the degree of misreporting at a gross level and better interpret the data and results provided.

  18. Relationship of the Reported Intakes of Fat and Fatty Acids to Body Weight in US Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Conrad, Zach; Johnson, LuAnn K; Picklo, Matthew J; Jahns, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Dietary fat composition may modulate energy expenditure and body weight. Little is known about the relationship between fatty acid intake and body weight at a population level. The purposes of this study were to compare intakes of energy, macronutrients, and individual fatty acids across BMI categories (1) for the US adult population and, (2) by sociodemographic groups. Reported dietary intake data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and What We Eat in America (WWEIA) surveys in the years 2005–2012 were analyzed. Overall, we found that the reported intake of carbohydrate, protein, total fat, total saturated fat (as well as long-chain saturated fatty acids 14:0–18:0), and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were positively associated with BMI; while lauric acid (a medium-chain saturated fatty acid, 12:0) and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (as well as all individual PUFAs) were not associated with BMI. Non-Hispanic black individuals demonstrated a negative association between BMI and energy intake and a positive association between total PUFAs, linoleic acid (LA), α-linolenic acid (ALA) and BMI. Individuals with less than a high school education showed a negative association between BMI and DHA. Mexican-Americans reported intakes with no association between BMI and energy, any macronutrient, or individual fatty acids. These findings support those of experimental studies demonstrating fatty acid-dependent associations between dietary fatty acid composition and body weight. Notably, we observed divergent results for some sociodemographic groups which warrant further investigation. PMID:28452961

  19. Estimation of salt intake assessed by urinary excretion of sodium over 24 h in Spanish subjects aged 7-11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, A; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, E; Cuadrado-Soto, E; Navia, B; López-Sobaler, A M; Ortega, R M

    2017-02-01

    High intake of salt is associated with early development of cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity). In "developed" countries, individuals frequently exceed dietary recommendations for salt intake. Taking into account the limited data on sodium intake by 24-h excretion in urine in schoolchildren, we wished to determine baseline salt intake in Spanish subjects aged 7-11 years. The present study was an observational study involving 205 schoolchildren (109 boys and 96 girls) selected from various Spanish provinces. Sodium intake was ascertained by measuring sodium excretion in urine over 24 h. Creatinine was used to validate completeness of urine collections. The correlation between fat-free mass determined by anthropometry and that determined via urinary excretion of creatinine was calculated (r = 0.651; p salt equivalent: 7.8 ± 3.1 g/day). Hence, 84.5 % of subjects aged ≤10 years had intakes of >4 g salt/day, and 66.7 % of those aged >10 years had intakes of >5 g salt/day. Urinary excretion of sodium was correlated with systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.1574 and r = 0.1400, respectively). Logistic regression analyses, adjusted by sex, showed that a high body mass index (odds ratio = 1.159; 95 % CI 1.041-1.290; p diet is a sound policy to reduce cardiovascular risk.

  20. Fourth graders' reports of fruit and vegetable intake at school lunch: does treatment assignment affect accuracy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Kathleen Fleege; Kohler, Connie L; McClure, Leslie A; Franklin, Frank A

    2009-01-01

    Dietary interventions with children often use self-reported data to assess efficacy despite that objective methods rarely support self-report findings in validation studies. This study compared fourth graders' self-reported to observed lunch fruit and vegetable intake to determine if the accuracy of self-reported intake varied by treatment condition. Matched randomized follow-up design examined three treatment groups (high and low intensity interventions and control) post-intervention. Three hundred seventy-nine middle-school children participating in a randomized controlled trial of a school-based fruit and vegetable intervention were observed during school lunch one day and asked to recall intake the following day. Food items were coded as: "match," "omission," or "intrusion." Students were classified as accurate if all food items matched, otherwise inaccurate. Matched foods' portions were compared for accuracy. Servings were computed for total fruit and vegetable intake. Accuracy for fruits and vegetables were compared in separate analyses and tested for multiple potential associates: treatment condition, sex, race, body mass index, subsidized meal eligibility, school district, fruit/vegetable availability, age, and test scores. Fitted multivariable regression models included variables found to be significant in univariate or chi(2) analyses. Variables found to be significant for fruit item accuracy were availability at lunch, body mass index, and subsidized lunch eligibility. For vegetable item accuracy, availability at lunch was significant. No differences were found for food portions or for efficacy of the intervention between the two methods of dietary data collection: observation and self-report. Condition assignment did not bias recalled fruit and vegetable intakes among fourth graders.

  1. Under-reporting of energy intake in elderly Australian women is associated with a higher body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, X; Kerr, D A; Zhu, K; Devine, A; Solah, V A; Wright, J; Binns, C W; Prince, R L

    2013-02-01

    Identify the extent of under-reporting of energy intake and the characteristics associated with implausible intakes in elderly women. Dietary intake was assessed using a 3-day weighed food record. Protein intake was validated by 24-hour urinary nitrogen. To examine under-reporting, participants were grouped according to their energy intake and compared to the Goldberg cut-off equation. Logistic regression was performed to assess the influence of body mass index (BMI) and social-demographic factors on under-reporting. Community dwelling elderly women from Perth, Western Australia. 217 elderly women aged 70-80 years. Under-reporters had a higher physical activity level (pmass index (BMI) (p=0.001), waist (p=0.011), hip circumference (pmass (penergy intake (BMI=25-29.9: odds ratio=2.98[95% CI=1.46-6.09]; BMI≥30: 5.84[2.41-14.14]). Under-reporting energy intake in elderly women was associated with a higher BMI, body fat and higher self-reported physical activity levels. A higher BMI (≥25) appears to be most significant factor in determining if elderly women will underreport their food intake and may be related to body image. These results have implications for undertaking surveys of food intake in elderly women.

  2. Vitamin intake and liver cancer risk: a report from two cohort studies in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Li, Honglan; Yang, Gong; Cai, Hui; Ji, Bu-Tian; Gao, Jing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2012-08-08

    Epidemiologic studies on the relationship between vitamin intake and liver cancer risk are sparse and inconsistent. We evaluated vitamin intake from diet and supplements and risk of liver cancer in 132,837 women and men from China who were recruited into the Shanghai Women's Health Study from 1997 to 2000 or the Shanghai Men's Health Study from 2002 to 2006. In-person interviews, using a validated food-frequency questionnaire, were conducted to collect data on dietary habits. Follow-up consisted of in-person surveys and record linkage. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models with adjustment for potential confounders to compare liver cancer risk among participants with high vs low vitamin intake. All statistical tests were two-sided. After excluding the first 2 years of follow-up, 267 participants (including 118 women and 149 men) developed liver cancer during an average of 10.9 (Shanghai Women's Health Study) or 5.5 (Shanghai Men's Health Study) years of follow-up. Dietary vitamin E intake was inversely associated with liver cancer risk (P(trend) = .01), as was vitamin E supplement use (hazard ratio = 0.52, 95% confidence interval = 0.30 to 0.90). This association was consistent among participants with and without self-reported liver disease or a family history of liver cancer. Vitamin C and multivitamin use was associated with increased risk among participants with self-reported liver disease or family history of liver cancer, whereas intake of vitamin C and other vitamins from dietary sources was unrelated to liver cancer risk. Vitamin E intake, either from diet or supplements, may reduce the risk of liver cancer.

  3. Emotions and eating. Self-reported and experimentally induced changes in food intake under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, D J; Hetherington, M M

    2009-04-01

    Two studies investigated the stress-eating relationship. The first examined self-reported changes in intake of snack foods, whilst the second investigated stress-induced overconsumption in a laboratory setting comparing high (HF) and low-fat (LF) snacks. Eighty-nine females completed the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) [Van Strien, T., Fritjers, J. E. R., Bergers, G. P. A., & Defares, P. B. (1986). Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire for assessment of restrained, emotional and external eating behaviour. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 5, 295-315] and a self-report measure designed to evaluate changes in eating in response to stress. Increased intake of HF snacks was associated with high emotional eating but not with restraint. A laboratory-based experiment compared intake of HF and LF snacks after ego-threatening and neutral Stroop colour-naming tasks. Intake was suppressed by 31.8% in restrained compared to unrestrained eaters across tasks. Restrained eaters consumed significantly less after ego-threat than after the neutral manipulation, but this was associated only with intake of the LF snack. Restrained eaters' intake of dried fruit was suppressed by 33.2% after ego-threat relative to the neutral task, despite a significant increase in hunger for this group following ego-threat. These results suggest that the type and variety of foods offered influences the link between stress and eating in laboratory settings. Further research should aim to replicate and extend these findings, with a view to informing potential interventions for stress-related eating.

  4. Whole Grain Intake and Glycaemic Control in Healthy Subjects: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Marventano

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: There is growing evidence from both observational and intervention studies that Whole Grain (WG cereals exert beneficial effects on human health, especially on the metabolic profile. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCT to assess the acute and medium/long-term effect of WG foods on glycaemic control and insulin sensitivity in healthy individuals. Methods: A search for all the published RCT on the effect of WG food intake on glycaemic and insulin response was performed up to December 2016. Effect size consisted of mean difference (MD and 95% CI between the outcomes of intervention and the control groups using the generic inverse-variance random effects model. Results: The meta-analysis of the 14 studies testing the acute effects of WG foods showed significant reductions of the post-prandial values of the glucose iAUC (0–120 min by −29.71 mmol min/L (95% CI: −43.57, −15.85 mmol min/L, the insulin iAUC (0–120 min by −2.01 nmol min/L (95% CI: −2.88, −1.14 nmol min/L, and the maximal glucose and insulin response. In 16 medium- and long-term RCTs, effects of WG foods on fasting glucose and insulin and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance values were not significant. Conclusions: The consumption of WG foods is able to improve acutely the postprandial glucose and insulin homeostasis compared to similar refined foods in healthy subjects. Further research is needed to better understand the long-term effects and the biological mechanisms.

  5. The signal processing architecture underlying subjective reports of sensory awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniscalco, Brian; Lau, Hakwan

    2016-01-01

    What is the relationship between perceptual information processing and subjective perceptual experience? Empirical dissociations between stimulus identification performance and subjective reports of stimulus visibility are crucial for shedding light on this question. We replicated a finding that metacontrast masking can produce such a dissociation (Lau and Passingham, 2006), and report a novel finding that this paradigm can also dissociate stimulus identification performance from the efficacy with which visibility ratings predict task performance. We explored various hypotheses about the relationship between perceptual task performance and visibility rating by implementing them in computational models and using formal model comparison techniques to assess which ones best captured the unusual patterns in the data. The models fell into three broad categories: Single Channel models, which hold that task performance and visibility ratings are based on the same underlying source of information; Dual Channel models, which hold that there are two independent processing streams that differentially contribute to task performance and visibility rating; and Hierarchical models, which hold that a late processing stage generates visibility ratings by evaluating the quality of early perceptual processing. Taking into account the quality of data fitting and model complexity, we found that Hierarchical models perform best at capturing the observed behavioral dissociations. Because current theories of visual awareness map well onto these different model structures, a formal comparison between them is a powerful approach for arbitrating between the different theories.

  6. Preference and intake frequency of high sodium foods and dishes and their correlations with anthropometric measurements among Malaysian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Stella Sinn-Yee; Balan, Sumitha Nair; Chua, Leong-Siong; Say, Yee-How

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the preference and intake frequency of a list of 15 commonly available high sodium Malaysian foods/dishes, discretionary salt use, and their possible association with demographics, blood pressures and anthropometric measurements among 300 Malaysian university students (114 males, 186 females; 259 ethnic Chinese, 41 Indians; 220 lean, 80 overweight). French fries and instant soup noodle were found to be the most preferred and most frequently consumed salty food, respectively, while salted fish was least preferred and least frequently consumed. Males had a significantly higher intake frequency of at least 6 of the salty foods, but the preference of most salty foods was not significantly different between genders. Ethnic Chinese significantly preferred more and took more frequently traditional and conventional Malaysian foods like asam laksa (a Malaysian salty-sour-spicy noodle in fish stock), salted biscuits and salted vegetable, while Indians have more affinity and frequency towards eating salty Western foods. Body Mass Index was significantly negatively correlated with the intake frequency of canned/packet soup and salted fish while waist circumference was significantly positively correlated with the preference of instant noodle. Also, an increased preference of potato chips and intake frequency of salted biscuits seemed to lead to a decreased WHR. Other than these, all the other overweight/obesity indicators did not seem to fully correlate with the salty food preference and intake frequency. Nevertheless, the preference and intake frequency of asam laksa seemed to be significant negative predictors for blood pressures. Finally, increased preference and intake frequency of high sodium shrimp paste (belacan)-based foods like asam laksa and belacan fried rice seemed to discourage discretionary salt use. In conclusion, the preference and intake frequency of the high sodium belacan-based dish asam laksa seems to be a good predictor for ethnic

  7. A Comparison of College Students' Reported Fruit and Vegetable Liking and Intake from Childhood to Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Samantha A; Rudley, Marissa; Tonnemaker, Luke E; Price, William J

    2017-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) is below recommendations and fruit and vegetable liking (FVL) is associated with intake. Greater understanding of college student FVL and FVI is needed; therefore, the study objectives were to compare reported FVL and frequency of FVI in adulthood to recollection of FVL and frequency of fruit and vegetable offering (FVO) in childhood and identify factors related to FVL and FVI in college students. A retrospective survey was administered via e-mail to randomly selected college students (18-25 years) from 2 Northwestern universities (n = 676). McNemar's chi-square tests were used to evaluate differences in FVL and FVI scores. Spearman's rank identified an association between current FVL and FVI scores and their recollection of FVO as a child. Pearson's chi-square tests were used to examine differences in FVL and FVI scores within the demographic factors age, gender, year in school, urban/rural, body mass index (BMI), childhood overweight, breastfed, and forced to eat fruits or vegetables. FVL was more frequent in adulthood, but college students reported FVO as a child more frequently than their current FVI. Females reported greater FVL and FVI. Upperclassmen and the 21-25 age group reported greater frequency of vegetable liking and intake compared to underclassmen and the 18-20 age group. Lower vegetable liking and fruit intake were reported for those identifying as overweight, and recollection of FVO in childhood was associated with increased FVL and FVI scores in adulthood. Individuals forced by caregivers to eat vegetables as a child reported a lower vegetable liking than those not forced. FVL increased from childhood to adulthood, demonstrating a progression; however, recollection of childhood offering was higher than FVI in young adulthood. Results indicate a need for behavioral strategies to increase FVI in college students and encourage offering fruit and vegetables but refrain from forcing children to eat vegetables.

  8. Genes and miRNA expression signatures in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in healthy subjects and patients with metabolic syndrome after acute intake of extra virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amore, Simona; Vacca, Michele; Cariello, Marica; Graziano, Giusi; D'Orazio, Andria; Salvia, Roberto; Sasso, Rosa Cinzia; Sabbà, Carlo; Palasciano, Giuseppe; Moschetta, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) consumption has been associated with reduced cardiovascular risk but molecular mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects are not fully understood. Here we aimed to identify genes and miRNAs expression changes mediated by acute high- and low-polyphenols EVOO intake. Pre- and post-challenge gene and miRNAs expression analysis was performed on the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 12 healthy subjects and 12 patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) by using microarray and RT-qPCR. In healthy subjects, acute intake of EVOO rich in polyphenols was able to ameliorate glycaemia and insulin sensitivity, and to modulate the transcription of genes and miRNAs involved in metabolism, inflammation and cancer, switching PBMCs to a less deleterious inflammatory phenotype; weaker effects were observed in patients with MS as well as in healthy subjects following low-polyphenol EVOO challenge. Concluding, our study shows that acute high-polyphenols EVOO intake is able to modify the transcriptome of PBMCs through the modulation of different pathways associated with the pathophysiology of cardio-metabolic disease and cancer. These beneficial effects are maximized in healthy subjects, and by the use of EVOO cultivars rich in polyphenols. Nutrigenomic changes induced by EVOO thus legitimate the well-known beneficial effects of EVOO in promoting human health and, potentially, preventing the onset of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Changes in total energy intake and macronutrient composition after bariatric surgery predict long-term weight outcome: findings from the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanerva, Noora; Larsson, Ingrid; Peltonen, Markku; Lindroos, Anna-Karin; Carlsson, Lena M

    2017-07-01

    Background: Approximately 20-30% of obese patients do not achieve successful weight outcomes after bariatric surgery.Objective: We examined whether short-term changes (≤0.5 y postsurgery) in energy intake and macronutrient composition after bariatric surgery could predict 10-y weight change.Design: Participants were recruited from the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study, which was a matched (nonrandomized) prospective trial that compared bariatric surgery with usual care for obese patients. A total of 2010 patients who underwent bariatric surgery were included in the study. Physical examinations (e.g., weight) and questionnaires (e.g., dietary questionnaire) were completed before and 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 10 y after surgery. For the main analytic strategy, a linear mixed model was implemented, which included repeated measures with a random intercept and an unstructured covariance matrix.Results: Short-term changes in energy intake (P bariatric surgery. At the 10-y follow-up, men and women with the largest reductions in energy intake had lost 7.3% and 3.9% more weight, respectively, compared with that of subjects with the smallest intake reductions (P bariatric surgery predicts long-term weight loss. Weight loss is also associated with a changing dietary macronutrient composition. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01479452. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Characterizing Blood Metabolomics Profiles Associated with Self-Reported Food Intakes in Female Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallister, Tess; Jennings, Amy; Mohney, Robert P; Yarand, Darioush; Mangino, Massimo; Cassidy, Aedin; MacGregor, Alexander; Spector, Tim D; Menni, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Using dietary biomarkers in nutritional epidemiological studies may better capture exposure and improve the level at which diet-disease associations can be established and explored. Here, we aimed to identify and evaluate reproducibility of novel biomarkers of reported habitual food intake using targeted and non-targeted metabolomic blood profiling in a large twin cohort. Reported intakes of 71 food groups, determined by FFQ, were assessed against 601 fasting blood metabolites in over 3500 adult female twins from the TwinsUK cohort. For each metabolite, linear regression analysis was undertaken in the discovery group (excluding MZ twin pairs discordant [≥1 SD apart] for food group intake) with each food group as a predictor adjusting for age, batch effects, BMI, family relatedness and multiple testing (1.17x10-6 = 0.05/[71 food groups x 601 detected metabolites]). Significant results were then replicated (non-targeted: Pmeat intake (0.075[0.009]; P = 1.08x10-17), ergothioneine as a marker of mushroom consumption (0.181[0.019]; P = 5.93x10-22), and three potential markers of fruit consumption (top association: apple and pears): including metabolites derived from gut bacterial transformation of phenolic compounds, 3-phenylpropionate (0.024[0.004]; P = 1.24x10-8) and indolepropionate (0.026[0.004]; P = 2.39x10-9), and threitol (0.033[0.003]; P = 1.69x10-21). With the largest nutritional metabolomics dataset to date, we have identified 73 novel candidate biomarkers of food intake for potential use in nutritional epidemiological studies. We compiled our findings into the DietMetab database (http://www.twinsuk.ac.uk/dietmetab-data/), an online tool to investigate our top associations.

  11. Recommendations for reporting whole-grain intake in observational and intervention studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Alastair B; Kristensen, Mette Bredal; Seal, Chris J

    2015-01-01

    the following when describing whole grains: quantify the amount of whole grain in the food or product in grams on a dry-weight basis, describe the whole-grain definition used, report and separate the different types of grains used, if possible report the structure of the grains (intact, crushed, partially...... milled) in foods, and describe the main types of products used and processes used to make them. Added bran and germ should be reported distinct from whole grains. In addition, we strongly recommend the incorporation of biomarkers of whole-grain intake to check compliance to intervention diets and help...

  12. Interaction of dietary fat intake with APOA2, APOA5 and LEPR polymorphisms and its relationship with obesity and dyslipidemia in young subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Reyes, Teresa; Astudillo-López, Constanza C; Salgado-Goytia, Lorenzo; Muñoz-Valle, José F; Salgado-Bernabé, Aralia B; Guzmán-Guzmán, Iris P; Castro-Alarcón, Natividad; Moreno-Godínez, Ma E; Parra-Rojas, Isela

    2015-09-13

    Diet is an important environmental factor that interacts with genes to modulate the likelihood of developing disorders in lipid metabolism and the relationship between diet and genes in the presence of other chronic diseases such as obesity. The objective of this study was to analyze the interaction of a high fat diet with the APOA2 (rs3813627 and rs5082), APOA5 (rs662799 and rs3135506) and LEPR (rs8179183 and rs1137101) polymorphisms and its relationship with obesity and dyslipidemia in young subjects. The study included 200 young subjects aged 18 to 25 years (100 normal-weight and 100 obese subjects). Dietary fat intake was measured using the frequency food consumption questionnaire. Genotyping of polymorphisms was performed by PCR-RFLP. Individuals carrying the APOA5 56 G/G genotype with a high saturated fatty acid consumption (OR = 2.7, p = 0.006) and/or total fat (OR = 2.4, p = 0.018), associated with an increased risk of obesity. We also found that A/G + G/G genotypes of the 668 A/G polymorphism in the LEPR gene with an intake ≥ 12 g/d of saturated fatty acids, have 2.9 times higher risk of obesity (p = 0.002), 3.8 times higher risk of hypercholesterolemia (p = 0.002) and 2.4 times higher risk of hypertriglyceridemia (p = 0.02), than those with an intake obesity (p = 0.002) and 4.1 times higher risk of hypercholesterolemia (p = 0.001). Our results suggest that dietary fat intake modifies the effect of APOA5 and LEPR polymorphisms on serum triglycerides, cholesterol levels and obesity in young subjects.

  13. The effect of exogenous GLP-1 on food intake is lost in male truncally vagotomized subjects with pyloroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plamboeck, Astrid; Veedfald, Simon; Deacon, Carolyn F.

    2013-01-01

    received GLP-1 (7-36 amide) or saline infusions during and after a standardized liquid mixed meal and a subsequent ad libitum meal. Despite no effect on appetite sensations, GLP-1 significantly reduced ad libitum food intake in the control group but had no effect in the vagotomized group. Gastric emptying...... that vagotomy with pyloroplasty impairs the effects of exogenous GLP-1 on food intake, gastric emptying, and insulin and glucagon secretion, suggesting that intact vagal innervation may be important for GLP-1's actions....

  14. Button battery intake as foreign body in Chinese children: review of case reports and the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wenjing; Wen, Guangyi; Zhang, Xiaowen

    2015-06-01

    Button batteries have been recognized as one of the dangerous foreign bodies to children for more than 30 years, but few related studies have been published to give more concern in China. We reported 6 cases of button battery intake as foreign body in children. The Chinese literature on button battery as foreign body in children was reviewed. The interval between the accidental ingestion and battery removal ranged from 6 hours to 3 days. Two patients had no sequela, 3 patients had tracheoesophageal fistulas, and 1 patient had nasal septal perforation. Twenty-eight articles about button battery as foreign body in children were obtained by Chinese-language literature searches including 25 case reports, 2 health education articles, and 1 imaging article. In total, 172 cases of button battery intake as foreign body in children were identified, 23 and 10 of the 159 cases involving nasal button battery lodgment developed nasal septal perforation and nasal adhesion, respectively. Tracheoesophageal fistula was identified in 4 of the 12 ingestion cases. One case of button battery intake was in external auditory canal. A small number of children with button battery as foreign body were reported in China, which is 1 of the biggest countries with large population of children.

  15. Effect of magnesium, probiotic, and vitamin food supplementation in healthy subjects with psychological stress and evaluation of a persistent effect after discontinuing intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaert, Francois A; Courau, Stephanie; Forestier, Anne

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to describe the changes in subjects' psychological stress intensity under the effect of dietary supplements of magnesium, probiotics, and vitamins after one month of intake. Observational cohort study of subject complaining of psychological stress defined by a Perceived Stress Scale (PSS 10) score of more than 21. The study covered 242 healthy volunteers, 38.6±13.6-year-old, among whom 79.8% were women. Under the effect of the supplementation of magnesium, probiotics, and vitamins, the psychological stress of the subjects decreased significantly from 34.1±4.5 to 26.2±6.1 (Ppsychological stress level was strictly similar one month after the treatment was discontinued and therefore clearly demonstrated that the psychological benefit was maintained over time. Stress and fatigue are significantly reduced by the intake of a food supplement with probiotics, magnesium, vitamins, and minerals and this effect is fully maintained one month after discontinuing the food supplement intake.

  16. Children's Food Security and Intakes from School Meals. Final Report. Contractor and Cooperator Report No. 61

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potamites, Elizabeth; Gordon, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Using 2005 data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment survey, this study examines the contribution of school meals to the food and nutrient intake of children in food-secure, marginally secure, and food-insecure households. The study finds that children from food-insecure and marginally secure…

  17. Exposure to virtual social stimuli modulates subjective pain reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Jacob M; Torres, Daniel; Wolff, Alexander; Hughes, Katy

    2014-01-01

    Contextual factors, including the gender of researchers, influence experimental and patient pain reports. It is currently not known how social stimuli influence pain percepts, nor which types of sensory modalities of communication, such as auditory, visual or olfactory cues associated with person perception and gender processing, produce these effects. To determine whether exposure to two forms of social stimuli (audio and visual) from a virtual male or female stranger modulates cold pressor task (CPT) pain reports. Participants with similar demographic characteristics conducted a CPT in solitude, without the physical presence of an experimenter or another person. During the CPT, participants were exposed to the voice and image of a virtual male or female stranger. The voices had analogous vocal prosody, provided no semantic information (spoken in a foreign language) and differed only in pitch; the images depicted a middle-age male or female health care practitioner. Male participants, but not females, showed higher CPT pain intensity when they were exposed to the female stimuli compared with the male stimuli. Follow-up analyses showed that the association between the social stimuli and variability in pain sensitivity was not moderated by individual differences in subjective (eg, self-image) or objective measurements of one's physical stature. The findings show that exposure to virtual, gender-based auditory and visual social stimuli influences exogenous pain sensitivity. Further research on how contextual factors, such as the vocal properties of health care examiners and exposure to background voices, may influence momentary pain perception is necessary for creating more standardized methods for measuring patient pain reports in clinical settings.

  18. Variation in the effects of three different breakfast meals on subjective satiety and subsequent intake of energy at lunch and evening meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallaize, Rosalind; Wilson, Louise; Gray, Juliet; Morgan, Linda M; Griffin, Bruce A

    2013-06-01

    To determine the relative impact of three iso-caloric breakfast meals, of variable composition, on satiety, hunger and subsequent intake of energy. In a three-way, crossover design, 30 healthy men (age of 21.7 ± 1.2 years; BMI, 23.1 ± 2.7 kg/m²) were randomised to one of three test breakfasts, on three separate occasions, separated by 1 week. The breakfasts consisted of eggs on toast, cereal (cornflakes) with milk and toast, or a croissant and orange juice. Subjective ratings of satiety, hunger, fullness and desire to eat were recorded at 30-min intervals by electronic visual analogue scales (VAS). Energy intake was assessed by weighed food intake at an ad libitum lunch and evening meal. Participants showed increased satiety, less hunger and a lower desire to eat after the breakfast containing eggs relative to the cereal (p breakfast was also accompanied by a significantly lower intake of energy relative to the croissant- and cereal-based breakfasts at the buffet lunch and evening meal, respectively, 1,284 ± 464 (egg) versus 1,442 ± 426 kcal (croissant), p = 0.03, 1,407 ± 379 (cereal) at lunch and 1,899 ± 729 (egg) versus 2,214 ± 620 kcal (cereal), p = 0.02, 2,047 ± 712 (croissant) at evening meal. The breakfast meal with the greatest effect on satiety and subsequent intake of energy was distinct in having the highest protein and lowest carbohydrate content relative to the other two breakfasts. These findings provide evidence to support the importance of food choice at breakfast as a means of increasing satiety in the morning and reducing energy intake at lunch.

  19. Association of Moderate Coffee Intake with Self-Reported Diabetes among Urban Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo F. Da Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Coffee has been associated with reductions in the risk of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCCD, including diabetes mellitus. Because differences in food habits are recognizable modifying factors in the epidemiology of diabetes, we studied the association of coffee consumption with type-2 diabetes in a sample of the adult population of the Federal District, Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted by telephone interview (n = 1,440. A multivariate analysis was run controlling for socio-behavioural variables, obesity and family antecedents of NCCD. A hierarchical linear regression model and a Poisson regression were used to verify association of type-2 diabetes and coffee intake. The independent variables which remained in the final model, following the hierarchical inclusion levels, were: first level—age and marital status; second level—diabetes and dyslipidaemias in antecedents; third level—cigarette smoking, supplement intake, body mass index; and fourth level—coffee intake (£100 mL/d, 101 to 400 mL/day, and >400 mL/day. After adjusting hierarchically for the confounding variables, consumers of 100 to 400 mL of coffee/day had a 2.7% higher (p = 0.04 prevalence of not having diabetes than those who drank less than 100 mL of coffee/day. Compared to coffee intake of £100 mL/day, adults consuming >400 mL of coffee/day showed no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of diabetes. Thus, moderate coffee intake is favourably associated with self-reported type-2 diabetes in the studied population. This is the first study to show a relationship between coffee drinking and diabetes in a Brazilian population.

  20. Reported food intake and distribution of body fat: a repeated cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenlund Hans

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body mass, as well as distribution of body fat, are predictors of both diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In Northern Sweden, despite a marked increase in average body mass, prevalence of diabetes was stagnant and myocardial infarctions decreased. A more favourable distribution of body fat is a possible contributing factor. This study investigates the relative importance of individual food items for time trends in waist circumference (WC and hip circumference (HC on a population level. Methods Independent cross-sectional surveys conducted in 1986, 1990, 1994 and 1999 in the two northernmost counties of Sweden with a common population of 250000. Randomly selected age stratified samples, altogether 2982 men and 3087 women aged 25–64 years. Questionnaires were completed and anthropometric measurements taken. For each food item, associations between frequency of consumption and waist and hip circumferences were estimated. Partial regression coefficients for every level of reported intake were multiplied with differences in proportion of the population reporting the corresponding levels of intake in 1986 and 1999. The sum of these product terms for every food item was the respective estimated impact on mean circumference. Results Time trends in reported food consumption associated with the more favourable gynoid distribution of adipose tissue were increased use of vegetable oil, pasta and 1.5% fat milk. Trends associated with abdominal obesity were increased consumption of beer in men and higher intake of hamburgers and French fried potatoes in women. Conclusion Food trends as markers of time trends in body fat distribution have been identified. The method is a complement to conventional approaches to establish associations between food intake and disease risk on a population level.

  1. No effect of physiological concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-2 on appetite and energy intake in normal weight subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, L B; Flint, A; Raben, A

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of a GLP-2 infusion on appetite sensations and ad libitum energy intake in healthy, normal weight humans. DESIGN: The experiment was performed in a randomised, blinded, and placebo-controlled crossover design. Placebo or GLP-2 was infused (infusion rate of 25 pmol...

  2. Neuromodulation directed at the prefrontal cortex of subjects with obesity reduces snack food intake and hunger in a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinitz, Sascha; Reinhardt, Martin; Piaggi, Paolo; Weise, Christopher M; Diaz, Enrique; Stinson, Emma J; Venti, Colleen; Votruba, Susanne B; Wassermann, Eric M; Alonso-Alonso, Miguel; Krakoff, Jonathan; Gluck, Marci E

    2017-12-01

    Background: Obesity is associated with reduced activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), a region of the brain that plays a key role in the support of self-regulatory aspects of eating behavior and inhibitory control. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive technique used to modulate brain activity. Objectives: We tested whether repeated anodal tDCS targeted at the left DLPFC (compared with sham tDCS) has an immediate effect on eating behavior during ad libitum food intake, resulting in weight change, and whether it might influence longer-term food intake-related appetite ratings in individuals with obesity. Design: In a randomized parallel-design study combining inpatient and outpatient assessments over 31 d, 23 individuals with obesity [12 men; mean ± SD body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ): 39.3 ± 8.42] received 15 sessions of anodal (i.e., enhancing cortical activity) or sham tDCS aimed at the left DLPFC. Ad libitum food intake was assessed through the use of a vending machine paradigm and snack food taste tests (SFTTs). Appetite was evaluated with a visual analog scale (VAS). Body weight was measured. We examined the effect of short-term (i.e., 3 sessions) and long-term (i.e., 15 sessions) tDCS on these variables. Results: Relative to sham tDCS, short-term anodal tDCS did not influence ad libitum intake of food from the vending machines. Accordingly, no effect on short-term or 4-wk weight change was observed. In the anodal tDCS group, compared with the sham group, VAS ratings for hunger and the urge to eat declined significantly more ( P = 0.01 and P = 0.05, respectively), and total energy intake during an SFTT was relatively lower in satiated individuals ( P = 0.01), after long-term tDCS. Conclusions: Short-term anodal tDCS of the left DLPFC did not have an immediate effect on ad libitum food intake or thereby weight change, relative to sham tDCS. Hunger and snack food intake were reduced only after a longer period

  3. Effects of once-weekly semaglutide on appetite, energy intake, control of eating, food preference and body weight in subjects with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, John; Finlayson, Graham; Axelsen, Mads; Flint, Anne; Gibbons, Catherine; Kvist, Trine; Hjerpsted, Julie B

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this trial was to investigate the mechanism of action for body weight loss with semaglutide. This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover trial investigated the effects of 12 weeks of treatment with once-weekly subcutaneous semaglutide, dose-escalated to 1.0 mg, in 30 subjects with obesity. Ad libitum energy intake, ratings of appetite, thirst, nausea and well-being, control of eating, food preference, resting metabolic rate, body weight and body composition were assessed. After a standardised breakfast, semaglutide, compared with placebo, led to a lower ad libitum energy intake during lunch (-1255 kJ; P  weight of 5.0 kg, predominantly from body fat mass. After 12 weeks of treatment, ad libitum energy intake was substantially lower with semaglutide vs placebo with a corresponding loss of body weight observed with semaglutide. In addition to reduced energy intake, likely mechanisms for semaglutide-induced weight loss included less appetite and food cravings, better control of eating and lower relative preference for fatty, energy-dense foods. © 2017 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Hypothalamic BOLD response to glucose intake and hypothalamic volume are similar in anorexia nervosa and healthy control subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Van Opstal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inconsistent findings about the neurobiology of Anorexia Nervosa (AN hinder the development of effective treatments for this severe mental disorder. Therefore the need arises for elucidation of neurobiological factors involved in the pathophysiology of AN. The hypothalamus plays a key role in the neurobiological processes that govern food intake and energy homeostasis, processes that are disturbed in anorexia nervosa (AN. The present study will assess the hypothalamic response to energy intake and the hypothalamic structure in patients with AN and healthy controls. Methods. 10 women aged 18-30 years diagnosed with AN and 11 healthy, lean (BMI <23 kg/m2 women in the same age range were recruited. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to determine function of the hypothalamus in response to glucose. Structural MRI was used to determine differences in hypothalamic volume and local grey volume using manual segmentation and voxel-based morphometry.Results. No differences were found in hypothalamic volume and neuronal activity in response to a glucose load between the patients and controls. Whole brain structural analysis showed a significant decrease in grey matter volume in the cingulate cortex in the AN patients, bilaterally.Conclusions. We argue that in spite of various known changes in the hypothalamus the direct hypothalamic response to glucose intake is similar in AN patients and healthy controls.

  5. Postprandial differences in the plasma metabolome of healthy Finnish subjects after intake of a sourdough fermented endosperm rye bread versus white wheat bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The mechanism behind the lowered postprandial insulin demand observed after rye bread intake compared to wheat bread is unknown. The aim of this study was to use the metabolomics approach to identify potential metabolites related to amino acid metabolism involved in this mechanism. Methods A sourdough fermented endosperm rye bread (RB) and a standard white wheat bread (WB) as a reference were served in random order to 16 healthy subjects. Test bread portions contained 50 g available carbohydrate. In vitro hydrolysis of starch and protein were performed for both test breads. Blood samples for measuring glucose and insulin concentrations were drawn over 4 h and gastric emptying rate (GER) was measured. Changes in the plasma metabolome were investigated by applying a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry metabolomics platform (GC×GC-TOF-MS). Results Plasma insulin response to RB was lower than to WB at 30 min (P = 0.004), 45 min (P = 0.002) and 60 min (P bread intake, and plasma glucose response was significantly higher at time point 90 min after RB than WB intake (P = 0.045). The starch hydrolysis rate was higher for RB than WB, contrary to the in vitro protein digestibility. There were no differences in GER between breads. From 255 metabolites identified by the metabolomics platform, 26 showed significant postprandial relative changes after 30 minutes of bread intake (p and q values bread intake. Conclusions A single meal of a low fibre sourdough rye bread producing low postprandial insulin response brings in several changes in plasma amino acids and their metabolites and some of these might have properties beneficial for health. PMID:22011443

  6. Association between dietary phylloquinone intake and peripheral metabolic risk markers related to insulin resistance and diabetes in elderly subjects at high cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanola-Falgarona Martí

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin K has been related to glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and diabetes. Because inflammation underlies all these metabolic conditions, it is plausible that the potential role of vitamin K in glucose metabolism occurs through the modulation of cytokines and related molecules. The purpose of the study was to assess the associations between dietary intake of vitamin K and peripheral adipokines and other metabolic risk markers related to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods Cross-sectional and longitudinal assessments of these associations in 510 elderly participants recruited in the PREDIMED centers of Reus and Barcelona (Spain. We determined 1-year changes in dietary phylloquinone intake estimated by food frequency questionnaires, serum inflammatory cytokines and other metabolic risk markers. Results In the cross-sectional analysis at baseline no significant associations were found between dietary phylloquinone intake and the rest of metabolic risk markers evaluated, with exception of a negative association with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. After 1-year of follow-up, subjects in the upper tertile of changes in dietary phylloquinone intake showed a greater reduction in ghrelin (−15.0%, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (−12.9%, glucagon-like peptide-1 (−17.6%, IL-6 (−27.9%, leptin (−10.3%, TNF (−26.9% and visfatin (−24.9% plasma concentrations than those in the lowest tertile (all p Conclusion These results show that dietary phylloquinone intake is associated with an improvement of cytokines and other markers related to insulin resistance and diabetes, thus extending the potential protection by dietary phylloquinone on chronic inflammatory diseases. Trial registration http://www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN35739639

  7. Exercise and vitamin E intake are independently associated with metabolic abnormalities in human immunodeficiency virus-positive subjects: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrila, Alina; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Doweiko, John; Nagy, G Sonia; Brodovicz, Kimberly; Hsu, William; Karchmer, Adolf W; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2003-06-15

    We investigated the relationship among habitual exercise, diet, and the presence of metabolic abnormalities (body fat redistribution, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance) in a cross-sectional study of 120 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected subjects with use of bivariate and multivariate regression-analysis models. Total and aerobic exercise were significantly and negatively associated with fasting plasma triglyceride levels in the entire sample and in the fat redistribution group. Inverse associations between total or aerobic exercise and insulin resistance were suggestive but did not achieve statistical significance. Diastolic blood pressure was significantly and inversely associated with supplemental or total but not habitual dietary intake of vitamin E. In conclusion, exercise and vitamin E intake were independently and negatively associated with several phenotypic manifestations of HIV-associated metabolic syndrome, whereas other macro- or micronutrients did not have comparable significance.

  8. Self-reported dietary energy intake of normal weight, overweight and obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Vivienne A; Woodruff, Sarah J; McCargar, Linda J; Husted, Janice; Hanning, Rhona M

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to assess dietary energy reporting as a function of sex and weight status among Ontario and Alberta adolescents, using the ratio of energy intake (EI) to estimated BMR (BMRest). Data were collected using the FBQ, a validated web-based dietary assessment tool (including a 24 h dietary recall, FFQ, and food and physical activity behavioural questions). BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight and participants were classified as normal weight, overweight or obese. BMR was calculated using the WHO equations (based on weight). Reporting status was identified using the ratio EI:BMRest. Data were collected in public, Catholic and private schools in Ontario and Alberta, Canada. A total of 1917 (n 876 male and n 1041 female) students (n 934 grade 9 and n 984 grade 10) participated. The mean EI:BMRest ratio across all participants was 1.4 (sd 0.6), providing evidence of under-reporting for the total sample. Females under-reported more than males (t = 6.27, P < 0.001), and under-reporting increased with increasing weight status for both males (F = 33.21, P < 0.001) and females (F = 14.28, P < 0.001). After removing those who reported eating less to lose weight, the EI:BMRest was 1.56 (sd 0.6) for males and 1.4 (sd 0.6) for females. The present study highlights methodological challenges associated with self-reported dietary data. Systematic differences in under-reporting of dietary intake by gender and weight status were observed using a web-based survey, similar to observations made using paper-based 24 h recalls and dietitian interviews.

  9. Complex interactions between the subject factors of biological sex and prior histories of binge-drinking and unpredictable stress influence behavioral sensitivity to alcohol and alcohol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadir, Sema G; Guzelian, Eugenie; Palmer, Mason A; Martin, Douglas L; Kim, Jennifer; Szumlinski, Karen K

    2017-08-10

    Alcohol use disorders, affective disorders and their comorbidity are sexually dimorphic in humans. However, it is difficult to disentangle the interactions between subject factors influencing alcohol sensitivity in studies of humans. Herein, we combined murine models of unpredictable, chronic, mild stress (UCMS) and voluntary binge-drinking to examine for sex differences in the interactions between prior histories of excessive ethanol-drinking and stress upon ethanol-induced changes in motor behavior and subsequent drinking. In Experiment 1, female mice were insensitive to the UCMS-induced increase in ethanol-induced locomotion and ethanol intake under continuous alcohol-access. Experiment 2 revealed interactions between ethanol dose and sex (females>males), binge-drinking history (water>ethanol), and UCMS history (UCMS>controls), with no additive effect of a sequential prior history of both binge drinking and UCMS observed. We also observed an interaction between UCMS history and sex for righting recovery. UCMS history potentiated subsequent binge-drinking in water controls of both sexes and in male binge-drinking mice. Conversely, a prior binge-drinking history increased subsequent ethanol intake in females only, irrespective of prior UCMS history. In Experiment 3, a concurrent history of binge-drinking and UCMS did not alter ethanol intake, nor did it influence the ethanol dose-locomotor response function, but it did augment alcohol-induced sedation and reduced subsequent alcohol intake over that produced by binge-drinking alone. Thus, the subject factors of biological sex, prior stressor history and prior binge-drinking history interact in complex ways in mice to impact sensitivity to alcohol's motor-stimulating, -incoordinating and intoxicating effects, as well as to influence subsequent heavy drinking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterizing Blood Metabolomics Profiles Associated with Self-Reported Food Intakes in Female Twins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tess Pallister

    Full Text Available Using dietary biomarkers in nutritional epidemiological studies may better capture exposure and improve the level at which diet-disease associations can be established and explored. Here, we aimed to identify and evaluate reproducibility of novel biomarkers of reported habitual food intake using targeted and non-targeted metabolomic blood profiling in a large twin cohort. Reported intakes of 71 food groups, determined by FFQ, were assessed against 601 fasting blood metabolites in over 3500 adult female twins from the TwinsUK cohort. For each metabolite, linear regression analysis was undertaken in the discovery group (excluding MZ twin pairs discordant [≥1 SD apart] for food group intake with each food group as a predictor adjusting for age, batch effects, BMI, family relatedness and multiple testing (1.17x10-6 = 0.05/[71 food groups x 601 detected metabolites]. Significant results were then replicated (non-targeted: P<0.05; targeted: same direction in the MZ discordant twin group and results from both analyses meta-analyzed. We identified and replicated 180 significant associations with 39 food groups (P<1.17x10-6, overall consisting of 106 different metabolites (74 known and 32 unknown, including 73 novel associations. In particular we identified trans-4-hydroxyproline as a potential marker of red meat intake (0.075[0.009]; P = 1.08x10-17, ergothioneine as a marker of mushroom consumption (0.181[0.019]; P = 5.93x10-22, and three potential markers of fruit consumption (top association: apple and pears: including metabolites derived from gut bacterial transformation of phenolic compounds, 3-phenylpropionate (0.024[0.004]; P = 1.24x10-8 and indolepropionate (0.026[0.004]; P = 2.39x10-9, and threitol (0.033[0.003]; P = 1.69x10-21. With the largest nutritional metabolomics dataset to date, we have identified 73 novel candidate biomarkers of food intake for potential use in nutritional epidemiological studies. We compiled our findings into the

  11. Subject Anonymisation in Video Reporting. Is Animation an option?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2012-01-01

    This short-paper contribution questions the potential of a simple automated video-to-animation rotoscoping technique to provide subject anonymity and confidentiality to conform to ethical regulations whilst maintaining sufficient portraiture data to convey research outcome. This can be especially...... useful for presenting to young researchers whose limited experiences can restrict their ability to draw association between a treatment and subject profile when solely presented textually and/or verbally. The goal of the paper is to provoke discussions on the subject. It is speculated that given...

  12. Perceptions of food availability and self-reported dietary intake in urban Costa Rican women: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traci A. Bekelman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food availability and dietary intake are thought to contribute to rising obesity among women of low socioeconomic status in Latin America. In Costa Rica, few studies have investigated food availability, dietary intake, or how they vary by SES. Objectives: The purpose of this study in San José, Costa Rica was to (1 evaluate women’s perceptions of food availability and, (2 describe dietary intake in women from low- and high-SES areas of the city. Methods: Thirty non-pregnant, non-lactating women between 25 and 50 years were recruited in March 2013 from a low- and high-SES canton. Structured, qualitative interviews assessed perceptions of food availability in 17 of the 30 women. Quantitative 24-hour dietary recalls assessed dietary intake in all 30 women. Results: Many women from the low-SES canton reported that they would include more chicken and fish in their diet if cost were not a barrier. Protein intake as a proportion of total energy intake was significantly greater in women from the high- versus low-SES canton (17% SD=5 vs. 13 SD=3, p = 0.02. Protein intake from animal source foods was significantly greater in women from the high-SES canton (38 g SD=22 vs. 21 SD=11, p = 0.02. Conclusion: Protein intake was greater in high-SES women and this may be due to the perceived cost of animal source foods.

  13. Phthalate Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Compilation of literature-reported intake values of phthalates; specifically dibutyl phthalate (DBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP)....

  14. The effects of a controlled worksite environmental intervention on determinants of dietary behavior and self-reported fruit, vegetable and fat intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin A Paw Marijke

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eating patterns in Western industrialized countries are characterized by a high energy intake and an overconsumption of (saturated fat, cholesterol, sugar and salt. Many chronic diseases are associated with unhealthy eating patterns. On the other hand, a healthy diet (low saturated fat intake and high fruit and vegetable intake has been found important in the prevention of health problems, such as cancer and cardio-vascular disease (CVD. The worksite seems an ideal intervention setting to influence dietary behavior. The purpose of this study is to present the effects of a worksite environmental intervention on fruit, vegetable and fat intake and determinants of behavior. Methods A controlled trial that included two different governmental companies (n = 515: one intervention and one control company. Outcome measurements (short-fat list and fruit and vegetable questionnaire took place at baseline and 3 and 12 months after baseline. The relatively modest environmental intervention consisted of product information to facilitate healthier food choices (i.e., the caloric (kcal value of foods in groups of products was translated into the number of minutes to perform a certain (occupational activity to burn these calories. Results Significant changes in psychosocial determinants of dietary behavior were found; subjects at the intervention worksite perceived more social support from their colleagues in eating less fat. But also counter intuitive effects were found: at 12 months the attitude and self-efficacy towards eating less fat became less positive in the intervention group. No effects were found on self-reported fat, fruit and vegetable intake. Conclusion This environmental intervention was modestly effective in changing behavioral determinant towards eating less fat (social support, self-efficacy and attitude, but ineffective in positively changing actual fat, fruit and vegetable intake of office workers.

  15. Self-rated Subjective Health Status Is Strongly Associated with Sociodemographic Factors, Lifestyle, Nutrient Intakes, and Biochemical Indices, but Not Smoking Status: KNHANES 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Ahn, Jaeouk; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2015-09-01

    Despite advertised health warnings regarding the deadly hazards of smoking, many people have not heeded recommendations to quit smoking. We examined factors that affect self-rated subjective health status (SRH) scores among lifestyle, nutrient intake and biochemical parameters, and the association of SRH scores and smoking status in a large Korean adult population. Adjusted odd ratios for SRH were calculated for smoking status, selected biochemical data, and food and nutrient intake obtained using the 24-hr recall method after covariate adjustment in the 2007-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (27,534 men and women aged ≥ 20 yr). Age, sex, income, education, drinking, exercise and stress levels were associated with SRH scores, regardless of smoking status (P smoking status groups considered the well-known indicators for metabolic diseases (HDL cholesterol, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase in the circulation), and the intake of fiber, total vitamins A, and vitamin C as indicators of SRH. Especially in current smokers, higher intake of nutritious food groups such as grains (OR = 1.227), vegetables (OR = 1.944), and milk (OR = 2.26) significantly increased the adjusted odds ratio of SRH. However, smoking status was not associated with SRH scores. In conclusion, SRH is affected by the indices related to health but not smoking status in Korean adults. The development of a new indicator of the direct adverse effects of smoking at regular health check-ups might be required to modulate the SRH in smokers and a nutritional education should not include the possible attenuation of adverse effects of smoking by good nutrition.

  16. Association between cerebral cannabinoid 1 receptor availability and body mass index in patients with food intake disorders and healthy subjects: a [(18)F]MK-9470 PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarini, J; Weltens, N; Ly, H G; Tack, J; Van Oudenhove, L; Van Laere, K

    2016-07-12

    Although of great public health relevance, the mechanisms underlying disordered eating behavior and body weight regulation remain insufficiently understood. Compelling preclinical evidence corroborates a critical role of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the central regulation of appetite and food intake. However, in vivo human evidence on ECS functioning in brain circuits involved in food intake regulation as well as its relationship with body weight is lacking, both in health and disease. Here, we measured cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) availability using positron emission tomography (PET) with [(18)F]MK-9470 in 54 patients with food intake disorders (FID) covering a wide body mass index (BMI) range (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, functional dyspepsia with weight loss and obesity; BMI range=12.5-40.6 kg/m(2)) and 26 age-, gender- and average BMI-matched healthy subjects (BMI range=18.5-26.6 kg/m(2)). The association between regional CB1R availability and BMI was assessed within predefined homeostatic and reward-related regions of interest using voxel-based linear regression analyses. CB1R availability was inversely associated with BMI in homeostatic brain regions such as the hypothalamus and brainstem areas in both patients with FID and healthy subjects. However, in FID patients, CB1R availability was also negatively correlated with BMI throughout the mesolimbic reward system (midbrain, striatum, insula, amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex), which constitutes the key circuit implicated in processing appetitive motivation and hedonic value of perceived food rewards. Our results indicate that the cerebral homeostatic CB1R system is inextricably linked to BMI, with additional involvement of reward areas under conditions of disordered body weight.

  17. Subjective Sleep Measures in Children: Self-Report

    OpenAIRE

    Erwin, Andrea M.; Bashore, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) recently published a consensus statement on the recommended number of hours of sleep in infants and children. The AASM expert panel identified seven health categories in children influenced by sleep duration, a component of sleep quality. For optimal health and general function, children require a certain number of hours of sleep each night. Limited data exist to subjectively assess sleep in this population. Practitioners must evaluate overall sle...

  18. Report of the Racism and Sexism in Subject Analysis Subcommittee to the RTSD/CCS Subject Analysis Committee, Midwinter 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Elizabeth M.; And Others

    Directed toward the eradication of sexual and racial bias in bibliographic systems, the subcommittee reports its progress in the identification of areas of classification systems and subject headings requiring change. A policy statement and six guidelines establish a framework for three categories of projects: (1) the need for changes in Library…

  19. Intake of St John's wort improves the glucose tolerance in healthy subjects who ingest metformin compared with metformin alone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Pedersen, Rasmus Steen; Damkier, Per

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Our objective was to investigate the steady-state pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction between the antidepressive herbal medicine St John's wort and the antidiabetic drug metformin. METHODS: We performed an open cross-over study in 20 healthy male subjects, who received 1 g...

  20. Calcium excretion, apparent calcium absorption and calcium balance in young and elderly subjects: Influence of protein intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannemans, D.L.E.; Schaafsma, G.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary protein on urinary Ca excretion, apparent Ca absorption and Ca balance in young and elderly subjects. Young adults (n 29) and elderly persons (n 26) consumed diets containing 12% (diet A) and 21% (diet B) of total energy as protein

  1. Subject bias in three self-report measures of change.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprangers, M.; Hoogstraten, J.

    1991-01-01

    Examined whether 3 measures of self-reported change (post minus pre difference scores, post minus then difference scores, and direct improvement scores) are susceptible to training related S bias. 19 university students were assigned to a study planning (experimental) group, 19 to a text studying

  2. Exposure to Virtual Social Stimuli Modulates Subjective Pain Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob M Vigil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Contextual factors, including the gender of researchers, influence experimental and patient pain reports. It is currently not known how social stimuli influence pain percepts, nor which types of sensory modalities of communication, such as auditory, visual or olfactory cues associated with person perception and gender processing, produce these effects.

  3. Self-reported learning difficulties and dietary intake in Norwegian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Lüdemann, Eva; Høigaard, Rune

    2013-11-01

    The academic performance of children impacts future educational attainment which may increase socioeconomic status which again influences their health. One of several factors that might affect academic performance is the diet. The aim of this study was to investigate the cross sectional relation between diet and self-reported reading-, writing-, and mathematical difficulties in Norwegian adolescents. In total, 475 ninth- and tenth-grade students out of 625 eligible ones from four different secondary schools in three different municipalities in Vest-Agder County, Norway, participated, giving a participation rate of 77%. The students filled in a questionnaire with food frequency questions of selected healthy and unhealthy food items, questions of meal frequency and different learning difficulties. Regular breakfast was significantly associated with decreased odds of both writing and reading difficulties (OR: 0.44 (0.2-0.8), p = 0.01) and mathematical difficulties (OR: 0.33 (0.2-0.6), p ≤ 0.001). In addition, having lunch, dinner and supper regularly were associated with decreased odds of mathematical difficulties. Further, a high intake of foods representing a poor diet (sugar-sweetened soft drinks, sweets, chocolate, savory snacks, pizza and hot dogs) was significantly associated with increased odds of mathematical difficulties. Having a less-frequent intake of unhealthy foods and not skipping meals are associated with decreased odds of self-reported learning difficulties in Norwegian adolescents in this study. The results of this study support the need for a larger study with a more representative sample.

  4. Dietary supplementation with fish gelatine modifies nutrient intake and leads to sex-dependent responses in TAG and C-reactive protein levels of insulin-resistant subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard-Deland, Eliane; Lavigne, Charles; Marois, Julie; Bisson, Julie; Weisnagel, S John; Marette, André; Holub, Bruce; Chu, Eugene; Frohlich, Jiri; Hill, John S; Jacques, Hélène

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that fish protein, as well as marine n-3 PUFA, may have beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk profile. The objectives of this study were to investigate the combined effects of fish gelatine (FG) and n-3 PUFA supplementation on (1) energy intake and body weight, (2) lipid profile and (3) inflammatory and CVD markers in free-living insulin-resistant males and females. Subjects were asked to consume, in a crossover study design with two experimental periods of 8 weeks each, an n-3 PUFA supplement and n-3 PUFA supplement plus FG (n-3 PUFA + FG). n-3 PUFA + FG led to an increase in protein intake and a decrease in carbohydrate intake compared with n-3 PUFA (P < 0·02) in males and females. Sex-treatment interactions were observed for TAG (P = 0·03) and highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) (P = 0·001) levels. In females, n-3 PUFA reduced plasma TAG by 8 % and n-3 PUFA + FG by 23 %, whereas in males, n-3 PUFA reduced plasma TAG by 25 % and n-3 PUFA + FG by 11 %. n-3 PUFA increased serum hsCRP by 13 % and n-3 PUFA + FG strongly reduced hsCRP by 40 % in males, whereas in females, n-3 PUFA reduced serum hsCRP by 6 % and n-3 PUFA + FG increased hsCRP by 20 %. In conclusion, supplementation with FG may enhance the lipid-lowering effect of marine n-3 PUFA in females and beneficially counteract the effect of n-3 PUFA on serum hsCRP in males. Further studies are needed to identify the sex-dependent mechanisms responsible for the divergent effects of FG on TAG and hsCRP levels in females and males, respectively.

  5. 48 CFR 252.227-7039 - Patents-reporting of subject inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patents-reporting of... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.227-7039 Patents—reporting of subject inventions. As prescribed in 227.303(1), use the following clause: Patents—Reporting of Subject Inventions (APR 1990) The...

  6. SAFETY OF PASSIVE HOUSES SUBJECTED TO EARTHQUAKE, FINAL REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojko Kilar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available he topic researched within the applied project. "Safety of passive houses subjected to earthquake" stemmed from two otherwise quite unrelated fields, i.e. seismic resistance and energy efficiency that in European countries do not frequently appear together. Just in Slovenia these two fields join each other, so identifying the problem and establishment of research right in Slovenia represents uniqueness and specificity. The majority of Slovenia is situated in area of moderate seismic risk. In order to ensure adequate mechanical resistance and stability of structures constructed in such area, the consideration of seismic effects is required by law. In Slovenia the number of passive houses and energy efficient buildings increases rapidly. However, for the time being the structural solutions that have been developed and broadly applied mainly in the areas with low seismicity (where the structural control to vertical static loads is sufficient are used. In earthquake-prone areas also adequate resistance to dynamic seismic effects have to be assured.

  7. Evaluation of Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children: comparing reported fruit, juice and vegetable intakes with plasma carotenoid concentration and school lunch observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Bysted, Anette; Trolle, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    their diet, the children's school lunch was photographed and weighed before and after eating. In the week after the diet reporting, fasting blood samples were taken. Self-reported intake of FJV and estimated intake of carotenoids were compared with plasma carotenoid concentration. Accuracy of self......Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children (WebDASC) was developed to estimate dietary intake in a school meal intervention study among 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. The present study validates self-reported fruit, juice and vegetable (FJV) intakes in 8- to 11-year-old children...... by comparing intake with plasma carotenoid concentration, and by comparing the reported FJV intake to actually eaten FJV, as observed by a photographic method. A total of eighty-one children, assisted by parents, reported their diet for seven consecutive days. For the same five schooldays as they reported...

  8. Swallowing difficulties with medication intake assessed with a novel self-report questionnaire in patients with systemic sclerosis – a cross-sectional population study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messerli M

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Markus Messerli,1,2 Rebecca Aschwanden,1 Michael Buslau,2 Kurt E Hersberger,1 Isabelle Arnet1 1Pharmaceutical Care Research Group, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 2European Centre for the Rehabilitation of Scleroderma, Reha Rheinfelden, Rheinfelden, Switzerland Objectives: To assess subjective swallowing difficulties (SD with medication intake and their practical consequences in patients suffering from systemic sclerosis (SSc with a novel self-report questionnaire.Design and setting: Based on a systematic literature review, we developed a self-report questionnaire and got it approved by an expert panel. Subsequently, we sent the questionnaire by post mail to SSc patients of the European Center for the Rehabilitation of Scleroderma Rheinfelden, Switzerland.Participants: Patients were eligible if they were diagnosed with SSc, treated at the center, and were of age ≥18 years at the study start.Main outcome measures: Prevalence and pattern of SD with oral medication intake, including localization and intensity of complaints.Results: The questionnaire consisted of 30 items divided into five sections Complaints, Intensity, Localization, Coping strategies, and Adherence. Of the 64 SSc patients eligible in 2014, 43 (67% returned the questionnaire. Twenty patients reported SD with medication intake (prevalence 47%, either currently (11; 26% or in the past that had been overcome (9; 21%. Self-reported SD were localized mostly in the larynx (43% and esophagus (34%. They were of moderate (45% or strong to unbearable intensity (25%. Modification of the dosage form was reported in 40% of cases with SD. Adherence was poor for 20 (47% patients and was not associated with SD (p=0.148.Conclusion: Our novel self-report questionnaire is able to assess the pattern of complaints linked to medication intake, that is, localization and intensity. It may serve as a guide for health care professionals in selecting the most

  9. Analysis of Total Food Intake and Composition of Individual's Diet Based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture's 1994-96, 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) (2005, Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA released the final report, Analysis of Total Food Intake and Composition of Individual’s Diet Based on USDA’s 1994-1996, 98 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII). The consumption of food by the general population is a significant route of potential ...

  10. Dietary intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in children - a workshop report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koletzko, Berthold; Uauy, Ricardo; Palou, Andreu; Kok, Frans; Hornstra, Gerard; Eilander, Ans; Moretti, Diego; Osendarp, Saskia; Zock, Peter; Innis, Sheila

    2010-03-01

    There is controversy whether children should have a dietary supply of preformed long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. The aims of the workshop were to review evidence for a possible benefit of a preformed EPA and/or DHA supply, of data required to set desirable intakes for children aged 2-12 years, and of research priorities. The authors concluded that EPA and DHA intakes per kg body weight may often be low in 2- to 12-year-old children, relative to intakes per kg body weight of breast-fed infants and adult intakes, but reliable data are scarce. Little information is available that increasing dietary intakes of EPA or DHA in children has benefits to physical or mental function or other health endpoints. Studies addressing EPA and DHA intakes and tissue status among groups of children with different dietary habits, and measures of relevant development and health endpoints, are needed for developing potential advice on desirable intakes of EPA and/or DHA in children. At this time it appears prudent to advise that dietary intakes in childhood are consistent with future eating patterns supporting adult health, such as prevention of metabolic disorders and CVD, supporting immune function, and reproductive health. In conclusion, the available information relating dietary EPA and DHA intakes in children aged 2-12 years to growth, development and health is insufficient to derive dietary intake recommendations for EPA and DHA. Adequately designed studies addressing dietary intakes, measures of status and relevant functional or health effects across this age group are needed.

  11. Relationship of the reported intakes of fat and fatty acids to body weight in US adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary fat composition may modulate energy expenditure and body weight. Little is known about the relationship between fatty acid intake and body weight at a population level. The purposes of this study were to compare intakes of energy, macronutrients, and individual fatty acids across BMI categor...

  12. The effect of dairy and nondairy beverages consumed with high glycemic cereal on subjective appetite, food intake, and postprandial glycemia in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Marron; Huot, Pedro S P; Lee, Ying Ti; Vien, Shirley; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Anderson, G Harvey

    2017-11-01

    The objective was to compare the effect of dairy and nondairy beverages when consumed with carbohydrate at breakfast on subjective appetite, food intake (FI), and postprandial glycemia (PPG) in healthy young adults. Twenty-six healthy males and females (13 males and 13 females; 23.0 ± 2.6 years; BMI: 22.3 ± 1.5 kg/m(2)) participated in a randomized crossover study. They consumed nonisocaloric amounts (250 mL) of almond beverage, soy beverage, 1% fat milk, yogurt beverage, and water (control) with cereal and 120 min later, an ad libitum meal. Subjective appetite, PPG, and insulin were measured at baseline and at intervals before and after the meal at which FI was measured. Post-treatment blood glucose was lowest following soy beverage compared with all treatments but was not different from milk (p = 0.0002). There were no differences between any other treatments. However, over the first hour, PPG for all treatments was 27% lower compared with water (p beverage led to the highest insulin concentrations post-treatment (p beverage (p beverages consumed with a high glycemic cereal at breakfast increased satiety and decreased FI compared with water with cereal. Despite higher carbohydrate content, all beverages led to similar or lower PPG than the water breakfast, but dairy beverages increased insulin more than nondairy beverages.

  13. Cocoa extract intake for 4 weeks reduces postprandial systolic blood pressure response of obese subjects, even after following an energy-restricted diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idoia Ibero-Baraibar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiometabolic profile is usually altered in obesity. Interestingly, the consumption of flavanol-rich foods might be protective against those metabolic alterations. Objective: To evaluate the postprandial cardiometabolic effects after the acute consumption of cocoa extract before and after 4 weeks of its daily intake. Furthermore, the bioavailability of cocoa extract was investigated. Design: Twenty-four overweight/obese middle-aged subjects participated in a 4-week intervention study. Half of the volunteers consumed a test meal enriched with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (415 mg flavanols, while the rest of the volunteers consumed the same meal without the cocoa extract (control group. Glucose and lipid profile, as well as blood pressure and cocoa metabolites in plasma, were assessed before and at 60, 120, and 180 min post-consumption, at the beginning of the study (Postprandial 1 and after following a 4-week 15% energy-restricted diet including meals containing or not containing the cocoa extract (Postprandial 2. Results: In the Postprandial 1 test, the area under the curve (AUC of systolic blood pressure (SBP was significantly higher in the cocoa group compared with the control group (p=0.007, showing significant differences after 120 min of intake. However, no differences between groups were observed at Postprandial 2. Interestingly, the reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP (AUC_Postprandial 2-AUC_Postprandial 1 was higher in the cocoa group (p=0.016. Furthermore, cocoa-derived metabolites were detected in plasma of the cocoa group, while the absence or significantly lower amounts of metabolites were found in the control group. Conclusions: The daily consumption of cocoa extract within an energy-restricted diet for 4 weeks resulted in a greater reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP compared with the effect of energy-restricted diet alone and independently of body weight loss. These results suggest the role of cocoa flavanols on

  14. Cocoa extract intake for 4 weeks reduces postprandial systolic blood pressure response of obese subjects, even after following an energy-restricted diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibero-Baraibar, Idoia; Suárez, Manuel; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Zulet, M. Angeles; Martinez, J. Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiometabolic profile is usually altered in obesity. Interestingly, the consumption of flavanol-rich foods might be protective against those metabolic alterations. Objective To evaluate the postprandial cardiometabolic effects after the acute consumption of cocoa extract before and after 4 weeks of its daily intake. Furthermore, the bioavailability of cocoa extract was investigated. Design Twenty-four overweight/obese middle-aged subjects participated in a 4-week intervention study. Half of the volunteers consumed a test meal enriched with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (415 mg flavanols), while the rest of the volunteers consumed the same meal without the cocoa extract (control group). Glucose and lipid profile, as well as blood pressure and cocoa metabolites in plasma, were assessed before and at 60, 120, and 180 min post-consumption, at the beginning of the study (Postprandial 1) and after following a 4-week 15% energy-restricted diet including meals containing or not containing the cocoa extract (Postprandial 2). Results In the Postprandial 1 test, the area under the curve (AUC) of systolic blood pressure (SBP) was significantly higher in the cocoa group compared with the control group (p=0.007), showing significant differences after 120 min of intake. However, no differences between groups were observed at Postprandial 2. Interestingly, the reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP (AUC_Postprandial 2-AUC_Postprandial 1) was higher in the cocoa group (p=0.016). Furthermore, cocoa-derived metabolites were detected in plasma of the cocoa group, while the absence or significantly lower amounts of metabolites were found in the control group. Conclusions The daily consumption of cocoa extract within an energy-restricted diet for 4 weeks resulted in a greater reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP compared with the effect of energy-restricted diet alone and independently of body weight loss. These results suggest the role of cocoa flavanols on postprandial blood

  15. Dietary intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in children - a workshop report

    OpenAIRE

    Koletzko, B.; Uauy, R; Palou, A.; Kok, F.; Hornstra, G.; Eilander, A; Moretti, D.; Osendarp, S; Zock, P.; Innis, S.

    2010-01-01

    There is controversy whether children should have a dietary supply of preformed long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. The aims of the workshop were to review evidence for a possible benefit of a preformed EPA and/or DHA supply, of data required to set desirable intakes for children aged 2-12 years, and of research priorities. The authors concluded that EPA and DHA intakes per kg body weight may often be low in 2- to 12-year-old children, relative to intakes per kg body weigh...

  16. Self-reported alcohol intake in pregnancy: comparison between four methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, U; Olsen, S F

    2001-01-01

    a questionnaire including a one item question on current average alcohol intake. PARTICIPANTS Participants were 441 pregnant women. MAIN RESULTS Per cent agreement ± 1 category ranged between 73 and 82. Mean (SD) intake ranged between 1.09 (1.35) drinks/week for diaries, and 0.69 (0.85) for questionnaires. Mean...... interviews or a simple one item questionnaire may be applied. A measure of intake for the previous week seems to be a relevant measure only when studying adverse pregnancy outcomes that are most probably caused by binge-like exposure....

  17. Acute Calcineurin Inhibitor Nephrotoxicity Secondary to Turmeric Intake: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayeri, A; Wu, S; Adams, E; Tanner, C; Meshman, J; Saini, I; Reid, W

    Tacrolimus, also known as FK-506, is a potent immunosuppressant agent with a host of drug-drug and food-drug interactions. We present the first case of a probable food-drug interaction between the herb turmeric and tacrolimus leading to acute calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity. A 56-year-old man with a history of orthotopic liver transplantation presented to the emergency department from the clinic with worsening edema in the setting of an elevated creatinine level of 4.2 mg/dL. Before the current presentation, the patient had been recently discharged on a previously tolerated low-dose regimen of tacrolimus with a whole-blood tacrolimus level within the desired range. Tacrolimus level on the day of re-hospitalization was elevated to 29.9 ng/mL in the absence of any changes to the patient's medication regimen. On further prompting, the patient identified recent high-dose intake of turmeric with his food. Tacrolimus was held from the patient's medication regimen, and he was discharged on hospital day 4 with objective evidence of improving renal function. Our report builds on the previous studies that described the effects of turmeric or its active ingredient on the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus. The appropriate reconciliation of herbal agents such as turmeric can be worthwhile in patients with unexplained changes in tacrolimus levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Contextual and environmental influences on reported dietary energy intake at evening eating occasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Chelsea; Brindal, Emily; Hendrie, Gilly A; Cox, David N

    2016-04-01

    This study sought to determine the simultaneous effect of immediate eating environment variables; portion size, plate size, proximity to food, variety of food, side serves of salad/vegetables and presence of distraction on dietary energy intake (EI), of a reported evening meal, in the participants' real world setting. A retrospective computer assisted telephone interview collected data on ten immediate eating environment variables, covariates and a 24-hour dietary recall of EI at an evening meal. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine relationships of these variables with EI. Significant (Peating environment variables, the absence of salads/vegetables (β=0.237), increased food variety (β=0.208), presence of music (β=0.207), and the consumption of pre-plated (as opposed to self-served) meals (β=0.195) had a positive association with EI, explaining 16.3% of the variance. Of the covariates, being male was the strongest predictor of EI (β=0.242); and hunger score also had a positive relationship with EI (β=0.190), explaining 17.5% of the variance. This study provides evidence that some immediate food environment variables at an evening eating occasion are associated with EI. Findings suggest there are several strategies that people could implement to assist in controlling their EI and help address over consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of dairy products consumed with high glycemic carbohydrate on subjective appetite, food intake, and postprandial glycemia in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Marron; Lee, Ying Ti; Vien, Shirley; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Anderson, G Harvey

    2017-11-01

    The objective was to compare the effect of liquid, semi-solid, and solid dairy products and a nondairy beverage when consumed with glycemic carbohydrate on subjective appetite, food intake (FI), and post-prandial glycemia (PPG) in healthy older adults. Thirty healthy men and women (14 males and 16 females; age: 64.6 ± 2.4 y; BMI: 25.6 ± 2.5 kg/m2) participated in a randomized crossover study. Treatments were one of 250 mL of 2% fat milk and soy beverage, 175 g of 2% Greek yogurt, and 30 g of Cheddar cheese consumed as part of an isocaloric (380 kcal) meal with bread and jam. Water alone served as the energy-free control for subjective appetite. At 180 min after consumption, the participants were fed an ad libitum meal to measure FI. Subjective appetite, blood glucose, and insulin were measured at baseline and at intervals both before (post-treatment) and after the meal (postmeal). Cheese and yogurt resulted in lower post-treatment blood glucose than milk and soy beverage when consumed with carbohydrate (p < 0.0001), but no differences among any treatments were observed postmeal. Treatments led to similar insulin concentrations. Post-treatment appetite was lower than after the water control for all treatments but suppressed more by cheese and yogurt compared with milk (p < 0.0001). There were no differences in FI among treatments. Cheese and yogurt increase satiety and lower PPG more than milk or a soy beverage when consumed with carbohydrate.

  20. Reported high salt intake is associated with increased prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm and larger aortic diameter in older men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Golledge

    Full Text Available Salt intake has been implicated in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA through studies in rodent models but not previously studied in humans. The aim of this study was to examine the association between reported addition of salt to food and the prevalence of AAA.A risk factor questionnaire which contained a question about salt intake was included as part of a population screening study for AAA in 11742 older men. AAA presence was assessed by abdominal ultrasound imaging using a reproducible protocol.The prevalence of AAA was 6.9, 8.5 and 8.6% in men who reported adding salt to food never, sometimes and always, respectively, p = 0.005. Addition of salt to food sometimes (odds ratio [OR]: 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.44 or always (OR: 1.23, 95% CI 1.04-1.47 was independently associated with AAA after adjustment for other risk factors including age, waist-hip ratio, blood pressure, history of hypertension, high cholesterol, angina, diabetes, myocardial infarction and stroke. Salt intake was also independently associated with aortic diameter (beta 0.023, p = 0.012. In men with no prior history of hypertension, high cholesterol, angina, myocardial infarction or stroke (n = 4185, the association between addition of salt to food sometimes (OR: 1.41, 95% CI 0.96-2.08 or always (OR: 1.52, 95% CI 1.04-2.22 and AAA remained evident.Reported salt intake is associated with AAA in older men. Additional studies are needed to determine whether reducing salt intake would protect against AAA.

  1. The subject/Culture report in the trauma of rape: the case of the Algerian girls

    OpenAIRE

    Houda Bouzidi

    2017-01-01

    The originality of this work lies in the fact that it studied the subject within his culture, differently from many Western studies, studying especially the migrant subjects. It is there a study of indigenous psychology. However, the theoretical framework remains ethnopsychiatry. Indeed, to describe the subject/Culture report in the case of trauma, we used the method of the study of clinical cases of ten girls Algerian victims of rape. The search results well revealed, among all of the victim...

  2. Factors Associated with Subjective Quality of Life of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Report versus Maternal Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jinkuk; Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Smith, Leann E.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2016-01-01

    We examined factors related to subjective quality of life (QoL) of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 25-55 (n = 60), using the World Health Organization Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF). We used three different assessment methods: adult self-report, maternal proxy-report, and maternal report. Reliability analysis showed that…

  3. 20 CFR 209.14 - Report of separation allowances subject to tier II taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Report of separation allowances subject to tier II taxation. 209.14 Section 209.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER... separation allowances subject to tier II taxation. For any employee who is paid a separation payment, the...

  4. Redefining the pharmacology and pharmacy subject category in the journal citation reports using medical subject headings (MeSH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguet, Fernando; Salgado, Teresa M; Santopadre, Claudio; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando

    2017-10-01

    Background The Journal Citation Reports (JCR) Pharmacology and Pharmacy subject category is heterogeneous. The inclusion of journals with basic and clinical scopes, which have different citation patterns, compromises comparability of impact factors among journals within the category. Objective To subdivide the Pharmacology and Pharmacy category into basic pharmacology, clinical pharmacology, and pharmacy based on the analyses of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) as a proxy of journals' scopes. Setting JCR. Method All articles, and respective MeSH, published in 2013, 2014, and 2015 in all journals included in the 2014 JCR Pharmacology and Pharmacy category were retrieved from PubMed. Several models using a combination of the 14 MeSH categories and specific MeSH tree branches were tested using hierarchical cluster analysis. Main outcome measure Distribution of journals across the subcategories of the JCR Pharmacology and Pharmacy subject category. Results A total of 107,847 articles from 214 journals were included. Nine different models combining the MeSH categories M (Persons) and N (Health Care) with specific MeSH tree branches (selected ad-hoc) and Pharmacy-specific MeSH (identified in previous research) consistently grouped 142 journals (66.4%) in homogeneous groups reflecting their basic and clinical pharmacology, and pharmacy scopes. Ultimately, journals were clustered into: 150 in basic pharmacology, 43 in clinical pharmacology, 16 in basic pharmacology and clinical pharmacology, and 5 in pharmacy. Conclusion The reformulation of the Pharmacology and Pharmacy category into three categories was demonstrated by the consistent results obtained from testing nine different clustering models using the MeSH terms assigned to their articles.

  5. Energy intake and sources of energy intake in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocké, M C; Larrañaga, N; Grioni, S; van den Berg, S W; Ferrari, P; Salvini, S; Benetou, V; Linseisen, J; Wirfält, E; Rinaldi, S; Jenab, M; Halkjaer, J; Jakobsen, M U; Niravong, M; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Kaaks, R; Bergmann, M; Moutsiou, E; Trichopoulou, A; Lauria, C; Sacerdote, C; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Peeters, P H M; Hjartåker, A; Parr, C L; Tormo, M J; Sanchez, M J; Manjer, J; Hellstrom, V; Mulligan, A; Spencer, E A; Riboli, E; Bingham, S; Slimani, N

    2009-11-01

    To describe energy intake and its macronutrient and food sources among 27 regions in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 subjects aged 35-74 years were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall. Intakes of macronutrients (g/day) and energy (kcal/day) were estimated using standardized national nutrient databases. Mean intakes were weighted by season and day of the week and were adjusted for age, height and weight, after stratification by gender. Extreme low- and high-energy reporters were identified using Goldberg's cutoff points (ratio of energy intake and estimated basal metabolic rate 2.72), and their effects on macronutrient and energy intakes were studied. Low-energy reporting was more prevalent in women than in men. The exclusion of extreme-energy reporters substantially lowered the EPIC-wide range in mean energy intake from 2196-2877 to 2309-2866 kcal among men. For women, these ranges were 1659-2070 and 1873-2108 kcal. There was no north-south gradient in energy intake or in the prevalence of low-energy reporting. In most centres, cereals and cereal products were the largest contributors to energy intake. The food groups meat, dairy products and fats and oils were also important energy sources. In many centres, the highest mean energy intakes were observed on Saturdays. These data highlight and quantify the variations and similarities in energy intake and sources of energy intake among 10 European countries. The prevalence of low-energy reporting indicates that the study of energy intake is hampered by the problem of underreporting.

  6. Differences between Subjective Balanced Occlusion and Measurements Reported With T-Scan III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zana Lila-Krasniqi

    2017-08-01

    CONCLUSION: In our study, it was concluded that there were statistically significant differences of balanced occlusion in all three groups. Also it was concluded that subjective data are not exact with measurements reported with electronic device T-scan III.

  7. Association of n-3 long-chain PUFA and fish intake with depressive symptoms and low dispositional optimism in older subjects with a history of myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rest, van de O.; Goede, de J.; Sytsma, F.; Oude Griep, L.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Kromhout, D.; Giltay, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with CHD are at increased risk of poor mental well-being. Dietary intake of EPA and DHA, the main n-3 fatty acids from fish, may be beneficial to mental well-being. We examined the association of EPA+DHA and fish intake with mental well-being in 644 participants, aged 60–80 years, with a

  8. Biomarker-predicted sugars intake compared with self-reported measures in US Hispanics/Latinos: Results from the HCHS/SOL SOLNAS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurement error in self-reported total sugars intake may obscure associations between sugars consumption and health outcomes, and the sum of 24 hour urinary sucrose and fructose may serve as a predictive biomarker of total sugars intake. The study of Latinos: Nutrition & Physical Activity Assessme...

  9. Brief Report : Influence of gender and age on parent reported subjective well-being in children with and without autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Begeer, Sander; Ma, Yujie; Koot, Hans M.; Wierda, Marlies; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Bartels, Meike

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with reduced Subjective well-being (SWB). To examine the influence of gender and age on well-being we collected parent reported SWB in children with or without ASD (total n = 1030), aged 8–14 years. Parents reported lower SWB for children with ASD

  10. Dietary intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in children - a workshop report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koletzko, B.; Uauy, R.; Palou, A.; Kok, F.J.; Hornstra, G.; Eilander, A.; Moretti, D.; Osendarp, S.J.M.; Zock, P.L.; Innis, S.

    2010-01-01

    There is controversy whether children should have a dietary supply of preformed long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. The aims of the workshop were to review evidence for a possible benefit of a preformed EPA and/or DHA supply, of data required to set desirable intakes for children

  11. Peer victimization and subjective health among students reporting disability or chronic illness in 11 Western countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sentenac, Mariane; Gavin, Aoife; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To compare the strength of the association between peer victimization at school and subjective health according to the disability or chronic illness (D/CI) status of students across countries. METHODS: This study used data from 55 030 students aged 11, 13 and 15 years from 11 countries...... reporting D/CI were more likely to report being victims of bullying. Victims of bullying reported more negative subjective health outcomes regardless of their D/CI status. Although inclusive education is currently a major topic of educational policies in most countries, additional efforts should be made...

  12. Realistic intake of a flavanol-rich soluble cocoa product increases HDL-cholesterol without inducing anthropometric changes in healthy and moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-López, Sara; Sarriá, Beatriz; Sierra-Cinos, José Luis; Goya, Luis; Mateos, Raquel; Bravo, Laura

    2014-02-01

    To assess whether antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and other cardio-protective effects attributed to cocoa are achieved when regularly consuming moderate amounts of a flavanol-rich soluble cocoa product, a non-randomized, controlled, crossover, free-living study was carried out in healthy (n = 24; 25.9 ± 5.6 years) and moderately hypercholesterolemic (200-240 mg dL(-1); n = 20; 30.0 ± 10.3 years) volunteers. Participants consumed two servings per day (7.5 g per serving) of a soluble cocoa product (providing 45.3 mg flavanols per day) in milk, which was compared with consuming only milk during a 4 week period. The effects on systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were determined, as well as on serum lipid and lipoprotein profiles, interleukins (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), vascular (VCAM-1) and intercellular cell adhesion molecules (ICAM-1), serum malondialdehyde (MDA), carbonyl groups (CG), ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and free radical scavenging capacity (ABTS). During the study, the volunteers' diets and physical activity were also evaluated, as well as any changes in weight, skin folds, circumferences and related anthropometric parameters. Cocoa and certain polyphenol-rich fruits and vegetables and their derivatives were restricted. After consuming the cocoa product positive effects were observed such as an increase in serum HDL-C (p < 0.001) and dietary fiber intake (p = 0.050), whereas IL-10 decreased (p = 0.022). Other cardiovascular-related biomarkers and anthropometric parameters were unaffected. We have therefore concluded that regular consumption of this cocoa product in a Spanish-Mediterranean diet may protect against cardiovascular disease in healthy and hypercholesterolemic subjects without producing any weight gain or other anthropometric changes.

  13. Changes in reported food intake in adults with type 2 diabetes in response to a nonprescriptive dietary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, C Y; Andrews, R; Jago, R; Thompson, J L

    2014-08-01

    There is a lack of published data about the food intake of patients with type 2 diabetes and the changes that they make in response to patient-centred dietary advice. The present study describes the changes reported in response to a nonprescriptive dietary intervention based upon UK dietary guidelines. Two hundred and sixty-two patients (87 women and 175 men) from the Early ACTivity in Diabetes (ACTID) trial who received the dietary intervention returned 4 days food diaries at baseline and 6 months. Nonparametric tests were used to examine changes in meal patterns, total energy intake and energy from food groups between baseline and 6 months. Mean (SD) number of reported meals day(-1) was 3.0 (0.3) and mean (SD) number of snacks was 1.1 (0.6) at both baseline and 6 months for men and women. Men reported decreasing energy intake by a mean (SD) of 912 (1389) KJ/day [218 (332) kcal day(-1) ] (P < 0.001) and women by 515 (1130) KJ/day [123 (270) kcal day(-1) ] (P < 0.001). Men reported reducing energy from alcoholic drinks [-234 (527) KJ day(-1) ; P < 0.001], white bread [-113 (402) KJ day(-1) ; P = 0.001], biscuits [i.e. cookies -67 (205) KJ day(-1) ; P < 0.001] and cakes [-50 (410) KJ day(-1) ; P = 0.0012]. Women reported reducing energy from mixed main meals [-134 (456) KJ day(-1) ; P = 0.036], pasta and rice [-79 (326) KJ day(-1) ; P = 0.019], high-energy drinks [-59 (159) KJ day(-1) ; P = 0.001] and white bread [-59 (368) KJ day(-1) ; P = 0.042]. Men and women in the Early ACTID study reported small changes in higher-energy and lower-fibre foods and drinks in response to patient-centred dietary advice. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  14. The Effect of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass and Sleeve Gastrectomy Surgery on Dietary Intake, Food Preferences, and Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Post-Surgical Morbidly Obese Lebanese Subjects: A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Labban, Sibelle; Safadi, Bassem; Olabi, Ammar

    2015-12-01

    Data on gastrointestinal (GI) and dietary changes following bariatric surgery are scarce in the Middle Eastern region. The objective of this work was to retrospectively compare dietary intake, food preferences, and GI symptoms in subjects with extreme obesity after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG). Sixty subjects equally divided between RYGB and SG with a postoperative period of ≥6 months were recruited for a retrospective, non-randomized, and observational study. All subjects completed three questionnaires (GI symptoms, food preferences, and quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ)) and three 24-h recalls. At one year postoperatively, both surgical groups showed similar percentage of excess weight loss that exceeded 50%. In addition, percentage of carbohydrate, protein, and sugar intake from total energy, frequency of daily consumption from the eight food categories and daily energy intake were comparable between surgical groups. RYGB subjects consumed significantly more fruits and juices from total energy (P sweets and desserts. Heartburn (P sweet-eating in SG subjects with less dumping symptoms to suggest different mechanisms of action for each procedure, which might impact eating behavior.

  15. Accuracy of self-reported intake of signature foods in a school meal intervention study: comparison between control and intervention period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Andersen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    Bias in self-reported dietary intake is important when evaluating the effect of dietary interventions, particularly for intervention foods. However, few have investigated this in children, and none have investigated the reporting accuracy of fish intake in children using biomarkers. In a Danish...... school meal study, 8- to 11-year-old children (n 834) were served the New Nordic Diet (NND) for lunch. The present study examined the accuracy of self-reported intake of signature foods (berries, cabbage, root vegetables, legumes, herbs, potatoes, wild plants, mushrooms, nuts and fish) characterising...... the NND. Children, assisted by parents, self-reported their diet in a Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children during the intervention and control (packed lunch) periods. The reported fish intake by children was compared with their ranking according to fasting whole-blood EPA and DHA...

  16. The subject/Culture report in the trauma of rape: the case of the Algerian girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houda Bouzidi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The originality of this work lies in the fact that it studied the subject within his culture, differently from many Western studies, studying especially the migrant subjects. It is there a study of indigenous psychology. However, the theoretical framework remains ethnopsychiatry. Indeed, to describe the subject/Culture report in the case of trauma, we used the method of the study of clinical cases of ten girls Algerian victims of rape. The search results well revealed, among all of the victims, a link of attachment to the culture, and that the degree of attachment varies according to the singular space that the trauma causes within each of them.

  17. Reporting of ethical protection in recent oral and maxillofacial surgery research involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitak-Arnnop, P; Sader, R; Hervé, C; Dhanuthai, K; Bertrand, J-Ch; Hemprich, A

    2009-07-01

    This retrospective observational study investigated the frequency of reporting ethical approval and informed consent in recently published oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS) research involving human subjects. All research involving human subjects published in the International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, and Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery during January to June 2005-2007 were analysed for disclosure of ethical approval by a local ethical committee and obtaining informed consent from the subjects. 534 articles were identified; ethical approval was documented in 118 (22%) and individual patient consent in 135 (25%). 355 reports (67%) did not include a statement on ethical approval or informed consent and only 74 reports (14%) disclosed statements of both. Ethical documentation in retrospective and observational studies was scant; 12% of randomised controlled trials and 38% of non-random trials did not report both of ethical protections. Most recent OMS publications involving humans failed to mention ethical review or subjects' consent. Authors must adhere to the international research ethics guidelines and journal instructions, while editors should play a gatekeeper role to protect research participants, uphold scientific integrity and maintain public trust in the experimental process and OMS profession.

  18. 13 CFR 107.680 - Reporting changes in Licensee not subject to prior SBA approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... your Articles, ownership, capitalization, management, operating area, or investment policies that do... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reporting changes in Licensee not subject to prior SBA approval. 107.680 Section 107.680 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS...

  19. 13 CFR 108.680 - Reporting changes in NMVC Company not subject to prior SBA approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... This section applies to any changes in your Articles, ownership, capitalization, management, operating... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reporting changes in NMVC Company not subject to prior SBA approval. 108.680 Section 108.680 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL...

  20. Development and Validation of a Technology-Based System for Tracking and Reporting Dietary Intake at School Meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Martin, Molly A; Guzman, Marieli; Olinger, Tamara; Pleasant, Andrew; Cabe, Jennifer; Powell, Lynda H

    2018-01-01

    This report describes the development and validation of a technology-based system that integrates data on food choice, nutrition, and plate waste to generate feedback reports summarizing students' dietary intake at school meals. Cafeteria staff used the system to document the school lunch choices of seventh-graders (n = 37) in an urban charter school for 5 months. Plate waste was assessed by research staff using a visual estimation method that was validated against directly weighed plate waste. Most food choices (97.1%) were correctly recorded through the system. Visual estimates of plate waste had excellent interrater reliability (r's ≥ .94) and agreement with direct measurements (ρ's ≥ .75). Plate waste assessment required approximately 10 s/tray. Fifty-four percent of parents received feedback reports consistently. The technology-based system enabled staff to monitor dietary intake accurately at school meals. The system could potentially inform lunch menu modifications aimed at reducing plate waste. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Self-reported academic grades and other correlates of sugar-sweetened soda intake among US adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Sherry, Bettylou; Foti, Kathryn; Blanck, Heidi M

    2012-01-01

    High consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks has been associated with obesity and other adverse health consequences. This cross-sectional study examined the association of demographic characteristics, weight status, self-reported academic grades, and behavioral factors with sugar-sweetened soda intake among a nationally representative sample of US high school students. Analysis was based on the 2009 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey and included 16,188 students in grades 9 through 12. The main outcome measure was daily sugar-sweetened soda intake (eg, drank a can, bottle, or glass of soda [excluding diet soda] at least one time per day during the 7 days before the survey). Nationally, 29.2% of students reported drinking sugar-sweetened soda at least one time per day. Logistic regression analyses showed factors significantly associated with sugar-sweetened soda intake at least one time per day included male sex (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=1.47), Hispanic ethnicity (vs whites; OR=0.81), earning mostly B, C, and D/F grades (vs mostly As; OR=1.26, 1.66, and 2.19, respectively), eating vegetables fewer than three times per day (OR=0.72), trying to lose weight (OR=0.72), sleeping 2 hours/day (OR=1.71), playing video or computer games or using a computer for other than school work >2 hours/day (OR=1.53), being physically active at least 60 minutes/day on grades, inadequate sleep, sedentary behaviors, and cigarette smoking suggest research should examine why soda consumption is associated with these behaviors to inform the design of future nutrition interventions. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. A comparison of the accuracy of self reported intake vs. measured intake of a laboratory overeating episode in obese women with and without binge eating disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose was to: 1) Confirm that those with binge eating disorder (BED) consume significantly more kilocalories (kcal) than obese controls when instructed to overeat in the laboratory and 2) Compare dietary recall data with measured intake. Methods: Fifteen women fulfilling BED criteria and 17 c...

  3. Subjective Report of Side Effects of Prescribed and Nonprescribed Psychostimulant Use in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tess E; Martel, Michelle M; DeSantis, Alan D

    2017-03-21

    Side effects of prescribed and nonprescribed psychostimulant use are understudied. The study examined side effects of prescribed and nonprescribed psychostimulant use in a college sample with attention to possible gender differences. 2716 undergraduates (1448 male) between the ages of 17 and 57 years (M = 19.43 years, SD = 1.7 years) completed an online survey that included questions about the subjective side effects of prescribed and nonprescribed psychostimulant use. Results suggested that prescribed users more frequently reported side effects, compared to nonprescribed users. For prescribed users, females more frequently reported appetite, somatic, and anxiety-related side effects compared to males. For nonprescribed users, while females reported more somatic and anxiety-related side effects, males more frequently reported loss of sex drive and sweating as side effects. Conclusions/Importance: These findings suggest prescribed users of psychostimulants more frequently report side effects with prominent gender differences in line with gender roles.

  4. Intake of paracetamol and risk of asthma in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Simon Francis; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Skadhauge, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Intake of paracetamol has been associated with development of asthma. The aim of this study was to address a possible association between intake of paracetamol and risk of adult-onset asthma. Using a multidisciplinary postal questionnaire survey concerning health and lifestyle we prospectively...... studied 19,349 adult twins enrolled in the nationwide Danish Twin Registry. There was a higher prevalence of new-onset asthma in subjects who reported frequent intake of paracetamol at baseline compared with subjects without this determinant (12.0% vs. 4.3%), OR = 3.03 (1.51-6.11), p = 0.005. The result...... remained significant after adjusting for sex, age, smoking, BMI, hay fever, eczema, and intake of medications other than paracetamol, OR = 2.16 (1.03-4.53), p = 0.041. Frequent intake of paracetamol is an independent risk factor for adult-onset asthma....

  5. Perception of faces in schizophrenia: Subjective (self-report) vs. objective (psychophysics) assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Ekstrom, Tor

    2016-05-01

    Face perception impairment in schizophrenia has been demonstrated, mostly through experimental studies. How this laboratory-defined behavioral impairment is associated with patients' perceptual experience of various faces in everyday life is however unclear. This question is important because a first-person account of face perception has direct consequences on social functioning of patients. In this study, we adapted and administered a self-reported questionnaire on narrative perceptual experience of faces along with psychophysical assessments of face perception in schizophrenia. The self-reported questionnaire includes six rating items of face-related functioning in everyday life, providing a subjective measure of face perception. The psychophysical assessment determines perceptual threshold for discriminating different facial identities, providing an objective measure of face perception. Compared to controls (n = 25), patients (n = 35) showed significantly lower scores (worse performance) in the subjective assessment and significantly higher thresholds (worse performance) in the objective assessment. The subjective and objective face perception assessments were moderately correlated in controls but not in patients. The subjective face perception assessments were significantly correlated with measurements of a social cognitive ability (Theory of Mind), again in controls but not in patients. These results suggest that in schizophrenia the quality of face-related functioning in everyday life is degraded and the role that basic face discrimination capacity plays in face-related everyday functioning is disrupted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. DRY NEEDLING INCREASES MUSCLE THICKNESS IN A SUBJECT WITH PERSISTENT MUSCLE DYSFUNCTION: A CASE REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Kevin M; McMurray, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Muscle dysfunction is very common following musculoskeletal injury. There is very little evidence to suggest that muscle function may be positively impacted by soft tissue interventions, such as dry needling. The purpose of this case report is to describe the immediate effect of dry needling on muscle thickness in a subject after shoulder surgery. A 22 year-old competitive gymnast presented seven months post shoulder surgery with significant impairments and functional limitations. Previous physical therapy focused on restoration of range of motion and strength using general exercise interventions, but the subject had persistent tightness and weakness of musculature of the shoulder complex. A subject-specific physical therapy program including manual physical therapy resulted in significant initial improvement, but lack of flexibility and weakness of the rotator cuff limited progress. Dry needling was used to address persistent myofascial trigger points. Immediately after dry needling the infraspinatus, the muscle's thickness was significantly improved as measured by rehabilitative ultrasound imaging. There was a corresponding increase in force production of external rotation at 90 degrees of abduction. Minimal research exists that validates the potential of dry needling on muscle function, as assessed by muscle thickness measured using rehabilitative ultrasound imaging. The results of this case report suggest that dry needling contributed to improvement in muscle thickness and strength in a subject with muscle dysfunction following an injury. 4.

  7. Perception of faces in schizophrenia: Subjective (self-report) vs. objective (psychophysics) assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Ekstrom, Tor

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Face perception impairment in schizophrenia has been demonstrated, mostly through experimental studies. How this laboratory-defined behavioral impairment is associated with patients’ perceptual experience of various faces in everyday life is however unclear. This question is important because a first-person account of face perception has direct consequences on social functioning of patients. In this study, we adapted and administered a self-reported questionnaire on narrative perceptual experience of faces along with psychophysical assessments of face perception in schizophrenia. Methods The self-reported questionnaire includes six rating items of face-related functioning in everyday life, providing a subjective measure of face perception. The psychophysical assessment determines perceptual threshold for discriminating different facial identities, providing an objective measure of face perception. Results Compared to controls (n=25), patients (n=35) showed significantly lower scores (worse performance) in the subjective assessment and significantly higher thresholds (worse performance) in the objective assessment. The subjective and objective face perception assessments were moderately correlated in controls but not in patients. The subjective face perception assessments were significantly correlated with measurements of a social cognitive ability (Theory of Mind), again in controls but not in patients. Conclusion These results suggest that in schizophrenia the quality of face-related functioning in everyday life is degraded and the role that basic face discrimination capacity plays in face-related everyday functioning is disrupted. PMID:26938027

  8. Subjective pleasure experience in patients with recent-onset schizophrenia: A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Simon S Y; Wang, Yi; Shi, Yan-fang; Au, Angie C W; Wong, Peony T Y; Chu, Zoe L S; Kring, Ann M; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K

    2015-07-30

    Little is known about subjective pleasure experience in recent-onset schizophrenia, and its relationship with neurocognitive functions. Twenty-seven recent-onset schizophrenia people and 26 controls completed the TEPS and neuropsychological tests. The results showed that schizophrenia people self-reported less anticipatory pleasure than controls. Semantic verbal fluency was apparently correlated with anticipatory pleasure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of nutritional intake in Canadian high-performance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lun, Victor; Erdman, Kelly Anne; Reimer, Raylene A

    2009-09-01

    To determine the nutritional intake of Canadian high-performance athletes. Prospective survey study. Canadian sport center athletes. Three hundred twenty-four high-performance athletes (114 males and 201 females; mean age 21.3 +/- 13 years) from 8 Canadian sport centers participated in the study. Subjects prospectively completed 3-day dietary records, reporting all food, fluid, and supplement consumption. Dietary records were analyzed for total calories, macronutrients, and micronutrients for food alone and food plus supplements for all subjects collectively and according to gender and competitive event. Average daily energy intake was 2533 +/- 843 Kcal/day with males consuming more calories than females (2918 +/- 927 and 2304 +/- 713 Kcal/day, respectively; P Supplementation significantly increased athletes' energy, total carbohydrate, protein, and fat intake. Of 17 micronutrients assessed, intake ranged between 120% and 366% of recommended daily intake with food alone and between 134% to 680% of recommended daily intake with supplements. Canadian high-performance athletes do not consume adequate energy or carbohydrates. However, their intake of micronutrients exceed current recommended daily intakes, even when supplements are not considered, indicating that athletes make high-quality food choices. Supplementation significantly increased energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intake.

  10. Can Malaysian Young Adults Report Dietary Intake Using a Food Diary Mobile Application? A Pilot Study on Acceptability and Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoke San Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile applications may improve dietary reporting among young adults due to their high accessibility and embedded camera function. This pilot study aimed to (i evaluate users’ acceptability and compliance in reporting dietary intake using a newly developed food diary mobile application (food app; and (ii identify issues and recommendations for improving dietary assessment using this food app via quantitative and qualitative protocols. Twenty-eight university students each used a food app for seven consecutive days and attended one of five focus group interviews. A 42% decrement in reporting compliance was observed throughout the seven-day recording period. An average of 5.9 recording days were reported and 4.8 occasions of meal data were uploaded each day. Based on questionnaires, high levels of agreement were reported in terms of perceived usefulness (69.3%, perceived ease of use (77.1%, attitude (73.6%, perceived enjoyment (62.6%, and smartphone experience (91.1%, but such agreement was not reported for intention to use (38.1% and social influence (33.4%. Four major themes emerged from the focus group interviews, namely, (i features; (ii potential use; (iii utility issues of the food app; and (iv suggestions for improvements. While the food app was well-accepted by most of the young adults, the current prototype would benefit from incorporation of a barcode scanning function, customizable reminders, in-app tutorial, an entertainment component, and enhancement in overall appearance.

  11. Can Malaysian Young Adults Report Dietary Intake Using a Food Diary Mobile Application? A Pilot Study on Acceptability and Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yoke San; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Ayob, Ainaa Fatehah; Othman, Nor Effendy; Poh, Bee Koon

    2017-01-13

    Mobile applications may improve dietary reporting among young adults due to their high accessibility and embedded camera function. This pilot study aimed to (i) evaluate users' acceptability and compliance in reporting dietary intake using a newly developed food diary mobile application (food app); and (ii) identify issues and recommendations for improving dietary assessment using this food app via quantitative and qualitative protocols. Twenty-eight university students each used a food app for seven consecutive days and attended one of five focus group interviews. A 42% decrement in reporting compliance was observed throughout the seven-day recording period. An average of 5.9 recording days were reported and 4.8 occasions of meal data were uploaded each day. Based on questionnaires, high levels of agreement were reported in terms of perceived usefulness (69.3%), perceived ease of use (77.1%), attitude (73.6%), perceived enjoyment (62.6%), and smartphone experience (91.1%), but such agreement was not reported for intention to use (38.1%) and social influence (33.4%). Four major themes emerged from the focus group interviews, namely, (i) features; (ii) potential use; (iii) utility issues of the food app; and (iv) suggestions for improvements. While the food app was well-accepted by most of the young adults, the current prototype would benefit from incorporation of a barcode scanning function, customizable reminders, in-app tutorial, an entertainment component, and enhancement in overall appearance.

  12. [Wernicke's encephalopathy due to excessive intake of isotonic drink; report of 2 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, Akiyoshi; Kikuchi, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is an acute neurological disease resulting from thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. WE is often caused by an unbalanced diet or excessively strict diet therapy in pediatric cases. We experienced 2 cases of WE due to excessive intake of isotonic drink. Patient 1 was a 15-month-old boy. After frequent vomiting, he presented with mental status changes, ocular abnormalities, and truncal ataxia (the classic triad). Patient 2 was a 7-month-old boy. He was hospitalized because of status epilepticus. In both cases, the clinical symptoms improved immediately after the administration of vitamin B1. However, mental retardation was observed as a neurological sequel in patient 2. Because many patients with WE present with vomiting at an early stage, we should take care not to confuse WE with gastroenterocolitis. In addition, it should be noted that some patients with WE present with seizure. Because these 2 cases resulted from an unbalanced diet, it is important to evaluate the patients' eating and drinking habits and advise their parents on proper nutrition. Since many people believe that isotonic drinks are very beneficial and consume them frequently, we should promote awareness that they can be harmful when consumed in excess.

  13. Identification of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants in subjects reporting work-related respiratory symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Wiszniewska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The role of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs in diagnostics of occupational allergy remains unclarified and its clinical relevance is still questioned. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of positive response to CCDs in the subjects with suspected occupational allergy and the relationship between other diagnostic test results and final diagnosis. Material and methods The study group included 201 patients. They underwent clinical examination, skin prick test (SPT to common and occupational allergens, specific serum immunoglobulin (sIgE determinations, spirometry and specific inhalation challenge test. Moreover, sIgE to CCDs from bromelain was assessed in all subjects. Results Occupational respiratory allergy was recognized in 64.3% of CCD-positive and 52.4% of CCD-negative patients. Positive SPT results to common and occupational allergens were found in 64.3% and 35.7% of CCD-positive subjects, respectively. In all subjects with CCDs, the sIgE to grass pollens as well as to occupational allergens were detected. The total IgE level > 100 kU/l was significantly associated with the presence of sIgE to CCDs. Conclusions sIgE to CCDs were found in 7% of subjects suspected to suffer from occupational respiratory allergy. The presence of CCDs is not significantly associated with occupational respiratory allergy. It is also not more frequent in subjects reporting work-related respiratory symptoms in whom occupational allergy was not confirmed. The elevated total IgE level was related with CCD positivity. In patients with suspected occupational allergy, the presence of sIgE to CCDs in serum did not indicate the irrelevance of positive sIgE to occupational allergens.

  14. Overweight and Obese Children's Ability to Report Energy Intake Using Digital Camera Food Records during a 2-Year Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Svensson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate overweight and obese children's ability to report reproducible and valid estimates of energy intake (EI by using digital camera food records (FR during a 2-year study, compared with objectively measured total energy expenditure (TEE. Seventy-three overweight/obese children, aged 8–12 years at inclusion, kept FR with the help of digital cameras for 16 days in total, on 7 occasions during a 2-year period. On the same days, their TEE was registered with SenseWear Armband (SWA. The children underestimated their EI by −2.8 (2.4 MJ/d on the first assessment occasion (95% CI: −3.3, −2.3. Reporting accuracy did not differ between the 7 assessment occasions (P=0.15. Variables negatively associated with reporting accuracy relative to TEE were increased age (95% CI: −0.07, −0.01 and BMI z-score (95% CI: −0.18, −0.06. Further, reporting accuracy relative to TEE was lower for girls than boys (95% CI: −0.14, −0.01 and on weekdays compared with weekend days (95% CI: −0.08, −0.001. In conclusion, overweight and obese children were able to report their EI using a digital camera FR with good reproducibility over a 2-year period, even though their EI was underestimated compared with objectively measured TEE.

  15. Overweight and Obese Children's Ability to Report Energy Intake Using Digital Camera Food Records during a 2-Year Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Asa; Waling, Maria; Bäcklund, Catharina; Larsson, Christel

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate overweight and obese children's ability to report reproducible and valid estimates of energy intake (EI) by using digital camera food records (FR) during a 2-year study, compared with objectively measured total energy expenditure (TEE). Seventy-three overweight/obese children, aged 8-12 years at inclusion, kept FR with the help of digital cameras for 16 days in total, on 7 occasions during a 2-year period. On the same days, their TEE was registered with SenseWear Armband (SWA). The children underestimated their EI by -2.8 (2.4) MJ/d on the first assessment occasion (95% CI: -3.3, -2.3). Reporting accuracy did not differ between the 7 assessment occasions (P = 0.15). Variables negatively associated with reporting accuracy relative to TEE were increased age (95% CI: -0.07, -0.01) and BMI z-score (95% CI: -0.18, -0.06). Further, reporting accuracy relative to TEE was lower for girls than boys (95% CI: -0.14, -0.01) and on weekdays compared with weekend days (95% CI: -0.08, -0.001). In conclusion, overweight and obese children were able to report their EI using a digital camera FR with good reproducibility over a 2-year period, even though their EI was underestimated compared with objectively measured TEE.

  16. Description of self-reported fluid intake and its effects on body weight, symptoms, quality of life and physical capacity in patients with stable chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Marie; Strömberg, Anna; Lindholm, Maud; Willenheimer, Ronnie

    2008-09-01

    To describe the self-reported fluid intake and its effects on body weight, signs and symptoms of heart failure, quality of life, physical capacity and thirst, in patients with stabilised chronic heart failure. Patients with chronic heart failure are often recommended a fluid restriction of 1.5 l/day but there is no evidence in the literature for this recommendation and little is known about the fluid intake consequences. Crossover study. Chronic heart failure patients, clinically stabilised after an unstable state, were randomised to a 32-week cross-over study assessing the clinical importance of fluid prescription. In a secondary analysis of 63 patients, efficacy variables were analysed in relation to the self-reported median fluid intake of 19 ml/kg body weight/day. The mean fluid intake was 16 ml/kg/day in the below-median group and 24 ml/kg/day in the above-median group. No between-group differences were found in change in body weight, signs and symptoms, diuretic use, quality of life or physical capacity. However, the above-median group significantly decreased sense of thirst and difficulties to adhere to the fluid prescription compared with the below-median group. In clinically stabilised chronic heart failure patients on optimal pharmacological treatment, a larger fluid intake was associated with decreasing thirst without any measurable negative effects on signs and symptoms of heart failure, diuretic use or physical capacity. Thus, a more liberal fluid intake may be advisable in chronic heart failure patients who have been stabilised after an initial unstable clinical state. Nurses involved in the care for patients with heart failure known how troublesome thirst can be and how difficult it can be to follow a restricted fluid intake. This study indicates that it is possible to reassess and recommend a less strict fluid intake in stabilised patients with chronic heart failure.

  17. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The

  18. Interaction of body mass index and attempt to lose weight in a national sample of US adults: association with reported food and nutrient intake, and biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, A K

    2003-02-01

    This study examined the interaction between body mass index (BMI) and attempting to lose weight for reporting of: (1) macro- and micronutrient intake; (2) intake of low-nutrient-density foods; and (3) serum biomarkers of dietary exposure and cardiovascular disease risk. Dietary, anthropometric and biochemical data were from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994), n=13 095. Multiple regression methods were used to examine the independent associations of BMI, trying to lose weight, or the interaction of BMI-trying to lose weight with reported intakes of energy, nutrients, percentage energy from low-nutrient-density foods (sweeteners, baked and dairy desserts, visible fats and salty snacks), and serum concentrations of vitamins, carotenoids and lipids. BMI was an independent positive predictor (Plose weight was a negative predictor (Plose weight (Plose weight interaction effects were noted. There was little evidence of increased nutritional risk in those reportedly trying to lose weight irrespective of weight status.

  19. Social Desirability Trait Is Associated with Self-Reported Vegetable Intake among Women Enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Noia, Jennifer; Cullen, Karen Weber; Monica, Dorothy

    2016-12-01

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Fresh Start (WFS) is a randomized controlled trial of nutrition education to promote farmers' market fruit and vegetable (F/V) purchases and consumption among women enrolled in WIC. Using baseline data from WFS to examine associations between social desirability trait, the tendency to respond in a manner consistent with expected norms, and self-reported F/V intake and to determine whether associations, if found, are moderated by participant characteristics. Cross-sectional. Seven hundred forty-four women enrolled in WFS. The setting is a New Jersey-based WIC agency located in a densely populated urban area. Items assessing participant characteristics, a short form of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, and validated measures of the frequency and quantity of F/V intake. Linear regression analysis to examine associations between social desirability trait and F/V intake and hierarchical regression analysis to test for moderation by participant characteristics of the associations between social desirability trait and F/V intake. Social desirability trait was significantly associated with times per day vegetables were reported to have been consumed (β=0.08, P=0.03). The association was moderated by breastfeeding status. Among breastfeeding women, social desirability trait was unrelated to reported intake, whereas among non-breastfeeding women, it was positively associated with intake (a 1-unit increase in the social desirability score was associated with a 0.12 increase in times per day vegetables were reported to have been consumed). Social desirability trait is associated with self-reported vegetable intake among WIC participants generally and non-breastfeeding participants in particular and should be assessed in these groups. Replication studies with comparative measures of "true intake" are needed to determine whether social desirability trait biases self-reports of

  20. Influence of the recall period on a beverage-specific weekly drinking measure for alcohol intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, O.; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Grønbæk, M.

    2011-01-01

    -reported weekly alcohol intake. Subjects/Methods: The data is derived from the Danish Health Interview Survey 2005, which is based on a region-stratified random sample of 21¿832 Danish citizens aged =16 years (response rate: 67%). The data were collected via face-to-face interviews. Results: A beverage......-specific question on alcohol intake on each day during the last week did not alter the strong association between the recall period and self-reported alcohol intake. However, the overall self-reported alcohol intake increased substantially when using the beverage-specific question instead of asking for the overall......Background/Objectives: Our knowledge of the association between alcohol intake and alcohol-related health outcomes depends, to a large extent, on the validity and reliability of self-reported alcohol intake. Weekly drinking measures are frequently used in epidemiological surveys, but it has been...

  1. Protein from Meat or Vegetable Sources in Meals Matched for Fiber Content has Similar Effects on Subjective Appetite Sensations and Energy Intake-A Randomized Acute Cross-Over Meal Test Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lone V; Kristensen, Marlene D; Klingenberg, Lars; Ritz, Christian; Belza, Anita; Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne

    2018-01-16

    Higher-protein meals decrease hunger and increase satiety compared to lower-protein meals. However, no consensus exists about the different effects of animal and vegetable proteins on appetite. We investigated how a meal based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) affected ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations, compared to macronutrient-balanced, iso-caloric meals based on animal protein (veal/pork or eggs). Thirty-five healthy men were enrolled in this acute cross-over study. On each test day, participants were presented with one of four test meals (~3550 kilojoules (kJ) 19% of energy from protein), based on fava beans/split peas (28.5 g fiber), pork/veal or eggs supplemented with pea fiber to control for fiber content (28.5 g fiber), or eggs without supplementation of fiber (6.0 g fiber). Subjective appetite sensations were recorded at baseline and every half hour until the ad libitum meal three hours later. There were no differences in ad libitum energy intake across test meals (p > 0.05). Further, no differences were found across meals for hunger, satiety, fullness, prospective food consumption, or composite appetite score (all p > 0.05). Iso-caloric, macronutrient-balanced, fiber-matched meals based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) or animal protein (veal/pork or eggs) had similar effects on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations.

  2. Subjective anxiety and behavioral avoidance: Gender, gender role, and perceived confirmability of self-report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Carmen P; Hope, Debra A

    2010-06-01

    Commonly reported gender effects for differential vulnerability for anxiety may relate to gender socialization processes. The present study examined the relationship between gender role and fear under experimental conditions designed to elicit accurate fear reporting. Undergraduate students (N=119) completed several self-report measures and a behavioral avoidance task (BAT) with a tarantula while wearing a heart rate monitor. Gender roles were operationalized as instrumentality and expressiveness, as measured by the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (Spence, Helmreich, & Stapp, 1975). As expected, women reported greater subjective anxiety and were more avoidant of the tarantula than men. Regardless of gender, low levels of instrumentality were associated with greater avoidance of the tarantula. The hypothesis that men underreport fear compared to women and that gender role differences underlie this reporting bias was not supported. In spite of a ceiling effect on the BAT, results of this study confirm the relevance of gender role in understanding gender effects in fear and anxiety. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Self-reported dietary intake of youth with recent onset of type 2 diabetes: results from the TODAY study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahanty, Linda; Kriska, Andrea; Edelstein, Sharon; Amodei, Nancy; Chadwick, Jennifer; Copeland, Kenneth; Galvin, Bryan; El Ghormli, Laure; Haymond, Morey; Kelsey, Megan M; Lassiter, Chad; Milaszewski, Kerry; Syme, Amy; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Despite the widely recognized importance of diet in managing diabetes, few studies have documented usual dietary intake in young people with type 2 diabetes. The objectives of our study were to assess dietary intake among a large, ethnically diverse cohort of young people with type 2 diabetes and compare intake to current recommendations. The Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) study is a multicenter randomized clinical trial of 699 youth aged 10 to 17 years. At baseline, following a run-in period that included standard diabetes education, diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire between 2004 and 2009. Analysis of variance and nonparametric tests were used to compare mean and median nutrient intakes; logistic regression was used to compare the odds of meeting predefined dietary intake recommendation cutpoints between subgroups of age, sex, and race-ethnicity. Percent of energy from saturated fat was consistently 13% to 14% across all subgroups-substantially exceeding national recommendations. Overall, only 12% of youth met Healthy People 2010 guidelines for intake of fat and only 1% of youth met American Diabetes Association recommendations for intake of fat. Dietary intake fell substantially below other Healthy People 2010 targets; only 3% met calcium intake goals, 11% met fruit consumption goals, 5% met vegetable consumption goals, and 67% met grain intake goals. Overall, dietary intake in this large cohort of young people with type 2 diabetes fell substantially short of recommendations, in ways that were consistent by sex, age, and race-ethnicity. The data suggest a critical need for better approaches to improve dietary intake of these young people. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Inconsistency between Self-Reported Energy Intake and Body Mass Index among Urban, African-American Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miwa Yamaguchi

    Full Text Available To prevent obesity, it is important to assess dietary habits through self-reported energy intake (EI in children. We investigated how EI is associated with body mass index and which elements of dietary habits and status are associated with EI among African-American (AA children.We assessed and included data from 218 10-14-year-old AA children in Baltimore, MD, USA. EI was calculated using a food frequency questionnaire. The basal metabolic rate (BMR was used as the predicted minimal rate of energy expenditure of children. A fully adjusted multiple logistic regression was used to determine the prevalence of obesity (≥ 95th BMI-for-age percentile among the quartiles of EI/BMR ratio using the third quartile for the reference. The differences in the age-adjusted mean EI/BMR among the categories of dietary habits, social support, and socio economic status were analyzed using a general linear model.Children with the lowest EI/BMR had significantly higher adjusted odds ratio (aOR of obesity as compared to those in the third quartile of EI/BMR (boys aOR 4.3; 95% confidence interval 1.08, 20 and girls aOR 4.1; 1.02, 21. In girls, the adjusted mean EI/BMR in the group that prepared food less than the means (3.8 times/week was significantly lower than the group that prepared food over the means (P = 0.03. Further, the group that reported eating breakfast under 4 times/week indicated an adjusted mean EI/BMR lower than the group that ate breakfast over 5 times/week in both sexes.When EI was under-reported with reference to BMR, we may observe high prevalence of obesity. Further, food preparation by children and frequent consumption of breakfast may instill food cognition with usual dietary habits. Therefore, holistic assessments including dietary habits are required to examine self-reported food intake especially among overweight/obese children.

  5. Assessment of macronutrient and micronutrient intake in women with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadigan, C M; Anderson, E J; Miller, K K; Hubbard, J L; Herzog, D B; Klibanski, A; Grinspoon, S K

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of diet history compared to observed food intake in the nutritional assessment of women with anorexia nervosa (AN) and healthy age-matched controls. One-month diet history was compared to 1-day observed food intake in 30 women with AN and 28 control subjects. Reported intake by diet history was similar to observed intake for macronutrient composition and fat intake for patients with AN. Reported energy intake was higher than observed intake (1,602 +/- 200 kcal vs. 1,289 +/- 150 kcal, p Micronutrient intake by diet history was highly correlated with observed intake in patients with AN. More than one half of the patients with AN failed to meet the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for vitamin D, calcium, folate, vitamin B12, zinc, magnesium, and copper when assessed by diet history. In contrast to patients with AN, diet history did not correlate with observed intake of energy, macronutrients, or most micronutrients among the controls. Diet history is an accurate tool to assess fat intake and macronutrient composition in patients with AN and demonstrates significant micronutrient deficiencies in this population. The agreement between total energy intake and predicted energy expenditure supports the overall utility of the diet history in the nutritional assessment of patients with AN. Copyright 2000 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. Artificial MicroRNAs as Novel Secreted Reporters for Cell Monitoring in Living Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald, John A; D'Souza, Aloma L; Chuang, Hui-Yen; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam

    2016-01-01

    Reporter genes are powerful technologies that can be used to directly inform on the fate of transplanted cells in living subjects. Imaging reporter genes are often employed to quantify cell number, location(s), and viability with various imaging modalities. To complement this, reporters that are secreted from cells can provide a low-cost, in vitro diagnostic test to monitor overall cell viability at relatively high frequency without knowing the locations of all cells. Whereas protein-based secretable reporters have been developed, an RNA-based reporter detectable with amplification inherent PCR-based assays has not been previously described. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs (18-22 nt) that regulate mRNA translation and are being explored as relatively stable blood-based disease biomarkers. We developed an artificial miRNA-based secreted reporter, called Sec-miR, utilizing a coding sequence that is not expressed endogenously and does not have any known vertebrate target. Sec-miR was detectable in both the cells and culture media of transiently transfected cells. Cells stably expressing Sec-miR also reliably secreted it into the culture media. Mice implanted with parental HeLa cells or HeLa cells expressing both Sec-miR and the bioluminescence imaging (BLI) reporter gene Firefly luciferase (FLuc) were monitored over time for tumor volume, FLuc signal via BLI, and blood levels of Sec-miR. Significantly (pcell tumors at 21 and 28 days after implantation. Importantly, blood Sec-miR reporter levels after day 21 showed a trend towards correlation with tumor volume (R2 = 0.6090; p = 0.0671) and significantly correlated with FLuc signal (R2 = 0.7067; pcell media by chaining together multiple Sec-miR copies (4 instead of 1 or 2) within an expression cassette. Overall, we show that a novel complement of BLI together with a unique Sec-miR reporter adds an in vitro RNA-based diagnostic to enhance the monitoring of transplanted cells. While Sec-miR was not as

  7. Acute effects of mustard, horseradish, black pepper and ginger on energy expenditure, appetite, ad libitum energy intake and energy balance in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Nikolaj Ture; Belza, Anita; Jensen, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Chilli peppers have been shown to enhance diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) and reduce energy intake (EI) in some studies, but there are few data on other pungent spices. The primary aim of the present study was to test the acute effects of black pepper (pepper), ginger, horseradish and mustard...... randomly assigned to receive a brunch meal with either pepper (1·3 g), ginger (20 g), horseradish (8·3 g), mustard (21 g) or no spices (placebo). The amounts of spices were chosen from pre-testing to make the meal spicy but palatable. No significant treatment effects were observed on DIT, but mustard...

  8. The Impact of Oxytocin on Food Intake and Emotion Recognition in Patients with Eating Disorders: A Double Blind Single Dose Within-Subject Cross-Over Design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youl-Ri Kim

    Full Text Available Social difficulties and problems related to eating behaviour are common features of both anorexia nervosa (AN and bulimia nervosa (BN. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of intranasal oxytocin on consummatory behaviour and emotional recognition in patients with AN and BN in comparison to healthy controls.A total of 102 women, including 35 patients with anorexia nervosa (AN, 34 patients with bulimia nervosa (BN, and 33 healthy university students of comparable age and intelligence, participated in a double-blind, single dose placebo-controlled cross-over study. A single dose of intranasal administration of oxytocin (40 IU (or a placebo was followed by an emotional recognition task and an apple juice drink. Food intake was then recorded for 24 hours post-test.Oxytocin produced no significant change in appetite in the acute or 24 hours free living settings in healthy controls, whereas there was a decrease in calorie consumption over 24 hours in patients with BN. Oxytocin produced a small increase in emotion recognition sensitivity in healthy controls and in patients with BN, In patients with AN, oxytocin had no effect on emotion recognition sensitivity or on consummatory behaviour.The impact of oxytocin on appetite and social cognition varied between people with AN and BN. A single dose of intranasal oxytocin decreased caloric intake over 24 hours in people with BN. People with BN showed enhanced emotional sensitivity under oxytocin condition similar to healthy controls. Those effects of oxytocin were not found in patients with AN.ClinicalTrials.gov KCT00000716.

  9. The Impact of Oxytocin on Food Intake and Emotion Recognition in Patients with Eating Disorders: A Double Blind Single Dose Within-Subject Cross-Over Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youl-Ri; Eom, Jin-Sup; Yang, Jae-Won; Kang, Jiwon; Treasure, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Social difficulties and problems related to eating behaviour are common features of both anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). The aim of this study was to examine the impact of intranasal oxytocin on consummatory behaviour and emotional recognition in patients with AN and BN in comparison to healthy controls. A total of 102 women, including 35 patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), 34 patients with bulimia nervosa (BN), and 33 healthy university students of comparable age and intelligence, participated in a double-blind, single dose placebo-controlled cross-over study. A single dose of intranasal administration of oxytocin (40 IU) (or a placebo) was followed by an emotional recognition task and an apple juice drink. Food intake was then recorded for 24 hours post-test. Oxytocin produced no significant change in appetite in the acute or 24 hours free living settings in healthy controls, whereas there was a decrease in calorie consumption over 24 hours in patients with BN. Oxytocin produced a small increase in emotion recognition sensitivity in healthy controls and in patients with BN, In patients with AN, oxytocin had no effect on emotion recognition sensitivity or on consummatory behaviour. The impact of oxytocin on appetite and social cognition varied between people with AN and BN. A single dose of intranasal oxytocin decreased caloric intake over 24 hours in people with BN. People with BN showed enhanced emotional sensitivity under oxytocin condition similar to healthy controls. Those effects of oxytocin were not found in patients with AN. ClinicalTrials.gov KCT00000716.

  10. Severe gynecomastia due to anti androgens intake: A case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Chentli Farida; Belhimer Faiza

    2013-01-01

    Gynecomastia is the most bothersome side effect in men taking antiandrogens. It is exceptionally severe and distressing physically and mentally as in the reported case. A man, aged 63, with a history of a well-treated macroprolactinoma, was referred in 2004 for gynecomastia that appeared after treatment by microsurgery, radiotherapy and flutamide for a lesion suspected to be prostate cancer. Clinical examination was normal except for huge enlargement of the breasts. Mammography and breasts MR...

  11. EFFECT OF KIMCHI INTAKE ON LIPID PROFILES AND BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Ju Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Kimchi is a Korean fermented vegetable and has recognized as a healthy food. Some interventional studies have reported an inverse association between kimchi intake and higher lipid levels in healthy and obese people. However, kimchi intake and hypertention were still uncertain. This study is carried out to investigate whether the serum lipid profiles and blood pressure would be influenced by the amount of kimchi intake. Design for the clinical study by controlling the meal consumption and physical activity of the subjects for 7 days was approved by IRB at P Hospital (No.2011075. For the study, 100 volunteers assigned into 2 groups, low (15 g/day, n=50 and high kimchi intake group (210 g/day, n=50, temporarily stayed together at the dormitory during the 7-day experimental period. Three meals with different amount of kimchi were provided and subjects were asked to maintain the normal physical activity as usual. Significant decrease in the concentration of fasting blood glucose, TG, total-C, and LDL-C for the both group was observed after 7 days of kimchi intake regardless of amount of kimchi intake. Only FBG suppression effect was significantly different (p<0.01. Furthermore, people with hypercholesterolemia (≤19 mg/dL showed greater improvements in total cholesterol levels in high kimchi intake group. One notable finding in this study was that urinary Na excretion for the high kimchi intake group was significantly increased (p<0.05. There was no significant difference in the BP reductions by kimchi intake. Higher intake of kimchi appears to be a modest beneficial effect to lipid lowering, without any effect on blood pressure in spite of increased sodium excretion. Long-term study should be clarified whether kimchi intake associated with hypertension.

  12. The relationship between interviewer–respondent race match and reporting of energy intake using food frequency questionnaires in the rural South United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Lemacks

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: This study is the first to our knowledge to examine whether race influences dietary intake reporting which may influence assessment data used for comparison with health outcomes. This may have important implications for research conducted in health disparate populations, particularly rural, Southern populations.

  13. Transient sick sinus syndrome with complete atrioventricular block associated with ergonovine intake: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Ting; Liu, Wen-Hao; Chen, Yung-Lung

    2017-11-01

    More mature or older women are more likely to undergo in vitro fertilization and embryo implant. These women have a greater chance of receiving ergonovine therapy because of a suspected abortion. We present this case report to call attention to a latent lethal adverse effect in everyday obstetric practice using ergonovine. It requires more attention and close monitoring PATIENT CONCERNS:: We presented the case of a 38-year-old female patient with general weakness and mild chest tightness after ergonovine use. She was diagnosed as transient sick sinus syndrome and complete atrioventricular block with junctional escape rhythm after diagnostic work up. Conservative treatment with discontinuation of ergonovine and bed rest. Her sinus rhythm returned to normal the day after ergonovine was discontinued. The patient remained symptom-free since recovery of her sinus rhythm. Ergonovine may cause symptomatic and lethal bradyarrhythmia. Withdrawal of the causative medication and adequate supportive care can lead to a favorable outcome in these patients. More related cases should be reported. Further evaluation for treatment and prognosis are necessary.

  14. Reported Dietary Intake and Food Sources of Zinc, Selenium, and Vitamins A, E and C in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olza, Josune; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Gil, Ángel

    2017-07-06

    Zinc, selenium, and the vitamins A, E and C, all have specific biological functions that are involved mainly in the antioxidant defence system, which has important implications for the development of chronic diseases. We aimed to assess the reported intake of those six nutrients, as well as the food that contributes to their sources of intakes. Data were obtained from the Spanish ANIBES ("Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance in Spain") study, n = 2009 (9-75 years old). The analyses were performed in the whole population and in the plausible energy reporters after a misreporting analysis according to the European Food and Safety Authority (EFSA) protocol. A validated, photo-based three-day food record was used to collect the data. Mean (max-min) reported intake for the whole population of zinc was 8.1 ± 0.1 mg/day, (2.3-27.3 mg/day), selenium 75 ± 1 µg/day, (14-265 µg/day), vitamin A 668 µg RE/day (2-11,017 µg RE/day), retinol 364 ± 18 µg/day (0-10,881 µg/day), carotenes 1735 ± 35 µg/day (13-13,962 µg/day), vitamin E 7.0 ± 0.1 mg α-TE/day (0.7-55.2 mg α-TE/day) and vitamin C 84.4 ± 1.4 mg/day (5.0-802.7 mg/day). The main source intakes for zinc were meat and meat products, for selenium cereals and grains, for vitamin E oils and fat, and for vitamin A and C vegetables. There is an elevated percentage of the Spanish ANIBES population not meeting the EFSA recommended intakes for all analysed micronutrients: zinc (83%), vitamin A (60%), vitamin E (80%), vitamin C (36%) and selenium (25%).

  15. Reported Dietary Intake and Food Sources of Zinc, Selenium, and Vitamins A, E and C in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josune Olza

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Zinc, selenium, and the vitamins A, E and C, all have specific biological functions that are involved mainly in the antioxidant defence system, which has important implications for the development of chronic diseases. We aimed to assess the reported intake of those six nutrients, as well as the food that contributes to their sources of intakes. Data were obtained from the Spanish ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance in Spain” study, n = 2009 (9–75 years old. The analyses were performed in the whole population and in the plausible energy reporters after a misreporting analysis according to the European Food and Safety Authority (EFSA protocol. A validated, photo-based three-day food record was used to collect the data. Mean (max−min reported intake for the whole population of zinc was 8.1 ± 0.1 mg/day, (2.3–27.3 mg/day, selenium 75 ± 1 µg/day, (14–265 µg/day, vitamin A 668 µg RE/day (2–11,017 µg RE/day, retinol 364 ± 18 µg/day (0–10,881 µg/day, carotenes 1735 ± 35 µg/day (13–13,962 µg/day, vitamin E 7.0 ± 0.1 mg α-TE/day (0.7–55.2 mg α-TE/day and vitamin C 84.4 ± 1.4 mg/day (5.0–802.7 mg/day. The main source intakes for zinc were meat and meat products, for selenium cereals and grains, for vitamin E oils and fat, and for vitamin A and C vegetables. There is an elevated percentage of the Spanish ANIBES population not meeting the EFSA recommended intakes for all analysed micronutrients: zinc (83%, vitamin A (60%, vitamin E (80%, vitamin C (36% and selenium (25%.

  16. Population blood pressure and low to moderate alcohol intake in an untreated population followed over 20years. Copenhagen City heart study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulla Overgaard; Jensen, Gorm Boje

    2011-01-01

    and an increasing self-reported alcohol intake. The population increase was based on an increasing proportion of light to moderate drinkers. There was no effect of a moderately increasing alcohol intake as a covariate in a multivariate analysis of population systolic BP. Conclusion: A moderately increasing......The aim of this study is to evaluate whether a changing population alcohol intake is capable of setting off a shift in the blood pressure distribution in the untreated part of a population. The focus is on subjects with an alcohol intake well below the limits of alcoholism because these subjects...... population alcohol intake cannot explain the observed changes in population systolic blood pressure....

  17. The relationship between self-reported alcohol intake and the morbidities managed by GPs in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenti Lisa

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One in five Australians consume alcohol at risky or harmful levels. Most (85% attend a general practitioner at least once a year, giving opportunity for detecting and providing brief interventions for reducing alcohol-related harm. Historically, detection rates of problem drinking have been low in general practice, producing lower prevalence estimates of heavy drinking than expected from population surveys. Method The BEACH program collects data from 100 consecutive patient consultations with 1000 GPs annually. For 40 consecutive encounters, GPs ask adult patients three questions on alcohol consumption (AUDIT-C. This paper reports the problems managed and treatments provided at encounters with heavy and non-heavy drinkers, grouped by their response to the 3rd question, and compares the two groups before and after standardisation for age and sex. Heavy drinking was defined as having 6 or more standard drinks at least once a week or more often. Results Heavy drinking was reported by 7.3% patients overall; more prevalent among men (13.8% than women (3.9%; and among Indigenous patients (18.5%. Prevalence was highest in young adults (18–24 years(12.7% and decreased with age. Patients from a non-English speaking background were less likely to be heavy drinkers. Heavy drinkers had more problems managed at encounters, more chronic problems, physical injuries and psychological problems (particularly depression managed than non-heavy drinkers. They were less likely to have respiratory complaints, ischaemic heart disease or diabetes managed. Conclusion Heavy drinkers are more likely than non- or light drinkers to see their GP for management of chronic problems, psychological problems and physical injuries. However, the wide range of morbidity managed in heavy drinkers means that relying on clinical impression alone to detect this group will not suffice and should be augmented with routine screening. Given the pressures of general

  18. A qualitative report on the subjective experience of intravenous psilocybin administered in an FMRI environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, S; Nutt, D J; Carhart-Harris, R L

    2014-01-01

    This report documents the phenomenology of the subjective experiences of 15 healthy psychedelic experienced volunteers who were involved in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study that was designed to image the brain effects of intravenous psilocybin. The participants underwent a semi-structured interview exploring the effects of psilocybin in the MRI scanner. These interviews were analysed by Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The resultant data is ordered in a detailed matrix, and presented in this paper. Nine broad categories of phenomenology were identified in the phenomenological analysis of the experience; perceptual changes including visual, auditory and somatosensory distortions, cognitive changes, changes in mood, effects of memory, spiritual or mystical type experiences, aspects relating to the scanner and research environment, comparisons with other experiences, the intensity and onset of effects, and individual interpretation of the experience. This article documents the phenomenology of psilocybin when given in a novel manner (intravenous injection) and setting (an MRI scanner). The findings of the analysis are consistent with previous published work regarding the subjective effects of psilocybin. There is much scope for further research investigating the phenomena identified in this paper.

  19. Increased health risk in subjects with high self-reported seasonality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas M Øyane

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Seasonal variations in mood and behaviour, termed seasonality, are commonly reported in the general population. As a part of a large cross-sectional health survey in Hordaland, Norway, we investigated the relationship between seasonality, objective health measurements and health behaviours. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 11,545 subjects between 40-44 years old participated, completing the Global Seasonality Score, measuring seasonality. Waist/hip circumference, BMI and blood pressure were measured, and blood samples were analyzed for total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose. Subjects also completed a questionnaire on miscellaneous health behaviours (exercise, smoking, alcohol consumption. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were used to investigate associations between seasonality and objective health measurements, while binary logistic regression was used for analysing associations between seasonality and health behaviours. Analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic factors, month of questionnaire completion and sleep duration. Seasonality was positively associated with high waist-hip-ratio, BMI, triglyceride levels, and in men high total cholesterol. Seasonality was negatively associated with HDL cholesterol. In women seasonality was negatively associated with prevalence of exercise and positively associated with daily cigarette smoking. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: High seasonality was associated with objective health risk factors and in women also with health behaviours associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease.

  20. Effects of PYY1-36 and PYY3-36 on appetite, energy intake, energy expenditure, glucose and fat metabolism in obese and lean subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Holst, Jens Juul; Flint, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Peptide YY (PYY)(3-36) has been shown to produce dramatic reductions in energy intake (EI), but no human data exist regarding energy expenditure (EE), glucose and fat metabolism. Nothing is known regarding PYY1-36. To compare effects of PYY(1-36) and PYY(3-36) on appetite, EI, EE, insulin, glucose...... and free fatty acids (FFA) concentrations, 12 lean and 12 obese males participated in a blinded, randomized, crossover study with 90-min infusions of saline, 0.8 pmol x kg(-1) x min(-1) PYY(1-36) and PYY(3-36). Only four participants completed PYY(3-36) infusions because of nausea. Subsequently, six lean...... and eight obese participants completed 0.2 pmol x kg(-1) x min(-1) PYY(3-36) and 1.6 pmol x kg(-1) x min(-1) PYY(1-36) infusions. PYY(3-36) [corrected] produced [corrected] lower ratings of well-being and [corrected] increases in heart rate, [corrected] FFA, and [corrected] postprandial [corrected] insulin...

  1. Use of a urinary sugars biomarker to assess measurement error in self-reported sugars intake in the nutrition and physical activity assessment study (NPAAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasevska, Natasha; Midthune, Douglas; Tinker, Lesley F; Potischman, Nancy; Lampe, Johanna W; Neuhouser, Marian L; Beasley, Jeannette M; Van Horn, Linda; Prentice, Ross L; Kipnis, Victor

    2014-12-01

    Measurement error in self-reported sugars intake may be obscuring the association between sugars and cancer risk in nutritional epidemiologic studies. We used 24-hour urinary sucrose and fructose as a predictive biomarker for total sugars, to assess measurement error in self-reported sugars intake. The Nutrition and Physical Activity Assessment Study (NPAAS) is a biomarker study within the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study that includes 450 postmenopausal women ages 60 to 91 years. Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ), four-day food records (4DFR), and three 24-hour dietary recalls (24HRs) were collected along with sugars and energy dietary biomarkers. Using the biomarker, we found self-reported sugars to be substantially and roughly equally misreported across the FFQ, 4DFR, and 24HR. All instruments were associated with considerable intake- and person-specific bias. Three 24HRs would provide the least attenuated risk estimate for sugars (attenuation factor, AF = 0.57), followed by FFQ (AF = 0.48) and 4DFR (AF = 0.32), in studies of energy-adjusted sugars and disease risk. In calibration models, self-reports explained little variation in true intake (5%-6% for absolute sugars and 7%-18% for sugars density). Adding participants' characteristics somewhat improved the percentage variation explained (16%-18% for absolute sugars and 29%-40% for sugars density). None of the self-report instruments provided a good estimate of sugars intake, although overall 24HRs seemed to perform the best. Assuming the calibrated sugars biomarker is unbiased, this analysis suggests that measuring the biomarker in a subsample of the study population for calibration purposes may be necessary for obtaining unbiased risk estimates in cancer association studies. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Self-reported whole-grain intake and plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations in combination in relation to the incidence of colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Markus Dines; Kyrø, Cecilie; Olsen, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Self-reported food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) have occasionally been used to investigate the association between whole-grain intake and the incidence of colorectal cancer, but the results from those studies have been inconsistent. We investigated this association using intakes of whole grains......-grain consumption (HELGA, 1992-1998). Incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations alone and Howe's score with ranks were inversely associated with the incidence of distal colon cancer when the highest quartile...... was compared with the lowest (for alkylresorcinol concentrations, incidence rate ratio = 0.34, 95% confidence interval: 0.13, 0.92; for Howe's score with ranks, incidence rate ratio = 0.35, 95% confidence interval: 0.15, 0.86). No association was observed between whole-grain intake and any colorectal cancer...

  3. Smart phones are useful for food intake and physical activity surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlers, Erica M; Sirard, John R; Barden, Charles M; Moon, Jon K

    2009-01-01

    Current self-report methods of recording food intake and Physical Activity (PA) are cumbersome and inaccurate. Food and activity surveys implemented on a smart phone will allow for immediate entry, data transfer to a researcher, and feedback to the user. Ten subjects followed a script, representative of one day, to enter food intake and PA on a smart phone. In the follow-up report, all subjects were interested in using the tested program to compare food intake with PA to predict weight gain and loss.

  4. Intake of n-3 fatty acids from fish does not lower serum concentrations of C-reactive protein in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelen, Anouk; Brouwer, I. A.; Schouten, E. G.; Kluft, C.; Katan, M. B.; Zock, Peter L

    2004-01-01

    Objective: High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of systemic inflammation, is a powerful predictor of cardiovascular risk. We hypothesised that n-3 fatty acids reduce underlying inflammatory processes and consequently CRP concentrations in healthy middle-aged subjects. Design:

  5. Severe gynecomastia due to anti androgens intake: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chentli Farida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gynecomastia is the most bothersome side effect in men taking antiandrogens. It is exceptionally severe and distressing physically and mentally as in the reported case. A man, aged 63, with a history of a well-treated macroprolactinoma, was referred in 2004 for gynecomastia that appeared after treatment by microsurgery, radiotherapy and flutamide for a lesion suspected to be prostate cancer. Clinical examination was normal except for huge enlargement of the breasts. Mammography and breasts MRI did not show any tumor. There was not any metastasis of the supposed prostate cancer and prostatic acid phosphates were within normal ranges. Hormonal exploration showed subclinical hypogonadism [testosterone: 7.4 ng/ml (n: 3-9, FSH: 14.9 mu/ml (n: 0.7-11 and LH: 9.7 mu/ml (n: 0.8-7.6]. Testes ultrasounds were normal. Radiological and hormonal adrenal explorations were normal [Cortisol: 76 ng/ml (n: 50-250, DHEA-S: 59 μg/ml (n: 50-560, E2:40.2 pg/ml (n < 50]. Body scan was normal too. The discussed etiologies were post radiation subclinical hypogonadism, and treatment with anti androgens. After flutamide withdraw, there was not any sign of prostate cancer recurrence, and gynecomastia decreased significantly, but did not disappear probably because of fibrosis.

  6. Reported Energy Intake Accuracy Compared to Doubly Labeled Water and Usability of the Mobile Food Record among Community Dwelling Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol J. Boushey

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The mobile Food Record (mFR is an image-based dietary assessment method for mobile devices. The study primary aim was to test the accuracy of the mFR by comparing reported energy intake (rEI to total energy expenditure (TEE using the doubly labeled water (DLW method. Usability of the mFR was assessed by questionnaires before and after the study. Participants were 45 community dwelling men and women, 21–65 years. They were provided pack-out meals and snacks and encouraged to supplement with usual foods and beverages not provided. After being dosed with DLW, participants were instructed to record all eating occasions over a 7.5 days period using the mFR. Three trained analysts estimated rEI from the images sent to a secure server. rEI and TEE correlated significantly (Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.58, p < 0.0001. The mean percentage of underreporting below the lower 95% confidence interval of the ratio of rEI to TEE was 12% for men (standard deviation (SD ± 11% and 10% for women (SD ± 10%. The results demonstrate the accuracy of the mFR is comparable to traditional dietary records and other image-based methods. No systematic biases could be found. The mFR was received well by the participants and usability was rated as easy.

  7. Cannabis use and anticipatory pleasure as reported by subjects with early psychosis and community controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Clifford M; Lepage, Martin; Harvey, Philippe-Olivier; Malla, Ashok

    2012-05-01

    There is evidence of decreased pleasure and deficits in the anticipation of reward in both psychotic illness and drug addiction. Individuals with low anticipatory pleasure may preferentially engage in behaviours associated with immediate reward such as cannabis use. Ninety-one psychosis patients and 91 controls without history of psychosis were administered the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS), a self report which measures anticipatory and consummatory pleasure. Cannabis use diagnosis was assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV (SCID). Subjects reported the frequency of cannabis consumption and time since last use. Patients did not show a significant deficit in anticipatory or consummatory pleasure compared to controls; however, patients with an active cannabis-use disorder tended to have lower consummatory pleasure than controls with active cannabis disorder (ppleasure compared to those who had a lifetime cannabis diagnosis but were able to maintain abstinence (F(1,60)=5.6, p=.021). Frequency of cannabis use was negatively correlated to anticipatory and consummatory pleasure (Pearson R=-.46, -.48 respectively) in 37 patients currently using cannabis but not in 46 cannabis-using controls (partial R=-.04, -.07 respectively). Anticipatory pleasure may not be decreased in early psychosis patients. Lower hedonic response may be associated with persistent, heavy cannabis use in patients in the early phase of psychotic disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Reported Dietary Intake, Disparity between the Reported Consumption and the Level Needed for Adequacy and Food Sources of Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Vitamin D in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olza, Josune; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Gil, Ángel

    2017-01-01

    Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and vitamin D have important biological roles in the body, especially in bone metabolism. We aimed to study the reported intake, the disparity between the reported consumption and the level needed for adequacy and food sources of these four nutrients in the Spanish population. We assessed the reported intake for both, general population and plausible reporters. Results were extracted from the ANIBES survey, n = 2009. Three-day dietary reported intake data were obtained and misreporting was assessed according to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Mean ± SEM (range) total reported consumption of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and vitamin D for the whole population were 698 ± 7 mg/day (71–2551 mg/day), 1176 ± 8 mg/day, (331–4429 mg/day), 222 ± 2 mg/day (73–782 mg/day), and 4.4 ± 0.1 µg/day (0.0–74.2 µg/day), respectively. In the whole group, 76% and 66%; 79% and 72%; and 94% and 93% of the population had reported intakes below 80% of the national and European recommended daily intakes for calcium, magnesium and vitamin D, respectively; these percentages were over 40% when the plausible reporters were analysed separately. The main food sources were milk and dairy products for calcium and phosphorus, cereals and grains for magnesium and fish for vitamin D. In conclusion, there is an important percentage of the Spanish ANIBES population not meeting the recommended intakes for calcium, magnesium and vitamin D. PMID:28230782

  9. Reported Dietary Intake, Disparity between the Reported Consumption and the Level Needed for Adequacy and Food Sources of Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Vitamin D in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olza, Josune; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Gil, Ángel

    2017-02-21

    Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and vitamin D have important biological roles in the body, especially in bone metabolism. We aimed to study the reported intake, the disparity between the reported consumption and the level needed for adequacy and food sources of these four nutrients in the Spanish population. We assessed the reported intake for both, general population and plausible reporters. Results were extracted from the ANIBES survey, n = 2009. Three-day dietary reported intake data were obtained and misreporting was assessed according to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Mean ± SEM (range) total reported consumption of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and vitamin D for the whole population were 698 ± 7 mg/day (71-2551 mg/day), 1176 ± 8 mg/day, (331-4429 mg/day), 222 ± 2 mg/day (73-782 mg/day), and 4.4 ± 0.1 µg/day (0.0-74.2 µg/day), respectively. In the whole group, 76% and 66%; 79% and 72%; and 94% and 93% of the population had reported intakes below 80% of the national and European recommended daily intakes for calcium, magnesium and vitamin D, respectively; these percentages were over 40% when the plausible reporters were analysed separately. The main food sources were milk and dairy products for calcium and phosphorus, cereals and grains for magnesium and fish for vitamin D. In conclusion, there is an important percentage of the Spanish ANIBES population not meeting the recommended intakes for calcium, magnesium and vitamin D.

  10. Self-reported whole-grain intake and plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations in combination in relation to the incidence of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Markus Dines; Kyrø, Cecilie; Olsen, Anja; Dragsted, Lars O; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv; Aman, Per; Nilsson, Lena M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Tjønneland, Anne; Landberg, Rikard

    2014-05-15

    Self-reported food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) have occasionally been used to investigate the association between whole-grain intake and the incidence of colorectal cancer, but the results from those studies have been inconsistent. We investigated this association using intakes of whole grains and whole-grain products measured via FFQs and plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations, a biomarker of whole-grain wheat and rye intake, both separately and in combination (Howe's score with ranks). We conducted a nested case-control study in a cohort from a research project on Nordic health and whole-grain consumption (HELGA, 1992-1998). Incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations alone and Howe's score with ranks were inversely associated with the incidence of distal colon cancer when the highest quartile was compared with the lowest (for alkylresorcinol concentrations, incidence rate ratio = 0.34, 95% confidence interval: 0.13, 0.92; for Howe's score with ranks, incidence rate ratio = 0.35, 95% confidence interval: 0.15, 0.86). No association was observed between whole-grain intake and any colorectal cancer (colon, proximal, distal or rectum cancer) when using an FFQ as the measure/exposure variable for whole-grain intake. The results suggest that assessing whole-grain intake using a combination of FFQs and biomarkers slightly increases the precision in estimating the risk of colon or rectal cancer by reducing the impact of misclassification, thereby increasing the statistical power of the study.

  11. Effects of Perceived Sugar on Chocolate Intake on Self-Reported Food Cravings, Mood States, and Food Intake: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, Lara J.

    1999-01-01

    Many dieters and compulsive overeaters report that sugar and chocolate are the most commonly craved foods. Further, many individuals have proclaimed themselves to be "addicted" to sugar or chocolate. It remains unclear, however, what factors lead to report of specific food addictions. A number of researchers have suggested that highly repetitive consumption of sugar and chocolate may result from various physiological processes (e.g., neurochemical imbalances, glucose/insulin malfunctioning). ...

  12. Subjective Social Status and Self-Reported Health Among US-born and Immigrant Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Jeremiah R; Glenn, Beth A; Mistry, Rashmita S; Ponce, Ninez A; Zimmerman, Frederick J

    2017-02-01

    Subjective social status is associated with a range of health outcomes. Few studies have tested the relevance of subjective social status among Latinos in the U.S.; those that have yielded mixed results. Data come from the Latino subsample of the 2003 National Latino and Asian American Study (N = 2554). Regression models adjusted for socioeconomic and demographic factors. Stratified analyses tested whether nativity status modifies the effect of subjective social status on health. Subjective social status was associated with better health. Income and education mattered more for health than subjective social status among U.S.-born Latinos. However, the picture was mixed among immigrant Latinos, with subjective social status more strongly predictive than income but less so than education. Subjective social status may tap into stressful immigrant experiences that affect one's perceived self-worth and capture psychosocial consequences and social disadvantage left out by conventional socioeconomic measures.

  13. Comparison of 5% versus 15% sucrose intakes as part of a eucaloric diet in overweight and obese subjects: effects on insulin sensitivity, glucose metabolism, vascular compliance, body composition and lipid profile. A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Anthony S; McCourt, Hannah J; Ennis, Cieran N; Bell, Patrick M; Courtney, C Hamish; McKinley, Michelle C; Young, Ian S; Hunter, Steven J

    2013-05-01

    The effect of dietary sucrose on insulin resistance and the pathogenesis of diabetes and vascular disease is unclear. We assessed the effect of 5% versus 15% sucrose intakes as part of a weight maintaining, eucaloric diet in overweight/obese subjects. Thirteen subjects took part in a randomised controlled crossover study (M:F 9:4, median age 46 years, range 37-56 years, BMI 31.7±0.9 kg/m(2)). Subjects completed two 6 week dietary periods separated by 4 week washout. Diets were designed to have identical macronutrient profile. Insulin action was assessed using a two-step hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp; glucose tolerance, vascular compliance, body composition and lipid profiles were also assessed. There was no change in weight or body composition between diets. There was no difference in peripheral glucose utilization or suppression of endogenous glucose production. Fasting glucose was significantly lower after the 5% diet. There was no demonstrated effect on lipid profiles, blood pressure or vascular compliance. A low-sucrose diet had no beneficial effect on insulin resistance as measured by the euglycaemic glucose clamp. However, reductions in fasting glucose, one hour insulin and insulin area under the curve with the low sucrose diet on glucose tolerance testing may indicate a beneficial effect and further work is required to determine if this is the case. Clinical Trial Registration number ISRCTN50808730. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Daily intake of conjugated linoleic acid-enriched yoghurts: effects on energy metabolism and adipose tissue gene expression in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazare, Julie-Anne; de la Perrière, Aude Brac; Bonnet, Fabrice; Desage, Michel; Peyrat, Jocelyne; Maitrepierre, Christine; Louche-Pelissier, Corinne; Bruzeau, Joëlle; Goudable, Joëlle; Lassel, Taous; Vidal, Hubert; Laville, Martine

    2007-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a group of positional and geometric isomers of conjugated dienoic derivatives of linoleic acid. The present study was designed to determine whether 14-week CLA supplementation as triacylglycerols (3.76 g) with a 50 : 50 combination of the two main isomers (35 % cis-9, trans-11 and 35 % trans-10, cis-12) added to flavoured yoghurt-like products was able to alter body composition in healthy subjects and to alter the expression of several key adipose tissue genes (PPAR gamma, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2)). Forty-four healthy subjects were randomly assigned to consume daily either a CLA-supplemented yoghurt-like product or a placebo yoghurt for 98 d. There were no significant effects of CLA supplementation on body weight, fat mass or free fat mass. Basal energy expenditure expressed as kg free fat mass increased significantly in the CLA group (123.3 (SEM 2.5) kJ/kg free fat mass per d on day 98 v. 118.7 (SEM 2.3) kJ/kg free fat mass per d on day 0, P = 0.03). PPAR gamma mRNA gene expression increased significantly with CLA supplementation (53 (SEM 20) %, P supplementation diet with a 50 : 50 mixture of the two CLA isomers cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 in a dairy product was unable to alter body composition, although a significant increase in the RMR has been induced. Moreover, changes in mRNA PPAR gamma and HSL in adipose tissue were recorded.

  15. Targeted metabolomics reveals differences in the extended postprandial plasma metabolome of healthy subjects after intake of whole-grain rye porridges versus refined wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lin; Brunius, Carl; Lindelöf, Magnus; Shameh, Souad Abou; Wu, Huaxing; Lee, Isabella; Landberg, Rikard; Moazzami, Ali A

    2017-07-01

    We previously found that whole-grain (WG) rye porridges suppressed appetite and improved glucose metabolism. This study aimed to investigate potential plasma metabolites that may be related to differences in those appetite and glucose responses. Twenty-one health subjects consumed six isocaloric breakfasts in a randomized cross-over study. Plain WG rye porridges (40 and 55 g), rye porridge enriched with different inulin: gluten proportions (9:3 g; 6:6 g; 3:9 g), and a 55 g refined wheat bread (control) were served as part of complete breakfast, followed by a standardized lunch. NMR metabolomics assessed 36 plasma metabolites and short chain fatty acids were measured by GC-MS from baseline up to 8 h. Pre-lunch plasma essential amino acids reflected protein composition and post-lunch plasma short chain fatty acids varied with fiber content in breakfasts. No correlations were observed between measured metabolites and glucose, insulin, or appetite responses. Differences in protein and fiber contents in breakfasts altered postprandial plasma amino acids and short chain fatty acids, respectively, but were unrelated to appetite and glucose responses. Further studies are warrant to identify the underlying mechanisms for the beneficial effects on appetite and second meal glucose responses after rye-based foods. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. One Session of Autogenic Training Increases Acute Subjective Sexual Arousal in Premenopausal Women Reporting Sexual Arousal Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Amelia M; Hixon, J Gregory; Nichols, Lindsey M; Meston, Cindy M

    2018-01-01

    Below average heart rate variability (HRV) has been associated with sexual arousal dysfunction and overall sexual dysfunction in women. Autogenic training, a psychophysiologic relaxation technique, has been shown to increase HRV. In a recent study, sexually healthy women experienced acute increases in physiologic (ie, genital) and subjective sexual arousal after 1 brief session of autogenic training. To build on these findings by testing the effects of a single session of autogenic training on sexual arousal in a sample of women who reported decreased or absent sexual arousal for at least 6 months. Genital sexual arousal, subjective sexual arousal, and perceived genital sensations were assessed in 25 women 20 to 44 years old before and after listening to a 22-minute autogenic training recording. HRV was assessed with electrocardiography. Change in genital sexual arousal, subjective sexual arousal, and perceived genital sensations from the pre-manipulation erotic film to the post-manipulation erotic film. Marginally significant increases in discrete subjective sexual arousal (P = .051) and significant increases in perceived genital sensations (P = .018) were observed. In addition, degree of change in HRV significantly moderated increases in subjective arousal measured continuously over time (P women who are reporting a lack of subjective arousal or decreased genital sensations. There are few treatment options for women with arousal problems. We report on a new psychosocial intervention that could improve arousal. Limitations include a relatively small sample and the lack of a control group. Our findings indicate that autogenic training significantly improves acute subjective arousal and increases perceived genital sensations in premenopausal women with self-reported arousal concerns. Stanton AM, Hixon JG, Nichols LM, Meston CM. One Session of Autogenic Training Increases Acute Subjective Sexual Arousal in Premenopausal Women Reporting Sexual Arousal Problems. J

  17. Energy intake, diet composition, energy expenditure, and body fatness of adolescents in northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassapidou, Maria; Fotiadou, Elena; Maglara, Evangelia; Papadopoulou, Sousana K

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine energy intake, energy expenditure, diet composition, and obesity of adolescents in Northern Greece. Anthropometric measurements were taken for all participants. Height, weight, and skinfold thickness at two sites were measured. BMI and percentage body fat were calculated. Energy intake and macronutrient and micronutrient intakes were determined by a 3-day weighed dietary diary. Energy expenditure was calculated based on calculated resting metabolic rate (RMR) (1) multiplied by an activity factor based on reported physical activity. Thirty-one percent of boys and 21% of girls had BMI corresponding to >/=25 kg/m(2) at 18 years and were classified as overweight. Both overweight boys and girls reported a lower energy intake compared with their non-overweight counterparts when expressed as kilocalories per kilogram body weight. Overweight children had a higher negative energy balance. Both overweight and non-overweight adolescents had higher than recommended fat intakes. Mean daily carbohydrate, protein, and fat intake, expressed as grams per kilogram body weight, of overweight adolescents were significantly lower compared with the non-overweight adolescents. Total daily carbohydrate intake, when expressed in grams, was found to be higher for non-overweight adolescents. Both overweight boys and girls had lower iron intakes than their non-overweight counterparts. Overweight boys had statistically lower fiber and niacin intakes than non-overweight boys. Both overweight and non-overweight adolescents had lower than recommended iron intakes. Furthermore, overweight adolescents consumed more snacks (potato chips, chocolate bars, pizza, cheese pie, and cream pie), more sugar, jam, and honey, and fewer legumes, vegetables, and fruits than their non-overweight counterparts. Reported energy intake of overweight adolescents was lower than their non-overweight counterparts. Regarding diet composition overweight subjects had significantly

  18. 37 CFR 401.8 - Reporting on utilization of subject inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subject inventions. 401.8 Section 401.8 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR TECHNOLOGY POLICY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RIGHTS TO INVENTIONS MADE BY NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS AND SMALL... utilization of subject inventions. (a) Paragraph (h) of the clauses at § 401.14 and its counterpart in the...

  19. First Lapses to Smoking: Within-Subjects Analysis of Real-Time Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Studies of smoking relapse and temptation have relied on retrospective recall and confounded between- and within-subject variability. Real-time data on temptations and lapses to smoke were gathered using palm-top computers in 108 ex-smokers. Made within-subject comparisons of initial lapse, a temptation episode, and base rate data obtained through…

  20. The effect of under-reporting of energy intake on dietary patterns and on the associations between dietary patterns and self-reported chronic disease in women aged 50–69 years

    OpenAIRE

    Markussen, Marianne S.; Veierød, Marit B.; Ursin, Giske; Andersen, Lene F.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether under-reporting of energy intake affects derived dietary patterns and the association between dietary patterns and self-reported chronic disease. Diets of 6204 women aged 50–69 years participating in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program were assessed using a 253-item FFQ. We identified dietary patterns using principal component analysis. According to the revised Goldberg cut-off method, women with a ratio of reported en...

  1. Effects of low-fat dairy intake on blood pressure, endothelial function, and lipoprotein lipids in subjects with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki KC

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Kevin C Maki,1 Tia M Rains,1 Arianne L Schild,1 Mary R Dicklin,1 Keigan M Park,2 Andrea L Lawless,1 Kathleen M Kelley1 1Biofortis Clinical Research, Addison, IL, USA; 2Dairy Research Institute/National Dairy Council, Rosemont, IL, USA Objective: This randomized crossover trial assessed the effects of 5 weeks of consuming low-fat dairy (one serving/day each of 1% fluid milk, low-fat cheese, and low-fat yogurt versus nondairy products (one serving/day each of apple juice, pretzels, and cereal bar on systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP and DBP, vascular function (reactive hyperemia index [RHI] and augmentation index, and plasma lipids. Methods: Patients were 62 men and women (mean age 54.5 years, body mass index 29.2 kg/m2 with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension (mean resting SBP/DBP 129.8 mmHg/80.8 mmHg while not receiving antihypertensive medications. A standard breakfast meal challenge including two servings of study products was administered at the end of each treatment period. Results: Dairy and nondairy treatments did not produce significantly different mean SBP or DBP in the resting postprandial state or from premeal to 3.5 hours postmeal (SBP, 126.3 mmHg versus 124.9 mmHg; DBP, 76.5 mmHg versus 75.7 mmHg, premeal (2.35 versus 2.20 or 2 hours postmeal (2.33 versus 2.30 RHI, and premeal (22.5 versus 23.8 or 2 hours postmeal (12.4 versus 13.2 augmentation index. Among subjects with endothelial dysfunction (RHI ≤ 1.67; n = 14 during the control treatment, premeal RHI was significantly higher in the dairy versus nondairy condition (2.32 versus 1.50, P = 0.002. Fasting lipoprotein lipid values were not significantly different between treatments overall, or in subgroup analyses. Conclusion: No significant effects of consuming low-fat dairy products, compared with low-fat nondairy products, were observed for blood pressures, measures of vascular function, or lipid variables in the overall sample, but results from subgroup analyses

  2. Effects of low-fat dairy intake on blood pressure, endothelial function, and lipoprotein lipids in subjects with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Rains, Tia M; Schild, Arianne L; Dicklin, Mary R; Park, Keigan M; Lawless, Andrea L; Kelley, Kathleen M

    2013-01-01

    Objective This randomized crossover trial assessed the effects of 5 weeks of consuming low-fat dairy (one serving/day each of 1% fluid milk, low-fat cheese, and low-fat yogurt) versus nondairy products (one serving/day each of apple juice, pretzels, and cereal bar) on systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP and DBP), vascular function (reactive hyperemia index [RHI] and augmentation index), and plasma lipids. Methods Patients were 62 men and women (mean age 54.5 years, body mass index 29.2 kg/m2) with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension (mean resting SBP/DBP 129.8 mmHg/80.8 mmHg) while not receiving antihypertensive medications. A standard breakfast meal challenge including two servings of study products was administered at the end of each treatment period. Results Dairy and nondairy treatments did not produce significantly different mean SBP or DBP in the resting postprandial state or from premeal to 3.5 hours postmeal (SBP, 126.3 mmHg versus 124.9 mmHg; DBP, 76.5 mmHg versus 75.7 mmHg), premeal (2.35 versus 2.20) or 2 hours postmeal (2.33 versus 2.30) RHI, and premeal (22.5 versus 23.8) or 2 hours postmeal (12.4 versus 13.2) augmentation index. Among subjects with endothelial dysfunction (RHI ≤ 1.67; n = 14) during the control treatment, premeal RHI was significantly higher in the dairy versus nondairy condition (2.32 versus 1.50, P = 0.002). Fasting lipoprotein lipid values were not significantly different between treatments overall, or in subgroup analyses. Conclusion No significant effects of consuming low-fat dairy products, compared with low-fat nondairy products, were observed for blood pressures, measures of vascular function, or lipid variables in the overall sample, but results from subgroup analyses were consistent with the hypothesis that dairy foods might improve RHI in those with endothelial dysfunction. PMID:23901280

  3. Shortening the retention interval of 24-hour dietary recalls increases fourth-grade children’s accuracy for reporting energy and macronutrient intake at school meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Caroline H.; Royer, Julie A.; Hardin, James W.; Mackelprang, Alyssa J.; Smith, Albert F.

    2010-01-01

    Background Accurate information about children’s intake is crucial for national nutrition policy and for research and clinical activities. To analyze accuracy for reporting energy and nutrients, most validation studies utilize the conventional approach which was not designed to capture errors of reported foods and amounts. The reporting-error-sensitive approach captures errors of reported foods and amounts. Objective To extend results to energy and macronutrients for a validation study concerning retention interval (elapsed time between to-be-reported meals and the interview) and accuracy for reporting school-meal intake, the conventional and reporting-error-sensitive approaches were compared. Design and participants/setting Fourth-grade children (n=374) were observed eating two school meals, and interviewed to obtain a 24-hour recall using one of six interview conditions from crossing two target periods (prior-24-hours; previous-day) with three interview times (morning; afternoon; evening). Data were collected in one district during three school years (2004–2005; 2005–2006; 2006–2007). Main outcome measures Report rates (reported/observed), correspondence rates (correctly reported/observed), and inflation ratios (intruded/observed) were calculated for energy and macronutrients. Statistical analyses performed For each outcome measure, mixed-model analysis of variance was conducted with target period, interview time, their interaction, and sex in the model; results were adjusted for school year and interviewer. Results Conventional approach — Report rates for energy and macronutrients did not differ by target period, interview time, their interaction, or sex. Reporting-error-sensitive approach — Correspondence rates for energy and macronutrients differed by target period (four P-valuesinterview-time interaction (four P-valuesinterview-time interaction (both P-valuesreference information from a method that provides details about foods and amounts consumed

  4. Subject-level differences in reported locations of cutaneous tactile and nociceptive stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, P.; Buitenweg, Jan R.; Trojan, J.; Klaassen, Bart; Veltink, Petrus H.

    2012-01-01

    Recent theoretical advances on the topic of body representations have raised the question whether spatial perception of touch and nociception involve the same representations. Various authors have established that subjective localizations of touch and nociception are displaced in a systematic

  5. Subject-level differences in reported locations of cutaneous tactile and nociceptive stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eSteenbergen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent theoretical advances on the topic of body representations have raised the question whether spatial perception of touch and nociception involve the same representations. Various authors have established that subjective localizations of touch and nociception are displaced in a systematic manner. The relation between veridical stimulus locations and localizations can be described in the form of a perceptual map; these maps differ between subjects. Recently, evidence was found for a common set of body representations to underlie spatial perception of touch and slow and fast pain, which receive information from modality specific primary representations. There are neurophysiological clues that the various cutaneous senses may not share the same primary representation. If this is the case, then differences in primary representations between touch and nociception may cause subject-dependent differences in perceptual maps of these modalities. We studied localization of tactile and nociceptive sensations on the forearm using electrocutaneous stimulation. The perceptual maps of these modalities differed at the group level. When assessed for individual subjects, the differences localization varied in nature between subjects. The agreement of perceptual maps of the two modalities was moderate. These findings are consistent with a common internal body representation underlying spatial perception of touch and nociception. The subject level differences suggest that in addition to these representations other aspects, possibly differences in primary representation and/or the influence of stimulus parameters, lead to differences in perceptual maps in individuals.

  6. Self-reported and behavioral sound avoidance in tinnitus and hyperacusis subjects, and association with anxiety ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaesing, Lena; Kroener-Herwig, Birgit

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyse the role of sound avoidance and anxiety in tinnitus subjects with hyperacusis, defined as hypersensitivity to low to moderate intensity sounds. A group of tinnitus subjects with hyperacusis was compared to tinnitus subjects without hyperacusis, and healthy controls. For assessing noise avoidance, a questionnaire was developed (noise avoidance questionnaire, NAQ) and the duration of self-exposure to a pure tone was assessed as a behavioral index. Different self-rating instruments concerning tinnitus (STI, TF-12), hyperacusis (GÜF), and anxiety (BAI, STAI-T) were used, as well as a psychoacoustic indicator of hyperacusis (ULL). Fifty-six tinnitus subjects with/without hyperacusis and 30 controls without tinnitus and hyperacusis participated in the experiment. The findings indicate that subjects with hyperacusis reported significantly more noise-related avoidance in daily life and show significantly shorter exposure to a pure tone than non-hyperacusic subjects, while discomfort was at the same level for each individual. Self-reported avoidance behavior correlated significantly with distress attributed to hyperacusis (r =0.81), and with anxiety ratings. These results suggest that hyperacusis is associated with noise-related avoidance behavior and anxiety. Systematic exposure to sound could play a significant role in the treatment of hyperacusis.

  7. Fluids Intake and Beverage Consumption Pattern among University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Ghaemmaghami

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insufficient and inappropriate daily fluid intake in a long period may have adverseeffect on human's health. Therefore, the present study evaluated the amounts and sources of fluidsconsumed by university students to determine whether these amounts and sources of fluid wereenough and appropriate.Methods: In this descriptive study, 245 (142 females and 103 males volunteer students of TabrizUniversity of Medical Sciences in 2009 were recruited. Food and fluid intake of subjects were assessedby 24-hour recall method of 3 days (two week days and one week- end included. Dietaryintake of subjects was analyzed by Nutritionist III software program. The mean total fluid intake(drinking fluid values merged with data on the water content of foods and the rate of metabolicwater were figured out. Comparisons of the results with recommended dietary values were madeusing student's t-test.. Data of dietary intakes for two under-reporter female subjects were notincluded in the statistical analysis.Results: Daily total mean of fluid intake for girls (1598±40ml and boys (1861±59ml reflect thesum of beverages (Girls, 818±29ml; boys, 1147±57ml and food water (Girls, 780±47ml; boys,714±86m. The most consumed beverage for girls and boys were water (40% and tea (49%respectively. Daily mean intake of milk for girls and boys were 106.31±10ml (13% and57.30±11ml (5%, respectively.Conclusion: The mean daily fluid intake of subjects, specially water, and milk was lower than recommendedvalues. Therefore, there is an urgent need for tailored nutrition intervention targetingthe young adults to improve their beverage choices.

  8. Monitoring the athlete training response: subjective self-reported measures trump commonly used objective measures: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Anna E; Main, Luana C; Gastin, Paul B

    2016-03-01

    Monitoring athlete well-being is essential to guide training and to detect any progression towards negative health outcomes and associated poor performance. Objective (performance, physiological, biochemical) and subjective measures are all options for athlete monitoring. We systematically reviewed objective and subjective measures of athlete well-being. Objective measures, including those taken at rest (eg, blood markers, heart rate) and during exercise (eg, oxygen consumption, heart rate response), were compared against subjective measures (eg, mood, perceived stress). All measures were also evaluated for their response to acute and chronic training load. The databases Academic search complete, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus and PubMed were searched in May 2014. Fifty-six original studies reported concurrent subjective and objective measures of athlete well-being. The quality and strength of findings of each study were evaluated to determine overall levels of evidence. Subjective and objective measures of athlete well-being generally did not correlate. Subjective measures reflected acute and chronic training loads with superior sensitivity and consistency than objective measures. Subjective well-being was typically impaired with an acute increase in training load, and also with chronic training, while an acute decrease in training load improved subjective well-being. This review provides further support for practitioners to use subjective measures to monitor changes in athlete well-being in response to training. Subjective measures may stand alone, or be incorporated into a mixed methods approach to athlete monitoring, as is current practice in many sport settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Self-report and subjective history in the diagnosis of painful neck conditions: A systematic review of diagnostic accuracy studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizer, Adam; Bachmann, Alexa; Gibson, Jessie; Donaldson, Megan Burrowbridge

    2017-10-01

    Rising healthcare costs and inherent risks with over-utilizing diagnostic imaging require a quality subjective examination to improve effectiveness and time management of physical examinations. This systematic review investigates the diagnostic accuracy of subjective history and self-report items to determine if there is significant alteration in the probability of identifying specific painful neck conditions. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed. 1) Written in the English language 2) Cervical pain with/without referred upper extremity or head pain 3) Subjective history or self-report items 4) Study designs that reported diagnostic statistics or allowed calculation of sensitivities, specificities, diagnostic odds ratios, and likelihood ratios 5) used a reference standard that has a sensitivity or specificity ≥75% or a diagnostic tool that is strongly supported in the literature where this data is not available. Quality Assessment of Studies of Diagnostic Accuracy II was performed to evaluate risk of bias. Five studies with 830 total patients met the inclusion criteria. Conditions commonly reported in the literature included: cervical radiculopathy, cervical myelopathy, degenerative joint disease, and cervicogenic headache. Individual history questions show minimal diagnostic value in identifying cervical conditions without the physical examination. The value of the subjective history report is important and requires further investigation for specific neck conditions. Clustering symptoms may provide more insight than individual history items in future studies. The diagnostic value of history for neck conditions may be underrepresented due to the lack of studies that isolate subjective examination from the physical examination. 3a. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Consolidated Quarterly Report: Number of potential release sites subject to corrective action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John R.; Cochran, John R.

    2017-04-01

    This Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico Environmental Restoration Operations (ER) Consolidated Quarterly Report (ER Quarterly Report) fulfills all quarterly reporting requirements set forth in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Operating Permit and the Compliance Order on Consent. The 12 sites in the corrective action process are listed in Table I-1.

  11. Reported jealousy differs as a function of menstrual cycle stage and contraceptive pill use : a within-subjects investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobey, Kelly D.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Roberts, S. Craig; Klipping, Christine; Appels, Nicole; Zimmerman, Yvette; Bennink, Herjan J. T. Coelingh; Pollet, Thomas V.

    Previous research suggests that female jealousy is sensitive to hormonal variation and, more specifically, potentially moderated by estrogen levels. Here, we tracked self-reported jealousy using a within-subjects design, comparing jealousy when the same women were regularly cycling and using

  12. Relations between muscle endurance and subjectively reported fatigue, walking capacity, and participation in mildly affected adolescents with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eken, Maaike M.; Houdijk, Han; Doorenbosch, Caroline A. M.; Kiezebrink, Francisca E. M.; van Bennekom, Coen A. M.; Harlaar, Jaap; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relation between muscle endurance and subjectively reported fatigue, walking capacity, and participation in mildly affected adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) and peers with typical development. In this case-control study, knee extensor muscle endurance was estimated from

  13. Electronic monitoring of self-reported mood: the return of the subjective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Abigail; Grof, Paul

    2016-12-01

    This narrative review describes recent developments in the use of technology for utilizing the self-monitoring of mood, provides some relevant background, and suggests some promising directions. Subjective experience of mood is one of the valuable sources of information about the state of an integrated mind/brain system. During the past century, psychiatry and psychology moved away from subjectivity, emphasizing external observation, precise measurement, and laboratory techniques. This shift, however, provided only a limited improvement in the understanding of mood disorders, and it appears that self-monitoring of mood has the potential to enrich our knowledge, particularly when combined with the advances in technology. Modern technology, with its ability to transfer information from the individual directly to the researcher via electronic applications, enables us now to study mood regulation more thoroughly. Frequent subjective ratings can be helpful in identifying individualized treatment with effective mood stabilizers and recognizing subtypes of mood disorders. The variability of subjective ratings may also help us estimate the increased risk of recurrence and guide a tailored treatment.

  14. The SAT® and SAT Subject Tests™: Discrepant Scores and Incremental Validity. Research Report 2012-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobrin, Jennifer L.; Patterson, Brian F.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines student performance on the SAT and SAT Subject Tests in order to identify groups of students who score differently on these two tests, and to determine whether certain demographic groups score higher on one test compared to the other. Discrepancy scores were created to capture individuals' performance differences on the…

  15. Sodium intake and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-03-13

    Sodium is an essential nutrient. Increasing sodium intake is associated with increasing blood pressure, whereas low sodium intake results in increased renin and aldosterone levels. Randomized controlled trials have reported reductions in blood pressure with reductions in sodium intake, to levels of sodium intake 6-month duration). It is assumed that the blood pressure-lowering effects of reducing sodium intake to low levels will result in large reductions in cardiovascular disease globally. However, current evidence from prospective cohort studies suggests a J-shaped association between sodium intake and cardiovascular events, based on studies from >300 000 people, and suggests that the lowest risk of cardiovascular events and death occurs in populations consuming an average sodium intake range (3-5 g/d). The increased risk of cardiovascular events associated with higher sodium intake (>5 g/d) is most prominent in those with hypertension. A major deficit in the field is the absence of large randomized controlled trials to provide definitive evidence on optimal sodium intake for preventing cardiovascular events. Pending such trials, current evidence would suggest a recommendation for moderate sodium intake in the general population (3-5 g/d), with targeting the lower end of the moderate range among those with hypertension. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Long-term use of minimal footwear on pain, self-reported function, analgesic intake, and joint loading in elderly women with knee osteoarthritis: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombini-Souza, Francis; Matias, Alessandra B; Yokota, Mariane; Butugan, Marco K; Goldenstein-Schainberg, Claudia; Fuller, Ricardo; Sacco, Isabel C N

    2015-12-01

    Efforts have been made to retard the progressive debilitating pain and joint dysfunction in patients with knee osteoarthritis. We aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of a low-cost minimalist footwear on pain, function, clinical and gait-biomechanical aspects of elderly women with knee osteoarthritis. Throughout a randomized, parallel and controlled clinical trial, fifty-six patients with medial knee osteoarthritis were randomly allocated to an intervention (n=28) or control group (n=28), and assessed at baseline and after three and six months. The intervention involved wearing Moleca(®) footwear for at least 6h/day, 7 days/week, over 6 months. The pain subscale of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index was the primary outcome. The secondary outcomes were the other subscales, Lequesne score, distance walked in 6 min, knee oedema and effusion, knee adduction moment and paracetamol intake. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed using two-way casewise ANOVA (knee adduction moment impulse (p=.017) during gait wearing Moleca(®). The analgesic intake was lower in the intervention group. The long-term use of Moleca(®) footwear relieves pain, improves self-reported function, reduces the knee loading while wearing Moleca(®), refrains the increase of analgesic intake in elderly women with knee osteoarthritis and can be considered as a conservative mechanical treatment option. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01342458). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of under-reporting of energy intake on dietary patterns and on the associations between dietary patterns and self-reported chronic disease in women aged 50-69 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markussen, Marianne S; Veierød, Marit B; Ursin, Giske; Andersen, Lene F

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether under-reporting of energy intake affects derived dietary patterns and the association between dietary patterns and self-reported chronic disease. Diets of 6204 women aged 50-69 years participating in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program were assessed using a 253-item FFQ. We identified dietary patterns using principal component analysis. According to the revised Goldberg cut-off method, women with a ratio of reported energy intake:estimated BMRdietary patterns and self-reported chronic diseases by log-binomial regression, and the results are presented as prevalence ratios (PR) and CI. 'Prudent', 'Western' and 'Continental' dietary patterns were identified among all reporters and plausible reporters. The PR expressing the associations between the 'Western' and 'Prudent' dietary pattern scores and self-reported chronic diseases were consistently highest among plausible reporters except for joint/muscle/skeletal disorders. The largest difference in PR among plausible v. all reporters was found for the association between the 'Prudent' pattern and diabetes (PR for highest v. lowest tertile: PRall reporters 2·16; 95 % CI 1·50, 3·13; P trenddietary pattern and disease. In studies of dietary patterns, investigators ought to consider reporting effect estimates both for all individuals and for plausible reporters.

  18. Are Dietary Intakes Related to Obesity in Children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Papandreou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The purpose of this study was to report obesity status and identify any dietary substances that may be related to obesity in healthy school children from Northern Greece. METHODS: Four hundred and twenty-five (n = 425 children were randomly selected to participate in the study. A 24-h recall of three days (two weekdays and one weekend day was used to analyze the dietary data of the subjects. RESULTS: Out of 425 subjects, 146 (34.3% of them were found to be overweight and obese. Energy, protein, carbohydrate and thiamin intake was statistically positively correlated with obesity while dietary iron intake was statistically negatively correlated with obesity. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the children with dietary iron deficiency were 1.128 (95% CI: 0.002, 0.161 P < 0.031 times more likely of being obese compared to the normal group after adjustment for energy intake. CONCLUSIONS: Although most of the dietary intakes of our subjects were adequate, special consideration should be given to energy, carbohydrate, protein, and sugar and iron intake especially and its relation to obesity. Furthermore, additional studies are required to investigate any possible relation of low dietary iron consumption and obesity.

  19. Relations between muscle endurance and subjectively reported fatigue, walking capacity, and participation in mildly affected adolescents with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eken, Maaike M; Houdijk, Han; Doorenbosch, Caroline A M; Kiezebrink, Francisca E M; van Bennekom, Coen A M; Harlaar, Jaap; Dallmeijer, Annet J

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the relation between muscle endurance and subjectively reported fatigue, walking capacity, and participation in mildly affected adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) and peers with typical development. In this case-control study, knee extensor muscle endurance was estimated from individual load-endurance curves as the load corresponding to a 15-repetition maximum in 17 adolescents with spastic CP (six males, 11 females; age 12-19y) and 18 adolescents with typical development (eight males, 10 females; age 13-19y). Questionnaires were used to assess subjectively reported fatigue (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Multidimensional Fatigue Scale) and participation (Life-Habits questionnaire). Walking capacity was assessed using the 6-minute walk test. Relations were determined using multiple regression analyses. Muscle endurance related significantly to subjectively reported fatigue and walking capacity in adolescents with CP, while no relations were found for adolescents with typical development (subjectively reported fatigue: regression coefficient β [95% confidence intervals] for CP=23.72 [6.26 to 41.18], for controls=2.72 [-10.26 to 15.69]; walking capacity β for CP=125m [-87 to 337], for controls=2m [-86 to 89]). The 15-repetition maximum did not relate to participation in adolescents with CP. Subjectively reported fatigue and reduced walking capacity in adolescents with CP are partly caused by lower muscle endurance of knee extensors. Training of muscle endurance might contribute to reducing the experience of fatigue and improving walking capacity. Reduced muscle endurance seems to have no effect on participation. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  20. Objective support for subjective reports of successful inner speech in two people with aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, William; Snider, Sarah F; Luta, George; Friedman, Rhonda B; Turkeltaub, Peter E

    2016-01-01

    People with aphasia frequently report being able to say a word correctly in their heads, even if they are unable to say that word aloud. It is difficult to know what is meant by these reports of "successful inner speech". We probe the experience of successful inner speech in two people with aphasia. We show that these reports are associated with correct overt speech and phonologically related nonword errors, that they relate to word characteristics associated with ease of lexical access but not ease of production, and that they predict whether or not individual words are relearned during anomia treatment. These findings suggest that reports of successful inner speech are meaningful and may be useful to study self-monitoring in aphasia, to better understand anomia, and to predict treatment outcomes. Ultimately, the study of inner speech in people with aphasia could provide critical insights that inform our understanding of normal language.

  1. Ramjet Intakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Propulsion a vitesse elevee : Conception du moteur - integration et gestion thermique) 14. ABSTRACT Intake design for supersonic engines, in common...exhaust velocity to free stream velocity, with exhaust velocity calculated by assuming the captured air is expanded isentropicaly back to ambient ...2.1 [23] with the actual value probably determined by engine mass flow demand and therefore dependent on ambient temperature. The lowest

  2. Effect of the cumin cyminum L. Intake on Weight Loss, Metabolic Profiles and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Overweight Subjects: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Memarzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Asemi, Zatollah; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The current study was performed to determine the effects of cumin cyminum L. intake on weight loss and metabolic profiles among overweight subjects. This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted among 78 overweight subjects (male, n = 18; female, n = 60) aged 18-60 years old. Participants were randomly assigned into three groups to receive: (1) cumin cyminum L. capsule (n = 26); (2) orlistat120 capsule (n = 26) and (3) placebo (n = 26) three times a day for 8 weeks. Anthropometric measures and fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and after 8 weeks of intervention. Consumption of the Cuminum cyminum L. and orlistat120 resulted in a similar significant decrease in weight (-1.1 ± 1.2 and -0.9 ± 1.5 vs. 0.2 ± 1.5 kg, respectively, p = 0.002) and BMI (-0.4 ± 0.5 and -0.4 ± 0.6 vs. 0.1 ± 0.6 kg/m(2), respectively, p = 0.003) compared with placebo. In addition, taking Cuminum cyminum L., compared with orlistat and placebo, led to a significant reduction in serum insulin levels (-1.4 ± 4.5 vs. 1.3 ± 3.3 and 0.3 ± 2.2 µIU/ml, respectively, p = 0.02), HOMA-B (-5.4 ± 18.9 vs. 5.8 ± 13.3 and 1.0 ± 11.0, respectively, p = 0.02) and a significant rise in QUICKI (0.01 ± 0.01 vs. -0.005 ± 0.01 and -0.004 ± 0.01, respectively, p = 0.02). Taking cumin cyminum L. for eight weeks among overweight subjects had the same effects of orlistat120 on weight and BMI and beneficial effects on insulin metabolism compared with orlistat120 and placebo. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice (KAP) of Dairy Products in Chinese Urban Population and the Effects on Dairy Intake Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ai; Szeto, Ignatius Man-Yau; Wang, Yan; Li, Ce; Pan, Min; Li, Ting; Wang, Peiyu; Zhang, Yumei

    2017-01-01

    Insufficient intake of dairy products is a nutritional problem of concern in China. However, the knowledge, attitude, and practice of consuming dairy products in the Chinese population remain unknown. A total of 1739 subjects from eight cities in China participated in this study. A questionnaire was used to measure knowledge of and attitude toward dairy. A semi-food intake frequency questionnaire was used to obtain the frequencies and amount of different kinds of dairy product intake. Calcium and protein intake were investigated within one 24-hour period of dietary recall. The results showed that questions related to lactose intolerance had the highest unknown rate and the lowest accuracy. Males, subjects with a lower education level, lower monthly family income (dairy products (dairy. While 15.2 percent of subjects reported experiencing lactose intolerance symptoms, 29.5 percent did not know the reasons. In practice, the median (25th, 75th) intake of dairy products was 71.4 (0.0, 200.0) g/day. A significantly lower intake of dairy and low-fat or fat-free dairy products was shown in subjects with poor dairy knowledge. For the perception of lactose intolerance, the lowest intake was shown in the “unsure” group. In conclusion, knowledge gaps and self-perception bias regarding dairy products exist in Chinese urban adults and these are associated with the quantity and quality of dairy intake.

  4. Interaction of Vitamin E Intake and Pro12Ala Polymorphism of PPARG with Adiponectin Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Perez, Wendy; Torres-Castillo, Nathaly; Perez-Robles, Mariana; Muñoz-Valle, Jose Francisco; Vizmanos-Lamotte, Barbara; Martinez-Lopez, Erika

    2018-02-02

    One of the beneficial effects associated with vitamin E intake is the enhancement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) activity and the consequent upregulation of adiponectin expression. The aim of this study was to analyze the adiponectin levels in subjects with the Pro12Ala polymorphism of PPARG according to vitamin E intake. A total of 283 subjects were enrolled. Total vitamin E intake was estimated based on a validated 3-day food consumption record and analyzed using Nutritionist ProTM software. The Pro12Ala polymorphism (rs1801282) was determined by allelic discrimination. The adiponectin levels were measured by an ELISA assay. Vitamin E intake was deficient in all subjects (1.50 ± 1.78 mg/day). Subjects with higher vitamin E intake levels and the Pro12Ala/Ala12Ala genotype had statistically significant higher levels of serum adiponectin than subjects with the Pro12Pro genotype (4.4 [3.2-5.7] vs. 2.7 [2.0-3.5] μg/mL; p = 0.024). Our results suggest that increased consumption of vitamin E should be encouraged since it has been reported that vitamin E promotes adiponectin expression via PPARγ activation. Subjects with Pro12Pro genotype had lower serum adiponectin levels than subjects with Pro12Ala/Ala12Ala genotype; therefore, they might be at higher risk of developing metabolic complications. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Food and nutrient intake in relation to mental wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albanes Demetrius

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We studied food consumption and nutrient intake in subjects with depressed mood, anxiety and insomnia as indices of compromised mental wellbeing. Methods The study population consisted of 29,133 male smokers aged 50 to 69 years who entered the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study in 1985–1988. This was a placebo-controlled trial to test whether supplementation with alpha-tocopherol or beta-carotene prevents lung cancer. At baseline 27,111 men completed a diet history questionnaire from which food and alcohol consumption and nutrient intake were calculated. The questionnaire on background and medical history included three symptoms on mental wellbeing, anxiety, depression and insomnia experienced in the past four months. Results Energy intake was higher in men who reported anxiety or depressed mood, and those reporting any such symptoms consumed more alcohol. Subjects reporting anxiety or depressed mood had higher intake of omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids. Conclusions Our findings conflict with the previous reports of beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids on mood.

  6. Vocal efficiency measurements in subjects with vocal polyps and nodules: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jack; Stern, Jennifer; Chen, Hui-Jun; Solomon, Nancy Pearl

    2004-04-01

    Vocal efficiency is a quantitative measure of the ability of the larynx to convert subglottal power to acoustic power. On the basis of the scant previous literature and clinical intuition, we tested the hypothesis that vocal efficiency, as an indicator of the functional status of the larynx, is abnormally reduced in persons with vocal nodules and polyps. Because the most difficult aspect of obtaining measures of vocal efficiency has been the determination of subglottal pressure, we applied a noninvasive airflow interruption technique for this purpose. Subjects with normal voices (n = 22), vocal polyps (n = 14), and vocal nodules (n = 16) phonated at different intensities into a mask connected by way of piping to a flow meter, a pressure transducer, and an acoustic microphone. Inflation of a balloon-type valve located within the piping provided interruption of phonation. The intraoral pressure plateau occurring during flow interruption was used to estimate subglottal pressure. Subglottal power and acoustic power were determined, and their quotient provided a measure of vocal efficiency. The vocal efficiency in the normal subjects averaged 1.15 x 10(-5) at 70 dB, 3.17 x 10(-5) at 75 dB, 7.52 x 10(-5) at 80 dB, and 1.41 x 10(-4) at 85 dB. The vocal efficiency in the patients with vocal polyps averaged 3.62 x 10(-6) at 70 dB, 8.34 x 10(-6) at 75 dB, 2.10 x 10(-5) at 80 dB, and 4.26 x 10(-5) at 85 dB. The vocal efficiency in the patients with vocal nodules averaged 4.32 x 10(-6) at 70 dB, 1.57 x 10(-5) at 75 dB, 4.26 x 10(-5) at 80 dB, and 8.34 x 10(-5) at 85 dB. As compared to the normal subjects, the patients with laryngeal polyps or vocal nodules had significantly reduced vocal efficiency. These results provide quantitative verification of the clinical impression of inefficient phonation in patients with mass lesions of the vocal folds.

  7. Brief Report: Subjective Social Mobility and Depressive Symptoms in Syrian Refugees to Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euteneuer, Frank; Schäfer, Sarina J

    2018-01-16

    Previous findings indicate that refugees are at increased risk for mental health problems. In addition to stressful pre-migration experiences, post-migration factors may contribute to poor mental health outcomes. Among immigrants to the United States, downward mobility in subjective social status (SSS) was associated with depression, corroborating the potentially detrimental mental health consequences of a decline in one's perceived social position. The present study examined whether downward mobility in SSS among male refugees from Syria to Germany is associated with depression. We found that refugees who experience stronger downward mobility in SSS exhibit more severe depressive symptoms and were more likely to fulfill provisional DSM-IV criteria for a diagnosis of Major Depression. Our findings highlight the importance to consider the 'social pain' of downward social mobility during the post-migration phase.

  8. Nasal hyperresponders and atopic subjects report different symptom intensity to air quality: a climate chamber study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodin, Lennart; Andersson, K.; Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort

    2009-01-01

    -atopic with nasal histamine hyperreactivity, 13 were non-atopic, and 12 were atopic. Subjective ratings of symptoms and general health were registered four times during four 6-h exposure sessions. Six symptom intensity indices were constructed. The nasal hyperreactive group had a high and time-dependent increase...... and Neurological Effects these were dependent on group affiliation, thus preventing a uniform statement of exposure effects for all three investigated groups. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Opportunities for identifying persons with high or low sensitivity to low-level exposures are important in preventive medicine...... of mucous membrane irritations, whereas the atopic group had a low and stable rate of irritations with exposure time, close to the reference group (P = 0.02 for differences between the groups with respect to time under exposure for Weak Inflammatory Responses and P = 0.05 for Irritative Body Perception...

  9. Carbon monoxide exposure of subjects with documented cardiac arrhythmias. Research report, August 1987-July 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaitman, B.R.; Dahms, T.E.; Byers, S.; Carroll, L.W.; Younis, L.T.

    1992-09-01

    The authors studied 30 subjects with well-documented coronary artery disease who had an average of at least 30 ventricular ectopic beats per hour over a 20-hour monitoring interval. Subjects were selected and enrolled in a randomized double-blind study; the carbon monoxide exposure was designed to result in 3% or 5% carboxyhemoglobin levels, as measured by gas chromatography. Total and repetitive ventricular arrhythmias were measured for four specific time intervals: (1) two hours before carbon monoxide exposure; (2) during the two-hour carbon monoxide exposure; (3) six hours after carbon monoxide exposure; and (4) approximately 10 hours after exposure, or the remaining recording interval on the Holter monitor. There was no increase in ventricular arrhythmia frequency after carbon monoxide exposure, regardless of the level of carboxyhemoglobin or the type of activity. During steady-state conditions at rest, the number of ventricular ectopic beats per hour was 115 + or - 153 (SD) for room air exposure (0.7% carboxyhemoglobin), 121 + or - 171 for the lower carbon monoxide exposure (3.2% carboxyhemoglobin), and 94 + or - 129 for the higher carbon monoxide exposure (5.1% carboxyhemoglobin). The frequency of complex ventricular ectopy was not altered at the levels of carbon monoxide studied. Secondary analysis of the impact of carbon monoxide on ventricular ectopic beat frequency stratified by baseline ejection fraction, baseline ventricular ectopic beat frequency, and exercise-induced ST-segment changes did not indicate an effect of carbon monoxide on ventricular arrhythmias. However, patients with symptomatic ventricular arrhythmias and symptomatic myocardial ischemia were excluded from the present study.

  10. The Apathy Evaluation Scale: A Comparison of Subject, Informant, and Clinician Report in Cognitively Normal Elderly and Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guercio, Brendan J; Donovan, Nancy J; Munro, Catherine E; Aghjayan, Sarah L; Wigman, Sarah E; Locascio, Joseph J; Amariglio, Rebecca E; Rentz, Dorene M; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A; Marshall, Gad A

    2015-01-01

    Apathy is a common neuropsychiatric symptom in Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Detecting apathy accurately may facilitate earlier diagnosis of AD. The Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) is a promising tool for measurement of apathy in prodromal and possibly preclinical AD. To compare the three AES sub-scales - subject-reported (AES-S), informant-reported (AES-I), and clinician-reported (AES-C) - over time in individuals at risk for AD due to MCI and advanced age (cognitively normal [CN] elderly). Mixed effects longitudinal models were used to assess predictors of score for each AES sub-scale. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess which AES sub-scales predict progression from MCI to AD dementia. Fifty-seven MCI and 18 CN subjects (ages 53-86) were followed for 1.4 ± 1.2 years and 0.7 ± 0.7 years, respectively. Across the three mixed effects longitudinal models, the common findings were associations between greater apathy and greater years in study, a baseline diagnosis of MCI (compared to CN), and male gender. CN elderly self-reported greater apathy compared to that reported by informants and clinicians, while individuals with MCI under-reported their apathy compared to informants and clinicians. Of the three sub-scales, the AES-C best predicted transition from MCI to AD dementia. In a sample of CN elderly and elderly with MCI, apathy increased over time, particularly in men and those with MCI. AES-S scores may be more sensitive than AES-I and AES-C scores in CN elderly, but less reliable if subjects have MCI. Moreover, the AES-C sub-scale predicted progression from MCI to AD dementia.

  11. Assisting Scientific and Technical Research Through Subject Oriented Bibliographies of NTIS Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzwalder, Robert N., Jr.

    A program combining cost-free searching of the National Technical Information Service (NTIS) database and document delivery to faculty members was offered at the Kansas State University Libraries. NTIS report usage was monitored from May 1987, five months prior to the onset of the study, until May 1988, at which time the program was terminated.…

  12. 7 CFR 4290.680 - Reporting changes in RBIC not subject to prior approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS...) Changes to be reported for post-approval. This section applies to any changes in your Articles, ownership, capitalization, management, operating area, or investment policies that do not require the Secretary's prior...

  13. Subjective reports versus objective measurement of sleep latency and sleep duration in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Danielle L; Fung, Alison; Walker, Susan P; Barnes, Maree

    2013-01-01

    This study compared self-reported sleep latency (SL) and total sleep time (TST) to objective measures on polysomnography (PSG) during pregnancy. Thirty-three women in the third trimester (T3) of pregnancy, 16 women in the first trimester (T1) of pregnancy, and 15 non-pregnant women underwent overnight PSG, and shortly after awakening reported their perceived SL and TST. Results showed that, on average, the T3 group slightly overestimated their TSTs, whereas the T1 and non-pregnant groups underestimated TSTs when compared with objective measurement. All groups overestimated SL, and perceived SL was closest to the first epoch of 10 min of uninterrupted sleep or the first epoch of slow-wave sleep, rather than the first epoch of sleep (the current definition used for diagnostic sleep studies). The wide variation in discrepancies between estimation and PSG measurement for both TST and SL shows that self-reports made by both pregnant and non-pregnant women tend to be unreliable, which has important implications both clinically and for the many studies based on self-reported sleep patterns in pregnancy.

  14. The 10-year Course of Physically Self-destructive Acts Reported by Borderline Patients and Axis II Comparison Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanarini, Mary C.; Frankenburg, Frances R.; Reich, D. Bradford; Fitzmaurice, Garrett; Weinberg, Igor; Gunderson, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this paper was to determine the frequency and methods of two forms of physically self-destructive acts (i.e., self-mutilation and suicide attempts) reported by borderline patients and axis II comparison subjects over ten years of prospective follow-up. Methods 290 borderline patients and 72 axis II comparison subjects were interviewed about their physically self-destructive acts during their index admission and at five contiguous two-year follow-up periods. Results It was found that a high percentage of borderline patients reported multiple acts and methods of each of these two forms of physically self-destructive behavior prior to their index admission. It was also found that the percentage of borderline patients reporting multiple acts and methods declined significantly over time. However, these acts remained significantly more common among borderline patients than axis II comparison subjects. Conclusions The course of self-mutilation and suicide attempts among borderline patients is initially more serious and ultimately more benign than previously recognized. PMID:18241308

  15. Preregistration student nurses' self-reported preparedness for practice before and after the introduction of a capstone subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Kim; Mills, Jane; West, Caryn; Park, Tanya; Woods, Cindy

    2015-11-01

    To assess changes in perceptions of confidence and preparedness for practice of preregistration nursing students before and after the introduction of a capstone subject, and factors associated with perceptions of preparedness. Preregistration nursing student 'readiness' or 'preparedness' for practice has been highlighted in the literature in recent years, along with employer concerns that university graduate nurses are not work ready. Few studies have examined Australian preregistration nursing students' perceptions of preparedness for clinical practice following their final clinical placement or assessed whether preregistration student nurses' perceptions of preparedness change as the result of undertaking a capstone subject. A capstone subject was introduced at a regional northern Australian university in 2013. Perceptions of preparedness were assessed in two different cohorts of final year nursing students; one of which undertook a capstone subject. Two separate cohorts of third year nursing students were surveyed regarding their perceptions of preparedness for practice at the conclusion of their final 240 hour clinical placement. The 2012 cohort did not experience a capstone subject, whereas the 2013 cohort were the first nursing students to experience the new capstone subject. Both cohorts were uncomfortable performing invasive procedures and reported low levels of confidence in the area of professional identity. An overall trend of decreasing confidence as patient assignment size increased was observed for both cohorts, and higher confidence was associated with previous health care experience. Perceptions of preparedness for practice did not increase significantly following the introduction of a capstone subject. Although Australian undergraduate nursing student report feeling prepared for practice there are areas of knowledge, skills and patient care in which confidence is low. The results of this study highlight the importance of experience in building

  16. The Frequency of Reporting Ethical Issues in Human Subject Articles Published in Iranian Medical Journals: 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astaneh, Behrooz; Khani, Parisa

    2017-11-10

    Researchers should strictly consider the participants' rights. They are required to document such protections as an ethical approval of the study proposal, the obtaining "informed consent", the authors' "conflict of interests", and the source of "financial support" in the published articles. The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency of reporting ethical issues in human subject articles published in Iranian medical journals during 2009-2013. In this cross-sectional study, we randomly reviewed 1460 human subject articles published in Iranian medical journals during 2009-2013 in two Persian and English language groups. Data collection was carried out by assessing articles, focusing on the documentation "ethics committee approval", patients' "informed consent", "financial support", "confidentiality", and "conflict of interest". Of 1460 evaluated articles, 443 (30.3%) reported "ethics committee approval", 686 (47.0%) reported "informed consent", 594 (40.7%) reported "financial support", and 341 (23.4%) reported "conflict of interest". 13% of the articles referred to patients' confidentiality in their text. There was a significant association between these ethical documentations and the year of publication. Articles published in English language journals reported "ethics committee approval", "financial support", and "conflict of interest" significantly more than Persian language journals, but the frequency of "informed consent" was similar. Ethical documentation rate in Iranian medical journals is not up to the expected standards of reputable journals which might be related to a lack of awareness and the education of the authors and the journal's editors. Precise reporting of ethical considerations in medical articles by authors are recommended. It is suggested journals and policymakers pay more attention to reporting this issue while providing standard guidelines in this regard.

  17. Dietary antioxidant vitamins intake and mortality: A report from two cohort studies of Chinese adults in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Long-Gang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Li, Hong-Lan; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Jing; Sun, Jiang-Wei; Zheng, Wei; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2017-03-01

    Few studies have evaluated dietary antioxidant vitamins intake in relation to risk of mortality in Asia. We examined the associations between total carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E from diet and risk of mortality from all causes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease in 134,358 participants (59,739 men and 74,619 women) from the Shanghai Men's Health Study and Shanghai Women's Health Study, two prospective cohort studies of middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults in urban Shanghai. Participants were followed up for a median period of 8.3 and 14.2 years for men and women, respectively. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. During the 495,332 and 1,029,198 person-years of follow-up for men and women, respectively, there were 10,079 deaths (4170 men and 5909 women). For men, compared with the lowest quintiles, the multivariable-adjusted risk reductions in the highest categories were 17% (HR 0.83; 95% CI, 0.76-0.92) for dietary total carotene and 17% (HR 0.83; 95% CI, 0.75-0.91) for dietary vitamin C. Associations were weaker in women than in men, though they were still statistically significant (highest versus lowest quintiles of dietary total carotene, HR 0.87; 95% CI, 0.80-0.95; dietary vitamin C: HR 0.83; 95% CI, 0.77-0.91). Significant inverse associations were observed between dietary total carotene, vitamin C, and risk of cardiovascular disease mortality but not cancer mortality. This study suggests that total carotene and vitamin C intake from diet were inversely associated with deaths from all causes and cardiovascular disease in middle-aged or elderly people in China. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. EEG gamma coherence and other correlates of subjective reports during ayahuasca experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, David E; Lawson, Robert; Luna, Luis Eduardo

    2005-06-01

    The current study examined QEEG power and coherence of ayahuasca experiences with two experienced participants in a Brazilian jungle setting. An exploratory case series design was adopted for naturalistic field research. EEGs recorded during visual imagery was compared to eyes-closed baselines. The most important findings were increases in global EEG coherence in the 36-44 Hz and 50-64 Hz frequency bands for both subjects. Widely distributed cortical hyper-coherence seems reasonable given the intense synesthesia during ayahuasca experiences. Other findings include increased modal EEG alpha frequency and global power decreases across the cortex in most frequency bands, which concur with the EEG of psychedelics literature. Exploratory analysis revealed the usefulness of analyzing single Hz bins over the standard wide-band analysis. The discovery-oriented naturalistic approach developed for this study resulted in potentially important findings. We believe that finding increases in global gamma coherence during peak psychedelic experiences might contribute to the discussion of binding theory. Also, in light of recent research with gamma coherence during advanced meditative conditions, our findings might further the comparison of shamanic psychedelic practices with meditation.

  19. Oral intake of a combination of glucosyl hesperidin and caffeine elicits an anti-obesity effect in healthy, moderately obese subjects: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Tatsuya; Muroyama, Koutarou; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Murosaki, Shinji

    2016-01-19

    We have previously shown that a combination of glucosyl hesperidin (G-hesperidin) plus caffeine reduces accumulation of body fat, whereas G-hesperidin or caffeine alone shows little effect on high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice. The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-obesity effect of G-hesperidin plus caffeine on body fat and serum TG in healthy subjects with moderately high body mass index (BMI) and serum TG. Since we considered that there are individual differences in caffeine sensitivity, we conducted dose-finding study of caffeine combined with G-hesperidin. Seventy-five healthy subjects with moderately high BMI (24-30 kg/m(2)) and serum TG (100-250 mg/dl) were divided and assigned to 12-week intervention with daily intakes of 500 mg of G-hesperidin with or without 25, 50, or 75 mg of caffeine, or placebo in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled design . After intervention, decreases in abdominal fat area (AFA), especially subcutaneous fat area (SFA), were significantly greater in the G-hesperidin with 50-mg caffeine group (AFA:-8.4 ± 21.9 v.s. 16.3 ± 34.1 cm(2); p hesperidin with 75-mg caffeine group (AFA:-17.0 ± 31.4 v.s. 16.3 ± 34.1 cm(2); p hesperidin were enhanced dose-dependently by caffeine addition. BMI decreases were significantly greater in the G-hesperidin with 75-mg caffeine group than in the placebo group (-0.56 ± 0.74 v.s. -0.02 ± 0.58 kg/m(2); p hesperidin with/without caffeine had no effect on serum TG (p > 0.05 v.s. placebo). These data suggested that a combination of 500-mg G-hesperidin with 50- or 75-mg caffeine may be useful for the prevention or treatment of obesity. UMIN Clinical Trials Registry 000019241 .

  20. Options for basing Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) on chronic disease endpoints: report from a joint US-/Canadian-sponsored working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetley, Elizabeth A; MacFarlane, Amanda J; Greene-Finestone, Linda S; Garza, Cutberto; Ard, Jamy D; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Bier, Dennis M; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Harlan, William R; Hattis, Dale; King, Janet C; Krewski, Daniel; O'Connor, Deborah L; Prentice, Ross L; Rodricks, Joseph V; Wells, George A

    2017-01-01

    Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are used in Canada and the United States in planning and assessing diets of apparently healthy individuals and population groups. The approaches used to establish DRIs on the basis of classical nutrient deficiencies and/or toxicities have worked well. However, it has proved to be more challenging to base DRI values on chronic disease endpoints; deviations from the traditional framework were often required, and in some cases, DRI values were not established for intakes that affected chronic disease outcomes despite evidence that supported a relation. The increasing proportions of elderly citizens, the growing prevalence of chronic diseases, and the persistently high prevalence of overweight and obesity, which predispose to chronic disease, highlight the importance of understanding the impact of nutrition on chronic disease prevention and control. A multidisciplinary working group sponsored by the Canadian and US government DRI steering committees met from November 2014 to April 2016 to identify options for addressing key scientific challenges encountered in the use of chronic disease endpoints to establish reference values. The working group focused on 3 key questions: 1) What are the important evidentiary challenges for selecting and using chronic disease endpoints in future DRI reviews, 2) what intake-response models can future DRI committees consider when using chronic disease endpoints, and 3) what are the arguments for and against continuing to include chronic disease endpoints in future DRI reviews? This report outlines the range of options identified by the working group for answering these key questions, as well as the strengths and weaknesses of each option. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Magnesium intake and its relevance with antioxidant capacity in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Yun-Jung; Choi, Mi-Kyeong

    2011-10-01

    Recently, a study reported that magnesium played a part in the attack of chronic diseases, such as arteriosclerosis, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and hypertension. However, there are not even enough studies to evaluate magnesium intakes. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the magnesium intakes of 500 healthy adults. In addition, by selecting 50 targets, we examined the correlation between magnesium intake and antioxidant capacity biomarkers. In the age group of 19-29, the daily magnesium intake was 276.3 mg for males and 232.1 mg for females. In the age group of 30-49, it was 305.1 mg and 246.5 mg, respectively. In the age group of 50-64, the magnesium intake was 294.4 mg for males and 245.7 mg for females. As for the age group of 19-29, the magnesium intake per 4,187 kJ of energy intake was 129.8 mg, which was significantly lower than the 164.6 mg by the age group of 30-49 and 172.4 mg by the age group of 50-64. The ratio of magnesium intake to the recommended intake was 82.1% for those in the age group of 19-29, 87.7% for those in 30-49, and 86.1% for those in 50-64. The rate of the subjects with magnesium intakes lower than the estimated average requirement was 55.3% in the age group of 19-29, 52.4% in 30-49, and 54.2% in 50-64. The magnesium intake from food groups were in the descending order of vegetables, cereals, and fish for the subjects in the age group of 19-29, and vegetables, cereals, and beverages for the subjects in the age groups of 30-49 and 50-64. The source food items of magnesium intake were in the descending order of Kimchi, tofu, rice, and coffee in the age group of 19-29, coffee, Kimchi, tofu, and rice in 30-49, and coffee, Kimchi, rice, and tofu in 50-64. From the 50 targets aged 19-29, significant correlation was not indicated among magnesium intake, serum magnesium, and antioxidant capacity biomarkers. In conclusion, the magnesium intake status of some Korean adults is unsatisfactory. And it is suggested that this low intake of

  2. The development of multiple drug use among anabolic-androgenic steroid users: six subjective case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyberg Fred

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inappropriate use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS was originally a problem among athletes but AAS are now often used in nonsport situations and by patients attending regular addiction clinics. The aim of this study was to improve understanding of the development of multiple drug use in patients seeking treatment at an addiction clinic for AAS-related problems. Methods We interviewed six patients (four men and two women with experience of AAS use who were attending an addiction clinic for what they believed were AAS-related problems. The patients were interviewed in-depth about their life stories, with special emphasis on social background, substance use, the development of total drug use and subjective experienced psychological and physical side effects. Results There was significant variation in the development of drug use in relation to social background, onset of drug use, relationship to AAS use and experience of AAS effects. All patients had initially experienced positive effects from AAS but, over time, the negative experiences had outweighed the positive effects. All patients were dedicated to excess training and took AAS in combination with gym training, indicating that the use of these drugs is closely related to this form of training. Use of multiple drugs was common either in parallel with AAS use or serially. Conclusion The study shows the importance of understanding how AAS use can develop either with or without the concomitant use of other drugs of abuse. The use of AAS can, however, progress to the use of other drugs. The study also indicates the importance of obtaining accurate, comprehensive information about the development of AAS use in designing treatment programmes and prevention strategies in this area.

  3. Reported habitual intake of breakfast and selected foods in relation to overweight status among seven- to nine-year-old Swedish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Bente B; Yngve, Agneta; Monteagudo, Celia; Tellström, Richard; Scander, Henrik; Werner, Bo

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the reported frequency of breakfast intake and selected food and beverages in the investigated group of Swedish children in comparison with recommended intakes. Furthermore, the study analyses these food habits and some demographic and lifestyle factors in relation to overweight and obesity. This cross-sectional study builds on data collected in 2008 and 2010. Measured anthropometric data and parent questionnaire data were collected. A total of 2620 Swedish children (52.1% boys) aged seven to nine years were included. The majority of parents reported that their children (95.4%) had breakfast every day. The majority of children had fresh fruit (84.7%) and vegetables (83.9%) most days a week. Only 1.6% of the children were reported to have fast food and 6.0% to have sugar containing soft drinks, four days a week or more. The prevalence of overweight including obesity (OW/OB) was 17.8% for boys, 18.6% for girls. The odds of being OW/OB was higher among those not having breakfast every day (odds ratio (OR) 1.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20-2.96), drinking diet soft drink (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.52-4.42) and skimmed/semi-skimmed milk (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.37-2.36) four days a week or more. Parents being overweight and having low education levels were also related to a higher risk of their children being overweight. The parental reports of children's food habits pointed at favourable eating patterns for most investigated children. Breakfast skipping, diet soft drinks and low-fat milk consumption were more frequent among OW/OB children. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the causal relationships.

  4. Association between Carbohydrate Intake and Serum Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yunsheng; Chiriboga, David E.; Olendzki, Barbara C.; Li, Wenjun; Leung, Katherine; Hafner, Andrea R.; Li, Youfu; Ockene, Ira S.; Hebert, James R.

    2006-01-01

    Background The effect of dietary carbohydrate on blood lipids has received considerable attention in light of the current trend in lowering carbohydrate intake for weight loss. Objectives To evaluate the association between carbohydrate intake and serum lipids. Methods Blood samples and 24-hour dietary and physical activity recall interviews were obtained from each subject at quarterly intervals for five consecutive quarters between 1994 and 1998 from 574 healthy adults in Central Massachusetts. Relationships between serum lipids and dietary carbohydrate factors were assessed using linear mixed models and adjusting for other risk factors known to be related to blood lipids. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal results were reported. Results Cross-sectional analysis results from this study suggest that higher total carbohydrate intake, percentage of calories from carbohydrate, glycemic index (GI) and/or glycemic load (GL) are related to lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and higher serum triacylglycerol levels, while higher total carbohydrate intake and/or GL are related to lower total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. In a one-year longitudinal analysis, GL was positively associated with total and LDL-C levels, and there was an inverse association between percentage of calories from carbohydrate and HDL-C levels. Conclusions Results suggest that there is a complex and predominantly unfavorable effect of increased intake of highly processed carbohydrate on lipid profile, which may have implications for metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and coronary heart disease. Further studies in the form of randomized controlled trials are required to investigate these associations and determine the implications for lipid management. PMID:16582033

  5. Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

  6. Possible applications of Neuromuscular Taping in pain reduction in Multiple Sclerosis subject: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmine Berlingieri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pain is a common disabling symptom in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS. It has been indicated that pain prevalence in MS patients is between 29–86 %. It is evident that most MS patients requiring treatment will be also searching pain related treatments to assist in day to day activities. Neuropathic pain is a difficult symptom and is generally inadequately relieved even though different rehabilitative approaches may be used. Neuromuscular Taping inducing micro-movements by stimulating receptors in the skin has been described in literature as a possible intervention in neurological and orthopedic rehabilitation improving mobility and in pain reduction. The aim of this preliminary report was to analyze the effect and to evaluate the possible applications of Neuromuscular Taping (NMT in patients with MS in order to reduce pain in comparison to the Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS and to physical rehabilitation treatment alone. We observed that NMT together with standard physical rehabilitation was able to reduce neuropathic pain to greater lengths, with statistically significant differences between pre and post treatment, compared to the other treatments evaluated. This study showed increased efficacy in pain reduction when NMT was applied to standard physical treatment in long standing pain conditions. Neuromuscular Taping may constitute a low cost treatment strategy for neuropathic pain conditions in MS.

  7. Ichthyoplankton entrainment study at the SRS Savannah River water intakes for Westinghouse Savannah River Company. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1992-03-26

    Cooling water for L and K Reactors and makeup water for Par Pond is pumped from the Savannah River at the 1G, 3G, and 5G pump houses. Ichthyoplankton (drifting fish larvae and eggs) from the river are entrained into the reactor cooling systems with the river water and passed through the reactor`s heat exchangers where temperatures may reach 70{degrees}C during full power operation. Ichthyoplankton mortality under such conditions is assumed to be 100 percent. The number of ichthyoplankton entrained into the cooling system depends on a variety of variables, including time of year, density and distribution of ichthyoplankton in the river, discharge levels in the river, and the volume of water withdrawn by the pumps. Entrainment at the 1 G pump house, which is immediately downstream from the confluence of Upper Three Runs Creek and the Savannah River, is also influenced by discharge rates and ichthyoplankton densities in Upper Three Runs Creek. Because of the anticipated restart of several SRS reactors and the growing concern surrounding striped bass and American shad stocks in the Savannah River, the Department of Energy requested that the Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Laboratory sample ichthyoplankton at the SRS Savannah River intakes. Dams & Moore, Inc., under a contract with Westinghouse Savannah River Company performed the sampling and data analysis for the ESS.

  8. [Can men be included in the population subjected to puerperal psychosis? A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombel, M; Rebillard, C; Nathou, C; Dollfus, S

    2016-08-01

    Puerperal psychosis (PP) is a psychiatric disorder that occurs in 1 out of 1000 pregnancies. Well known since antiquity, its symptoms have often been described in mothers, but few studies have successfully investigated a related disorder in fathers. The characteristic of this pathology is more related to its appearance than to its semiological description which is why its nosographic place is always discussed. The objective here is to focus on the definition of PP and to suggest an entity for both genders. Our case report focused on the clinical description of an eighteen-year-old man suffering from an acute psychosis episode that occurred around the birth of his first child. Delusion followed a sudden decline in mood that lasted for a short period of time during the course of the third trimester of his wife's pregnancy. The delirium was rich with auditory and cenesthesic hallucinations, pregnancy and birth denial, feeling movements and hearing voices in his stomach. The symptoms disappeared after one month of treatment via an antipsychotic drug, risperidone. We can confirm that the symptomatic description of the disorder in this patient fits the classical descriptions of PP. Two elements make the PP different from other acute psychoses: the context of pregnancy and delirium focused on the child which can lead to a child murder. The absence of a framework precisely defining the PP does not improve its prevention and can lead to legal attitudes rather than medical care. Men suffering from acute psychosis in a context of pregnancy are submitted to the same risks as women. It is necessary to emphasize descriptions of PP in men to redefine the disease and consider that this entity involves both men and women. Copyright © 2016 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Ethnicity, work-related stress and subjective reports of health by migrant workers: a multi-dimensional model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capasso, Roberto; Zurlo, Maria Clelia; Smith, Andrew P

    2018-02-01

    This study integrates different aspects of ethnicity and work-related stress dimensions (based on the Demands-Resources-Individual-Effects model, DRIVE [Mark, G. M., and A. P. Smith. 2008. "Stress Models: A Review and Suggested New Direction." In Occupational Health Psychology, edited by J. Houdmont and S. Leka, 111-144. Nottingham: Nottingham University Press]) and aims to test a multi-dimensional model that combines individual differences, ethnicity dimensions, work characteristics, and perceived job satisfaction/stress as independent variables in the prediction of subjectives reports of health by workers differing in ethnicity. A questionnaire consisting of the following sections was submitted to 900 workers in Southern Italy: for individual and cultural characteristics, coping strategies, personality behaviours, and acculturation strategies; for work characteristics, perceived job demands and job resources/rewards; for appraisals, perceived job stress/satisfaction and racial discrimination; for subjective reports of health, psychological disorders and general health. To test the reliability and construct validity of the extracted factors referred to all dimensions involved in the proposed model and logistic regression analyses to evaluate the main effects of the independent variables on the health outcomes were conducted. Principal component analysis (PCA) yielded seven factors for individual and cultural characteristics (emotional/relational coping, objective coping, Type A behaviour, negative affectivity, social inhibition, affirmation/maintenance culture, and search identity/adoption of the host culture); three factors for work characteristics (work demands, intrinsic/extrinsic rewards, and work resources); three factors for appraisals (perceived job satisfaction, perceived job stress, perceived racial discrimination) and three factors for subjective reports of health (interpersonal disorders, anxious-depressive disorders, and general health). Logistic

  10. Subjective Cognitive Decline in Older Adults: An Overview of Self-Report Measures Used Across 19 International Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Laura A.; Smart, Colette M.; Crane, Paul K.; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Berman, Lorin M.; Boada, Mercè; Buckley, Rachel F.; Chételat, Gaël; Dubois, Bruno; Ellis, Kathryn A.; Gifford, Katherine A.; Jefferson, Angela L.; Jessen, Frank; Katz, Mindy J.; Lipton, Richard B.; Luck, Tobias; Maruff, Paul; Mielke, Michelle M.; Molinuevo, José Luis; Naeem, Farnia; Perrotin, Audrey; Petersen, Ronald C.; Rami, Lorena; Reisberg, Barry; Rentz, Dorene M.; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.; Risacher, Shannon L.; Rodriguez, Octavio; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Slavin, Melissa J.; Snitz, Beth E.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Tandetnik, Caroline; van der Flier, Wiesje M.; Wagner, Michael; Wolfsgruber, Steffen; Sikkes, Sietske A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Research increasingly suggests that subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in older adults, in the absence of objective cognitive dysfunction or depression, may be a harbinger of non-normative cognitive decline and eventual progression to dementia. Little is known, however, about the key features of self-report measures currently used to assess SCD. The Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I) Working Group is an international consortium established to develop a conceptual framework and research criteria for SCD (Jessen et al., 2014, Alzheimers Dement 10, 844–852). In the current study we systematically compared cognitive self-report items used by 19 SCD-I Working Group studies, representing 8 countries and 5 languages. We identified 34 self-report measures comprising 640 cognitive self-report items. There was little overlap among measures—approximately 75% of measures were used by only one study. Wide variation existed in response options and item content. Items pertaining to the memory domain predominated, accounting for about 60% of items surveyed, followed by executive function and attention, with 16% and 11% of the items, respectively. Items relating to memory for the names of people and the placement of common objects were represented on the greatest percentage of measures (56% each). Working group members reported that instrument selection decisions were often based on practical considerations beyond the study of SCD specifically, such as availability and brevity of measures. Results document the heterogeneity of approaches across studies to the emerging construct of SCD. We offer preliminary recommendations for instrument selection and future research directions including identifying items and measure formats associated with important clinical outcomes. PMID:26402085

  11. Relationship of milk intake and physical activity to abdominal obesity among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, S; Santos, R; Moreira, C; Santos, P C; Vale, S; Soares-Miranda, L; Autran, R; Mota, J; Moreira, P

    2014-02-01

    What is already known about this subject Diet and physical activity (PA) are recognized as important factors to prevent abdominal obesity (AO). Studies have found an inverse relationship between milk intake or milk products and body weight and/or body fat in children and adolescents. Evidence suggests that low levels of PA are associated with AO in youth. What this study adds Our study explored the combined association of milk intake and PA on AO in adolescents, which are most often studied in isolation. Our findings suggested that adolescents with high milk intakes, regardless of whether they were active or low active, were less likely to have AO. Our findings could have a great epidemiological interest and bring important evidence in the field of AO management among adolescents. Diet and physical activity (PA) are recognized as important factors to prevent abdominal obesity (AO), which is strongly associated with chronic diseases. Some studies have reported an inverse association between milk consumption and AO. This study examined the association between milk intake, PA and AO in adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1209 adolescents, aged 15-18 from the Azorean Archipelago, Portugal in 2008. AO was defined by a waist circumference at or above the 90th percentile. Adolescent food intake was measured using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and milk intake was categorized as 'low milk intake' (high milk intake' (≥2 servings per day). PA was assessed via a self-report questionnaire, and participants were divided into active (>10 points) and low-active groups (≤10 points) on the basis of their reported PA. They were then divided into four smaller groups, according to milk intake and PA: (i) low milk intake/low active; (ii) low milk intake/active; (iii) high milk intake/low active and (iv) high milk intake/active. The association between milk intake, PA and AO was evaluated using logistic regression analysis, and the results were

  12. Energy and Nutrient Intakes: Findings from the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirnalini, K; Zalilah, M S; Safiah, M Y; Tahir, A; Siti Haslinda, M D; Siti Rohana, D; Khairul Zarina, M Y; Mohd Hasyami, S; Normah, H

    2008-03-01

    Nutrition surveys based on a representative sample of the Malaysian adult population have hitherto not been reported. In 2003, the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, conducted the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS), the first and largest nutrition survey in the country which aimed to provide detailed quantitative information on nutritional status, food and nutrient intakes, and physical activity pattern on a nationwide representative sample of adult subjects between the ages of 18 and 59 years. The survey covered four zones in Peninsular Malaysia (Central, Southern, Northern and East Coast), Sabah and Sarawak. This paper presents the mean and selected percentiles of energy and nutrient intake of 6886 subjects by selected demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Energy contributions by macronutrients and dietary adequacy in relation to the Recommended Nutrient Intake for Malaysians are also described. Information on dietary intake was collected by trained nutritionists using a one day 24-hour diet recall. Dietary data were analysed using Nutritionist Pro, a diet analysis software and statistical analysis was carried out using the SPSS ver. 13.0. In most of the demographic and socioeconomic groups, males had higher mean energy (1776 kcal) and nutrient intake and percent achievement of RNI than females (1447 kcal). The proportions of calories derived from macronutrients were within the recommendations for a healthy diet. Intake of micronutrients such as iron, calcium and vitamin A was about 50% of RNI particularly in women. Sodium intake of Malaysians, not reported in earlier studies, is also made available. Under-reporting using the EI/BMR ratio was found in half of the population studied. The present study provides the first national estimates of energy and nutrient intake of the Malaysian adult population. Regular nutrition surveys are needed at the national level to provide valuable information on trends in food and nutrient intake, particularly among age

  13. A Subject-Based Aspect Report on Provision in Scotland's Colleges by HM Inspectors on Behalf of the Scottish Funding Council: Hospitality and Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The HM Inspectorate of Education publication, "External quality arrangements for Scotland's colleges, September 2008," specifies that HMIE will produce a number of subject aspect reports over the four years 2008-12. These reports complement in a subject specific context the generic evaluations of learning and teaching in HMIE's reports…

  14. Renewables (Energy): A Subject-Based Aspect Report by Education Scotland on Provision in Scotland's Colleges on Behalf of the Scottish Funding Council. Transforming Lives through Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Scotland, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Education Scotland publication, "External Quality Arrangements for Scotland's Colleges, Updated August 2013," specifies that Education Scotland will produce a number of subject-based aspect reports each year. These reports complement, in a subject-specific context, the generic evaluations of learning and teaching in Education…

  15. Performing Arts: A Subject-Based Aspect Report on Provision in Scotland's Colleges by HM Inspectors on Behalf of the Scottish Funding Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Scotland, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education (HMIE) publication, "External quality arrangements for Scotland's colleges," September 2008, specifies that HM Inspectors (HMIs) will produce a number of subject aspect reports over the four years 2008-12. These reports complement in a subject-specific context the generic evaluations of…

  16. Sport and Leisure: A Subject-Based Aspect Report on Provision in Scotland's Colleges by HM Inspectors on Behalf of the Scottish Funding Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The HM Inspectorate of Education (HMIE) publication, "External Quality Arrangements for Scotland's Colleges, September, 2008" specified that HMIE will produce a number of subject aspect reports over the four years 2008-2012. These reports complement in a subject-specific context the generic evaluations of learning and teaching in HMIE's…

  17. 49 CFR Appendix A- to Part 544... - Appendix A- to Part 544 Insurers of Motor Vehicle Insurance Policies Subject to the Reporting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appendix A- to Part 544 Insurers of Motor Vehicle Insurance Policies Subject to the Reporting Requirements in Each State in Which They Do Business A Appendix A- to Part 544 Insurers of Motor Vehicle Insurance Policies Subject to the Reporting Requirements in...

  18. 49 CFR Appendix B- to Part 544... - Appendix B- to Part 544 Issuers of Motor Vehicle Insurance Policies Subject to the Reporting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appendix B- to Part 544 Issuers of Motor Vehicle Insurance Policies Subject to the Reporting Requirements Only in Designated States B Appendix B- to Part 544 Issuers of Motor Vehicle Insurance Policies Subject to the Reporting Requirements Only in Designated...

  19. Dietary Intake of Competitive Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spendlove, Jessica; Mitchell, Lachlan; Gifford, Janelle; Hackett, Daniel; Slater, Gary; Cobley, Stephen; O'Connor, Helen

    2015-07-01

    Competitive bodybuilders are well known for extreme physique traits and extremes in diet and training manipulation to optimize lean mass and achieve a low body fat. Although many of the dietary dogmas in bodybuilding lack scientific scrutiny, a number, including timing and dosing of high biological value proteins across the day, have more recently been confirmed as effective by empirical research studies. A more comprehensive understanding of the dietary intakes of bodybuilders has the potential to uncover other dietary approaches, deserving of scientific investigation, with application to the wider sporting, and potential health contexts, where manipulation of physique traits is desired. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of dietary intake practices of competitive bodybuilders, evaluate the quality and currency of the existing literature, and identify research gaps to inform future studies. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted from the earliest record until March 2014. The search combined permutations of the terms 'bodybuilding', 'dietary intake', and 'dietary supplement'. Included studies needed to report quantitative data (energy and macronutrients at a minimum) on habitual dietary intake of competitive bodybuilders. The 18 manuscripts meeting eligibility criteria reported on 385 participants (n = 62 women). Most studies were published in the 1980-1990s, with three published in the past 5 years. Study methodological quality was evaluated as poor. Energy intake ranged from 10 to 24 MJ/day for men and from 4 to 14 MJ/day for women. Protein intake ranged from 1.9 to 4.3 g/kg for men and from 0.8 to 2.8 g/kg for women. Intake of carbohydrate and fat was 6 months from competition) or immediate post-competition period and lowest during competition preparation (≤6 months from competition) or competition week. The most commonly reported dietary supplements were protein powders/liquids and amino acids. The studies failed to provide

  20. Life before and after residents: subjective reports on quality of life from urologists since inception of a new residency program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gregory; Whelan, Paul; Kapoor, Anil

    2011-04-01

    It is difficult to determine the effect of a residency program on the life of staff urologists. The objective of this study was to obtain subjective reports from urologists who have practiced before and after the implementation of a training program on how it affects their careers in 5 spheres: education, job-stress, free time, financial life and subjective quality of life. We asked urologists from McMaster University to complete a questionnaire to quantify how their current experiences have changed compared to the pre-residency program era on a balanced 7-point scale (4 = neutral). The response rate was 100% (9/9). Eight of the 9 urologists (89%) reported they would implement the program again if they could rewind the clock. Eight of 9 reported their overall career-related quality of life improved, with an average rating of 5.1 on the 7-point scale. The quality of continuing education was the most positive ranking at 5.4 followed by job stress at 5.2. The outcomes measured below 4 (neutral) were earning potential at 3.8 and ability to engage in pastimes at 3.4. Earning potential was clustered tightly around neutral, with 7 of the 9 respondents reporting no change. The largest standard deviation, corresponding to the most disagreement, was in their ability to engage in pastimes. Even with a mild decrease in earning potential and increased job stress, McMaster urologists feel their quality of life and continuing education have improved since the program's implementation; these urologists are almost uniformly happy they started a residency teaching program at their centre.

  1. The Association between Self-Reported Grocery Store Access, Fruit and Vegetable Intake, Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption, and Obesity in a Racially Diverse, Low-Income Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren Nichol; DeFosset, Amelia Rose; Smith, Lisa V; Kuo, Tony

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to examine the relationship between self-reported time and distance to the nearest retail grocery store, healthy and unhealthy food consumption, and objectively measured body mass index (BMI). We conducted a survey with 1,503 racially diverse, low-income residents at five public health centers in Los Angeles County. Most participants reported shopping at a supermarket (86.7%) and driving (59.9%) to their usual source for groceries. Over half reported living less than a mile from (58.9%) and traveling 5 min or less to reach (50.3%) the nearest grocery store. In the multivariable regression models, neither self-reported distance nor time to the nearest grocery store was consistently associated with fruit and vegetable intake, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, or BMI. Results suggest that the need to consider access and quality as well as urban planning and transportation, when examining the relationship between the retail food environment and health outcomes.

  2. The association between self-reported grocery store access, fruit and vegetable intake, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, and obesity in a racially diverse, low-income population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Nichol Gase

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to examine the relationship between self-reported time and distance to the nearest retail grocery store, healthy and unhealthy food consumption, and objectively measured body mass index. We conducted a survey with 1,503 racially diverse, low-income residents at five public health centers in Los Angeles County. Most participants reported shopping at a supermarket (86.7% and driving (59.9% to their usual source for groceries. Over half reported living less than a mile from (58.9% and traveling five minutes or less to reach (50.3% the nearest grocery store. In the multivariable regression models, neither self-reported distance nor time to the nearest grocery store was consistently associated with fruit and vegetable intake, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, or body mass index. Results suggest the need to consider access and quality as well as urban planning and transportation, when examining the relationship between the retail food environment and health outcomes.

  3. The use of dry needling for a subject with chronic lateral hip and thigh pain: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavkovich, Ron

    2015-04-01

    Lateral thigh pain, commonly referred to as greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) and/ or iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) is commonly treated by the physical therapist. Lateral thigh pain is commonly treated by the physical therapist. The sources of lateral thigh pain are commonly attributed to GTPS and/ or ITBS though various pathologies may contribute to this pain, of which trigger points (TrPs) may be an etiology. Dry needling (DN) is an intervention utilized by physical therapists where a monofilament needle is inserted into soft tissue in order to reduce pain to improve range of motion/ motor control dysfunction. This can assist with facilitation of return to prior level of function. The purpose of this case report is to report the outcomes of a patient with lateral hip and thigh pain treated with DN as a primary intervention strategy. The subject was an active 78-year-old female recreational walker who was referred to physical therapy for chronic left lateral hip and thigh pain of greater than one-year duration without a clear mechanism of injury. She had a history of previous physical therapy treatment for the same condition, and previous therapeutic intervention strategies were effective for approximately two to three months duration prior to return of pain symptoms. Physical examination supported a diagnosis of GTPS/ ITBS. Subjective reports denoted sleep deficit due to pain lying on the left side at night and difficulty walking more than five minutes. Objective findings included decreased strength of the hip musculature and reproduction of pain symptoms upon flat palpation in specific locations throughout the lateral hip and thigh regions. She was treated for eight weeks using only DN to determine the effectiveness of DN as a primary intervention strategy, as previous physical therapy interventions were inconsistent and were only beneficial in the short-term. Clinically meaningful improvements were noted in disability and pain, as measured by the

  4. Cognitive Experiences Reported by Borderline Patients and Axis II Comparison Subjects: A 16-year Prospective Follow-up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanarini, Mary C.; Frankenburg, Frances R.; Wedig, Michelle M.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study assesses three main types of cognition: nonpsychotic thought (odd thinking, unusual perceptual experiences, and non-delusional paranoia), quasi-psychotic thought, and true-psychotic thought in borderline patients followed prospectively for 16 years. It also compares the rates of these disturbed cognitions to those reported by axis II comparison subjects. Method The cognitive experiences of 362 inpatients—290 borderline patients and 72 axis II comparison subjects—were assessed at study entry using the cognitive section of the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines. Their cognitive experiences were reassessed every two years using the same interview. Results Each of the five main types of thought studied was reported by a significantly higher percentage of borderline patients than axis II comparison subjects over time. Each of these types of thought, except true-psychotic thought, declined significantly over time for those in both groups. Eleven of the 17 more specific forms of thought studied were also reported by a significantly higher percentage of borderline patients over the years of follow-up: magical thinking, overvalued ideas, recurrent illusions, depersonalization, derealization, undue suspiciousness, ideas of reference, other paranoid ideation, quasi-psychotic delusions, quasi-psychotic hallucinations, and true-psychotic hallucinations. Fourteen specific forms of thought were found to decline significantly over time for those in both groups: all forms of thought mentioned above except true-psychotic hallucinations plus marked superstitiousness, sixth sense, telepathy, and clairvoyance. Conclusions Disturbed cognitions are common among borderline patients and distinguishing for the disorder. They also decline substantially over time but remain a problem, particularly those of a nonpsychotic nature. PMID:23558452

  5. Relationships between misreported energy intake and pregnancy in the pregnancy, infection and nutrition study: new insights from a dynamic energy balance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D M; Bredlau, C; Islam, S; Armah, K A; Kunnipparampil, J; Patel, K; Redman, L M; Misra, D; Salafia, C

    2016-06-01

    Providing effective dietary counselling so that pregnancy weight gain remains within the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines requires accurate maternal energy intake measures. Current practice is based on self-reported intake that has been demonstrated unreliable. This study applies an objective calculation of energy intake from a validated mathematical model to identify characteristics of individuals more likely to misreport during pregnancy. A validated maternal energy balance equation was used to calculate energy intake from gestational weight gain in 1,368 subjects. The difference between self-reported and model-predicted energy intake was tested for demographics, economic status, education level and maternal health status. A weight gain of 15.2 kg resulted in model-predicted intake during pregnancy of 2,882.97 ±  135.71 kcal day-1, which differed from self-reported intake of 2,180.5 ± 856.0 kcal day-1. The achieved weight gain exceeded the IOM guidelines; however, the model predicted weight gain from self-reported energy intake was below IOM guidelines. Higher income (p = 0.004), education (p = 0.003), birth weight (p = 0.017), gestational diabetes (p = 0.008) and pre-existing diabetes (p energy intake. More children living at home (p = 0.001) were associated with more accurate self-reported intake. When assessing self-reported energy intake in pregnancy studies, birth weight, gestational diabetes status, pre-existing diabetes, higher income and education predict higher under-reporting. Clinicians providing dietary treatment recommendations during pregnancy should be aware that individuals with pre-existing diabetes and gestational diabetes mellitus are more likely to misreport their intake. Additionally, the systems model approach can be applied early in intervention to objectively monitor dietary compliance to treatment recommendations.

  6. Self-reported physical activity and food intake patterns in schoolchildren aged 7-10 from public and private schools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Ferreira da Costa

    2012-08-01

    Physical activity and diet are related to several health outcomes. The aim of this study was to analyze physical activity (PA and diet patterns among Brazilian schoolchildren attending private or public schools. A cross-sectional, school-based study of elementary schoolchildren aged 7-10 years old (n = 2,936 was carried out in Florianopolis (southern Brazil. Self-reported food consumption and PA patterns were assessed by means of a questionnaire. A higher percentage of girls than boys met the rec­ommendations for consumption of fruits and vegetables and limited their consumption of sweets and soft drinks. Boys reported higher PA levels than girls (P < 0.001. Children attending private schools were more likely to be in the highest tertile of PA (odds ratio = 1.53, 1.14-2.05 and 80% less likely to be active in commuting to school compared to public school students. Private schoolchildren were more likely to meet recommendations for fruits and vegetables, limit sweet consumption, report adequate meal frequency and no consumption of fast food or soft drinks. In summary, girls and private schoolchildren reported better eating patterns, while boys and private schoolchildren reported higher PA levels. Such results highlight the public school setting as a target for health promotion initiatives, along with other strategies, in developing countries.

  7. Protein leverage and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosby, A K; Conigrave, A D; Raubenheimer, D; Simpson, S J

    2014-03-01

    Increased energy intakes are contributing to overweight and obesity. Growing evidence supports the role of protein appetite in driving excess intake when dietary protein is diluted (the protein leverage hypothesis). Understanding the interactions between dietary macronutrient balance and nutrient-specific appetite systems will be required for designing dietary interventions that work with, rather than against, basic regulatory physiology. Data were collected from 38 published experimental trials measuring ad libitum intake in subjects confined to menus differing in macronutrient composition. Collectively, these trials encompassed considerable variation in percent protein (spanning 8-54% of total energy), carbohydrate (1.6-72%) and fat (11-66%). The data provide an opportunity to describe the individual and interactive effects of dietary protein, carbohydrate and fat on the control of total energy intake. Percent dietary protein was negatively associated with total energy intake (F = 6.9, P leverage in lean, overweight and obese humans. A better appreciation of the targets and regulatory priorities for protein, carbohydrate and fat intake will inform the design of effective and health-promoting weight loss diets, food labelling policies, food production systems and regulatory frameworks. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  8. Relationship between Sugar Intake and Obesity among School-Age Children in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Fang-Yu; Chen, Ting-Chun; Chen, Wen-Lee; Doong, Jia-Yau; Shikanai, Saiko; Sarukura, Nobuko; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the prevalence and problem of overweight and obesity in Taiwanese children have increased. There are many reports that the excessive intake of sugar increases the risk of lifestyle-related disease. However, sugar intake in Taiwanese children is not known. In this study, we investigated sugar intake from sugar-sweetened beverages, snacks and desserts among school-age children in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. We also tried to determine the relationship between sugar intake and body mass index (BMI). We contacted all the public elementary schools (10 schools) in a district, Kaohsiung, and obtained permission from 3 schools. The survey subjects were 410 (210 boys, 200 girls) school-age children (7, 10 and 12 y old). A nutrition survey was conducted using 3 non-consecutive days of the 24 h dietary recall method for sugar-sweetened beverages, snacks and desserts. Height and weight were measured. Sugar intakes were not significantly different among the different genders or ages (p>0.05) and average intake of all was 51.6 g/d. Percentages of each sugar in total intake were sucrose 60%, glucose 18%, fructose 16%, and lactose 6%. The intake of glucose and fructose may have come from isomerized sugar. Contributions of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks (desserts) were 83.5% and 16.5%, respectively. Among the sugar-sweetened beverages the top 3 sources were tea (22%), milk tea (19%) and milk beverages (18%). A relationship between sugar intake and BMI was not observed. In conclusion, sugar intake of the children was higher than the WHO recommendation due to the high intake from beverages; however, sugar was not the cause of the high obesity rate.

  9. Does stress induce salt intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Susan J; Turner, Anne I; Nowson, Caryl A

    2010-06-01

    Psychological stress is a common feature of modern day societies, and contributes to the global burden of disease. It was proposed by Henry over 20 years ago that the salt intake of a society reflects the level of stress, and that stress, through its effect on increasing salt intake, is an important factor in the development of hypertension. This review evaluates the evidence from animal and human studies to determine if stress does induce a salt appetite and increase salt consumption in human subjects. Findings from animal studies suggest that stress may drive salt intake, with evidence for a potential mechanism via the sympatho-adrenal medullary system and/or the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. In contrast, in the few laboratory studies conducted in human subjects, none has found that acute stress affects salt intake. However, one study demonstrated that life stress (chronic stress) was associated with increased consumption of snack foods, which included, but not specifically, highly salty snacks. Studies investigating the influence of chronic stress on eating behaviours are required, including consumption of salty foods. From the available evidence, we can conclude that in free-living, Na-replete individuals, consuming Na in excess of physiological requirements, stress is unlikely to be a major contributor to salt intake.

  10. Actigraphic sleep fragmentation, efficiency and duration associate with dietary intake in the Rotterdam study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short self-reported sleep duration is associated with dietary intake and this association may partly mediate the link between short sleep and metabolic abnormalities. Subjective sleep measures, however, may be inaccurate and biased. The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations betwee...

  11. Wide Disagreement Between Alternative Assessments of Premorbid Physical Activity: Subjective Patient and Surrogate Reports and Objective Smartphone Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluck, Samuel; Summers, Matthew J; Goddard, Thomas P; Andrawos, Alice; Smith, Natalie C; Lange, Kylie; Iwashyna, Theodore J; Deane, Adam M

    2017-10-01

    Surrogate-decision maker and patient self-reported estimates of the distances walked prior to acute illness are subjective and may be imprecise. It may be possible to extract objective data from a patient's smartphone, specifically, step and global position system data, to quantify physical activity. The objectives were to 1) assess the agreement between surrogate-decision maker and patient self-reported estimates of distance and time walked prior to resting and daily step-count and 2) determine the feasibility of extracting premorbid physical activity (step and global position system) data from critically ill patients. Prospective cohort study. Quaternary ICU. Fifty consecutively admitted adult patients who owned a smartphone, who were ambulatory at baseline, and who remained in ICU for more than 48 hours participated. There was no agreement between patients and surrogates for all premorbid walking metrics (mean bias 108% [99% lower to 8,700% higher], 83% [97% to 2,100%], and 71% [96% to 1,080%], for distance, time, and steps, respectively). Step and/or global position system data were successfully extracted from 24 of 50 phones (48%; 95% CI, 35-62%). Surrogate-decision makers, but not patient self-reported, estimates of steps taken per day correlated with smartphone data (surrogates: n = 13, ρ = 0.56, p smartphones was feasible in approximately 50% of patients.

  12. Coffee and caffeine intake and male infertility: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Elena; Viganò, Paola; Cipriani, Sonia; Somigliana, Edgardo; Chiaffarino, Francesca; Bulfoni, Alessandro; Parazzini, Fabio

    2017-06-24

    Semen quality, a predictor of male fertility, has been suggested declining worldwide. Among other life style factors, male coffee/caffeine consumption was hypothesized to influence semen parameters, but also sperm DNA integrity. To summarize available evidence, we performed a systematic review of observational studies on the relation between coffee/caffeine intake and parameters of male fertility including sperm ploidy, sperm DNA integrity, semen quality and time to pregnancy. A systematic literature search was performed up to November 2016 (MEDLINE and EMBASE). We included all observational papers that reported the relation between male coffee/caffeine intake and reproductive outcomes: 1. semen parameters, 2. sperm DNA characteristics, 3. fecundability. All pertinent reports were retrieved and the relative reference lists were systematically searched in order to identify any potential additional studies that could be included. We retrieved 28 papers reporting observational information on coffee/caffeine intake and reproductive outcomes. Overall, they included 19,967 men. 1. Semen parameters did not seem affected by caffeine intake, at least caffeine from coffee, tea and cocoa drinks, in most studies. Conversely, other contributions suggested a negative effect of cola-containing beverages and caffeine-containing soft drinks on semen volume, count and concentration. 2. As regards sperm DNA defects, caffeine intake seemed associated with aneuploidy and DNA breaks, but not with other markers of DNA damage. 3. Finally, male coffee drinking was associated to prolonged time to pregnancy in some, but not all, studies. The literature suggests that caffeine intake, possibly through sperm DNA damage, may negatively affect male reproductive function. Evidence from epidemiological studies on semen parameters and fertility is however inconsistent and inconclusive. Well-designed studies with predefined criteria for semen analysis, subject selection, and life style habits

  13. Children’s Executive Function and High Calorie, Low Nutrient Food Intake: Mediating Effects of Child-Perceived Adult Fast Food Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Eleanor B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann; Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study tested the relationships among child executive function (EF), child-perceived parent fast food intake, and child self-reported subsequent consumption of high-calorie, low nutrient (HCLN) food. Design One year and 6-month longitudinal observation from larger randomized control trial Setting Southern California elementary schools Subjects Fourth and fifth grade children (n = 1,005) participating in the Pathways to Health obesity prevention program Results Child EF problems were associated with higher concurrent HCLN intake (B = 0.29, SE = 0.10, p fast food intake (indirect effect = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.11/0.25, p fast food intake (indirect effect = 0.05, 95% CI = 0.02/0.10, p perception of parent concurrent fast food intake, contributing to their own unhealthy food intake. However, EF problems may not directly affect HCLN intake across time, except when problems are associated with child perception of more frequent parent consumption of convenience foods. Future research is needed to investigate the possibility that helping children perceive and understand role models’ convenience food consumption may improve child dietary consumption patterns. PMID:25194147

  14. Impact of Open Data Policies on Consent to Participate in Human Subjects Research: Discrepancies between Participant Action and Reported Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jorden A; Zagrodney, Jessica M; Day, T Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Research outlets are increasingly adopting open data policies as a requisite for publication, including studies with human subjects data. We investigated whether open data policies influence participants' rate of consent by randomly assigning participants to view consent forms with and without discussion of open data policies. No participants declined to participate, regardless of condition, nor did rates of drop-out vs. completion vary between conditions. Furthermore, no significant change in potential consent rates was reported when participants were openly asked about the influence of open data policies on their likelihood of consent. However, follow-up analyses indicated possible poor attention to consent forms, consistent with previous research. Moreover, thematic analysis of participants' considerations of open data policy indicated multiple considerations such as concerns regarding confidentiality, anonymity, data security, and study sensitivity. The impact of open data policies on participation raises complex issues at the intersection of ethics and scientific innovation. We conclude by encouraging researchers to consider participants as stakeholders in open data policy and by providing recommendations for open data policies in human subjects research.

  15. Relationship between knee kinetic outcome measures in vertical counter movement jumps and self-reported function in ACL reconstructed subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brekke, Anders Falk

    2014-01-01

    and Traumatology, Odense University Hospital, Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark Introduction: Altered loading pattern of the medial aspect of the knee has been associated with the development of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are associated......Relationship between knee kinetic outcome measures in counter movement jumps and self-reported function in ACL reconstructed subjects Brekke AF1,2, Nielsen DB2, Holsgaard-Larsen A2 1School of physiotherapy, University College Zealand, Denmark 2Orthopaedic Research Unit, Department of Orthopaedics...... with early-onset OA with associated pain, functional limitations, and decreased quality of life. However, specific knee loading pattern of the medial aspect has not been investigated during different jump-tasks in ACL-reconstructed patients. The purpose was to investigate potential kinetic differences...

  16. Ceruletide decreases food intake in non-obese man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacher, G; Steinringer, H; Schmierer, G; Schneider, C; Winklehner, S

    1982-01-01

    Cholecystokinin decreases food intake in animals and in man. This study investigated whether the structurally related ceruletide reduces food intake in healthy non-obese man. Twelve females and 12 males participated, after an over-night fast, in each of two experiments. During the basal 40 min, saline was infused IV. Thereafter, the infusion was, in random double blind fashion, either continued with saline or switched to 60 or 120 ng/kg b. wt/hr ceruletide. Butter was melted in a pan and scrambled eggs with ham were prepared in front of the subjects, who were instructed to eat, together with bread and mallow tea, as much as they wanted. With 120 ng/kg/hr ceruletide, the subjects ate significantly less (16.8 percent) than with saline (3725 kJ +/- 489 SEM and 4340 kJ +/- 536, respectively; p less than 0.025). They also reported less hunger (p less than 0.005) and activation (p less than 0.005) and activation (p less than 0.01), and had longer reaction times (p less than 0.01) and a weaker psychomotor performance (p less than 0.025). 60 ng/kg/hr ceruletide decreased food intake only slightly (6.6%; 3089 kJ +/- 253 and 3292 kJ +/- 300 respectively) and no significant changes in the above measures occurred. In conclusion, ceruletide reduces food intake in man, thus resembling the effects of cholecystokinin.

  17. Impact of depressive symptoms on subjective well-being: the importance of patient-reported outcomes in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haro JM

    2011-09-01

    when discriminating between depressive severity levels (0.84, followed by emotional regulation (0.80, social integration (0.78, physical functioning and self-control (0.77, and mental functioning (0.73. Total SWN-K and its five subscales showed a significant linear trend against CDSS severity levels (P < 0.001.Conclusion: The presence of moderate to severe depressive symptoms was relatively high, and correlated inversely with patients’ subjective well-being. Routine assessment of patient-reported measures in patients with schizophrenia might reduce potential discrepancy between patient and physician assessment, increase therapeutic alliance, and improve outcome.Keywords: schizophrenia, subjective well-being, patient-reported outcome, depressive symptoms 

  18. Monetary value of self-reported diets and associations with sociodemographic characteristics and dietary intake among Japanese adults: analysis of nationally representative surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Hitomi; Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-12-01

    To examine the relationships of monetary value of diets with sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics and dietary intake among Japanese adults. Cross-sectional study based on two nationally representative surveys: the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions and the National Health and Nutrition Survey, 2013. Dietary intake was assessed by a 1 d semi-weighed household dietary record with information on individual proportion of intakes. Diet cost was estimated by linking dietary data with retail food prices. A wide variety of sociodemographic and lifestyle variables were obtained from the two surveys. A random sample of nationally representative households in Japan. Japanese adults aged 20 years or older (n 4658). Lower energy-adjusted diet cost (Japanese yen/4184 kJ) was significantly associated with being younger, having a lower education, less equivalent monthly household expenditure, large household size, less physical activity and living in rented houses. Lower diet cost was associated with a lower intake of pulses, vegetables, fruits, fish, meat and dairy products, and a higher intake of grain, eggs, and fats and oils. At the nutrient level, lower diet cost was associated with a lower intake of protein, alcohol, dietary fibre, cholesterol and all vitamins and minerals examined, and a higher intake of carbohydrate. Diet cost was inversely associated with dietary energy density. These data suggest that certain low socio-economic subgroups in Japan consume diets of lower monetary value, resulting in a lower quality of food and nutrient intake pattern except for lower sodium, cholesterol and alcohol consumption.

  19. Characterizing trends in fruit and vegetable intake in the US by self-report and by supply-and-disappearance data: 2001-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To examine the comparability of fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake data in the US from 2001-2014 between data acquired from two national data collection programs. Design: Cross-sectional analysis. Linear regression models estimated trends in daily per-capita intake of total F&V. Pooled di...

  20. Associations Between Reported Dietary Sodium Intake and Osteoporosis in Korean Postmenopausal Women: The 2008-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yunmi; Kim, Hyun-Young; Kim, Jung Hwan

    2017-07-01

    Osteoporosis is prevalent among postmenopausal women, and increasing evidence has linked salt intake with this disease. In this article, we explored the association between dietary sodium intake and osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women. We analyzed data for 3635 postmenopausal women extracted from the 2008-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We found that 1542 participants (42.4%) have osteoporosis. The adjusted prevalence rates of osteoporosis at the lumbar spine were significantly higher in participants who consumed ≥4001 mg of salt than those who consumed ≤2000 mg. At the femoral neck, rates were significantly higher for those who consumed ≥5001 mg compared with those who consumed ≤4000 mg. Participants with a higher sodium intake showed a significantly higher odds ratio of developing lumbar and femoral neck osteoporosis, compared with those with a lower intake. Our results suggest that excessive daily sodium intake is associated with a higher osteoporosis prevalence in Korean postmenopausal women.

  1. Protein from meat or vegetable sources in meals matched for fiber content has similar effects on subjective appetite sensations and energy intake - A randomized acute cross-over meal test study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lone Vestergaard; Kristensen, Marlene D; Klingenberg, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Higher-protein meals decrease hunger and increase satiety compared to lower-protein meals. However, no consensus exists about the different effects of animal and vegetable proteins on appetite. We investigated how a meal based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) affected ad libitum energy......-balanced, fiber-matched meals based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) or animal protein (veal/pork or eggs) had similar effects on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations....

  2. Automated Scoring of Short-Answer Open-Ended GRE® Subject Test Items. ETS GRE® Board Research Report No. 04-02. ETS RR-08-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attali, Yigal; Powers, Don; Freedman, Marshall; Harrison, Marissa; Obetz, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the development, administration, and scoring of open-ended variants of GRE® Subject Test items in biology and psychology. These questions were administered in a Web-based experiment to registered examinees of the respective Subject Tests. The questions required a short answer of 1-3 sentences, and responses were automatically…

  3. Definition and identification of journals as bibliographic and subject entities: Librarianship versus ISI Journal Citation Reports methods and their effect on citation measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bensman, S.J.; Leydesdorff, L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the ISI Journal Citation Reports (JCR) bibliographic and subject structures through Library of Congress (LC) and American research libraries cataloging and classification methodology. The 2006 Science Citation Index JCR Behavioral Sciences subject category journals are used as an

  4. Behavioral, autonomic, and subjective reactions to low- and moderate-level simulated sonic booms : a report of two experiments and a general evaluation of sonic boom startle effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-09-01

    Two separate studies are reported. The first attempted to determine a sonic boom exposure level below which startle reactions would not occur. Subjects were exposed indoors to six simulated sonic booms having various outside overpressures. In the sec...

  5. Evaluation of a novel biomarker of added sugar intake (δ 13C) compared with self-reported added sugar intake and the Healthy Eating Index-2010 in a community-based, rural U.S. sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Valisa E; Davy, Brenda M; Wilburn, Grace A; Jahren, A Hope; Zoellner, Jamie M

    2016-02-01

    The δ 13C value of human blood is an emerging novel biomarker of added sugar (AS) intake for adults. However, no free-living, community-based assessments of comparative validity of this biomarker have been conducted. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) score, SoFAAS score (HEI-2010 sub-component for solid fat, alcohol and AS), AS and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intakes were associated with δ 13C value of fingerstick blood in a community-based sample of adults, while controlling for relevant demographics. A cross-sectional analysis of data obtained from assessments of BMI, dietary intake using 24 h recalls and a fingerstick blood sample was completed. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, multiple linear regression and one-way ANOVA. Rural Southwest Virginia, U.S.A. Adults (n 216) aged >18 years who consumed at least 837 kJ/d (200 kcal/d) from SSB. This sample of adult participants with low socio-economic status demonstrated a mean HEI-2010 score of 43.4 (sd 12.2), mean SoFAAS score of 10.2 (sd 5.7), mean AS intake of 93 (sd 65) g/d and mean blood δ 13C value of -18.88 (sd 0.7) ‰. In four separate regression models, HEI-2010 (R 2=0.16), SoFAAS (R 2=0.19), AS (R 2=0.15) and SSB (R 2=0.14) predicted δ 13C value (all P≤0.001). Age was also predictive of δ 13C value, but not sex or race. These findings suggest that fingerstick δ 13C value has the potential to be a minimally invasive method for assessing AS and SSB intake and overall dietary quality in community-based settings. Strengths, limitations and future areas of research for using an objective δ 13C biomarker in diet-related public health studies are discussed.

  6. Vitamin Intake from Food Supplements in a German Cohort - Is there a Risk of Excessive Intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willers, Janina; Heinemann, Michaela; Bitterlich, Norman; Hahn, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Food supplements, if not properly used, may lead to potentially harmful nutrient intake. The purpose of this survey was to examine vitamin intake from food supplements. Taking into account the intake from food, as obtained from the National Nutrition Survey, it was determined whether the tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) were exceeded via supplements alone, or in combination with food. Data from 1070 supplement users (18-93 years) was available. The dietary and supplemental vitamin intakes of three groups were analyzed: average intake (50th percentile food+50th percentile supplements), middle-high intake (50th+95th) and high intake (95th+95th). Vitamin C (53%), vitamin E (45%) and B vitamins (37-45%) were consumed most frequently. Few subjects (n=7) reached or exceeded the ULs through supplements alone. The UL for vitamin A and folate was reached by a few men in the middle-high group, and by a few men and women in the high intake group. Otherwise, even in the high intake group, the recommended vitamin D intake of 20 µg/day (in case of insufficient endogenous synthesis) could not be achieved. The use of food supplements was not associated with excessive vitamin intake in this survey, except in a small number of cases. Vitamin A intake above the UL was the result of high dietary intake which also included the intake of β-carotene, rather than the result of overconsumption of food supplements. Diets mainly included folate from natural sources, which has no associated risk.

  7. Low intake of vegetables, high intake of confectionary, and unhealthy eating habits are associated with poor sleep quality among middle-aged female Japanese workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Ryoko; Asakura, Keiko; Kobayashi, Satomi; Suga, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Although workers with poor sleep quality are reported to have problems with work performance, few studies have assessed the association between dietary factors and sleep quality using validated indexes. Here, we examined this association using information acquired from validated questionnaires. A total of 3,129 female workers aged 34 to 65 years were analyzed. Dietary intake was assessed using a self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ), and subjective sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The relationship between the intake of several food groups and nutrients and sleep quality was examined using multivariable logistic regression models. The effect of eating habits on sleep quality was also examined. Poor sleep quality was associated with low intake of vegetables (p for trend 0.002) and fish (p for trend 0.04) and high intake of confectionary (p for trend 0.004) and noodles (p for trend 0.03) after adjustment for potential confounding factors (age, body mass index, physical activity, depression score, employment status, alcohol intake and smoking status). Poor sleep quality was also significantly and positively associated with consumption of energy drinks and sugar-sweetened beverages, skipping breakfast, and eating irregularly. In addition, poor sleep quality was significantly associated with high carbohydrate intake (p for trend 0.03). A low intake of vegetables and fish, high intake of confectionary and noodles and unhealthy eating habits were independently associated with poor sleep quality. Poor sleep quality was also associated with high carbohydrate intake in free-living Japanese middle-aged female workers.

  8. Eating styles and energy intake in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Van Strien, Tatjana; Van De Ven, Monique O M; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relations between restrained, emotional, and external eating and total energy intake, and total fat and carbohydrate intake controlling for body mass index and physical activity. The sample consisted of 475 female students. Energy intake was measured over a 1-month period using the self-report Food Frequency Questionnaire and eating styles were assessed with the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. Structural equation modelling was used to analyze the data. The results showed that restrained eating was consistently negatively related to energy intake and fat and carbohydrate intake, whereas external eating was positively related to all dependent variables. Emotional eating was not related to energy intake or fat and carbohydrate intake. Thus, restrained eaters seem to restrict their energy intake, while external eating was found to be associated with higher levels of energy intake, especially of fat intake.

  9. Effect of Adeli suit treatment on gait in a child with cerebral palsy: a single-subject report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Myung-Sook; Lee, Jung-Ah; Kang, Sun-Young; Jeon, Hye-Seon

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this research report is to investigate the long-term effect of Adeli suit treatment (AST) in a child with cerebral palsy (CP) on spatial-temporal gait parameters, 10-meter walking speed, gross motor functional measure (GMFM) and performance on the pediatric balance scale (PBS). An eight-year-old girl with spastic diplegia classified as level III on the Gross Motor Function Classification System participated in this single-subject A-B design study, with a baseline and an intervention phase. The baseline phase was collected at one-week intervals for six weeks and then the AST intervention phase was carried out with 18 AST sessions, 50 min per session, once a week for an 18-week period. Spatial-temporal gait parameters significantly improved after the completion of 18 sessions. Furthermore, 10-meter walking speed, GMFM and PBS changed significantly from the baseline measurement (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the AST was effective in improving gait, gross motor function and balance in a child with diplegic CP. Clinically, neuro-rehabilitation with AST provided a complementary and alternative treatment for lower extremity rehabilitation in this child with CP. These findings provide preliminary evidence supporting the effectiveness of AST in children with spastic CP, and thus underscore the need for additional research in this area.

  10. Sleeping position and reported quality of sleep. A comparison between subjects demanding treatment for temporomandibular disorders and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Anna-Kerstin Göthe; Helkimo, Martti; Magnusson, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate if there are differences concerning preferred body posture during sleep between 100 patients, 66 women and 34 men, mean age: 49 years (range: 20-85 years) referred to a specialist clinic because of TMD and 100 matched controls from a public dental clinic. The participants were asked to answer a questionnaire with questions about TMD symptoms and neck or shoulder pain. They were also asked about preferred sleeping position as well as about perceived sleep quality. No differences could be found between the two groups in respect of sleeping position. However, significantly more individuals in the TMD group compared to the controls had changed their preferred sleeping position due to their face and/or jaw and/ or neck-shoulder symptoms. Subjects in the TMD group also more frequently stated that they often felt insufficiently rested at awakening and/or felt tired or sleepy in the daytime because of symptoms from face/jaws. A significant number in the control group reported TMD symptoms indicating a latent need for TMD treatment. It is concluded that sleep position seems to have little or no significance for the development or maintenance of TMD symptoms. However, the study indicates that TMD symptoms and associated neck- and shoulder pain affect the quality of sleep.

  11. Evidence of associations between cytokine genes and subjective reports of sleep disturbance in oncology patients and their family caregivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Miaskowski

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to identify distinct latent classes of individuals based on subjective reports of sleep disturbance; to examine differences in demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics between the latent classes; and to evaluate for variations in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes between the latent classes. Among 167 oncology outpatients with breast, prostate, lung, or brain cancer and 85 of their FCs, growth mixture modeling (GMM was used to identify latent classes of individuals based on General Sleep Disturbance Scale (GSDS obtained prior to, during, and for four months following completion of radiation therapy. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and haplotypes in candidate cytokine genes were interrogated for differences between the two latent classes. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the effect of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics on GSDS group membership. Two latent classes were identified: lower sleep disturbance (88.5% and higher sleep disturbance (11.5%. Participants who were younger and had a lower Karnofsky Performance status score were more likely to be in the higher sleep disturbance class. Variation in two cytokine genes (i.e., IL6, NFKB predicted latent class membership. Evidence was found for latent classes with distinct sleep disturbance trajectories. Unique genetic markers in cytokine genes may partially explain the interindividual heterogeneity characterizing these trajectories.

  12. The influence of intermittent fasting on the circadian pattern of melatonin while controlling for caloric intake, energy expenditure, light exposure, and sleep schedules: A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeneessier, Aljohara S; Bahammam, Ahmed S; Sharif, Munir M; Bahammam, Salman A; Nashwan, Samar Z; Pandi Perumal, Seithikurippu R; Cardinali, Daniel P; Alzoghaibi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    We hypothesized that if we control for food composition, caloric intake, light exposure, sleep schedule, and exercise, intermittent fasting would not influence the circadian pattern of melatonin. Therefore, we designed this study to assess the effect of intermittent fasting on the circadian pattern of melatonin. Eight healthy volunteers with a mean age of 26.6 ± 4.9 years and body mass index of 23.7 ± 3.5 kg/m2 reported to the Sleep Disorders Center (the laboratory) on four occasions: (1) adaptation, (2) 4 weeks before Ramadan while performing Islamic intermittent fasting for 1 week (fasting outside Ramadan [FOR]), (3) 1 week before Ramadan (nonfasting baseline [BL]), and (4) during the 2nd week of Ramadan while fasting (Ramadan). The plasma levels of melatonin were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays at 22:00, 02:00, 04:00, 06:00, and 11:00 h. The light exposure, meal composition, energy expenditure, and sleep schedules remained the same while the participants stayed at the laboratory. The melatonin levels followed the same circadian pattern during the three monitoring periods (BL, FOR, and Ramadan). The peak melatonin level was at 02:00 h and the trough level was at 11:00 h in all studied periods. Lower melatonin levels at 22:00 h were found during fasting compared to BL. Cosinor analysis revealed no significant changes in the acrophase of melatonin levels. In this preliminary report, under controlled conditions of light exposure, meal composition, energy expenditure, and sleep-wake schedules, intermittent fasting has no significant influence on the circadian pattern of melatonin.

  13. The influence of intermittent fasting on the circadian pattern of melatonin while controlling for caloric intake, energy expenditure, light exposure, and sleep schedules: A preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeneessier, Aljohara S.; Bahammam, Ahmed S.; Sharif, Munir M.; Bahammam, Salman A.; Nashwan, Samar Z.; Pandi Perumal, Seithikurippu R.; Cardinali, Daniel P.; Alzoghaibi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: We hypothesized that if we control for food composition, caloric intake, light exposure, sleep schedule, and exercise, intermittent fasting would not influence the circadian pattern of melatonin. Therefore, we designed this study to assess the effect of intermittent fasting on the circadian pattern of melatonin. METHODS: Eight healthy volunteers with a mean age of 26.6 ± 4.9 years and body mass index of 23.7 ± 3.5 kg/m2 reported to the Sleep Disorders Center (the laboratory) on four occasions: (1) adaptation, (2) 4 weeks before Ramadan while performing Islamic intermittent fasting for 1 week (fasting outside Ramadan [FOR]), (3) 1 week before Ramadan (nonfasting baseline [BL]), and (4) during the 2nd week of Ramadan while fasting (Ramadan). The plasma levels of melatonin were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays at 22:00, 02:00, 04:00, 06:00, and 11:00 h. The light exposure, meal composition, energy expenditure, and sleep schedules remained the same while the participants stayed at the laboratory. RESULTS: The melatonin levels followed the same circadian pattern during the three monitoring periods (BL, FOR, and Ramadan). The peak melatonin level was at 02:00 h and the trough level was at 11:00 h in all studied periods. Lower melatonin levels at 22:00 h were found during fasting compared to BL. Cosinor analysis revealed no significant changes in the acrophase of melatonin levels. CONCLUSIONS: In this preliminary report, under controlled conditions of light exposure, meal composition, energy expenditure, and sleep-wake schedules, intermittent fasting has no significant influence on the circadian pattern of melatonin. PMID:28808490

  14. The use of dry needling for a subject with acute onset of neck pain: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavkovich, Ron

    2015-02-01

    Neck pain is a common complaint treated by the physical therapist. Trigger points (TrPs) have been studied as a source of neuromusculoskeletal pain, though the ability of clinicians to accurately locate a TrP is not well supported. Dry needling (DN) is an intervention utilized by physical therapists where a monofilament needle is inserted into soft tissue in order to reduce pain thereby facilitating return to prior level of function. The purpose of this case report is to report the outcomes of DN as a primary treatment intervention for acute, non-specific cervical region pain. The subject was an active 64-year-old female who self- referred for cervical pain following lifting heavy boxes while moving into a new home. She had a history of multi-level cervical fusion and recurrent cervical pain that physical therapy helped to control over the past few years. Physical examination supported a diagnosis of acute cervical region strain. Objective findings included decreased cervical active range of motion (AROM) and upper extremity strength, as well as, reproduction of pain symptoms upon palpation indicating the likelihood of TrPs in the right upper trapezius, levator scapula, supraspinatus, and infraspinatus musculature. She was treated using DN to the aforementioned muscles for two sessions, and no other interventions were performed in order to determine the effectiveness of DN as a primary intervention strategy without other interventions masking the effects of DN. Clinically meaningful improvements were noted in pain and disability, as measured by the Neck Disability Index and Quadruple Visual Analog Scale. Physical examination denoted minimal to no change in cervical AROM (likely associated with multi-level fusion), except for right lateral flexion, and no change in shoulder flexion/ abduction MMT. The patient was able to return to daily and work activities without further functional limitations caused by pain. This case report shows promising outcomes for the use of

  15. Population blood pressure and low to moderate alcohol intake in an untreated population followed over 20years. Copenhagen City heart study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulla Overgaard; Jensen, Gorm Boje

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate whether a changing population alcohol intake is capable of setting off a shift in the blood pressure distribution in the untreated part of a population. The focus is on subjects with an alcohol intake well below the limits of alcoholism because these subjects...... make out the majority of the population. The Copenhagen City Heart Study is a prospective longitudinal epidemiological study. The untreated study population was followed over 20years. Specially trained technicians using a blinded sphygmomanometer measured BP once with the subject in the sitting...... and an increasing self-reported alcohol intake. The population increase was based on an increasing proportion of light to moderate drinkers. There was no effect of a moderately increasing alcohol intake as a covariate in a multivariate analysis of population systolic BP. Conclusion: A moderately increasing...

  16. Personal, social and environmental predictors of daily fruit and vegetable intake in 11-year-old children in nine European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Te Velde, S; Brug, J

    2008-01-01

    consistent. Differences between countries in cooking and preparing vegetables might be responsible for this larger diversity.Conclusions:This study showed that especially a combination of personal and social factors is related to daily fruit and vegetable intake in schoolchildren. This shows......Objective:To investigate potential personal, social and physical environmental predictors of daily fruit intake and daily vegetable intake in 11-year-old boys and girls in nine European countries.Subjects:The total sample size was 13 305 (90.4% participation rate).Results:Overall, 43.......2% of the children reported to eat fruit every day, 46.1% reported to eat vegetables every day. Daily fruit intake and daily vegetable intake was mainly associated with knowledge of the national recommendations, positive self-efficacy, positive liking and preference, parental modeling and demand and bringing fruit...

  17. Characteristics of misreporters of dietary intake and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To characterise misreporters of energy intake (EI) and energy expenditure (EE). Design: Cross-sectional study, using a validated position and motion instrument, ActiReg (R) as the reference method to study misreporters of El and of EE. El was measured using a dietary record and EE using...... a physical activity questionnaire (PAQ). Misreporters were defined as subjects outside the 95% confidence limits of agreement between El or EE reported/EE measured. Setting: Free-living Danish volunteers. Subjects: One hundred and thirty-eight volunteers aged between 20 and 59 years. Results: Body mass index...... very physically active at work or in leisure time reported a higher EE than measured EE compared with less physically active subjects (P

  18. Olfactory Dysfunction Is Associated with the Intake of Macronutrients in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Il Gyu; Kim, So Young; Kim, Min-Su; Park, Bumjung; Kim, Jin-Hwan; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-01-01

    Olfactory function can impact food selection. However, few large population-based studies have investigated this effect across different age groups. The objective of this study was to assess the association between subjective olfactory dysfunction (anosmia or hyposmia) and macronutrient intake. A total of 24,990 participants aged 20 to 98 years were evaluated based on data collected through the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 through 2012. Olfactory dysfunction was surveyed using a self-reported questionnaire, and the nutritional status was assessed through a validated 24-hour recall method. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses with complex sampling were performed to evaluate the relationships between olfactory dysfunction and protein intake (daily protein intake/recommended protein intake [%]), carbohydrate intake (daily carbohydrate intake/total calories [%]), and fat intake (daily fat intake/total calories [%]) after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, income, smoking history, alcohol consumption, and stress level. Olfactory dysfunction was reported by 5.4% of Korean adults and was found to be associated with decreased fat consumption (estimated value [EV] of fat intake [%] = -0.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -1.13 to -0.13, P = 0.045). A subgroup analysis according to age and sex revealed that among young females, olfactory dysfunction was associated with reduced fat consumption (EV = -2.30, 95% CI = -4.16 to -0.43, P = 0.016) and increased carbohydrate intake (EV = 2.80, 95% CI = 0.55 to 5.05, P = 0.015), and that among middle-aged females, olfactory dysfunction was also associated with reduced fat intake (EV = -1.26, 95% CI = -2.37 to -0.16, P = 0.025). In contrast, among young males, olfactory dysfunction was associated with reduced protein intake (EV = -26.41 95% CI = -45.14 to -7.69, P = 0.006). Olfactory dysfunction was associated with reduced fat intake. Moreover, olfactory dysfunction exerted

  19. Involving children in meal preparation. Effects on food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Klazine; Ferrage, Aurore; Rytz, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    The question of how to promote healthy eating habits in children is relevant because most children do not meet the recommended vegetable intake. Involving children in food preparation could be an opportunity to develop healthy eating behaviors and to increase vegetable consumption. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of children's involvement in meal preparation on their food and vegetable intake. A between-subject experiment was conducted with 47 children aged 6 to 10 years. In condition 1 (n = 25), children prepared a lunch meal (pasta, breaded chicken, cauliflower, and salad) with the assistance of a parent. In condition 2 (n = 22), the meal was prepared by the parent alone. Independent samples t-tests were conducted to compare intake in the "child cooks" and "parent cooks" conditions. Children in the child cooks condition ate significantly more salad 41.7 g (76.1%), more chicken 21.8 g (27.0%), and more calories 84.6 kcal (24.4%) than children in the parent cooks condition. Between before cooking and directly after cooking the meal, children in the child cooks condition reported significantly increased feelings of valence (feeling positive) and dominance (feeling in control). This study confirms that involving children in meal preparation can increase vegetable intake. Because of the potential effect on energy intake, parents need to be made aware of appropriate portion sizes for their children. Taking this into account, encouraging parents to involve their children in the preparation of healthy and balanced meals could be a valuable intervention strategy to improve the diets and vegetable intake of children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mapping low intake of micronutrients across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mensink, G. B. M.; Fletcher, R.; Gurinovic, M.

    2013-01-01

    . The impact of dietary supplement intake as well as inclusion of apparently low energy reporters on the estimates was evaluated. Except for vitamin D, the present study suggests that the current intakes of vitamins from foods lead to low risk of low intakes in all age and sex groups. For current minerals......Achieving an understanding of the extent of micronutrient adequacy across Europe is a major challenge. The main objective of the present study was to collect and evaluate the prevalence of low micronutrient intakes of different European countries by comparing recent nationally representative......, the study suggests that the risk of low intakes is likely to appear more often in specific age groups. In spite of the limitations of the data, the present study provides valuable new information about micronutrient intakes across Europe and the likelihood of inadequacy country by country....

  1. Effects of taurine intake on serum lipids in young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadako Matsui

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Taurine is an abundant amino acid in human cells, promoting ocular and biliary health, which is also used to treat congestive heart failure, hypertension, and hepatitis. Recently, taurine-enriched energy drinks have become popular with young adults, but the effects of taurine on serum lipids in young adults are unknown. Objective: We studied the influence of oral administration of taurine on serum lipid levels in healthy young women. Methods: Ten healthy young women with a mean body mass index of 20.0kg/m2, apolipoprotein E (apoE phenotype 3/3 and normal menstrual cycles participated. Each subject was instructed to orally ingest 1g of taurine powder after each meal (3g/day in addition to their usual diets during one menstrual cycle. Before and at the end of taurine intake, physical measurements and blood collection were performed in the morning after a 12-h fast, and 3-day weighted dietary records were obtained. Concentrations of serum lipids, apolipoproteins, and fatty acids in the serum phospholipid fraction were measured. Results: The subjects showed good compliance with taurine intake and none reported adverse effects during the experimental period. After taurine intake, concentrations of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, free cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B (apoB increased (p<0.05, while phospholipids tended to increase (p=0.051. Fatty acids in the serum phospholipid fraction also significantly increased (p<0.05. However, triglyceride, remnant-like particle cholesterol, remnant-like particle triglyceride, apoE, the apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA- 1/apoB ratio and the LDL-C/apoB ratio were unchanged. Furthermore, body weight was significantly increased (p<0.01, but did not correlate with changes either in serum lipids or nutrient intakes. Conclusion: These results suggest that high taurine intake affects lipoprotein metabolism and increases serum lipids in slightly lean young women.

  2. Dietary magnesium intake and the risk of diabetes in the Japanese community: results from the Takayama study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Kie; Wada, Keiko; Tamura, Takashi; Tsuji, Michiko; Kawachi, Toshiaki; Nagata, Chisato

    2017-03-01

    Several experimental studies showed that magnesium intake improved insulin resistance and glucose uptake in diabetes patients. However, epidemiological studies on the association between magnesium intake and diabetes risk have yielded inconsistent results. We investigated whether magnesium intake is related to the risk of developing diabetes in a population-based cohort study in Japan. Study subjects were participants in the Takayama study. A total of 13,525 residents in Takayama City, Japan, responded to a self-administered questionnaire in 1992 and to a follow-up questionnaire seeking information about diabetes in 2002. Magnesium and other nutrient intakes were estimated from a validated food frequency questionnaire administered at the baseline. During a follow-up of 10 years, 438 subjects reported diabetes newly diagnosed by physician. Compared with women in the low quartile of magnesium intake, women in the high quartile were at a significantly reduced risk of diabetes (HR 0.50; 95 % CI 0.30-0.84; P-trend 0.005) after adjustments for covariates. In men, there was no association between magnesium intake and the risk of diabetes. These results suggest that diets with a high intake of magnesium may decrease the risk of diabetes in women.

  3. Job strain and alcohol intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between work-related stress and alcohol intake is uncertain. In order to add to the thus far inconsistent evidence from relatively small studies, we conducted individual-participant meta-analyses of the association between work-related stress (operationalised as self-reported job...

  4. Calcium Intake in the Moroccan Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebbar El-houcine

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Calcium intakes of elderly people are often below the recommendations which are 1200 mg/day. The advancing age may be accompanied by a loss of capacity to absorb additional calcium in case of deficiency. The aim of our work is to evaluate the calcium intake in the Moroccan elderly. Methods: The version translated into Arabic dialect Fardellone questionnaire is tested on a sample of 159 subjects aged over 60 years. Results: The study population includes 87 women (55%, 72 men (45%. The mean calcium intake was respectively 3078 mg by week (that means 440 mg/day. The assessment of calcium intake showed a deficiency and the average consumption of calcium per day is significantly lower than the recommended daily amount for this population. The comparison of both gender found a deficit higher among women than among men. Conclusion: Evaluation of the calcium intake is an essential tool for better management of metabolic bone diseases.

  5. Patient self-reported concerns in inflammatory bowel diseases: A gender-specific subjective quality-of-life indicator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Pittet

    Full Text Available Patient-reported disease perceptions are important components to be considered within a holistic model of quality of care. Gender may have an influence on these perceptions. We aimed to explore gender-specific concerns of patients included in a national bilingual inflammatory bowel disease cohort.Following a qualitative study, we built a questionnaire comprising 37 items of concern. Answers were collected on a visual analog scale ranging from 0 to 100. Principal axis factor analysis was used to explore concern domains. Linear multiple regressions were conducted to assess associations with patient characteristics.Of 1102 patients who replied to the survey, 54% were female and 54% had Crohn's disease. We identified six domains of concern: socialization and stigmatization, disease-related constraints and uncertainty, symptoms and their impact on body and mind, loss of body control (including sexuality, disease transmission, and long-term impact of the disease. Cancer concerns were among the highest scored by all patients (median 61.8. Severity of symptoms was the only factor associated with concerns, unrelated to dimension and gender (p40 years decreased disease-related constraints and uncertainty concerns, and being at home or unemployed increased them. Treatments were associated with increased socialization and stigmatization and with increased disease-related constraints and uncertainty concerns in men. Overall, psychosomatic characteristics were highly associated with concerns for both men and women. Depending on the concern dimensions, increased levels of concern were associated with the highest signs of anxiety in women or depression in men, as well as lower health-related quality of life in men.Patients have numerous concerns related to their illness that need to be reassessed regularly. Concerns differ between men and women, suggesting that information and communication about the disease should take gender differences and subjective

  6. Patient self-reported concerns in inflammatory bowel diseases: A gender-specific subjective quality-of-life indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittet, Valérie; Vaucher, Carla; Froehlich, Florian; Burnand, Bernard; Michetti, Pierre; Maillard, Michel H

    2017-01-01

    Patient-reported disease perceptions are important components to be considered within a holistic model of quality of care. Gender may have an influence on these perceptions. We aimed to explore gender-specific concerns of patients included in a national bilingual inflammatory bowel disease cohort. Following a qualitative study, we built a questionnaire comprising 37 items of concern. Answers were collected on a visual analog scale ranging from 0 to 100. Principal axis factor analysis was used to explore concern domains. Linear multiple regressions were conducted to assess associations with patient characteristics. Of 1102 patients who replied to the survey, 54% were female and 54% had Crohn's disease. We identified six domains of concern: socialization and stigmatization, disease-related constraints and uncertainty, symptoms and their impact on body and mind, loss of body control (including sexuality), disease transmission, and long-term impact of the disease. Cancer concerns were among the highest scored by all patients (median 61.8). Severity of symptoms was the only factor associated with concerns, unrelated to dimension and gender (pwomen, being >40 years decreased disease-related constraints and uncertainty concerns, and being at home or unemployed increased them. Treatments were associated with increased socialization and stigmatization and with increased disease-related constraints and uncertainty concerns in men. Overall, psychosomatic characteristics were highly associated with concerns for both men and women. Depending on the concern dimensions, increased levels of concern were associated with the highest signs of anxiety in women or depression in men, as well as lower health-related quality of life in men. Patients have numerous concerns related to their illness that need to be reassessed regularly. Concerns differ between men and women, suggesting that information and communication about the disease should take gender differences and subjective

  7. Does eating slowly influence appetite and energy intake when water intake is controlled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ana M; Kresge, Daniel L; Teixeira, Pedro J; Baptista, Fátima; Melanson, Kathleen J

    2012-11-21

    Slow eating has been associated with enhanced satiation, but also with increased water intake. Therefore, the role of water ingestion in regard to eating rate needs to be discerned. This study examined the influence of eating rate on appetite regulation and energy intake when water intake is controlled. In a randomized design, slow and fast eating rates were compared on two occasions, in 30 women (22.7±1.2 y; BMI=22.4±0.4 kg/m²) who consumed an ad libitum mixed-macronutrient lunch with water (300 mL). Satiation was examined as the main outcome by measuring energy intake during meals. At designated times, subjects rated hunger, satiety, desire-to-eat, thirst, and meal palatability on visual analogue scales. Paired t-tests were used to compare hypothesis-driven outcomes. Appetite ratings were compared across time points and conditions by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) using a within-subject model. Energy intake and appetite ratings did not differ between conditions at meal completion. However, subjects rated less hunger and tended to rate lower desire-to-eat and greater satiety at 1 hour following the slow condition. Results tend to support a role of slow eating on decreased hunger and higher inter-meal satiety when water intake is controlled. However, the lack of significant differences in energy intake under these conditions indicates that water intake may account for the effects of eating rate on appetite regulation.

  8. Agricultural Drainage Well Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Locations of surface intakes for registered agriculture drainage wells according to the database maintained by IDALS. Surface intakes were located from their...

  9. Dietary intake of fiber, fruit and vegetables decreases the risk of incident kidney stones in women: a Women's Health Initiative report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Mathew D; Hsi, Ryan S; Chi, Thomas; Shara, Nawar; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Kahn, Arnold J; Wang, Hong; Hou, Lifang; Stoller, Marshall L

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated the relationship between dietary fiber, fruit and vegetable intake, and the risk of kidney stone formation. Overall 83,922 postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative observational study were included in the analysis and followed prospectively. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations between total dietary fiber, fruit and vegetable intake, and the risk of incident kidney stone formation, adjusting for nephrolithiasis risk factors (age, race/ethnicity, geographic region, diabetes mellitus, calcium supplementation, hormone therapy use, body mass index and calibrated caloric intake; and dietary water, sodium, animal protein and calcium intake). Women with a history of kidney stones (3,471) were analyzed separately. Mean age of the women was 64±7 years, 85% were white and 2,937 (3.5%) experienced a kidney stone in a median followup of 8 years. In women with no history of kidney stones higher total dietary fiber (6% to 26% decreased risk, p vegetable intake (9% to 22% decreased risk, p=0.002) were associated with a decreased risk of incident kidney stone formation in separate adjusted models. In women with a history of stones there were no significant protective effects of fiber, fruit or vegetable intake on the risk of kidney stone recurrence. Greater dietary intake of fiber, fruits and vegetables was associated with a reduced risk of incident kidney stones in postmenopausal women. The protective effects were independent of other known risk factors for kidney stones. In contrast, there was no reduction in risk in women with a history of stones. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Public Report on Health: Development of a Nutritive Value Calculator for Indian Foods and Analysis of Food Logs and Nutrient Intake in six States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyamala, C; Kurian, Nj; DE, Anuradha; Saxena, Kb; Priya, Ritu; Baru, Rama; Srivastava, Ravi; Mittal, Onkar; Noronha, Claire; Samson, Meera; Khalsa, Sneh; Puliyel, Ashish; Puliyel, Jacob

    2014-05-01

    The Public Report on Health (PRoH) was initiated in 2005 to understand public health issues for people from diverse backgrounds living in different region specific contexts. States were selected purposively to capture a diversity of situations from better-performing states and not-so-well performing states. Based on these considerations, six states - the better-performing states of Tamil Nadu (TN), Maharashtra (MH) and Himachal Pradesh (HP) and the not-so-well performing states of Madhya Pradesh (MP), Uttar Pradesh (UP) and Orissa (OR) - were selected. This is a report of a study using food diaries to assess food intakes in sample households from six states of India. Food diaries were maintained and all the raw food items that went into making the food in the household was measured using a measuring cup that converted volumes into dry weights for each item. The proportion consumed by individual adults was recorded. A nutrient calculator that computed the total nutrient in the food items consumed, using the 'Nutritive Value of Indian Foods by Gopalan et al., was developed to analyze the data and this is now been made available as freeware (http://bit.ly/ncalculator). The total nutrients consumed by the adults, men and women was calculated. Identifying details having been removed, the raw data is available, open access on the internet http://bit.ly/foodlogxls.The energy consumption in our study was 2379 kcal per capita per day. According to the Summary Report World Agriculture the per capita food consumption in 1997-99 was 2803 which is higher than that in the best state in India. The consumption for developing countries a decade ago was 2681 and in Sub-Saharan Africa it was 2195. Our data is compatible in 2005 with the South Asia consumption of 2403 Kcal per capita per day in 1997-99. For comparison, in industrialized countries it was 3380. In Tamil Nadu it was a mere 1817 kcal. The nutrient consumption in this study suggests that food security in the villages

  11. Dietary fat intake and plasma lipid levels in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, E K; Lee-Finglas, W E; Southon, S; Gee, J M; Johnson, I T; Finglas, P M; Wright, A J

    1992-12-01

    The relationship between dietary fat intake and fasting plasma lipid levels was assessed in 35 female and 19 male adolescents recruited from two local education authority schools in Norwich, UK. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 7-day weighed dietary record method, coupled with the collection of duplicate diets. Fat and energy intakes calculated using food composition tables were compared with values obtained by direct analysis of duplicate diets. Fasting plasma lipid levels (total, HDL and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides) were measured and compared with total dietary lipids and fatty acid intakes. The average proportion of energy consumed as fat was higher than is currently considered desirable but lower than previous studies have reported for adults. Mean serum total cholesterol values were 4.2 (SEM 0.1) mmol for females and 4.5 (SEM 0.2) mmol for males; this difference was not statistically significant. In male subjects the dietary fatty acid profiles were significantly correlated with several parameters of plasma lipid status which are thought to be risk factors for coronary heart disease, and in particular with the ratio of total:HDL cholesterol.

  12. Inaccuracy of Self-reported Low Sodium Diet among Chinese: Findings from Baseline Survey for Shandong & Ministry of Health Action on Salt and Hypertension (SMASH) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Guo, Xiao Lei; Seo, Dong Chul; Xu, Ai Qiang; Xun, Peng Cheng; Ma, Ji Xiang; Shi, Xiao Ming; Li, Nicole; Yan, Liu Xia; Li, Yuan; Lu, Zi Long; Zhang, Ji Yu; Tang, Jun Li; Ren, Jie; Zhao, Wen Hua; Liang, Xiao Feng

    2015-02-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the agreement between the self-reported sodium intake level and 24-h urine sodium excretion level in Chinese. The 24-h urine collection was conducted among 2112 adults aged 18-69 years randomly selected in Shandong Province, China. The subjects were asked whether their sodium intake was low, moderate, or high. The weighted kappa statistics was calculated to assess the agreement between 24-h urine sodium excretion level and self-reported sodium intake level. One third of the subjects reported low sodium intake level. About 70% of the subjects had mean 24-h sodium excretion>9 g/d, but reported low or moderate sodium intake. The agreement between self-reported sodium intake level and 24-h urine sodium excretion level was low in both normotensive subjects and hypertensive subjects. These findings suggested that many subjects who reported low sodium intake had actual urine sodium excretion>9 g/d. Sodium intake is often underestimated in both hypertensive and normotensive participants in China. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  13. Factors associated with fruit and vegetable and total fat intake in university students: A cross-sectional explanatory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliens, Tom; Verhoeven, Hannah; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Huybrechts, Inge; Mullie, Patrick; Clarys, Peter; Deforche, Benedicte

    2018-01-04

    This study assessed sociodemographics, general health, personal and environmental factors associated with fruit and vegetable (F&V) and total fat intake in Belgian university students. In total, 185 students completed a self-reported online questionnaire assessing daily F&V and fat intake, as well as sociodemographic, personal and environmental variables related to F&V and fat intake. Mean F&V and fat consumption were compared with Belgian recommendations. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with F&V and fat intake. Respectively, 90.3 and 50.8% of students failed to meet the recommendations for F&V and fat consumption. Agreeing more with the fact that one should eat F&V on most days of the week (individual subjective norm), finding it less difficult to eat F&V at home or at university (perceived behavioural control) and experiencing more modelling were associated with higher F&V consumption. Increasing age, higher educational level of the father and higher individual subjective norm about eating low-fat foods were associated with lower fat intake. Future interventions aiming to improve dietary intake among university students should focus on younger students with lower socioeconomic status and should enhance students' subjective norm and behavioural control concerning healthy eating. © 2018 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  14. Dietary supplement use and its effect on nutrient intake in Korean adult population in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (2007-2009) data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, M; Kim, D W; Baek, Y J; Moon, S-H; Jung, H J; Song, Y J; Paik, H-Y

    2014-07-01

    Although there is an increasing trend of dietary supplement (DS) use, few researches have evaluated nutrient intake from DS. This study aimed to establish a nutrient database (NDB) for DS and estimate the effect of DS on total nutrient intake by Korean adults. The NDB for DS was established using the label information of products reported in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) IV. Of the 16,031 participants who were ≥20 years old, 2053 products were reported as being taken by 5606 subjects. But nutrient composition could be identified by searching product name only in 1158 products consumed by 3844 subjects (DS users). Total nutrient intake of DS users was obtained by combining intakes from diet and DS. Dietary supplement use was higher in women, in middle-aged people and in those with higher education and low smoking and drinking preferences. Nutrients obtained from food were higher in DS users than in nonusers for most nutrients, particularly in women. When total nutrient intake was evaluated in DS users, the percentage of subjects whose intake was below the estimated average requirement for Koreans decreased for several vitamins and minerals, but the percentage of subjects whose intake was above the tolerable upper intake levels increased for vitamin A, vitamin C and iron. The newly developed NDB for DS will be an important resource for more accurate assessment of nutrient intake as well as evaluation of the relationship between nutrition and health. Further research is needed to update a more comprehensive NDB applicable to diverse populations.

  15. Nutrition knowledge, attitudes and fat intake: application of the theory of reasoned action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, R; Towler, G

    2007-06-01

    Validated questionnaires eliciting information on nutrition knowledge and attitudes, related to fat intake from meat, meat products, dairy products and fried foods, were completed by 538 subjects. There were high correlations (ranging from 0.40 to 0.77) between the sums of belief-evaluations, attitudes, intention and self-reported behaviour, with similar correlations for a subgroup of males aged 35-54 years. Nutrition knowledge, showed some statistically significant (but small) negative correlations with components of attitudes. Females had higher nutrition knowledge scores and more negative views of the foods than did males. Fat intake, measured using 3 day weighed intakes, correlated with self-reported behaviour (r = 0.55, p<0.01) in a subsample of 30 males, aged 35-54 years. Thus, nutrition knowledge seems less clearly related to consumption of these foods than are more specific beliefs and attitudes.

  16. High Dietary Magnesium Intake is Significantly and Independently Associated with Higher Insulin Sensitivity in a Mexican-Mestizo Population: A Brief Cross-Sectional Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moctezuma-Velázquez, Carlos; Gómez-Sámano, Miguel Ángel; Cajas-Sánchez, María Belén; Reyes-Molina, Diana Lorena; Galindo-Guzmán, Mariana; Meza-Arana, Clara-Elena; Cuevas-Ramos, Daniel; Gómez-Pérez, Francisco Javier; Gulias-Herrero, Alfonso

    2017-01-01

    Magnesium acts as a cofactor in many intracellular reactions including phosphorylation of the insulin receptor; therefore, its imbalance can potentially cause insulin resistance. Low serum magnesium concentration has been associated with the development of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. To study the association between the daily dietary magnesium intake and insulin resistance estimated by the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance and homeostatic model assessment 2, as well as insulin sensitivity estimated by the Matsuda index. In a university affiliated medical center, 32 participants (22 women, 10 men) that had an indication for testing for type 2 diabetes mellitus with an oral glucose tolerance test were enrolled in this cross-sectional, comparative study. Clinical and biochemical evaluations were carried out including an oral glucose tolerance test. Hepatic insulin resistance index, homeostatic model assessment 2, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, and Matsuda insulin sensitivity were calculated for each participant. They were asked to recall their food ingestion (24 hours) of three days of the past week, including a weekend day; magnesium intake was calculated according to the food nutritional information. The low dietary magnesium intake group (magnesium (119.5 [73.0-190.6] vs. 63.5 [25.4-114.2]; p = 0.008), and insulin sensitivity assessed by the Matsuda index was higher in the high dietary magnesium intake group (4.3 ± 3.1 vs. 2.4 ± 1.5; p = 0.042). In multiple linear regression analysis a higher dietary magnesium intake was independently associated (β = 4.93; p = 0.05) with a better insulin sensitivity estimated by the Matsuda index. Our results suggest that higher magnesium intake is independently associated with better insulin sensitivity in patients at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  17. Activity, Energy Intake, Obesity, and the Risk of Incident Kidney Stones in Postmenopausal Women: A Report from the Women’s Health Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Thomas; Shara, Nawar M.; Wang, Hong; Hsi, Ryan S.; Orchard, Tonya; Kahn, Arnold J.; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Miller, Joe; Reiner, Alex P.; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a strong risk factor for nephrolithiasis, but the role of physical activity and caloric intake remains poorly understood. We evaluated this relationship in 84,225 women with no history of stones as part of the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study, a longitudinal, prospective cohort of postmenopausal women enrolled from 1993 to 1998 with 8 years’ median follow-up. The independent association of physical activity (metabolic equivalents [METs]/wk), calibrated dietary energy intake, and body mass index (BMI) with incident kidney stone development was evaluated after adjustment for nephrolithiasis risk factors. Activity intensity was evaluated in stratified analyses. Compared with the risk in inactive women, the risk of incident stones decreased by 16% in women with the lowest physical activity level (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.84; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.74 to 0.97). As activity increased, the risk of incident stones continued to decline until plateauing at a decrease of approximately 31% for activity levels ≥10 METs/wk (aHR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.79). Intensity of activity was not associated with stone formation. As dietary energy intake increased, the risk of incident stones increased by up to 42% (aHR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.98). However, intake kidney stones in postmenopausal women independent of caloric intake and BMI, primarily because of the amount of activity rather than exercise intensity. Higher caloric intake further increases the risk of incident stones. PMID:24335976

  18. Dietary Intake of Fiber, Fruit and Vegetables Decreases the Risk of Incident Kidney Stones in Women: A Women's Health Initiative Report

    OpenAIRE

    Sorensen, MD; Hsi, RS; Chi, T; Shara, N.; Wactawski-Wende, J.; Kahn, AJ; Wang, H.; Hou, L; Stoller, ML

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Results Mean age of the women was 64±7 years, 85% were white and 2,937 (3.5%) experienced a kidney stone in a median followup of 8 years. In women with no history of kidney stones higher total dietary fiber (6% to 26% decreased risk, p < 0.001), greater fruit intake (12% to 25% decreased risk, p < 0.001) and greater vegetable intake (9% to 22% decreased risk, p=0.002) were associated with a decreased risk of incident kidney...

  19. Calcium intake in health maintenance – a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Uusi-Rasi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium (Ca is an essential nutrient for the human body. Despite lively research, there is uncertainty about Ca requirements in terms of desirable health outcomes including an upper intake level above which the potential for harm increases. Objectives: The aim was to conduct a review to update requirements and desirable or harmful health effects of Ca on the current scientific evidence. Methods: We searched Medline and Swemed from January 2000 to December 2011 and included all systematic reviews that reported Ca supplementation or usual Ca intake on health outcomes. Meta-analyses, randomized clinical trials and cohort studies were included in the second search between May 2009 and March 2011 and an additional search covering studies till the end of 2011. This review concentrated on studies reporting independent effects of Ca, although a few recent trials report sole effects of Ca on health outcomes, most trials use Ca in combination with vitamin D vs. placebo. Results: In total, we reviewed 38 studies addressing the effects of Ca on bone, pregnancy-related outcomes, cancers, cardiovascular outcomes, obesity, and mortality. There was a lot of heterogeneity in the study protocols, which made it difficult to draw any strong conclusions. According to the literature, high Ca intake seems to have a small positive effect on bone mineral content (BMC or bone mineral density (BMD in children and postmenopausal women. We did not find any consistent evidence on the effects of Ca on bone health in premenopausal women or men. Also, the evidence that Ca supplementation reduces fracture incidence is scarce and inconsistent. Maternal diet may influence the peak bone mass of offspring but more studies are required. There was no overall effect of Ca intake on cancers. Ca was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer and a slightly increased risk of prostate cancer in two of the three studies. No associations were found with other cancers. We

  20. Misreporting of Dietary Intake Affects Estimated Nutrient Intakes in Low-Income Spanish-Speaking Women

    OpenAIRE

    Banna, JC; Fialkowski, MK; Townsend, MS

    2014-01-01

    © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Misreporting of dietary intake affects the validity of data collected and conclusions drawn in studies exploring diet and health outcomes. One consequence of misreporting is biological implausibility. Little is known regarding how accounting for biological implausibility of reported intake affects nutrient intake estimates in Hispanics, a rapidly growing demographic in the United States. Our study explores the effect of accounting for plausibility on...

  1. Do type 2 diabetes patients without diabetic retinopathy or subjects with impaired fasting glucose have impaired colour vision? The Okubo Color Study Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, T; Sakurai, Y; Sato, H; Chihara, E; Takeuchi, M

    2011-07-01

    To investigate associations between fasting plasma glucose level and the prevalence of acquired colour vision impairment in type 2 diabetes patients without diabetic retinopathy. Participants in this cross-sectional study of male officials aged 20-60 yr in the Japanese Self Defence Force, underwent colour vision testing, ophthalmic examination, a standardized interview and examination of venous blood samples. Ishihara plates, a Lanthony 15-hue desaturated panel and Standard Pseudoisochromatic Plates Part 2 were used to examine colour vision. The Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test was performed to define acquired colour vision impairment. Cardiovascular disease risk factors were determined from serum blood samples, physical records and an interview. We performed logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, diagnosed hypertension, dyslipidaemia, cataract, glaucoma, being overweight, smoking status and alcohol intake. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were calculated for three glucose levels, which included normal fasting glucose, impaired fasting glucose and diabetes. Out of a total of 1042 men enrolled, 872 were eligible for the study, and 31 were diagnosed with acquired colour vision impairment. As compared with the subjects with normal fasting glucose (colour vision impairment was 0.93 (95% CI 0.32-2.74) for the subjects with impaired fasting glucose (5.6-6.9 mmol/l) and 8.07 (95% CI 2.48-26.22) for the patients with type 2 diabetes. The multiple-adjusted odds ratios were 0.77 (95% CI 0.25-2.34) for the subjects with impaired fasting glucose and 5.89 (95% CI 1.55-22.40) for the patients with type 2 diabetes. Our findings suggest that there is a dramatically increased prevalence of acquired colour vision impairment in type 2 diabetes patients without diabetic retinopathy which might be attributable to another pathogenesis associated with diabetic retinopathy. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK.

  2. 40 CFR Table 20 to Subpart G of... - Wastewater-Periodic Reporting Requirements for Control Devices Subject to § 63.139 Used To Comply...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Table 20 Table 20 to Subpart G of Part 63—Wastewater—Periodic Reporting Requirements for Control Devices... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wastewater-Periodic Reporting Requirements for Control Devices Subject to § 63.139 Used To Comply With §§ 63.13 Through 63.139 20 Table 20...

  3. Nutrient intake of first generation Gujarati Asian Indian immigrants in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Diwan, Sadhna

    2002-10-01

    To examine the nutrient intake of Gujarati Asian Indian immigrants in the U.S. and the influence of length of residence in the U.S. and socioeconomic status (SES) on their macronutrient intake. Subjects were male (n = 90) and female (n = 99) Gujarati Asian Indian immigrants over the age of 45. Each participant completed a 24-hour dietary recall. Dietary recalls were analyzed using Food Processor nutrient analysis software. Participants were classified into recent immigrants (10 years length of residence in the U.S.) and into low, medium and high education groups, based on highest level of education achieved, to examine the influence of these variables on their macronutrient intake. The macronutrient contributions to the total energy intake of these Gujarati Asian Indian immigrants were as follows: carbohydrate 57%, protein 12% and total fat 33%. The diets were low in cholesterol (/=25 g/day). Reported intakes of vitamin D, calcium (women only), potassium (women only), copper and zinc were less than two-thirds of the recommendations. Significant differences (p Gujarati Asian Indian immigrants. The nutrient intakes of these Gujarati Asian Indian immigrants indicate both inadequacies and excesses of select macro and micronutrients. These nutrient inadequacies and excesses can impact overall health and risk of chronic diseases of these individuals. Further investigation of the influence of the diets of these immigrants on their health is warranted.

  4. Reported intake of selected micronutrients and risk of colorectal cancer: results from a large population-based case-control study in Newfoundland, Labrador and Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhuoyu; Zhu, Yun; Wang, Peizhong Peter; Roebothan, Barbara; Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Jinhui; Dicks, Elizabeth; Cotterchio, Michelle; Buehler, Sharon; Campbell, Peter T; McLaughlin, John R; Parfrey, Patrick S

    2012-02-01

    The impact of micronutrient intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations of selected micronutrients with risk of incident CRC in study participants from Newfoundland, Labrador (NL) and Ontario (ON), Canada. We conducted a population-based study among 1760 case participants and 2481 age- and sex-matched control participants. Information on diet and other lifestyle factors were measured using a food frequency questionnaire and a personal history questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression, controlling for covariables. Highest compared to lowest quartile intakes of certain micronutrients were associated with lower risk of CRC, including: calcium (from food and supplements (FS), OR=0.59; 95% CI=0.45-0.77, and from food only (FO): OR=0.76, 95% CI=0.59-0.97), vitamin C (FS:OR=0.67; 95%CI:0.51-0.88), vitamin D (FS: OR=0.73; 95% CI: 0.57-0.94, FO: OR=0.79, 95% CI=0.62-1.00), riboflavin (FS: OR=0.61; 95% CI=0.47-0.78, and folate (FS: OR=0.72; 95% CI=0.56-0.92). Higher risk of CRC was observed for iron intake (highest versus lowest quintiles: OR=1.34, 95% CI=1.01-1.78). This study presents evidence that dietary intake of calcium, vitamin D, vitamin C, riboflavin and folate are associated with a lower risk of incident CRC and that dietary intake of iron may be associated with a higher risk of the disease.

  5. Severity of anxiety symptoms reported by borderline patients and Axis II comparison subjects: description and prediction over 16 years of prospective follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanarini, Mary C; Frankenburg, Frances R; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M

    2014-12-01

    The first purpose of this study was to determine the severity of anxiety symptoms reported by borderline patients and Axis II comparison subjects over 16 years of follow-up. The second purpose was to determine the most salient predictors of the severity of anxiety symptoms of borderline patients. Initially, 290 borderline inpatients and 72 comparison subjects were assessed using measures of anxiety, childhood adversity, and normal personality. The severity of anxiety symptoms was reassessed every 2 years. Borderline patients reported approximately twice as severe symptoms of anxiety as comparison subjects. However, these symptoms decreased significantly over time for those in both groups. Among borderline patients, two variables were found to be significant multivariate predictors of severity of overall anxiety: nonsexual childhood abuse and trait neuroticism. The results of this study suggest that anxiety symptoms form a distinct profile for borderline patients-a profile related to both childhood adversity and a vulnerable temperament.

  6. Subjective Mental Health, Peer Relations, Family, and School Environment in Adolescents with Intellectual Developmental Disorder: A First Report of a New Questionnaire Administered on Tablet PCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boström, Petra; Johnels, Jakob Åsberg; Thorson, Maria; Broberg, Malin

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have explored the subjective mental health of adolescents with intellectual disabilities, while proxy ratings indicate an overrepresentation of mental health problems. The present study reports on the design and an initial empirical evaluation of the Well-being in Special Education Questionnaire (WellSEQ). Questions, response scales,…

  7. A Methodology for Investigating the Interactions of Individual Differences and Subject Matter Characteristics with Instructional Methods. ; Report 67.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigeluth, Charles M.

    This paper presents a general model for conceptualizing and testing the interactions of individual differences and subject-matter characteristics with instructional methods. The model postulates certain ways of classifying the variables of interest in such investigations and of conceptualizing the cause-and-effect relationships among those classes…

  8. Estimate of dietary phosphorus intake using 24-h urine collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yuuka; Sakuma, Masae; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Akitsu; Matsushita, Asami; Umeda, Minako; Ishikawa, Makoto; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji; Arai, Hidekazu

    2014-07-01

    Increases in serum phosphorus levels and dietary phosphorus intake induces vascular calcification, arterial sclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Limiting phosphorus intake is advisable, however, no assessment methods are capable of estimating dietary phosphorus intake. We hypothesized that urinary phosphorus excretion can be translated into estimation of dietary phosphorus intake, and we evaluated whether a 24-h urine collection method could estimate dietary phosphorus intake. Thirty two healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Subjects collected urine samples over 24 h and weighed dietary records. We calculated dietary protein intake and phosphorus intake from dietary records and urine collection, and investigated associations between the two methods in estimating protein and phosphorus intake. Significant positive correlations were observed between dietary records and UC for protein and phosphorus intake. The average intakes determined from dietary records were significantly higher than from urine collection for both protein and phosphorus. There was a significant positive correlation between both the phosphorus and protein difference in dietary records and urine collection. The phosphorus-protein ratio in urine collection was significantly higher than in dietary records. Our data indicated that the 24-h urine collection method can estimate the amount of dietary phosphorus intake, and the results were superior to estimation by weighed dietary record.

  9. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Subjective Halitosis in Korean Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Kim

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of subjective halitosis in adolescents. In total, 359,263 participants were selected from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS from 2009 through 2013. Demographic data including age, sex, obesity and residency; psychosocial factors such as subjective health, stress, and economic levels; and dietary factors such as alcohol consumption; smoking; and fruit, soda, fast food, instant noodle, confection, and vegetable consumption were analyzed for correlations with halitosis using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. In total, 23.6% of the participants reported the presence of halitosis. The following subjectively assessed factors were related to halitosis: poor health status (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.56, overweight or obese (AOR = 1.37, stress (AOR = 2.56, and lower economic levels (AOR = 1.85. The high intake of fast food (AOR = 1.15, instant noodles (AOR = 1.17, and confections (AOR = 1.17 and the low intake of fruits (AOR = 1.22 and vegetables (AOR = 1.19 were also related to halitosis. The prevalence of subjective halitosis in the studied adolescents was 23.6%. Specific psychosocial factors and dietary intake were related to halitosis.

  10. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Subjective Halitosis in Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Kim, Sung-Gyun; Park, Bumjung; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of subjective halitosis in adolescents. In total, 359,263 participants were selected from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) from 2009 through 2013. Demographic data including age, sex, obesity and residency; psychosocial factors such as subjective health, stress, and economic levels; and dietary factors such as alcohol consumption; smoking; and fruit, soda, fast food, instant noodle, confection, and vegetable consumption were analyzed for correlations with halitosis using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. In total, 23.6% of the participants reported the presence of halitosis. The following subjectively assessed factors were related to halitosis: poor health status (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.56), overweight or obese (AOR = 1.37), stress (AOR = 2.56), and lower economic levels (AOR = 1.85). The high intake of fast food (AOR = 1.15), instant noodles (AOR = 1.17), and confections (AOR = 1.17) and the low intake of fruits (AOR = 1.22) and vegetables (AOR = 1.19) were also related to halitosis. The prevalence of subjective halitosis in the studied adolescents was 23.6%. Specific psychosocial factors and dietary intake were related to halitosis.

  11. {omega}-3 Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and 12-y incidence of neovascular age-related macular degeneration and central geographic atrophy: AREDS report 30, a prospective cohort study from the Age-Related Eye Disease Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangiovanni, John Paul; Agrón, Elvira; Meleth, A Dhananjayan; Reed, George F; Sperduto, Robert D; Clemons, Traci E; Chew, Emily Y

    2009-12-01

    omega-3 (n-3) Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) affect processes implicated in vascular and neural retinal pathogenesis and thus may influence the risk of developing age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We investigated whether omega-3 LCPUFA intake was associated with a reduced likelihood of developing central geographic atrophy (CGA) and neovascular (NV) AMD. We undertook a nested cohort study within a multicenter phase 3 clinical trial, the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS), to study progression to advanced AMD in 1837 persons at moderate-to-high risk of this condition. The AREDS was designed to assess the clinical course, prognosis, risk factors, and nutrient-based treatments of AMD and ran from November 1992 to December 2005. We obtained baseline data on omega-3 LCPUFA intake with a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Trained fundus graders ascertained AMD status from annual stereoscopic color photographs by using standardized methods at a single reading center across a 12-y period. We applied multivariable repeated-measures logistic regression with the incorporation of generalized estimating equation methods, because this permitted determination of progression to outcome at each visit. Participants who reported the highest omega-3 LCPUFA intake (median: 0.11% of total energy intake) were 30% less likely than their peers to develop CGA and NV AMD. The respective odds ratios were 0.65 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.92; P reporting the highest consumption of omega-3 LCPUFAs. If these results are generalizable, they may guide the development of low-cost and easily implemented preventive interventions for progression to advanced AMD. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00594672.

  12. Secular trends in regional differences in nutritional biomarkers and self-reported dietary intakes among American adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1988-1994 to 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ashima K; Graubard, Barry I

    2018-01-10

    To understand the contribution of regional differentials in dietary exposures to regional gradients in health, we examined 20-year trends in the association of US census region of residence with nutritional biomarkers and dietary intakes of American adults. Observational. The biomarker and 24 h dietary recall data were from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) conducted during 1988-1994 and 1999-2010. The US census region was operationalized as Northeast, Midwest, South and West. Nutritional biomarker outcomes were serum folate, vitamins B6, B12, C, D and E, and carotenoids; dietary outcomes were intakes of nutrients, food groups and eating patterns. US adults, n>8000-40 000 for biomarkers and >43 000 for dietary outcomes. The interactions of survey time period and region were not significant for the examined biomarker and dietary outcomes, indicating similar secular trends among regions. The main effect of region was significant for all nutritional biomarkers except serum vitamin B6, most dietary micronutrients, food groups and eating patterns (P<0·001). The mean serum folate, vitamins B12, C and E, and all carotenoid (except lycopene) biomarker levels, and intakes of dietary fibre, vitamins A, E, C and B6, folate, K, Ca, Mg and Fe, fruits, vegetables and whole grains, were higher in the West and Northeast regions, relative to the South and Midwest regions. Overall, the regional gradients in dietary exposure, expressed objectively as biomarkers or as self-reported nutrient and food group intakes, paralleled trajectories reported for health outcomes and were remarkably persistent over time.

  13. Cinnamon intake lowers fasting blood glucose: meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Paul A; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2011-09-01

    Cinnamon, the dry bark and twig of Cinnamomum spp., is a rich botanical source of polyphenolics that has been used for centuries in Chinese medicine and has been shown to affect blood glucose and insulin signaling. Cinnamon's effects on blood glucose have been the subject of many clinical and animal studies; however, the issue of cinnamon intake's effect on fasting blood glucose (FBG) in people with type 2 diabetes and/or prediabetes still remains unclear. A meta-analysis of clinical studies of the effect of cinnamon intake on people with type 2 diabetes and/or prediabetes that included three new clinical trials along with five trials used in previous meta-analyses was done to assess cinnamon's effectiveness in lowering FBG. The eight clinical studies were identified using a literature search (Pub Med and Biosis through May 2010) of randomized, placebo-controlled trials reporting data on cinnamon and/or cinnamon extract and FBG. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (Biostat Inc., Englewood, NJ, USA) was performed on the identified data for both cinnamon and cinnamon extract intake using a random-effects model that determined the standardized mean difference ([i.e., Change 1(control) - Change 2(cinnamon)] divided by the pooled SD of the post scores). Cinnamon intake, either as whole cinnamon or as cinnamon extract, results in a statistically significant lowering in FBG (-0.49±0.2 mmol/L; n=8, P=.025) and intake of cinnamon extract only also lowered FBG (-0.48 mmol/L±0.17; n=5, P=.008). Thus cinnamon extract and/or cinnamon improves FBG in people with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes.

  14. An investigation into the relevance of action planning, theory of planned behaviour concepts, and automaticity for fruit intake action control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Wiedemann, Amelie; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2014-09-01

    In the action control framework, intention-behaviour discordance is studied around public health guidelines. Although this framework has been applied to physical activity behaviours, it has only seen very limited attention regarding fruit intake. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate distributions and predictors of fruit intake intention-behaviour discordance. Prospective correlational design. Data were obtained from undergraduate students (n = 413) using validated questionnaires. Variables from the theory of planned behaviour, automaticity, and action planning were assessed at baseline, and fruit intake was assessed 2 weeks later. Data were analysed using discriminant function analyses and analyses of variance. The proportion of unsuccessful intenders ranged from 39.2% to 80.8%. There was a larger proportion of fruit intake intenders amongst those who reported strong automatic fruit intake. Action control was predicted by fruit intake automaticity and affective attitudes, but the strongest predictor was perceived behavioural control. No action planning items were related to fruit intake action control. There is considerable asymmetry in the intention-fruit intake relationship. An application of the action control framework may stimulate debate on the applicability of intention-based models at the public health level. What is already known on this subject? Intention is theorized to be a key construct in fruit intake. Studies in the physical activity domain indicate that nearly half of the people with positive intentions fail to subsequently act. What does this study add? The proportion of unsuccessful intenders ranged from 39.2% to 80.8%. Holding positive intentions is not sufficient to consume fruit at suggested public health guidelines. Perceived behavioural control is the most important predictor of fruit intake action control. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Efficacy of life skills training on subjective well-being of students: a report from rafsanjan, iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadr-Mohammadi, Rezvan; Kalantari, Mehrdad; Molavi, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the efficacy of life skills training on subjective well-being (SWB) among high school females. The population study comprised all female high school of Rafsanjan, Iran, in 2008-2009. Thirty students with the lowest scores according to the Molavi's SWB questionnaire were considered eligible. At the next stage, the required sample of 30 students were selected randomly and divided into two groups of experimental (15 subjects) and control (15 subjects). Then, life skills training sessions were started for the experimental group (eight sessions in a 4-week period). Control group did not receive any intervention. The method of data processing at a descriptive level was through using central tendency indicators, dispersion, frequency, and percentage. Student's t-test was used for analysis of independent variables. The greatest R(2) (0.48) was observed for SWB. The R(2) coefficients for neurosis, stress-depression, vitality, and life determination were 0.27, 0.15, 0.20, and 0.09, respectively. Life skills training showed the greatest effect regarding SWB of the students.

  16. Comparing methods for assessing beverage intake among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley Olsen, Emily; Eaton, Danice K; Park, Sohyun; Brener, Nancy D; Blanck, Heidi M

    2014-01-01

    To compare 7 beverage intake survey questions against criterion data from 24-hour dietary recall interviews (24HrDRIs) among adolescents. Data were available from 610 US high school students completing a survey and ≥3 24HrDRIs. Analyses compared mean intake (times/day) calculated from the survey to intake (servings/day) from the 24HrDRIs. Proportions of students reporting intake of ≥1 times/day were compared to the 24HrDRI results. Survey data significantly correlated with 24HrDRI data (all corrected r: 0.26-0.49). Survey results differed from 24HrDRI results on reported intake of 5 beverages. Intake from these beverage questions should be reported in times/day, which is related to, but not a proxy for, servings/day. These questions are useful for population-level surveillance of beverage intake and monitoring trends over time.

  17. On the association between building ventilation characteristics, some indoor environmental exposures, some allergic manifestations and subjective symptom reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundell, J. (Karolinska Institute, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1994-05-01

    The aims of the present thesis are (1) to assess the associations between ventilation characteristics of homes, house dust mite infestation and allergy among children; (2) to assess the association between ventilation characteristics and occurrence of reported SBS-related symptoms among office workers; (3) to analyze associations between reported SBS-related symptoms and the reported sensation of dryness and associations between the reported sensation of dryness and physical air humidity, room characteristics and chemical factors; and (4) to study changes in total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) or formaldehyde concentration from outdoor air to room air and to study the associations between SBS-related symptom reports and concentrations of TVOC and formaldehyde in room air. (au) (256 refs.)

  18. Actigraphic sleep fragmentation, efficiency and duration associate with dietary intake in the Rotterdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashti, Hassan S; Zuurbier, Lisette A; de Jonge, Ester; Voortman, Trudy; Jacques, Paul F; Lamon-Fava, Stefania; Scheer, Frank A J L; Kiefte-De Jong, Jessica C; Hofman, Albert; Ordovás, José M; Franco, Oscar H; Tiemeier, Henning

    2016-08-01

    Short self-reported sleep duration is associated with dietary intake and this association may partly mediate the link between short sleep and metabolic abnormalities. Subjective sleep measures, however, may be inaccurate and biased. The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between actigraphic measures of sleep fragmentation, efficiency and duration and energy and macronutrient intakes. We used data from a subgroup of 439 participants of the population-based cohort, Rotterdam Study. Sleep was assessed using 7-day actigraphy and sleep diaries, and dietary data with a validated food frequency questionnaire. We assessed the associations of actigraphic sleep parameters with dietary intake using multivariable linear regression models. Higher sleep fragmentation was associated with 4.19 g lower carbohydrate intake per standard deviation of fragmentation {β [95% confidence interval (CI) = -4.19 (-8.0, -0.3)]; P = 0.03}. Each additional percentage increase in sleep efficiency was associated with 11.1 kcal lower energy intake [β (95% CI) = -11.1 (-20.6, -1.7); P = 0.02]. Furthermore, very short sleep duration (energy intake [β (95% CI = 218.06 (33.3, 402.8), P = 0.02], relative to the reference group (≥6.5 to efficiency and very short sleep duration (energy intake. The association between sleep and higher energy intake could mediate, in part, the link between short sleep or sleep fragmentation index and metabolic abnormalities. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  19. Are we justified in suggesting change to caffeine, alcohol, and carbonated drink intake in lower urinary tract disease? Report from the ICI-RS 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Dudley; Hanna-Mitchell, Ann; Rantell, Angie; Thiagamoorthy, Gans; Cardozo, Linda

    2017-04-01

    There is increasing evidence that diet may have a significant role in the development of lower urinary tract symptoms. While fluid intake is known to affect lower urinary tract function the effects of alcohol, caffeine, carbonated drinks, and artificial sweeteners are less well understood and evidence from epidemiological studies is mixed and sometimes contradictory. The aim of this paper is to appraise the available evidence on the effect of caffeine, alcohol, and carbonated drinks on lower urinary tract function and dysfunction in addition to suggesting proposals for further research. Literature review based on a systematic search strategy using the terms "fluid intake," "caffeine," "alcohol," "carbonated" and "urinary incontinence," "detrusor overactivity," "Overactive Bladder," "OAB." In addition to fluid intake, there is some evidence to support a role of caffeine, alcohol, and carbonated beverages in the pathogenesis of OAB and lower urinary tract dysfunction. Although some findings are contradictory, others clearly show an association between the ingestion of caffeine, carbonated drinks, and alcohol with symptom severity. CONCLUSIONS Given the available evidence lifestyle interventions and fluid modification may have an important role in the primary prevention of lower urinary tract symptoms. However, more research is needed to determine the precise role of caffeine, carbonated drinks, and alcohol in the pathogenesis and management of these symptoms. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate that research. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:876-881, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Oral health status: relationship to nutrient and food intake among 80-year-old Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Masanori; Taylor, George W; Manz, Michael C; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Sato, Misuzu; Muramatsu, Kanako; Watanabe, Reiko; Miyazaki, Hideo

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship of oral health status defined on the basis of presence of posterior occluding pairs (POPs) and adequacy of removable denture fit as determined by self-report to nutrient and food intake among older Japanese. The subjects were 353 Japanese aged 80 years in 2008 and were classified into four groups according to the number of POPs, defined as pairs of occluding natural, restored, or fixed prosthetic postcanine teeth (range: 0-8) and removable denture status. The groups were: (i) good dentition (n = 56; 8 POPs and no removable prosthesis), (ii) well-fitting dentures (n = 158; oral health status groups was conducted using general linear models. Results: Intake of multiple nutrients was significantly (P diet intake and subsequent nutritional status of older Japanese.

  1. Evaluation of safety of excessive intake and efficacy of long-term intake of beverages containing apple polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazome, Yoko; Kametani, Norihiro; Kanda, Tomomasa; Shimasaki, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Shuhei

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed to evaluate the safety of an excessive intake and the efficacy of a long-term intake of polyphenols derived from apples for moderately underweight to moderately obese subjects (long-term intake: 94 subjects; excessive intake: 30 subjects). For each trial, the subjects were divided into the following two groups: a group that drank beverages with apple polyphenols (600 mg) (hereinafter referred to as the apple group) and a group that drank beverages without apple polyphenols (hereinafter referred to as the placebo group). For the long-term intake trial, the subjects were given a regular amount of the beverage (340 g) each day for 12 weeks. For the excessive intake trial, the subjects were given three times the regular amount of the beverage each day for 4 weeks. It is noteworthy that the visceral fat area (VFA) of subjects in the apple group for the long-term intake trial had decreased significantly by the 8- and 12-week marks (week 8: p apple group compared to those in the placebo group was significantly lower by the 8- and 12-week marks (p apple group that started with a high VFA (VFA > or = 100 cm(2)) had decreased significantly by the 8- and 12-week marks compared to the baseline (week 8: p apple group that started with a normal VFA (VFA apple polyphenols.

  2. Original article Agentic and communal narcissism and subjective well-being: are narcissistic individuals unhappy? A research report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Żemojtel-Piotrowska

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The communal/agentic model of narcissism is well accepted in the current research literature (Gebauer, Sedikides, Verplanken & Maio, 2012. This model could be particularly useful in examining the relation between narcissism and hedonistic and eudaimonic subjective well-being (SWB; Deci & Ryan, 2008. Participants and procedure In an effort to examine the relationship between narcissism and SWB, correlational analyses of survey responses obtained from students (n = 138 were conducted. Agentic narcissism was measured using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI; Raskin & Terry, 1988 and communal narcissism by the Communal Narcissism Inventory (CNI; Gebauer et al., 2012. Subjective well-being measures included the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen & Griffin, 1985, Positive And Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; Watson, Clark & Tegellen, 1988, and the Social Well-being Scale (SWBS; Keyes, 1998. Self-esteem was included in the study in order to examine the potential mediating role of self-esteem in the relationship between narcissism and subjective well-being. Results Agentic narcissism was positively related to the affective component of SWB whereas communal narcissism was positively related to the cognitive component of SWB. Both forms of narcissism were positively related to social well-being. All relationships were mediated by the participant’s self-esteem level. Conclusions The results indicate that both agentic narcissism and communal narcissism are positively related to SWB. The results are discussed in the context of the agentic/communal model of narcissism (Gebauer et al., 2012 and hedonistic/eudaimonic well-being (Deci & Ryan, 2008.

  3. THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SELF-REPORTED HEALTH STATUS AND SUBJECTIVE HEALTH LITERACY AMONG YOUNG ADULTS IN LITHUANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Cesnaviciene, Jurate; Ustilaite, Stase; Kalinkeviciene, Ausra

    2016-01-01

    Seeking to successfully act in the 21st century, a person should have a relatively big spectrum of abilities and competences; in other words, s/he should develop literacy in a number of spheres. Health literacy is essential for a person’s daily capability to manage own health and the quality of life, which is dependent on it. It is significant for the social and economic development of the society. The purpose of the research was to identify the relationships between subjective health literac...

  4. Association between family structure and food group intake in children

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, Youn Joo; Paik, Hee Young; Shim, Jae Eun

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUNDS/OBJECTOVES Family has an impact on dietary intake of children as a proximal food environment and family structures are changing and becoming more diverse. This study was performed to identify the association between family structure and food group intake of children aged 3-18 years in Korea. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 3,217 children with complete data on variables for household information, dietary intake and sampling weights were obtained from 2010-2011 Korea National Health and...

  5. FEMA Registration Intake and Individuals Household Program - API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The dataset is composed of Registration Intake and Individuals and Households Program (IHP) Information from the Individual Assistance (IA) reporting authority where...

  6. Tissue Damage Markers after a Spinal Manipulation in Healthy Subjects: A Preliminary Report of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Achalandabaso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal manipulation (SM is a manual therapy technique frequently applied to treat musculoskeletal disorders because of its analgesic effects. It is defined by a manual procedure involving a directed impulse to move a joint past its physiologic range of movement (ROM. In this sense, to exceed the physiologic ROM of a joint could trigger tissue damage, which might represent an adverse effect associated with spinal manipulation. The present work tries to explore the presence of tissue damage associated with SM through the damage markers analysis. Thirty healthy subjects recruited at the University of Jaén were submitted to a placebo SM (control group; n=10, a single lower cervical manipulation (cervical group; n=10, and a thoracic manipulation (n=10. Before the intervention, blood samples were extracted and centrifuged to obtain plasma and serum. The procedure was repeated right after the intervention and two hours after the intervention. Tissue damage markers creatine phosphokinase (CPK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, C-reactive protein (CRP, troponin-I, myoglobin, neuron-specific enolase (NSE, and aldolase were determined in samples. Statistical analysis was performed through a 3×3 mixed-model ANOVA. Neither cervical manipulation nor thoracic manipulation did produce significant changes in the CPK, LDH, CRP, troponin-I, myoglobin, NSE, or aldolase blood levels. Our data suggest that the mechanical strain produced by SM seems to be innocuous to the joints and surrounding tissues in healthy subjects.

  7. Relationship between milk intake and mucus production in adult volunteers challenged with rhinovirus-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnock, C B; Graham, N M; Mylvaganam, A; Douglas, R M

    1990-02-01

    In the first of three studies investigating the widely held belief that "milk produces mucus," 60 volunteers were challenged with rhinovirus-2, and daily respiratory symptoms and milk and dairy product intake records were kept over a 10-day period. Nasal secretion weights were obtained by weighing tissues collected and sealed immediately after use. Information was obtained on 51 subjects, yielding 510 person-days of observation. Subjects consumed zero to 11 glasses of milk per day (mean, 2.7; SE, 0.08), and secretion weights ranged from zero to 30.4 g/day (mean, 1.1; SE, 0.1). In response to an initial questionnaire, 27.5% reported the practice of reducing intake of milk or dairy products with a cold or named milk or dairy products as bad for colds. Of the latter group, 80% stated the reason as "producing more mucus/phlegm." Milk and dairy product intake was not associated with an increase in upper or lower respiratory tract symptoms of congestion or nasal secretion weight. A trend was observed for cough, when present, to be loose with increasing milk and dairy product intake; however, this effect was not statistically significant at the 5% level. Those who believe "milk makes mucus" or reduce milk intake with colds reported significantly more cough and congestion symptoms, but they did not produce higher levels of nasal secretions. We conclude that no statistically significant overall association can be detected between milk and dairy product intake and symptoms of mucus production in healthy adults, either asymptomatic or symptomatic, with rhinovirus infection.

  8. Trial of a mobile phone method for recording dietary intake in adults with type 2 diabetes: evaluation and implications for future applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollo, Megan E; Ash, Susan; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Russell, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated a mobile phone application (Nutricam) for recording dietary intake. It allowed users to capture a photograph of food items before consumption and store a voice recording to explain the contents of the photograph. This information was then sent to a website where it was analysed by a dietitian. Ten adults with type 2 diabetes (BMI 24.1-47.9 kg/m(2)) recorded their intake over a three-day period using both Nutricam and a written food diary. Compared to the food diary, energy intake was under-recorded by 649 kJ (SD 810) using the mobile phone method. However, there was no trend in the difference between dietary assessment methods at levels of low or high energy intake. All subjects reported that the mobile phone system was easy to use. Six subjects found that the time taken to record using Nutricam was shorter than recording using the written diary, while two reported that it was about the same. The level of detail provided in the voice recording and food items obscured in photographs reduced the quality of the mobile phone records. Although some modifications to the mobile phone method will be necessary to improve the accuracy of self-reported intake, the system was considered an acceptable alternative to written records and has the potential to be used by adults with type 2 diabetes for monitoring dietary intake by a dietitian.

  9. Dietary intake of antioxidant vitamins in healthy adults in relation to current recommended intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabłonowska-Lietz, Beata; Jarosz, Agnieszka; Nowicka, Graiyna

    2013-01-01

    The health benefits arising from antioxidant vitamins A, C and E are well recognised and their recommended dietary intake for the general population have been established. However, there is still a need for assessing antioxidant vitamin intake in different population groups. To assess intake of antioxidant vitamins: A, C, E and beta-carotene, and to identify their major sources in the diets of healthy subjects. The study group consisted of 182 adults; both men and women from polish population. Antioxidant vitamin dietary intake was assessed by individual 3-day records. Data were analysed using updated "Polish Food Composition Tables" and 'Dieta 5' Software. The average daily intake of antioxidant vitamins was: 1076 mg for vitamin A (including 46% of retinol and 55% of beta-carotene), 107 mg for vitamin C and 9 mg for vitamin E. Higher dietary intake of these vitamins was observed in men compared to women. The average intake ofantioxidant vitamins was found to be in recommended range, however, significant differences were observed between the lowest and the highest intake. They were related to differences in the consumption of food products recognized as major sources of vitamins A, C, E and beta-carotene in study population.

  10. Gender differences in dietary intakes: what is the contribution of motivational variables?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, V; Bégin, C; Corneau, L; Dodin, S; Lemieux, S

    2015-02-01

    Differences between men and women with respect to dietary intakes and eating behaviours have been reported and could be explained by gender differences in motivational variables associated with the regulation of food intake. The main objectives of the present study were to identify gender differences in dietary intakes, eating behaviours and motivational variables and to determine how motivational variables were associated with dietary intakes and eating behaviours in men and women. Sixty-four men and 59 premenopausal women were included in the present study and presented cardiovascular risk factors. The Regulation of Eating Behaviours scale was completed to assess motivational variables. A validated food frequency questionnaire was administered to evaluate dietary intakes and subjects completed the Three-Factor Eating questionnaire to assess eating behaviours. Men had higher energy intake, energy density and percentage of energy from lipids and lower percentage of energy from carbohydrates than women (P ≤ 0.04). Men also had a lower emotional susceptibility to disinhibition than women (P = 0.0001). Women reported a higher score for eating-related self-determined motivation [i.e., eating-related self-determination index (SDI)] than men (P = 0.002). The most notable gender difference in the pattern of associations was that eating-related SDI was negatively associated with energy density (r = -0.30; P = 0.02), only in women. Women had a better dietary profile and higher eating-related SDI than men. However, gender differences in dietary variables might be explained by a potential gender-specific pattern of association of eating-related SDI with dietary intakes and eating behaviours. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  11. Abnormal Ocular Movement With Executive Dysfunction and Personality Change in Subject With Thalamic Infarction: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ee Jin; Kim, Myeong Ok; Kim, Chang Hwan; Joa, Kyung Lim; Jung, Han Young

    2015-12-01

    The thalamus, located between the cerebrum and midbrain, is a nuclear complex connected to the cerebral cortex that influences motor skills, cognition, and mood. The thalamus is composed of 50-60 nuclei and can be divided into four areas according to vascular supply. In addition, it can be divided into five areas according to function. Many studies have reported on a thalamic infarction causing motor or sensory changes, but few have reported on behavioral and executive aspects of the ophthalmoplegia of the thalamus. This study reports a rare case of a paramedian thalamus infarction affecting the dorsomedial area of the thalamus, manifesting as oculomotor nerve palsy, an abnormal behavioral change, and executive dysfunction. This special case is presented with a review of the anatomical basis and function of the thalamus.

  12. Differences in self-reported importance of elements of health and subjectively experienced health among outpatients in community mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jormfeldt, Henrika; Hansson, Lars; Svensson, Bengt

    2011-10-01

    Positive dimensions of mental health are strong protective factors against physical and mental illness in general population. A cross-sectional study including a randomly selected sample of 141 outpatients was performed to explore differences in patients' self-reported importance of elements of health and subjective experiences of health related to sociodemographic background variables. The examination of differences in self-reported importance of elements of health showed differences regarding gender, and the analyses of subjectively experienced health showed differences regarding age and diagnosis. Clinical interventions aiming at strengthening positive dimensions of health are required in community mental health services to meet the patients' individual needs of enhanced health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Clubgoers and their trendy cocktails: implications of mixing caffeine into alcohol on information processing and subjective reports of intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T

    2006-11-01

    Alcoholic drink preferences in college students have made an interesting shift recently, with trends in consumption leaning toward caffeinated alcohol in various forms (e.g., Red Bull and vodka or caffeinated beers such as Anheuser-Busch's B-to-the-E). Despite the dramatic rise in popularity of these beverages, little research has examined the combined effects of alcohol and caffeine, which is problematic for adequately informing the public about the risk or lack thereof of these drinks. The purpose of this study was to directly investigate the acute effects of alcohol and caffeine, alone and in combination, on well-validated measures of cognitive performance and subjective intoxication in social drinkers. Participants (N = 12) performed a psychological refractory period task that measured dual-task interference as the prolonged reaction time to complete the 2nd of 2 tasks performed in close temporal sequence. Performance was tested under 2 active doses and 1 placebo dose of caffeine (0.0 mg/kg, 2.0 mg/kg, and 4.0 mg/kg) in combination with 1 active dose and 1 placebo dose of alcohol (0.0 g/kg and 0.65 g/kg). As expected, alcohol impaired task performance by increasing dual-task interference and increasing errors. The coadministration of caffeine counteracted the effects of alcohol on interference but had no effect on the degree to which alcohol increased errors. Subjective measures of intoxication showed that coadministration of caffeine with alcohol reduced participants' perceptions of alcohol intoxication compared with administration of alcohol alone. The results highlight the complexity of drug interactions between alcohol and caffeine.

  14. Preprandial ghrelin is not affected by macronutrient intake, energy intake or energy expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumpler William V

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ghrelin, a peptide secreted by endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract, is a hormone purported to have a significant effect on food intake and energy balance in humans. The influence of factors related to energy balance on ghrelin, such as daily energy expenditure, energy intake, and macronutrient intake, have not been reported. Secondly, the effect of ghrelin on food intake has not been quantified under free-living conditions over a prolonged period of time. To investigate these effects, 12 men were provided with an ad libitum cafeteria-style diet for 16 weeks. The macronutrient composition of the diets were covertly modified with drinks containing 2.1 MJ of predominantly carbohydrate (Hi-CHO, protein (Hi-PRO, or fat (Hi-FAT. Total energy expenditure was measured for seven days on two separate occasions (doubly labeled water and physical activity logs. Results Preprandial ghrelin concentrations were not affected by macronutrient intake, energy expenditure or energy intake (all P > 0.05. In turn, daily energy intake was significantly influenced by energy expenditure, but not ghrelin. Conclusion Preprandial ghrelin does not appear to be influenced by macronutrient composition, energy intake, or energy expenditure. Similarly, ghrelin does not appear to affect acute or chronic energy intake under free-living conditions.

  15. Nutritional knowledge, nutrients intake and nutritional status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study concluded that hypertension was signifi cantly infl uenced by BMI of the subjects, which may be an indication of high intake of calories. Therefore, calorie intake should be controlled among the hypertensives. Keywords: anthropometry, micronutrient status, hypertension, knowledge, Nigeria Tanzania Journal of ...

  16. Increased physical activity not decreased energy intake is associated with inpatient medical treatment for anorexia nervosa in adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Janine; Hagman, Jennifer; Pan, Zhaoxing; MacLean, Paul

    2013-01-01

    There is a dearth of data regarding changes in dietary intake and physical activity over time that lead to inpatient medical treatment for anorexia nervosa (AN). Without such data, more effective nutritional therapies for patients cannot be devised. This study was undertaken to describe changes in diet and physical activity that precede inpatient medical hospitalization for AN in female adolescents. This data can be used to understand factors contributing to medical instability in AN, and may advance rodent models of AN to investigate novel weight restoration strategies. It was hypothesized that hospitalization for AN would be associated with progressive energy restriction and increased physical activity over time. 20 females, 11-19 years (14.3±1.8 years), with restricting type AN, completed retrospective, self-report questionnaires to assess dietary intake and physical activity over the 6 month period prior to inpatient admission (food frequency questionnaire, Pediatric physical activity recall) and 1 week prior (24 hour food recall, modifiable activity questionnaire). Physical activity increased acutely prior to inpatient admission without any change in energy or macronutrient intake. However, there were significant changes in reported micronutrient intake causing inadequate intake of Vitamin A, Vitamin D, and pantothenic acid at 1 week versus high, potentially harmful, intake of Vitamin A over 6 months prior to admission. Subject report of significantly increased physical activity, not decreased energy intake, were associated with medical hospitalization for AN. Physical activity and Vitamin A and D intake should be carefully monitored following initial AN diagnosis, as markers of disease progression as to potentially minimize the risk of medical instability.

  17. Increased physical activity not decreased energy intake is associated with inpatient medical treatment for anorexia nervosa in adolescent females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Higgins

    Full Text Available There is a dearth of data regarding changes in dietary intake and physical activity over time that lead to inpatient medical treatment for anorexia nervosa (AN. Without such data, more effective nutritional therapies for patients cannot be devised. This study was undertaken to describe changes in diet and physical activity that precede inpatient medical hospitalization for AN in female adolescents. This data can be used to understand factors contributing to medical instability in AN, and may advance rodent models of AN to investigate novel weight restoration strategies. It was hypothesized that hospitalization for AN would be associated with progressive energy restriction and increased physical activity over time. 20 females, 11-19 years (14.3±1.8 years, with restricting type AN, completed retrospective, self-report questionnaires to assess dietary intake and physical activity over the 6 month period prior to inpatient admission (food frequency questionnaire, Pediatric physical activity recall and 1 week prior (24 hour food recall, modifiable activity questionnaire. Physical activity increased acutely prior to inpatient admission without any change in energy or macronutrient intake. However, there were significant changes in reported micronutrient intake causing inadequate intake of Vitamin A, Vitamin D, and pantothenic acid at 1 week versus high, potentially harmful, intake of Vitamin A over 6 months prior to admission. Subject report of significantly increased physical activity, not decreased energy intake, were associated with medical hospitalization for AN. Physical activity and Vitamin A and D intake should be carefully monitored following initial AN diagnosis, as markers of disease progression as to potentially minimize the risk of medical instability.

  18. Unchanged acetylation of isoniazid by alcohol intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcke, J T R; Døssing, M; Angelo, H R

    2004-01-01

    SETTING: In 10 healthy subjects, the influence of acute alcohol intake on the pharmacokinetics of isoniazid (INH) was studied. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that alcohol increases the conversion of INH by acetylation into its metabolite acetylisoniazid. DESIGN: In a crossover design, an oral...

  19. Underreporting of Dietary Energy Intake in Five Populations of the African Diaspora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcholski, Lindsay; Luke, Amy; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E.; Lambert, Estelle V.; Dugas, Lara R.; Kettmann, Elizabeth; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A.; Cooper, Richard S.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the role of diet in the development of chronic diseases often rely on self-report surveys of dietary intake. Unfortunately, many validity studies have demonstrated that self-reported dietary intake is subject to systematic underreporting, although the vast majority of such studies have been conducted in industrialized countries. The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not systematic reporting error exists among individuals of African ancestry (n=324) in five countries distributed across the Human Development Index scale, a United Nations statistic devised to rank countries on non-income factors plus economic indicators. Using two 24-hour recalls to assess energy intake and the doubly labeled water method to assess total energy expenditure, we calculated the difference between these two values to identify underreporting of habitual energy intake in selected communities in Ghana, South Africa, Seychelles, Jamaica and the United States. Under-reporting of habitual energy intake was observed in all countries. The South African cohort displayed the greatest mean % under-reporting: −52.1% ([self-report - expenditure/expenditure]×100) compared to −22.5%, −17.9%, −25.0%, and −18.5%, for, Ghana, Jamaica, Seychelles and the United States cohorts, respectively. Body mass index was the most consistent predictor of underreporting compared to other factors. We conclude that there is substantial under-reporting in populations across the whole range of the human development index and that this systematic error increases according to an individual’s body mass index. PMID:25585294

  20. Intake of omega-3 fatty acids contributes to bone mineral density at the hip in a younger Japanese female population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, T; Ohta, H; Onoe, Y; Tsugawa, N; Shiraki, M

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the relationships between intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids, and omega-6 fatty acids and bone mineral density in Japanese women aged 19 to 25 years. Intakes of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) were positively associated with peak bone mass at the hip. Lifestyle factors such as physical activity and nutrition intake are known to optimize the peak bone mass (PBM). Recently, intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has been reported to contribute to bone metabolism. In this study, the relationships of intakes of n-3 and omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids with PBM were evaluated in Japanese female subjects. A total of 275 healthy female subjects (19-25 years) having PBM were enrolled, and lumbar and total hip bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolic parameters were measured. Dietary intakes of total energy, total n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and total n-6 fatty acids were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Physical activity information was also assessed. The mean ± SD age was 20.6 ± 1.4 years, and BMI was 21.2 ± 2.7 kg/m2. BMI and serum bone alkaline phosphatase contributed significantly to lumbar BMD on multiple regression analysis. Intake of n-3 fatty acids and physical activity were also significantly related to total hip BMD. Using EPA or DHA instead of total n-3 fatty acids in the model did not result in a significant result. Adequate total n-3 fatty acid intake may help maximize PBM at the hip.

  1. Patient self-reported concerns in inflammatory bowel diseases: A gender-specific subjective quality-of-life indicator.

    OpenAIRE

    Pittet, V.; Vaucher, C.; F. Froehlich; B. Burnand; Michetti, P.; Maillard, M. H.

    2017-01-01

    Patient-reported disease perceptions are important components to be considered within a holistic model of quality of care. Gender may have an influence on these perceptions. We aimed to explore gender-specific concerns of patients included in a national bilingual inflammatory bowel disease cohort. Following a qualitative study, we built a questionnaire comprising 37 items of concern. Answers were collected on a visual analog scale ranging from 0 to 100. Principal axis factor analysis was u...

  2. Patient self-reported concerns in inflammatory bowel diseases: A gender-specific subjective quality-of-life indicator

    OpenAIRE

    Pittet, Val?rie; Vaucher, Carla; Froehlich, Florian; Burnand, Bernard; Michetti, Pierre; Maillard, Michel H.

    2017-01-01

    Background Patient-reported disease perceptions are important components to be considered within a holistic model of quality of care. Gender may have an influence on these perceptions. We aimed to explore gender-specific concerns of patients included in a national bilingual inflammatory bowel disease cohort. Methods Following a qualitative study, we built a questionnaire comprising 37 items of concern. Answers were collected on a visual analog scale ranging from 0 to 100. Principal axis facto...

  3. Intertester reliability of clinical shoulder instability and laxity tests in subjects with and without self-reported shoulder problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshoj, Henrik; Ingwersen, Kim Gordon; Larsen, Camilla Marie; Kjaer, Birgitte Hougs; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit

    2018-03-03

    First, to investigate the intertester reliability of clinical shoulder instability and laxity tests, and second, to describe the mutual dependency of each test evaluated by each tester for identifying self-reported shoulder instability and laxity. A standardised protocol for conducting reliability studies was used to test the intertester reliability of the six clinical shoulder instability and laxity tests: apprehension, relocation, surprise, load-and-shift, sulcus sign and Gagey. Cohen's kappa (κ) with 95% CIs besides prevalence-adjusted and bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK), accounting for insufficient prevalence and bias, were computed to establish the intertester reliability and mutual dependency. Forty individuals (13 with self-reported shoulder instability and laxity-related shoulder problems and 27 normal shoulder individuals) aged 18-60 were included. Fair (relocation), moderate (load-and-shift, sulcus sign) and substantial (apprehension, surprise, Gagey) intertester reliability were observed across tests (κ 0.39-0.73; 95% CI 0.00 to 1.00). PABAK improved reliability across tests, resulting in substantial to almost perfect intertester reliability for the apprehension, surprise, load-and-shift and Gagey tests (κ 0.65-0.90). Mutual dependencies between each test and self-reported shoulder problem showed apprehension, relocation and surprise to be the most often used tests to characterise self-reported shoulder instability and laxity conditions. Four tests (apprehension, surprise, load-and-shift and Gagey) out of six were considered intertester reliable for clinical use, while relocation and sulcus sign tests need further standardisation before acceptable evidence. Furthermore, the validity of the tests for shoulder instability and laxity needs to be studied. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Dietary intake in the Personalized Medicine Research Project: a resource for studies of gene-diet interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitchner Terrie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe the dietary intake of participants in the Personalized Medicine Research Project (PMRP, and to quantify differences in nutrient intake by smoking status and APOE4-a genetic marker that has been shown to modify the association between risk factors and outcomes. Methods The PMRP is a population-based DNA, plasma and serum biobank of more than 20,000 adults aged 18 years and older in central Wisconsin. A questionnaire at enrollment captures demographic information as well as self-reported smoking and alcohol intake. The protocol was amended to include the collection of dietary intake and physical activity via self-reported questionnaires: the National Cancer Institute 124-item Diet History Questionnaire and the Baecke Physical Activity Questionnaire. These questionnaires were mailed out to previously enrolled participants. APOE was genotyped in all subjects. Results The response rate to the mailed questionnaires was 68.2% for subjects who could still be contacted (alive with known address. Participants ranged in age from 18 to 98 years (mean 54.7 and 61% were female. Dietary intake is variable when comparing gender, age, smoking, and APOE4. Over 50% of females are dietary supplement users; females have higher supplement intake than males, but both have increasing supplement use as age increases. Food energy, total fat, cholesterol, protein, and alcohol intake decreases as both males and females age. Female smokers had higher macronutrient intake, whereas male nonsmokers had higher macronutrient intake. Nonsmokers in both genders use more supplements. In females, nonsmokers and smokers with APOE4 had higher supplement use. In males, nonsmokers with APOE4 had higher supplement use between ages 18-39 only, and lower supplement use at ages above 39. Male smokers with APOE4 had lower supplement use. Conclusion Dietary intake in PMRP subjects is relatively consistent with data from the National Health and Nutrition

  5. A metabolomic study of biomarkers of meat and fish intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, William; Keski-Rahkonen, Pekka; Assi, Nada; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Rinaldi, Sabina; Slimani, Nadia; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Rundle, Milena; Frost, Gary; Gibbons, Helena; Carr, Eibhlin; Brennan, Lorraine; Cross, Amanda J; Pala, Valeria; Panico, Salvatore; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Kühn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Floegel, Anna; Mancini, Francesca; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Baglietto, Laura; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Scalbert, Augustin

    2017-03-01

    Background: Meat and fish intakes have been associated with various chronic diseases. The use of specific biomarkers may help to assess meat and fish intake and improve subject classification according to the amount and type of meat or fish consumed. Objective: A metabolomic approach was applied to search for biomarkers of meat and fish intake in a dietary intervention study and in free-living subjects from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Design: In the dietary intervention study, 4 groups of 10 subjects consumed increasing quantities of chicken, red meat, processed meat, and fish over 3 successive weeks. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected during each period and analyzed by high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Signals characteristic of meat or fish intake were replicated in 50 EPIC subjects for whom a 24-h urine sample and 24-h dietary recall were available and who were selected for their exclusive intake or no intake of any of the 4 same foods. Results: A total of 249 mass spectrometric features showed a positive dose-dependent response to meat or fish intake in the intervention study. Eighteen of these features best predicted intake of the 4 food groups in the EPIC urine samples on the basis of partial receiver operator curve analyses with permutation testing (areas under the curve ranging between 0.61 and 1.0). Of these signals, 8 metabolites were identified. Anserine was found to be specific for chicken intake, whereas trimethylamine- N- oxide showed good specificity for fish. Carnosine and 3 acylcarnitines (acetylcarnitine, propionylcarnitine, and 2-methylbutyrylcarnitine) appeared to be more generic indicators of meat and meat and fish intake, respectively. Conclusion: The meat and fish biomarkers identified in this work may be used to study associations between meat and fish intake and disease risk in epidemiologic studies. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT

  6. Fiber intake modulates the association of alcohol intake with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romieu, Isabelle; Ferrari, Pietro; Chajès, Veronique; de Batlle, Jordi; Biessy, Carine; Scoccianti, Chiara; Dossus, Laure; Christine Boutron, Marie; Bastide, Nadia; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Gils, Carla H; Peeters, Petra H; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Ramón Quirós, J; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Sánchez, María-José; Duell, Eric J; Amiano Etxezarreta, Pilar; Borgquist, Signe; Hallmans, Göran; Johansson, Ingegerd; Maria Nilsson, Lena; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C; Murphy, Neil; Wark, Petra A; Riboli, Elio

    2017-01-15

    Alcohol intake has been related to an increased risk of breast cancer (BC) while dietary fiber intake has been inversely associated to BC risk. A beneficial effect of fibers on ethanol carcinogenesis through their impact on estrogen levels is still controversial. We investigated the role of dietary fiber as a modifying factor of the association of alcohol and BC using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). This study included 334,850 women aged 35-70 years at baseline enrolled in the ten countries of the EPIC study and followed up for 11.0 years on average. Information on fiber and alcohol intake at baseline and average lifetime alcohol intake were calculated from country-specific dietary and lifestyle questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HR) of developing invasive BC according to different levels of alcohol and fiber intake were computed. During 3,670,439 person-years, 11,576 incident BC cases were diagnosed. For subjects with low intake of fiber (risk of BC per 10 g/day of alcohol intake was 1.06 (1.03-1.08) while among subjects with high intake of fiber (>24.2 g/day) the risk of BC was 1.02 (0.99-1.05) (test for interaction p = 0.011). This modulating effect was stronger for fiber from vegetables. Our results suggest that fiber intake may modulate the positive association of alcohol intake and BC. Alcohol is well known to increase the risk for BC, while a fiber-rich diet has the opposite effect. Here the authors find a significant interaction between both lifestyle factors indicating that high fiber intake can ease the adverse effects associated with alcohol consumption. Consequently, women with high alcohol intake and low fiber intake (risk for BC. Specific benefits were associated with fibers from vegetable, warranting further investigations into specific fiber sources and their mechanistic interactions with alcohol-induced BC risk. © 2016 UICC.

  7. Toxoplasma-infected subjects report an Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder diagnosis more often and score higher in Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegr, J; Horáček, J

    2017-02-01

    Latent toxoplasmosis, the life-long presence of dormant stages of Toxoplasma in immunoprivileged organs and of anamnestic IgG antibodies in blood, affects about 30% of humans. Infected subjects have an increased incidence of various disorders, including schizophrenia. Several studies, as well as the character of toxoplasmosis-associated disturbance of neurotransmitters, suggest that toxoplasmosis could also play an etiological role in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). The aim of the present cross-sectional study performed on a population of 7471 volunteers was to confirm the association between toxoplasmosis and OCD, and toxoplasmosis and psychological symptoms of OCD estimated by the standard Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R). Incidence of OCD was 2.18% (n=39) in men and 2.28% (n=83) in women. Subjects with toxoplasmosis had about a 2.5 times higher odds of OCD and about a 2.7 times higher odds of learning disabilities. The incidence of 18 other neuropsychiatric disorders did not differ between Toxoplasma-infected and Toxoplasma-free subjects. The infected subjects, even the OCD-free subjects, scored higher on the OCI-R. Examined subjects provided the information about their toxoplasmosis and OCD statuses themselves, which could result in underrating the strength of observed associations. The results confirmed earlier reports of the association between toxoplasmosis and OCD. They also support recent claims that latent toxoplasmosis is in fact a serious disease with many impacts on quality of life of patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Does eating slowly influence appetite and energy intake when water intake is controlled?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Ana M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Slow eating has been associated with enhanced satiation, but also with increased water intake. Therefore, the role of water ingestion in regard to eating rate needs to be discerned. This study examined the influence of eating rate on appetite regulation and energy intake when water intake is controlled. Methods In a randomized design, slow and fast eating rates were compared on two occasions, in 30 women (22.7±1.2y; BMI=22.4±0.4kg/m2 who consumed an ad libitum mixed-macronutrient lunch with water (300 mL. Satiation was examined as the main outcome by measuring energy intake during meals. At designated times, subjects rated hunger, satiety, desire-to-eat, thirst, and meal palatability on visual analogue scales. Paired t-tests were used to compare hypothesis-driven outcomes. Appetite ratings were compared across time points and conditions by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA using a within-subject model. Results Energy intake and appetite ratings did not differ between conditions at meal completion. However, subjects rated less hunger and tended to rate lower desire-to-eat and greater satiety at 1 hour following the slow condition. Conclusions Results tend to support a role of slow eating on decreased hunger and higher inter-meal satiety when water intake is controlled. However, the lack of significant differences in energy intake under these conditions indicates that water intake may account for the effects of eating rate on appetite regulation.

  9. Seeing One's Own Painful Hand Positioned in the Contralateral Space Reduces Subjective Reports of Pain and Modulates Laser Evoked Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Elia; Koch, Katharina; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2015-06-01

    Studies report that viewing the body or keeping one's arms crossed while receiving painful stimuli may have an analgesic effect. Interestingly, changes in ratings of pain are accompanied by a reduction of brain metabolism or of laser evoked potentials amplitude. What remains unknown is the link between visual analgesia and crossed-arms related analgesia. Here, we investigated pain perception and laser evoked potentials in 3 visual contexts while participants kept their arms in a crossed or uncrossed position during vision of 1) one's own hand, 2) a neutral object in the same spatial location, and 3) a fixation cross placed in front of the participant. We found that having vision of the affected body part in the crossed-arms position was associated with a significant reduction in pain reports. However, no analgesic effect of having vision of the hand in an uncrossed position or of crossing the arms alone was found. The increase of the late vertex laser evoked potential P2 amplitude indexed a general effect of vision of the hand. Our results hint at a complex interaction between cross-modal input and body representation in different spatial frames of reference and at the same time question the effect of visual analgesia and crossed-arms analgesia alone. We found that nociceptive stimuli delivered to the hand in a crossed-arms position evoke less pain than in a canonical anatomic position. Yet we report no significant analgesic effect of vision or crossing the arms on their own. These findings foster the integration of visuospatial and proprioceptive information in rehabilitation protocols. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  11. Does stress influence sleep patterns, food intake, weight gain, abdominal obesity and weight loss interventions and vice versa?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Astrup, Arne; Hjorth, Mads Fiil

    2018-01-01

    Decades of research have reported only weak associations between the intakes of specific foods or drinks and weight gain and obesity. Randomized controlled dietary intervention trials have only shown very modest effects of changes in nutrient intake and diet composition on body weight in obese...... subjects. This review summarizes the scientific evidence on the role mental stress (either in or not in association with impaired sleep) may play in poor sleep, enhanced appetite, cravings and decreased motivation for physical activity. All these factors contribute to weight gain and obesity, possibly via...

  12. Nutrient Intake and Nutritional Status Profile of HIV-Positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Griha Integrated Service for HIV/AIDS (Disha) Nutrition Center, Pune, India. ... Home dietary recall and six days\\' food intake from the nutrition center was used to ... Dietary habit analysis revealed that 65% of subjects were consuming rice, ...

  13. Effects of Long-Haul Transmeridian Travel on Subjective Jet-Lag and Self-Reported Sleep and Upper Respiratory Symptoms in Professional Rugby League Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Peter M; Duffield, Rob; Lu, Donna; Hickmans, Jeremy A; Scott, Tannath J

    2016-10-01

    To examine the effects of 24-h travel west across 11 time zones on subjective jet-lag and wellness responses together with self-reported sleep and upper respiratory symptoms in 18 professional rugby league players. Measures were obtained 1 or 2 d before (pretravel) and 2, 6, and 8 d after travel (post-2, post-6, and post-8) from Australia to the United Kingdom (UK) for the 2015 World Club Series. Compared with pretravel, subjective jet-lag remained significantly elevated on post-8 (3.1 ± 2.3, P 0.90), although it was greatest on post-2 (4.1 ± 1.4). Self-reported sleep-onset times were significantly earlier on post-2 than at all other time points (P 0.90), and large effect sizes suggested that wake times were earlier on post-2 than on post-6 and post-8 (d > 0.90). Although significantly more upper respiratory symptoms were reported on post-6 than at pretravel (P .05, d long-haul travel between Australia and the UK exacerbates subjective jet-lag and sleep responses, along with upper respiratory symptoms, in professional rugby league players. Of note, the increase in self-reported upper respiratory symptoms is a reminder that the demands of long-haul travel may be an additional concern in jet-lag for traveling athletes. However, due to the lack of sport-specific performance measures, it is still unclear whether international travel interferes with training to the extent that subsequent competition performance is impaired.

  14. The midpoint of sleep is associated with dietary intake and dietary behavior among young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato-Mito, Natsuko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Murakami, Kentaro; Okubo, Hitomi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Shibata, Shigenobu; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Sato, Kazuto

    2011-03-01

    How human chronotype is correlated to nutrient and food-group intakes and dietary behavior remains to be elucidated. We cross-sectionally examined the association between the midpoint of sleep and these dietary variables in young Japanese women. A calculated halfway point between bedtime and rise time was used as midpoint of sleep. The subjects were 3304 female Japanese dietetics students aged 18-20years from 53 institutions in Japan. Dietary intake during the previous month was assessed by a validated, self-administered diet history questionnaire. The midpoint of sleep was calculated using self-reported bedtimes and rise times. Late midpoint of sleep was significantly negatively associated with the percentage of energy from protein and carbohydrates, and the energy-adjusted intake of cholesterol, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, vitamin A, vitamin D, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B(6), folate, rice, vegetables, pulses, eggs, and milk and milk products. It was also significantly positively associated with the percentage of energy from alcohol and fat, and the energy-adjusted intake of noodles, confections, fat and oil, and meat. Furthermore, subjects with a later midpoint of sleep tended to begin meals later, eat for a longer time, skip meals more frequently, and watch TV at meals, not only at breakfast but also at lunch and dinner. The midpoint of sleep is significantly associated with dietary intake of certain nutrients and foods and other dietary behaviors in young Japanese women. This finding may contribute to consider the relationships between chronotype and dietary intakes and behaviors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Blood selenium levels and contribution of food groups to selenium intake in adolescent girls in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectives: Significant changes have been reported in dietary habits and food availability in Iceland that would be expected to compromise selenium intake and status, especially among young people. These include substantial decreases in the consumption of fish and milk, as well as the selenium content of imported wheat. The aim of this study was to assess selenium in the diet and whole blood of adolescent girls, as well as define the most important foods contributing to intake and blood concentrations of selenium. Design: The subjects were 96 randomly selected girls, aged 16–20, who answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ for dietary assessment. Selenium intake from each food group was calculated in µg/day. Blood samples were collected for measurement of whole blood selenium. Results: Mean dietary selenium was 51±25 µg/day. Milk/dairy products, including cheese, contributed 36±14% of total dietary selenium; fish 18±12%; and bread/cereal products 13±6%. Mean whole blood selenium was 117±12 µg/l (range 90–208; nearly 90% of subjects were above the optimal level of 100 µg/l. Fish and bread/cereal products were the only foods significantly correlated with selenium in blood (r=0.32; P = 0.002 and r=0.22; P = 0.04, respectively while no correlation was found with milk and dairy products in spite of their greater contribution to total selenium intake. Conclusion: In this population of Icelandic adolescent girls, selenium intake and status seem acceptable. Judging from associations between intake and blood levels, fish and cereals may be the most important contributors to blood selenium.

  16. Types of fat intake and body mass index in a Mediterranean country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, C A; Pera, G; Quirós, J R; Lasheras, C; Tormo, M J; Rodriguez, M; Navarro, C; Martinez, C; Dorronsoro, M; Chirlaque, M D; Beguiristain, J M; Barricarte, A; Amiano, P; Agudo, A

    2000-09-01

    Although the fatty acid fractions provide similar metabolizable energy, the type of dietary fat consumed could be relevant to the development of obesity. To investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI), obesity and the consumption of different types of fat and olive oil in a Mediterranean country with high prevalence of obesity, and high intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and olive oil. The study was carried out in Spain among 23 289 women and 14 374 men, aged 29-69 years, who were participants of a large European prospective cohort. : Information on usual food intake was collected by interviewers by means of a dietary history questionnaire. The association between obesity (BMI >/= 30 kg m2), dietary fat, other dietary patterns and other non-dietary factors were tested using multilinear regression analysis. The ratio of reported energy intake to energy requirement was used as an estimation of dietary underreporting. The association between fatty acid fractions intake (saturated fatty acids (SFA) in women, and MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in both sexes) and BMI was very weak, accounting for less than 1% of variance. All dietary and non-dietary variables accounted for 21% of variance in the measurement of BMI in women and only 6.7% of variance in men. Estimated underreporting of energy intake was 17.5% in obese women and 5.5% in obese men. The association between consumption of specific types of dietary fat, olive oil and obesity in Spain is not very important. However, because of the cross-sectional design and some level of underreporting of energy intake observed in overweight subjects and overreporting in underweight subjects, systematic bias cannot be completely discarded.

  17. Flavonoid intake and incident hypertension in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajous, Martin; Rossignol, Emilie; Fagherazzi, Guy; Perquier, Florence; Scalbert, Augustin; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine

    2016-04-01

    Intake of flavonoid-containing food has been shown to have a beneficial effect on blood pressure in short-term randomized trials. There are limited data on total flavonoid and flavonoid-subclass consumption over a long period of time and the corresponding incidence of hypertension. We aimed to evaluate the relation between flavonoid subclasses and total flavonoid intakes and incidence of hypertension. In a prospective cohort of 40,574 disease-free French women who responded to a validated dietary questionnaire, we observed 9350 incident cases of hypertension between 1993 and 2008. Cases were identified through self-reports of diagnosed or treated hypertension. Multivariate Cox regression models were adjusted for age, family history of hypertension, body mass index, physical activity, smoking, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hormone therapy, and alcohol, caffeine, magnesium, potassium, omega-3 (n-3), and processed meat intakes. Women in the highest quintile of flavonol intake had a 10% lower rate of hypertension than women in the lowest quintile (HR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.97;P-trend = 0.031). Similarly, there was a 9% lower rate for women in the highest category of intake than for women in the lowest category of intake for both anthocyanins and proanthocyanidin polymers [HRs: 0.91 (95% CI: 0.84, 0.97;P-trend = 0.0075) and 0.91 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.97;P-trend = 0.0051), respectively]. An inverse association for total flavonoid intake was observed with a similar magnitude. In this large prospective cohort of French middle-aged women, participants with greater flavonol, anthocyanin, and polymeric flavonoid intakes and greater total flavonoid intake were less likely to develop hypertension. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. β-Glucan and dark chocolate: a randomized crossover study on short-term satiety and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Asli; Dasgin, Halil; Ayaz, Aylin; Buyuktuncer, Zehra; Besler, H Tanju

    2014-09-23

    The aims of this study were to adapt a traditional recipe into a healthier form by adding 3 g of oat β-glucan, substituting milk chocolate to dark chocolate with 70% cocoa, and to examine the effect of these alterations on short-term satiety and energy intake. Study subjects (n = 25) were tested in a randomized, crossover design with four products closely matched for energy content. Four different versions of a traditional recipe including milk chocolate-control (CON), oat β-glucan (B-GLU), dark chocolate (DARK) or oat β-glucan and dark chocolate (B-GLU + DARK) were given to subjects on different test days. After subjects were asked to report visual analog scale (VAS) scores on sensory outcomes and related satiety for four hours ad libitum, lunch was served and energy intake of individuals was measured. VAS scores indicated that none of the test foods exerted an improved effect on satiety feelings. However, energy intake of individuals during ad libitum lunch was significantly lower in dark chocolate groups (CON: 849.46 ± 47.45 kcal versus DARK: 677.69 ± 48.45 kcal and B-GLU + DARK: 691.08 ± 47.45 kcal, p = 0.014). The study demonstrated that substituting dark chocolate for milk chocolate is more effective in inducing satiety during subsequent food intake in healthy subjects.

  19. β-Glucan and Dark Chocolate: A Randomized Crossover Study on Short-Term Satiety and Energy Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli Akyol

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aims of this study were to adapt a traditional recipe into a healthier form by adding 3 g of oat β-glucan, substituting milk chocolate to dark chocolate with 70% cocoa, and to examine the effect of these alterations on short-term satiety and energy intake. Materials and Methods: Study subjects (n = 25 were tested in a randomized, crossover design with four products closely matched for energy content. Four different versions of a traditional recipe including milk chocolate-control (CON, oat β-glucan (B-GLU, dark chocolate (DARK or oat β-glucan and dark chocolate (B-GLU + DARK were given to subjects on different test days. After subjects were asked to report visual analog scale (VAS scores on sensory outcomes and related satiety for four hours ad libitum, lunch was served and energy intake of individuals was measured. Results: VAS scores indicated that none of the test foods exerted an improved effect on satiety feelings. However, energy intake of individuals during ad libitum lunch was significantly lower in dark chocolate groups (CON: 849.46 ± 47.45 kcal versus DARK: 677.69 ± 48.45 kcal and B-GLU + DARK: 691.08 ± 47.45 kcal, p = 0.014. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that substituting dark chocolate for milk chocolate is more effective in inducing satiety during subsequent food intake in healthy subjects.

  20. Dietary Sodium Intake: Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Shandong Province, China, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Xu, Ai-qiang; Ma, Ji-xiang; Shi, Xiao-ming; Guo, Xiao-lei; Engelgau, Michael; Yan, Liu-xia; Li, Yuan; Li, Yi-chong; Wang, Hui-cheng; Lu, Zi-long; Zhang, Ji-yu; Liang, Xiao-feng

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) for dietary sodium intake among adult residents of Shandong Province, China Methods In 2011, we conducted a cross sectional survey among a representative sample of 15,350 adults aged 18 to 69 years using a standardized questionnaire to assess their KAP for sodium. Variation in the KAPs by gender, and residence location were compared using the Chi-square tests. Predictors for the ‘intention to’ and ‘currently taking action to’ reduce sodium intake were determined by multivariate logistic regression with adjustment for confounding factors. Results KAPs for dietary sodium intake among urban residents was generally more favorable than among rural residents. Women were likely to have more favorable KAPs than men. About four fifth of subjects reported that they favored a low sodium diets. However, 31% reported that consumption of less sodium results in less physical strength. Overall, 70% indicated their intention to reduce sodium intake, although only 39 % reported that they had taken action to reduce sodium. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that favorable actions to dietary sodium reduction were more likely to occur among those who were aware of the link between sodium and hypertension, and less likely among those who had unfavorable attitudes towards dietary sodium reduction. Conclusion Increasing knowledge levels about the benefits of sodium reduction will be a key success factor for effective sodium reduction initiatives and is linked to favorable behavioral change. Emphasis should be placed on the rural area. PMID:23527061

  1. Dietary sodium intake: knowledge, attitudes and practices in Shandong Province, China, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Xu, Ai-Qiang; Ma, Ji-Xiang; Shi, Xiao-Ming; Guo, Xiao-Lei; Engelgau, Michael; Yan, Liu-Xia; Li, Yuan; Li, Yi-Chong; Wang, Hui-Cheng; Lu, Zi-Long; Zhang, Ji-Yu; Liang, Xiao-Feng

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) for dietary sodium intake among adult residents of Shandong Province, China. In 2011, we conducted a cross sectional survey among a representative sample of 15,350 adults aged 18 to 69 years using a standardized questionnaire to assess their KAP for sodium. Variation in the KAPs by gender, and residence location were compared using the Chi-square tests. Predictors for the 'intention to' and 'currently taking action to' reduce sodium intake were determined by multivariate logistic regression with adjustment for confounding factors. KAPs for dietary sodium intake among urban residents was generally more favorable than among rural residents. Women were likely to have more favorable KAPs than men. About four fifth of subjects reported that they favored a low sodium diets. However, 31% reported that consumption of less sodium results in less physical strength. Overall, 70% indicated their intention to reduce sodium intake, although only 39 % reported that they had taken action to reduce sodium. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that favorable actions to dietary sodium reduction were more likely to occur among those who were aware of the link between sodium and hypertension, and less likely among those who had unfavorable attitudes towards dietary sodium reduction. Increasing knowledge levels about the benefits of sodium reduction will be a key success factor for effective sodium reduction initiatives and is linked to favorable behavioral change. Emphasis should be placed on the rural area.

  2. Environmental influences on fruit and vegetable intake: Results from a path analytic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Angela D.; Bell, Bethany A.; Barnes, Timothy L.; Colabianchi, Natalie; Hibbert, James D.; Blake, Christine E.; Freedman, Darcy A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Fruit and vegetable intake (F&V) is influenced by behavioral and environmental factors, but these have rarely been assessed simultaneously. We aimed to quantify the relative influence of supermarket availability, perceptions of the food environment, and shopping behavior on F&V intake. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Eight-counties in South Carolina, USA, with verified locations of all supermarkets. Subjects A telephone survey of 831 household food shoppers ascertained F&V intake with a 17-item screener, primary food store location, shopping frequency, perceptions of healthy food availability, and calculated GIS-based supermarket availability. Path analysis was conducted. We report standardized beta coefficients on paths significant at the 0.05 level. Results Frequency of grocery shopping at primary food store (β=0.11) was the only factor exerting an independent, statistically significant direct effect on F&V intake. Supermarket availability was significantly associated with distance to food store (β=-0.24) and shopping frequency (β=0.10). Increased supermarket availability was significantly and positively related to perceived healthy food availability in the neighborhood (β=0.18) and ease of shopping access (β=0.09). Collectively considering all model paths linked to perceived availability of healthy foods, this measure was the only other factor to have a significant total effect on F&V intake. Conclusions While the majority of literature to date has suggested an independent and important role of supermarket availability for F&V intake, our study found only indirect effects of supermarket availability and suggests that food shopping frequency and perceptions of healthy food availability are two integral components of a network of influences on F&V intake. PMID:24192274

  3. Dietary intake, physical activity, and time management are associated with constipation in preschool children in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Keiko; Masayasu, Shizuko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Constipation is a common complaint in children, which is not fatal but can affect quality of life. Several lifestyle-related risk factors for constipation have been reported, particularly dietary factors, but results have been inconsistent. Here, we examined the relationship of dietary and lifestyle factors with constipation in Japanese preschool children using data of a nationwide study. Subjects were 5,309 children aged 5 to 6 years at 380 nursery schools in 44 of 47 prefectures in Japan. Children having three or fewer bowel movements per week were considered constipated. Dietary intake data was collected using a validated brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire for Japanese preschool children, and information about general lifestyle was collected using a 4-page questionnaire designed for this study. Multivariateadjusted odds ratios for constipation were calculated by logistic regression. Higher dietary fiber intake was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of constipation (adjusted odds ratio: 0.62, p for trend: 0.005), but higher carbohydrate intake was marginally associated with a higher prevalence of constipation. Intake of potatoes, pulses, vegetables, and fruits intake decreased constipation prevalence, whereas higher rice intake was significantly and independently associated with higher prevalence of constipation. Regarding lifestyle factors, high physical activity and sufficient preparation time for breakfast and dinner for guardians were significantly associated with lower prevalence. Prevalence tended to be negatively associated with a higher educational background of the mother. Several lifestyle factors were associated with a lower prevalence of constipation among Japanese preschool children, including dietary fiber intake.

  4. Estimation of dietary flavonoid intake and major food sources of Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Shinyoung; Shin, Sangah; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-02-14

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that flavonoids exhibit preventive effects on degenerative diseases. However, lack of sufficient data on flavonoid intake has limited evaluating the proposed effects in populations. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the total and individual flavonoid intakes among Korean adults and determine the major dietary sources of these flavonoids. We constructed a flavonoid database of common Korean foods, based on the food list reported in the 24-h recall of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2007-2012, using data from the Korea Functional Food Composition Table, US Department of Agriculture flavonoid database, Phenol-Explorer database and other analytical studies. This database, which covers 49 % of food items and 76 % of food intake, was linked with the 24-h recall data of 33 581 subjects aged ≥19 years in the KNHANES 2007-2012. The mean daily intake of total flavonoids in Korean adults was 318·0 mg/d, from proanthocyanidins (22·3%), flavonols (20·3%), isoflavones (18·1%), flavan-3-ols (16·2%), anthocyanidins (11·6%), flavanones (11·3%) and flavones (0·3%). The major contributing food groups to the flavonoid intake were fruits (54·4%), vegetables (20·5%), legumes and legume products (16·2%) and beverages and alcohols (3·1%), and the major contributing food items were apples (21·9%), mandarins (12·5%), tofu (11·5%), onions (9·6%) and grapes (9·0%). In the regression analysis, the consumption of legumes and legume products, vegetables and fruits predicted total flavonoid intake the most. The findings of this study could facilitate further investigation on the health benefits of flavonoids and provide the basic information for establishing recommended flavonoid intakes for Koreans.

  5. Memorizing fruit: The effect of a fruit memory-game on children's fruit intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkvord, Frans; Anastasiadou, Dimitra Tatiana; Anschütz, Doeschka

    2017-03-01

    Food cues of palatable food are omnipresent, thereby simulating the intake of unhealthy snack food among children. As a consequence, this might lead to a higher intake of energy-dense snacks and less fruit and vegetables, a habit that increases the risk of developing chronic diseases. The aim of this experimental study is to examine whether playing a memory game with fruit affects fruit intake among young children. We used a randomized between-subject design with 127 children (age: 7-12 y) who played a memory-game, containing either fruit (n = 64) or non-food products (n = 63). While playing the memory-game in a separate room in school during school hours, free intake of fruit (mandarins, apples, bananas, and grapes) was measured. Afterwards, the children completed self-report measures, and length and weight were assessed. The main finding is that playing a memory-game containing fruit increases overall fruit intake (P = 0.016). Children who played the fruit version of the memory-game ate more bananas (P = 0.015) and mandarins (P = 0.036) than children who played the non-food memory-game; no effects were found for apples (P > 0.05) and grapes (P > 0.05). The findings suggest that playing a memory-game with fruit stimulates fruit intake among young children. This is an important finding because children eat insufficient fruit, according to international standards, and more traditional health interventions have limited success. Healthy eating habits of children maintain when they become adults, making it important to stimulate fruit intake among children in an enjoyable way. Nederlands Trial Register TC = 5687.

  6. Seaweed intake and blood pressure levels in healthy pre-school Japanese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto Keiko

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined whether dietary factors might affect blood pressure in children. We purposed to investigate whether seaweed intake is associated with blood pressure level among Japanese preschool children. Methods The design of the study was cross-sectional and it was conducted in autumn 2006. Subjects were healthy preschoolers aged 3-6 years in Aichi, Japan. Blood pressure and pulse were measured once by an automated sphygmomanometer, which uses oscillometric methods. Dietary data, including seaweed intake, were assessed using 3-day dietary records covering 2 consecutive weekdays and 1 weekend day. Of a total of 533 children, 459 (86.1 percent agreed to be enrolled in our study. Finally, blood pressure measurement, complete dietary records and parent-reported height and weight were obtained for 223 boys and 194 girls. Results When we examined Spearman's correlation coefficients, seaweed intake was significantly negatively related to systolic blood pressure in girls (P = 0.008. In the one-way analysis of covariance for blood pressure and pulse after adjustments for age and BMI, the boys with the lowest, middle and highest tertiles of seaweed intake had diastolic blood pressure readings of 62.8, 59.3 and 59.6 mmHg, respectively (P = 0.11, trend P = 0.038. Girls with higher seaweed intake had significantly lower systolic blood pressure readings (102.4, 99.2 and 96.9 mmHg for girls with the lowest, middle and highest tertiles of seaweed intake, respectively; P = 0.037, trend P = 0.030. Conclusion Our study showed that seaweed intake was negatively related to diastolic blood pressure in boys and to systolic blood pressure in girls. This suggests that seaweed might have beneficial effects on blood pressure among children.

  7. Multi-day recurrences of intimate partner violence and alcohol intake across dynamic patterns of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katerndahl, David; Burge, Sandra; Ferrer, Robert; Becho, Johanna; Wood, Robert

    2014-10-01

    Consistent links exist between male alcohol intake and male-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) as well as female alcohol intake and female-perpetrated IPV. However, the nature of the relationship remains unclear. This study attempted to identify unique alcohol-violence patterns within three different types of relationship dynamics to better understand the alcohol-violence relationship and its role in violence dynamics. Two hundred women in abusive relationships were recruited from six primary care clinics. Subjects completed daily assessments of their relationship using interactive verbal response via telephone for 12 weeks. Dynamic patterns (periodic, chaotic, random) were determined by positive versus negative Lyapunov exponents and measures of correlation dimension saturation. To identify recurrent day-to-day activities, we used orbital decomposition (based on symbolic dynamics). Periodic dynamics included daily reports with mutual abuse and alcohol intake while random dynamics included a variety of patterns, especially those involving unequal mutual abuse. Unique strings for each dynamic pattern were examined. Periodic dynamics involved heavy alcohol intake by the husband or mutual moderate-severe violence. Random dynamics uniquely involved mutual verbal abuse with husband's alcohol intake on same or different days as well as husband-perpetrated moderate-severe violence with or without husband-perpetrated minor violence. Chaotic dynamics uniquely involved combinations from wife-perpetrated minor violence alone to combinations of husband's heavy alcohol intake (with or without husband-perpetrated minor violence), mutual verbal abuse, and husband-perpetrated verbal abuse (with or without husband's heavy alcohol intake). Recurrent 4-day patterns were observed. Each dynamic pattern was characterized by recurrent strings unique to that pattern. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Dietary fiber intake reduces risk for colorectal adenoma: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, Qiwen; Sun, Yunwei; Chai, Rui; Qian, Aihua; Xu, Bin; Yuan, Yaozong

    2014-03-01

    Reports on the association between dietary fiber intake and risk of colorectal adenoma (CRA), the precursor of colorectal cancer, have been inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies to analyze this association. We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases to identify relevant studies published through July 2013. A random-effects model was used to estimate summary relative risks (SRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between fiber intake and CRA risk. Heterogeneity among studies was assessed using the Cochran Q and I(2) statistics. Our meta-analysis included 20 studies involving 10,948 subjects with CRA. The SRRs of CRA for total dietary fiber were 0.72 (95% CI, 0.63-0.83) in a high- vs low-intake analysis and 0.91 (95% CI, 0.87-0.95) per 10-g/day increase in fiber intake in a dose-response model. Subgroup analyses indicated a significant inverse association between total fiber intake and CRA risk in case-control studies (SRR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.56-0.77), but not in cohort studies (SRR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.76-1.10). The SRRs of CRA were 0.84 for fruit fiber (95% CI, 0.76-0.94; n = 6 studies), 0.93 for vegetable fiber (95% CI, 0.84-1.04; n = 6 studies), and 0.76 for cereal fiber (95% CI, 0.62-0.92; n = 9 studies) in high- vs low-intake analyses. Our findings support the hypothesis that high dietary fiber intake is associated inversely with CRA risk. Further studies with prospective designs that use validated questionnaires and control for important confounders are warranted. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, N J; Heitmann, B L

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased in the past 30 years, and at the same time a steep increase in consumption of soft drinks has been seen. This paper reviews the literature for studies on associations between intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity, relative to adjustment...... for energy intake. Conclusions from previous reviews have been inconsistent, but some included many cross-sectional studies or studies supported by sugar industry. A literature search was performed for prospective and experimental studies using Medline and Scirus. Fourteen prospective and five experimental...... not find effects. Eight prospective studies adjusted for energy intake. Seven of these studies reported associations that were essentially similar before and after energy adjustment. In conclusion, a high intake of calorically sweetened beverages can be regarded as a determinant for obesity. However...

  10. Smart Snacks in School Legislation Does Not Change Self-Reported Snack Food and Beverage Intake of Middle School Students in Rural Appalachian Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Georgianna; Hosig, Kathy; Zhang, Angang; Shen, Sumin; Serrano, Elena

    To assess the effects of the national Smart Snacks in School standards, which include nutrient and ingredient limitations for school competitive foods and beverages effective July, 2014, on student intake in low-income rural Appalachian middle schools. Food-frequency questionnaires were administered to students before and after implementation. Multiple ordinal logistic regression models were conducted to examine effects from year of data collection, grade, and free or reduced price lunch participation rates. No significant changes were observed after implementation except a decrease in consumption of 1% or nonfat flavored milk at school. Smart Snacks in School standards did not result in significant dietary changes in this study. Longitudinal studies could evaluate long-term impacts of nutrition standards. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Contributions of Processed Foods to Dietary Intake in the US from 2003?2008: A Report of the Food and Nutrition Science Solutions Joint Task Force of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, American Society for Nutrition, Institute of Food Technologists, and International Food Information Council 1 2 3 4

    OpenAIRE

    Eicher-Miller, Heather A; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Keast, Debra R.

    2012-01-01

    Processed foods are an integral part of American diets, but a comparison of the nutrient contribution of foods by level of processing with the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans regarding nutrients to encourage or to reduce has not been documented. The mean reported daily dietary intakes of these nutrients and other components were examined among 25,351 participants ?2 y of age in the 2003?2008 NHANES to determine the contribution of processed food to total intakes. Also ...

  12. KSHV/HHV-8 associated lymph node based lymphomas in HIV seronegative subjects. Case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quyen Nguyen, MD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Extracavitary primary effusion lymphoma (ExPEL is a rare, high-grade lymphoproliferative disorder that displays immunoblastic, plasmablastic, or anaplastic morphology. It usually lacks expression of B-cell and T-cell markers, but often expresses the plasma cell markers CD138 and MUM1, and the activation marker CD30, along with EMA. ExPEL, similar to classic PEL occurring as lymphomatous effusions in serous body cavities without an associated tumor mass, is consistently associated with human herpes virus-8 (HHV8 infection, while a majority of cases also exhibits Epstein–Barr virus (EBV co-infection. Clinically, it is characterized by an almost exclusive male predominance (98% male, HIV-positivity (96% of patients are HIV+, acute presentation with B symptoms, and unfavorable overall survival (40% of patients die within 2 months. We report an asymptomatic HIV-negative female patient with incidentally found splenomegaly and extensive PET FDG-avid retroperitoneal, pelvic, and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. A core biopsy of her right pelvic lymph node showed aggregates of atypical cells with anaplastic features. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the neoplastic cells were positive for CD45, CD20, CD30, MUM1, CD138, EMA, CD3, HHV-8 and EBER. The diagnosis of ExPEL was established. Against medical advice and given the absence of significant symptoms, the patient refused to start treatment. Four months after the diagnosis, the patient remains asymptomatic, and follow-up CT scan demonstrates stability of her lymphadenopathy. We present here a case of ExPEL in which the patient's presentation defies the clinical norms, illustrating that ExPEL should also be included in the differential diagnosis of lymphomas occurring in asymptomatic HIV-negative patients.

  13. Influence of early maladaptive schemas, depression, and anxiety on the intensity of self-reported cognitive complaint in older adults with subjective cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandetnik, Caroline; Hergueta, Thierry; Bonnet, Philippe; Dubois, Bruno; Bungener, Catherine

    2017-10-01

    Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) designates a self-reported cognitive decline despite preserved cognitive abilities. This study aims to explore, in older adults with SCD, the association between intensity of self-reported cognitive complaint and psychological factors including Young's early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) (i.e. enduring cognitive structures giving rise to beliefs about oneself and the world), as well as depression and anxiety. Seventy-six subjects (69.22 years ± 6.1) with intact cognitive functioning were recruited through an advertisement offering free participation in an intervention on SCD. After undergoing a neuropsychological examination (including global cognition (MMSE) and episodic memory (FCSRT)) and a semi-structured interview to assess depressive symptoms (MADRS), they completed a set of online self-reported questionnaires on SCD (McNair questionnaire), Young's EMSs (YSQ-short form), depression (HADS-D), and anxiety (HADS-A and trait-STAI-Y). The McNair score did not correlate with the neuropsychological scores. Instead, it was highly (r > 0.400; p depression, anxiety, and these three EMSs as predictors (while controlling for age, gender, and objective cognition) accounted for 38.5% of the observed variance in SCD intensity. The level of cognitive complaint is significantly associated with Young's EMSs in the category of "Impaired autonomy and performance". We assume that SCD may primarily be driven by profound long-term inner beliefs about oneself that do not specifically refer to self-perceived memory abilities.

  14. Dietary Protein Intake and Stroke Risk in a General Japanese Population: The Hisayama Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Mio; Yoshida, Daigo; Hata, Jun; Ohara, Tomoyuki; Mukai, Naoko; Shibata, Mao; Uchida, Kazuhiro; Nagata, Masashi; Kitazono, Takanari; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Ninomiya, Toshiharu

    2017-06-01

    The influence of dietary protein intake on stroke risk is an area of interest. We investigated the association between dietary protein intake and stroke risk in Japanese, considering sources of protein. A total of 2400 subjects aged 40 to 79 years were followed up for 19 years. Dietary protein intake was estimated using a 70-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. The risk estimates for incident stroke and its subtypes were calculated using a Cox proportional hazards model. During the follow-up, 254 participants experienced stroke events; of these, 172 had ischemic stroke, and 58 had intracerebral hemorrhage. Higher total protein intake was significantly associated with lower risks of stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage (both P for trend protein, the risks of total stroke and ischemic stroke significantly decreased by 40% (95% confidence interval, 12%-59%) and 40% (5%-62%), respectively, in subjects with the highest quartile of vegetable protein intake compared with those with the lowest one. In contrast, subjects with the highest quartile of animal protein intake had a 53% (4%-77%) lower risk of intracerebral hemorrhage. Vegetable protein intake was positively correlated with intakes of soybean products, vegetable, and algae, whereas animal protein intake was positively correlated with intakes of fish, meat, eggs, and milk/dairy products. Both types of protein intakes were negatively correlated with intakes of rice and alcohol. Our findings suggest that higher dietary protein intake is associated with a reduced risk of stroke in the general Japanese population. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Exercise and food intake. What is the relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titchenal, C A

    1988-09-01

    Understanding the effects of exercise on food intake is complicated by limitations of methodology. One primary limitation with human subjects is food intake assessment. Highly accurate techniques may not represent usual eating patterns. Present techniques representative of usual eating habits lack accuracy. Several independent variables also affect the results of exercise-food intake studies, even with laboratory rats where food intake measurements can be quite accurate. These variables include exercise protocols, subject characteristics, types and amounts of food available for consumption, environmental conditions, and sociocultural factors. Most investigations have focused on the effects of exercise training protocols on energy intake. When forced to run on treadmills, energy intake of laboratory rats usually decreases in males and increases in females. In response to forced swimming protocols, energy intake in male rats is usually unchanged and increased by female rats. In contrast, voluntary running (in running wheels) usually results in an increase in energy intake in both male and female rats. However, energy intake may also be unaffected or reduced in male rats given access to running wheels. These gender differences may be related to much lower levels of voluntary wheel running observed in male rats. The gender difference observed with rats is not apparent in humans. Energy intake of humans is usually increased or unchanged in response to exercise training programmes. However, when energy intake is increased, it is usually below the increased expenditure, resulting in negative energy balance. Highly trained athletes and lean individuals usually increase energy intake in response to increased physical activity, whereas, obese untrained subjects commonly do not change energy intake when exposed to exercise training. Few studies have investigated the effects of exercise on changes in food selection in laboratory animals; the results of studies with humans also

  16. A systematic review and meta-analysis examining the effect of eating rate on energy intake and hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Almiron-Roig, Eva; Rutters, Femke; de Graaf, Cees; Forde, Ciarán G; Tudur Smith, Catrin; Nolan, Sarah J; Jebb, Susan A

    2014-07-01

    Reductions in eating rate are recommended to prevent and treat obesity; yet, the relation between eating rate and energy intake has not been systematically reviewed, with studies producing mixed results. Our main objective was to examine how experimentally manipulated differences in eating rate influence concurrent energy intake and subjective hunger ratings. We systematically reviewed studies that experimentally manipulated eating rate and measured concurrent food intake, self-reported hunger, or both. We combined effect estimates from studies by using inverse variance meta-analysis, calculating the standardized mean difference (SMD) in food intake between fast and slow eating rate conditions. Twenty-two studies were eligible for inclusion. Evidence indicated that a slower eating rate was associated with lower energy intake in comparison to a faster eating rate (random-effects SMD: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.65; P eating rate, although there was a large amount of heterogeneity between studies. There was no significant relation between eating rate and hunger at the end of the meal or up to 3.5 h later. Evidence to date supports the notion that eating rate affects energy intake. Research is needed to identify effective interventions to reduce eating rate that can be adopted in everyday life to help limit excess consumption. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Coffee Intake and Liver Enzyme Association in Korean Immigrants and Japanese: A Comprehensive Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Ki; Shin, Myung-Hee; Sugimoto, Kayo; Kim, Soo Ryang; Imoto, Susumu; Kim, Ke Ih; Taniguchi, Miyuki; Oh, Hyun-Kyung; Yano, Yoshihiko; Hayashi, Yoshitake; Kudo, Masatoshi

    Significant inverse association between coffee intake and the levels of liver enzymes has been reported. We demonstrated higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean immigrants (KIs) than in indigenous Japanese (IJs). The aim of this study was to investigate whether the association between coffee intake and liver enzyme levels was different between the 2 ethnic groups. This study is a cross-sectional study including a total of 966 subjects comprising KIs and IJs. The association between the quintiles of coffee intake and dichotomous values of liver enzymes was evaluated by logistic regression analysis in KIs, IJs, a high-risk group (current smokers or alcohol drinkers ≥45 g/day), and a low-risk group (non-smokers and alcohol drinkers coffee intake and serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels was observed. In the IJs, a significant inverse association between coffee intake and serum alanine aminotransferase levels was observed. In the high-risk group, a significant inverse association between coffee intake and serum AST and gamma-glutamyltransferase levels was observed. No difference was observed between KIs and IJs regarding the association between coffee and liver enzymes. Coffee might inhibit hepatic damage by alcohol drinking and smoking. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Effects on mobility training and de-adaptations in subjects with Spinal Cord Injury due to a Wearable Robot: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale, Patrizio; Russo, Emanuele Francesco; Russo, Michele; Masiero, Stefano; Piccione, Francesco; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; Filoni, Serena

    2016-01-28

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a severe neurological disorder associated not only with ongoing medical complications but also with a significant loss of mobility and participation. The introduction of robotic technologies to recover lower limb function has been greatly employed in the rehabilitative practice. The aim of this preliminary report were to evaluate the efficacy, the feasibility and the changes in the mobility and in the de-adaptations of a new rehabilitative protocol for EKSO™ a robotic exoskeleton device in subjects with SCI disease with an impairment of lower limbs assessed by gait analysis and clinical outcomes. This is a pilot single case experimental A-B (pre-post) design study. Three cognitively intact voluntary participants with SCI and gait disorders were admitted. All subjects were submitted to a training program of robot walking sessions for 45 min daily over 20 sessions. The spatiotemporal parameters at the beginning (T0) and at the end of treatment (T1) were recorded. Other clinical assessments (6 min walking test and Timed Up and Go test) were acquired at T0 and T1. Robot training were feasible and acceptable and all participants completed the training sessions. All subjects showed improvements in gait spatiotemporal indexes (Mean velocity, Cadence, Step length and Step width) and in 6 min Walking Test (T0 versus T1). Robot training is a feasible form of rehabilitation for people with SCI. Further investigation regarding long term effectiveness of robot training in time is necessary. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02065830.

  19. Nutritional adequacy of dietary intake in women with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Jahns, Lisa; Johnson, LuAnn K; Crosby, Ross; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott; Peterson, Carol; Le Grange, Daniel; Wonderlich, Stephen A

    2015-05-15

    Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients is essential for the treatment. Therefore, estimates of total energy and nutrient consumption were made in a group of young women (19 to 30 years) with restricting and binge purge subtypes of AN participating in an ecological momentary assessment study. Participants completed three nonconsecutive 24-hour diet recalls. Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by subtype and by quartiles of energy intake and compared to the age specific Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) levels, as well as to the reported intakes from the What We Eat In America (WWEIA) dietary survey 2011-2012. Reported intake was determined for energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. The mean body mass index (BMI) for all participants was 17.2 ± 0.1 kg/m2. Reported nutrient intake was insufficient for participants in quartiles 1-3 of both AN subtypes when compared to the DRIs. Intake reported by participants in quartile 4 of both subgroups met requirements for most nutrients and even met or exceeded estimated energy needs. Counseling of AN patients should be directed to total food consumption to improve energy intake and to reduce individual nutritional gaps.

  20. Nutritional Adequacy of Dietary Intake in Women with Anorexia Nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan K. Raatz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN patients is essential for the treatment. Therefore, estimates of total energy and nutrient consumption were made in a group of young women (19 to 30 years with restricting and binge purge subtypes of AN participating in an ecological momentary assessment study. Participants completed three nonconsecutive 24-hour diet recalls. Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by subtype and by quartiles of energy intake and compared to the age specific Dietary Reference Intake (DRI levels, as well as to the reported intakes from the What We Eat In America (WWEIA dietary survey 2011–2012. Reported intake was determined for energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. The mean body mass index (BMI for all participants was 17.2 ± 0.1 kg/m2. Reported nutrient intake was insufficient for participants in quartiles 1–3 of both AN subtypes when compared to the DRIs. Intake reported by participants in quartile 4 of both subgroups met requirements for most nutrients and even met or exceeded estimated energy needs. Counseling of AN patients should be directed to total food consumption to improve energy intake and to reduce individual nutritional gaps.

  1. Iodine content in bread and salt in Denmark after iodization and the influence on iodine intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ovesen, Lars; Christensen, Tue

    2007-01-01

    Objective To measure the iodine content in bread and household salt in Denmark after mandatory iodine fortification was introduced and to estimate the increase in iodine intake due to the fortification. Design The iodine content in rye breads, wheat breads and salt samples was assessed....... The increase in iodine intake from fortification of bread and the increase in total iodine intake after fortification were estimated. Subjects Iodine intake before and after fortification was estimated based on dietary intake data from 4,124 randomly selected Danish subjects. Main results Approximately 98......% of the rye breads and 90% of the wheat breads were iodized. The median iodine intake from bread increased by 25 ( 13-43) mu g/day and the total median iodine intake increased by 63 (36-104) mu g/day. Conclusions The fortification of bread and salt has resulted in a desirable increase in iodine intake...

  2. From telephone to office: intake attendance as a function of appointment delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festinger, David S; Lamb, R J; Marlowe, Douglas B; Kirby, Kimberly C

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, 116 clients calling an outpatient cocaine treatment clinic were randomly assigned to intake appointments scheduled either the same day, 1 day, 3 days, or 7 days later. Significantly more subjects scheduled 1 day later attended their intake appointments (72%), compared to those scheduled 3 days (41%) or 7 days (38%) later. Odds ratios indicate that subjects offered intake appointments approximately 24 h following their initial contact are more than four times as likely to attend their intakes as those scheduled later. This accelerated intake procedure allows clinics to reach more patients in need of services.

  3. Treatment options for subjective tinnitus: Self reports from a sample of general practitioners and ENT physicians within Europe and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Tinnitus affects about 10-15% of the general population and risks for developing tinnitus are rising through increased exposure to leisure noise through listening to personal music players at high volume. The disorder has a considerable heterogeneity and so no single mechanism is likely to explain the presence of tinnitus in all those affected. As such there is no standardized management pathway nor singly effective treatment for the condition. Choice of clinical intervention is a multi-factorial decision based on many factors, including assessment of patient needs and the healthcare context. The present research surveyed clinicians working in six Westernized countries with the aims: a) to establish the range of referral pathways, b) to evaluate the typical treatment options for categories of subjective tinnitus defined as acute or chronic, and c) to seek clinical opinion about levels of satisfaction with current standards of practice. Methods A structured online questionnaire was conducted with 712 physicians who reported seeing at least one tinnitus patients in the previous three months. They were 370 general practitioners (GPs) and 365 ear-nose-throat specialists (ENTs) from the US, Germany, UK, France, Italy and Spain. Results Our international comparison of health systems for tinnitus revealed that although the characteristics of tinnitus appeared broadly similar across countries, the patient's experience of clinical services differed widely. GPs and ENTs were always involved in referral and management to some degree, but multi-disciplinary teams engaged either neurology (Germany, Italy and Spain) or audiology (UK and US) professionals. For acute subjective tinnitus, pharmacological prescriptions were common, while audiological and psychological approaches were more typical for chronic subjective tinnitus; with several specific treatment options being highly country specific. All therapy options were associated with low levels of satisfaction

  4. Polyamines: total daily intake in adolescents compared to the intake estimated from the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations Objectified (SNO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Atiya Ali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary polyamines have been shown to give a significant contribution to the body pool of polyamines. Knowing the levels of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine in different foods and the contribution of daily food choice to polyamine intake is of interest, due to the association of these bioactive amines to health and disease. Objective: To estimate polyamine intake and food contribution to this intake in adolescents compared to a diet fulfilling the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations. Design: A cross-sectional study of dietary intake in adolescents and an ‘ideal diet’ (Swedish nutrition recommendations objectified [SNO] list of foods was used to compute polyamine intake using a database of polyamine contents of foods. For polyamine intake estimation, 7-day weighed food records collected from 93 adolescents were entered into dietetic software (Dietist XP including data on polyamine contents of foods. The content of polyamines in foods recommended according to SNO was entered in the same way. Results: The adolescents’ mean daily polyamine intake was 316±170 µmol/day, while the calculated contribution according to SNO was considerably higher with an average polyamine intake of 541 µmol/day. In both adolescent's intake and SNO, fruits contributed to almost half of the total polyamine intake. The reason why the intake among the adolescents was lower than the one calculated from SNO was mainly due to the low vegetable consumption in the adolescents group. Conclusions: The average daily total polyamine intake was similar to that previously reported in Europe. With an ‘ideal’ diet according to Swedish nutrition recommendations, the intake of this bioactive non-nutrient would be higher than that reported by our adolescents and also higher than that previously reported from Europe.

  5. Cognitive performance among the elderly in relation to the intake of plant foods. The Hordaland Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurk, Eha; Refsum, Helga; Drevon, Christian A; Tell, Grethe S; Nygaard, Harald A; Engedal, Knut; Smith, A David

    2010-10-01

    Fruits and vegetables are among the most nutritious and healthy of foods, and are related to the prevention of many chronic diseases. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between intake of different plant foods and cognitive performance in elderly individuals in a cross-sectional study. Two thousand and thirty-one elderly subjects (aged 70-74 years; 55% women) recruited from the general population in Western Norway underwent extensive cognitive testing and completed a comprehensive FFQ. The cognitive test battery covered several domains (Kendrick Object Learning Test, Trail Making Test--part A, modified versions of the Digit Symbol Test, Block Design, Mini-Mental State Examination and Controlled Oral Word Association Test). A validated and self-reported FFQ was used to assess habitual food intake. Subjects with intakes of >10th percentile of fruits, vegetables, grain products and mushrooms performed significantly better in cognitive tests than those with very low or no intake. The associations were strongest between cognition and the combined intake of fruits and vegetables, with a marked dose-dependent relationship up to about 500 g/d. The dose-related increase of intakes of grain products and potatoes reached a plateau at about 100-150 g/d, levelling off or decreasing thereafter, whereas the associations were linear for mushrooms. For individual plant foods, the positive cognitive associations of carrots, cruciferous vegetables, citrus fruits and high-fibre bread were most pronounced. The only negative cognitive association was with increased intake of white bread. In the elderly, a diet rich in plant foods is associated with better performance in several cognitive abilities in a dose-dependent manner.

  6. Carotenoid intake and head and neck cancer: a pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoncini, Emanuele; Edefonti, Valeria; Hashibe, Mia; Parpinel, Maria; Cadoni, Gabriella; Ferraroni, Monica; Serraino, Diego; Matsuo, Keitaro; Olshan, Andrew F; Zevallos, Jose P; Winn, Deborah M; Moysich, Kirsten; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Morgenstern, Hal; Levi, Fabio; Kelsey, Karl; McClean, Michael; Bosetti, Cristina; Schantz, Stimson; Yu, Guo-Pei; Boffetta, Paolo; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Decarli, Adriano; La Vecchia, Carlo; Boccia, Stefania

    2016-04-01

    Food and nutrition play an important role in head and neck cancer (HNC) etiology; however, the role of carotenoids remains largely undefined. We explored the relation of HNC risk with the intake of carotenoids within the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium. We pooled individual-level data from 10 case-control studies conducted in Europe, North America, and Japan. The analysis included 18,207 subjects (4414 with oral and pharyngeal cancer, 1545 with laryngeal cancer, and 12,248 controls), categorized by quintiles of carotenoid intake from natural sources. Comparing the highest with the lowest quintile, the risk reduction associated with total carotenoid intake was 39 % (95 % CI 29-47 %) for oral/pharyngeal cancer and 39 % (95 % CI 24-50 %) for laryngeal cancer. Intakes of β-carotene equivalents, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and lutein plus zeaxanthin were associated with at least 18 % reduction in the rate of oral and pharyngeal cancer (95 % CI 6-29 %) and 17 % reduction in the rate of laryngeal cancer (95 % CI 0-32 %). The overall protective effect of carotenoids on HNC was stronger for subjects reporting greater alcohol consumption (p < 0.05). The odds ratio for the combined effect of low carotenoid intake and high alcohol or tobacco consumption versus high carotenoid intake and low alcohol or tobacco consumption ranged from 7 (95 % CI 5-9) to 33 (95 % CI 23-49). A diet rich in carotenoids may protect against HNC. Persons with both low carotenoid intake and high tobacco or alcohol are at substantially higher risk of HNC.

  7. EFFECT OF KIMCHI INTAKE ON LIPID PROFILES AND BLOOD PRESSURE

    OpenAIRE

    Ju Kim, Hyun; Han, Ji-Sook; Han, Eung-Soo; Song, Yeong-Ok

    2012-01-01

    Kimchi is a Korean fermented vegetable and has recognized as a healthy food. Some interventional studies have reported an inverse association between kimchi intake and higher lipid levels in healthy and obese people. However, kimchi intake and hypertention were still uncertain. This study is carried out to investigate whether the serum lipid profiles and blood pressure would be influenced by the amount of kimchi intake. Design for the clinical study by controlling the meal consumption and phy...

  8. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  9. Marine ω-3 Fatty Acid Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belalcazar, L. Maria; Reboussin, David M.; Haffner, Steven M.; Reeves, Rebecca S.; Schwenke, Dawn C.; Hoogeveen, Ron C.; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier; Ballantyne, Christie M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine usual marine ω-3 fatty acid (mO-3FA) intake in individuals with diabetes; its association with adiposity, lipid, and glucose control; and its changes with behavioral lifestyle intervention for weight loss. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Cross-sectional and 1-year longitudinal analyses were performed on 2,397 Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) participants. Look AHEAD is a cardiovascular outcome trial evaluating the effects of intensive lifestyle intervention for weight loss in overweight/obese subjects with type 2 diabetes. RESULTS Baseline mO-3FA intake was 162 ± 138 mg/day. It was inversely associated with triglycerides (β = −0.41, P < 0.001) and weakly with HDL (β = 4.14, P = 0.050), after multiple covariate adjustment. One-year mO-3FA and fried/sandwich fish intake decreased with intensive lifestyle intervention (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS mO-3FA intake in Look AHEAD participants was low but associated favorably with lipids. These results encourage investigation on the potential benefits of increasing mO-3FA intake in lifestyle interventions for weight loss in individuals with diabetes. PMID:19841042

  10. Training response inhibition to food is associated with weight loss and reduced energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Natalia S; O'Sullivan, Jamie; Parslow, David; Javaid, Mahmood; Adams, Rachel C; Chambers, Christopher D; Kos, Katarina; Verbruggen, Frederick

    2015-12-01

    The majority of adults in the UK and US are overweight or obese due to multiple factors including excess energy intake. Training people to inhibit simple motor responses (key presses) to high-energy density food pictures reduces intake in laboratory studies. We examined whether online response inhibition training reduced real-world food consumption and weight in a community sample of adults who were predominantly overweight or obese (N = 83). Participants were allocated in a randomised, double-blind design to receive four 10-min sessions of either active or control go/no-go training in which either high-energy density snack foods (active) or non-food stimuli (control) were associated with no-go signals. Participants' weight, energy intake (calculated from 24-h food diaries), daily snacking frequency and subjective food evaluations were measured for one week pre- and post-intervention. Participants also provided self-reported weight and monthly snacking frequency at pre-intervention screening, and one month and six months after completing the study. Participants in the active relative to control condition showed significant weight loss, reductions in daily energy intake and a reduction in rated liking of high-energy density (no-go) foods from the pre-to post-intervention week. There were no changes in self-reported daily snacking frequency. At longer-term follow-up, the active group showed significant reductions in self-reported weight at six months, whilst both groups reported significantly less snacking at one- and six-months. Excellent rates of adherence (97%) and positive feedback about the training suggest that this intervention is acceptable and has the potential to improve public health by reducing energy intake and overweight. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. [Association between mesenteric phlebosclerosis and Chinese herbal medicine intake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsu, Kensei; Matsui, Toshiyuki; Nishimura, Taku; Hirai, Fumihito; Ikeda, Keisuke; Iwashita, Akinori; Yorioka, Makoto; Hatakeyama, Sadamune; Hoashi, Toshio; Koga, Yuki; Sakurai, Toshihiro; Miyaoka, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    Mesenteric phlebosclerosis (MP) is a relatively rare disease of the colon. An association between MP and Chinese herbal medicine intake has recently been recognized. In the present study, we investigated the association between MP and Chinese herbal medicine intake in 42 patients, including those reported in the literature as well as those treated by us. Approximately 90% patients treated by us reported a history of Chinese herbal medicine intake, particularly kamishoyosan, orengedokuto, and sanshishi (gardeniae fructus), the lattermost being consumed by the majority of patients as a crude herbal medicine. Several MP patients report a history of Chinese herbal medicine intake. Furthermore, symptoms are exacerbated in MP patients who continue to consume the medicine after onset. Interestingly, MP was reported to develop in a married couple who had consumed the same Chinese herbal medicine for a prolonged period. These findings suggest that the intake of Chinese herbal medicine, particularly sanshishi, is strongly associated with MP development.

  12. Efeitos dos óleos de amendoim, açafrão e oliva na composição corporal, metabolismo energético, perfil lipídico e ingestão alimentar de indivíduos eutróficos normolipidêmicos The effects of peanut, safflower, and olive oil on body composition, energy metabolism, lipid profile and food intake of eutrophic, normolipidemic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regiane Lopes Sales

    2005-08-01

    received no treatment and the others received a milk shake for their breakfast, containing an amount of one of the oils (peanut, safflower or olive equivalent to 30% of their basal energy metabolism, for a period of 8 weeks. The levels of total blood cholesterol and fractions, triacylglycerols, body weight, body composition, basal metabolic rate, dietary induced thermogenesis, satiety and food intake were evaluated on the basal, 4th and 8th weeks. RESULTS: No significant difference was observed in the lipid profile or satiety, but the safflower oil group showed lower levels of blood lipids. Oil intake, irrespective of its composition, led to an increase in body weight, and olive oil consumption increased the hip circumference. CONCLUSION: Contrary to reports in the literature, the addition of oils to the diet increased body fat deposition, and had no effect on blood lipid profile or satiety. The use of oil to substitute other energetic nutrients of the diet should be investigated in future studies, with a larger number of volunteers and a longer period of intervention.

  13. ERICA: intake of macro and micronutrients of Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda de Moura Souza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe food and macronutrient intake profile and estimate the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from 71,791 adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years were evaluated in the 2013-2014 Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA. Food intake was estimated using 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR. A second 24-HDR was collected in a subsample of the adolescents to estimate within-person variability and calculate the usual individual intake. The prevalence of food/food group intake reported by the adolescents was also estimated. For sodium, the prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated based on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL. The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR method used as cutoff was applied to estimate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake. All the analyses were stratified according to sex, age group and Brazilian macro-regions. All statistical analyses accounted for the sample weight and the complex sampling design. RESULTS Rice, beans and other legume, juice and fruit drinks, breads and meat were the most consumed foods among the adolescents. The average energy intake ranged from 2,036 kcal (girls aged from 12 to 13 years to 2,582 kcal (boy aged from14 to 17 years. Saturated fat and free sugar intake were above the maximum limit recommended ( 50.0%. Sodium intake was above the UL for more than 80.0% of the adolescents. CONCLUSIONS The diets of Brazilian adolescents were characterized by the intake of traditional Brazilian food, such as rice and beans, as well as by high intake of sugar through sweetened beverages and processed foods. This food pattern was associated with an excessive intake of sodium, saturated fatty acids and free sugar.

  14. Energy Intake from Restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M.; Nguyen, Binh T.; Han, Euna

    2012-01-01

    Background Eating food away from home and restaurant consumption have increased over the past few decades. Purpose To examine recent changes in calories from fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption and to assess characteristics associated with consumption. Methods Analyses of 24-hour dietary recalls from children, adolescents, and adults using nationally representative data from the 2003–2004 through 2007–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, including analysis by gender, ethnicity, income and location of consumption. Multivariate regression analyses of associations between demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and consumption prevalence and average daily caloric intake from fast-food and full-service restaurants. Results In 2007–2008, 33%, 41% and 36% of children, adolescents and adults, respectively, consumed foods and/or beverages from fast-food restaurant sources and 12%, 18% and 27% consumed from full-service restaurants. Their respective mean caloric intake from fast food was 191 kcal, 404 kcal, and 315 kcal, down by 25% (p≤0.05), 3% and 9% from 2003–2004; and among consumers, intake was 576 kcal, 988 kcal, and 877 kcal, respectively, down by 12% (p≤0.05), 2% and 7%. There were no changes in daily calories consumed from full-service restaurants. Consumption prevalence and average daily caloric intake from fast-food (adults only) and full-service restaurants (all age groups) were higher when consumed away from home versus at home. There were some demographic and socioeconomic associations with the likelihood of fast-food consumption, but characteristics were generally not associated with the extent of caloric intake among those who consumed from fast-food or from full-service restaurants. Conclusions In 2007–2008, fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption remained prevalent and a source of substantial energy intake. PMID:23079172

  15. The influence of breakfast and dairy products on dietary calcium and vitamin D intake in postpubertal adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, B S E; Verly, E; Marchioni, D M L; Fisberg, M; Martini, L A

    2012-02-01

    Given the importance of both calcium and vitamin D for bone health and the high prevalence of vitamin D from around the world, the present study aimed to evaluate calcium and vitamin D intake in a group of healthy Brazilian adolescents and young adults and to examine the influence of breakfast and dairy products in the total intake of these nutrients.   One hundred and sixty adolescents and young adults, aged 16-20 years old, from a public school, participated in the present study. Three-day dietary records were used to assess calcium and vitamin D intakes. Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured using a radioimmunoassay kit. The results were expressed as the mean (SD). Only 3.8% of the subjects met the daily adequate intake recommendation for calcium, and none for vitamin D [682.2 (132.2)mg day(-1) and 124.0 (28.0)IU day(-1) , respectively]. 25(OH)D serum levels were insufficient in 51.5% and deficient in 9.7% of the individuals [72.5 (22.3) nmol L(-1) ]. There was a significant positive correlation between dairy product intake with both calcium and vitamin D (r=0.597 and r =0.561, respectively; P=0.000). Adolescents who ate breakfast had a significant higher mean calcium, vitamin D and dairy product intake than adolescents who did not report this meal. The majority of adolescents and young adults did not consume recommended intakes of calcium and vitamin D and also presented 25(OH)D insufficiency. The results indicate that a regular breakfast and the consumption of dairy products represent important strategies in improving calcium and vitamin D intake in the diet. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2011 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  16. Flavonoids as fruit and vegetable intake biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz

    Most validation studies show that the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is rather low in precision and accuracy, and there is an ongoing debate regarding the applicability of such self-reported data with regard to diet-disease relationships. However, no other method has so far been able to replace...... of fruit and vegetable intake (Nielsen et al. 2002). The overall aim of the present Ph.D. thesis was to further develop and validate this potentially new fruit and vegetable biomarker and furthermore use it for the validation of self-reported dietary intake of fruits and vegetables in intervention...... and cohort studies. The Ph.D. thesis contains four scientific papers. Paper I provides evidence that the sum of 7 flavonoids in 24h urine respond in a linear and sensitive manner to moderate increases in the intake of fruits and vegetables, and thus consolidates that the flavonoids are a valid biomarker...

  17. Relation of caffeine intake and blood caffeine concentrations during pregnancy to fetal growth: prospective population based study.

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, D.G.; Peacock, J. L.; Feyerabend, C; Carey, I M; Jarvis, M J; Anderson, H. R.; Bland, J M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of plasma caffeine concentrations during pregnancy with fetal growth and to compare this with relations with reported caffeine intake. DESIGN: Prospective population based study. SETTING: District general hospital, inner London. SUBJECTS: Women booking for delivery between 1982 and 1984. Stored plasma was available for 1,500 women who had provided a blood sample on at least one occasion and for 640 women who had provided a sample on all three occasions (...

  18. Salt content impacts food preferences and intake among children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Bouhlal

    Full Text Available Decreasing dietary sodium intake, which can be achieved by reducing salt content in food, is recommended. Salt contributes to the taste of foods and makes them more enjoyable. Whether a food is liked or disliked is an important determinant of food intake, especially among children. However, the role of salt in children's food acceptance has received little attention. The impact of salt content on children's hedonic rating and intake of two foods was investigated in children. Using a within-subject crossover design, we recruited 75 children (8-11 years to participate in five lunches in their school cafeteria. The target foods were green beans and pasta. The added salt content was 0, 0.6 or 1.2 g/100 g. The children's intake (g of all lunch items was measured. The children provided their hedonic rating of the food, a preference ranking and a saltiness ranking in the laboratory. Children could rank the foods according to salt content, and they preferred the two saltier options. A food-specific effect of salt content on intake was observed. Compared to the intermediate level (0.6 g salt/100 g, not adding salt decreased green bean intake (-21%; p = 0.002, and increasing the salt content increased pasta intake (+24%; p<0.0001. Structural Equation Modeling was used to model the relative weights of the determinants of intake. It showed that the primary driver of food intake was the child's hunger; the second most important factor was the child's hedonic rating of the food, regardless of its salt content, and the last factor was the child's preference for the particular salt content of the food. In conclusion, salt content has a positive and food-specific effect on intake; it impacted food preferences and intake differently in children. Taking into account children's preferences for salt instead of their intake may lead to excessive added salt.

  19. Micronutrient intakes from food and supplements in Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Caroline M; Black, Lucinda J; Oddy, Wendy H

    2014-01-14

    Low micronutrient intakes in adolescents are frequently reported. We assessed micronutrient intakes in adolescents to determine whether supplement use optimises intakes. Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire in 17 year old participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study (n=991). We calculated median daily micronutrient intakes in supplement users and non-users (from food sources only and from food and supplements), along with the percentage of adolescents meeting the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) or Adequate Intake (AI) where appropriate. Intakes of calcium, magnesium, folate and vitamins D and E from food only were low. Although supplements significantly increased micronutrient intakes in supplement users, more than half of supplement users failed to meet the EAR or AI for some key micronutrients. Compared with non-users, supplement users had higher micronutrient intakes from food sources with the exception of vitamins D and B12 and were more likely to achieve the EAR or AI for many micronutrients from food only. Intakes of some key micronutrients were low in this population, even among supplement users. Those facing the greatest risk of micronutrient deficiencies were less likely to use supplements.

  20. A case-control field study on the relationships among type 2 diabetes, sleepiness and habitual caffeine intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urry, Emily; Jetter, Alexander; Holst, Sebastian C; Berger, Wolfgang; Spinas, Giatgen A; Langhans, Wolfgang; Landolt, Hans-Peter

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the possible links between type 2 diabetes, daytime sleepiness, sleep quality and caffeine consumption. In this case-control field study, comparing type 2 diabetic ( n=134) and non-type 2 diabetic ( n=230) participants, subjects completed detailed and validated questionnaires to assess demographic status, health, daytime sleepiness, sleep quality and timing, diurnal preference, mistimed circadian rhythms and habitual caffeine intake. All participants gave saliva under standardised conditions for CYP1A2 genotyping and quantification of caffeine concentration. Hierarchical linear regression analyses examined whether type 2 diabetes status was associated with caffeine consumption. Type 2 diabetic participants reported greater daytime sleepiness ( p=0.001), a higher prevalence of sleep apnoea ( p=0.005) and napping ( p=0.008), and greater habitual caffeine intake ( pconsumption of an extra cup of coffee each day. This finding was confirmed by higher saliva caffeine concentration at bedtime ( p=0.01). Multiple regression analyses revealed that type 2 diabetes status was associated with higher self-reported caffeine consumption ( pcaffeine ( pcaffeine intake. Subjective sleep and circadian estimates were similar between case and control groups. Type 2 diabetic patients may self-medicate with caffeine to alleviate daytime sleepiness. High caffeine intake reflects a lifestyle factor that may be considered when promoting type 2 diabetes management.

  1. Relationship between subjective test feedback provided by high-school athletes during computer-based assessment of baseline cognitive functioning and self-reported symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Philip; Neidzwski, Katherine; Moser, Rosemarie Scolaro; Karpf, Robin

    2010-06-01

    Subjective feedback about distractions or problems encountered during computerized assessment was provided by 538 out of a pool of 1659 high-school athletes who completed baseline testing using ImPACT (Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing). Three types of feedback were included: (a) environmental, (b) computer-based (mechanical), and (c) instruction-based (associated with difficulty understanding test instructions). One-way analyses of variance were conducted and revealed relationships between greater symptom reporting and any type of feedback, environmental feedback, and instruction-based feedback. Increased symptom reporting was noted for female students. Additional relationships were noted between providing computer-based feedback and faster reaction time; and between history of concussion and providing instruction-based feedback. Athletes endorsing more symptoms at baseline scored significantly worse on ImPACT, as reflected in decreased visual memory performance. Results suggest that feedback provided during computerized assessment may yield information about symptom reporting and test-taking style, which may also be of particular interpretive utility when athletes minimize their symptoms.

  2. Peptides and Food Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food

  3. Estimated daily flavonoid and stilbene intake from fruits, vegetables, and nuts and associations with lipid profiles in Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guilan; Zhu, Yanna; Zhang, Yuan; Lang, Jing; Chen, Yuming; Ling, Wenhua

    2013-06-01

    The scientific evidence for the association of daily flavonoid and stilbene intakes with cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese adults has not been reported previously. The aim of the study was to assess daily flavonoid and stilbene intakes and evaluate these compounds' association with cardiovascular risk factors such as serum lipids and carotid intima-media thickness in Chinese adults. A total of 1,393 subjects participated in this cross-sectional study from July 2008 to January 2010 in China. Dietary flavonoid and stilbene intakes as well as overall dietary intakes from foods and beverages were assessed with a quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements and cardiovascular risk factors including serum lipids, uric acid, and carotid intima-media thickness were examined. The relationship between flavonoids and stilbene intakes and these cardiovascular risk factors was examined using either partial correlation coefficients or analysis of covariance. The richest sources of flavonoids and stilbenes were the fruit group including apple, plum, pear, and peach, followed by the vegetable group containing lotus root and taro. The daily intake of total flavonoids, anthocyanidins, flavonols, flavones, isoflavones, and stilbene were 165.6 mg/day, 27.6 mg/day, 123.7 mg/day, 10.7 mg/day, 3.7 mg/day, and 0.3 mg/day, respectively. Higher daily consumption of anthocyanidins was associated with elevated serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations (P trend=0.001), and higher total flavonoid and flavonol intakes were associated with lower serum triglycerides (TG) concentrations (P trend=0.020 and P trend=0.035, respectively) and TG/HDL-C ratios (P trend=0.040 and P trend=0.045, respectively) in female subjects. These significant relationships were not found in male subjects. The daily intakes of flavonoid and stilbene were estimated in the present study, and higher dietary flavonoid intake was associated with improving lipid profile in

  4. The influence of intermittent fasting on the circadian pattern of melatonin while controlling for caloric intake, energy expenditure, light exposure, and sleep schedules: A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljohara S Almeneessier

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: In this preliminary report, under controlled conditions of light exposure, meal composition, energy expenditure, and sleep-wake schedules, intermittent fasting has no significant influence on the circadian pattern of melatonin.

  5. The Association between Self-Reported Grocery Store Access, Fruit and Vegetable Intake, Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption, and Obesity in a Racially Diverse, Low-Income Population

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gase, Lauren Nichol; DeFosset, Amelia Rose; Smith, Lisa V; Kuo, Tony

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to examine the relationship between self-reported time and distance to the nearest retail grocery store, healthy and unhealthy food consumption, and objectively measured body mass index (BMI...

  6. Associations between dairy intake and metabolic risk parameters in a healthy French-Canadian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Marine S; Julien, Pierre; Couture, Patrick; Lemieux, Simone; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Rudkowska, Iwona

    2014-12-01

    Observational studies support that dairy product intake is associated with a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes; however, several clinical studies report conflicting results on the association between dairy product consumption and metabolic parameters. The aim of this study was to determine associations between dairy product consumption and metabolic profile. Dietary data, using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and fasting blood samples were collected from 233 French Canadians. Plasma phospholipid (PL) fatty acids (FA) concentrations were determined by gas chromatography. Subjects consumed 2.5 ± 1.4 portions of dairy products daily, including 1.6 ± 1.3 portions of low-fat (LF) and 0.90 ± 0.70 portions of high-fat (HF) dairy products. Trans-palmitoleic acid level in plasma PL was related to HF dairy consumption (r = 0.15; p = 0.04). Total (r = -0.21; p = 0.001) and LF dairy (r = -0.20; p = 0.003) intakes were inversely correlated with fasting plasma glucose level. Total dairy intake was inversely associated to systolic blood pressure (r = -0.17; p = 0.008) and diastolic blood pressure (r = -0.14; p = 0.03). LF dairy intake was also inversely correlated with systolic blood pressure (r = -0.17; p = 0.009). Total dairy intake was correlated with plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) (r = 0.15; p = 0.03). No association was found between HF dairy consumption and the risk factors studied. In conclusion, dairy intake is inversely associated with glycaemia and blood pressure; yet, it may modify CRP levels. Moreover, trans-palmitoleic FA levels in plasma PL may be potentially used to assess full-fat dairy consumption.

  7. Vitamin A intake and risk of melanoma: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Ping Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence from experimental and animal studies suggests that vitamin A may have a protective effect on melanoma, but the findings on the association of vitamin A intake with risk of melanoma have been inconsistently reported in epidemiologic studies. We attempted to elucidate the association by performing a meta-analysis. METHODS: Eligible studies were identified by searching PubMed and EMBASE databases, as well as by reviewing the references of retrieved publications. Summary odds ratios (OR with corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI were computed with a random-effects model. Study-specific ORs and 95% CIs for the highest vs. lowest categories of vitamin A intake were pooled. RESULTS: A total of 8 case-control studies and 2 prospective studies comprising 3,328 melanoma cases and 233,295 non-case subjects were included. The summary OR for the highest compared with the lowest intake of total vitamin A, retinol and beta-carotene was 0.86 (95% CI = 0.59-1.25, 0.80 (95% CI = 0.69-0.92 and 0.87 (95%CI = 0.62-1.20, respectively. Significant heterogeneity was observed among studies on vitamin A and beta-carotene intake, but not among studies on retinol intake. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses confirmed these findings. There was no indication of publication bias. CONCLUSION: Findings from this meta-analysis suggest that intake of retinol, rather than of total vitamin A or beta-carotene, is significantly associated with reduced risk of melanoma.

  8. Micronutrient status and intake in omnivores, vegetarians and vegans in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüpbach, R; Wegmüller, R; Berguerand, C; Bui, M; Herter-Aeberli, I

    2017-02-01

    Vegetarian and vegan diets have gained popularity in Switzerland. The nutritional status of individuals who have adopted such diets, however, has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to assess the intake and status of selected vitamins and minerals among vegetarian and vegan adults living in Switzerland. Healthy adults [omnivores (OVs), n OV  = 100; vegetarians (VGs), n VG  = 53; vegans (VNs), n VN  = 53] aged 18-50 years were recruited, and their weight and height were measured. Plasma concentrations of the vitamins A, C, E, B1, B2, B6, B12, folic acid, pantothenic acid, niacin, biotin and β-carotene and of the minerals Fe, Mg and Zn and urinary iodine concentration were determined. Dietary intake was assessed using a three-day weighed food record, and questionnaires were issued in order to assess the physical activity and lifestyle of the subjects. Omnivores had the lowest intake of Mg, vitamin C, vitamin E, niacin and folic acid. Vegans reported low intakes of Ca and a marginal consumption of the vitamins D and B12. The highest prevalence for vitamin and mineral deficiencies in each group was as follows: in the omnivorous group, for folic acid (58 %); in the vegetarian group, for vitamin B6 and niacin (58 and 34 %, respectively); and in the vegan group, for Zn (47 %). Despite negligible dietary vitamin B12 intake in the vegan group, deficiency of this particular vitamin was low in all groups thanks to widespread use of supplements. Prevalence of Fe deficiency was comparable across all diet groups. Despite substantial differences in intake and deficiency between groups, our results indicate that by consuming a well-balanced diet including supplements or fortified products, all three types of diet can potentially fulfill requirements for vitamin and mineral consumption.

  9. Dairy intake is associated with brain glutathione concentration in older adults123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Phil; Denney, Douglas R; Spaeth, Kendra; Nast, Olivia; Ptomey, Lauren; Roth, Alexandra K; Lierman, Jo Ann; Sullivan, Debra K

    2015-01-01

    Background: A reduction in key antioxidants such as glutathione has been noted in brain tissue undergoing oxidative stress in aging and neurodegeneration. To date, no dietary factor has been linked to a higher glutathione concentration. However, in an earlier pilot study, we showed evidence of a positive association between cerebral glutathione and dairy intake. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that dairy food consumption is associated with cerebral glutathione concentrations in older adults. Design: In this observational study, we measured cerebral glutathione concentrations in 60 healthy subjects (mean ± SD age: 68.7 ± 6.2 y) whose routine dairy intakes varied. Glutathione concentrations were measured by using a unique, noninvasive magnetic resonance chemical shift imaging technique at 3 T and compared with dairy intakes reported in 7-d food records. Results: Glutathione concentrations in the frontal [Spearman's rank-order correlation (rs) = 0.39, P = 0.013], parietal (rs = 0.50, P = 0.001), and frontoparietal regions (rs = 0.47, P = 0.003) were correlated with average daily dairy servings. In particular, glutathione concentrations in all 3 regions were positively correlated with milk servings (P ≤ 0.013), and those in the parietal region were also correlated with cheese servings (P = 0.015) and calcium intake (P = 0.039). Dairy intake was related to sex, fat-free mass, and daily intakes of energy, protein, and carbohydrates. However, when these factors were controlled through a partial correlation, correlations between glutathione concentrations and dairy and milk servings remained significant. Conclusions: Higher cerebral glutathione concentrations were associated with greater dairy consumption in older adults. One possible explanation for this association is that dairy foods may serve as a good source of substrates for glutathione synthesis in the human brain. PMID:25646325

  10. Ingestive behaviour, herbage intake and grazing efficiency of beef cattle steers on Tanzania guineagrass subjected to rotational stocking managements Comportamento ingestivo, consumo de forragem e eficiência de pastejo denovilhos em pastos de capim-tanzânia em pastejo rotativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelson dos Santos Difante

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the ingestive behaviour, herbage intake and grazing efficiency of beef cattle steers grazing on Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania subjected to different rotational stocking intensities. Treatments corresponded to two post-grazing conditions (residues of 25 and 50 cm associated with a pre-grazing condition of 95% sward canopy light interception during regrowth (LI. The grazing time increased linearly with the duration of the occupation period (475 to 630 minutes/day. On paddocks grazed down to a residue of 25 cm, the bite rate increased linearly along the occupation period, with an average of 42.5 bites/minute. On paddocks grazed down to a residue of 50 cm, the bite rate was stable and equal to 39 bites/minute. There was no difference in herbage intake between grazing intensities. However, grazing at 25 cm residue resulted in greater herbage removal (68.0 vs. 45.6% and greater grazing efficiency (90.4 vs. 49.8% than grazing at 50 cm residue. Post-grazing residues of Tanzania guineagrass under rotational stocking management may be set at either 25 or 50 cm, since the herbage intake was not affected within this grazing intensity range. However, herbage removal and grazing efficiency were reduced with the 50 cm post-grazing height and grazing time increased with long occupation periods.O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento ingestivo, o consumo e a eficiência de pastejo de novilhos em pastos de Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia submetidos a diversas intensidades de pastejo rotativo. Os tratamentos corresponderam a duas condições de pós-pastejo (25 e 50 cm associadas a uma condição de pré-pastejo (95% de interceptação da luz incidente dossel forrageiro. O tempo de pastejo aumentou linearmente com o período de ocupação (475 a 630 minutos/dia. Em piquetes manejados com resíduo de 25 cm, a taxa de bocados aumentou linearmente ao longo do período de ocupação, com média de

  11. Intake Factors and Intake Processes in Adult Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaravadivelu, B.

    1994-01-01

    Synthesizing theoretical and empirical insights from second-language acquisition, cognitive psychology, information processing, schema theory, and parallel distributed processing, this paper proposes an interactive framework of intake processes. It identifies intake factors and intake processes and argues that these factors and processes…

  12. Menstrual cycle hormones, food intake, and cravings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Food craving and intake are affected by steroid hormones during the menstrual cycle, especially in the luteal phase, when craving for certain foods has been reported to increase. However, satiety hormones such as leptin have also been shown to affect taste sensitivity, and therefore food ...

  13. Treatment options for subjective tinnitus: Self reports from a sample of general practitioners and ENT physicians within Europe and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Deborah A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tinnitus affects about 10-15% of the general population and risks for developing tinnitus are rising through increased exposure to leisure noise through listening to personal music players at high volume. The disorder has a considerable heterogeneity and so no single mechanism is likely to explain the presence of tinnitus in all those affected. As such there is no standardized management pathway nor singly effective treatment for the condition. Choice of clinical intervention is a multi-factorial decision based on many factors, including assessment of patient needs and the healthcare context. The present research surveyed clinicians working in six Westernized countries with the aims: a to establish the range of referral pathways, b to evaluate the typical treatment options for categories of subjective tinnitus defined as acute or chronic, and c to seek clinical opinion about levels of satisfaction with current standards of practice. Methods A structured online questionnaire was conducted with 712 physicians who reported seeing at least one tinnitus patients in the previous three months. They were 370 general practitioners (GPs and 365 ear-nose-throat specialists (ENTs from the US, Germany, UK, France, Italy and Spain. Results Our international comparison of health systems for tinnitus revealed that although the characteristics of tinnitus appeared broadly similar across countries, the patient's experience of clinical services differed widely. GPs and ENTs were always involved in referral and management to some degree, but multi-disciplinary teams engaged either neurology (Germany, Italy and Spain or audiology (UK and US professionals. For acute subjective tinnitus, pharmacological prescriptions were common, while audiological and psychological approaches were more typical for chronic subjective tinnitus; with several specific treatment options being highly country specific. All therapy options were associated with low levels

  14. Intake of nutritional supplements among people exercising in gyms and influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goston, Janaina Lavalli; Correia, Maria Isabel Toulson Davisson

    2010-06-01

    To assess supplement intake in people who exercise regularly in gyms in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, and discuss the influencing factors on its ingestion. A total of 1102 enrolled subjects who exercised in 50 gyms throughout the city were part of this cross-sectional study. Men and women were recruited and all subjects were at least 18 y old. Participants were asked to complete written questionnaires about their use of supplements. Data were collected over a period of 4 mo. Descriptive statistics and chi-square tests were performed. The intake of nutritional supplements was reported by 36.8% of participants. The highest intake was in men (44.6%). Five products were consumed almost daily: those rich in proteins and amino acids (58%), isotonic drinks (32%), those rich in carbohydrates (23%), natural/phytotherapeutic (20%), and multivitamin/mineral supplements (19%). Most people (55%) reported using nutritional supplements without any specialized professional guidance and based primarily on self-prescription. Individuals younger than 30 y, mainly men (odds ratio 3.28, 95% confidence interval 2.06-5.20, P < 0.01), took supplements rich in proteins (odds ratio 2.73, 95% confidence interval 1.26-5.94, P < 0.05). In contrast, older participants reported taking supplements rich in multivitamin/minerals and natural/phytotherapeutic agents (odds ratio 5.52, 95% confidence interval 2.76-11.06, P < 0.01). Our results show that supplement intake in people exercising in gyms is high and is usually self-prescribed. We emphasize that the use of dietary supplements must be always done under the supervision of a specialist (physician or nutritionist). Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Associations of maternal iron intake and hemoglobin in pregnancy with offspring vascular phenotypes and adiposity at age 10: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisreen A Alwan

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency is common during pregnancy. Experimental animal studies suggest that it increases cardiovascular risk in the offspring.To examine the relationship between maternal pregnancy dietary and supplement iron intake and hemoglobin, with offspring's arterial stiffness (measured by carotid-radial pulse wave velocity, endothelial function (measured by brachial artery flow mediated dilatation, blood pressure, and adiposity (measured by body mass index, test for mediation by cord ferritin, birth weight, gestational age, and child dietary iron intake, and for effect modification by maternal vitamin C intake and offspring sex.Prospective data from 2958 mothers and children pairs at 10 years of age enrolled in an English birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study for Parents and Children (ALSPAC, was analysed.2639 (89.2% mothers reported dietary iron intake in pregnancy below the UK reference nutrient intake of 14.8 mg/day. 1328 (44.9% reported taking iron supplements, and 129 (4.4% were anemic by 18 weeks gestation. No associations were observed apart from maternal iron intake from supplements with offspring systolic blood pressure (-0.8 mmHg, 99% CI -1.7 to 0, P = 0.01 in the sample with all relevant data observed, and -0.7 mmHg, 99% CI -1.3 to 0, P = 0.008 in the sample with missing data imputed.There was no evidence of association between maternal pregnancy dietary iron intake, or maternal hemoglobin concentration (which is less likely to be biased by subjective reporting with offspring outcomes. There was a modest inverse association between maternal iron supplement intake during pregnancy with offspring systolic blood pressure at 10 years.

  16. Resistant starch intakes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Mary M; Douglass, Judith Spungen; Birkett, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Dietary fiber represents a broad class of undigested carbohydrate components. The components vary in chemical and physical nature and in their physiological outcomes. Resistant starch is starch that escapes digestion in the small intestine and that may be fermented in the large intestine. The purpose of this study was to estimate consumption of resistant starch by the US population and to identify key sources of dietary resistant starch. A database of resistant starch concentrations in foods was developed from the publicly available literature. These concentrations were linked to foods reported in 24-hour dietary recalls from participants in the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys and estimates of resistant starch intakes were generated. The study population included 18,305 nonbreastfeeding individuals in the United States. The dietary intake of resistant starch was determined for 10 US subpopulations defined by age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Three estimates of resistant starch intake were made for each person based on the minimum, mean, and maximum concentrations of resistant starch in the foods consumed. Americans aged 1 year and older were estimated to consume approximately 4.9 g resistant starch per day based on mean resistant starch concentrations (range 2.8 to 7.9 g resistant starch per day). Breads, cooked cereals/pastas, and vegetables (other than legumes) contributed 21%, 19%, and 19% of total resistant starch intake, respectively, and were top sources of resistant starch. Findings from this study suggest that the estimated intake of resistant starch by Americans is approximately 3 to 8 g per person per day. These estimates of resistant starch intake provide a valuable reference for researchers and food and nutrition professionals and will allow for more accurate estimates of total intakes of carbohydrate compounds that escape digestion in the small intestine.

  17. The association between APOA5 haplotypes and plasma lipids is not modified by energy or fat intake: the Czech HAPIEE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubacek, J A; Peasey, A; Kubinova, R; Pikhart, H; Bobak, M

    2014-03-01

    Several smaller studies reported interactions between dietary factors and apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) gene polymorphisms in determination of plasma lipids. We tested interactions between APOA5 haplotypes and dietary intake in determination of plasma triglycerides (TG) and other lipids. Participants (5487 males and females aged 45-69) were classified according to the number (0, 1, 2+) of minor APOA5 alleles (using T-1131 > C; rs662799 and Ser19 > Trp; rs3135506 polymorphisms) and into three groups of low (bottom 25%), medium (26th-75th percentile) and high (top 25%) of intake of total energy and total, saturated and polyunsaturated fats, assessed by food frequency questionnaire. The age-sex adjusted geometric means of plasma TG increased with the number of minor alleles, from 1.57 (standard error 0.01), to 1.79 (0.02) to 2.29 (0.10) mmol/L (p intake (p = 0.251). TG concentrations were highest in subjects with the combination of 2+ minor alleles and the highest energy intake (mean 2.59 [0.19], compared with 1.62 [0.03] in subjects with lowest energy intake and no minor allele) but the interaction between energy intake and APOA5 haplotypes was not statistically significant (p = 0.186). Analogous analyses with total, saturated and polyunsaturated fat intake yielded similar nonsignificant results. Effects of APOA5 and dietary intakes on total and HDL cholesterol were weaker and no interactions were significant. In this Slavic Caucasian population sample, we did not detect the hypothesized interaction between common SNPs within the APOA5 gene and diet in determination of blood lipids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Mushroom intake is associated with better nutrient intake and diet quality: 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    The association between mushroom consumption and nutrient intake or diet quality has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between these variables in a nationally representative sample of adults. Dietary intake was determined using a 24-hour recall on adult 1...

  19. Dietary Intake In Adult Female Coeliac Disease Patients In Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mičetić-Turk, Dušanka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The aim of the study was to assess dietary intake of coeliac disease (CD) patients and to determine if they are meeting the dietary reference values for a balanced diet. Subjects/Methods 40 women with CD, aged from 23 to 76 participated in our study. Total daily intake was assessed by a three-day food diary. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was calculated using Harris-Benedict equation. Considering physical activity level (PAL) 1.4, the recommended total energy expenditure (TEE) value was determined. The data was evaluated with professional evaluation software Prodi and statistically analysed. Results 40 participants returned the food diary. The average energy intake was significantly too low to ensure the meeting of all-day energy needs (p<0.05). The meals contained a recommended proportion of protein, but a statistically significantly higher proportion of fat (p<0.05), lower proportion of carbohydrates and a significantly lower intake of dietary fibre (p<0.05). Regarding macro-, micro- elements and vitamins, there was a significant lack in the intake of calcium and iodine, folic acid, vitamin D and vitamin A (p<0.05), meanwhile iron intake was at the lower limit of the recommended intake, whereas zinc, potassium and vitamin K intake were significantly higher according to the recommended values, but were comparable with the intake of the general population in the Central European area. Conclusion Even in subjects with adequate or low daily energy intake, their meals contained too much fat, too few carbohydrates and dietary fibre as well as inorganic substances. The patients with CD should get regular nutritional monitoring and education on the quality and balance of a gluten-free diet. PMID:27284377

  20. Dietary intake of Senegalese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coomes Margerie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work is to identify major food sources and dietary constituents of Senegalese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Foods were classified into food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. Food groups included foods consumed individually, or as part of food mixtures such as stews, soups, or sandwiches. Median consumption (amount/day of each food was determined and examined by relevant subgroups. Participants were 50 healthy Senegalese men, aged 20-62 years recruited at the Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal and from Sendou village, a rural area outside Dakar. A total of 90 foods and beverages were identified and classified into 11 groups. Sixty-five percent of foods identified could be classified as meats, grains, or fruits/vegetables. Fruits and vegetables comprised 42% (38/90 of all foods; meats 12% (11/90; and grains 11% (10/90. Sauces (6%, 5/90, sweets (4%, 4/90, and desserts (4%, 4/90 were also reported. The most common fruits/vegetables reported were potato, carrot, mango, and lettuce; commonly reported grains were bread and rice; and commonly reported meats were fish, beef, and ox. There were no differences in reported daily intake of each food by age, ethnicity, education, or residence. Most foods reported were traditional to the Senegalese diet, despite the increasing availability of Western foods in Senegal.

  1. Dietary intake of Senegalese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cheryl Am; Bellamy, Scarlett; Figures, Mindy; Zeigler-Johnson, Charnita; Jalloh, Mohamed; Spangler, Elaine; Coomes, Margerie; Gueye, Serigne; Rebbeck, Timothy R

    2010-02-18

    The aim of this work is to identify major food sources and dietary constituents of Senegalese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Foods were classified into food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. Food groups included foods consumed individually, or as part of food mixtures such as stews, soups, or sandwiches. Median consumption (amount/day) of each food was determined and examined by relevant subgroups. Participants were 50 healthy Senegalese men, aged 20-62 years recruited at the Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal and from Sendou village, a rural area outside Dakar. A total of 90 foods and beverages were identified and classified into 11 groups. Sixty-five percent of foods identified could be classified as meats, grains, or fruits/vegetables. Fruits and vegetables comprised 42% (38/90) of all foods; meats 12% (11/90); and grains 11% (10/90). Sauces (6%, 5/90), sweets (4%, 4/90), and desserts (4%, 4/90) were also reported. The most common fruits/vegetables reported were potato, carrot, mango, and lettuce; commonly reported grains were bread and rice; and commonly reported meats were fish, beef, and ox. There were no differences in reported daily intake of each food by age, ethnicity, education, or residence. Most foods reported were traditional to the Senegalese diet, despite the increasing availability of Western foods in Senegal.

  2. Flavonoids as fruit and vegetable intake biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz

    calculation of the bivariate correlation coefficients is the common approach when using only one reference method. Back in 2002, a strictly controlled dietary intervention study indicated that the sum of 7 different flavonoid aglycones excreted in 24h urine samples potentially could be used as a biomarker...... of fruit and vegetable intake (Nielsen et al. 2002). The overall aim