WorldWideScience

Sample records for subjects read sentences

  1. Reading sentences in Serbian: Effects of alphabet and reading mode in self-paced reading task

    OpenAIRE

    Vejnović Dušan; Jovanović Tamara

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the influence of alphabet (Cyrillic vs. Latin) and reading mode (silent reading vs. reading aloud) on sentence reading speed in Serbian. Entire-sentence and single-word reading times were obtained from the moving window paradigm in the self-paced sentence reading task. Sentences printed in Latin took less time for reading than sentences printed in Cyrillic and silent reading was more rapid than reading aloud. Single-word processing results followed the pattern observe...

  2. The Danish version of the Radner Reading Chart: design and empirical testing of sentence optotypes in subjects of varying educational background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munch, Inger Christine; Jørgensen, Astrid-Helene Ravn; Radner, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    To develop 28 short texts to be used as sentence optotypes in a Danish version of the Radner Reading Chart for the measurement of reading acuity and speed. Forty-six short texts of comparable lexical and grammatical difficulty were constructed. The short texts were tested together with two longer reference texts in 100 persons with visual acuity 6/6, of which 50 were university students (age: 24.7 ± 3.1 years, 36% males) and 50 were blue-collar workers (37.2 ± 13.4 years, 54% males). Study parameters were mean reading speed and error rate per participant, and mean reading time, variance and number of errors per short text. The students read the short texts faster than the blue-collar workers (184 ± 21.4 words per minute (wpm) versus 163 ± 26.3 wpm, p errors was eight. Twenty-eight short texts were selected for sentence optotypes with mean reading times between 4.6 s and 5.2 s, a mean standard deviation of 1.2 s or less and a number of errors of 17 per 100 persons or less. Reading time uniformity in the Danish version of the Radner Reading Chart was comparable to that of the original German version. Education had an influence on reading performance that may warrant stratification for this parameter when reading tests are used in clinical trials. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Online Sentence Reading in People With Aphasia: Evidence From Eye Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knilans, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Purpose There is a lot of evidence that people with aphasia have more difficulty understanding structurally complex sentences (e.g., object clefts) than simpler sentences (subject clefts). However, subject clefts also occur more frequently in English than object clefts. Thus, it is possible that both structural complexity and frequency affect how people with aphasia understand these structures. Method Nine people with aphasia and 8 age-matched controls participated in the study. The stimuli consisted of 24 object cleft and 24 subject cleft sentences. The task was eye tracking during reading, which permits a more fine-grained analysis of reading performance than measures such as self-paced reading. Results As expected, controls had longer reading times for critical regions in object cleft sentences compared with subject cleft sentences. People with aphasia showed the predicted effects of structural frequency. Effects of structural complexity in people with aphasia did not emerge on their first pass through the sentence but were observed when they were rereading critical regions of complex sentences. Conclusions People with aphasia are sensitive to both structural complexity and structural frequency when reading. However, people with aphasia may use different reading strategies than controls when confronted with relatively infrequent and complex sentence structures. PMID:26383779

  4. Measurement of reading speed with standardized texts: a comparison of single sentences and paragraphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altpeter, Elke Karin; Marx, Tobias; Nguyen, Nhung Xuan; Naumann, Aline; Trauzettel-Klosinski, Susanne

    2015-08-01

    We examined the influence of text length (single sentence versus a paragraph of several sentences) on the repeatability of reading speed measurements in normal-sighted subjects. We compared reading speeds for the German versions of the Radner charts (single sentences of 14 words each) and the International Reading Speed Texts (IReST) charts (paragraphs, on average 132 words) in 30 normal-sighted elderly subjects aged 51-81 years (mean 64.5 years ± 7.2 SD). Three texts each of both lengths were read aloud in random order. The influence of text length (single sentence or paragraph) and text sample (each single text) on reading speed was calculated by a regression model and Bland-Altman analysis. Mean reading speed (words per minute) showed no significant difference for single sentences (170 wpm ± 33 SD) and paragraphs (167 wpm ±31 SD). Differences in reading speeds within one type of reading material were higher between single sentences than between paragraphs. Correlation coefficients between speeds were higher for paragraphs (r = 0.96-0.98) than for single sentences (r = 0.69-0.78). Variations between reading speeds for three texts of each length were markedly lower for paragraphs than for single sentences: (median, interquartile range [IQR]): 6.7, IQR 13.9; 3.0, IQR 8.3; -2.0, IQR 9.7 versus -8.8, IQR 29.6; 15.6, IQR 29.4; 22.7, IQR 19.4, respectively. Since reading speeds assessed with paragraphs show lower variance among texts than those for single sentences, they are better suited for repeated measurements, especially for long-term monitoring of the course of reading performance and for assessing effects of interventions in subjects with reading disorders.

  5. Validating Self-Paced Sentence-by-Sentence Reading: Story Comprehension, Recall, and Narrative Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Fat-Yim, Ashley; Peterson, Jordan B.; Mar, Raymond A.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies on discourse have employed a self-paced sentence-by-sentence paradigm to present text and record reading times. However, presenting discourse this way does not mirror real-world reading conditions; for example, this paradigm prevents regressions to earlier portions of the text. The purpose of the present study is to investigate…

  6. Unraveling Difficult Sentences: Strategies to Support Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipoli, Richard P., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    The ability to understand sentences contributes to students' reading comprehension. However, many reading programs tend to underemphasize explicit instruction aimed at enhancing students' knowledge of sentence structures. Children with language impairments, students with learning disabilities, and English language learners may particularly benefit…

  7. Effects of reading speed on second-language sentence processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaan, Edith; Ballantyne, Jocelyn C.; Wijnen, Frank

    2014-01-01

    To test the effects of reading speed on second-language (L2) sentence processing and the potential influence of conflicting native language word order, we compared advanced L2 learners of English with native English speakers on a self-paced reading task. L2 learners read faster overall than native

  8. [Eye movement parameters in reading the sentences with syntactic ambiguity in Russian language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, V A; Fedorova, O V; Latanov, A V

    2014-01-01

    We studied the eye movement parameters during reading of syntactically ambiguous sentences with feminine relative clause in Russian language. A priori difficulties of sentence structural analysis results in increase of time spent on reading as opposed to reading control sentences (unambiguous). Such a delay is caused by an increase of frequency of regressions (backward saccades) which are executed for rereading an ambiguous fragment ofsentence. This fact in turn leads to an increase in number of fixations and their duration. The total reading time for particular words composing the ambiguous fragment of sentence depended on disambiguation result (relative clause attachment, early/late closure). In case of early closure (when the subject attached relative clause to first noun) the total reading time for this noun exceeded one for second noun. In case of late closure (when the subject attached relative clause to second noun) the total reading time for both nouns didn't differ. Our results indicate that early closure domination in Russian language determines the greater total reading time for first noun of nominal group associated with relative clause.

  9. Sentence Perception in Listening and Reading. Technical Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, David P.; Coots, James H.

    Noting that the lack of prosodic information in printed text may be a source of difficulty for children who are learning to read, this paper explores the features of language underlying the acoustic and perceptual segmentation of sentences into meaningful units. Using evidence from studies in speech production and perception, the paper addresses…

  10. Comparison of reading performance tests concerning difficulty of sentences and paragraphs and their reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussee, T.; van Nispen, R.M.A.; Klerkx, E.M.F.J.; Knol, D.L.; van Rens, G.H.M.B.

    2015-01-01

    In research and practice, sentences or paragraphs of reading tests may be randomly chosen to assess reading performance. This means that in addition to test reliability, all sentences or paragraphs should be reliable and equally difficult to read. The sentences and paragraphs of five (un-)

  11. Analysis of Reading Comprehension Levels of Fifth Grade Students Who Learned to Read and Write with the Sentence Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagirli, Muhittin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is the determination of reading comprehension levels of fifth grade's students who learned to read and write with the sentence method. With the program of 2005, it has been amended in the first reading and writing method. In the teaching of first reading and writing, it was passed to the sentence method instead of sound…

  12. Integrating a novel concept of sentence optotypes into the RADNER Reading Charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radner, Wolfgang; Radner, Stephan; Diendorfer, Gabriela

    2017-03-01

    To add a new set of 24 sentence optotypes to the German version of the RADNER reading charts and to investigate whether sentences constructed based upon an optimised concept of sentence optotypes can be used together with the original 38 sentences. Twenty-eight optimised sentence optotypes were constructed based upon the concept of sentence optotypes as established for the RADNER Reading Charts, with words having the same number of characters and syllables being placed in the same positions. The best comparable sentences were statistically selected in 30 volunteers. Reading speed and the number of errors were determined. Validity was analysed in comparison to a 111-word long standardised paragraph and 7 of the 38 original sentence optotypes. The mean reading speed obtained with the 28 sentences was 192.30±26.69 words per minute (wpm), as compared with 192.47±25.32 wpm for the 7 original sentence optotypes and 165.28±20.82 wpm for the long paragraph; 24 of the 28 optimised sentences met our selection criteria for reading speed/time (mean reading speed: 192.41±26.58). The mean number of reading errors was 0.10±0.30. The correlation between the 24 optimised sentence optotypes and the long paragraph was r=0.90. Reliability analyses yielded an overall Cronbach's α coefficient of 0.992. The 24 new sentence optotypes can be integrated into the existing set of 38 original sentences. Since all the statistical results obtained were similar to those of the original sentences, the best possible reliability had apparently already been achieved with the original sentence optotypes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Comparison of Oral Reading Errors between Contextual Sentences and Random Words among Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Nursyairah Mohd; Buari, Noor Halilah; Chen, Ai-Hong

    2017-01-01

    This paper compares the oral reading errors between the contextual sentences and random words among schoolchildren. Two sets of reading materials were developed to test the oral reading errors in 30 schoolchildren (10.00±1.44 years). Set A was comprised contextual sentences while Set B encompassed random words. The schoolchildren were asked to…

  14. Same Same, but Different: Word and Sentence Reading in German and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Anne K.; Moll, Kristina; Moeller, Korbinian; Huber, Stefan; Snowling, Margaret J.; Landerl, Karin

    2016-01-01

    The current study compared eye fixation patterns during word and sentence processing in a consistent and an inconsistent alphabetic orthography. German and English children as well as adults matched on word reading ability read matched sentences while their eye fixation behavior was recorded. Results indicated that German children read in a more…

  15. Encouraging prediction during production facilitates subsequent comprehension: Evidence from interleaved object naming in sentence context and sentence reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintz, Florian; Meyer, Antje S; Huettig, Falk

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have shown that a supportive context facilitates language comprehension. A currently influential view is that language production may support prediction in language comprehension. Experimental evidence for this, however, is relatively sparse. Here we explored whether encouraging prediction in a language production task encourages the use of predictive contexts in an interleaved comprehension task. In Experiment 1a, participants listened to the first part of a sentence and provided the final word by naming aloud a picture. The picture name was predictable or not predictable from the sentence context. Pictures were named faster when they could be predicted than when this was not the case. In Experiment 1b the same sentences, augmented by a final spill-over region, were presented in a self-paced reading task. No difference in reading times for predictive versus non-predictive sentences was found. In Experiment 2, reading and naming trials were intermixed. In the naming task, the advantage for predictable picture names was replicated. More importantly, now reading times for the spill-over region were considerable faster for predictive than for non-predictive sentences. We conjecture that these findings fit best with the notion that prediction in the service of language production encourages the use of predictive contexts in comprehension. Further research is required to identify the exact mechanisms by which production exerts its influence on comprehension.

  16. Background Speech Effects on Sentence Processing during Reading: An Eye Movement Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hy?n?, Jukka; Ekholm, Miia

    2016-01-01

    Effects of background speech on reading were examined by playing aloud different types of background speech, while participants read long, syntactically complex and less complex sentences embedded in text. Readers' eye movement patterns were used to study online sentence comprehension. Effects of background speech were primarily seen in rereading time. In Experiment 1, foreign-language background speech did not disrupt sentence processing. Experiment 2 demonstrated robust disruption in readin...

  17. A new sentence generator providing material for maximum reading speed measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Jean-Luc; Paillé, Damien; Baccino, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    A new method is proposed to generate text material for assessing maximum reading speed of adult readers. The described procedure allows one to generate a vast number of equivalent short sentences. These sentences can be displayed for different durations in order to determine the reader's maximum speed using a psychophysical threshold algorithm. Each sentence is built so that it is either true or false according to common knowledge. The actual reading is verified by asking the reader to determine the truth value of each sentence. We based our design on the generator described by Crossland et al. and upgraded it. The new generator handles concepts distributed in an ontology, which allows an easy determination of the sentences' truth value and control of lexical and psycholinguistic parameters. In this way many equivalent sentence can be generated and displayed to perform the measurement. Maximum reading speed scores obtained with pseudo-randomly chosen sentences from the generator were strongly correlated with maximum reading speed scores obtained with traditional MNREAD sentences (r = .836). Furthermore, the large number of sentences that can be generated makes it possible to perform repeated measurements, since the possibility of a reader learning individual sentences is eliminated. Researchers interested in within-reader performance variability could use the proposed method for this purpose.

  18. Patients with mild Alzheimer's disease produced shorter outgoing saccades when reading sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Gerardo; Schumacher, Marcela; Castro, Liliana; Orozco, David; Agamennoni, Osvaldo

    2015-09-30

    In the present work we analyzed forward saccades of thirty five elderly subjects (Controls) and of thirty five mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) during reading regular and high-predictable sentences. While they read, their eye movements were recorded. The pattern of forward saccade amplitudes as a function of word predictability was clearly longer in Controls. Our results suggest that Controls might use stored information of words for enhancing their reading performance. Further, cloze predictability increased outgoing saccades amplitudes, as this increase stronger in high-predictable sentences. Quite the contrary, patients with mild AD evidenced reduced forward saccades even at early stages of the disease. This reduction might reveal impairments in brain areas such as those corresponding to working memory, memory retrieval, and semantic memory functions that are already present at early stages of AD. Our findings might be relevant for expanding the options for the early detection and monitoring of in the early stages of AD. Furthermore, eye movements during reading could provide a new tool for measuring a drug's impact on patient's behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Oscillatory brain dynamics during sentence reading: A Fixation-related spectral perturbation analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo eVignali

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated oscillatory brain dynamics during self-paced sentence-level processing. Participants read fully correct sentences, sentences containing a semantic violation and sentences in which the order of the words was randomized. At the target word level, fixations on semantically unrelated words elicited a lower-beta band (13-18 Hz desynchronization. At the sentence level, gamma power (31-55 Hz increased linearly for syntactically correct sentences, but not when the order of the words was randomized. In the 300 to 900 ms time window after sentence onsets, theta power (4-7 Hz was greater for syntactically correct sentences as compared to sentences where no syntactic structure was preserved (random words condition. We interpret our results as conforming with a recently formulated predictive-coding framework for oscillatory neural dynamics during sentence-level language comprehension. Additionally, we discuss how our results relate to previous findings with serial visual presentation versus self-paced reading.

  20. Effects of visual span on reading speed and parafoveal processing in eye movements during sentence reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risse, Sarah

    2014-07-15

    The visual span (or ‘‘uncrowded window’’), which limits the sensory information on each fixation, has been shown to determine reading speed in tasks involving rapid serial visual presentation of single words. The present study investigated whether this is also true for fixation durations during sentence reading when all words are presented at the same time and parafoveal preview of words prior to fixation typically reduces later word-recognition times. If so, a larger visual span may allow more efficient parafoveal processing and thus faster reading. In order to test this hypothesis, visual span profiles (VSPs) were collected from 60 participants and related to data from an eye-tracking reading experiment. The results confirmed a positive relationship between the readers’ VSPs and fixation-based reading speed. However, this relationship was not determined by parafoveal processing. There was no evidence that individual differences in VSPs predicted differences in parafoveal preview benefit. Nevertheless, preview benefit correlated with reading speed, suggesting an independent effect on oculomotor control during reading. In summary, the present results indicate a more complex relationship between the visual span, parafoveal processing, and reading speed than initially assumed. © 2014 ARVO.

  1. Processing Advantages of Lexical Bundles: Evidence from Self-Paced Reading and Sentence Recall Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Antoine; Derwing, Bruce; Libben, Gary; Westbury, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which lexical bundles (LBs; i.e., frequently recurring strings of words that often span traditional syntactic boundaries) are stored and processed holistically. Three self-paced reading experiments compared sentences containing LBs (e.g., "in the middle of the") and matched control sentence fragments (e.g., "in…

  2. Reading Russian-English Homographs in Sentence Contexts: Evidence from ERPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouravlev, Olessia; Jared, Debra

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated whether Russian--English bilinguals activate knowledge of Russian when reading English sentences. Russian and English share only a few letters, but there are some interlingual homographs (e.g., POT, which means "mouth" in Russian). Critical sentences were written such that the Russian meaning of the…

  3. English sentence optotypes for measuring reading acuity and speed--the English version of the Radner Reading Charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radner, W; Diendorfer, G

    2014-08-01

    To develop 28 short sentence optotypes for the English version of the Radner Reading Charts that are as comparable as possible in number and length of words, as well as in difficulty and syntactical construction. Thirty-four English sentences were constructed following the method used for other Radner Reading Charts to obtain "sentence optotypes" with comparable structure and the same lexical and grammatical difficulty. Best comparable sentences were statistically selected and standardized in 50 volunteers. Reading speed and the number of errors were determined. Validity was analyzed with a 124-word long 4th-grade paragraph of the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test®. Computerized measurements of reading parameters were performed with the RADNER Reading Device (RAD-RD©; in conjunction with a PC and microphone). The mean reading speed obtained with the 28 selected short sentences was 201.53 ± 35.88 words per minute (wpm), as compared to 215.01 ± 30.37 wpm for the long paragraph. The mean reading times were 4.30 ± 0.79 s and 35.26 ± 4.85 s, respectively. The mean number of reading errors was 0.11 ± 0.34. The correlation between the short sentences and the long paragraph was high (r = 0.76; p reading length, and it demonstrates the validity and reliability of such sentences as test items for determining reading parameters such as reading acuity and speed.

  4. Comparison of reading performance tests concerning difficulty of sentences and paragraphs and their reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brussee, Tamara; van Nispen, Ruth M A; Klerkx, Edwin M F J; Knol, Dirk L; van Rens, Ger H M B

    2015-05-01

    In research and practice, sentences or paragraphs of reading tests may be randomly chosen to assess reading performance. This means that in addition to test reliability, all sentences or paragraphs should be reliable and equally difficult to read. The sentences and paragraphs of five (un-) standardised Dutch reading tests were investigated in this regard. Tests were performed with 71 normally sighted persons (mean age 55 [18-86] years). All sentences and paragraphs had equal print size. The relative difficulty of sentences and paragraphs from the five Dutch reading tests was tested with linear mixed models (reading speed) and generalised linear models (mistakes). Reading speed in standard words per min ranged from 179 (Radner) to 142 (De Nederlanders). Reading mistakes per 100 characters ranged from 0.25 (Radner) to 0.40 (Colenbrander). On the Colenbrander charts 7/24 sentences were read significantly faster vs 5/24 read slower (sentence reliability 0.56-0.87); International Reading Speed Texts 3/10 vs 3/10 [0.94-0.97]; Laboratory of Experimental Ophthalmology 14/55 vs 15/55 [0.64-0.92]; De Nederlanders 2/6 vs 3/6 [0.83-0.94]; Radner 4/24 vs 3/24 [0.73-0.87]. Agreement between tests differed from 1 to 36 standard words per minute and 0.01 to 0.14 mistakes per 100 characters. The Radner, with the highest number of equally difficult sentences, is appropriate to measure reading acuity as well as reading speed in a heterogeneous population; the International Reading Speed Texts, with the highest paragraph reliability, provides long paragraphs to measure reading speed. The Colenbrander and Laboratory of Experimental Ophthalmology are suitable for daily practice; however, for research or inspection purposes, reliable sentences must be chosen. Although the clinical relevance of the differences between the tests is debatable, use of the De Nederlanders as a reading test remains questionable. © 2015 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2015 The College of

  5. Is children's reading "good enough"? Links between online processing and comprehension as children read syntactically ambiguous sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonnacott, Elizabeth; Joseph, Holly S S L; Adelman, James S; Nation, Kate

    2016-01-01

    We monitored 8- and 10-year-old children's eye movements as they read sentences containing a temporary syntactic ambiguity to obtain a detailed record of their online processing. Children showed the classic garden-path effect in online processing. Their reading was disrupted following disambiguation, relative to control sentences containing a comma to block the ambiguity, although the disruption occurred somewhat later than would be expected for mature readers. We also asked children questions to probe their comprehension of the syntactic ambiguity offline. They made more errors following ambiguous sentences than following control sentences, demonstrating that the initial incorrect parse of the garden-path sentence influenced offline comprehension. These findings are consistent with "good enough" processing effects seen in adults. While faster reading times and more regressions were generally associated with better comprehension, spending longer reading the question predicted comprehension success specifically in the ambiguous condition. This suggests that reading the question prompted children to reconstruct the sentence and engage in some form of processing, which in turn increased the likelihood of comprehension success. Older children were more sensitive to the syntactic function of commas, and, overall, they were faster and more accurate than younger children.

  6. Background Speech Effects on Sentence Processing during Reading: An Eye Movement Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyönä, Jukka; Ekholm, Miia

    2016-01-01

    Effects of background speech on reading were examined by playing aloud different types of background speech, while participants read long, syntactically complex and less complex sentences embedded in text. Readers’ eye movement patterns were used to study online sentence comprehension. Effects of background speech were primarily seen in rereading time. In Experiment 1, foreign-language background speech did not disrupt sentence processing. Experiment 2 demonstrated robust disruption in reading as a result of semantically and syntactically anomalous scrambled background speech preserving normal sentence-like intonation. Scrambled speech that was constructed from the text to-be read did not disrupt reading more than scrambled speech constructed from a different, semantically unrelated text. Experiment 3 showed that scrambled speech exacerbated the syntactic complexity effect more than coherent background speech, which also interfered with reading. Experiment 4 demonstrated that both semantically and syntactically anomalous speech produced no more disruption in reading than semantically anomalous but syntactically correct background speech. The pattern of results is best explained by a semantic account that stresses the importance of similarity in semantic processing, but not similarity in semantic content, between the reading task and background speech. PMID:27003410

  7. Background Speech Effects on Sentence Processing during Reading: An Eye Movement Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Hyönä

    Full Text Available Effects of background speech on reading were examined by playing aloud different types of background speech, while participants read long, syntactically complex and less complex sentences embedded in text. Readers' eye movement patterns were used to study online sentence comprehension. Effects of background speech were primarily seen in rereading time. In Experiment 1, foreign-language background speech did not disrupt sentence processing. Experiment 2 demonstrated robust disruption in reading as a result of semantically and syntactically anomalous scrambled background speech preserving normal sentence-like intonation. Scrambled speech that was constructed from the text to-be read did not disrupt reading more than scrambled speech constructed from a different, semantically unrelated text. Experiment 3 showed that scrambled speech exacerbated the syntactic complexity effect more than coherent background speech, which also interfered with reading. Experiment 4 demonstrated that both semantically and syntactically anomalous speech produced no more disruption in reading than semantically anomalous but syntactically correct background speech. The pattern of results is best explained by a semantic account that stresses the importance of similarity in semantic processing, but not similarity in semantic content, between the reading task and background speech.

  8. Background Speech Effects on Sentence Processing during Reading: An Eye Movement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyönä, Jukka; Ekholm, Miia

    2016-01-01

    Effects of background speech on reading were examined by playing aloud different types of background speech, while participants read long, syntactically complex and less complex sentences embedded in text. Readers' eye movement patterns were used to study online sentence comprehension. Effects of background speech were primarily seen in rereading time. In Experiment 1, foreign-language background speech did not disrupt sentence processing. Experiment 2 demonstrated robust disruption in reading as a result of semantically and syntactically anomalous scrambled background speech preserving normal sentence-like intonation. Scrambled speech that was constructed from the text to-be read did not disrupt reading more than scrambled speech constructed from a different, semantically unrelated text. Experiment 3 showed that scrambled speech exacerbated the syntactic complexity effect more than coherent background speech, which also interfered with reading. Experiment 4 demonstrated that both semantically and syntactically anomalous speech produced no more disruption in reading than semantically anomalous but syntactically correct background speech. The pattern of results is best explained by a semantic account that stresses the importance of similarity in semantic processing, but not similarity in semantic content, between the reading task and background speech.

  9. Identifying Engineering Students' English Sentence Reading Comprehension Errors: Applying a Data Mining Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yea-Ru; Ouyang, Chen-Sen; Chang, Yukon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose a diagnostic approach to identify engineering students' English reading comprehension errors. Student data were collected during the process of reading texts of English for science and technology on a web-based cumulative sentence analysis system. For the analysis, the association-rule, data mining technique…

  10. How Do Deaf Children with and without Cochlear Implants Manage to Read Sentences: The Key Word Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Ana-Belén; Carrillo, María-Soledad; González, Virginia; Alegria, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the mechanisms used by deaf children with and without cochlear implants (CIs) to read sentences and the linguistic bases (vocabulary and syntax) underlying those reading mechanisms. Previous studies have shown that deaf persons read sentences using the key word strategy (KWS), which consists of identifying some…

  11. Psychometric validation of the Sentence Verification Technique to assess L2 reading comprehension ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Pichette

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available English teachers use the Sentence Verification Technique (Royer et al., 1979 to determine the readability of written material for their classes. This process requires students to read short passages from a book, followed by isolated sentences. These sentences can be either identical or different from the original passages, in their meaning as well as in their form. For each sentence, students must indicate whether or not itscontent corresponds to that of the original passage. This paper reports on the design and assessment of an SVT test created for measuring reading comprehension ability, based on four English texts. The instrument was administered to 171 adult English learners, of various levels of English proficiency. The data were analysed using both traditional psychometric methods and the Raschmodel. Results indicate that the test shows high internal consistency, that it respects the basic assumptions behind the Rasch model, and that it is in the recommended range of difficulty for that technique.

  12. Reading comprehension of ambiguous sentences by school-age children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Meghan M; Ellis Weismer, Susan

    2017-08-22

    Weak central coherence (processing details over gist), poor oral language abilities, poor suppression, semantic interference, and poor comprehension monitoring have all been implicated to affect reading comprehension in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study viewed the contributions of different supporting skills as a collective set of skills necessary for context integration-a multi-component view-to examine individual differences in reading comprehension in school-age children (8-14 years) with ASD (n = 23) and typically developing control peers (n = 23). Participants completed a written ambiguous sentence comprehension task in which participants had to integrate context to determine the correct homonym meaning via picture selection. Both comprehension products (i.e., offline representations after reading) and processes (i.e., online processing during reading) were evaluated. Results indicated that children with ASD, similar to their TD peers, integrated the context to access the correct homonym meanings while reading. However, after reading the sentences, when participants were asked to select the meanings, both groups experienced semantic interference between the two meanings. This semantic interference hindered the children with ASD's sentence representation to a greater degree than their peers. Individual differences in age/development, word recognition, vocabulary breadth (i.e., number of words in the lexicon), and vocabulary depth (i.e., knowledge of the homonym meanings) contributed to sentence comprehension in both children with ASD and their peers. Together, this evidence supports a multi-component view, and that helping children with ASD develop vocabulary depth may have cascading effects on their reading comprehension. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Like their peers, children with ASD were able to integrate context, or link words while reading sentences with

  13. Brain Activity while Reading Sentences with Kanji Characters Expressing Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Masahide; Saito, Keiichi; Mukawa, Naoki

    In this paper, we describe the brain activity associated with kanji characters expressing emotion, which are places at the end of a sentence. Japanese people use a special kanji character in brackets at the end of sentences in text messages such as those sent through e-mail and messenger tools. Such kanji characters plays a role to expresses the sender's emotion (such as fun, laughter, sadness, tears), like emoticons. It is a very simple and effective way to convey the senders' emotions and his/her thoughts to the receiver. In this research, we investigate the effects of emotional kanji characters by using an fMRI study. The experimental results show that both the right and left inferior frontal gyrus, which have been implicated on verbal and nonverbal information, were activated. We found that we detect a sentence with an emotional kanji character as the verbal and nonverval information, and a sentence with emotional kanji characters enrich communication between the sender and the reciever.

  14. The Chinese and Kazakh Languages Comparative Study: Subject-Predicate Sentence Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhalyk Abdurakyn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article compares subject-predicate sentence and subject-predicate-object sentence forms with extended sentence of the Kazakh language. It compares Chinese and Kazakh sentences with subject-predicate sentence structure and studies differences of verb-predicate sentences word order. Detailed comparative study of Chinese and Kazakh language differences and characteristics. Morphology structure of Chinese language belongs to radical language, and Kazakh language belongs to the type of adhesive language, syntax of Chinese and Kazakh Languages in the same syntactic structure often used in different ways, the morphological role in Chinese and Kazakh language is also not the same, and even the same kind of grammatical means in Chinese and Kazakh languages are various. According to the analysis of languages, the different positions of word order, the function of words and grammatical word order are different too. The same syntax is very considerable, and lead to different syntactic structures. Chinese thinking reflects the realities as follows: subject - action- object. It is reflected in the grammatical structure: Subject - predicate - object. Kazakh thinking reflects the realities as follows: subject - object - action. It is reflected in the grammatical structure: Subject - object - predicate. Chinese and Kazakh predicate and object places in a sentence are different, but their dominance relationship is the same.

  15. Parafoveal activation of sign translation previews among deaf readers during the reading of Chinese sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jinger; Shu, Hua; Wang, Yuling; Yan, Ming

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, we manipulated the different types of information available in the parafovea during the reading of Chinese sentences and examined whether deaf readers could activate sign translations of Chinese words during reading. The main finding was that, as compared to unrelated previews, the deaf readers had longer fixation durations on the target words when sign-phonologically related preview words were presented; this preview cost effect due to sign-phonological relatedness was absent for reading-level-matched hearing individuals. These results indicate that Chinese deaf readers activate sign language translations of parafoveal words during reading. We discuss the implications for notions of parafoveal processing in reading.

  16. Children's and adults' on-line processing of syntactically ambiguous sentences during reading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly S S L Joseph

    Full Text Available While there has been a fair amount of research investigating children's syntactic processing during spoken language comprehension, and a wealth of research examining adults' syntactic processing during reading, as yet very little research has focused on syntactic processing during text reading in children. In two experiments, children and adults read sentences containing a temporary syntactic ambiguity while their eye movements were monitored. In Experiment 1, participants read sentences such as, 'The boy poked the elephant with the long stick/trunk from outside the cage' in which the attachment of a prepositional phrase was manipulated. In Experiment 2, participants read sentences such as, 'I think I'll wear the new skirt I bought tomorrow/yesterday. It's really nice' in which the attachment of an adverbial phrase was manipulated. Results showed that adults and children exhibited similar processing preferences, but that children were delayed relative to adults in their detection of initial syntactic misanalysis. It is concluded that children and adults have the same sentence-parsing mechanism in place, but that it operates with a slightly different time course. In addition, the data support the hypothesis that the visual processing system develops at a different rate than the linguistic processing system in children.

  17. Children’s and Adults’ On-Line Processing of Syntactically Ambiguous Sentences during Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Holly S. S. L.; Liversedge, Simon P.

    2013-01-01

    While there has been a fair amount of research investigating children’s syntactic processing during spoken language comprehension, and a wealth of research examining adults’ syntactic processing during reading, as yet very little research has focused on syntactic processing during text reading in children. In two experiments, children and adults read sentences containing a temporary syntactic ambiguity while their eye movements were monitored. In Experiment 1, participants read sentences such as, ‘The boy poked the elephant with the long stick/trunk from outside the cage’ in which the attachment of a prepositional phrase was manipulated. In Experiment 2, participants read sentences such as, ‘I think I’ll wear the new skirt I bought tomorrow/yesterday. It’s really nice’ in which the attachment of an adverbial phrase was manipulated. Results showed that adults and children exhibited similar processing preferences, but that children were delayed relative to adults in their detection of initial syntactic misanalysis. It is concluded that children and adults have the same sentence-parsing mechanism in place, but that it operates with a slightly different time course. In addition, the data support the hypothesis that the visual processing system develops at a different rate than the linguistic processing system in children. PMID:23349807

  18. Developmental Relations between Reading and Writing at the Word, Sentence and Text Levels: A Latent Change Score Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Yusra; Wagner, Richard K; Lopez, Danielle

    2014-05-01

    Relations between reading and writing have been studied extensively but the less is known about the developmental nature of their interrelations. This study applied latent change score modeling to investigate longitudinal relations between reading and writing skills at the word, sentence and text levels. Latent change score models were used to compare unidirectional pathways (reading-to-writing and writing-to-reading) and bidirectional pathways in a test of nested models. Participants included 316 boys and girls who were assessed annually in grades 1 through 4. Measures of reading included pseudo-word decoding, sentence reading efficiency, oral reading fluency and passage comprehension. Measures of writing included spelling, a sentence combining task and writing prompts. Findings suggest that a reading-to-writing model better described the data for the word and text levels of language, but a bidirectional model best fit the data at the sentence level.

  19. Developmental Relations between Reading and Writing at the Word, Sentence and Text Levels: A Latent Change Score Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Yusra; Wagner, Richard K.; Lopez, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    Relations between reading and writing have been studied extensively but the less is known about the developmental nature of their interrelations. This study applied latent change score modeling to investigate longitudinal relations between reading and writing skills at the word, sentence and text levels. Latent change score models were used to compare unidirectional pathways (reading-to-writing and writing-to-reading) and bidirectional pathways in a test of nested models. Participants included 316 boys and girls who were assessed annually in grades 1 through 4. Measures of reading included pseudo-word decoding, sentence reading efficiency, oral reading fluency and passage comprehension. Measures of writing included spelling, a sentence combining task and writing prompts. Findings suggest that a reading-to-writing model better described the data for the word and text levels of language, but a bidirectional model best fit the data at the sentence level. PMID:24954951

  20. Second Language Sentence Processing in Reading for Comprehension and Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jung Hyun; Christianson, Kiel

    2013-01-01

    A self-paced reading and translation task was used with learners of English as a second language (L2) to explore what sorts of information L2 learners use during online comprehension compared to native speakers, and how task (reading for comprehension vs. translation) and proficiency affect L2 comprehension. Thirty-six Korean native speakers of…

  1. Letter position coding across modalities: braille and sighted reading of sentences with jumbled words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; Jiménez, María; Martín-Suesta, Miguel; Gómez, Pablo

    2015-04-01

    This article explores how letter position coding is attained during braille reading and its implications for models of word recognition. When text is presented visually, the reading process easily adjusts to the jumbling of some letters (jugde-judge), with a small cost in reading speed. Two explanations have been proposed: One relies on a general mechanism of perceptual uncertainty at the visual level, and the other focuses on the activation of an abstract level of representation (i.e., bigrams) that is shared by all orthographic codes. Thus, these explanations make differential predictions about reading in a tactile modality. In the present study, congenitally blind readers read sentences presented on a braille display that tracked the finger position. The sentences either were intact or involved letter transpositions. A parallel experiment was conducted in the visual modality. Results revealed a substantially greater reading cost for the sentences with transposed-letter words in braille readers. In contrast with the findings with sighted readers, in which there is a cost of transpositions in the external (initial and final) letters, the reading cost in braille readers occurs serially, with a large cost for initial letter transpositions. Thus, these data suggest that the letter-position-related effects in visual word recognition are due to the characteristics of the visual stream.

  2. Relationship of Word- and Sentence-Level Working Memory to Reading and Writing in Second, Fourth, and Sixth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Abbott, Robert D.; Swanson, H. Lee; Lovitt, Dan; Trivedi, Pam; Lin, Shin-Ju; Gould, Laura; Youngstrom, Marci; Shimada, Shirley; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of working memory at the word and sentence levels of language to reading and writing outcomes. Method: Measures of working memory at the word and sentence levels, reading and writing, were administered to 2nd (N = 122), 4th (N = 222), and 6th (N = 105) graders. Structural equation…

  3. Qualitative descriptions of error recovery patterns across reading level and sentence type: an eye movement analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, J

    1991-11-01

    Purposes of the present study included describing a variety of error recovery patterns based on eye movement (EM) measures of sentence parsing across reading level and error type. A qualitative pattern analysis of EM mappings was completed for students with reading disabilities (n = 10) and nondisabled students (n = 10) who were parsing control and erred sentences. Independent variables included error type (syntactically ambiguous, semantically anomalous, and control sentences) and reading proficiency level. Dependent variables consisted of seven eye movement measures. Chi-square analyses were performed to examine group differences across frequencies per pattern. Results suggest that the error recovery strategies deployed by both groups were similar in pattern and frequency; patterns were largely organized, strategic, and efficient, as predicted. Evidence for seven newly defined strategies was found, with indications of multiple strategies within sentences by both groups. Strategies tended to be error "reanalysis" (vs. "recovery") heuristics, in that readers from both groups used regressions to reanalyze regions of inconsistency rather than regions of disambiguation. Earlier conclusions regarding disorganized processing and individual differences among adolescents with reading disabilities are discussed.

  4. Lexical Quality and Reading Skill: Bottom-Up and Top-Down Contributions to Sentence Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersch, Jolyn; Andrews, Sally

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated whether spelling ability, an index of precise lexical representations, predicts the balance between bottom-up and top-down processing in online sentence processing among skilled readers, over and above contributions of reading ability, vocabulary, and working memory. The results showed that the combination of superior…

  5. A Closer Look at Close Reading: Three Under-the-Radar Skills Needed to Comprehend Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesmer, Heidi Anne; Rose-McCully, M. M.

    2018-01-01

    Close reading requires students to unpack the implicit relationships within and across sentences. The authors discuss three potential barriers to comprehension embedded within text that they have seen with their own students and with the teachers they have worked with: anaphoric relationships, connectives, and appositives. The authors begin each…

  6. Processing rhythmic pattern during Chinese sentence reading: An eye movement study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingyi eLuo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Prosodic constraints play a fundamental role during both spoken sentence comprehension and silent reading. In Chinese, the rhythmic pattern of the verb-object (V-O combination has been found to rapidly affect the semantic access/integration process during sentence reading (Luo and Zhou, 2010. Rhythmic pattern refers to the combination of words with different syllabic lengths, with certain combinations disallowed (e.g., [2+1]; numbers standing for the number of syllables of the verb and the noun respectively and certain combinations preferred (e.g., [1+1] or [2+2]. This constraint extends to the situation in which the combination is used to modify other words. A V-O phrase could modify a noun by simply preceding it, forming a V-O-N compound; when the verb is disyllabic, however, the word order has to be O-V-N and the object is preferred to be disyllabic. In this study, we investigated how the reader processes the rhythmic pattern and word order information by recording the reader’s eye-movements. We created four types of sentences by crossing rhythmic pattern and word order in compounding. The compound, embedding a disyllabic verb, could be in the correct O-V-N or the incorrect V-O-N order; the object could be disyllabic or monosyllabic. We found that the reader spent more time and made more regressions on and after the compounds when either type of anomaly was detected during the first pass reading. However, during re-reading (after all the words in the sentence have been viewed, less regressive eye movements were found for the anomalous rhythmic pattern, relative to the correct pattern; moreover, only the abnormal rhythmic pattern, not the violated word order, influenced the regressive eye movements. These results suggest that while the processing of rhythmic pattern and word order information occurs rapidly during the initial reading of the sentence, the process of recovering from the rhythmic pattern anomaly may ease the reanalysis

  7. Processing Rhythmic Pattern during Chinese Sentence Reading: An Eye Movement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yingyi; Duan, Yunyan; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Prosodic constraints play a fundamental role during both spoken sentence comprehension and silent reading. In Chinese, the rhythmic pattern of the verb-object (V-O) combination has been found to rapidly affect the semantic access/integration process during sentence reading (Luo and Zhou, 2010). Rhythmic pattern refers to the combination of words with different syllabic lengths, with certain combinations disallowed (e.g., [2 + 1]; numbers standing for the number of syllables of the verb and the noun respectively) and certain combinations preferred (e.g., [1 + 1] or [2 + 2]). This constraint extends to the situation in which the combination is used to modify other words. A V-O phrase could modify a noun by simply preceding it, forming a V-O-N compound; when the verb is disyllabic, however, the word order has to be O-V-N and the object is preferred to be disyllabic. In this study, we investigated how the reader processes the rhythmic pattern and word order information by recording the reader's eye-movements. We created four types of sentences by crossing rhythmic pattern and word order in compounding. The compound, embedding a disyllabic verb, could be in the correct O-V-N or the incorrect V-O-N order; the object could be disyllabic or monosyllabic. We found that the reader spent more time and made more regressions on and after the compounds when either type of anomaly was detected during the first pass reading. However, during re-reading (after all the words in the sentence have been viewed), less regressive eye movements were found for the anomalous rhythmic pattern, relative to the correct pattern; moreover, only the abnormal rhythmic pattern, not the violated word order, influenced the regressive eye movements. These results suggest that while the processing of rhythmic pattern and word order information occurs rapidly during the initial reading of the sentence, the process of recovering from the rhythmic pattern anomaly may ease the reanalysis processing at the

  8. The effect of word position on eye-movements in sentence and paragraph reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman, Victor; Dambacher, Michael; Nuthmann, Antje; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2010-09-01

    The present study explores the role of the word position-in-text in sentence and paragraph reading. Three eye-movement data sets based on the reading of Dutch and German unrelated sentences reveal a sizeable, replicable increase in reading times over several words at the beginning and the end of sentences. The data from the paragraph-based English-language Dundee corpus replicate the pattern and also indicate that the increase in inspection times is driven by the visual boundaries of the text organized in lines, rather than by syntactic sentence boundaries. We argue that this effect is independent of several established lexical, contextual, and oculomotor predictors of eye-movement behaviour. We also provide evidence that the effect of word position-in-text has two independent components: a start-up effect, arguably caused by a strategic oculomotor programme of saccade planning over the line of text, and a wrap-up effect, originating in cognitive processes of comprehension and semantic integration.

  9. Parafoveal preview benefit in sentence reading: Independent effects of plausibility and orthographic relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldre, Aaron; Andrews, Sally

    2017-04-01

    Recent evidence from studies using the gaze-contingent boundary paradigm has suggested that parafoveal preview benefit is contingent on the fit between a preview word and the sentence context. We investigated whether this plausibility preview benefit is modulated by preview-target orthographic relatedness. Participants' eye movements were recorded as they read sentences in which the parafoveal preview of a target word was manipulated. The nonidentical previews were plausible or implausible continuations of the sentence and were either orthographic neighbors of the target or unrelated to the target. All first-pass reading measures showed strong plausibility preview benefits. There was also a benefit from preview-target orthographic relatedness across the reading measures. These two preview effects did not interact for any fixation measure. We also found no evidence that the relatedness effect was caused by misperception of an orthographically similar preview as the target word. These data highlight the existence of two independent mechanisms underlying preview effects: a benefit from the contextual fit of the preview word in the sentence, and a benefit from the sublexical overlap between the preview and target words.

  10. Contextual Constraint and Preview Time Modulate the Semantic Preview Effect: Evidence from Chinese Sentence Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Wang, Suiping; Mo, Luxi; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2017-03-23

    Word recognition in sentence reading is influenced by information from both preview and context. Recently, semantic preview effect (SPE) was observed being modulated by the constraint of context, indicating that context might accelerate the processing of semantically related preview words. Besides, SPE was found to depend on preview time, which suggests SPE may change with different processing stages of preview words. Therefore it raises the question of whether preview-time-dependent SPE would be modulated by contextual constraint. In the current study, we investigated the impact of contextual constraint on SPE in Chinese reading, but also examined its dependency on preview time. The preview word and the target word were identical, semantically related, or unrelated to the target word. The results showed a significant three-way interaction: The SPE depended on contextual constraint and preview time. In separate analyses for low and high contextual constraint of target words, the SPE significantly decreased with an increase in preview duration when the target word was of low constraint in the sentence. The effect was numerically in the same direction, but weaker and statistically non-significant when the target word was highly constrained in the sentence. The results indicate that word processing in sentences is a dynamic process of integrating information from both preview (bottom up) and context (top down).

  11. Agent-patient similarity affects sentence structure in language production: evidence from subject omissions in Mandarin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yaling; Gao, Yannan; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

    2014-01-01

    Interference effects from semantically similar items are well-known in studies of single word production, where the presence of semantically similar distractor words slows picture naming. This article examines the consequences of this interference in sentence production and tests the hypothesis that in situations of high similarity-based interference, producers are more likely to omit one of the interfering elements than when there is low semantic similarity and thus low interference. This work investigated language production in Mandarin, which allows subject noun phrases to be omitted in discourse contexts in which the subject entity has been previously mentioned in the discourse. We hypothesize that Mandarin speakers omit the subject more often when the subject and the object entities are conceptually similar. A corpus analysis of simple transitive sentences found higher rates of subject omission when both the subject and object were animate (potentially yielding similarity-based interference) than when the subject was animate and object was inanimate. A second study manipulated subject-object animacy in a picture description task and replicated this result: participants omitted the animate subject more often when the object was also animate than when it was inanimate. These results suggest that similarity-based interference affects sentence forms, particularly when the agent of the action is mentioned in the sentence. Alternatives and mechanisms for this effect are discussed. PMID:25278915

  12. Individual Differences in Executive Control Relate to Metaphor Processing: An Eye Movement Study of Sentence Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgie eColumbus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metaphors are common elements of language that allow us to creatively stretch the limits of word meaning. However, metaphors vary in their degree of novelty, which determines whether people must create new meanings on-line or retrieve previously known metaphorical meanings from memory. Such variations affect the degree to which general cognitive capacities such as executive control are required for successful comprehension.We investigated whether individual differences in executive control relate to metaphor processing using eye movement measures of reading. Thirty-nine participants read sentences including metaphors or idioms, another form of figurative language that is more likely to rely on meaning retrieval. They also completed the AX-CPT, a domain-general executive control task. In Experiment 1, we examined sentences containing metaphorical or literal uses of verbs, presented with or without prior context. In Experiment 2, we examined sentences containing idioms or literal phrases for the same participants to determine whether the link to executive control was qualitatively similar or different to Experiment 1.When metaphors were low familiar, all people read verbs used as metaphors more slowly than verbs used literally (this difference was smaller for high familiar metaphors. Executive control capacity modulated this pattern in that high executive control readers spent more time reading verbs when a prior context forced a particular interpretation (metaphorical or literal, and they had faster total metaphor reading times when there was a prior context. Interestingly, executive control did not relate to idiom processing for the same readers. Here, all readers had faster total reading times for high familiar idioms than literal phrases. Thus, executive control relates to metaphor but not idiom processing for these readers, and for the particular metaphor and idiom reading manipulations presented.

  13. Individual differences in executive control relate to metaphor processing: an eye movement study of sentence reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbus, Georgie; Sheikh, Naveed A.; Côté-Lecaldare, Marilena; Häuser, Katja; Baum, Shari R.; Titone, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Metaphors are common elements of language that allow us to creatively stretch the limits of word meaning. However, metaphors vary in their degree of novelty, which determines whether people must create new meanings on-line or retrieve previously known metaphorical meanings from memory. Such variations affect the degree to which general cognitive capacities such as executive control are required for successful comprehension. We investigated whether individual differences in executive control relate to metaphor processing using eye movement measures of reading. Thirty-nine participants read sentences including metaphors or idioms, another form of figurative language that is more likely to rely on meaning retrieval. They also completed the AX-CPT, a domain-general executive control task. In Experiment 1, we examined sentences containing metaphorical or literal uses of verbs, presented with or without prior context. In Experiment 2, we examined sentences containing idioms or literal phrases for the same participants to determine whether the link to executive control was qualitatively similar or different to Experiment 1. When metaphors were low familiar, all people read verbs used as metaphors more slowly than verbs used literally (this difference was smaller for high familiar metaphors). Executive control capacity modulated this pattern in that high executive control readers spent more time reading verbs when a prior context forced a particular interpretation (metaphorical or literal), and they had faster total metaphor reading times when there was a prior context. Interestingly, executive control did not relate to idiom processing for the same readers. Here, all readers had faster total reading times for high familiar idioms than literal phrases. Thus, executive control relates to metaphor but not idiom processing for these readers, and for the particular metaphor and idiom reading manipulations presented. PMID:25628557

  14. What do your eyes reveal about your foreign language? Reading emotional sentences in a native and foreign language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacozza, Sara; Costa, Albert; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni

    2017-01-01

    Foreign languages are often learned in emotionally neutral academic environments which differ greatly from the familiar context where native languages are acquired. This difference in learning contexts has been argued to lead to reduced emotional resonance when confronted with a foreign language. In the current study, we investigated whether the reactivity of the sympathetic nervous system in response to emotionally-charged stimuli is reduced in a foreign language. To this end, pupil sizes were recorded while reading aloud emotional sentences in the native or foreign language. Additionally, subjective ratings of emotional impact were provided after reading each sentence, allowing us to further investigate foreign language effects on explicit emotional understanding. Pupillary responses showed a larger effect of emotion in the native than in the foreign language. However, such a difference was not present for explicit ratings of emotionality. These results reveal that the sympathetic nervous system reacts differently depending on the language context, which in turns suggests a deeper emotional processing when reading in a native compared to a foreign language.

  15. Reading during the composition of multi-sentence texts: an eye-movement study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, Mark; Johansson, Roger; Johansson, Victoria; Wengelin, Åsa

    2016-09-01

    Writers composing multi-sentence texts have immediate access to a visual representation of what they have written. Little is known about the detail of writers' eye movements within this text during production. We describe two experiments in which competent adult writers' eye movements were tracked while performing short expository writing tasks. These are contrasted with conditions in which participants read and evaluated researcher-provided texts. Writers spent a mean of around 13 % of their time looking back into their text. Initiation of these look-back sequences was strongly predicted by linguistically important boundaries in their ongoing production (e.g., writers were much more likely to look back immediately prior to starting a new sentence). 36 % of look-back sequences were associated with sustained reading and the remainder with less patterned forward and backward saccades between words ("hopping"). Fixation and gaze durations and the presence of word-length effects suggested lexical processing of fixated words in both reading and hopping sequences. Word frequency effects were not present when writers read their own text. Findings demonstrate the technical possibility and potential value of examining writers' fixations within their just-written text. We suggest that these fixations do not serve solely, or even primarily, in monitoring for error, but play an important role in planning ongoing production.

  16. Adult age differences in wrap-up during sentence comprehension: evidence from ex-Gaussian distributional analyses of reading time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Brennan R; Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A L

    2014-06-01

    We report a secondary data analysis investigating age differences in the effects of clause and sentence wrap-up on reading time distributions during sentence comprehension. Residual word-by-word self-paced reading times were fit to the ex-Gaussian distribution to examine age differences in the effects of clause and sentence wrap-up on both the location and shape of participants' reaction time (RT) distributions. The ex-Gaussian distribution showed good fit to the data in both younger and older adults. Sentence wrap-up increased the central tendency, the variability, and the tail of the distribution, and these effects were exaggerated among the old. In contrast, clause wrap-up influenced the tail of the distribution only, and did so differentially for older adults. Effects were confirmed via nonparametric vincentile plots. Individual differences in visual acuity, working memory, speed of processing, and verbal ability were differentially related to ex-Gaussian parameters reflecting wrap-up effects on underlying reading time distributions. These findings argue against simple pause mechanisms to explain end-of-clause and end-of-sentence reading time patterns; rather, the findings are consistent with a cognitively effortful view of wrap-up and suggest that age and individual differences in attentional allocation to semantic integration during reading, as revealed by RT distribution analyses, play an important role in sentence understanding. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. fMRI brain response during sentence reading comprehension in children with benign epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malfait, D; Tucholka, A; Mendizabal, S; Tremblay, J; Poulin, C; Oskoui, M; Srour, M; Carmant, L; Major, P; Lippé, S

    2015-11-01

    Children with benign epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes (BECTS) often have language problems. Abnormal epileptic activity is found in central and temporal brain regions, which are involved in reading and semantic and syntactic comprehension. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined reading networks in BECTS children with a new sentence reading comprehension task involving semantic and syntactic processing. Fifteen children with BECTS (age=11y 1m ± 16 m; 12 boys) and 18 healthy controls (age=11 y 8m ± 20 m; 11 boys) performed an fMRI reading comprehension task in which they read a pair of syntactically complex sentences and decided whether the target sentence (the second sentence in the pair) was true or false with respect to the first sentence. All children also underwent an exhaustive neuropsychological assessment. We demonstrated weaknesses in several cognitive domains in BECTS children. During the sentence reading fMRI task, left inferior frontal regions and bilateral temporal areas were activated in BECTS children and healthy controls. However, additional brain regions such as the left hippocampus and precuneus were activated in BECTS children. Moreover, specific activation was found in the left caudate and putamen in BECTS children but not in healthy controls. Cognitive results and accuracy during the fMRI task were associated with specific brain activation patterns. BECTS children recruited a wider network to perform the fMRI sentence reading comprehension task, with specific activation in the left dorsal striatum. BECTS cognitive performance differently predicted functional activation in frontal and temporal regions compared to controls, suggesting differences in brain network organisation that contribute to reading comprehension. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Reading Test-Sentence Comprehension: An Adapted Version of Lobrot's Lecture 3 Test for Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo Vilhena, Douglas; Sucena, Ana; Castro, São Luís; Pinheiro, Ângela Maria Vieira

    2016-02-01

    Our aim was to analyse the linguistic structure of the Lobrot's Lecture 3 (L3) reading test and to describe the procedure for its adaptation to a Brazilian cultural-linguistic context. The resulting adapted version is called the Reading Test-Sentence Comprehension [Teste de Leitura: Compreensão de Sentenças (TELCS)] and was developed using the European Portuguese adaptation of L3 as a reference. The present study was conducted in seven steps: (1) classification of the response alternatives of L3 test; (2) adaptation of the original sentences into Brazilian Portuguese; (3) back-translation; (4) adaptation of the distractors from TELCS; (5) configuration of TELCS; (6) pilot study; and (7) validation and standardization. In comparison with L3, TELCS included new linguistic and structural variables, such as frequency of occurrence of the distractors, gender neutrality and position of the target words. The instrument can be used for a collective screening or individual clinical administration purposes to evaluate the reading ability of second-to-fifth-grade and 7-to-11-year-old students. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. The Fruitless Effort of Growing a Fruitless Tree: Early Morpho-Orthographic and Morpho-Semantic Effects in Sentence Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenta, Simona; Marelli, Marco; Crepaldi, Davide

    2015-01-01

    In this eye-tracking study, we investigated how semantics inform morphological analysis at the early stages of visual word identification in sentence reading. We exploited a feature of several derived Italian words, that is, that they can be read in a "morphologically transparent" way or in a "morphologically opaque" way…

  20. CarPrice versus CarpRice: Word Boundary Ambiguity Influences Saccade Target Selection during the Reading of Chinese Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ming; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2016-01-01

    As a contribution to a theoretical debate about the degree of high-level influences on saccade targeting during sentence reading, we investigated eye movements during the reading of structurally ambiguous Chinese character strings and examined whether parafoveal word segmentation could influence saccade-target selection. As expected, ambiguous…

  1. Teaching Semantic Radicals Facilitates Inferring New Character Meaning in Sentence Reading for Nonnative Chinese Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Phuong Nguyen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of teaching semantic radicals in inferring the meanings of unfamiliar characters among nonnative Chinese speakers. A total of 54 undergraduates majoring in Chinese Language from a university in Hanoi, Vietnam, who had 1 year of learning experience in Chinese were assigned to two experimental groups that received instructional intervention, called “old-for-new” semantic radical teaching, through two counterbalanced sets of semantic radicals, with one control group. All of the students completed pre- and post-tests of a sentence cloze task where they were required to choose an appropriate character that fit the sentence context among four options. The four options shared the same phonetic radicals but had different semantic radicals. The results showed that the pre-test and post-test score increases were significant for the experimental groups, but not for the control group. Most importantly, the experimental groups successfully transferred the semantic radical strategy to figure out the meanings of unfamiliar characters containing semantic radicals that had not been taught. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of teaching semantic radicals for lexical inference in sentence reading for nonnative speakers, and highlight the ability of transfer learning to acquire semantic categories of sub-lexical units (semantic radicals in Chinese characters among foreign language learners.

  2. Teaching Semantic Radicals Facilitates Inferring New Character Meaning in Sentence Reading for Nonnative Chinese Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Phuong; Zhang, Jie; Li, Hong; Wu, Xinchun; Cheng, Yahua

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of teaching semantic radicals in inferring the meanings of unfamiliar characters among nonnative Chinese speakers. A total of 54 undergraduates majoring in Chinese Language from a university in Hanoi, Vietnam, who had 1 year of learning experience in Chinese were assigned to two experimental groups that received instructional intervention, called “old-for-new” semantic radical teaching, through two counterbalanced sets of semantic radicals, with one control group. All of the students completed pre- and post-tests of a sentence cloze task where they were required to choose an appropriate character that fit the sentence context among four options. The four options shared the same phonetic radicals but had different semantic radicals. The results showed that the pre-test and post-test score increases were significant for the experimental groups, but not for the control group. Most importantly, the experimental groups successfully transferred the semantic radical strategy to figure out the meanings of unfamiliar characters containing semantic radicals that had not been taught. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of teaching semantic radicals for lexical inference in sentence reading for nonnative speakers, and highlight the ability of transfer learning to acquire semantic categories of sub-lexical units (semantic radicals) in Chinese characters among foreign language learners. PMID:29109694

  3. LANGUAGE, MEMORY, AND AGING - AN ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL EXPLORATION OF THE N400 DURING READING OF MEMORY-DEMANDING SENTENCES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GUNTER, TC; JACKSON, JL; MULDER, G

    Twenty-four young and 24 middle-aged academics carried out a language recognition task in which sentences were presented that made either a high or a low demand on working memory (WM). The sentences ended either normally (i.e., congruent) or with an incongruous word. Middle-aged subjects had smaller

  4. Print exposure modulates the effects of repetition priming during sentence reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowder, Matthew W; Gordon, Peter C

    2017-02-21

    Individual readers vary greatly in the quality of their lexical representations, and consequently in how quickly and efficiently they can access orthographic and lexical knowledge. This variability may be explained, at least in part, by individual differences in exposure to printed language, because practice at reading promotes the development of stronger reading skills. In the present eyetracking experiment, we tested the hypothesis that the efficiency of word recognition during reading improves with increases in print exposure, by determining whether the magnitude of the repetition-priming effect is modulated by individual differences in scores on the author recognition test (ART). Lexical repetition of target words was manipulated across pairs of unrelated sentences that were presented on consecutive trials. The magnitude of the repetition effect was modulated by print exposure in early measures of processing, such that the magnitude of the effect was inversely related to scores on the ART. The results showed that low levels of print exposure, and thus lower-quality lexical representations, are associated with high levels of difficulty recognizing words, and thus with the greatest room to benefit from repetition. Furthermore, the interaction between scores on the ART and repetition suggests that print exposure is not simply an index of general reading speed, but rather that higher levels of print exposure are associated with an enhanced ability to access lexical knowledge and recognize words during reading.

  5. Relationship of word- and sentence-level working memory to reading and writing in second, fourth, and sixth grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Virginia W; Abbott, Robert D; Swanson, H Lee; Lovitt, Dan; Trivedi, Pam; Lin, Shin-Ju Cindy; Gould, Laura; Youngstrom, Marci; Shimada, Shirley; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of working memory at the word and sentence levels of language to reading and writing outcomes. Measures of working memory at the word and sentence levels, reading and writing, were administered to 2nd (N = 122), 4th (N = 222), and 6th (N = 105) graders. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate whether the 2 predictor working memory factors contributed unique variance beyond their shared covariance to each of 5 outcome factors: handwriting, spelling, composing, word reading, and reading comprehension. At each grade level, except for handwriting and composing in 6th grade, the word-level working memory factor contributed unique variance to each reading and writing outcome. The text-level working memory factor contributed unique variance to reading comprehension in 4th and 6th grade. The clinical significance of these findings for assessment and intervention is discussed.

  6. Word processing during reading sentences in patients with schizophrenia: evidences from the eyetracking technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Gerardo; Sapognikoff, Marcelo; Guinjoan, Salvador; Orozco, David; Agamennoni, Osvaldo

    2016-07-01

    The current study analyze the effect of word properties (i.e., word length, word frequency and word predictability) on the eye movement behavior of patients with schizophrenia (SZ) compared to age-matched controls. 18 SZ patients and 40 age matched controls participated in the study. Eye movements were recorded during reading regular sentences by using the eyetracking technique. Eye movement analyses were performed using linear mixed models. Analysis of eye movements revealed that patients with SZ decreased the amount of single fixations, increased their total number of second pass fixations compared with healthy individuals (Controls). In addition, SZ patients showed an increase in gaze duration, compared to Controls. Interestingly, the effects of current word frequency and current word length processing were similar in Controls and SZ patients. The high rate of second pass fixations and its low rate in single fixation might reveal impairments in working memory when integrating neighbor words. In contrast, word frequency and length processing might require less complex mechanisms, which were functioning in SZ patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study measuring how patients with SZ process dynamically well-defined words embedded in regular sentences. The findings suggest that evaluation of the resulting changes in eye movement behavior may supplement current symptom-based diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationships between Eye Movements during Sentence Reading Comprehension, Word Spelling and Reading, and DTI and fmri Connectivity In Students with and without Dysgraphia or Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagle, Kevin; Richards, Todd; Askren, Katie; Mestre, Zoe; Beers, Scott; Abbott, Robert; Nagy, William; Boord, Peter; Berninger, Virginia

    2017-01-01

    While eye movements were recorded and brains scanned, 29 children with and without specific learning disabilities (SLDs) decided if sentences they read (half with only correctly spelled words and half with homonym foils) were meaningful. Significant main effects were found for diagnostic groups (non-SLD control, dysgraphia control, and dyslexia) in total fixation (dwell) time, total number of fixations, and total regressions in during saccades; the dyslexia group had longer and more fixations and made more regressions in during saccades than either control group. The dyslexia group also differed from both control groups in (a) fractional anisotropy in left optic radiation and (b) silent word reading fluency on a task in which surrounding letters can be distracting, consistent with Rayner's selective attention dyslexia model. Different profiles for non-SLD control, dysgraphia, and dyslexia groups were identified in correlations between total fixation time, total number of fixations, regressions in during saccades, magnitude of gray matter connectivity during the fMRI sentence reading comprehension from left occipital temporal cortex seed with right BA44 and from left inferior frontal gyrus with right inferior frontoccipital fasciculus, and normed word-specific spelling and silent word reading fluency measures. The dysgraphia group was more likely than the non-SLD control or dyslexia groups to show negative correlations between eye movement outcomes and sentences containing incorrect homonym foils. Findings are discussed in reference to a systems approach in future sentence reading comprehension research that integrates eye movement, brain, and literacy measures.

  8. Relationships between Eye Movements during Sentence Reading Comprehension, Word Spelling and Reading, and DTI and fmri Connectivity In Students with and without Dysgraphia or Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagle, Kevin; Richards, Todd; Askren, Katie; Mestre, Zoe; Beers, Scott; Abbott, Robert; Nagy, William; Boord, Peter; Berninger, Virginia

    2017-01-01

    While eye movements were recorded and brains scanned, 29 children with and without specific learning disabilities (SLDs) decided if sentences they read (half with only correctly spelled words and half with homonym foils) were meaningful. Significant main effects were found for diagnostic groups (non-SLD control, dysgraphia control, and dyslexia) in total fixation (dwell) time, total number of fixations, and total regressions in during saccades; the dyslexia group had longer and more fixations and made more regressions in during saccades than either control group. The dyslexia group also differed from both control groups in (a) fractional anisotropy in left optic radiation and (b) silent word reading fluency on a task in which surrounding letters can be distracting, consistent with Rayner's selective attention dyslexia model. Different profiles for non-SLD control, dysgraphia, and dyslexia groups were identified in correlations between total fixation time, total number of fixations, regressions in during saccades, magnitude of gray matter connectivity during the fMRI sentence reading comprehension from left occipital temporal cortex seed with right BA44 and from left inferior frontal gyrus with right inferior frontoccipital fasciculus, and normed word-specific spelling and silent word reading fluency measures. The dysgraphia group was more likely than the non-SLD control or dyslexia groups to show negative correlations between eye movement outcomes and sentences containing incorrect homonym foils. Findings are discussed in reference to a systems approach in future sentence reading comprehension research that integrates eye movement, brain, and literacy measures. PMID:28936361

  9. The fruitless effort of growing a fruitless tree: Early morpho-orthographic and morpho-semantic effects in sentence reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenta, Simona; Marelli, Marco; Crepaldi, Davide

    2015-09-01

    In this eye-tracking study, we investigated how semantics inform morphological analysis at the early stages of visual word identification in sentence reading. We exploited a feature of several derived Italian words, that is, that they can be read in a "morphologically transparent" way or in a "morphologically opaque" way according to the sentence context to which they belong. This way, each target word was embedded in a sentence eliciting either its transparent or opaque interpretation. We analyzed whether the effect of stem frequency changes according to whether the (very same) word is read as a genuine derivation (transparent context) versus as a pseudoderived word (opaque context). Analysis of the first fixation durations revealed a stem-word frequency effect in both opaque and transparent contexts, thus showing that stems were accessed whether or not they contributed to word meaning, that is, word decomposition is indeed blind to semantics. However, while the stem-word frequency effect was facilitatory in the transparent context, it was inhibitory in the opaque context, thus showing an early involvement of semantic representations. This pattern of data is revealed by words with short suffixes. These results indicate that derived and pseudoderived words are segmented into their constituent morphemes also in natural reading; however, this blind-to-semantics process activates morpheme representations that are semantically connoted. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Neural strategies for reading Japanese and Chinese sentences: a cross-linguistic fMRI study of character-decoding and morphosyntax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Koongliang; Itoh, Kosuke; Kwee, Ingrid L; Nakada, Tsutomu

    2012-09-01

    Japanese and Chinese share virtually identical morphographic characters invented in ancient China. Whereas modern Chinese retained the original morphographic functionality of these characters (hanzi), modern Japanese utilizes these characters (kanji) as complex syllabograms. This divergence provides a unique opportunity to systematically investigate brain strategies for sentence reading in Japanese-Chinese bi-literates. Accordingly, we investigated brain activation associated with Japanese and Chinese reading in 14 native Japanese speakers literate in Mandarin and 14 native Mandarin speakers literate in Japanese using functional magnetic resonance imaging performed on a 3T system. The activation pattern exhibited clearly distinct features specific for each language. Regardless of the subject's native language literacy, Chinese reading activated an area significantly larger than Japanese reading, suggesting that brain processes involved in Chinese reading were much more complex than Japanese reading. Significant recruitment of corresponding cortical areas in the right hemisphere with Chinese reading was also apparent. The activation patterns associated with Japanese reading by native Japanese literates was highly consistent with previous reports, and included the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), left posterior temporal lobe (PTL), and left ventral premotor cortex (PMv). The activation pattern associated with Chinese reading by native Chinese literates was also highly consistent with previous reports, namely the left IFG, left PTL, left PMv, left anterior temporal lobe (ATL), and bilateral parieto occipital lobes (LPOL). The activation pattern associated with Chinese reading by native Japanese literates was virtually identical to that by native Chinese literates, whereas the activation pattern associated with Japanese reading by native Chinese literates was signified by additional activation of LPOL compared to that by native Japanese literate. The study indicated

  11. Word skipping during sentence reading: effects of lexicality on parafoveal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Wonil; Gordon, Peter C

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments examined how lexical status affects the targeting of saccades during reading by using the boundary technique to vary independently the content of a letter string when seen in parafoveal preview and when directly fixated. Experiment 1 measured the skipping rate for a target word embedded in a sentence under three parafoveal preview conditions: full preview (e.g., brain-brain), pseudohomophone preview (e.g., brane-brain), and orthographic nonword control preview (e.g., brant-brain); in the first condition, the preview string was always an English word, while in the second and third conditions, it was always a nonword. Experiment 2 investigated three conditions where the preview string was always a word: full preview (e.g., beach-beach), homophone preview (e.g., beech-beach), and orthographic control preview (e.g., bench-beach). None of the letter string manipulations used to create the preview conditions in the experiments disrupted sublexical orthographic or phonological patterns. In Experiment 1, higher skipping rates were observed for the full (lexical) preview condition, which consisted of a word, than for the nonword preview conditions (pseudohomophone and orthographic control). In contrast, Experiment 2 showed no difference in skipping rates across the three types of lexical preview conditions (full, homophone, and orthographic control), although preview type did influence reading times. This pattern indicates that skipping not only depends on the presence of disrupted sublexical patterns of orthography or phonology, but also is critically dependent on processes that are sensitive to the lexical status of letter strings in the parafovea.

  12. Tonal association in neutral and subject-narrow-focus sentences in Brazilian Portuguese: a comparison with European Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviane Romani Fernandes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative description and analysis of the intonational contours of Brazilian Portuguese (BP sentences in neutral and subject-narrow-focus conditions. Making use of the literature on European Portuguese (EP intonation, it also compares BP intonation with the intonation of EP sentences under the same conditions, looking for similarities and differences between the intonational patterns of these two Portuguese varieties. Our results indicate that BP neutral sentences can optionally show pitch accents associated with all prosodic words (ωs. In subject-narrow- focus conditions, the same type of pitch accents that are found associated with non-focused subjects can also be found with focused subjects. In addition, it is also possible to find a phrasal accent associated with the right boundary of the phonological phrase (φ that contains the focused subject. In contrast to BP, in EP neutral sentences, pitch accents are associated with the I-initial and I-final ωs. Furthermore, in this variety, in subject-narrow-focus conditions there is always a special bitonal pitch accent carried by the focused subject and there are no phrasal accents associated with boundaries of the φ that contains the subject.

  13. The effects of context on processing words during sentence reading among adults varying in age and literacy skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen-Baker, Allison A; Ng, Shukhan; Payne, Brennan R; Anderson, Carolyn J; Federmeier, Kara D; Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A L

    2017-08-01

    The facilitation of word processing by sentence context reflects the interaction between the build-up of message-level semantics and lexical processing. Yet, little is known about how this effect varies through adulthood as a function of reading skill. In this study, Participants 18-64 years old with a range of literacy competence read simple sentences as their eye movements were monitored. We manipulated the predictability of a sentence-final target word, operationalized as cloze probability. First fixation durations showed an interaction between age and literacy skill, decreasing with age among more skilled readers but increasing among less skilled readers. This pattern suggests that age-related slowing may impact reading when not buffered by skill, but with continued practice, automatization of reading can continue to develop in adulthood. In absolute terms, readers were sensitive to predictability, regardless of age or literacy, in both early and later measures. Older readers showed differential contextual sensitivity in regression patterns, effects not moderated by literacy skill. Finally, comprehension performance increased with age and literacy skill, but performance among less skilled readers was especially reduced when predictability was low, suggesting that low-literacy adults (regardless of age) struggle when creating mental representations under weaker semantic constraints. Collectively, these findings suggest that aging readers (regardless of reading skill) are more sensitive to context for meaning-integration processes; that less skilled adult readers (regardless of age) depend more on a constrained semantic representation for comprehension; and that the capacity for literacy engagement enables continued development of efficient lexical processing in adult reading development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Eye movements and the perceptual span during first- and second-language sentence reading in bilingual older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Veronica; Titone, Debra

    2016-02-01

    This study addressed a central yet previously unexplored issue in the psychological science of aging, namely, whether the advantages of healthy aging (e.g., greater lifelong experience with language) or disadvantages (e.g., decreases in cognitive and sensory processing) drive L1 and L2 reading performance in bilingual older adults. To this end, we used a gaze-contingent moving window paradigm to examine both global aspects of reading fluency (e.g., reading rates, number of regressions) and the perceptual span (i.e., allocation of visual attention into the parafovea) in bilingual older adults during L1 and L2 sentence reading, as a function of individual differences in current L2 experience. Across the L1 and L2, older adults exhibited reduced reading fluency (e.g., slower reading rates, more regressions), but a similar perceptual span compared with matched younger adults. Also similar to matched younger adults, older adults' reading fluency was lower for L2 reading than for L1 reading as a function of current L2 experience. Specifically, greater current L2 experience increased L2 reading fluency, but decreased L1 reading fluency (for global reading measures only). Taken together, the dissociation between intact perceptual span and impaired global reading measures suggests that older adults may prioritize parafoveal processing despite age-related encoding difficulties. Consistent with this interpretation, post hoc analyses revealed that older adults with higher versus lower executive control were more likely to adopt this strategy. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Can a Microwave Heat up Coffee? How English- and Japanese-Speaking Children Choose Subjects in Lexical Causative Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanero, Junko; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick

    2016-01-01

    Languages differ greatly in how they express causal events. In languages like Japanese, the subjects of causative sentences, or "causers," are generally animate and intentional, whereas in other languages like English, causers range widely from animate beings to inanimate objects (e.g. Wolff, Jeon & Li, 2009). This paper explores…

  16. Developing Reading and Listening Comprehension Tests Based on the Sentence Verification Technique (SVT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, James M.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a team-based approach for creating Sentence Verification Technique (SVT) tests, a development procedure that allows teachers and other school personnel to develop comprehension tests from curriculum materials in use in their schools. Finds that if tests are based on materials that are appropriate for the population to be tested, the…

  17. Attention Blinks for Selection, Not Perception or Memory: Reading Sentences and Reporting Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Mary C.; Wyble, Brad; Olejarczyk, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    In whole report, a sentence presented sequentially at the rate of about 10 words/s can be recalled accurately, whereas if the task is to report only two target words (e.g., red words), the second target suffers an attentional blink if it appears shortly after the first target. If these two tasks are carried out simultaneously, is there an…

  18. The effect of contextual diversity on eye movements in Chinese sentence reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingrong; Huang, Xin; Bai, Le; Xu, Xiaodong; Yang, Yiming; Tanenhaus, Michael K

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that when contextual diversity is controlled token word frequency has minimal effects on visual word recognition. With the exception of a single experiment by Plummer, Perea, & Rayner (2014, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 40, 275-283), those studies have examined words in isolation. The current studies address two potential limitations of the Plummer et al. experiment. First, because Plummer et al. used different sentence frames for words in different conditions, the effects might be due to uncontrolled differences on the sentences. Second, the absence of a frequency effect might be attributed to comparing higher and lower frequency words within a limited range. Three eye-tracking experiments examined effects of contextual diversity and frequency on Mandarin Chinese, a logographic language, for words embedded in the normal sentences. In Experiment 1, yoked words were rotated through the same sentence frame. Experiments 2a and 2b used a design similar to Plummer et al., which allows use of a larger sample of words to compare results between experiments with a smaller and larger difference in log frequency (0.41 and 1.06, respectively). In all three experiments, first-pass and later eye movement measures were significantly shorter for targets with higher contextual diversity than for targets with lower contextual diversity, with no effects of frequency.

  19. Can Bilinguals See It Coming? Word Anticipation in L2 Sentence Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucart, Alice; Martin, Clara D.; Moreno, Eva M.; Costa, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Why is it more difficult to comprehend a 2nd (L2) than a 1st language (L1)? In the present article we investigate whether difficulties during L2 sentence comprehension come from differences in the way L1 and L2 speakers anticipate upcoming words. We recorded the brain activity (event-related potentials) of Spanish monolinguals, French-Spanish late…

  20. Syllabic tone articulation influences the identification and use of words during Chinese sentence reading: Evidence from ERP and eye movement recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yingyi; Yan, Ming; Yan, Shaorong; Zhou, Xiaolin; Inhoff, Albrecht W

    2016-02-01

    In two experiments, we examined the contribution of articulation-specific features to visual word recognition during the reading of Chinese. In spoken Standard Chinese, a syllable with a full tone can be tone-neutralized through sound weakening and pitch contour change, and there are two types of two-character compound words with respect to their articulation variation. One type requires articulation of a full tone for each constituent character, and the other requires a full- and a neutral-tone articulation for the first and second characters, respectively. Words of these two types with identical first characters were selected and embedded in sentences. Native speakers of Standard Chinese were recruited to read the sentences. In Experiment 1, the individual words of a sentence were presented serially at a fixed pace while event-related potentials were recorded. This resulted in less-negative N100 and anterior N250 amplitudes and in more-negative N400 amplitudes when targets contained a neutral tone. Complete sentences were visible in Experiment 2, and eye movements were recorded while participants read. Analyses of oculomotor activity revealed shorter viewing durations and fewer refixations on-and fewer regressive saccades to-target words when their second syllable was articulated with a neutral rather than a full tone. Together, the results indicate that readers represent articulation-specific word properties, that these representations are routinely activated early during the silent reading of Chinese sentences, and that the representations are also used during later stages of word processing.

  1. The sentence verification task: a reliable fMRI protocol for mapping receptive language in individual subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjuan, Ana; Avila, Cesar [Universitat Jaume I, Departamento de Psicologia Basica, Clinica y Psicobiologia, Castellon de la Plana (Spain); Hospital La Fe, Unidad de Epilepsia, Servicio de Neurologia, Valencia (Spain); Forn, Cristina; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Rodriguez-Pujadas, Aina; Garcia-Porcar, Maria [Universitat Jaume I, Departamento de Psicologia Basica, Clinica y Psicobiologia, Castellon de la Plana (Spain); Belloch, Vicente [Hospital La Fe, Eresa, Servicio de Radiologia, Valencia (Spain); Villanueva, Vicente [Hospital La Fe, Unidad de Epilepsia, Servicio de Neurologia, Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    To test the capacity of a sentence verification (SV) task to reliably activate receptive language areas. Presurgical evaluation of language is useful in predicting postsurgical deficits in patients who are candidates for neurosurgery. Productive language tasks have been successfully elaborated, but more conflicting results have been found in receptive language mapping. Twenty-two right-handed healthy controls made true-false semantic judgements of brief sentences presented auditorily. Group maps showed reliable functional activations in the frontal and temporoparietal language areas. At the individual level, the SV task showed activation located in receptive language areas in 100% of the participants with strong left-sided distributions (mean lateralisation index of 69.27). The SV task can be considered a useful tool in evaluating receptive language function in individual subjects. This study is a first step towards designing the fMRI task which may serve to presurgically map receptive language functions. (orig.)

  2. Presenting GECO: An eyetracking corpus of monolingual and bilingual sentence reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cop, Uschi; Dirix, Nicolas; Drieghe, Denis; Duyck, Wouter

    2017-04-01

    This article introduces GECO, the Ghent Eye-Tracking Corpus, a monolingual and bilingual corpus of the eyetracking data of participants reading a complete novel. English monolinguals and Dutch-English bilinguals read an entire novel, which was presented in paragraphs on the screen. The bilinguals read half of the novel in their first language, and the other half in their second language. In this article, we describe the distributions and descriptive statistics of the most important reading time measures for the two groups of participants. This large eyetracking corpus is perfectly suited for both exploratory purposes and more directed hypothesis testing, and it can guide the formulation of ideas and theories about naturalistic reading processes in a meaningful context. Most importantly, this corpus has the potential to evaluate the generalizability of monolingual and bilingual language theories and models to the reading of long texts and narratives. The corpus is freely available at http://expsy.ugent.be/downloads/geco .

  3. A Study on Reading Comprehension Skills of Primary School 5th Grade Students--Learning Basic Reading and Writing Skills through Phonics-Based Sentence Method or Decoding Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusdemir Kayiran, Bilge; Karabay, Aysegul

    2012-01-01

    This research aims at investigating the influence of two methods implemented in primary reading and writing teaching programs--phonics-based sentence method and decoding (analysis) method--on primary school 5th grade students' reading comprehension achievement. Also, the study considers the relationship between socio-economic status and reading…

  4. Eye Movement Behaviour during Reading of Japanese Sentences: Effects of Word Length and Visual Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sarah J.; Hirotani, Masako; Liversedge, Simon P.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments are presented that examine how the visual characteristics of Japanese words influence eye movement behaviour during reading. In Experiment 1, reading behaviour was compared for words comprising either one or two kanji characters. The one-character words were significantly less likely to be fixated on first-pass, and had…

  5. Normal movement reading in Asperger subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avikainen, S; Kulomäki, T; Hari, R

    1999-11-26

    Patients with autism and Asperger syndrome (AS) are impaired in mindreading and imitation skills. One possibility would be that their 'mirror neuron' system, which matches action execution and observation, does not function properly. To test this hypothesis we compared action-viewing related motor cortex functions in an AS group (one autistic and four AS subjects) and eight control subjects. In both groups viewing hand actions modified the neuromagnetic approximately 20 Hz oscillatory activity in the primary motor cortex to the same extent. Thus impaired mindreading and imitation skills found in AS and autism do not seem to result from dysfunction of the motor cortex part of the action execution/observation system.

  6. Individual differences in processing emotional images after reading disgusting and neutral sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartigan, Alex; Richards, Anne

    2017-11-21

    The present study examined the extent to which Event Related Potentials (ERPs) evoked by disgusting, threatening and neutral photographic images were influenced by disgust propensity, disgust sensitivity and attentional control following exposure to disgusting information. Emotional cognition was manipulated by instructing participants to remember either disgusting or neutral sentences; participants in both groups then viewed emotional images while ERPs were recorded. Disgust propensity was associated with a reduced Late Positive Potential (LPP) gap between threatening and neutral stimuli (an effect driven by a rise in the LPP for neutral images) but only amongst individuals who were exposed to disgusting sentences. The typical LPP increase for disgust over neutral was reduced by attentional shifting capacity but only for individuals who were not previously exposed to disgust. There was also a persistent occipital shifted late positivity that was enhanced for disgust for the entire LPP window and was independent of exposure. Results suggest that emotion specific ERP effects can emerge within the broad unpleasant emotional category in conjunction with individual differences and prior emotional exposure. These results have important implications for the ways in which the perception of emotion is impacted by short term cognitive influences and longer term individual differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Punctuation and implicit prosody in silent reading: An ERP study investigating English garden-path sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Drury

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the first two ERP reading studies of comma-induced effects of covert (implicit prosody on syntactic parsing decisions in English. The first experiment used a balanced 2 x 2 design in which the presence/absence of commas determined plausibility (e.g., John, said Mary, was the nicest boy at the party versus John said Mary was the nicest boy at the party. The second reading experiment replicated a previous auditory study investigating the role of overt prosodic boundaries in closure ambiguities (Pauker et al., 2011. In both experiments, commas reliably elicited CPS components and generally played a dominant role in determining parsing decisions in the face of input ambiguity. The combined set of findings provides further evidence supporting the claim that mechanisms subserving speech processing play an active role during silent reading.

  8. Punctuation and Implicit Prosody in Silent Reading: An ERP Study Investigating English Garden-Path Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, John E.; Baum, Shari R.; Valeriote, Hope; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the first two ERP reading studies of comma-induced effects of covert (implicit) prosody on syntactic parsing decisions in English. The first experiment used a balanced 2 × 2 design in which the presence/absence of commas determined plausibility (e.g., John, said Mary, was the nicest boy at the party vs. John said Mary was the nicest boy at the party). The second reading experiment replicated a previous auditory study investigating the role of overt prosodic boundaries in closure ambiguities (Pauker et al., 2011). In both experiments, commas reliably elicited CPS components and generally played a dominant role in determining parsing decisions in the face of input ambiguity. The combined set of findings provides further evidence supporting the claim that mechanisms subserving speech processing play an active role during silent reading. PMID:27695428

  9. A comparative analysis of vertical and horizontal fixation disparity in sentence reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jainta, S; Blythe, H I; Nikolova, M; Jones, M O; Liversedge, S P

    2015-05-01

    Humans have two, frontally placed eyes and during reading oculomotor and sensory processes are needed to combine the two inputs into a unified percept of the text. Generally, slight vergence errors, i.e., fixation disparities, occur but do not cause double vision since disparate retinal inputs fall into Panum's fusional area, that is, a range of disparity wherein sensory fusion of the two retinal images is achieved. In this study, we report benchmark data with respect to the mean magnitude and range of vertical compared to horizontal fixation disparities for natural reading. Our data clearly fit to an elliptical pattern of Panum's fusional area that corresponds with theoretical estimates. Furthermore, when we examined disparity-driven vergence adjustments during fixations by comparing monocular with binocular reading conditions, we found that only horizontal fixation disparities increased significantly under conditions of monocular stimulation. Also, no significant vertical fine-tuning (vergence adjustment) was observed for vergence eye movements during reading fixations. Thus, horizontal and vertical fixation disparities and vergence adjustments during reading showed quite different characteristics, and this dissociation is directly related to the functional role of vergence adjustments: vertical fusion - and vertical vergence - subserve the maintenance of a single percept and stereopsis by keeping the eyes in register and allowing for horizontal fusional processes to successfully operate over a vertically aligned input. A reliable and stable vertical alignment is, thus, a pre-requisite over which horizontal fusional responses (and depth perception) can work most efficiently - even in a task like reading. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Reading problems in chronic aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, W G; Love, R J

    1983-05-01

    Thirty-five aphasic subjects who were 1 year or longer post onset of brain injury were given a battery of reading tests which was composed of recognition and oral reading tests for letters, words, sentences, and paragraphs, and comprehension tests for sentences and paragraphs. Results indicated a residual reading disorder or alexia in all subjects, with comprehension tests producing the highest error rate, oral reading tests second, and then recognition tests. Reading ability was found to be related to overall language skill, level of education, and oral reading ability. Results are discussed in light of current theories of reading and future research needs.

  11. Legislation imposing mandatory minimum sentences for drug offences passes second reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Bill C-26, An Act to amend the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act, passed second reading in the House of Commons on 16 April 16 2008, and was referred to the Standing Committee on Justice and Human Rights. The legislation has been proposed as a component of the National Anti-Drug Strategy.

  12. Impact of Background Noise and Sentence Complexity on Processing Demands during Sentence Comprehension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Dorothea; Dau, Torsten; Hjortkjær, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Speech comprehension in adverse listening conditions can be effortful even when speech is fully intelligible. Acoustical distortions typically make speech comprehension more effortful, but effort also depends on linguistic aspects of the speech signal, such as its syntactic complexity....... In the present study, pupil dilations, and subjective effort ratings were recorded in 20 normal-hearing participants while performing a sentence comprehension task. The sentences were either syntactically simple (subject-first sentence structure) or complex (object-first sentence structure) and were presented...... in two levels of background noise both corresponding to high intelligibility. A digit span and a reading span test were used to assess individual differences in the participants’ working memory capacity (WMC). The results showed that the subjectively rated effort was mostly affected by the noise level...

  13. Lip-reading abilities in a subject with congenital prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathour, J; Decat, M; Vander Linden, F; Deggouj, N

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of an individual with congenital prosopagnosia or "face blindness", a disorder where the ability to recognize faces is impaired. We studied the lip-reading ability and audiovisual perception of this subject using a DVD with four conditions (audiovisual congruent, auditory, visual, and audiovisual incongruent) and compared results with a normal patient cohort. The patient had no correct responses in the visual lip-reading task; whereas, he improved in the audiovisual congruent task. In the audiovisual incongruent task, the patient provided one response; thus, he was able to lip-read. (He was able to use lip-reading/to use labial informations) This patient perceived only global dynamic facial movements, not the fine ones. He had a sufficient complementary use of lip-reading in audiovisual tasks, but not visual ones. These data are consistent with abnormal development of the pathways used for visual speech perception and associated with second-order face processing disorders and normal development of the audiovisual network for speech perception.

  14. EEG theta and gamma responses to semantic violations in online sentence processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hald, L.A.; Bastiaansen, M.C.M.; Hagoort, P.

    2006-01-01

    We explore the nature of the oscillatory dynamics in the EEG of subjects reading sentences that contain a semantic violation. More specifically, we examine whether increases in theta (approximate to 3-7 Hz) and gamma (around 40 Hz) band power occur in response to sentences that were either

  15. Effectiveness of a loudness model for time-varying sounds in equating the loudness of sentences subjected to different forms of signal processing.

    OpenAIRE

    Zorilă, Tudor-Cătălin; Stylianou, Yannis; Flanagan, Sheila; Moore, Brian Cecil

    2017-01-01

    A model for the loudness of time-varying sounds [Glasberg and Moore (2012). J. Audio. Eng. Soc. 50, 331-342] was assessed for its ability to predict the loudness of sentences that were processed to either decrease or increase their dynamic fluctuations. In a paired-comparison task, subjects compared the loudness of unprocessed and processed sentences that had been equalized in (1) root-mean square (RMS) level; (2) the peak long-term loudness predicted by the model; (3) the mean long-term loud...

  16. Numbers and prior knowledge in sentence comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Macizo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated whether the comprehension of sentences that contained numerical information could benefit from presenting numbers in Arabic format and from using prior knowledge. Participants read sentences including numbers (Arabic digits or number words while the comprehension accuracy was evaluated. In addition, the sentences were biased or unbiased by people's prior knowledge about quantities. The results showed better comprehension for sentences that contained Arabic digits as compared to number words. Moreover, biased sentences were understood more accurately than unbiased sentences. These results indicate that information about magnitude in sentence context is comprehended better when quantities are presented in Arabic format and when they are associated with participants' world knowledge.

  17. Impact of Background Noise and Sentence Complexity on Processing Demands during Sentence Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Dorothea; Dau, Torsten; Hjortkjær, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Speech comprehension in adverse listening conditions can be effortful even when speech is fully intelligible. Acoustical distortions typically make speech comprehension more effortful, but effort also depends on linguistic aspects of the speech signal, such as its syntactic complexity. In the present study, pupil dilations, and subjective effort ratings were recorded in 20 normal-hearing participants while performing a sentence comprehension task. The sentences were either syntactically simple (subject-first sentence structure) or complex (object-first sentence structure) and were presented in two levels of background noise both corresponding to high intelligibility. A digit span and a reading span test were used to assess individual differences in the participants’ working memory capacity (WMC). The results showed that the subjectively rated effort was mostly affected by the noise level and less by syntactic complexity. Conversely, pupil dilations increased with syntactic complexity but only showed a small effect of the noise level. Participants with higher WMC showed increased pupil responses in the higher-level noise condition but rated sentence comprehension as being less effortful compared to participants with lower WMC. Overall, the results demonstrate that pupil dilations and subjectively rated effort represent different aspects of effort. Furthermore, the results indicate that effort can vary in situations with high speech intelligibility. PMID:27014152

  18. Home readings of blood pressure in assessment of hypertensive subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.E.; Myschetzky, P; Andersen, A R

    1986-01-01

    Out-patient clinic blood pressure (OPC-BP) was compared to home blood pressure (Home-BP) measured three times daily during a two week period in 122 consecutively referred hypertensive subjects. A semi-automatic device (TM-101) including a microphone for detection of Korotkoff-sounds, self......-deflation of cuff pressure and digital display of blood pressure was used. Mean difference between OPC-BP and Home-BP was systolic +13 mm Hg (range -21 - +100 mg Hg) and diastolic +5 mm Hg (range -27 - +36 mm Hg). Although a significant correlation could be demonstrated between Home-BP and OPC-BP, the inter......-individual scatter was pronounced and unpredictable from the hypertensive organ damages. It is argued, that home readings should be used to greater extent in the evaluation of patients with hypertension....

  19. Is Broca's Area Involved in the Processing of Passive Sentences? An Event-Related fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Satoru; Watanabe, Jobu; Iwata, Kazuki; Ikuta, Naho; Haji, Tomoki; Usui, Nobuo; Taira, Masato; Miyamoto, Tadao; Nakamura, Wataru; Sato, Shigeru; Horie, Kaoru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2007-01-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether activation in Broca's area is greater during the processing of passive versus active sentences in the brains of healthy subjects. Twenty Japanese native speakers performed a visual sentence comprehension task in which they were asked to read a visually presented sentence…

  20. A Deficit in Movement-Derived Sentences in German-Speaking Hearing-Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Ruigendijk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Children with hearing impairment (HI show disorders in syntax and morphology. The question is whether and how these disorders are connected to problems in the auditory domain. The aim of this paper is to examine whether moderate to severe hearing loss at a young age affects the ability of German-speaking orally trained children to understand and produce sentences. We focused on sentence structures that are derived by syntactic movement, which have been identified as a sensitive marker for syntactic impairment in other languages and in other populations with syntactic impairment. Therefore, our study tested subject and object relatives, subject and object Wh-questions, passive sentences, and topicalized sentences, as well as sentences with verb movement to second sentential position. We tested 19 HI children aged 9;5–13;6 and compared their performance with hearing children using comprehension tasks of sentence-picture matching and sentence repetition tasks. For the comprehension tasks, we included HI children who passed an auditory discrimination task; for the sentence repetition tasks, we selected children who passed a screening task of simple sentence repetition without lip-reading; this made sure that they could perceive the words in the tests, so that we could test their grammatical abilities. The results clearly showed that most of the participants with HI had considerable difficulties in the comprehension and repetition of sentences with syntactic movement: they had significant difficulties understanding object relatives, Wh-questions, and topicalized sentences, and in the repetition of object who and which questions and subject relatives, as well as in sentences with verb movement to second sentential position. Repetition of passives was only problematic for some children. Object relatives were still difficult at this age for both HI and hearing children. An additional important outcome of the study is that not all sentence structures

  1. A Deficit in Movement-Derived Sentences in German-Speaking Hearing-Impaired Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruigendijk, Esther; Friedmann, Naama

    2017-01-01

    Children with hearing impairment (HI) show disorders in syntax and morphology. The question is whether and how these disorders are connected to problems in the auditory domain. The aim of this paper is to examine whether moderate to severe hearing loss at a young age affects the ability of German-speaking orally trained children to understand and produce sentences. We focused on sentence structures that are derived by syntactic movement, which have been identified as a sensitive marker for syntactic impairment in other languages and in other populations with syntactic impairment. Therefore, our study tested subject and object relatives, subject and object Wh-questions, passive sentences, and topicalized sentences, as well as sentences with verb movement to second sentential position. We tested 19 HI children aged 9;5–13;6 and compared their performance with hearing children using comprehension tasks of sentence-picture matching and sentence repetition tasks. For the comprehension tasks, we included HI children who passed an auditory discrimination task; for the sentence repetition tasks, we selected children who passed a screening task of simple sentence repetition without lip-reading; this made sure that they could perceive the words in the tests, so that we could test their grammatical abilities. The results clearly showed that most of the participants with HI had considerable difficulties in the comprehension and repetition of sentences with syntactic movement: they had significant difficulties understanding object relatives, Wh-questions, and topicalized sentences, and in the repetition of object who and which questions and subject relatives, as well as in sentences with verb movement to second sentential position. Repetition of passives was only problematic for some children. Object relatives were still difficult at this age for both HI and hearing children. An additional important outcome of the study is that not all sentence structures are impaired

  2. “Trait” and “state” aspects of fixation disparity during reading

    OpenAIRE

    Jainta, Stephanie; Jaschinski, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    In our study, 14 subjects read 60 sentences from the Potsdam Sentence Corpus twice (viewing distance: 60 cm), while eye movements were measured with the EyeLink II. We analyzed fixation disparities for complete sentence replications (N=388). After subtracting the average fixation disparity of each sentence from each observation (which gave the “state” fixation disparity), 99% of all remaining fixation disparities were aligned, i.e. smaller than one character width (20 min arc) – depending mos...

  3. Monocular and binocular reading performance in subjects with normal binocular vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Jan; Pansell, Tony; Ygge, Jan; Seimyr, Gustaf Öqvist

    2014-07-01

    It is well known that problems with binocular vision can cause issues for reading; less known is to what extent binocular vision improves reading performance. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of binocularity by directly comparing monocular and binocular reading in subjects with typical reading skills and normal binocular vision. A secondary purpose was to assess any asymmetry in monocular performance and its association with the sighting dominant eye. In a balanced repeated measures experiment, 18 subjects read paragraphs of text under monocular and binocular conditions. All subjects went through an optometric examination before inclusion. Reading speed and eye movements were recorded with an eye tracker. The mean difference in reading speed (2.1 per cent) between monocular (dominant and non-dominant eye averaged) and binocular reading speed was not significant. A significant difference in reading speed was found between binocular and the non-dominant eye, as determined by the far sighting test (p = 0.03). Monocular reading showed significantly increased (8.9 per cent) fixation duration (p binocular vision, there is no marked enhancement in reading performance by binocular vision when reading paragraphs of text. Furthermore, the monocular reading performance appears to be close to equal and any small differences in performance appear not to be strongly associated with ocular dominance. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2014 Optometrists Association Australia.

  4. Rape sentencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ó Cathaoir, Katharina Eva

    This handbook conducts an analysis of the sentences imposed for rape by Irish courts. Part I examines The People (DPP) v. WD [2007] IEHC 310 by outlining the salient points of the decision, in particular the separation of rape sentences into categories of punishments. The mitigating and aggravati...... factors are also laid out. Part II analyses recent sentences for rape since 2007. All reported Court of Criminal Appeal (CCA) cases post The People (DPP) v. WD are included as well as a survey of two years of Irish Times reports (covering the period November 2010 to November 2012)....

  5. Reading in schizophrenic subjects and their nonsymptomatic first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Eryl O; Proudlock, Frank A; Martin, Kate; Reveley, Michael A; Al-Uzri, Mohammed; Gottlob, Irene

    2013-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated eye movement abnormalities during smooth pursuit and antisaccadic tasks in schizophrenia. However, eye movements have not been investigated during reading. The purpose of this study was to determine whether schizophrenic subjects and their nonsymptomatic first-degree relatives show eye movement abnormalities during reading. Reading rate, number of saccades per line, amplitudes of saccades, percentage regressions (reverse saccades), and fixation durations were measured using an eye tracker (EyeLink, SensoMotoric Instruments, Germany) in 38 schizophrenic volunteers, 14 nonaffected first-degree relatives, and 57 control volunteers matched for age and National Adult Reading Test scores. Parameters were examined when volunteers read full pages of text and text was limited to progressively smaller viewing areas around the point of fixation using a gaze-contingent window. Schizophrenic volunteers showed significantly slower reading rates (P = .004), increase in total number of saccades (P ≤ .001), and a decrease in saccadic amplitude (P = .025) while reading. Relatives showed a significant increase in total number of saccades (P = .013) and decrease in saccadic amplitude (P = .020). Limitation of parafoveal information by reducing the amount of visible characters did not change the reading rate of schizophrenics but controls showed a significant decrease in reading rate with reduced parafoveal information (P reading of schizophrenic volunteers and their first-degree relatives suggest that visual integration of foveal and parafoveal information may be reduced in schizophrenia. Reading abnormalities in relatives suggest a genetic influence in reading ability in schizophrenia and rule out confounding effects of medication.

  6. Computational principles of working memory in sentence comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Richard L; Vasishth, Shravan; Van Dyke, Julie A

    2006-10-01

    Understanding a sentence requires a working memory of the partial products of comprehension, so that linguistic relations between temporally distal parts of the sentence can be rapidly computed. We describe an emerging theoretical framework for this working memory system that incorporates several independently motivated principles of memory: a sharply limited attentional focus, rapid retrieval of item (but not order) information subject to interference from similar items, and activation decay (forgetting over time). A computational model embodying these principles provides an explanation of the functional capacities and severe limitations of human processing, as well as accounts of reading times. The broad implication is that the detailed nature of cross-linguistic sentence processing emerges from the interaction of general principles of human memory with the specialized task of language comprehension.

  7. Neural Correlates of Processing Syntactic, Semantic, and Thematic Relationships in Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperberg, Gina R.; Caplan, David; Sitnikova, Tatiana; Eddy, Marianna; Holcomb, Phillip J.

    2006-01-01

    Event-related potentials were measured as subjects read sentences presented word by word. A small N400 and a robust P600 effect were elicited by verbs that assigned the thematic role of Agent to their preceding noun-phrase argument when this argument was inanimate in nature. The amplitude of the P600, but not the N400, was modulated by the…

  8. Development of the Portuguese version of a standardized reading test: the Radner-Coimbra Charts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Martins Rosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To develop 27 short sentence optotypes for the Portuguese version of the Radner Reading Charts. Methods: Thirty-four Portuguese sentences were constructed following the concept of the Radner Reading Charts to obtain highly comparable sentences in terms of lexical difficulty, syntactical complexity, word length, number of syllables, and position of words. A long text (106 words at the 5th grade reading level was also tested to assess the validity of the reading speeds obtained with the short sentences. The short sentences and long text were tested in 50 volunteers with similar educational backgrounds (mean age 30.98 years ± 6.99 years, range 19-47 years. Reading speeds were measured with a stop-watch and reported as words per minute (wpm. The reading time for each of the short sentences to be selected for the chart was defined as falling within the range of the mean ± 0.40 × standard deviation (SD. Results: The overall mean reading speed for each of the short sentences was 235.43 ± 36.39 wpm. The 27 sentences with a mean between 220.8 and 250.0 wpm (overall mean ± 0.40 × SD were selected for construction of the reading charts. The mean reading speed for the long text was 212.42 ± 26.20 wpm. Correlation between the selected short sentences and long text was high (r =0.86. Reliability analysis yielded an overall Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.97. Conclusions: The 27 short Portuguese sentences were highly comparable in terms of syntactical structure, number, position and length of words, lexical difficulty, and reading length. This reading test can overcome the limitations of the current tests for homogeneity and comparability, reducing subjectivity in the evaluation of the functional outcomes of medical and surgical ophthalmologic treatments.

  9. Development of the Portuguese version of a standardized reading test: the Radner-Coimbra Charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Andreia Martins; Farinha, Cláudia Louro; Radner, Wolfgang; Diendorfer, Gabriela; Loureiro, Maria Fátima; Murta, Joaquim Neto

    2016-01-01

    To develop 27 short sentence optotypes for the Portuguese version of the Radner Reading Charts. Thirty-four Portuguese sentences were constructed following the concept of the Radner Reading Charts to obtain highly comparable sentences in terms of lexical difficulty, syntactical complexity, word length, number of syllables, and position of words. A long text (106 words) at the 5th grade reading level was also tested to assess the validity of the reading speeds obtained with the short sentences. The short sentences and long text were tested in 50 volunteers with similar educational backgrounds (mean age 30.98 years ± 6.99 years, range 19-47 years). Reading speeds were measured with a stop-watch and reported as words per minute (wpm). The reading time for each of the short sentences to be selected for the chart was defined as falling within the range of the mean ± 0.40 × standard deviation (SD). The overall mean reading speed for each of the short sentences was 235.43 ± 36.39 wpm. The 27 sentences with a mean between 220.8 and 250.0 wpm (overall mean ± 0.40 × SD) were selected for construction of the reading charts. The mean reading speed for the long text was 212.42 ± 26.20 wpm. Correlation between the selected short sentences and long text was high (r =0.86). Reliability analysis yielded an overall Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.97. The 27 short Portuguese sentences were highly comparable in terms of syntactical structure, number, position and length of words, lexical difficulty, and reading length. This reading test can overcome the limitations of the current tests for homogeneity and comparability, reducing subjectivity in the evaluation of the functional outcomes of medical and surgical ophthalmologic treatments.

  10. The role of assembled phonology in reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltheart, V; Avons, S E; Masterson, J; Laxon, V J

    1991-07-01

    The contribution of assembled phonology to phonological effects in reading comprehension was assessed. In Experiment 1, subjects judged the acceptability of sentences with regular, exception, and nonword homophone substitutions and orthographic controls. Significantly more errors occurred to sentences with regular-word homophones than to exception words, and error rates for nonword homophones were low and not significant. Experiment 2 showed that this was not due to differences in the sentence frames. In Experiment 3, the subjects judged as unacceptable those sentences containing an exception word that sounded correct when read according to spelling-to-sound rules. Significantly higher error rates occurred only for low-frequency exception words. Experiment 4 showed that task conditions affect semantic-categorization error rates for nonword homophones. These results indicate that both assembled and addressed phonology contribute to sentence and word comprehension, but the low error rate for nonwords suggests that an early lexical check may be applied.

  11. Phrase length matters: the interplay between implicit prosody and syntax in Korean "garden path" sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hyekyung; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2011-11-01

    In spoken language comprehension, syntactic parsing decisions interact with prosodic phrasing, which is directly affected by phrase length. Here we used ERPs to examine whether a similar effect holds for the on-line processing of written sentences during silent reading, as suggested by theories of "implicit prosody." Ambiguous Korean sentence beginnings with two distinct interpretations were manipulated by increasing the length of sentence-initial subject noun phrases (NPs). As expected, only long NPs triggered an additional prosodic boundary reflected by a closure positive shift (CPS) in ERPs. When sentence materials further downstream disambiguated the initially dispreferred interpretation, the resulting P600 component reflecting processing difficulties ("garden path" effects) was smaller in amplitude for sentences with long NPs. Interestingly, additional prosodic revisions required only for the short subject disambiguated condition-the delayed insertion of an implicit prosodic boundary after the subject NP-were reflected by a frontal P600-like positivity, which may be interpreted in terms of a delayed CPS brain response. These data suggest that the subvocally generated prosodic boundary after the long subject NP facilitated the recovery from a garden path, thus primarily supporting one of two competing theoretical frameworks on implicit prosody. Our results underline the prosodic nature of the cognitive processes underlying phrase length effects and contribute cross-linguistic evidence regarding the on-line use of implicit prosody for parsing decisions in silent reading.

  12. Do you hear the noise? The German matrix sentence test with a fixed noise level in subjects with normal hearing and hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardenga, Nina; Batsoulis, Cornelia; Wagener, Kirsten C; Brand, Thomas; Lenarz, Thomas; Maier, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between hearing loss and speech reception threshold (SRT) in a fixed noise condition using the German Oldenburg sentence test (OLSA). After training with two easily-audible lists of the OLSA, SRTs were determined monaurally with headphones at a fixed noise level of 65 dB SPL using a standard adaptive procedure, converging to 50% speech intelligibility. Data was obtained from 315 ears of 177 subjects with hearing losses ranging from -5 to 90 dB HL pure-tone average (PTA, 0.5, 1, 2, 3 kHz). Two domains were identified with a linear dependence of SRT on PTA. The SRT increased with a slope of 0.094 ± 0.006 dB SNR/dB HL (standard deviation (SD) of residuals = 1.17 dB) for PTAs hearing losses. With 65 dB SPL fixed noise presentation level the SRT is determined by listening in noise for PTAs < ∼47 dB HL, and above it is determined by listening in quiet.

  13. Design of short Italian sentences to assess near vision performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calossi, Antonio; Boccardo, Laura; Fossetti, Alessandro; Radner, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    To develop and validate 28 short Italian sentences for the construction of the Italian version of the Radner Reading Chart to simultaneously measure near visual acuity and reading speed. 41 sentences were constructed in Italian language, following the procedure defined by Radner, to obtain "sentence optotypes" with comparable structure and with the same lexical and grammatical difficulty. Sentences were statistically selected and used in 211 normal, non-presbyopic, native Italian-speaking persons. The most equally matched sentences in terms of reading speed and number of reading errors were selected. To assess the validity of the reading speed results obtained with the 28 selected short sentences, we compared the reading speed and reading errors with the average obtained by reading two long 4th-grade paragraphs (97 and 90 words) under the same conditions. The overall mean reading speed of the tested persons was 189±26wpm. The 28 sentences more similar in terms of reading times were selected, achieving a coefficient of variation (the relative SD) of 2.2%. The reliability analyses yielded an overall Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.98. The correlation between the short sentences and the long paragraph was high (r=0.85, P<0.0001). The 28 short single Italian sentences optotypes were highly comparable in syntactical structure, number, position, and length of words, lexical difficulty, and reading length. The resulting Italian Radner Reading Chart is precise (high consistency) and practical (short sentences) and therefore useful for research and clinical practice to simultaneously measure near reading acuity and reading speed. Copyright © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Does silent reading involve articulation? Evidence from tongue twisters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, L R; Haber, R N

    1982-01-01

    To demonstrate an interfering effect of subvocal articulation on otherwise silent reading, college-student subjects were asked to repeatedly read, either silently or aloud, both tongue-twister sentences and control sentences matched for syntactic complexity, syllable count, and sentential stress pattern. A technique was developed to measure the amount of time needed for each repetition of a sentence whether done silently or aloud. A significant difference in reading time for tongue twisters as compared to their matched controls was found for both silent as well as out-loud reading. A variety of different kinds of articulatory errors occurred in the oral repetitions, and the number of such errors was highly correlated with oral reading time. While errors could not be measured in silent reading, this correlation suggested that comparable articulatory disturbances accounted for the slower time to silently repeat tongue twisters.

  15. The Influence of Psychophysiological Variables on Aged Subjects' Functional Reading Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, Terry

    A study investigated the effects of selected psychophysiological factors known to affect cognitive functioning on the reading achievement of older adults. The subjects, 34 noninstitutionalized adults ranging in age from 50 to 88 years, completed measures of (1) self-reported mental and physical health, (2) nonverbal intelligence, (3) reading…

  16. The Role of Reading Comprehension in Large-Scale Subject-Matter Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed with the overall goal of understanding how difficulties in reading comprehension are associated with early adolescents' performance in large-scale assessments in subject domains including science and civic-related social studies. The current study extended previous research by taking a cognition-centered approach based on…

  17. Device for improving quantification of reading acuity and reading speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexl, Alois K; Schlögel, Horst; Wolfbauer, Michael; Grabner, Günther

    2010-09-01

    To present a new device, the Salzburg Reading Desk (SRD), for the standardized testing of reading acuity and reading speed at a subjectively convenient reading distance (best distance). First, in a systematic experimental setup, testing for validity and reliability was performed at 450 simulated reading distances (90 different test situations, each repeated 5 times) between 16 and 70 cm. The distance read-outs by the SRD software were correlated to the distances measured with a meter ruler. Second, reading distance and reading speed of 27 naturally emmetropic and presbyopic patients were evaluated using the log-scaled Radner Reading Charts implemented in the SRD. In the experimental setup, an overall mean difference of the SRD distance read-out-compared to a standard distance measurement with a meter ruler-of 0.08±0.13 cm was observed. In the presbyopic patients, overall mean reading distance was 49.74±4.43 cm. Patients were able to read with their own subjectively convenient reading distance. A constant mean reading speed of sentences with bigger typeface (between 152.4±22.6 words/minute [wpm] and 157.3±15.8 wpm) was found, but reading speed gradually diminished over time when reading sentences with smaller typeface. The SRD seems to be a valid and reliable device for testing reading acuity at the best reading distance in an experimental setup as well as in clinical use in presbyopic patients. The SRD may be used whenever a detailed comparison of different methods for correcting presbyopia is required. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Revisiting the Scrambling Complexity Hypothesis in Sentence Processing: A Self-Paced Reading Study on Anomaly Detection and Scrambling in Hindi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ramesh K.; Pandey, Aparna; Srinivasan, Narayanan

    2011-01-01

    The scrambling complexity hypothesis based on working memory or locality accounts as well as syntactic accounts have proposed that processing a scrambled structure is difficult. However, the locus of this difficulty in sentence processing remains debatable. Several studies on multiple languages have explored the effect of scrambling on sentence…

  19. Encoding and Retrieval Interference in Sentence Comprehension: Evidence from Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villata, Sandra; Tabor, Whitney; Franck, Julie

    2018-01-01

    Long-distance verb-argument dependencies generally require the integration of a fronted argument when the verb is encountered for sentence interpretation. Under a parsing model that handles long-distance dependencies through a cue-based retrieval mechanism, retrieval is hampered when retrieval cues also resonate with non-target elements (retrieval interference). However, similarity-based interference may also stem from interference arising during the encoding of elements in memory (encoding interference), an effect that is not directly accountable for by a cue-based retrieval mechanism. Although encoding and retrieval interference are clearly distinct at the theoretical level, it is difficult to disentangle the two on empirical grounds, since encoding interference may also manifest at the retrieval region. We report two self-paced reading experiments aimed at teasing apart the role of each component in gender and number subject-verb agreement in Italian and English object relative clauses. In Italian, the verb does not agree in gender with the subject, thus providing no cue for retrieval. In English, although present tense verbs agree in number with the subject, past tense verbs do not, allowing us to test the role of number as a retrieval cue within the same language. Results from both experiments converge, showing similarity-based interference at encoding, and some evidence for an effect at retrieval. After having pointed out the non-negligible role of encoding in sentence comprehension, and noting that Lewis and Vasishth's (2005) ACT-R model of sentence processing, the most fully developed cue-based retrieval approach to sentence processing does not predict encoding effects, we propose an augmentation of this model that predicts these effects. We then also propose a self-organizing sentence processing model (SOSP), which has the advantage of accounting for retrieval and encoding interference with a single mechanism.

  20. Encoding and Retrieval Interference in Sentence Comprehension: Evidence from Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Villata

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-distance verb-argument dependencies generally require the integration of a fronted argument when the verb is encountered for sentence interpretation. Under a parsing model that handles long-distance dependencies through a cue-based retrieval mechanism, retrieval is hampered when retrieval cues also resonate with non-target elements (retrieval interference. However, similarity-based interference may also stem from interference arising during the encoding of elements in memory (encoding interference, an effect that is not directly accountable for by a cue-based retrieval mechanism. Although encoding and retrieval interference are clearly distinct at the theoretical level, it is difficult to disentangle the two on empirical grounds, since encoding interference may also manifest at the retrieval region. We report two self-paced reading experiments aimed at teasing apart the role of each component in gender and number subject-verb agreement in Italian and English object relative clauses. In Italian, the verb does not agree in gender with the subject, thus providing no cue for retrieval. In English, although present tense verbs agree in number with the subject, past tense verbs do not, allowing us to test the role of number as a retrieval cue within the same language. Results from both experiments converge, showing similarity-based interference at encoding, and some evidence for an effect at retrieval. After having pointed out the non-negligible role of encoding in sentence comprehension, and noting that Lewis and Vasishth’s (2005 ACT-R model of sentence processing, the most fully developed cue-based retrieval approach to sentence processing does not predict encoding effects, we propose an augmentation of this model that predicts these effects. We then also propose a self-organizing sentence processing model (SOSP, which has the advantage of accounting for retrieval and encoding interference with a single mechanism.

  1. Oral reading fluency analysis in patients with Alzheimer disease and asymptomatic control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, F; Meilán, J J G; García-Sevilla, J; Carro, J; Arana, J M

    2013-01-01

    Many studies highlight that an impaired ability to communicate is one of the key clinical features of Alzheimer disease (AD). To study temporal organisation of speech in an oral reading task in patients with AD and in matched healthy controls using a semi-automatic method, and evaluate that method's ability to discriminate between the 2 groups. A test with an oral reading task was administered to 70 subjects, comprising 35 AD patients and 35 controls. Before speech samples were recorded, participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests. There were no differences between groups with regard to age, sex, or educational level. All of the study variables showed impairment in the AD group. According to the results, AD patients' oral reading was marked by reduced speech and articulation rates, low effectiveness of phonation time, and increases in the number and proportion of pauses. Signal processing algorithms applied to reading fluency recordings were shown to be capable of differentiating between AD patients and controls with an accuracy of 80% (specificity 74.2%, sensitivity 77.1%) based on speech rate. Analysis of oral reading fluency may be useful as a tool for the objective study and quantification of speech deficits in AD. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. The interpupillary distance in adult Caucasian subjects, with reference to 'readymade' reading spectacle centration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointer, Jonathan S

    2012-07-01

    The magnitude of the far interpupillary distance (FIPD) has recognized significance within and beyond clinical optometry. Quantitative information regarding the lesser-reported near parameter (NIPD) would similarly be of interest, and could be of relevance with regard to the visual comfort obtained with 'readymade' reading spectacles. Mensuration statistics relating to the FIPD and NIPD are presented, as collated from the spectacle dispensing records of n = 1354 healthy Caucasian presbyopic subjects. The FIPD data were partitioned across 4 age bands (by decade, 41-80 years of age): the NIPD data were distributed across seven nominal reading powers (in 0.50 D steps, +1.00 to +4.00 D). The results of these analyses are considered here, along with their potential application. Consistent gender (male > female) and classification (far > near) differences in IPD (both of approximately 3 mm) were confirmed throughout these data. The magnitude of the adult FIPD is in accord with previously published results; this dimension is now supplemented by NIPD values, whose relationship with total near power is also described. This new anthropometric survey indicates that inter- and intra-gender interocular facial measurement stability is a characteristic of presbyopic subjects. It is suggested that across the anticipated range of age and total reading power requirement of Caucasian (White Northern European) wearers of 'readymade' reading spectacles, adoption of a standard optical centration distance of 61 mm would be universally appropriate. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2012 The College of Optometrists.

  3. A role for left inferior frontal and posterior superior temporal cortex in extracting a syntactic tree from a sentence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Dehaene, Stanislas; Pallier, Christophe

    2016-02-01

    On reading the sentence "the kids who exhausted their parents slept", how do we decide that it is the kids who slept and not the parents? The present behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study explored the processes underlying the extraction of syntactically organized information from sentences. Participants were presented with sentences whose syntactic complexity was manipulated using either a center-embedded or an adjunct structure. The goal was to vary separately the sentence syntactic structure and the linear distance between the main verb and its subject. Each sentence was followed by a short subject + verb probe, and the participants had to check whether or not it matched a proposition expressed in the sentence. Behavioral and fMRI data showed a significant cost and enhanced activity within left inferior frontal and posterior superior temporal cortex whenever participants processed center-embedded sentences, which required extracting a nontrivial subtree formed by nonadjacent words. This syntactic complexity effect was not observed during online sentence processing but rather during the processing of the probe and only when the verification could not rely on a superficial lexical analysis. Moreover, the manipulation of linear distance affected performance and brain activity mainly when the sentences did not have a center-embedded structure. We did not find evidence suggesting that tree-extraction, a fundamental operation of a core syntax network, takes place during sentence comprehension. The present finding showed that the syntactic complexity effect, which is an outcome of this operation, became detectable later on, whenever we need to extract structural information not obvious in the superficial sequence of words. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Inter-subject variability in the use of two different neuronal networks for reading aloud familiar words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghier, M L; Lee, H L; Schofield, T; Ellis, C L; Price, C J

    2008-09-01

    Cognitive models of reading predict that high frequency regular words can be read in more than one way. We investigated this hypothesis using functional MRI and covariance analysis in 43 healthy skilled readers. Our results dissociated two sets of regions that were differentially engaged across subjects who were reading the same familiar words. Some subjects showed more activation in left inferior frontal and anterior occipito-temporal regions while other subjects showed more activation in right inferior parietal and left posterior occipito-temporal regions. To explore the behavioural correlates of these systems, we measured the difference between reading speed for irregularly spelled words relative to pseudowords outside the scanner in fifteen of our subjects and correlated this measure with fMRI activation for reading familiar words. The faster the lexical reading the greater the activation in left posterior occipito-temporal and right inferior parietal regions. Conversely, the slower the lexical reading the greater the activation in left anterior occipito-temporal and left ventral inferior frontal regions. Thus, the double dissociation in irregular and pseudoword reading behaviour predicted the double dissociation in neuronal activation for reading familiar words. We discuss the implications of these results which may be important for understanding how reading is learnt in childhood or re-learnt following brain damage in adulthood.

  5. Verbal Ability and the Processing of Scientific Text with Seductive Detail Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrudden, Matthew T.; Corkill, Alice J.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the influence of seductive detail sentences (i.e., highly interesting, yet unimportant sentences) on reading time and recall for readers with higher and lower verbal ability. College students (n = 81) read a 967-word text that included seductive detail sentences. Participants with higher and lower verbal ability displayed similar…

  6. Subjectively homogeneous noise over written text as a tool to investigate the perceptual mechanisms involved in reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Frédéric J A M; Gosselin, Frédéric; Arguin, Martin

    2013-09-24

    In an effort to understand the factors influencing text legibility in natural reading, we adapted the visual spread method (Poirier, Gosselin, & Arguin, 2008) to natural text. Stimuli were sentences conforming to MNREAD standards (Legge, Ross, Luebker, & LaMay 1989) mixed with dynamic probabilistic noise-i.e., each pixel in the image is associated with a probability that its polarity is inverted on a given refresh cycle of the display screen. Noise level varied continuously over the image as initially determined by Gaussian-filtered noise. Participants adjusted noise levels in the text using the mouse until the text appeared homogenously noisy. We assume that participants increased (or decreased) noise at locations where stimulus features were easy (or difficult) to encode and thus that local noise settings correlate with legibility. Data from 11 participants and 30 sentences revealed interesting effects, demonstrating the validity of the method for assessing the impact of various factors on noise resistance in natural text. For example, participants increased noise over (a) spaces and adjacent letters, (b) the second half of words, (c) words with more orthographic neighbors but fewer phonological neighbors, (d) less useful word types, (e) less complex letters, and (f) diagnostic letters (a novel metric). Our observations also offer significant insights on constraints acting upon letter identification as well as on higher-level processes that are involved in reading.

  7. The two sides of sensory-cognitive interactions: effects of age, hearing acuity, and working memory span on sentence comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee eDeCaro

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Reduced hearing acuity is among the most prevalent of chronic medical conditions among older adults. An experiment is reported in which comprehension of spoken sentences was tested for older adults with good hearing acuity or with a mild-to-moderate hearing loss, and young adults with age-normal hearing. Comprehension was measured by participants’ ability to determine of the agent of an action in sentences that expressed this relation with a syntactically less complex subject-relative construction or a syntactically more complex object-relative construction. Agency determination was further challenged by inserting a prepositional phrase into sentences between the person performing an action and the action being performed. As a control, prepositional phrases of equivalent length were also inserted into sentences in a non-disruptive position. Effects on sentence comprehension of age, hearing acuity, prepositional phrase placement and sound level of stimulus presentations appeared only for comprehension of sentences with the more syntactically complex object-relative structures. Working memory as tested by reading span scores accounted for a significant amount of the variance in comprehension accuracy. Once working memory capacity and hearing acuity were taken into account, chronological age among the older adults contributed no further variance to comprehension accuracy. Results are discussed in terms of the positive and negative effects of sensory-cognitive interactions in comprehension of spoken sentences and lend support to a framework in which domain-general executive resources, notably verbal working memory, play a role in both linguistic and perceptual processing.

  8. IURead: a new computer-based reading test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Renfeng; Bradley, Arthur

    2015-09-01

    To develop a computer-based single sentence reading test especially designed for clinical research enabling multiple repeat trials without reusing the same sentences. We initially developed 422 sentences, with an average of 60 characters and 12 words. Presentation controls were improved by employing computer-based testing and the oral reading was recorded by visual inspection of digital audio recordings. Variability in reading speed of normally sighted adults between sentences, between charts, between subjects, between formats, and between display devices was quantified. The impact of display size and pixel resolution on test geometry was assessed, and the impact of reduced retinal image quality and retinal illuminance were compared for reading and standard letter acuities. Eleven visually normal subjects (age: 18-60 years) participated in this study. Stopwatch timing of sentences reliably underestimated reading times by about 0.3 s, and exhibited coefficients of repeatability 17 times larger than those estimated from visual inspection of digital recordings. A slight relaxing of the lexical content constraints had no effect on reading speed; neither did sentence format (single vs three lines) or display size or distance. Within subject standard deviations of reading speed for different sentences were small (between 6% and 9% of the mean speed) requiring only small samples sizes to achieve typical statistical reliability and power when comparing conditions within individual subjects. The greater variability associated with stopwatch timing necessitates larger sample sizes. As defocus and light level were varied, reading acuity and standard letter acuity were highly correlated (r(2)  = 0.99), and reading acuity was slightly better. A computer-based IURead reading test provides a useful reading speed and reading acuity tool for clinical research involving multiple conditions and repeat testing of individual subjects. Ready to use IURead files for use with a

  9. DISGNOSIS BABEL AND SCHOOL INCLUSION OF SUBJECTS WITH AUTISM AND CHILD PSYCHOSIS: ACTS OF A READING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Vasques

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This text addresses the schooling of children and adolescents with serious developmental impairment or with atypical structuring, such as autism or psychosis. That field is vast and complex, the perspective adopted builds on Freud-lacanian psychoanalysis, philosophical-hermeneutics, special education and inclusive processes. Specifically, a reflection is posed on the place the diagnosis has in the construction of (impossibilities within school based on the analysis of academic and scientific production on the issue for the past 28 years. The proposition is that diagnosis in central in the establishment of educational pathways for such subjects. Diagnosis is often identified as an act of unveiling and/or decoding. From another perspective, it is defended that the relationship diagnosis-schooling implies the construction of a reading, the invention of possibilities. As it is not possible to determine the veracity of diverse theories, a schooling process includes constitutive unknowing. As there is no path pre-established guaranteed and anticipated bythe diagnosis, teachers and school are responsible for their choices aiming their students school experience. Thus, the basis of their action is ethics, not a method or technique. As a metaphor of the interpretative work. I present the image of a library that is constructed, offers, inscribes and subscribes to the meeting between text and reader. Placing the library as a privileged space of such argumentation implies in taking language and reading as the center of discussions. It is a displacement of the focus of attention of the subject with autism or psychosis to the teacher, the other, who reads, interprets and builds schooling (inpossibilities. Key words: Autism; Child psychosis; Diagnosis; School inclusion.

  10. Subjective impressions do not mirror online reading effort: concurrent EEG-eyetracking evidence from the reading of books and digital media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Kretzschmar

    Full Text Available In the rapidly changing circumstances of our increasingly digital world, reading is also becoming an increasingly digital experience: electronic books (e-books are now outselling print books in the United States and the United Kingdom. Nevertheless, many readers still view e-books as less readable than print books. The present study thus used combined EEG and eyetracking measures in order to test whether reading from digital media requires higher cognitive effort than reading conventional books. Young and elderly adults read short texts on three different reading devices: a paper page, an e-reader and a tablet computer and answered comprehension questions about them while their eye movements and EEG were recorded. The results of a debriefing questionnaire replicated previous findings in that participants overwhelmingly chose the paper page over the two electronic devices as their preferred reading medium. Online measures, by contrast, showed shorter mean fixation durations and lower EEG theta band voltage density--known to covary with memory encoding and retrieval--for the older adults when reading from a tablet computer in comparison to the other two devices. Young adults showed comparable fixation durations and theta activity for all three devices. Comprehension accuracy did not differ across the three media for either group. We argue that these results can be explained in terms of the better text discriminability (higher contrast produced by the backlit display of the tablet computer. Contrast sensitivity decreases with age and degraded contrast conditions lead to longer reading times, thus supporting the conclusion that older readers may benefit particularly from the enhanced contrast of the tablet. Our findings thus indicate that people's subjective evaluation of digital reading media must be dissociated from the cognitive and neural effort expended in online information processing while reading from such devices.

  11. Subjective impressions do not mirror online reading effort: concurrent EEG-eyetracking evidence from the reading of books and digital media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretzschmar, Franziska; Pleimling, Dominique; Hosemann, Jana; Füssel, Stephan; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    In the rapidly changing circumstances of our increasingly digital world, reading is also becoming an increasingly digital experience: electronic books (e-books) are now outselling print books in the United States and the United Kingdom. Nevertheless, many readers still view e-books as less readable than print books. The present study thus used combined EEG and eyetracking measures in order to test whether reading from digital media requires higher cognitive effort than reading conventional books. Young and elderly adults read short texts on three different reading devices: a paper page, an e-reader and a tablet computer and answered comprehension questions about them while their eye movements and EEG were recorded. The results of a debriefing questionnaire replicated previous findings in that participants overwhelmingly chose the paper page over the two electronic devices as their preferred reading medium. Online measures, by contrast, showed shorter mean fixation durations and lower EEG theta band voltage density--known to covary with memory encoding and retrieval--for the older adults when reading from a tablet computer in comparison to the other two devices. Young adults showed comparable fixation durations and theta activity for all three devices. Comprehension accuracy did not differ across the three media for either group. We argue that these results can be explained in terms of the better text discriminability (higher contrast) produced by the backlit display of the tablet computer. Contrast sensitivity decreases with age and degraded contrast conditions lead to longer reading times, thus supporting the conclusion that older readers may benefit particularly from the enhanced contrast of the tablet. Our findings thus indicate that people's subjective evaluation of digital reading media must be dissociated from the cognitive and neural effort expended in online information processing while reading from such devices.

  12. Sentence verification and event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, J; Miyata, Y; Yagi, A

    1987-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the decision process affected scalp recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs). ERPs were recorded while 10 subjects evaluated the veracity of four types of Japanese sentences; true-affirmative (TA), true-negative (TN), false-affirmative (FA), and false-negative (FN). Each sentence was presented visually, one word at a time in the following order: Subject (S); object (O); and verb (V). This order of words, which is normal in Japanese grammar, allowed the ERP waveforms associated with semantic mismatch between the S and O occurring in the middle of the sentence to be separated from those elicited by the decision concerning the sentence's truth or falsity occurring at the end of the sentence. Semantic mismatch was associated with a negative component (N310) following the O-word. In addition, P3s were elicited by sentence final words. Affirmative sentences elicited larger P3s than did negative sentences, and true sentences elicited earlier P3s than did false sentences. P3s were smaller in amplitude when they followed a mismatch between the S and O words. The result suggested that by using Japanese sentences, it may be possible to examine sentence-level rather than word-level processes.

  13. Focal F0 peak shape and sentence mode in Swedish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert; Buanzur, Tuarik C.; Niebuhr, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Shape characteristics of rising-falling accentual F0 peaks of Stockholm Swedish Accent I words in narrow focus are studied in a corpus of 287 read sentences. The corpus includes statements and three types of polar questions. Results reveal a clear effect of sentence mode on the shape of the accen...

  14. Pragmatic inferences modulate N400 during sentence comprehension: evidence from picture-sentence verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Lamar; Politzer-Ahles, Stephen; Gibson, Linzi; Minai, Utako; Fiorentino, Robert

    2013-02-08

    The present study examines the online realization of pragmatic meaning using event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants read sentences including the English quantifier some, which has both a semantic meaning (at least one) and a pragmatic meaning (not all). Unlike previous ERP studies of this phenomenon, sentences in the current study were evaluated not in terms of their truth with respect to the real world, but in terms of their consistency with a picture presented before the sentence. Sentences (such as "The boy cut some of the steaks in this story") were constructed such that either (1) both the semantic and pragmatic interpretations were true with respect to the preceding picture (when the boy in fact cut some but not all of the steaks); (2) neither interpretation was true (when the boy in fact cut none of the steaks); or (3) the semantic interpretation was true but the pragmatic interpretation false (when the boy in fact cut all of the steaks). ERPs at the object word, which determined whether the sentence was consistent with the story, showed the largest N400 effect for objects that made the sentence false, whereas they showed an intermediate effect for objects that made the sentence false under the pragmatic interpretation but true under the semantic interpretation. The results suggest that this pragmatic aspect of meaning is computed online and integrated into the sentence model rapidly enough to influence comprehension of later words. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Different alternative splicing patterns are subject to opposite selection pressure for protein reading frame preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Trees-Juen

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative splicing (AS has been regarded capable of altering selection pressure on protein subsequences. Particularly, the frequency of reading frame preservation (FRFP, as a measure of selection pressure, has been reported to be higher in alternatively spliced exons (ASEs than in constitutively spliced exons (CSEs. However, recently it has been reported that different ASE types – simple and complex ASEs – may be subject to opposite selection forces. Therefore, it is necessary to re-evaluate the evolutionary effects of such splicing patterns on frame preservation. Results Here we show that simple and complex ASEs, respectively, have higher and lower FRFPs than CSEs. Since complex ASEs may alter the ends of their flanking exons, the selection pressure on frame preservation is likely relaxed in this ASE type. Furthermore, conservation of the ASE/CSE splicing pattern increases the FRFPs of simple ASEs but decreases those of complex ASEs. Contrary to the well-recognized concept of strong selection pressure on conserved ASEs for protein reading frame preservation, our results show that conserved complex ASEs are relaxed from such pressure and the frame-disrupting effect caused by the insertion of complex ASEs can be offset by compensatory changes in their flanking exons. Conclusion In this study, we find that simple and complex ASEs undergo opposite selection pressure for protein reading frame preservation, with CSEs in-between. Simple ASEs have much higher FRFPs than complex ones. We further find that the FRFPs of complex ASEs coupled with flanking exons are close to those of simple ASEs, indicating that neighboring exons of an ASE may evolve in a coordinated way to avoid protein dysfunction. Therefore, we suggest that evolutionary analyses of AS should take into consideration the effects of different splicing patterns and the joint effects of multiple AS events.

  16. Comparative Studies on the Roles of Linguistic Knowledge and Sentence Processing Speed in L2 Listening and Reading Comprehension in an EFL Tertiary Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Eunjou

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the relative contributions of vocabulary knowledge, grammar knowledge, and processing speed to second language listening and reading comprehension. Seventy-five Korean university students participated in the study. Results showed the three tested components had a significant portion of shared variance in explaining…

  17. Reading virtual slide using web viewers: results of subjective experience with three different solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Marcial García; Gallardo, Antonio J; González, Lucía; Peces, Carlos; Murillo, Cristina; González, Jesús; Sacristán, Jose

    2008-07-15

    Virtual slides are viewed using interactive software that enables the user to simulate the behaviour of a conventional optical microscope, like adjusting magnifications and navigating to any portion of the image. Nowadays, information about the performance and features of web-based solutions for reading slides in real environments is still scarce. The objective of this study is analyzing the subjective experience of pathologists with virtual slides, comparing the time needed to read slides using different web viewers and different network connections. Eight slides were randomly selected (4 biopsies and 2 cytologies) from Hospital General de Ciudad Real (HGCR) archives. Three different virtual slide web-viewing solutions were analyzed: Aperio web server, Olympus NetImage Server, and Aurora mScope. Five pathologists studied to time needed to access images of each virtual slide, selecting a panoramic view, 10 low magnification fields, and 20 high magnification fields. Aperio viewer is very efficient in overview images. Aurora viewer is especially efficient in lower magnifications (10x). For larger magnifications (20x and 40x) no significant differences were found between different vendors. Olympus was found to be the most user-friendly interface. When comparing Internet with intranet connections, despite being slower, users also felt comfortable using virtual slides through Internet connection. Available web solutions for virtual slides have different advantages, mainly in functionalities and optimization for different magnifications. Pathologists should select the solutions adapted to their needs.

  18. The maze task: measuring forced incremental sentence processing time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Kenneth I; Guerrera, Christine; Elliot, Lisa

    2009-02-01

    The maze task is an online measure of sentence processing time that provides an alternative to the standard moving window version of self-paced reading. Rather than each word of the sentence being presented in succession, two words are presented at the same time, and the participant must choose which word is a grammatical continuation of the sentence. This procedure forces the reader into an incremental mode of processing in which each word must be fully integrated with the preceding context before the next word can be considered. Previous research with this technique has not considered whether it is sufficiently sensitive to syntactic complexity effects or to garden path effects. Four experiments are reported demonstrating that reliable differences in processing time for subject relatives and object relatives can be obtained, and that this technique generates garden path effects that correspond closely with the data from eyetracking experiments, but without the spillover effects that are sometimes obtained with eyetracking. It is also shown that the task is sensitive to word frequency effects, producing estimates well in excess of those found with eyetracking.

  19. Adaptive Sentence Boundary Disambiguation

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, D D; Palmer, David D.; Hearst, Marti A.

    1994-01-01

    Labeling of sentence boundaries is a necessary prerequisite for many natural language processing tasks, including part-of-speech tagging and sentence alignment. End-of-sentence punctuation marks are ambiguous; to disambiguate them most systems use brittle, special-purpose regular expression grammars and exception rules. As an alternative, we have developed an efficient, trainable algorithm that uses a lexicon with part-of-speech probabilities and a feed-forward neural network. After training for less than one minute, the method correctly labels over 98.5\\% of sentence boundaries in a corpus of over 27,000 sentence-boundary marks. We show the method to be efficient and easily adaptable to different text genres, including single-case texts.

  20. Subject oriented and problem based text materials as a subject of flexible foreign language reading in research projects

    OpenAIRE

    SEROVA TAMARA S.; PIPCHENKO ELENA L.

    2014-01-01

    The article introduces the academic research work of students within the competence based approach, the models of academic problem based research projects taken up as a means to develop flexible foreign language reading skills. The authors reveal selection principles and corpus didactic design of text materials in the form of a macrotext, hypertext, and video course.

  1. Oscillatory EEG dynamics underlying automatic chunking during sentence processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonhage, Corinna E; Meyer, Lars; Gruber, Thomas; Friederici, Angela D; Mueller, Jutta L

    2017-05-15

    Sentences are easier to remember than random word sequences, likely because linguistic regularities facilitate chunking of words into meaningful groups. The present electroencephalography study investigated the neural oscillations modulated by this so-called sentence superiority effect during the encoding and maintenance of sentence fragments versus word lists. We hypothesized a chunking-related modulation of neural processing during the encoding and retention of sentences (i.e., sentence fragments) as compared to word lists. Time-frequency analysis revealed a two-fold oscillatory pattern for the memorization of sentences: Sentence encoding was accompanied by higher delta amplitude (4Hz), originating both from regions processing syntax as well as semantics (bilateral superior/middle temporal regions and fusiform gyrus). Subsequent sentence retention was reflected in decreased theta (6Hz) and beta/gamma (27-32Hz) amplitude instead. Notably, whether participants simply read or properly memorized the sentences did not impact chunking-related activity during encoding. Therefore, we argue that the sentence superiority effect is grounded in highly automatized language processing mechanisms, which generate meaningful memory chunks irrespective of task demands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Phonemic Processes in Children's Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutchen, Deborah; Crain-Thoreson, Catherine

    1994-01-01

    Two experiments studied the role of phonemic information in children's comprehension during silent reading. A sentence acceptability task indicated that readers required more time to read and comprehend sentences with word-initial phonemes (the "tongue-twister effect") than control sentences. When the first task was added to a digit…

  3. THE FUNCTION OF SIMPLE SENTENCE BETWEEN ALBANIAN AND ENGLISH

    OpenAIRE

    Shkelqim Millaku

    2017-01-01

    In Albanian and English we have same kind of sentences (simple, compound or complex sentence). The major of elements or constituents that can be found in clauses are subject, predicate, object, complement etc. For Albanian and English most linguists agree on the needs to recognize at least the following word classes: noun, verb, adjective, preposition, adverb, determinative and conjunction. Each of these words classes is illustrated in the sentence below. The noun or noun phrase can be subjec...

  4. Reading and Listening in People with Aphasia: Effects of Syntactic Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeDe, Gayle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare on-line effects of syntactic complexity in written and spoken sentence comprehension in people with aphasia and non-brain-damaged adults. Method The participants in experiment one were non-brain damaged younger and older adults (n=20 per group). Ten people with aphasia participated in experiment two. In both experiments, the participants read and listened to sentences in self-paced reading and listening tasks. The experimental materials consisted of object cleft sentences (e.g., It was the girl who the boy hugged.) and subject cleft sentences (e.g., It was the boy who hugged the girl.). Results The predicted effects of syntactic complexity were observed in both experiments one and two: reading and listening times were longer for the verb in sentences with object compared to subject relative clauses. The non-brain-damaged controls showed exaggerated effects of syntactic complexity in reading compared to listening. People with aphasia did not show different modality effects from the non-brain-damaged participants. Conclusion Although effects of syntactic complexity were somewhat exaggerated in reading compared to listening, both people with aphasia and non-brain-damaged controls show similar effects in both modalities. PMID:23813204

  5. Prognostic value of reading-to-reading blood pressure variability over 24 hours in 8938 subjects from 11 populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine W; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan

    2010-01-01

    In previous studies, of which several were underpowered, the relation between cardiovascular outcome and blood pressure (BP) variability was inconsistent. We followed health outcomes in 8938 subjects (mean age: 53.0 years; 46.8% women) randomly recruited from 11 populations. At baseline, we asses...

  6. Words That Move Us. The Effects of Sentences on Body Sway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stins, John F; Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Hulzinga, Femke; Wenker, Eric; Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen

    2017-01-01

    According to the embodied cognition perspective, cognitive systems and perceptuo-motor systems are deeply intertwined and exert a causal effect on each other. A prediction following from this idea is that cognitive activity can result in subtle changes in observable movement. In one experiment, we tested whether reading various sentences resulted in changes in postural sway. Sentences symbolized various human activities involving high, low, or no physical effort. Dutch participants stood upright on a force plate, measuring the body center of pressure, while reading a succession of sentences. High physical effort sentences resulted in more postural sway (greater SD) than low physical effort sentences. This effect only showed up in medio-lateral sway but not anterio-posterior sway. This suggests that sentence comprehension was accompanied by subtle motoric activity, likely mirroring the various activities symbolized in the sentences. We conclude that semantic processing reaches the motor periphery, leading to increased postural activity.

  7. [Psychiatric treatment sentences.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevens, Hanne; Nordentoft, Merete; Agerbo, Esben

    2010-01-01

    and severity of crime into account. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using data from Statistics Denmark's national crime statistics, we have compared time-trends of SPT with time-trends of suspended and custodial sentences stratified by type of crime. RESULTS: We found that the rise in SPT is primarily attributable...... to violent offending, and that particularly assaults against public servants have contributed to the development. CONCLUSION: Regarding violent offences against private persons, the time-trends for SPT are parallel to the time-trends for suspended and custodial sentences, which may indicate that the same...

  8. Improving Sentence Writing Ability through Sentence-Combining Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddler, Bruce; Preschern, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Creating well constructed sentences is challenging for most writers. For less skilled writers, including writers with learning disabilities (LD), it can be even more difficult. These writers generally produce less syntactically complex sentences that contain more grammatical errors. They may also produce sentences that are shorter; have higher…

  9. A sentence to remember: instructed language switching in sentence production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declerck, Mathieu; Philipp, Andrea M

    2015-04-01

    In the current study, we set out to investigate the influence of a sentence context on language switching. The task required German-English bilinguals to produce responses based on an alternating language sequence (L1-L1-L2-L2- …) and concepts in a specific sequential order. The concept sequence was either a sentence which was syntactically correct in both languages (language-unspecific sentence), a sentence which was correct in just one language (language-specific sentence) or a sentence which was syntactically incorrect in both languages (scrambled sentence). No switch costs were observed in language-unspecific sentences. Consequently, switch costs were smaller in those sentences than in the language-specific or scrambled sentences. The language-specific and scrambled sentence did not differ with respect to switch costs. These results demonstrate an important role of sentence context for language switch costs and were interpreted in terms of language interference and preparation processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Processing of Irregular Polysemes in Sentence Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocher, Andreas; Foraker, Stephani; Koenig, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The degree to which meanings are related in memory affects ambiguous word processing. We examined irregular polysemes, which have related senses based on similar or shared features rather than a relational rule, like regular polysemy. We tested to what degree the related meanings of irregular polysemes ("wire") are represented with…

  11. Speaking of Sentences: Chunking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichman, Nanette

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author offers a new strategy for working with sentences in college composition that prompts students to access and apply their native grammatical abilities. The chunking strategy that she advocates is based on meaning and rests at a level of analysis that transcends varieties. It builds on the grammatical competence that…

  12. Making simple sentences hard: Verb bias effects in simple direct object sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael P.; Garnsey, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Constraint-based lexical models of language processing assume that readers resolve temporary ambiguities by relying on a variety of cues, including particular knowledge of how verbs combine with nouns. Previous experiments have demonstrated verb bias effects only in structurally complex sentences, and have been criticized on the grounds that such effects could be due to a rapid reanalysis stage in a two-stage modular processing system. In a self-paced reading experiment and an eyetracking experiment, we demonstrate verb bias effects in sentences with simple structures that should require no reanalyis, and thus provide evidence that the combinatorial properties of individual words influence the earliest stages of sentence comprehension. PMID:20160997

  13. From Utterance to Example Sentence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jette Hedegaard

    This poster will address some of the problems on excerption of example sentences for the online dictionary of Danish Sign Language (DTS) from a raw corpus of dialogues and monologues. In the Danish Sign Language Dictionary every meaning is illustrated by one or more sentences showing the sign...... in context. The goal of our project has been that every sentence should be taken from real language samples, but due to restriction on time and money we only managed to let approximately 50% of the sentences originate from real language samples. The remaining half of the sentences was constructed by deaf...... is to help the dictionary user to gain additional knowledge of a meaning of a sign, as well as to provide sentence constructions that can be adopted by the L2 learner. The process from the moment when a sentence has been excerpted from the corpus to the point when an example sentence is finally accepted...

  14. Phonological working memory and reading in test anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, M G; Eysenck, M W

    1996-05-01

    Texts were presented sentence by sentence (Experiment 1) or word by word (Experiment 2) at a fixed rate to subjects high or low in test anxiety, under various conditions: no interference, concurrent articulatory suppression, and concurrent irrelevant speech (presented auditorily). High-anxiety subjects produced overt articulation more frequently than low-anxiety subjects, especially in the irrelevant speech condition. The most salient finding was an interaction between anxiety and interference on comprehension performance: under word-by-word-but not under sentence-by-sentence-presentation, anxious subjects showed poorer comprehension than non-anxious subjects in both conditions known to interfere with the articulatory loop (i.e. articulatory suppression, and irrelevant speech), but equivalent comprehension in the no interference condition. These findings suggest (a) that the articulatory loop has a special compensatory role for anxious individuals in reading comprehension, and (b) that the importance of this auxiliary mechanism is enhanced when other strategies, such as regressive fixations and control of reading speed, cannot be used.

  15. Ocular position in sentence-picture comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, R D; Setley, M A; Lerman, J M

    1982-02-01

    If oculomotor activity in verifying orally presented sentences about pictures is important, then there ought to be an increase in such activity in the area of a picture in which a critical feature in the analysis is missing. If the process is purely cognitive, there ought not be greater activity in that area. 32 sentences combining such attributes as positive/negative, true/false, subject of sentence shown/not shown, "before"/"after," resulting in sentences such as, "Star isn't before square," were orally presented to 10 college-age students along with tachistoscopically presented pictures with either an object on the right or left. True/false reaction times were recorded as well as horizontal eye fixations for the time interval via an electromyograph and chart recorder. Mean eye-location/time indices indicated that some sentence types seemed to be analyzed predominantly visually and others predominantly cognitively. Results suggested that there is a need for the development of a combined visual imagery and cognitive model.

  16. Sentence structures with the connective verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ružić Vladislava

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper talks about specific sentence structures in contemporary Serbian language that are a transition between simple and complex sentences, since they contain two finite forms of the verbs (e.g. To je da poludiš; Smisao pravde leži u tome da krivci budu kažnjeni, that however are a functionally - semantically unique predicate only when occurring together. At the position of the second part of the predicate phrase, there is a clause with a subordinate conjunction as its semantic core. Some types of the connective verbs are described, which have a specific role to connect subject argument and its related content or to mark the content of the sentence with a specific modality.

  17. Sentence processing selectivity in Broca’s area: evident for structure but not syntactic movement

    OpenAIRE

    Rogalsky, Corianne; Almeida, Diogo; Sprouse, Jon; Hickok, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    The role of Broca’s area in sentence processing is hotly debated. Prominent hypotheses include that Broca’s area supports sentence comprehension via syntax-specific processes (“syntactic movement” in particular), hierarchical structure building or working memory. In the present fMRI study we adopt a within subject, across task approach using targeted sentence-level contrasts and non-sentential comparison tasks to address these hypotheses regarding the role of Broca’s area in sentence processi...

  18. Subjectivity and Ideological Interpellation: An Althusserian Reading of Bozorg Alavi’s Her Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baktiar Sadjadi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study seeks to critically investigate Bozorg Alavi’s celebrated Persian novel, Čašmhāyaš (Her Eyes, in terms of Louis Althusser’s concepts of ideology, interpellation and, most significantly, the subject/Subject model. Althusser developed the notion of ‘interpellation,’ that is the procedure through which individuals become subjects by what he called Ideological State Apparatuses. Accordingly, there exist ‘subjects’ and ‘the Subject’ at work precisely in the way ‘ideologies’ and ‘Ideology’ are present in the process of subjectivization. The subject is the individual who turns into being interpellated whereas the Subject is required by ideology. Bozorg Alavi’s Her Eyes, considered as chef-d’oeuvre in the realm of modern Persian realist fiction, portrays a protagonist who is wholeheartedly attached to his ideological Cause, a character who dedicated his whole life to socialist ideals. Alavi’s masterful depiction of the protagonist, Master Makan, and other major characters including Farangis in particular, demonstrates the way individuals are both consciously and unconsciously recruited by ideology, a process through which the subjects attempt to impersonate the Subject. Structurally, the ideological devotion in the protagonist, here to the communist Tudeh Party, entangles the subjects with a closed domain in a destructive manner that leads to their downfall.

  19. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  20. Efficacy of Attention to Commas (A2C) Strategy for Sentence Comprehension in English Language Learners (ELLs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez-Rivera, Wilma I.

    2013-01-01

    Reading is an active process where readers sometimes have difficulty understanding what they read. Ultimately, readers are required to combine the meaning of each sentence in a text in order to achieve text-level comprehension. Otherwise, the reader is going to have great difficulty with text-level comprehension. Factors such as sentence length…

  1. Subjective impressions do not mirror online reading effort: concurrent EEG-eyetracking evidence from the reading of books and digital media

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kretzschmar, Franziska; Pleimling, Dominique; Hosemann, Jana; Füssel, Stephan; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    .... Young and elderly adults read short texts on three different reading devices: a paper page, an e-reader and a tablet computer and answered comprehension questions about them while their eye movements and EEG were recorded...

  2. Ultimate Attainment in Second Language Acquisition: Near-Native Sentence Processing in Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegerski, Jill

    2010-01-01

    A study of near-native sentence processing was carried out using the self-paced reading method. Twenty-three near-native speakers of Spanish were identified on the basis of native-like proficiency, age of onset of acquisition after 15 years, and a minimum of three years ongoing residency in Spanish-speaking countries. The sentence comprehension…

  3. Comprehending Sentences with the Body: Action Compatibility in British Sign Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, David; Perniss, Pamela; Fox, Neil; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies show that reading sentences about actions leads to specific motor activity associated with actually performing those actions. We investigate how sign language input may modulate motor activation, using British Sign Language (BSL) sentences, some of which explicitly encode direction of motion, versus written English, where motion…

  4. Bilingual word recognition in a sentence context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eVan Assche

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of bilingualism research on visual word recognition in isolation and in sentence context. Many studies investigating the processing of words out-of-context have shown that lexical representations from both languages are activated when reading in one language (language-nonselective lexical access. A newly developed research line asks whether language-nonselective access generalizes to word recognition in sentence contexts, providing a language cue and/or semantic constraint information for upcoming words. Recent studies suggest that the language of the preceding words is insufficient to restrict lexical access to words of the target language, even when reading in the native language. Eyetracking studies revealing the time course of word activation further showed that semantic constraint does not restrict language-nonselective access at early reading stages, but there is evidence that it has a relatively late effect. The theoretical implications for theories of bilingual word recognition are discussed in light of the Bilingual Interactive Activation + model (Dijkstra & Van Heuven, 2002.

  5. Risk Assessment in Criminal Sentencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, John; Skeem, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    The past several years have seen a surge of interest in using risk assessment in criminal sentencing, both to reduce recidivism by incapacitating or treating high-risk offenders and to reduce prison populations by diverting low-risk offenders from prison. We begin by sketching jurisprudential theories of sentencing, distinguishing those that rely on risk assessment from those that preclude it. We then characterize and illustrate the varying roles that risk assessment may play in the sentencing process. We clarify questions regarding the various meanings of "risk" in sentencing and the appropriate time to assess the risk of convicted offenders. We conclude by addressing four principal problems confronting risk assessment in sentencing: conflating risk and blame, barring individual inferences based on group data, failing adequately to distinguish risk assessment from risk reduction, and ignoring whether, and if so, how, the use of risk assessment in sentencing affects racial and economic disparities in imprisonment.

  6. Sentence integration processes: An ERP study of Chinese sentence comprehension with relative clauses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, C.L.; Perfetti, C.A.; Liu, Y.

    2010-01-01

    In an event-related potentials (ERPs) study, we examined the comprehension of different types of Chinese (Mandarin) relative clauses (object vs. subject-extracted) to test the universality and language specificity of sentence comprehension processes. Because Chinese lacks morphosyntactic cues to

  7. Vocabulary and Sentence Structure in Emergent Spanish Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Dual language and bilingual education programs are increasing in number and popularity across the country. However, little information is available on how to teach children to read and write in Spanish. This article explores some of the similarities and differences in vocabulary and sentence structure in Spanish and English and considers the…

  8. Paragraph-reading comprehension ability in Mandarin-speaking children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Che-Ming; Lee, Li-Ang; Chao, Wei-Chieh; Tsou, Yung-Ting; Chen, Yen-An

    2015-06-01

    1) To investigate different aspects of paragraph reading in Mandarin-speaking students with cochlear implants (CIs) and the factors associated with unfavorable outcomes, and 2) to understand the replaceability of a paragraph-reading test with a sentence-reading test. Cross-sectional, case-controlled study. Fifty-three students with CIs (aged 11.0 ± 1.4 years) and 53 grade- and gender-matched children with normal hearing (NH) participated in the study. A paragraph-reading comprehension test was conducted. Sentence and word reading, speech perception, language skills, and child/family characteristics were examined. An unfavorable paragraph-reading outcome was defined as a score lower than one standard deviation below the NH mean. The CI subjects had significantly worse paragraph-reading comprehension than did the NH controls (P = 0.017, d = 0.54). Their performance in grades 5 to 6 was not significantly higher than of those with NH in grades 2 to 4. The CI children's abilities to understand semantics (P = 0.012) and syntax (P = 0.020) significantly fell behind the NH controls in grades 2 to 4, and the lag continued in grades 5 to 6 (P = 0.039, P = 0.002, respectively). Grade and sentence reading were independently associated with unfavorable paragraph-reading outcomes (R(2)  = 0.453). The optimal sensitivity and specificity of the sentence-reading test in identifying unfavorable paragraph-reading outcomes were 90.9% and 90.0%, respectively (area under the curve = 0.923). Specialists should pay attention to CI students' development of different reading skills. Paragraph-reading tests enable a multidimensional evaluation of reading competence. Use of sentence-reading tests is suggested only as a tool for preliminary screening for basic reading capacities. 3b. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. The impact of lexical frequency on sentence comprehension in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Anne-Lise; Majerus, Steve; Jacob, Laura; Maillart, Christelle

    2014-02-01

    Children with SLI generally exhibit poor sentence comprehension skills. We examined the specific impact of grammatical complexity and lexical frequency on comprehension performance, yielding contrasting results. The present study sheds new light on sentence comprehension in children with SLI by investigating a linguistic factor which has attracted little research interest: the impact of the lexical frequency of known words on sentence comprehension. We also examined the impact of grammatical complexity and sentence length by independently varying these two factors. Fifteen children with SLI, 15 age- and IQ-matched controls, and 15 controls matched on lexical and grammatical skills, performed sentence comprehension tasks in which three linguistic factors were manipulated: lexical frequency (sentences containing words of either low or high lexical frequency), grammatical complexity (sentence containing either a subject relative clause or an object relative clause) and sentence length (either short or long sentences). Results indicated that children with SLI performed more poorly overall compared to age- and IQ-matched children and to lexical and morphosyntactic age-matched children. However, their performance was not more affected by either sentence length or clause type than that of control children. Only lexical frequency affected sentence comprehension to a greater extent in children with SLI relative to the control groups, revealing that SLI children's sentence comprehension abilities are particularly affected by the presence of low-frequency but familiar words. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of Second Language Proficiency and Syntactic Structure Similarities on the Sensitivity and Processing of English Passive Sentence in Late Chinese-English Bilinguists: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xin; Wang, Pei

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the influence of L2 proficiency and syntactic similarity on English passive sentence processing, the present ERP study asked 40 late Chinese-English bilinguals (27 females and 13 males, mean age = 23.88) with high or intermediate L2 proficiency to read the sentences carefully and to indicate for each sentence whether or not it was…

  11. Scotoma Visibility and Reading Rate with Bilateral Central Scotomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Joshua D; Stevenson, Scott B; Bedell, Harold E

    2017-03-01

    In this experiment, we tested whether perceptually delineating the scotoma location and border with a gaze contingent polygon overlay improves reading speed and reading eye movements in patients with bilateral central scotomas. Eight patients with age-related macular degeneration and bilateral central scotomas read aloud MNRead style sentences with their preferred eye. Eye movement signals from an EyeLink II eyetracker were used to create a gaze contingent display in which a polygon overlay delineating the area of the patient's scotoma was superimposed on the text during 18 of the 42 trials. Blocks of six trials with the superimposed polygon were alternated with blocks of six trials without the polygon. Reading speed and reading eye movements were assessed before and after the subjects practiced reading with the polygon overlay. All of the subjects but one showed an increase in reading speed. A paired-samples t-test for the group as a whole revealed a statistically significant increase in reading speed of 0.075 ± 0.060 (SD) log wpm after reading with the superimposed polygon. Individual subjects demonstrated significant changes in reading eye movements, with the greatest number of subjects demonstrating a shift in the average vertical fixation locus. Across subjects, there was no significant difference between the initial and final reading eye movements in terms of saccades per second, average fixation duration, average amplitude of saccades, or proportion of non-horizontal saccades. The improvement in reading speed (0.075 log wpm or 19%) over the short experimental session for the majority of subjects indicates that making the scotoma location more visible is potentially beneficial for improving reading speed in patients with bilateral central scotomas. Additional research to examine the efficacy of more extended training with this paradigm is warranted.

  12. THE FUNCTION OF ALBANIAN AND ENGLISH SENTENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Shkelqim Millaku

    2017-01-01

    A simple sentence consists of a single independent clause. A multiple sentence contains one or more clauses as its immediate constituents. Multiple sentences are either compound or complex. In a compound sentence the immediate constituents are two or more coordinate clause. In a complex sentence one or more of its elements, such as direct object or adverbial, are realized by a subordinate.[1] Simple sentence may be divided into four major syntactic classes, whose use correlates with different...

  13. Sentence Comprehension and Its Association with Executive Functions in Patients with Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrien S. F. Colman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Coexistent impairments in executive functions and language comprehension in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD have been repeatedly observed. In this study, the aim was to provide insights into the interaction between linguistic representation and processing and executive functioning. Therefore, sentence comprehension and executive functions were assessed in 28 Dutch-speaking PD patients and 28 healthy control subjects. Three aspects of the sentence materials were varied: (1 phrase structure complexity, (2 sentence length, and (3 picture congruence. PD patients with mild-to-moderate disease severity showed decreased sentence comprehension compared to healthy control subjects. The difficulties encountered by PD patients were not limited to one aspect of the sentence materials. The same pattern of results was present in healthy control subjects. Deficits in set-switching were specifically associated with the comprehension of passive sentences. Generally, our study confirms that there does not appear to be a language faculty encapsulated from the influence of executive functions.

  14. VOS sentences in European Portuguese: p-movement and intonational structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviane Romani Fernandes Svartman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the syntactic and intonational structures associated with VOS sentences (sentences in verb-object-subject order in European Portuguese (henceforth EP, with the hypothesis that prosody (reflected in intonational structure can encode the syntactic structure associated with EP neutral sentences (sentences SVO – in subject-verb-object order and the syntactic structure associated with EP VOS sentences in different ways. This hypothesis is based on the experimental results presented in Frota (1994, which reveal that the intonational contour associated with special syntactic structures of EP is affected locally (or even whole in relation to the neutral contour. For the investigation of that hypothesis, the intonational and syntactic structures associated with EP SVO neutral sentences and with EP VOS sentences are comparatively analyzed. For the syntactic analysis of the latter type of sentences, syntactic and prosodic arguments are brought in favor of the derivation proposed by Fernandes (2007, by p-movement (Zubizarreta, 1998 of the object. Regarding the analysis of the intonational structure of EP VOS sentences, based on the results of Fernandes (2007, the initial hypothesis of this study is confirmed, since that the intonational structure associated with EP VOS sentences is different from the intonational structure associated with SVO neutral sentences of the same variety of Portuguese. Unlike the intonational structure of SVO neutral sentences, in the intonational structure of EP VOS sentences there are more pitch accents and also a specific pitch accent (L*+H associated with the object moved from the right edge of the sentence, according to the syntactic derivation proposed in this paper.

  15. Distinctiveness and encoding effects in online sentence comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip eHofmeister

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In explicit memory recall and recognition tasks, elaboration and contextual isolation both facilitate memory performance. Here, we investigate these effects in the context of sentence processing: targets for retrieval during online sentence processing of English object relative clause constructions differ in the amount of elaboration associated with the target noun phrase, or the homogeneity of superficial features (text color. Experiment 1 shows that greater elaboration for targets during the encoding phase reduces reading times at retrieval sites, but elaboration of non-targets has considerably weaker effects. Experiment 2 illustrates that processing isolated superficial features of target noun phrases --- here, a green word in a sentence with words colored white --- does not lead to enhanced memory performance, despite triggering longer encoding times. These results are interpreted in the light of the memory models of Nairne 1990, 2001, 2006, which state that encoding remnants contribute to the set of retrieval cues that provide the basis for similarity-based interference effects.

  16. Probabilistic modeling of discourse-aware sentence processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Amit; Keller, Frank; Sturt, Patrick

    2013-07-01

    Probabilistic models of sentence comprehension are increasingly relevant to questions concerning human language processing. However, such models are often limited to syntactic factors. This restriction is unrealistic in light of experimental results suggesting interactions between syntax and other forms of linguistic information in human sentence processing. To address this limitation, this article introduces two sentence processing models that augment a syntactic component with information about discourse co-reference. The novel combination of probabilistic syntactic components with co-reference classifiers permits them to more closely mimic human behavior than existing models. The first model uses a deep model of linguistics, based in part on probabilistic logic, allowing it to make qualitative predictions on experimental data; the second model uses shallow processing to make quantitative predictions on a broad-coverage reading-time corpus. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  17. Distinctiveness and encoding effects in online sentence comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Philip; Vasishth, Shravan

    2014-01-01

    In explicit memory recall and recognition tasks, elaboration and contextual isolation both facilitate memory performance. Here, we investigate these effects in the context of sentence processing: targets for retrieval during online sentence processing of English object relative clause constructions differ in the amount of elaboration associated with the target noun phrase, or the homogeneity of superficial features (text color). Experiment 1 shows that greater elaboration for targets during the encoding phase reduces reading times at retrieval sites, but elaboration of non-targets has considerably weaker effects. Experiment 2 illustrates that processing isolated superficial features of target noun phrases-here, a green word in a sentence with words colored white-does not lead to enhanced memory performance, despite triggering longer encoding times. These results are interpreted in the light of the memory models of Nairne, 1990, 2001, 2006, which state that encoding remnants contribute to the set of retrieval cues that provide the basis for similarity-based interference effects.

  18. Improving readability through extractive summarization for learners with reading difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nandhini

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the design and evaluation of extractive summarization approach to assist the learners with reading difficulties. As existing summarization approaches inherently assign more weights to the important sentences, our approach predicts the summary sentences that are important as well as readable to the target audience with good accuracy. We used supervised machine learning technique for summary extraction of science and social subjects in the educational text. Various independent features from the existing literature for predicting important sentences and proposed learner dependent features for predicting readable sentences are extracted from texts and are used for automatic classification. We performed both extrinsic and intrinsic evaluation on this approach and the intrinsic evaluation is carried out using F-measure and readability analysis. The extrinsic evaluation comprises of learner feedback using likert scale and the effect of assistive summary on improving readability for learners’ with reading difficulty using ANOVA. The results show significant improvement in readability for the target audience using assistive summary.

  19. Task-dependency and structure-dependency in number interference effects in sentence comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Julie; Colonna, Saveria; Rizzi, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    We report three experiments on French that explore number mismatch effects in intervention configurations in the comprehension of object A'-dependencies, relative clauses and questions. The study capitalizes on the finding of object attraction in sentence production, in which speakers sometimes erroneously produce a verb that agrees in number with a plural object in object relative clauses. Evidence points to the role of three critical constructs from formal syntax: intervention, intermediate traces and c-command (Franck et al., 2010). Experiment 1, using a self-paced reading procedure on these grammatical structures with an agreement error on the verb, shows an enhancing effect of number mismatch in intervention configurations, with faster reading times with plural (mismatching) objects. Experiment 2, using an on-line grammaticality judgment task on the ungrammatical versions of these structures, shows an interference effect in the form of attraction, with slower response times with plural objects. Experiment 3 with a similar grammaticality judgment task shows stronger attraction from c-commanding than from preceding interveners. Overall, the data suggest that syntactic computations in performance refer to the same syntactic representations in production and comprehension, but that different tasks tap into different processes involved in parsing: whereas performance in self-paced reading reflects the intervention of the subject in the process of building an object A'-dependency, performance in grammaticality judgment reflects intervention of the object on the computation of the subject-verb agreement dependency. The latter shows the hallmarks of structure-dependent attraction effects in sentence production, in particular, a sensitivity to specific characteristics of hierarchical representations.

  20. Task-dependency and structure-dependency in number interference effects in sentence comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie eFranck

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We report three experiments on French that explore number mismatch effects in intervention configurations in the comprehension of object A’-dependencies, relative clauses and questions. The study capitalizes on the finding of object attraction in sentence production, in which speakers sometimes erroneously produce a verb that agrees in number with a plural object in object relative clauses. Evidence points to the role of three critical constructs from formal syntax: intervention, intermediate traces and c-command (Franck et al., 2010. Experiment 1, using a self-paced reading procedure on these grammatical structures, shows the enhancing effect of number mismatch in intervention configurations, with faster reading times with plural (mismatching objects. Experiment 2, using an on-line grammaticality judgment task on the ungrammatical versions of these structures, shows an interference effect in the form of attraction, with slower response times with plural objects. Experiment 3 with a similar grammaticality judgment task shows stronger attraction from c-commanding than from preceding interveners. Overall, the data suggest that syntactic computations in performance refer to the same syntactic representations in production and comprehension, but that different tasks tap into different processes involved in parsing: whereas performance in self-paced reading reflects the intervention of the subject in the process of building an object A’-dependency, performance in grammaticality judgment reflects intervention of the object on the computation of the subject-verb agreement dependency. The latter shows the hallmarks of structure-dependent attraction effects in sentence production, in particular, a sensitivity to specific characteristics of hierarchical representations.

  1. Mobile app reading speed test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsnorth, Alec; Wolffsohn, James S

    2015-04-01

    To validate the accuracy and repeatability of a mobile app reading speed test compared with the traditional paper version. Twenty-one subjects wearing their full refractive correction glasses read 14 sentences of decreasing print size between 1.0 and -0.1 logMAR, each consisting of 14 words (Radner reading speed test) at 40 cm with a paper-based chart and twice on iPad charts. Time duration was recorded with a stop watch for the paper chart and on the App itself for the mobile chart allowing critical print size (CPS) and optimal reading speed (ORS) to be derived objectively. The ORS was higher for the mobile app charts (194±29 wpm; 195±25 wpm) compared with the paper chart (166±20 wpm; F=57.000, preading speed test is as good (ORS) or better (CPS) than previous studies on the paper test. While the results are not interchangeable with paper-based charts, mobile app tablet-based tests of reading speed are reliable and rapid to perform, with the potential to capture functional visual ability in research studies and clinical practice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Exploring Methods to Investigate Sentencing Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrall, Elizabeth L. C.; Dhami, Mandeep K.; Bird, Sheila M.

    2010-01-01

    The determinants of sentencing are of much interest in criminal justice and legal research. Understanding the determinants of sentencing decisions is important for ensuring transparent, consistent, and justifiable sentencing practice that adheres to the goals of sentencing, such as the punishment, rehabilitation, deterrence, and incapacitation of…

  3. Rapid L2 Word Learning through High Constraint Sentence Context: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoguo Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found quantity of exposure, i.e., frequency of exposure (Horst et al., 1998; Webb, 2008; Pellicer-Sánchez and Schmitt, 2010, is important for second language (L2 contextual word learning. Besides this factor, context constraint and L2 proficiency level have also been found to affect contextual word learning (Pulido, 2003; Tekmen and Daloglu, 2006; Elgort et al., 2015; Ma et al., 2015. In the present study, we adopted the event-related potential (ERP technique and chose high constraint sentences as reading materials to further explore the effects of quantity of exposure and proficiency on L2 contextual word learning. Participants were Chinese learners of English with different English proficiency levels. For each novel word, there were four high constraint sentences with the critical word at the end of the sentence. Learners read sentences and made semantic relatedness judgment afterwards, with ERPs recorded. Results showed that in the high constraint condition where each pseudoword was embedded in four sentences with consistent meaning, N400 amplitude upon this pseudoword decreased significantly as learners read the first two sentences. High proficiency learners responded faster in the semantic relatedness judgment task. These results suggest that in high quality sentence contexts, L2 learners could rapidly acquire word meaning without multiple exposures, and L2 proficiency facilitated this learning process.

  4. Broca's Area Plays a Role in Syntactic Processing during Chinese Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Suiping; Zhu, Zude; Zhang, John X.; Wang, Zhaoxin; Xiao, Zhuangwei; Xiang, Huadong; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

    2008-01-01

    Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (ER-fMRI) was adopted to examine brain activation of syntactic processing in reading logographic Chinese. While fMRI data were obtained, 15 readers of Chinese read individually presented sentences and performed semantic congruency judgments on three kinds of sentences: Congruous sentences (CON),…

  5. Aerodynamic Characteristics of Syllable and Sentence Productions in Normal Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Cedric; Yang, Jin; Crawley, Brianna; Krishna, Priya; Murry, Thomas

    2018-01-08

    Aerodynamic measures of subglottic air pressure (Ps) and airflow rate (AFR) are used to select behavioral voice therapy versus surgical treatment for voice disorders. However, these measures are usually taken during a series of syllables, which differs from conversational speech. Repeated syllables do not share the variation found in even simple sentences, and patients may use their best rather than typical voice unless specifically instructed otherwise. This study examined the potential differences in estimated Ps and AFR in syllable and sentence production and their effects on a measure of vocal efficiency in normal speakers. Prospective study. Measures of estimated Ps, AFR, and aerodynamic vocal efficiency (AVE) were obtained from 19 female and four male speakers ages 22-44 years with no history of voice disorders. Subjects repeated a series of /pa/ syllables and a sentence at comfortable effort level into a face mask with a pressure-sensing tube between the lips. AVE varies as a function of the speech material in normal subjects. Ps measures were significantly higher for the sentence-production samples than for the syllable-production samples. AFR was higher during sentence production than syllable production, but the difference was not statistically significant. AVE values were significantly higher for syllable versus sentence productions. The results suggest that subjects increase Ps and AFR in sentence compared with syllable production. Speaking task is a critical factor when considering measures of AVE, and this preliminary study provides a basis for further aerodynamic studies of patient populations. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of sentence-structure complexity on speech initiation time and disfluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiamtsiouris, Jim; Cairns, Helen Smith

    2013-03-01

    There is general agreement that stuttering is caused by a variety of factors, and language formulation and speech motor control are two important factors that have been implicated in previous research, yet the exact nature of their effects is still not well understood. Our goal was to test the hypothesis that sentences of high structural complexity would incur greater processing costs than sentences of low structural complexity and these costs would be higher for adults who stutter than for adults who do not stutter. Fluent adults and adults who stutter participated in an experiment that required memorization of a sentence classified as low or high structural complexity followed by production of that sentence upon a visual cue. Both groups of speakers initiated most sentences significantly faster in the low structural complexity condition than in the high structural complexity condition. Adults who stutter were over-all slower in speech initiation than were fluent speakers, but there were no significant interactions between complexity and group. However, adults who stutter produced significantly more disfluencies in sentences of high structural complexity than in those of low complexity. After reading this article, the learner will be able to: (a) identify integral parts of all well-known models of adult sentence production; (b) summarize the way that sentence structure might negatively influence the speech production processes; (c) discuss whether sentence structure influences speech initiation time and disfluencies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Numerical Congruency Effect in the Sentence-Picture Verification Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šetić, Mia; Domijan, Dražen

    2017-05-01

    In two experiments, we showed that irrelevant numerical information influenced the speed of sentence-picture verification. Participants were asked to verify whether the concept mentioned in a sentence matched the object presented in a subsequent picture. Concurrently, the number word attached to the concept in the sentence and the quantity of objects presented in the picture were manipulated (numerical congruency). The number of objects varied from one to four. In Experiment 1, participants read statements such as three dogs. In Experiment 2, they read sentences such as three dogs were wandering in the street. In both experiments, the verification speed revealed the interaction between response and numerical congruency. The verification times for concept-object match were faster when there was also numerical congruence (compared with incongruence) between the number word and quantity. On the other hand, there was no difference between numerical congruence and incongruence when the concept and object mismatched. The results are interpreted as evidence for the symbol grounding of number words in perceptual representation of small quantities, that is, quantities falling in the subitization range.

  8. Predicting the reading skill of Japanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Tatsuya; Hanafusa, Kaoru; Morooka, Teruko; Takeuchi, Akihito; Oka, Makio; Ohtsuka, Yoko

    2017-02-01

    To clarify cognitive processes underlining the development of reading in children speaking Japanese as their first language, we examined relationships between performances of cognitive tasks in the preschool period and later reading abilities. Ninety-one normally developing preschoolers (41 girls and 50 boys; 5years 4months to 6years 4months, mean 5years 10months) participated as subjects. We conducted seven cognitive tasks including phonological awareness tasks, naming tasks, and working memory tasks in the preschool period. In terms of reading tasks, the hiragana naming task was administered in the preschool period; the reading times, which is a composite score of the monomoraic syllable reading task, the word and the non-word reading tasks, and the single sentence reading task, was evaluated in first and second grade; and the kanji reading task (naming task) was tested in second grade. Raven's colored progressive matrices and picture vocabulary test revised were also conducted in first grade. Correlation analyses between task scores and stepwise multiple regression analyses were implemented. Tasks tapping phonological awareness, lexical access, and verbal working memory showed significant correlations with reading tasks. In the multiple regression analyses the performances in the verbal working memory task played a key role in predicting character naming task scores (the hiragana naming task and the kanji reading task) while the digit naming task was an important predictor of reading times. Unexpectedly, the role of phonological (mora) awareness was modest among children speaking Japanese. Cognitive functions including phonological awareness, digit naming, and verbal working memory (especially the latter two) were involved in the development of reading skills of children speaking Japanese. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Good/Bad Girls Read Together: Pre-Adolescent Girls' Co-Authorship of Feminine Subject Positions during a Shared Reading Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enciso, Patricia E.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses reading with pre-teens Francine Pascal's "Sweet Valley Twins: Best Friends," one of a series of pre-romance novels featuring identical twin sisters. Interviews six girls using the Symbolic Representation Interview (SRI) about the good girl/bad girl dichotomy in novels and other media. Provides comments by Tom Romano and Diana Mitchell.…

  10. The comprehension of sentences with unaccusative verbs in aphasia: a test of the intervener hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Natalie; Walenski, Matthew; Love, Tracy; Shapiro, Lewis P

    2017-01-01

    It is well accepted that individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia have difficulty comprehending some sentences with filler-gap dependencies. While investigations of these difficulties have been conducted with several different sentence types (e.g., object relatives, Wh -questions), we explore sentences containing unaccusative verbs, which arguably have a single noun phrase (NP) that is base-generated in object position but then is displaced to surface subject position. Unaccusative verbs provide an ideal test case for a particular hypothesis about the comprehension disorder-the Intervener Hypothesis-that posits that the difficulty individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia have comprehending sentences containing filler-gap dependencies results from similarity-based interference caused by the presence of an intervening NP between the two elements of a syntactic chain. To assess a particular account of the comprehension deficit in agrammatic Broca's aphasia-the Intervener Hypothesis. We used a sentence-picture matching task to determine if listeners with agrammatic Broca's aphasia (LWBA) and age-matched neurologically unimpaired controls (AMC) have difficulty comprehending unaccusative verbs when placed in subject relative and complement phrase (CP) constructions. We found above-chance comprehension of both sentence constructions with the AMC participants. In contrast, we found above-chance comprehension of CP sentences containing unaccusative verbs but poor comprehension of subject relative sentences containing unaccusative verbs for the LWBA. These results provide support for the Intervener Hypothesis, wherein the presence of an intervening NP between two elements of a filler-gap dependency adversely affects sentence comprehension.

  11. The Influence of Subject Knowledge and Second Language Proficiency on the Reading Comprehension of Scientific and Technical Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tim; Berry, Vivien

    2000-01-01

    Examined the effect of background knowledge and second language proficiency in relation to two sets of specific reading materials. One came from an IELTS reading module related to science and technology; the other was from a highly-specific popular science text. Results showed that both language proficiency and background knowledge predicted…

  12. The Truth Before and After: Brain Potentials Reveal Automatic Activation of Event Knowledge during Sentence Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwland, Mante S

    2015-11-01

    How does knowledge of real-world events shape our understanding of incoming language? Do temporal terms like "before" and "after" impact the online recruitment of real-world event knowledge? These questions were addressed in two ERP experiments, wherein participants read sentences that started with "before" or "after" and contained a critical word that rendered each sentence true or false (e.g., "Before/After the global economic crisis, securing a mortgage was easy/harder"). The critical words were matched on predictability, rated truth value, and semantic relatedness to the words in the sentence. Regardless of whether participants explicitly verified the sentences or not, false-after-sentences elicited larger N400s than true-after-sentences, consistent with the well-established finding that semantic retrieval of concepts is facilitated when they are consistent with real-world knowledge. However, although the truth judgments did not differ between before- and after-sentences, no such sentence N400 truth value effect occurred in before-sentences, whereas false-before-sentences elicited an enhanced subsequent positive ERPs. The temporal term "before" itself elicited more negative ERPs at central electrode channels than "after." These patterns of results show that, irrespective of ultimate sentence truth value judgments, semantic retrieval of concepts is momentarily facilitated when they are consistent with the known event outcome compared to when they are not. However, this inappropriate facilitation incurs later processing costs as reflected in the subsequent positive ERP deflections. The results suggest that automatic activation of event knowledge can impede the incremental semantic processes required to establish sentence truth value.

  13. [Anamnesis as drama--the first sentences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, H

    1984-01-01

    The encounter between therapist and patient can be viewed as a drama involving two actors, each attempting to convert the other. This conversion proceeds through unconscious and preconscious elements of interaction whose manifest and latent meaning/definition/interpretation is determined by the manner in which the conflict dynamics evolve within the developmental structure of the anamnesis. In this context one can observe three areas of decisive importance, namely information of an objective, subjective and dramatical nature. An analysis of the opening sentences from two case studies serves to illustrate how the dramatic process is being staged.

  14. Phonological Involvement in the Processing of Japanese at the Lexical and Sentence Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Aiko; Tamaoka, Katsuo

    2002-01-01

    Presents 3 experiments that examine whether Japanese readers activate phonological information when reading kanji compound words and sentences and if so, how they do it. Suggests that readers activate phonological information of two-kanji compound words when reading for comprehension but not for simple proofreading. (SG)

  15. Punctuation and Intonation Effects on Clause and Sentence Wrap-Up: Evidence from Eye Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirotani, Masako; Frazier, Lyn; Rayner, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Three eye movement studies examined the role of punctuation in reading. In Experiment 1, although a comma at the end of a clause facilitated overall reading times for the sentence, first pass times were longer at the end of comma-marked clauses than clauses without a comma (or the same material in clause medial position). The data supported the…

  16. The sentence superiority effect revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joshua; Grainger, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    A sentence superiority effect was investigated using post-cued word-in-sequence identification with the rapid parallel visual presentation (RPVP) of four horizontally aligned words. The four words were presented for 200ms followed by a post-mask and cue for partial report. They could form a grammatically correct sentence or were formed of the same words in a scrambled agrammatical sequence. Word identification was higher in the syntactically correct sequences, and crucially, this sentence superiority effect did not vary as a function of the target's position in the sequence. Cloze probability measures for words at the final, arguably most predictable position, revealed overall low values that did not interact with the effects of sentence context, suggesting that these effects were not driven by word predictability. The results point to a level of parallel processing across multiple words that enables rapid extraction of their syntactic categories. These generate a sentence-level representation that constrains the recognition process for individual words, thus facilitating parallel word processing when the sequence is grammatically sound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of lexical cues on the production of active and passive sentences in Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Thompson, Cynthia K

    2003-06-01

    This study compared the sentence production abilities of individuals with Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia in an attempt to explore the extent to which impaired lexical retrieval impedes sentence production. The ability to produce active and passive reversible and non-reversible sentences was examined when varying amounts of lexical information was provided. The results showed that both Wernicke's and Broca's aphasic individuals were impaired in passive sentence production and that these difficulties were not overcome when lexical cues (the relevant nouns and uninflected verb) were provided. However when auxiliary and past tense morphemes were provided along with the verb stem, production of passive sentences improved drastically for both groups. Analysis of error patterns, however, revealed differences between the two groups, suggesting that Broca's aphasic subjects may find passive sentences difficult due to problems with retrieving the relevant grammatical morphemes. Subjects with Wernicke's aphasia may have been unable to automatically access the passive sentence structure.

  18. Korean Version Self-testing Application for Reading Speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhiu, Soolienah; Kim, Moses; Kim, Jae Hyung; Lee, Hye Jin; Lim, Tae Hyung

    2017-06-01

    This study introduces a reading chart application for the iPad tablet in the Korean language and investigates the reading speed in a normal-sighted population according to age group. Sixty-three Korean sentences were selected from textbooks for second grade elementary school students. A commonly used typeface in everyday printed material, "BatangChe," was used. Letter size was presented in logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) 0.0 to 1.0 at 0.1 logMAR steps at a reading distance of 40 cm. A third generation retina display iPad was used to present the chart, and the sentences were presented randomly for each size of letter. The subjects repeated the test silently (reading only) and out loud (reading and speaking) to prevent them from skipping reading words. Pilot testing followed in 65 normal vision adults under 60 years of age. The mean reading only speed for logMAR 0.5 optotype (point 10) was 121.1 ± 47.2 words per minute (wpm) for people in their 20s (n=21), 116.5 ± 38.3 in their 30s (n=27), 93.8 ± 12.6 in their 40s (n=9), and 56.5 ± 42.7 (n=8) in their 50s. There was a significant correlation between age and reading and speaking speed (r=-0.48, preading only speed for logMAR 0.5 optotype (point 10) was 202.3 ± 88.4 wpm and the mean reading and speaking speed was 129.7 ± 25.9 wpm, with significantly different (preading chart application could present a new standard when checking reading speed according to age groups.

  19. Predicting contrast in sentences with and without focus marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Katy

    2014-10-01

    How do we know when a contrast is coming? This study explores the prediction of parallel contrastive phrases, especially NPs, in sentences with and without overt focus marking. A written sentence-completion questionnaire with clauses followed by the conjunction "but" compared unmarked initial clauses to ones with the focus marker "only" on the subject or object. Both conditions with "only" elicited more contrasts overall than the condition without focus marking, and many of the contrasts were with the focus-marked NP. While the baseline (no-only) condition had full clauses for half of the completions, subject focus increased clausal completions and object focus increased negative ellipsis completions ("not"+NP structures), both changes in syntax which make a contrast with the marked NP easy. The production of negative ellipsis sentences primarily in the object-focus condition suggests that the object bias of these sentences in comprehension could relate to their being used more frequently with this meaning. Finally, the overall pattern of results shows that overt marking of contrastive focus increases continuations with contrasts, and the conjunction "but" does not reliably predict explicitly-stated contrasts within a sentence without overt focus marking.

  20. Motion verb sentences activate left posterior middle temporal cortex despite static context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallentin, M; Ellegaard Lund, Torben; Østergaard, Svend

    2005-01-01

    middle temporal region than sentences in which the motion can be applied to the subject noun. We speculate that the left posterior middle temporal region activity in fictive motion sentences reflects the fact that the hearer applies motion to the depicted scenario by scanning it egocentrically...

  1. Enhancing the reading fluency and comprehension of children with reading disabilities in an orthographically transparent language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snellings, P.; van der Leij, A.; de Jong, P.F.; Blok, H.

    2009-01-01

    Breznitz (2006) demonstrated that Hebrew-speaking adults with reading disabilities benefited from a training in which reading rate was experimentally manipulated. In the present study, the authors examine whether silent reading training enhances the sentence reading rate and comprehension of

  2. From Utterance to Example Sentence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jette Hedegaard

    2010-01-01

    This poster will address some of the problems on excerption of example sentences for the online dictionary of Danish Sign Language (DTS) from a raw corpus of dialogues and monologues. In the Danish Sign Language Dictionary every meaning is illustrated by one or more sentences showing the sign...... and contains 9 parts that are assessed in the process. We allow for adjusting the real utterance if this necessarily to follow the guidelines, eg. anaphoric reference may in the real sample only occur as an eye gaze in a direction of a locus, but when we copy only a part of an utterance, this kind of reference...

  3. Sentence processing in an artificial language: Learning and using combinatorial constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Michael S; MacDonald, Maryellen C

    2010-07-01

    A study combining artificial grammar and sentence comprehension methods investigated the learning and online use of probabilistic, nonadjacent combinatorial constraints. Participants learned a small artificial language describing cartoon monsters acting on objects. Self-paced reading of sentences in the artificial language revealed comprehenders' sensitivity to nonadjacent combinatorial constraints, without explicit awareness of the probabilities embedded in the language. These results show that even newly-learned constraints have an identifiable effect on online sentence processing. The rapidity of learning in this paradigm relative to others has implications for theories of implicit learning and its role in language acquisition. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Teaching Reading Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Tom; Dymock, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Would you like your students to be excited when they read a new word and keen to work out its meaning straight away? This book will turn them into word detectives, ready to tackle any new word they come across. And when writing, would you like them to make sentences that have interesting and descriptive words like "shamble," "ravenous" or…

  5. Sentence Disparity and Civil Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahn, Charles

    This report reviews the literature on sentence disparity and considers the advisability of additional efforts to provide more equality throughout the criminal justice system. Definitions of disparity are said to include: (1) differences between individual judges; (2) differences between comparable defendants; (3) differences between categories of…

  6. Standardized assessment of reading performance: the New International Reading Speed Texts IReST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauzettel-Klosinski, Susanne; Dietz, Klaus

    2012-08-13

    There is a need for standardized texts to assess reading performance, for multiple equivalent texts for repeated measurements, and for texts equated across languages for multi-language studies. Paragraphs are preferable to single sentences for accurate speed measurement. We developed such texts previously in 6 languages. The aim of our current study was to develop texts in more languages for a wide range of countries and users, and to assess the reading speeds of normally-sighted readers. Ten texts were designed for 17 languages each by a linguist who matched content, length, difficulty, and linguistic complexity. The texts then were used to assess reading speeds of 436 normally-sighted native speakers (age 18-35 years, 25 per language, 36 in Japanese), presented at a distance of 40 cm and size 1 M, that is 10-point Times New Roman font. Reading time (aloud) was measured by stopwatch. For all 17 languages, average mean reading speed was 1.42 ± 0.13 texts/min (±SD), 184 ± 29 words/min, 370 ± 80 syllables/min, and 863 ± 234 characters/min. For 14 languages, mean reading time was 68 ms/character (95% confidence interval [CI] 65-71 ms). Our analysis focussed on words per minute. The variability of reading speed within subjects accounts only for an average of 11.5%, between subjects for 88.5%. The low within-subject variability shows the equivalence of the texts. The IReST (second edition) can now be provided in 17 languages allowing standardized assessment of reading speed, as well as comparability of results before and after interventions, and is a useful tool for multi-language studies (for further information see www.amd-read.net).

  7. Recovery of Sentence Production Processes Following Language Treatment in Aphasia: Evidence from Eyetracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Jennifer E; Nerantzini, Michaela; Thompson, Cynthia K

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Sentence production impairments in aphasia often improve with treatment. However, little is known about how cognitive processes supporting sentence production, such as sentence planning, are impacted by treatment. Methods: The present study used eyetracking to examine changes in sentence production resulting from a 12-week language treatment program focused on passive sentences (Treatment of Underlying Forms (TUF); Thompson and Shapiro, 2005). In two pre-treatment and two post-treatment sessions, nine participants with mild-to-moderate agrammatic aphasia performed a structural priming task, which involved repeating primed sentences (actives or passives) and then, using the same verb, producing sentences describing pictured events. Two individuals with aphasia performed the eyetracking task on the same schedule without intervening language treatment. Ten unimpaired older adults also performed the task to identify normal performance patterns. Sentence production accuracy and speech onset latencies were examined, and eye movements to the pictured Agent and Theme characters were analyzed in the first 400 ms after picture onset, reflecting early sentence planning, and in the regions preceding the production of the sentence subject and post-verbal noun, reflecting lexical encoding. Results: Unimpaired controls performed with high accuracy. Their early eye movements (first 400 ms) indicated equal fixations to the Agent and Theme, consistent with structural sentence planning (i.e., initial construction of an abstract structural frame). Subsequent eye movements occurring prior to speech onset were consistent with encoding of the correct sentence subject (i.e., the Agent in actives, Theme in passives), with encoding of the post-verbal noun beginning at speech onset. In participants with aphasia, accuracy improved significantly with treatment, and post-treatment (but not pre-treatment) eye movements were qualitatively similar to those of unimpaired controls

  8. Toward developing a standardized Arabic continuous text reading chart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabdulkader, Balsam; Leat, Susan Jennifer

    Near visual acuity is an essential measurement during an oculo-visual assessment. Short duration continuous text reading charts measure reading acuity and other aspects of reading performance. There is no standardized version of such chart in Arabic. The aim of this study is to create sentences of equal readability to use in the development of a standardized Arabic continuous text reading chart. Initially, 109 Arabic pairs of sentences were created for use in constructing a chart with similar layout to the Colenbrander chart. They were created to have the same grade level of difficulty and physical length. Fifty-three adults and sixteen children were recruited to validate the sentences. Reading speed in correct words per minute (CWPM) and standard length words per minute (SLWPM) was measured and errors were counted. Criteria based on reading speed and errors made in each sentence pair were used to exclude sentence pairs with more outlying characteristics, and to select the final group of sentence pairs. Forty-five sentence pairs were selected according to the elimination criteria. For adults, the average reading speed for the final sentences was 166 CWPM and 187 SLWPM and the average number of errors per sentence pair was 0.21. Childrens' average reading speed for the final group of sentences was 61 CWPM and 72 SLWPM. Their average error rate was 1.71. The reliability analysis showed that the final 45 sentence pairs are highly comparable. They will be used in constructing an Arabic short duration continuous text reading chart. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Incremental Sentence Processing in Japanese: A Maze Investigation into Scrambled and Control Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Jeffrey; Witzel, Naoko

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates preverbal structural and semantic processing in Japanese, a head-final language, using the maze task. Two sentence types were tested--simple scrambled sentences (Experiment 1) and control sentences (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 showed that even for simple, mono-clausal Japanese sentences, (1) there are online processing…

  10. Sentencing Outcomes of Convicted Child Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Steven; Marsh, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the sentencing outcomes of convicted child sexual offenders from data collected over an eight year period. Multiple regression and nominal log linear regression are used to examine length of prison sentence, length of probation sentence, and whether the convicted offender is actually sent to prison or to probation. While…

  11. Tracking Passive Sentence Comprehension in Agrammatic Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Aaron M.; Mack, Jennifer E.; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2011-01-01

    People with agrammatic aphasia often experience greater difficulty comprehending passive compared to active sentences. The Trace Deletion Hypothesis (TDH; Grodzinsky, 2000) proposes that aphasic individuals cannot generate accurate syntactic representations of passive sentences and, hence, use an agent-first processing strategy which leads to at-chance performance. We tested this claim using the eyetracking-while-listening paradigm in order to reveal online processing routines. Ten agrammatic aphasic participants and 10 age-matched controls listened to passive and active sentences and performed a sentence-picture matching task (i.e., selecting between two pictures with reversed thematic roles), while their eye movements were monitored. Control participants’ performance was at ceiling, whereas accuracy for the aphasic participants was above chance for active sentences and at chance for passive sentences. Further, for the control participants, the eye movement data showed an initial agent-first processing bias, followed by fixation on the correct picture in the vicinity of the verb in both active and passive sentences. However, the aphasic participants showed no evidence of agent-first processing, counter the predictions of the TDH. In addition, in active sentences, they reliably fixated the correct picture only at sentence offset, reflecting slowed processing. During passive sentence processing, fixations were at chance throughout the sentence, but different patterns were noted for correct and incorrect trials. These results are consistent with the proposal that agrammatic sentence comprehension failure involves lexical processing and/or lexical integration deficits. PMID:22043134

  12. Subject oriented and problem based text materials as an object of a flexible foreign language reading in research projects

    OpenAIRE

    SEROVA TAMARA S.; PIPCHENKO ELENA L.

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces the academic research work of students within competence based approach, the models of academic problem based research projects taken up as means to develop flexible foreign language reading skills; reveals selection principles and corpus didactic design of text materials in a form of a macrotext, hypertext, and video course.

  13. Intomation of cleft sentences in Brazilian Portuguese and the syntax-phonology interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviane Romani Fernandes-Svartman

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study, developed within the theoretical framework of Intonational Phonology (cf. Pierrehumbert, 1980; Beckman and Pierrehumbert, 1986; Ladd 1996; Jun, 2005, is a comparative study of the intonational structure of neutral and cleft sentences (cleft, inverted cleft, and reduced inverted cleft sentences in Brazilian Portuguese (hereafter PB. According to results obtained by Frota (1994, Vigário (1998 and Fernandes-Svartman (2007c, in special syntactic structures in European Portuguese, the intonational contour undergoes local, and sometimes global alteration, compared to the contour of neutral sentences. Our hypothesis is that alteration in the intonational contour in special syntactic structures also occurs in PB, as is the case with cleft sentences. The results attained by this study confirm this hypothesis, to the extent that significant differences between the intonational contour of neutral sentences and the intonational contour of cleft sentences in PB were found. While neutral sentences showed tonal accents associated with practically each prosodic word of the sentence, and an absence of phrasal accents associated with boundaries of phonological phrases, cleft sentences showed: (i tonal accent obligatorily associated with the head prosodic word of the phonological phrase in which the focused subject is mapped; (ii phrasal accent optionally associated with the right boundary of this same phonological phrase; and (iii absence of tonal accents associated with intermediary prosodic words (between the head prosodic word of the phonological phrase in which the focused subject is mapped and the head prosodic word of the last phonological of the intonational phrase. In the case of the cleft sentences, the presence of a phrasal accent associated with the right boundary of the phonological phrase in which the focused subject is mapped may, theoretically, be related to the codification of a special syntactic position occupied by this subject in

  14. Reading Prosody Development in Spanish Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Cañizo, Marta; Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    Reading prosody is considered one of the essential markers of reading fluency, alongside accuracy and speed. The aim of our study was to investigate how development of reading prosody in Spanish children varies with sentence type and length. We compared primary school children from the third and fifth grades with an adult sample. Participants were…

  15. Writing Activities for Developing Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlin, Robert; Karlin, Andrea R.

    As both draw upon language and experience, and both deal with meaning, writing and reading can be learned concurrently. Writing activities having a positive effect on reading skills include notetaking and sentence combining exercises. A more productive way of improving reading comprehension through writing is to have students base their writing on…

  16. Commonality of neural representations of sentences across languages: Predicting brain activation during Portuguese sentence comprehension using an English-based model of brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Wang, Jing; Bailer, Cyntia; Cherkassky, Vladimir; Just, Marcel Adam

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study was to test the cross-language generative capability of a model that predicts neural activation patterns evoked by sentence reading, based on a semantic characterization of the sentence. In a previous study on English monolingual speakers (Wang et al., submitted), a computational model performed a mapping from a set of 42 concept-level semantic features (Neurally Plausible Semantic Features, NPSFs) as well as 6 thematic role markers to neural activation patterns (assessed with fMRI), to predict activation levels in a network of brain locations. The model used two types of information gained from the English-based fMRI data to predict the activation for individual sentences in Portuguese. First, it used the mapping weights from NPSFs to voxel activation levels derived from the model for English reading. Second, the brain locations for which the activation levels were predicted were derived from a factor analysis of the brain activation patterns during English reading. These meta-language locations were defined by the clusters of voxels with high loadings on each of the four main dimensions (factors), namely people, places, actions and feelings, underlying the neural representations of the stimulus sentences. This cross-language model succeeded in predicting the brain activation patterns associated with the reading of 60 individual Portuguese sentences that were entirely new to the model, attaining accuracies reliably above chance level. The prediction accuracy was not affected by whether the Portuguese speaker was monolingual or Portuguese-English bilingual. The model's confusion errors indicated an accurate capture of the events or states described in the sentence at a conceptual level. Overall, the cross-language predictive capability of the model demonstrates the neural commonality between speakers of different languages in the representations of everyday events and states, and provides an initial characterization of the common meta

  17. Who is who? Interpretation of multiple occurrences of the Chinese reflexive: evidence from real-time sentence processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Shuai

    Full Text Available Theoretical linguists claim that the notorious reflexive ziji 'self' in Mandarin Chinese, if occurring more than once in a single sentence, can take distinct antecedents. This study tackles possibly the most interesting puzzle in the linguistic literature, investigating how two occurrences of ziji in a single sentence are interpreted and whether or not there are mixed readings, i.e., these zijis are interpretively bound by distinct antecedents. Using 15 Chinese sentences each having two zijis, we conducted two sentence reading experiments based on a modified self-paced reading paradigm. The general interpretation patterns observed showed that the majority of participants associated both zijis with the same local antecedent, which was consistent with Principle A of the Standard Binding Theory and previous experimental findings involving a single ziji. In addition, mixed readings also occurred, but did not pattern as claimed in the theoretical linguistic literature (i.e., one ziji is bound by a long-distance antecedent and the other by a local antecedent. Based on these results, we argue that: (i mixed readings were due to manifold, interlocking and conflicting perspectives taken by the participants; and (ii cases of multiple occurrences of ziji taking distinct antecedents are illicit in Chinese syntax, since the speaker, when expressing a sentence, can select only one P(erspective-Center that referentially denotes the psychological perspective in which the sentence is situated.

  18. Broca's area, sentence comprehension, and working memory: an fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corianne Rogalsky

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The role of Broca's area in sentence processing remains controversial. According to one view, Broca's area is involved in processing a subcomponent of syntactic processing. Another view holds that it contributes to sentence processing via verbal working memory. Sub-regions of Broca's area have been identified that are more active during the processing of complex (object-relative clause sentences compared to simple (subject-relative clause sentences. The present study aimed to determine if this complexity effect can be accounted for in terms of the articulatory rehearsal component of verbal working memory.  In a behavioral experiment, subjects were asked to comprehend sentences during concurrent speech articulation which minimizes articulatory rehearsal as a resource for sentence comprehension. A finger-tapping task was used as a control concurrent task. Only the object-relative clause sentences were more difficult to comprehend during speech articulation than during the manual task, showing that articulatory rehearsal does contribute to sentence processing.  A second experiment used fMRI to document the brain regions underlying this effect.  Subjects judged the plausibility of sentences during speech articulation, a finger-tapping task, or without a concurrent task. In the absence of a secondary task, Broca's area (pars triangularis and pars opercularis demonstrated an increase in activity as a function of syntactic complexity. However, during concurrent speech articulation (but not finger-tapping this complexity effect was eliminated in the pars opercularis suggesting that this region supports sentence comprehension via its role in articulatory rehearsal.  Activity in the pars triangularis was modulated by the finger-tapping task, but not the speech articulation task.

  19. When meaning matters, look but don't touch: the effects of posture on reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoli, Christopher C; Du, Feng; Montana, Juan; Garverick, Susan; Abrams, Richard A

    2010-07-01

    Much of the reading that we do occurs near our hands. Previous research has revealed that spatial processing is enhanced near the hands, potentially benefiting several processes involved in reading; however, it is unknown whether semantic processing--another critical aspect of reading--is affected near the hands. While holding their hands either near to or far from a visual display, our subjects performed two tasks that drew on semantic processing: evaluation of the sensibleness of sentences, and the Stroop color-word interference task. We found evidence for impoverished semantic processing near the hands in both tasks. These results suggest a trade-off between spatial processing and semantic processing for the visual space around the hands. Readers are encouraged to be aware of this trade-off when choosing how to read a text, since both kinds of processing can be beneficial for reading.

  20. Reproducing American Sign Language Sentences: Cognitive Scaffolding in Working Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted eSupalla

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The American Sign Language Sentence Reproduction Test (ASL-SRT requires the precise reproduction of a series of ASL sentences increasing in complexity and length. Error analyses of such tasks provides insight into working memory and scaffolding processes. Data was collected from three groups expected to differ in fluency: deaf children, deaf adults and hearing adults, all users of ASL. Quantitative (correct/incorrect recall and qualitative error analyses were performed. Percent correct on the reproduction task supports its sensitivity to fluency as test performance clearly differed across the three groups studied. A linguistic analysis of errors further documented differing strategies and bias across groups. Subjects’ recall projected the affordance and constraints of deep linguistic representations to differing degrees, with subjects resorting to alternate processing strategies in the absence of linguistic knowledge. A qualitative error analysis allows us to capture generalizations about the relationship between error pattern and the cognitive scaffolding, which governs the sentence reproduction process. Highly fluent signers and less-fluent signers share common chokepoints on particular words in sentences. However, they diverge in heuristic strategy. Fluent signers, when they make an error, tend to preserve semantic details while altering morpho-syntactic domains. They produce syntactically correct sentences with equivalent meaning to the to-be-reproduced one, but these are not verbatim reproductions of the original sentence. In contrast, less-fluent signers tend to use a more linear strategy, preserving lexical status and word ordering while omitting local inflections, and occasionally resorting to visuo-motoric imitation. Thus, whereas fluent signers readily use top-down scaffolding in their working memory, less fluent signers fail to do so. Implications for current models of working memory across spoken and signed modalities are

  1. Jurors' locus of control and defendants' attractiveness in death penalty sentencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckham, Crystal M; Spray, Beverly J; Pietz, Christina A

    2007-06-01

    The authors examined the relationship between jurors' locus of control and defendants' attractiveness in death penalty sentencing. Ninety-eight participants voluntarily served as mock jurors. The authors administered J. B. Rotter's (1966) Internal-External Locus of Control Scale to participants and then randomly assigned them to a group with either an attractive or an unattractive defendant (represented by photographs). Participants read a murder vignette and selected a punishment--either a lifetime jail sentence or the death penalty-for the defendant. Results indicated that neither jurors' locus of control nor defendants' attractiveness influenced sentencing. However, jurors' age and gender significantly influenced sentencing. Men, with the exception of the youngest men, were more likely than women to choose the death penalty. Additionally, young women were more likely than older women to select the death penalty. The authors discuss the implications of these results for the study of jury behavior and bias.

  2. Experimental Evaluation of a Braille-Reading-Inspired Finger Motion Adaptive Algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melda Ulusoy

    Full Text Available Braille reading is a complex process involving intricate finger-motion patterns and finger-rubbing actions across Braille letters for the stimulation of appropriate nerves. Although Braille reading is performed by smoothly moving the finger from left-to-right, research shows that even fluent reading requires right-to-left movements of the finger, known as "reversal". Reversals are crucial as they not only enhance stimulation of nerves for correctly reading the letters, but they also show one to re-read the letters that were missed in the first pass. Moreover, it is known that reversals can be performed as often as in every sentence and can start at any location in a sentence. Here, we report experimental results on the feasibility of an algorithm that can render a machine to automatically adapt to reversal gestures of one's finger. Through Braille-reading-analogous tasks, the algorithm is tested with thirty sighted subjects that volunteered in the study. We find that the finger motion adaptive algorithm (FMAA is useful in achieving cooperation between human finger and the machine. In the presence of FMAA, subjects' performance metrics associated with the tasks have significantly improved as supported by statistical analysis. In light of these encouraging results, preliminary experiments are carried out with five blind subjects with the aim to put the algorithm to test. Results obtained from carefully designed experiments showed that subjects' Braille reading accuracy in the presence of FMAA was more favorable then when FMAA was turned off. Utilization of FMAA in future generation Braille reading devices thus holds strong promise.

  3. Experimental Evaluation of a Braille-Reading-Inspired Finger Motion Adaptive Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, Melda; Sipahi, Rifat

    2016-01-01

    Braille reading is a complex process involving intricate finger-motion patterns and finger-rubbing actions across Braille letters for the stimulation of appropriate nerves. Although Braille reading is performed by smoothly moving the finger from left-to-right, research shows that even fluent reading requires right-to-left movements of the finger, known as "reversal". Reversals are crucial as they not only enhance stimulation of nerves for correctly reading the letters, but they also show one to re-read the letters that were missed in the first pass. Moreover, it is known that reversals can be performed as often as in every sentence and can start at any location in a sentence. Here, we report experimental results on the feasibility of an algorithm that can render a machine to automatically adapt to reversal gestures of one's finger. Through Braille-reading-analogous tasks, the algorithm is tested with thirty sighted subjects that volunteered in the study. We find that the finger motion adaptive algorithm (FMAA) is useful in achieving cooperation between human finger and the machine. In the presence of FMAA, subjects' performance metrics associated with the tasks have significantly improved as supported by statistical analysis. In light of these encouraging results, preliminary experiments are carried out with five blind subjects with the aim to put the algorithm to test. Results obtained from carefully designed experiments showed that subjects' Braille reading accuracy in the presence of FMAA was more favorable then when FMAA was turned off. Utilization of FMAA in future generation Braille reading devices thus holds strong promise.

  4. Scanpath Based N-Gram Models for Predicting Reading Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishra, Abhijit; Bhattacharyya, Pushpak; Carl, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Predicting reading behavior is a difficult task. Reading behavior depends on various linguistic factors (e.g. sentence length, structural complexity etc.) and other factors (e.g individual's reading style, age etc.). Ideally, a reading model should be similar to a language model where the model i...

  5. Conceptual Combination During Sentence Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinney, David; Love, Tracy; Walenski, Matthew; Smith, Edward E.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment examined the time course of integration of modifier-noun (conceptual) combinations during auditory sentence comprehension using cross-modal lexical priming. The study revealed that during ongoing comprehension, there is initial activation of features of the noun prior to activation of (emergent) features of the entire conceptual combination. These results support compositionality in conceptual combination; that is, they indicate that features of the individual words constituting a conceptual combination are activated prior to combination of the words into a new concept. PMID:17576278

  6. Processing prenominal adjectives during sentence comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennison, Shelia M

    2010-08-01

    The time course of semantic processing of two prenominal adjectives contained within a noun phrase was investigated. In English, the ordering of adjectives is determined by their meaning. Adjectives specifying color (e.g., red) generally follow adjectives that specify size (e.g., big) and adjectives that specify aspects of general description (e.g., young). In two experiments, reading time was measured on sentences containing a noun phrase in which the order of prenominal adjectives was varied. In Exp. 1, the adjectives specified size and color (e.g., the big red balloon vs the red big balloon). In Exp. 2, the adjectives specified general description and color (e.g., the pretty yellow dress vs the yellow pretty dress). The results of both experiments showed that the processing difficulty arising from comprehending an adjective order violation emerged before the head noun was processed, indicating that comprehenders semantically processed the meanings of prenominal adjectives prior to interpreting the meaning of the head noun.

  7. Oculomotor and linguistic determinants of reading development: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huestegge, Lynn; Radach, Ralph; Corbic, Daniel; Huestegge, Sujata M

    2009-12-01

    We longitudinally assessed the development of oculomotor control in reading from second to fourth grade by having children read sentences with embedded target words of varying length and frequency. Additionally, participants completed oculomotor (pro-/anti-saccades) and linguistic tasks (word/picture naming), the latter containing the same item material as the reading task. Results revealed a 36% increase of reading efficiency. Younger readers utilized a global refixation strategy to gain more time for word decoding. Linguistic rather than oculomotor skills determined the development of reading abilities, although naming latencies of fourth graders did not reliably reflect word decoding processes in normal sentence reading.

  8. ye movement parameters while reading show cognitive processes of structural analysis of written speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latanov, Alexander V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of the published data on eye movement parameters while reading sentences in different languages with both local and global syntactic ambiguity. A locally ambiguous sentence contains a syntactically problematic phrase that leads to only one interpretation, while a globally ambiguous sentence has more than one distinct interpretation. In the first case the ambiguity persists only to the end of the sentence, when it is successfully resolved; in the second case the ambiguity is still present after reading the whole sentence. The obvious difficulty in analyzing the structure of locally and globally ambiguous sentences leads to increased reading time compared with unambiguous sentences. The syntactic ambiguity increases two major parameters: the fixation duration when reading words critical for interpreting the sentence, and the frequency of regressive saccades to reread those words. The reading time for critical words, disambiguating the local ambiguity, depends on the principle of early/late closure (i.e., high/low attachment: preferring a recurrent pattern to associate the critical word with a distant or closer word, respectively (as determined by its position in the sentence, and differs across languages. The first study of eye movement parameters in reading globally syntactic ambiguous sentences in the Russian language is reported in this paper. Our findings open up the prospects of quantitative studies of syntactic disambiguation in Slavonic and Romano-Germanic languages.

  9. The ERP response to the amount of information conveyed by words in sentences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank, S.L.; Otten, L.J.; Galli, G.; Vigliocco, G.

    2015-01-01

    Reading times on words in a sentence depend on the amount of information the words convey, which can be estimated by probabilistic language models. We investigate whether event-related potentials (ERPs), too, are predicted by information measures. Three types of language models estimated four

  10. N400 and P600 or the role of the ERP correlates in sentence comprehension: some applications to the Italian language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Pozzoli, Uberto

    2004-07-01

    In the present study, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were applied to the study of language comprehension in the Italian language. The ERPs were recorded from 10 electrodes while the participants read (Experiment 1) or listened (Experiment 2) to sentences containing semantic or syntactic anomalies. Final words that were inconsistent with the sentence context elicited a negative wave at about 400 ms poststimulus that was more concentrated in the posterior sites of the scalp, whereas final words that were incongruous with the grammatical structure (subject-verb nonagreement) elicited a positive wave at about 600 ms poststimulus that was homogeneously distributed on the scalp. The authors found no differences based on the perceptual modality of the stimulus (visual or auditory), nor did they find different ERP correlates as a function of task relevance (explicit-implicit task induction). The available evidence indicated that the ERP response to semantic anomalies was at least partially distinct from the ERP response to syntactic anomalies, and that a syntactic parser is a plausible process included in sentence comprehension. The two semantic and syntactic effects appear as automatic processes of the decoding of the anomalies and also modality-independent processes. Cross-linguistic applications are considered in the general discussion.

  11. Braille Reading Is Less Efficient Than Visual Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Leon E.; And Others

    The reading performances of fifteen blind readers and fifteen sighted readers were compared by evaluating the reading performances of each reader reading at instructional level from Lippincott's "Basic Reading Series" and from Form A of the "Gray Oral Reading Test." Nine matched pairs of subjects read at grade one first reader level and six pairs…

  12. The Effects of Sentence-Combining Instruction on the Writing of Fourth-Grade Students with Writing Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddler, Bruce; Behforooz, Bita; Asaro, Kristie

    2008-01-01

    One area of writing that may be particularly problematic for less skilled writers and writers with learning disabilities is constructing well-formed sentences. In this single-subject design study, sentence-combining practice with a peer-assistance component was used to improve the writing ability of 6 fourth-grade students with and without…

  13. The specifics of suspending prison sentences and the execution of incarceration measures with regard to pregnancy and the personality of a woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Women as criminals who have received prison sentences have, if certain conditions are met, special rights tied to their reproductive function. This paper highlights the issues which women who have received prison sentences face, considering that there is only one institution in the Republic of Serbia in which women serve prison sentences. Special regard will be given to pregnant women expecting the execution of a prison sentence, their right to have the sentence suspended, as well as their right to be on temporary licence. The subject of this paper will also be what is perhaps the most complex issue: the incarceration of pregnant women.

  14. Aging and Individual Differences in Binding During Sentence Understanding: Evidence from Temporary and Global Syntactic Attachment Ambiguities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Brennan R.; Grison, Sarah; Gao, Xuefei; Christianson, Kiel; Morrow, Daniel G.; Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A. L.

    2013-01-01

    We report an investigation of aging and individual differences in binding information during sentence understanding. An age-continuous sample of adults (N = 91), ranging from 18 to 81 years of age, read sentences in which a relative clause could be attached high to a head noun NP1, attached low to its modifying prepositional phrase NP2 (e.g., The son of the princess who scratched himself / herself in public was humiliated), or in which the attachment site of the relative clause was ultimately indeterminate (e.g., The maid of the princess who scratched herself in public was humiliated). Word-by-word reading times and comprehension (e.g., who scratched?) were measured. A series of mixed-effects models were fit to the data, revealing: (1) that, on average, NP1-attached sentences were harder to process and comprehend than NP2-attached sentences; (2) that these average effects were independently moderated by verbal working memory capacity and reading experience, with effects that were most pronounced in the oldest participants and; (3) that readers on average did not allocate extra time to resolve global ambiguities, though older adults with higher working memory span did. Findings are discussed in relation to current models of lifespan cognitive development, working memory, language experience, and the role of prosodic segmentation strategies in reading. Collectively, these data suggest that aging brings differences in sentence understanding, and these differences may depend on independent influences of verbal working memory capacity and reading experience. PMID:24291806

  15. Conflict and Cognitive Control during Sentence Comprehension: Recruitment of a Frontal Network during the Processing of Spanish Object-First Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rio, David; Maestu, Fernando; Lopez-Higes, Ramon; Moratti, Stephan; Gutierrez, Ricardo; Maestu, Ceferino; del-Pozo, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    During sentence processing there is a preference to treat the first noun phrase found as the subject and agent, unless marked the other way. This preference would lead to a conflict in thematic role assignment when the syntactic structure conforms to a non-canonical object-before-subject pattern. Left perisylvian and fronto-parietal brain networks…

  16. Teachers Sourcebook for Extensive Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, George; Farrell, Thomas S. C.

    2012-01-01

    The best way for students to learn to read and to come to love reading is--surprise, surprise--by reading in quantity. Unfortunately, many of today's students read far too little. This lack of time spent reading is particularly unfortunate, as reading constitutes a bedrock skill, essential in all subject areas. Thus, we teachers need to devote…

  17. Reading visual Braille with a retinal prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Zaccarin Lauritzen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Retinal prostheses, which restore partial vision to patients blinded by outer retinal degeneration, are currently in clinical trial. The Argus II retinal prosthesis system was recently awarded CE approval for commercial use in Europe. While retinal prosthesis users have achieved remarkable visual improvement to the point of reading letters and short sentences, the reading process is still fairly cumbersome. This study investigates the possibility of using an epiretinal prosthesis to stimulate visual Braille as a sensory substitution for reading written letters and words. The Argus II retinal prosthesis system, used in this study, includes a 10 x 6 electrode array implanted epiretinally, a tiny video camera mounted on a pair of glasses, and a wearable computer that processes the video and determines the stimulation current of each electrode in real time. In the Braille reading system, individual letters are created by a subset of dots from a 3 by 2 array of six dots. For the visual Braille experiment, a grid of six electrodes was chosen out of the 10 x 6 Argus II array. Groups of these electrodes were then directly stimulated (bypassing the camera to create visual percepts of individual Braille letters. Experiments were performed in a single subject. Single letters were stimulated in an alternative forced choice (AFC paradigm, and short 2-4-letter words were stimulated (one letter at a time in an open-choice reading paradigm. The subject correctly identified 89% of single letters, 80% of 2-letter, 60% of 3-letter, and 70% of 4-letter words. This work suggests that text can successfully be stimulated and read as visual Braille in retinal prosthesis patients.

  18. Reading visual braille with a retinal prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritzen, Thomas Z; Harris, Jordan; Mohand-Said, Saddek; Sahel, Jose A; Dorn, Jessy D; McClure, Kelly; Greenberg, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    Retinal prostheses, which restore partial vision to patients blinded by outer retinal degeneration, are currently in clinical trial. The Argus II retinal prosthesis system was recently awarded CE approval for commercial use in Europe. While retinal prosthesis users have achieved remarkable visual improvement to the point of reading letters and short sentences, the reading process is still fairly cumbersome. This study investigates the possibility of using an epiretinal prosthesis to stimulate visual braille as a sensory substitution for reading written letters and words. The Argus II retinal prosthesis system, used in this study, includes a 10 × 6 electrode array implanted epiretinally, a tiny video camera mounted on a pair of glasses, and a wearable computer that processes the video and determines the stimulation current of each electrode in real time. In the braille reading system, individual letters are created by a subset of dots from a 3 by 2 array of six dots. For the visual braille experiment, a grid of six electrodes was chosen out of the 10 × 6 Argus II array. Groups of these electrodes were then directly stimulated (bypassing the camera) to create visual percepts of individual braille letters. Experiments were performed in a single subject. Single letters were stimulated in an alternative forced choice (AFC) paradigm, and short 2-4-letter words were stimulated (one letter at a time) in an open-choice reading paradigm. The subject correctly identified 89% of single letters, 80% of 2-letter, 60% of 3-letter, and 70% of 4-letter words. This work suggests that text can successfully be stimulated and read as visual braille in retinal prosthesis patients.

  19. Sentencing of homicide offenders in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, B.; Wingerden, S. van; Nieuwbeerta, P.

    2010-01-01

    Empirical investigations of criminal sentencing represent a vast research enterprise in criminology. However, this research has been restricted almost exclusively to U.S. contexts, and often it suffers from key data limitations. As such, an examination of more detailed international sentencing data

  20. Working Memory and Binding in Sentence Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, A. D.; Hitch, G. J.; Allen, R. J.

    2009-01-01

    A series of experiments explored whether chunking in short-term memory for verbal materials depends on attentionally limited executive processes. Secondary tasks were used to disrupt components of working memory and chunking was indexed by the sentence superiority effect, whereby immediate recall is better for sentences than word lists. To…

  1. Example sentences in bilingual specialised dictionaries assisting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    their own source language culture but cannot be expected to know how these are realised in a for- eign language. Bilingual ..... Consider the following two sentences exemplifying the use of the British legal term counsel ... that the sentence shows stylistic differences in technical discourse between the two languages, in that ...

  2. Elaboration over a discourse facilitates retrieval in sentence processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa eTroyer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Language comprehension requires access to stored knowledge and the ability to combine knowledge in new, meaningful ways. Previous work has shown that processing linguistically more complex expressions (‘Texas cattle rancher’ vs. ‘rancher’ leads to slow-downs in reading during initial processing, possibly reflecting effort in combining information. Conversely, when this information must subsequently be retrieved (as in filler-gap constructions, processing is facilitated for more complex expressions, possibly because more semantic cues are available during retrieval. To follow up on this hypothesis, we tested whether information distributed across a short discourse can similarly provide effective cues for retrieval. Participants read texts introducing two referents (e.g., two senators, one of whom was described in greater detail than the other (e.g., ‘The Democrat had voted for one of the senators, and the Republican had voted for the other, a man from Ohio who was running for president’. The final sentence (e.g., ‘The senator who the {Republican / Democrat} had voted for…’ contained a relative clause picking out either the Many-Cue referent (with ‘Republican’ or the One-Cue referent (with ‘Democrat’. We predicted facilitated retrieval (faster reading times for the Many-Cue condition at the verb region (‘had voted for’, where readers could understand that ‘The senator’ is the object of the verb. As predicted, this pattern was observed at the retrieval region and continued throughout the rest of the sentence. Participants also completed the Author/Magazine Recognition Tests (ART/MRT; Stanovich & West, 1989, providing a proxy for world knowledge. Since higher ART/MRT scores may index (a greater experience accessing relevant knowledge and/or (b richer/more highly-structured representations in semantic memory, we predicted it would be positively associated with effects of elaboration on retrieval. We did not observe

  3. Underlying skills of oral and silent reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Boer, Madelon; van Bergen, Elsje; de Jong, Peter F

    2014-12-01

    Many studies have examined reading and reading development. The majority of these studies, however, focused on oral reading rather than on the more dominant silent reading mode. Similarly, it is common practice to assess oral reading abilities rather than silent reading abilities in schools and in diagnosis of reading impairments. More important, insights gained through examinations of oral reading tend to be generalized to silent reading. In the current study, we examined whether such generalizations are justified. We directly compared oral and silent reading fluency by examining whether these reading modes relate to the same underlying skills. In total, 132 fourth graders read words, sentences, and text orally, and 123 classmates read the same material silently. As underlying skills, we considered phonological awareness, rapid naming, and visual attention span. All skills correlated significantly with both reading modes. Phonological awareness contributed equally to oral and silent reading. Rapid naming, however, correlated more strongly with oral reading than with silent reading. Visual attention span correlated equally strongly with both reading modes but showed a significant unique contribution only to silent reading. In short, we showed that oral and silent reading indeed are fairly similar reading modes, based on the relations with reading-related cognitive skills. However, we also found differences that warrant caution in generalizing findings across reading modes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. REVISITING THE SEMANTICS OF THE SENTENCES WITH INITIAL ‘IT’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chynar AMANOVA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available REVISITING THE SEMANTICS OF THE SENTENCES WITH INITIAL ‘IT’ Abstract: The review of monographic works concerning the impersonal sentences in English shows that in some of them ‘It’ is regarded only as a formal subject. This non-real subject does not indicate any agent of the action. Its appearance is mostly conditioned by language laws, which in the case of English is the fixed word order: S-P. The questions concerning the origin and nature of impersonal sentences are of great interest to the linguists. The impersonal sentences present a kind of exception to the syntactical rule of any language as they contradict to the fact that every sentence should have of a subject and a predicate. Therefore, linguistic investigation of this problem can not be made without seeking aid from logic and psychology, and even philosophy since the results of such an inquiry may help throw light on the relation of grammar to logic. The analyses of some researches in this field reveal that some authors underscore the ambient character of the pronoun “It”. Guided by this point of view, the purpose of this article is to analyze some types of the sentences with the initial “It”, where the ambient meaning acquires certain communicative signification depending on the context it has been used.

  5. Improving Coherence of The Students’ Sentences by Applying Thematic Progression And Personal Blog In The Sentence-Based Writing Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Suryo Priyatmojo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at describing what kinds of thematic progression patterns mostly employed by the students, describing how to apply thematic progression theory and personal blog in the sentence-based writing class, and finding out whether the use of thematic progression theory and personal blog give positive significances to coherence of the students’ sentences. This is an action research study employing two cycles. The subject of the study was 24 students of group 2, in a class of sentence-based writing (SBW, and the object of the study was students’ sentences created by the students in the teaching and learning process (TLP. The result of the study shows that thematic progression patterns moslty employed by the students are constant theme pattern followed by zig zag and multiple theme patterns. In TLP, the materials were devided and given to the students in two cycles. The first cycle focused on introducing the thematic progression theory and its kinds of patterns. Then, in the next cycle the students focused on sharing ideas with other classmates via individual blogs. Based on the result of the study, teaching SBW using thematic progression theory gives its positive significance by varied patterns used by the students. It can be seen from the analysis of the students’ sentences from pretest, paragraf 1, paragraf 2, paragraf 3 and posttest. The students also give positive responses upon its teaching and learning process using thematic progression and personal blogs based on the pre and post test questionnaire data. It is hoped that the result of the study gives positive contribution to the students in preparing them to write in bigger contexts - paragraph-based writing, genre-based writng and academic writing in the next coming semesters.

  6. Distinctive neural signatures for negative sentences in Hindi: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Uttam; Padakannaya, Prakash; Mishra, Ramesh K; Khetrapal, C L

    2013-06-01

    We examined cortical activations using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique in skilled native Hindi readers while they performed a 'target-probe' semantic judgment task on affirmative and negative sentences. Hindi, an Indo-Aryan language widely spoken in India, follows subject-object-verb (SOV) order canonically but allows free word order. The common cortical regions involved in affirmative and negative sentence conditions included bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), left parietal cortex (BA 7/40), left fusiform (BA 37), bilateral supplementary motor area (SMA) (BA 6), bilateral middle temporal gyrus (BA 21), and bilateral occipital area (BA 17/18). While no distinct region was activated for affirmative sentences, we observed activations in the region of bilateral anterior temporal pole for negative sentence. The behavioral results showed no significant mean difference for reaction times (RT) and accuracy measures between affirmative and negative sentences. However, the imaging results suggest the recruitment of anterior temporal pole in processing of negative sentences. Region of interest (ROI) analysis for selected regions showed higher signal intensity for negative sentences possibly indicating the associated inherent difficulty level of processing, especially when integrating information related to negations.

  7. Group Counseling with Reading Disabled Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, Paul S.; Anderson, Robert P.

    1974-01-01

    Equal numbers of reading disabled children from each of three schools were assigned to treatment or control conditions. After ten group counseling sessions students in the treated groups showed significant increases in oral and reading vocabulary skills. Sentence comprehension was not improved by counseling. (Author)

  8. Context updating during sentence comprehension: the effect of aboutness topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmester, Juliane; Spalek, Katharina; Wartenburger, Isabell

    2014-10-01

    To communicate efficiently, speakers typically link their utterances to the discourse environment and adapt their utterances to the listener's discourse representation. Information structure describes how linguistic information is packaged within a discourse to optimize information transfer. The present study investigates the nature and time course of context integration (i.e., aboutness topic vs. neutral context) on the comprehension of German declarative sentences with either subject-before-object (SO) or object-before-subject (OS) word order using offline comprehensibility judgments and online event-related potentials (ERPs). Comprehensibility judgments revealed that the topic context selectively facilitated comprehension of stories containing OS (i.e., non-canonical) sentences. In the ERPs, the topic context effect was reflected in a less pronounced late positivity at the sentence-initial object. In line with the Syntax-Discourse Model, we argue that these context-induced effects are attributable to reduced processing costs for updating the current discourse model. The results support recent approaches of neurocognitive models of discourse processing. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Visual Tongue-Twister Effect: Phonological Activation in Silent Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutchen, Deborah; Perfetti, Charles A.

    The assumption that phonological processes support comprehension guided two experiments in manipulating the similarity of the consonant code both within silently read sentences and between these sentences and concurrently vocalized phrases. The first experiment examined whether tongue-twisters would take longer to read than phonetically…

  10. Linguistic Complexity and Information Structure in Korean: Evidence from Eye-Tracking during Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoonhyoung; Lee, Hanjung; Gordon, Peter C.

    2007-01-01

    The nature of the memory processes that support language comprehension and the manner in which information packaging influences online sentence processing were investigated in three experiments that used eye-tracking during reading to measure the ease of understanding complex sentences in Korean. All three experiments examined reading of embedded…

  11. Reading in Spanish as a Second Language: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkin, Elizabeth; Nicol, Janet; Brooks, Zachary; Zavaleta, Kaitlyn Leigh

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we examine sentence reading in low-proficiency Spanish learners using an eye-tracking methodology. This method reveals the real-time, uninterrupted process of reading comprehension, and can therefore shed light on L2 learners' functional proficiency. We created sentence pairs that were identical except for one word. The…

  12. How Fast Can Predictability Influence Word Skipping during Reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Gemma; Drieghe, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Participants' eye movements were tracked when reading sentences in which target word predictability was manipulated to being unpredictable from the preceding context, predictable from the sentence preceding the one in which the target word was embedded, or predictable from the adjective directly preceding the target word. Results show that there…

  13. The effects of print exposure on sentence processing and memory in older adults: Evidence for efficiency and reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Brennan R; Gao, Xuefei; Noh, Soo Rim; Anderson, Carolyn J; Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A L

    2012-01-01

    The present study was an examination of how exposure to print affects sentence processing and memory in older readers. A sample of older adults (N = 139; Mean age = 72) completed a battery of cognitive and linguistic tests and read a series of sentences for recall. Word-by-word reading times were recorded and generalized linear mixed effects models were used to estimate components representing attentional allocation to word-level and textbase-level processes. Older adults with higher levels of print exposure showed greater efficiency in word-level processing and in the immediate instantiation of new concepts, but allocated more time to semantic integration at clause boundaries. While lower levels of working memory were associated with smaller wrap-up effects, individuals with higher levels of print exposure showed a reduced effect of working memory on sentence wrap-up. Importantly, print exposure was not only positively associated with sentence memory, but was also found to buffer the effects of working memory on sentence recall. These findings suggest that the increased efficiency of component reading processes that come with life-long habits of literacy buffer the effects of working memory decline on comprehension and contribute to maintaining skilled reading among older adults.

  14. [The biopolitical production "impaired" subjects within the scope of "Action T4" - a re-reading of "I accuse"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermann, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The history of the Nazi "euthanasia programme" named "Aktion T4" has been examined from a biopolitical perspective for some time. However, these studies have not focused on the analytics of biopolitical practices of subjectivization as an essential element of the Foucaultian concept. The use of such a theoretical approach can be used in combination with new and substantial empirical research results. The Heidelberg DFG research programme evaluated the "T4" medical records statistically in order to conclusively determine which features had significant importance for selection by the "T4" experts. The inability to work or having an incurable mental illness were the criteria by which psychiatrists and "T4" experts subjectivized patients as "lives not worth living". Considering these new results and a biopolitical approach as starting point, it is time to reconsider the Nazi "euthanasia" propaganda movie "Ich klage an" ("I Accuse", 1941). When scholars began to study the production process of the movie in the 1980s, they looked at the narrative and the movie characters from an instrumental perspective. In other words, they examined how the "T4" protagonists and filmmakers sought to create a film which affected the viewers' opinion in a specific way intentionally influenced by them. According to that line of thought, the character Hanna was neglected because she was considered to be the morally inoffensive disguise of the intended propaganda massage. However, two works from the 1990s which were gender history-oriented finally focused on Hanna and the way the film narrative turns her into a subject "not worth living". Based on these considerations, this article states its thesis. The criteria of the film to subjectivize Hanna share many basic characteristics with those of the subjectivization process of the "T4" victims. To prove this statement, the analytics of the movie are combined with the results of the DFG project. Through the combination of both types of sources

  15. Lack of contextual-word predictability during reading in patients with mild Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Gerardo; Manes, Facundo; Rotstein, Nora P; Colombo, Oscar; Mandolesi, Pablo; Politi, Luis E; Agamennoni, Osvaldo

    2014-09-01

    In the present work we analyzed the effect of contextual word predictability on the eye movement behavior of patients with mild Alzheimer disease (AD) compared to age-matched controls, by using the eyetracking technique and lineal mixed models. Twenty AD patients and 40 age-matched controls participated in the study. We first evaluated gaze duration during reading low and highly predictable sentences. AD patients showed an increase in gaze duration, compared to controls, both in sentences of low or high predictability. In controls, highly predictable sentences led to shorter gaze durations; by contrary, AD patients showed similar gaze durations in both types of sentences. Similarly, gaze duration in controls was affected by the cloze predictability of word N and N+1, whereas it was the same in AD patients. In contrast, the effects of word frequency and word length were similar in controls and AD patients. Our results imply that contextual-word predictability, whose processing is proposed to require memory retrieval, facilitated reading behavior in healthy subjects, but this facilitation was lost in early AD patients. This loss might reveal impairments in brain areas such as those corresponding to working memory, memory retrieval, and semantic memory functions that are already present at early stages of AD. In contrast, word frequency and length processing might require less complex mechanisms, which were still retained by AD patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study measuring how patients with early AD process well-defined words embedded in sentences of high and low predictability. Evaluation of the resulting changes in eye movement behavior might provide a useful tool for a more precise early diagnosis of AD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Classification of Clinically Useful Sentences in MEDLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morid, Mohammad Amin; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha; Fiszman, Marcelo; Raja, Kalpana; Del Fiol, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, we investigated a sentence classification model that uses semantic features to extract clinically useful sentences from UpToDate, a synthesized clinical evidence resource. In the present study, we assess the generalizability of the sentence classifier to Medline abstracts. We applied the classification model to an independent gold standard of high quality clinical studies from Medline. Then, the classifier trained on UpToDate sentences was optimized by re-retraining the classifier with Medline abstracts and adding a sentence location feature. The previous classifier yielded an F-measure of 58% on Medline versus 67% on UpToDate. Re-training the classifier on Medline improved F-measure to 68%; and to 76% (p<0.01) after adding the sentence location feature. The classifier's model and input features generalized to Medline abstracts, but the classifier needed to be retrained on Medline to achieve equivalent performance. Sentence location provided additional contribution to the overall classification performance.

  17. Dopamine supports sentence comprehension in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M; Glosser, G; Kalmanson, J; Morris, J; Stern, M B; Hurtig, H I

    2001-03-01

    To determine the role of dopamine in the executive resource component of sentence comprehension. We studied sentence-picture matching in 20 right-handed, non-demented, native English speakers with mild Parkinson's disease (PD) when 'on' and 'off' their levodopa, taking into account disease duration to control for endogenous dopamine metabolism. We also administered a verbal working memory measure that does not involve specific grammatical manipulations. PD patients 'off' levodopa demonstrated a significant discrepancy in their comprehension of grammatically complex sentences compared to grammatically simpler sentences that was not evident when PD patients were 'on' levodopa. An error analysis demonstrated that impaired comprehension of grammatically complex sentences when 'off' levodopa was associated with poorer performance on foils requiring working memory resources. Performance on an independent measure of verbal working memory correlated only with comprehension of grammatically complex sentences during levodopa supplementation, but working memory according to this measure did not differ during 'on' and 'off' states. Dopamine supports the executive resources contributing to sentence comprehension in PD.

  18. Verb and sentence production and comprehension in aphasia: Northwestern Assessment of Verbs and Sentences (NAVS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho-Reyes, Soojin; Thompson, Cynthia K

    Verbs and sentences are often impaired in individuals with aphasia, and differential impairment patterns are associated with different types of aphasia. With currently available test batteries, however, it is challenging to provide a comprehensive profile of aphasic language impairments because they do not examine syntactically important properties of verbs and sentences. This study presents data derived from the Northwestern Assessment of Verbs and Sentences (NAVS; Thompson, 2011), a new test battery designed to examine syntactic deficits in aphasia. The NAVS includes tests for verb naming and comprehension, and production of verb argument structure in simple active sentences, with each examining the effects of the number and optionality of arguments. The NAVS also tests production and comprehension of canonical and non-canonical sentences. A total of 59 aphasic participants (35 agrammatic and 24 anomic) were tested using a set of action pictures. Participants produced verbs or sentences for the production subtests and identified pictures corresponding to auditorily provided verbs or sentences for the comprehension subtests. The agrammatic group, compared to the anomic group, performed significantly more poorly on all subtests except verb comprehension, and for both groups comprehension was less impaired than production. On verb naming and argument structure production tests both groups exhibited difficulty with three-argument verbs, affected by the number and optionality of arguments. However, production of sentences using three-argument verbs was more impaired in the agrammatic, compared to the anomic, group. On sentence production and comprehension tests, the agrammatic group showed impairments in all types of non-canonical sentences, whereas the anomic group exhibited difficulty primarily with the most difficult, object relative, structures. Results show that verb and sentence deficits seen in individuals with agrammatic aphasia are largely influenced by

  19. Text Complexity and Oral Reading Prosody in Young Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Rebekah George; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the impact of text difficulty on the oral reading prosody of young children. Fluency in reading is ideally determined by measuring rate, accuracy, and prosodic qualities in the oral reading of children. Spectrographic measurements of four prosodic variables--sentence-final F[subscript 0] change, intonation…

  20. What’s the Story? The Tale of Reading Fluency Told at Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Christopher F. A.; Gaab, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Fluent readers process written text rapidly and accurately, and comprehend what they read. Historically, reading fluency has been modeled as the product of discrete skills such as single word decoding. More recent conceptualizations emphasize that fluent reading is the product of competency in, and the coordination of, multiple cognitive sub-skills (a multi-componential view). In this study, we examined how the pattern of activation in core reading regions changes as the ability to read fluently is manipulated through reading speed. We evaluated 13 right-handed adults with a novel fMRI task assessing fluent sentence reading and lower-order letter reading at each participant’s normal fluent reading speed, as well as constrained (slowed) and accelerated reading speeds. Comparing fluent reading conditions with rest revealed regions including bilateral occipito-fusiform, left middle temporal, and inferior frontal gyral clusters across reading speeds. The selectivity of these regions’ responses to fluent sentence reading was shown by comparison with the letter reading task. Region of interest analyses showed that at constrained and accelerated speeds these regions responded significantly more to fluent sentence reading. Critically, as reading speed increased, activation increased in a single reading-related region: occipital/fusiform cortex (left > right). These results demonstrate that while brain regions engaged in reading respond selectively during fluent reading, these regions respond differently as the ability to read fluently is manipulated. Implications for our understanding of reading fluency, reading development, and reading disorders are discussed. PMID:21954000

  1. What's the story? The tale of reading fluency told at speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Christopher F A; Gaab, Nadine

    2012-11-01

    Fluent readers process written text rapidly and accurately, and comprehend what they read. Historically, reading fluency has been modeled as the product of discrete skills such as single word decoding. More recent conceptualizations emphasize that fluent reading is the product of competency in, and the coordination of, multiple cognitive sub-skills (a multi-componential view). In this study, we examined how the pattern of activation in core reading regions changes as the ability to read fluently is manipulated through reading speed. We evaluated 13 right-handed adults with a novel fMRI task assessing fluent sentence reading and lower-order letter reading at each participant's normal fluent reading speed, as well as constrained (slowed) and accelerated reading speeds. Comparing fluent reading conditions with rest revealed regions including bilateral occipito-fusiform, left middle temporal, and inferior frontal gyral clusters across reading speeds. The selectivity of these regions' responses to fluent sentence reading was shown by comparison with the letter reading task. Region of interest analyses showed that at constrained and accelerated speeds these regions responded significantly more to fluent sentence reading. Critically, as reading speed increased, activation increased in a single reading-related region: occipital/fusiform cortex (left > right). These results demonstrate that while brain regions engaged in reading respond selectively during fluent reading, these regions respond differently as the ability to read fluently is manipulated. Implications for our understanding of reading fluency, reading development, and reading disorders are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Word Order, Referential Expression, and Case Cues to the Acquisition of Transitive Sentences in Italian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbot-Smith, Kirsten; Serratrice, Ludovica

    2015-01-01

    In Study 1 we analyzed Italian child-directed-speech (CDS) and selected the three most frequent active transitive sentence frames used with overt subjects. In Study 2 we experimentally investigated how Italian-speaking children aged 2;6, 3;6, and 4;6 comprehended these orders with novel verbs when the cues of animacy, gender, and subject-verb…

  3. A Guide to Sentencing DUI Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    This sentencing guide is designed to assist judges and prosecutors in reducing recidivism among people convicted of drinking and driving offenses. Today's driving under the influence (DUI) arrestee is often a repeat offender and resistant to deterren...

  4. Sentence Comparison: An Activity for Teaching Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Edgar H.

    2005-01-01

    An English teacher provides some sentence comparison activities that enlarge students' linguistic resources for writing. He believes that students can learn to revise for style if they recognize the stylistic choices writers make.

  5. Neurodynamics of sentence interpretation: ERP evidence from French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isel, Frédéric; Hahne, Anja; Maess, Burkhard; Friederici, Angela D

    2007-03-01

    Sentence interpretation was examined with event-related brain potentials (ERPs). The ERPs were recorded while participants listened to French sentences containing a subject-modifying relative clause (SRC). These were either correct, semantically incorrect, syntactically incorrect, or doubly (syntactically and semantically) incorrect. The semantic anomaly realized as a selectional restriction violation was associated with an N400. The syntactic anomaly realized as a phrase structure violation in the SRC elicited a frontal negativity between 150 and 600 ms. This negativity was more pronounced in the left than in the right hemisphere in the early time window (150-300 ms). In a later time window (300-600 ms), it was more broadly distributed including anterior and posterior regions, but with a maximum over the anterior recording sites. Finally, a centro-parietal late positivity (P600) was found between 600 and 1000 ms. While syntactic and semantic information in the double violation condition did not interact between 150 and 300 ms, they did interact between 300 and 600 ms. This finding supports serial models of sentence processing that postulate an initial autonomous stage of phrase structure building and a late stage of interaction.

  6. Constraint satisfaction as a theory of sentence processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, L

    1995-11-01

    Various problems with the constraint satisfaction model are discussed. It is argued that the empirical evidence presented in support of the model does not concern predictions of the model that diverge from those of depth-first (one analysis at a time) models. Several methodological problems are also noted. As a theory of sentence processing, the model is inadequate. It fails to account for the assignment of local structure, global structure, structure involving discontinuous dependencies, long-distance dependencies, and adjunct phrases. It makes incorrect predictions about the timing of syntactic analysis. Further, because syntactic structure is available only through activation of syntactic projections stored in the lexical entry of words, the model leaves entirely unexplained the myriad psycholinguistic findings demonstrating independence of lexical and syntactic structure (in Event Related Potential studies, code-switching, pure syntactic priming, etc). Finally, the model is not restrictive or explanatory, providing an account that largely consists of post hoc correlations between frequency counts or subjects' ratings of sentences and processing time data for the same sentences.

  7. The Contributions of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reading Motivation to the Development of Reading Competence over Summer Vacation

    OpenAIRE

    Schaffner, Ellen; Schiefele, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    This study addressed the role of reading motivation as a potential determinant of losses or gains in reading competence over six weeks of summer vacation (SV). Based on a sample of 223 third-grade elementary students, structural equation analyses showed that intrinsic reading motivation before SV contributed positively to both word and sentence comprehension after SV when controlling for comprehension performance before SV. These effects were mediated by reading amount. Extrinsic reading moti...

  8. Video2Sentence and Vice Versa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    which outperforms a low-level audiovisual representation. Our novelty is to demonstrate the capabilities of semantic representations for translating ...demonstrate the translations using arbi- trary web videos and sentences related to everyday events. What is more, we will provide an automatically generated...explanation, in terms of concept detectors, on why a partic- ular video or sentence has been retrieved as the most likely translation . Categories and

  9. Nature, nurture, and capital punishment: How evidence of a genetic-environment interaction, future dangerousness, and deliberation affect sentencing decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Natalie; Greene, Edie

    2017-09-07

    Research has shown that the low-activity MAOA genotype in conjunction with a history of childhood maltreatment increases the likelihood of violent behaviors. This genetic-environment (G × E) interaction has been introduced as mitigation during the sentencing phase of capital trials, yet there is scant data on its effectiveness. This study addressed that issue. In a factorial design that varied mitigating evidence offered by the defense [environmental (i.e., childhood maltreatment), genetic, G × E, or none] and the likelihood of the defendant's future dangerousness (low or high), 600 mock jurors read sentencing phase evidence in a capital murder trial, rendered individual verdicts, and half deliberated as members of a jury to decide a sentence of death or life imprisonment. The G × E evidence had little mitigating effect on sentencing preferences: participants who received the G × E evidence were no less likely to sentence the defendant to death than those who received evidence of childhood maltreatment or a control group that received neither genetic nor maltreatment evidence. Participants with evidence of a G × E interaction were more likely to sentence the defendant to death when there was a high risk of future dangerousness than when there was a low risk. Sentencing preferences were more lenient after deliberation than before. We discuss limitations and future directions. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. When language switching has no apparent cost: Lexical access in sentence context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W. Gullifer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We report two experiments that investigate the effects of sentence context on bilingual lexical access in Spanish and English. Highly proficient Spanish-English bilinguals read sentences in Spanish and English that included a marked word to be named. The word was either a cognate with similar orthography and/or phonology in the two languages, or a matched non-cognate control. Sentences appeared in one language alone (i.e., Spanish or English and target words were not predictable on the basis of the preceding semantic context. In Experiment 1, we mixed the language of the sentence within a block such that sentences appeared in an alternating run in Spanish or in English. These conditions partly resemble normally occurring inter-sentential code-switching. In these mixed language sequences, cognates were named faster than non-cognates in both languages. There were no effects of switching the language of the sentence. In Experiment 2, with Spanish-English bilinguals matched closely to those who participated in the first experiment, we blocked the language of the sentences to encourage language-specific processes. The results were virtually identical to those of the mixed language experiment. In both cases, target cognates were named faster than non-cognates, and the magnitude of the effect did not change according to the broader context. Taken together, the results support the predictions of the Bilingual Interactive Activation + Model (Dijkstra & Van Heuven, 2002 in demonstrating that bilingual lexical access is language nonselective even under conditions in which language-specific cues should enable selective processing. They also demonstrate that, in contrast to lexical switching from one language to the other, inter-sentential code-switching of the sort in which bilinguals frequently engage, imposes no significant costs to lexical processing.

  11. When Language Switching has No Apparent Cost: Lexical Access in Sentence Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullifer, Jason W; Kroll, Judith F; Dussias, Paola E

    2013-01-01

    We report two experiments that investigate the effects of sentence context on bilingual lexical access in Spanish and English. Highly proficient Spanish-English bilinguals read sentences in Spanish and English that included a marked word to be named. The word was either a cognate with similar orthography and/or phonology in the two languages, or a matched non-cognate control. Sentences appeared in one language alone (i.e., Spanish or English) and target words were not predictable on the basis of the preceding semantic context. In Experiment 1, we mixed the language of the sentence within a block such that sentences appeared in an alternating run in Spanish or in English. These conditions partly resemble normally occurring inter-sentential code-switching. In these mixed-language sequences, cognates were named faster than non-cognates in both languages. There were no effects of switching the language of the sentence. In Experiment 2, with Spanish-English bilinguals matched closely to those who participated in the first experiment, we blocked the language of the sentences to encourage language-specific processes. The results were virtually identical to those of the mixed-language experiment. In both cases, target cognates were named faster than non-cognates, and the magnitude of the effect did not change according to the broader context. Taken together, the results support the predictions of the Bilingual Interactive Activation + Model (Dijkstra and van Heuven, 2002) in demonstrating that bilingual lexical access is language non-selective even under conditions in which language-specific cues should enable selective processing. They also demonstrate that, in contrast to lexical switching from one language to the other, inter-sentential code-switching of the sort in which bilinguals frequently engage, imposes no significant costs to lexical processing.

  12. When Language Switching has No Apparent Cost: Lexical Access in Sentence Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullifer, Jason W.; Kroll, Judith F.; Dussias, Paola E.

    2013-01-01

    We report two experiments that investigate the effects of sentence context on bilingual lexical access in Spanish and English. Highly proficient Spanish-English bilinguals read sentences in Spanish and English that included a marked word to be named. The word was either a cognate with similar orthography and/or phonology in the two languages, or a matched non-cognate control. Sentences appeared in one language alone (i.e., Spanish or English) and target words were not predictable on the basis of the preceding semantic context. In Experiment 1, we mixed the language of the sentence within a block such that sentences appeared in an alternating run in Spanish or in English. These conditions partly resemble normally occurring inter-sentential code-switching. In these mixed-language sequences, cognates were named faster than non-cognates in both languages. There were no effects of switching the language of the sentence. In Experiment 2, with Spanish-English bilinguals matched closely to those who participated in the first experiment, we blocked the language of the sentences to encourage language-specific processes. The results were virtually identical to those of the mixed-language experiment. In both cases, target cognates were named faster than non-cognates, and the magnitude of the effect did not change according to the broader context. Taken together, the results support the predictions of the Bilingual Interactive Activation + Model (Dijkstra and van Heuven, 2002) in demonstrating that bilingual lexical access is language non-selective even under conditions in which language-specific cues should enable selective processing. They also demonstrate that, in contrast to lexical switching from one language to the other, inter-sentential code-switching of the sort in which bilinguals frequently engage, imposes no significant costs to lexical processing. PMID:23750141

  13. Age differences in the effects of conceptual integration training on resource allocation in sentence processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A L; Noh, Soo Rim; Shake, Matthew C

    2010-07-01

    This research examined age differences in the accommodation of reading strategies as a consequence of explicit instruction in conceptual integration. In Experiment 1, young, middle-aged, and older adults read sentences for delayed recall using a moving-window method. Readers in an experimental group received instruction in making conceptual links during reading while readers in a control group were simply encouraged to allocate effort. Regression analysis to decompose word-by-word reading times in each condition isolated the time allocated to conceptual processing at the point in the text at which new concepts were introduced, as well as at clause and sentence boundaries. While younger adults responded to instructions by differentially allocating effort to sentence wrap-up, older adults allocated effort to intrasentence wrap-up and on new concepts as they were introduced, suggesting that older readers optimized their allocation of effort to linguistic computations for textbase construction within their processing capacity. Experiment 2 verified that conceptual integration training improved immediate recall among older readers as a consequence of engendering allocation to conceptual processing.

  14. Musical metaphors: evidence for a spatial grounding of non-literal sentences describing auditory events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Sibylla; Dudschig, Carolin; de la Vega, Irmgard; Kaup, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated whether the spatial terms high and low, when used in sentence contexts implying a non-literal interpretation, trigger similar spatial associations as would have been expected from the literal meaning of the words. In three experiments, participants read sentences describing either a high or a low auditory event (e.g., The soprano sings a high aria vs. The pianist plays a low note). In all Experiments, participants were asked to judge (yes/no) whether the sentences were meaningful by means of up/down (Experiments 1 and 2) or left/right (Experiment 3) key press responses. Contrary to previous studies reporting that metaphorical language understanding differs from literal language understanding with regard to simulation effects, the results show compatibility effects between sentence implied pitch height and response location. The results are in line with grounded models of language comprehension proposing that sensory motor experiences are being elicited when processing literal as well as non-literal sentences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The modality-switch effect: Visually and aurally presented prime sentences activate our senses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eScerrati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Verifying different sensory modality properties for concepts results in a processing cost known as the Modality-Switch Effect. It has been argued that this cognitive cost is the result of a perceptual simulation. This paper extends this argument and reports an experiment investigating whether the effect is the result of an activation of sensory information which can also be triggered by perceptual linguistically described stimuli. Participants were first exposed to a prime sentence describing a light or a sound’s perceptual property (e.g. The light is flickering, The sound is echoing, then required to perform a property-verification task on a target sentence (e.g. Butter is yellowish, Leaves rustle. The content modalities of the prime and target sentences could be compatible (i.e. in the same modality: e.g. visual-visual or not (i.e. in different modalities. Crucially, we manipulated the stimuli’s presentation modality such that half of the participants was faced with written sentences while the other half was faced with aurally presented sentences. Results show a cost when two different modalities alternate, compared to when the same modality is repeated with both visual and aural stimuli presentations. This result supports the embodied and grounded cognition view which claims that conceptual knowledge is grounded into the perceptual system. Specifically, this evidence suggests that sensory modalities can be pre-activated through the simulation of either read or listened linguistic stimuli describing visual or acoustic perceptual properties.

  16. The Effect of CAPE-V Sentences on Cepstral/Spectral Acoustic Measures in Dysphonic Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Christopher R

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of connected speech stimuli from the Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (CAPE-V) on cepstral/spectral acoustic measurements. Recordings from 20 participants seeking treatment for dysphonia were analyzed in this study. The participants read the 6 sentence stimuli from the CAPE-V at a comfortable pitch and loudness. Acoustic measures of cepstral peak prominence (CPP) and its standard deviation, the low-to-high spectral ratio and its standard deviation (LH and LHsd) and the multiparametric measure Cepstral Spectral Index of Dysphonia were acquired from each sentence recording and applied to analyses. A significant main effect for sentence type was present on the measurements of CPP, LH and LHsd. Post hoc pairwise comparisons revealed the most robust effect on CPP from the all-voiced sentence 'We were away a year ago'. For the measures of LH and LHsd, sentence effects were significant for the majority of comparisons. The connected speech stimuli from the CAPE-V affected cepstral/spectral acoustic measurements differentially. These findings support the rationale for using the various CAPE-V stimuli during clinical assessment, and indicate the need for further investigations to inform clinical practice. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. The Syntactic Analysis of Pronoun Homofunction Considering Verb Structure and the Function of Connected Pronouns in Passive-Emotional Sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Irani

    2017-04-01

       All these sentences express a kind of passive and emotional reaction; hence, it must certainly be considered to get the meaning of such sentences. Khābash gereft, for example, means he fell asleep.In the other hand, paying attention to the meaning will notably be effective in determining the verb type in structure and the grammatical role of the words in such sentences. According to the authors of this research, unlike some ideas, the verb structure is not compounded in these sentences, but is a nominal/adjectival component before the homo-function, recognized to be a part of the compound verb by some grammarians and linguists, has a subject role; and the homo-function is also a simple verb completely agreeing in suffix with the subject. The role of the pronoun suffixes, also, must be determined paying special attention to their role in traditional grammar because we think sometimes proposing ideas on some grammatical points might not bring about acceptable results regardless of their background and historic relations. Since pronoun suffixes occur only as objects, complements and genitives, the joint pronouns in these sentences are not an exception and have the same roles. The accompanying noun or adjective is the subject. The disjoint initial noun or pronoun, the “pronoun homo-role”, can be replaced by the pronoun suffix in some sentences, but makes the sentence ungrammatical in most cases.

  18. On the Complexity of Chinese Sentences in Singapore Primary Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh Saye Wee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the sentences from the Singapore primary school Chinese textbooks as the research material, using sentence as a unit; analyses sentence composition and sentence patterns, from quantity, distribution, characteristic and semantic type aspects to examine the progression of sentence complexity in Chinese language. The paper describes how the sentence develops in a systemic and complexity aspect in textbooks of various levels. The paper suggests 7 types of sentence pattern grading in term of complexity progression, and proposes a formula to examine and calculate the complexity index of a sentence. The findings derive a set of valuable data to expound the complexity of a sentence and discuss the variable factors influencing the complexity of sentences used in primary school Chinese textbooks.

  19. Evaluation of use of reading comprehension strategies to improve reading comprehension of adult college students with acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Gina G; Sohlberg, McKay Moore; Kirk, Cecilia; Fickas, Stephen; Biancarosa, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Adults with mild to moderate acquired brain injury (ABI) often pursue post-secondary or professional education after their injuries in order to enter or re-enter the job market. An increasing number of these adults report problems with reading-to-learn. The problem is particularly concerning given the growing population of adult survivors of ABI. Despite the rising need, empirical evaluation of reading comprehension interventions for adults with ABI is scarce. This study used a within-subject design to evaluate whether adult college students with ABI with no more than moderate cognitive impairments benefited from using reading comprehension strategies to improve comprehension of expository text. Integrating empirical support from the cognitive rehabilitation and special education literature, the researchers designed a multi-component reading comprehension strategy package. Participants read chapters from an introductory-level college anthropology textbook in two different conditions: strategy and no-strategy. The results indicated that reading comprehension strategy use was associated with recall of more correct information units in immediate and delayed free recall tasks; more efficient recall in the delayed free recall task; and increased accuracy recognising statements from a sentence verification task designed to reflect the local and global coherence of the text. The findings support further research into using reading comprehension strategies as an intervention approach for the adult ABI population. Future research needs include identifying how to match particular reading comprehension strategies to individuals, examining whether reading comprehension performance improves further through the incorporation of systematic training, and evaluating texts from a range of disciplines and genres.

  20. Development of equally intelligible Telugu sentence-lists to test speech recognition in noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanniru, Kishore; Narne, Vijaya Kumar; Jain, Chandni; Konadath, Sreeraj; Singh, Niraj Kumar; Sreenivas, K J Ramadevi; K, Anusha

    2017-09-01

    To develop sentence lists in the Telugu language for the assessment of speech recognition threshold (SRT) in the presence of background noise through identification of the mean signal-to-noise ratio required to attain a 50% sentence recognition score (SRTn). This study was conducted in three phases. The first phase involved the selection and recording of Telugu sentences. In the second phase, 20 lists, each consisting of 10 sentences with equal intelligibility, were formulated using a numerical optimisation procedure. In the third phase, the SRTn of the developed lists was estimated using adaptive procedures on individuals with normal hearing. A total of 68 native Telugu speakers with normal hearing participated in the study. Of these, 18 (including the speakers) performed on various subjective measures in first phase, 20 performed on sentence/word recognition in noise for second phase and 30 participated in the list equivalency procedures in third phase. In all, 15 lists of comparable difficulty were formulated as test material. The mean SRTn across these lists corresponded to -2.74 (SD = 0.21). The developed sentence lists provided a valid and reliable tool to measure SRTn in Telugu native speakers.

  1. Sign language ability in young deaf signers predicts comprehension of written sentences in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Kathy N; Hoshooley, Jennifer; Joanisse, Marc F

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the robust correlation between American Sign Language (ASL) and English reading ability in 51 young deaf signers ages 7;3 to 19;0. Signers were divided into 'skilled' and 'less-skilled' signer groups based on their performance on three measures of ASL. We next assessed reading comprehension of four English sentence structures (actives, passives, pronouns, reflexive pronouns) using a sentence-to-picture-matching task. Of interest was the extent to which ASL proficiency provided a foundation for lexical and syntactic processes of English. Skilled signers outperformed less-skilled signers overall. Error analyses further indicated greater single-word recognition difficulties in less-skilled signers marked by a higher rate of errors reflecting an inability to identify the actors and actions described in the sentence. Our findings provide evidence that increased ASL ability supports English sentence comprehension both at the levels of individual words and syntax. This is consistent with the theory that first language learning promotes second language through transference of linguistic elements irrespective of the transparency of mapping of grammatical structures between the two languages.

  2. Sign language ability in young deaf signers predicts comprehension of written sentences in English.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy N Andrew

    Full Text Available We investigated the robust correlation between American Sign Language (ASL and English reading ability in 51 young deaf signers ages 7;3 to 19;0. Signers were divided into 'skilled' and 'less-skilled' signer groups based on their performance on three measures of ASL. We next assessed reading comprehension of four English sentence structures (actives, passives, pronouns, reflexive pronouns using a sentence-to-picture-matching task. Of interest was the extent to which ASL proficiency provided a foundation for lexical and syntactic processes of English. Skilled signers outperformed less-skilled signers overall. Error analyses further indicated greater single-word recognition difficulties in less-skilled signers marked by a higher rate of errors reflecting an inability to identify the actors and actions described in the sentence. Our findings provide evidence that increased ASL ability supports English sentence comprehension both at the levels of individual words and syntax. This is consistent with the theory that first language learning promotes second language through transference of linguistic elements irrespective of the transparency of mapping of grammatical structures between the two languages.

  3. MAKNA KALIMAT DAN MAKNA TUTURAN (SENTENCE – UTTERANCE MEANING)

    OpenAIRE

    Sutrisno, Endro

    2015-01-01

    Language is a social phenomena, its use involves many nonlinguistic factors such as culture, tradition, ideology, and social status, as well as individual peculiarities (the level of insight, experience, and intelligence). Sentences and speech are materials studied the language.The sentence is a series of grammatical or structural shapes. The meaning of the sentence implies that what is meant by the words in the sentence itself, and the sentence itself can be understood as an ingredient of co...

  4. Greater Left Inferior Frontal Activation for SVO than VOS During Sentence Comprehension in Kaqchikel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Koizumi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cortical activations during the processing of sentences with different word orders in Kaqchikel were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Kaqchikel is an endangered Mayan language spoken in Guatemala. The word order in this language is relatively flexible. We observed higher cortical activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus for sentences with the subject-verb-object (SVO word order, as compared to sentences with the verb-object-subject (VOS word order, suggesting that VOS is easier to process than SVO. This supports the traditional interpretation in Mayan linguistics that the syntactically simplest word order of transitive sentences is VOS in Kaqchikel, as in many other Mayan languages. More importantly, the results revealed that the subject-before-object word order preference in sentence comprehension, observed in a number of previous studies on other languages, might not reflect a universal aspect of human languages; rather, processing preference may be language-specific to some extent, reflecting syntactic differences in individual languages.

  5. Visuospatial cues for reinstating mental models in working memory during interrupted reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Darryl W; Dixon, Peter

    2009-09-01

    Reading involves constructing a mental representation in long-term working memory of the world described by the text. Disrupting short-term working memory can interfere with the maintenance of mental models (sets of retrieval cues) needed to access these representations, producing detrimental effects on reading time. In two experiments, subjects read passages that included pairs of coreferential sentences interrupted by unrelated text. As in previous research, reading times increased for the first sentence after the interruption, likely reflecting a reinstatement process for mental models in working memory. In the present research, pictures were provided as visuospatial cues to aid the reinstatement process. The interruption effect was found to be smaller with pictures related to the passages than with unrelated pictures (Experiment 1) or titles (Experiment 2); however, both of these effects occurred only for slow readers. The authors hypothesize that slow readers take the time needed to integrate visuospatial information into their mental models, providing more resilient access to long-term working memory.

  6. Reduced Syntactic Processing Efficiency in Older Adults During Sentence Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zude Zhu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have frequently reported an age-related decline in semantic processing during sentence comprehension. However, it remains unclear whether syntactic processing also declines or whether it remains constant as people age. In the present study, 26 younger adults and 20 older adults were recruited and matched in terms of working memory, general intelligence, verbal intelligence and fluency. They were then asked to make semantic acceptability judgments while completing a Chinese sentence reading task. The behavioral results revealed that the older adults had significantly lower accuracy on measures of semantic and syntactic processing compared to younger adults. Event-related potential (ERP results showed that during semantic processing, older adults had a significantly reduced amplitude and delayed peak latency of the N400 compared to the younger adults. During syntactic processing, older adults also showed delayed peak latency of the P600 relative to younger adults. Moreover, while P600 amplitude was comparable between the two age groups, larger P600 amplitude was associated with worse performance only in the older adults. Together, the behavioral and ERP data suggest that there is an age-related decline in both semantic and syntactic processing, with a trend toward lower efficiency in syntactic ability.

  7. Ideology, Social Threat, and the Death Sentence: Capital Sentences across Time and Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, David; Carmichael, Jason T.

    2004-01-01

    Capital punishment is the most severe criminal penalty, yet we know little about the factors that produce jurisdictional differences in the use of the death sentence. Political explanations emphasize conservative values and the strength of more conservative political parties. Threat accounts suggest that this sentence will be more likely in…

  8. Brain bases of reading fluency in typical reading and impaired fluency in dyslexia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna A Christodoulou

    Full Text Available Although the neural systems supporting single word reading are well studied, there are limited direct comparisons between typical and dyslexic readers of the neural correlates of reading fluency. Reading fluency deficits are a persistent behavioral marker of dyslexia into adulthood. The current study identified the neural correlates of fluent reading in typical and dyslexic adult readers, using sentences presented in a word-by-word format in which single words were presented sequentially at fixed rates. Sentences were presented at slow, medium, and fast rates, and participants were asked to decide whether each sentence did or did not make sense semantically. As presentation rates increased, participants became less accurate and slower at making judgments, with comprehension accuracy decreasing disproportionately for dyslexic readers. In-scanner performance on the sentence task correlated significantly with standardized clinical measures of both reading fluency and phonological awareness. Both typical readers and readers with dyslexia exhibited widespread, bilateral increases in activation that corresponded to increases in presentation rate. Typical readers exhibited significantly larger gains in activation as a function of faster presentation rates than readers with dyslexia in several areas, including left prefrontal and left superior temporal regions associated with semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations. Group differences were more extensive when behavioral differences between conditions were equated across groups. These findings suggest a brain basis for impaired reading fluency in dyslexia, specifically a failure of brain regions involved in semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations to become fully engaged for comprehension at rapid reading rates.

  9. Eye Movement Patterns in Natural Reading: A Comparison of Monolingual and Bilingual Reading of a Novel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uschi Cop

    Full Text Available This paper presents a corpus of sentence level eye movement parameters for unbalanced bilingual first language (L1 and second-language (L2 reading and monolingual reading of a complete novel (56 000 words. We present important sentence-level basic eye movement parameters of both bilingual and monolingual natural reading extracted from this large data corpus.Bilingual L2 reading patterns show longer sentence reading times (20%, more fixations (21%, shorter saccades (12% and less word skipping (4.6%, than L1 reading patterns. Regression rates are the same for L1 and L2 reading. These results could indicate, analogous to a previous simulation with the E-Z reader model in the literature, that it is primarily the speeding up of lexical access that drives both L1 and L2 reading development. Bilingual L1 reading does not differ in any major way from monolingual reading. This contrasts with predictions made by the weaker links account, which predicts a bilingual disadvantage in language processing caused by divided exposure between languages.

  10. Eye Movement Patterns in Natural Reading: A Comparison of Monolingual and Bilingual Reading of a Novel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cop, Uschi; Drieghe, Denis; Duyck, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a corpus of sentence level eye movement parameters for unbalanced bilingual first language (L1) and second-language (L2) reading and monolingual reading of a complete novel (56 000 words). We present important sentence-level basic eye movement parameters of both bilingual and monolingual natural reading extracted from this large data corpus. Bilingual L2 reading patterns show longer sentence reading times (20%), more fixations (21%), shorter saccades (12%) and less word skipping (4.6%), than L1 reading patterns. Regression rates are the same for L1 and L2 reading. These results could indicate, analogous to a previous simulation with the E-Z reader model in the literature, that it is primarily the speeding up of lexical access that drives both L1 and L2 reading development. Bilingual L1 reading does not differ in any major way from monolingual reading. This contrasts with predictions made by the weaker links account, which predicts a bilingual disadvantage in language processing caused by divided exposure between languages.

  11. Brain imaging of tongue-twister sentence comprehension: twisting the tongue and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Timothy A; Carpenter, Patricia A; Just, Marcel Adam

    2003-02-01

    This study used fMRI to investigate the neural basis of the tongue-twister effect in a sentence comprehension task. Participants silently read sentences equated for the syntactic structure and the lexical frequency of the constituent words, but differing in the proportion of words that shared similar initial phonemes. The manipulation affected not only the reading times and comprehension performance, but also the amount of activation seen in a number of language-related cortical areas. The effect was not restricted to cortical areas known to be involved in articulatory speech programming or rehearsal processes (the inferior frontal gyrus and anterior insula), but also extended to areas associated with other aspects of language processing (inferior parietal cortex) associated with phonological processing and storage. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA)

  12. Reading comprehension in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Laura L; Rutledge, Stefanie

    2014-05-01

    Although individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) self-report reading problems and experience difficulties in cognitive-linguistic functions that support discourse-level reading, prior research has primarily focused on sentence-level processing and auditory comprehension. Accordingly, the authors investigated the presence and nature of reading comprehension in PD, hypothesizing that (a) individuals with PD would display impaired accuracy and/or speed on reading comprehension tests and (b) reading performances would be correlated with cognitive test results. Eleven adults with PD and 9 age- and education-matched control participants completed tests that evaluated reading comprehension; general language and cognitive abilities; and aspects of attention, memory, and executive functioning. The PD group obtained significantly lower scores on several, but not all, reading comprehension, language, and cognitive measures. Memory, language, and disease severity were significantly correlated with reading comprehension for the PD group. Individuals in the early stages of PD without dementia or broad cognitive deficits can display reading comprehension difficulties, particularly for high- versus basic-level reading tasks. These reading difficulties are most closely related to memory, high-level language, and PD symptom severity status. The findings warrant additional research to delineate further the types and nature of reading comprehension impairments experienced by individuals with PD.

  13. The role of phonological awareness in reading comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Silvia Cárnio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: to characterize the performance of 4th grade-Elementary School students with and without signs of reading and writing disorders as for phonological awareness and reading comprehension, and also verify possible correlations between them. Methods: 60 children enrolled in the 4th grade of Elementary School from two public schools, whose parents signed the Informed Consent Form, participated in the present study. They were selected and organized in groups, with and without signs of reading and writing disorders. All students were individually assessed regarding their phonological awareness and reading comprehension of sentences and texts through standardized tests. The data underwent statistical analysis. Results: those with signs of reading and writing disorders showed the lowest performance in the reading comprehension of sentences and texts. A correlation was found between phonological awareness and reading comprehension of sentences and texts in both groups. Conclusion: students with no signs of reading and writing disorders had a higher performance in the skills assessed. The correlation found between phonological awareness and reading comprehension of sentences and texts shows not only the importance of metaphonological skills for a proficient reading, but also for a comprehensive one.

  14. Speech production and working memory: The influence of cognitive load on sentence planning

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus, Jana

    2015-01-01

    For the last four decades, psycholinguistic research has dealt with the question to what extent elements of simple sentences like “The monk read the book” are planned ahead both on the abstract-lexical and phonological processing level. While a number of studies have shown that all up to the final element can be activated on these two levels, empirical evidence on the flexibility of the respective planning scopes is inconsistent, and a systematic delineation of the influence of different fo...

  15. Task difficulty differentially affects two measures of processing load: the pupil response during sentence processing and delayed cued recall of the sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekveld, Adriana A; Festen, Joost M; Kramer, Sophia E

    2013-08-01

    In this study, the authors assessed the influence of masking level (29% or 71% sentence perception) and test modality on the processing load during language perception as reflected by the pupil response. In addition, the authors administered a delayed cued stimulus recall test to examine whether processing load affected the encoding of the stimuli in memory. Participants performed speech and text reception threshold tests, during which the pupil response was measured. In the cued recall test, the first half of correctly perceived sentences was presented, and participants were asked to complete the sentences. Reading and listening span tests of working memory capacity were presented as well. Regardless of test modality, the pupil response indicated higher processing load in the 29% condition than in the 71% correct condition. Cued recall was better for the 29% condition. The consistent effect of masking level on the pupil response during listening and reading support the validity of the pupil response as a measure of processing load during language perception. The absent relation between pupil response and cued recall may suggest that cued recall is not directly related to processing load, as reflected by the pupil response.

  16. Processing implicit control: evidence from reading times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eMcCourt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sentences such as The ship was sunk to collect the insurance exhibit an unusual form of anaphora, implicit control, where neither anaphor nor antecedent is audible. The nonfinite reason clause has an understood subject, PRO, that is anaphoric; here it may be understood as naming the agent of the event of the host clause. Yet since the host is a short passive, this agent is realized by no audible dependent. The putative antecedent to PRO is therefore implicit, which it normally cannot be. What sorts of representations subserve the comprehension of this dependency? Here we present four self-paced reading time studies directed at this question. Previous work showed no processing cost for implicit versus explicit control, and took this to support the view that PRO is linked syntactically to a silent argument in the passive. We challenge this conclusion by reporting that we also find no processing cost for remote implicit control, as in: The ship was sunk. The reason was to collect the insurance. Here the dependency crosses two independent sentences, and so cannot, we argue, be mediated by syntax. Our Experiments 1-4 examined the processing of both implicit (short passive and explicit (active or long passive control in both local and remote configurations. Experiments 3 and 4 added either three days ago or just in order to the local conditions, to control for the distance between the passive and infinitival verbs, and for the predictability of the reason clause, respectively. We replicate the finding that implicit control does not impose an additional processing cost. But critically we show that remote control does not impose a processing cost either. Reading times at the reason clause were never slower when control was remote. In fact they were always faster. Thus efficient processing of local implicit control cannot show that implicit control is mediated by syntax; nor, in turn, that there is a silent but grammatically active argument in passives.

  17. Processing implicit control: evidence from reading times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCourt, Michael; Green, Jeffrey J; Lau, Ellen; Williams, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Sentences such as "The ship was sunk to collect the insurance" exhibit an unusual form of anaphora, implicit control, where neither anaphor nor antecedent is audible. The non-finite reason clause has an understood subject, PRO, that is anaphoric; here it may be understood as naming the agent of the event of the host clause. Yet since the host is a short passive, this agent is realized by no audible dependent. The putative antecedent to PRO is therefore implicit, which it normally cannot be. What sorts of representations subserve the comprehension of this dependency? Here we present four self-paced reading time studies directed at this question. Previous work showed no processing cost for implicit vs. explicit control, and took this to support the view that PRO is linked syntactically to a silent argument in the passive. We challenge this conclusion by reporting that we also find no processing cost for remote implicit control, as in: "The ship was sunk. The reason was to collect the insurance." Here the dependency crosses two independent sentences, and so cannot, we argue, be mediated by syntax. Our Experiments 1-4 examined the processing of both implicit (short passive) and explicit (active or long passive) control in both local and remote configurations. Experiments 3 and 4 added either "3 days ago" or "just in order" to the local conditions, to control for the distance between the passive and infinitival verbs, and for the predictability of the reason clause, respectively. We replicate the finding that implicit control does not impose an additional processing cost. But critically we show that remote control does not impose a processing cost either. Reading times at the reason clause were never slower when control was remote. In fact they were always faster. Thus, efficient processing of local implicit control cannot show that implicit control is mediated by syntax; nor, in turn, that there is a silent but grammatically active argument in passives.

  18. Page mode reading with simulated scotomas: oculo-motor patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherlen, Anne-Catherine; Bernard, Jean-Baptiste; Calabrese, Aurélie; Castet, Eric

    2008-08-01

    This study investigated the relationship between reading speed and oculo-motor parameters when normally sighted observers had to read single sentences with an artificial macular scotoma. Using multiple regression analysis, our main result shows that two significant predictors, number of saccades per sentence followed by average fixation duration, account for 94% of reading speed variance: reading speed decreases when number of saccades and fixation duration increase. The number of letters per forward saccade (L/FS), which was measured directly in contrast to previous studies, is not a significant predictor. The results suggest that, independently of the size of saccades, some or all portions of a sentence are temporally integrated across an increasing number of fixations as reading speed is reduced.

  19. Sensory and cognitive influences on the training-related improvement of reading speed in peripheral vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yingchen; Legge, Gordon E; Yu, Deyue

    2013-06-24

    Reading speed in normal peripheral vision is slow but can be increased through training on a letter-recognition task. The aim of the present study is to investigate the sensory and cognitive factors responsible for this improvement. The visual span is hypothesized to be a sensory bottleneck limiting reading speed. Three sensory factors-letter acuity, crowding, and mislocations (errors in the spatial order of letters)-may limit the size of the visual span. Reading speed is also influenced by cognitive factors including the utilization of information from sentence context. We conducted a perceptual training experiment to investigate the roles of these factors. Training consisted of four daily sessions of trigram letter-recognition trials at 10° in the lower visual field. Subjects' visual-span profiles and reading speeds were measured in pre- and posttests. Effects of the three sensory factors were isolated through a decomposition analysis of the visual span profiles. The impact of sentence context was indexed by context gain, the ratio of reading speeds for ordered and unordered text. Following training, visual spans increased in size by 5.4 bits of information transmitted, and reading speeds increased by 45%. Training induced a substantial reduction in the magnitude of crowding (4.8 bits) and a smaller reduction for mislocations (0.7 bits), but no change in letter acuity or context gain. These results indicate that the basis of the training-related improvement in reading speed is a large reduction in the interfering effect of crowding and a small reduction of mislocation errors.

  20. [Developmental changes in reading ability of Japanese elementary school children--analysis of 4 kana reading tasks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tomoka; Inagaki, Masumi; Gunji, Atsuko; Yatabe, Kiyomi; Kaga, Makiko; Goto, Takaaki; Koike, Toshihide; Wakamiya, Eiji; Koeda, Tatsuya

    2010-01-01

    Five hundred and twenty-eight Japanese elementary school children aged from 6 (Grade 1) to 12 (Grade 6) were tested for their abilities to read Hiragana characters, words, and short sentences. They were typically developing children whom the classroom teachers judged to have no problems with reading and writing in Japanese. Each child was asked to read four tasks which were written in Hiragana script: single mora reading task, four syllable non-word reading task, four syllable word reading task, and short sentence reading task. The total articulation time for reading and performance in terms of accuracy were measured for each task. Developmental changes in these variables were evaluated. The articulation time was significantly longer for the first graders, and it gradually shortened as they moved through to the upper grades in all tasks. The articulation time reached a plateau in the 4th grade for the four syllable word and short sentence reading tasks, while it did so for the single mora and four syllable non-word reading tasks in the 5th grade. The articulation times for the four syllable word and short sentence reading tasks correlated strongly. There were very few clear errors for all tasks, and the number of such errors significantly changed between the school grades only for the single mora and four syllable word reading tasks. It was noted that more than half of the children read the beginning portion of the word or phrase twice or more, in order to read it accurately, and developmental changes were also seen in this pattern of reading. This study revealed that the combination of these reading tasks may function as a screening test for reading disorders such as developmental dyslexia in children below the age of ten or eleven years old.

  1. The mandatory sentence and Section 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, S

    1986-01-01

    Sentencing in homicide depends on how psychiatrists view the issues of Section 2. In most killings that do not involve clear-cut mental disorder, strong emotions and stress play a part. Both can be cited in aid of diminished responsibility. If doctors cite them, however tentatively, it becomes feasible for the court to review any mitigating factors and to choose an appropriate penalty. Otherwise, the mandatory penalty is imposed. Thus doctors, by opining not on the medical but on the legal and moral aspects of Section 2, decide who shall automatically get a life sentence and who shall not. Anomaly and injustice are the results. They would be remedied by the abolition of the mandatory sentence for murder. PMID:3959037

  2. THE CHILD JUSTICE ACT: PROCEDURAL SENTENCING ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan S Terblanche

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution a number of procedural issues related to the sentencing of child offenders and emanating from the Child Justice Act 75 of 2008 are considered in some detail. As a general rule, the Act requires pre-sentence reports to be obtained from probation officers before sentencing any child offender, with only a limited number of exceptions. The article argues that the peremptory nature of the Act means that a probation report is always required, even if reports by other experts are also available. The exceptions are limited to instances other than those where the child offender is sentenced to any form of imprisonment or to residence in a care centre. The article addresses the question of whether or not the reference to imprisonment includes alternative imprisonment which is imposed only as an alternative to a fine. It suggests that alternative imprisonment should, generally, not be imposed on child offenders. When an exception is not prevented because of the sentence, a pre-sentence report may be dispensed with only when the offence is a schedule-1 offence (the least serious class of offences or when obtaining a report would prejudice the child. It is argued that these exceptions are likely to occur rather rarely. A final aspect of the Act’s provisions on pre-sentence reports is the requirement that reasons be given for a departure from the recommendations in a pre-sentence report. This requirement merely confirms the status quo.The Act permits the prosecutor to provide the court with a victim impact statement. Such a statement is defined in the Act. It is a sworn statement by a victim or someone authorised by the victim explaining the consequences to the victim of the commission of the crime. The article also addresses the issue of whether or not the child justice court might mero motu obtain a victim impact statement when the prosecution does not do so.Finally, the article addresses appeals against and reviews of the trial

  3. A DNA assembly model of sentence generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Seung Hwan; Chung, Won-Hyong; Lee, Eun Seok; Park, Tai Hyun; Deaton, Russell; Zhang, Byoung-Tak

    2011-10-01

    Recent results of corpus-based linguistics demonstrate that context-appropriate sentences can be generated by a stochastic constraint satisfaction process. Exploiting the similarity of constraint satisfaction and DNA self-assembly, we explore a DNA assembly model of sentence generation. The words and phrases in a language corpus are encoded as DNA molecules to build a language model of the corpus. Given a seed word, the new sentences are constructed by a parallel DNA assembly process based on the probability distribution of the word and phrase molecules. Here, we present our DNA code word design and report on successful demonstration of their feasibility in wet DNA experiments of a small scale. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Teaching Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Richard R.

    2013-01-01

    "Teaching Reading" uncovers the interactive processes that happen when people learn to read and translates them into a comprehensive easy-to-follow guide on how to teach reading. Richard Day's revelations on the nature of reading, reading strategies, reading fluency, reading comprehension, and reading objectives make fascinating…

  5. The suspended sentence in French Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From the ancient times until today, criminal law has provided different criminal sanctions as measures of social control. These coercive measures are imposed on the criminal offender by the competent court and aimed at limitting the offender's rights and freedoms or depriving the offender of certain rights and freedoms. These sanctions are applied to the natural or legal persons who violate the norms of the legal order and injure or endanger other legal goods that enjoy legal protection. In order to effectively protect social values, criminal legislations in all countries predict a number of criminal sanctions. These are: 1 imprisonment, 2 precautions, 3 safety measures, 4 penalties for juveniles, and 5 sanctions for legal persons. Apart and instead of punishment, warning measures have a significant role in the jurisprudence. Since they emerged in the early 20th century in the system of criminal sanctions, there has been an increase in their application to criminal offenders, especially when it comes to first-time offenders who committed a negligent or accidental criminal act. Warnings are applied in case of crimes that do not have serious consequences, and whose perpetrators are not hardened and incorrigible criminals. All contemporary criminal legislations (including the French legilation provide a warning measure of suspended sentence. Suspended sentence is a conditional stay of execution of sentence of imprisonment for a specified time, provided that the convicted person does not commit another criminal offense and fulfills other obligations. This sanction applies if the following two conditions are fulfilled: a forma! -which is attached to the sentence of imprisonment; and b material -which is the court assessment that the application of this sanction is justified and necessary in a particular case. In many modern criminal legislations, there are two different types of suspended (conditional sentence: 1 ordinary (classical suspended

  6. Automatic selection of informative sentences: The sentences that can generate multiple choice questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukta Majumder

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional education cannot meet the expectation and requirement of a Smart City; it require more advance forms like active learning, ICT education etc. Multiple choice questions (MCQs play an important role in educational assessment and active learning which has a key role in Smart City education. MCQs are effective to assess the understanding of well-defined concepts. A fraction of all the sentences of a text contain well-defined concepts or information that can be asked as a MCQ. These informative sentences are required to be identified first for preparing multiple choice questions manually or automatically. In this paper we propose a technique for automatic identification of such informative sentences that can act as the basis of MCQ. The technique is based on parse structure similarity. A reference set of parse structures is compiled with the help of existing MCQs. The parse structure of a new sentence is compared with the reference structures and if similarity is found then the sentence is considered as a potential candidate. Next a rule-based post-processing module works on these potential candidates to select the final set of informative sentences. The proposed approach is tested in sports domain, where many MCQs are easily available for preparing the reference set of structures. The quality of the system selected sentences is evaluated manually. The experimental result shows that the proposed technique is quite promising.

  7. Healthy Aging and Compensation of Sentence Comprehension Auditory Deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Lima Silagi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To analyze the effect of aging on sentence auditory comprehension and to study the relationship between this language skill and cognitive functions (attention, working memory, and executive functions. Methods. A total of 90 healthy subjects were divided into three groups: adults (50–59 years, young-old (60–69 years, and old-old (70–80 years. Subjects were assessed using the Revised Token Test. The measures used for performance analysis were number of correct answers (accuracy and execution time of commands on the different subtests. Results. Regarding accuracy, groups showed similar performance on the first blocks, but the young-old and old-old performed worse than adults on blocks 9 and 10. With respect to execution time, groups differed from block 2 (i.e., the groups differed for all blocks, except for block 1, with the worst performance observed in the old-old group, followed by that of the young-old group. Therefore, the elderly required more time to attain performance similar to that of adults, showing that time measurements are more sensitive for detecting the effects of age. Sentence comprehension ability is correlated with cognitive test performance, especially for global cognition and working memory tests. Conclusions. Healthy aging is characterized by the ability to compensate for difficulties in linguistic processing, which allows the elderly to maintain functional communication.

  8. Aging and individual differences in binding during sentence understanding: evidence from temporary and global syntactic attachment ambiguities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Brennan R; Grison, Sarah; Gao, Xuefei; Christianson, Kiel; Morrow, Daniel G; Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A L

    2014-02-01

    We report an investigation of aging and individual differences in binding information during sentence understanding. An age-continuous sample of adults (N=91), ranging from 18 to 81 years of age, read sentences in which a relative clause could be attached high to a head noun NP1, attached low to its modifying prepositional phrase NP2 (e.g., The son of the princess who scratched himself/herself in public was humiliated), or in which the attachment site of the relative clause was ultimately indeterminate (e.g., The maid of the princess who scratched herself in public was humiliated). Word-by-word reading times and comprehension (e.g., who scratched?) were measured. A series of mixed-effects models were fit to the data, revealing: (1) that, on average, NP1-attached sentences were harder to process and comprehend than NP2-attached sentences; (2) that these average effects were independently moderated by verbal working memory capacity and reading experience, with effects that were most pronounced in the oldest participants and; (3) that readers on average did not allocate extra time to resolve global ambiguities, though older adults with higher working memory span did. Findings are discussed in relation to current models of lifespan cognitive development, working memory, language experience, and the role of prosodic segmentation strategies in reading. Collectively, these data suggest that aging brings differences in sentence understanding, and these differences may depend on independent influences of verbal working memory capacity and reading experience. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Input Subject Diversity Enhances Early Grammatical Growth: Evidence from a Parent-Implemented Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Pamela A.; Rispoli, Matthew; Holt, Janet K.; Papastratakos, Theodora; Hsu, Ning; Kubalanza, Mary; McKenna, Megan M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The current study used an intervention design to test the hypothesis that parent input sentences with diverse lexical noun phrase (NP) subjects would accelerate growth in children's sentence diversity. Method: Child growth in third person sentence diversity was modeled from 21-30 months (n = 38) in conversational language samples obtained…

  10. Sentence Production with Homonymous and Polysemous Words. Educational Reports Umea, No. 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Jarl

    Forty Swedish university students produced sentences from homographs that could be interpreted either as verbs or nouns. The words also varied in degree of polysemy (multiple meaning). The results indicated that the subjects prefered verb productions when the words were grouped according to objective frequency. This was more evident when the…

  11. Sentence Imitation as a Marker of SLI in Czech: Disproportionate Impairment of Verbs and Clitics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smolík, Filip; Vávrů, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2014), s. 837-849 ISSN 1092-4388 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP407/10/2047 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : sentences * specific language impairment * verbs Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.070, year: 2014 http://jslhr.pubs.asha.org/Article.aspx?articleid=1865523

  12. Bias in interpretation of ambiguous sentences related to threat in anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysenck, M W; Mogg, K; May, J; Richards, A; Mathews, A

    1991-05-01

    In the 1st of 2 experiments, currently clinically anxious, recovered clinically anxious, and normal control subjects were presented with a mixture of unambiguous and ambiguous sentences; both threatening and nonthreatening interpretations were possible for the latter. A subsequent recognition-memory test indicated that the currently anxious subjects were more likely than normal control and recovered anxious subjects to interpret the ambiguous sentences in a threatening fashion rather than in a nonthreatening fashion. This suggests that the biased interpretation of ambiguity found in currently anxious subjects reflected their anxious mood state. A 2nd experiment established that the difference in interpretative processes between currently anxious and control subjects was not due to response bias and that the interpretative bias was a reasonably general one.

  13. Children's Comprehension of Sentences with Focus Particles and the Role of Cognitive Control: An Eye Tracking Study with German-Learning 4-Year-Olds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Höhle

    Full Text Available Children's interpretations of sentences containing focus particles do not seem adult-like until school age. This study investigates how German 4-year-old children comprehend sentences with the focus particle 'nur' (only by using different tasks and controlling for the impact of general cognitive abilities on performance measures. Two sentence types with 'only' in either pre-subject or pre-object position were presented. Eye gaze data and verbal responses were collected via the visual world paradigm combined with a sentence-picture verification task. While the eye tracking data revealed an adult-like pattern of focus particle processing, the sentence-picture verification replicated previous findings of poor comprehension, especially for 'only' in pre-subject position. A second study focused on the impact of general cognitive abilities on the outcomes of the verification task. Working memory was related to children's performance in both sentence types whereas inhibitory control was selectively related to the number of errors for sentences with 'only' in pre-subject position. These results suggest that children at the age of 4 years have the linguistic competence to correctly interpret sentences with focus particles, which--depending on specific task demands--may be masked by immature general cognitive abilities.

  14. Processing speaker affect during spoken sentence comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, A.R.; Quené, H.; van Berkum, J.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Anne van Leeuwen Utrecht institute of Linguistics OTS, Utrecht University Processing speaker affect during spoken sentence comprehension We often smile (and frown) while we talk. Speakers use facial expression, posture and prosody to provide additional cues that signal speaker stance. Speaker stance

  15. Individual Differences in Second Language Sentence Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Leah

    2012-01-01

    As is the case in traditional second language (L2) acquisition research, a major question in the field of L2 real-time sentence processing is the extent to which L2 learners process the input like native speakers. Where differences are observed, the underlying causes could be the influence of the learner's first language and/or differences…

  16. Is the comprehension of idiomatic sentences indeed impaired in paranoid Schizophrenia? A window into semantic processing deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesciarelli, Francesca; Gamberoni, Tania; Ferlazzo, Fabio; Lo Russo, Leo; Pedrazzi, Francesca; Melati, Ermanno; Cacciari, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients have been reported to be more impaired in comprehending non-literal than literal language since early studies on proverbs. Preference for literal rather than figurative interpretations continues to be documented. The main aim of this study was to establish whether patients are indeed able to use combinatorial semantic processing to comprehend literal sentences and both combinatorial analysis, and retrieval of pre-stored meanings to comprehend idiomatic sentences. The study employed a sentence continuation task in which subjects were asked to decide whether a target word was a sensible continuation of a previous sentence fragment to investigate idiomatic and literal sentence comprehension in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Patients and healthy controls were faster in accepting sensible continuations than in rejecting non-sensible ones in both literal and idiomatic sentences. Patients were as accurate as controls in comprehending literal and idiomatic sentences, but they were overall slower than controls in all conditions. Once the contribution of cognitive covariates was partialled out, the response times (RTs) to sensible idiomatic continuations of patients did not significantly differ from those of controls. This suggests that the state of residual schizophrenia did not contribute to slower processing of sensible idioms above and beyond the cognitive deficits that are typically associated with schizophrenia. PMID:25346676

  17. Real-time production of unergative and unaccusative sentences in normal and agrammatic speakers: An eyetracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiyeon; Thompson, Cynthia K

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Speakers with agrammatic aphasia have greater difficulty producing unaccusative (float) compared to unergative (bark) verbs (Kegl, 1995; Lee & Thompson, 2004; Thompson, 2003), putatively because the former involve movement of the theme to the subject position from the post-verbal position, and are therefore more complex than the latter (Burzio, 1986; Perlmutter, 1978). However, it is unclear if and how sentence production processes are affected by the linguistic distinction between these two types of verbs in normal and impaired speakers. AIMS: This study examined real-time production of sentences with unergative (the black dog is barking) vs unaccusative (the black tube is floating) verbs in healthy young speakers and individuals with agrammatic aphasia, using eyetracking. METHODS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURES: Participants' eye movements and speech were recorded while they produced a sentence using computer displayed written stimuli (e.g., black, dog, is barking). OUTCOMES #ENTITYSTARTX00026; RESULTS: Both groups of speakers produced numerically fewer unaccusative sentences than unergative sentences. However, the eye movement data revealed significant differences in fixations between the adjective (black) vs the noun (tube) when producing unaccusatives, but not when producing unergatives for both groups. Interestingly, whereas healthy speakers showed this difference during speech, speakers with agrammatism showed this difference prior to speech onset. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the human sentence production system differentially processes unaccusatives vs unergatives. This distinction is preserved in individuals with agrammatism; however, the time course of sentence planning appears to differ from healthy speakers (Lee & Thompson, 2010).

  18. Exploring the function of relative sentences in New Testament Greek

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-14

    concessive',. 'causal', 'final' and 'resultative' relative sentences as part of their adverbial use, despite strong evidence to the contrary. The conclusion reached is that relative sentences seem to have the following functions in New ...

  19. A systematic analysis of sentence update detection for temporal summarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gârbacea, C.; Kanoulas, E.; Jose, J.M.; Hauff, C.; Altıngovde, I.S.; Song, D.; Albakour, D.; Watt, S.; Tait, J.

    2017-01-01

    Temporal summarization algorithms filter large volumes of streaming documents and emit sentences that constitute salient event updates. Systems developed typically combine in an ad-hoc fashion traditional retrieval and document summarization algorithms to filter sentences inside documents. Retrieval

  20. Federal Sentencing Guidelines: Background, Legal Analysis, and Policy Options

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seghetti, Lisa M; Smith, Alison M

    2007-01-01

    In United States v. Booker, an unusual two-part opinion transformed federal criminal sentencing by restoring to judges much of the discretion that Congress took away when it put mandatory sentencing guidelines in place...

  1. [The speech audiometry using the matrix sentence test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boboshko, M Yu; Zhilinskaia, E V; Warzybok, A; Maltseva, N V; Zokoll, M; Kollmeier, B

    The matrix sentence test in which the five-word semantically unpredictable sentences presented under the background noise conditions are used as the speech material was designed and validated for many languages. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the Russian version of the matrix sentence test (RuMatrix test) in the listeners of different ages with normal hearing. At the first stage of the study, 35 listeners at the age from 18 to 33 year were examined. The results of the estimation of the training effect dictated the necessity of conducting two training tracks before carrying out the RuMatrix test proper. The signal-to-noise ratio at which 50% speech recognition (SRT50) was obtained was found to be -8.8±0.8 dB SNR. A significant effect of exposure to the background noise was demonstrated: the noise level of 80 and 75 Db SPL led to a considerably lower intelligibility than the noise levels in the range from 45 to 70 dB SPL; in the subsequent studies, the noise level of 65 dB SPL was used. The high test-retest reliability of the RuMatrix test was proved. At the second stage of the study, 20 young (20-40 year old) listeners and 20 aged (62-74 year old) ones were examined. The mean SRT50 in the aged patients was found to be -6.9±1.1 dB SNR which was much worse than the mean STR50 in the young subjects (-8.7±0.9 dB SNR). It is concluded that, bearing in mind the excellent comparability of the results of the RUMat rix test across different languages, it can be used as a universal tool in international research projects.

  2. ІНТОНАЦІЙНО-СИНТАКСИЧНІ ЗАСОБИ ВИРАЖЕННЯ СУБ’ЄКТНОСТІ ФРАНЦУЗЬКОГО РЕЧЕННЯ / INTONATION-SYNTACTICAL MEANS OF EXPRESSION OF THE FRENCH SENTENCE SUBJECTNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Галина КУТАСЕВИЧ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Кутасевич Г. Интонационно-синтаксические средства выражения субъектности французского предложения. В статье рассмотрены интонационно-синтаксические средства французского языка, служащие для усиления субъектной позиции в предложении. В плане выражения эти средства касаются интонационной организации предложения, а также, в некоторых случаях, приводят к смене синтаксических функций слов. В плане содержания это проявляется в смене их соотношения к ситуации. Категория субъекта и субъектноориентированы элементы интонационносинтаксического, морфологического и лексического характера формирую функциональносемантическую категорию субъектности французского предложения. Ключевые слова: предложение, субъект, субъектность, интонационно-синтаксические средства. Kutasevych H. Intonation-syntactical means of expression of the french sentence subjectness. This study is focus on the multilateral investigation of the subject as the main constituent of the French sentence and the research of intonationsyntactical means of expressing subjectness in the French sentence. The fundamental concept of the study is that the French sentence is characterized by a wide subjectness realized through the category of subject and other subject-oriented constituents of the sentence. The category of subject plays an important role in

  3. The development of an Afrikaans test for sentence recognition thresholds in noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Marianne; Hanekom, Johan J; Swanepoel, DeWet

    2011-02-01

    The development of a valid and reliable Afrikaans test of sentence recognition thresholds in noise. A collection of sentences was developed, rated for naturalness and grammatical complexity, and digitally recorded using a female speaker. Sentences found to have similar psychometric curve slopes, with equivalent intelligibility at three different noise levels, were arranged into 22 phonemically matched lists of ten sentences each. List equivalence was evaluated in normal-hearing listeners in full and reduced bandwidth conditions. Test-retest reliability of the remaining lists was evaluated in a second group of listeners. All listeners were native speakers of Afrikaans with normal hearing. For evaluation of list equivalence, ten listeners were used. Twenty other listeners were used to evaluate test-retest reliability. A collection of eighteen phonemically matched lists was produced. Lists were found to be of equivalent difficulty in full and reduced bandwidth conditions, and to have good test-retest reliability in normal-hearing listeners. The average recognition threshold of these lists was -2.73 dB signal-to-noise ratio (standard deviation = 0.64 dB), and within-subject variability was 1.22 dB. The developed test provides a valid and reliable means of measuring sentence recognition thresholds in noise in Afrikaans.

  4. Agrammatic aphasic production and comprehension of unaccusative verbs in sentence contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Miseon; Thompson, Cynthia K

    2004-04-01

    This study examined the Argument Structure Complexity Hypothesis (ASCH, [J. Neuroling. 16 (2003) 151]), by investigating agrammatic aphasic comprehension and elicited production of two types of intransitive verbs (i.e. unergatives and unaccusatives) in sentence contexts. The ASCH attributes production difficulty frequently observed in agrammatic aphasia to the argument structure entries of verbs, stating that verbs with a more complex argument structure (in terms of the number and type of arguments) are more difficult for agrammatic aphasic patients to produce than those with a less complex argument structure. Results showed that eight agrammatic aphasic subjects had production difficulty with unaccusative verb sentences, as compared to unergatives, in the face of near-normal comprehension of both sentence types. These findings support the ASCH that predicts production difficulty with sentences involving unaccusatives with more complex argument structures. Error patterns observed also indicated successful lemma access in that the full array of verb argument structures were produced during sentence attempts, suggesting that complex argument structures hinder appropriate processing after the lemma level.

  5. Affective Norms for 718 Polish Short Texts (ANPST): Dataset with Affective Ratings for Valence, Arousal, Dominance, Origin, Subjective Significance and Source Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbir, Kamil K

    2016-01-01

    Affective sciences are of burgeoning interest and are attracting more and more research attention. Three components of stimuli meaning have traditionally been distinguished: valence (degree of pleasantness), arousal (degree of intensity of sensations), and dominance (degree of control over sensations). Recently, another three dimensions have been introduced to measure qualities connected to the emotion-duality model: origin (the main component originating in the heart or in the mind), subjective significance (the degree of the subjective goal's relevance), and source (the location of the stimuli evoking the state). All six affective dimensions were assessed in our study of 718 Polish short texts (sentences of 5-23 words and 36-133 characters in length) describing situations or states in a way that can be referenced to an individual's experience. Assessments were carried out by 148 psychology students (all women for 108 sentences) and 2,091 students of different faculties (social science, engineering, life science, and science) from Warsaw colleges and universities (1,061 women and 1,030 men for all 718 sentences). Assessing sets of sentences for emotional response is especially useful for researchers interested in emotion elicitation through the use of a phrase such as "imagine that …" or by simply reading emotionally charged material that is more complex and that provides better context than single pictures or words.

  6. [Ophthalmologic reading charts : Part 2: Current logarithmically scaled reading charts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radner, W

    2016-12-01

    To analyze currently available reading charts regarding print size, logarithmic print size progression, and the background of test-item standardization. For the present study, the following logarithmically scaled reading charts were investigated using a measuring microscope (iNexis VMA 2520; Nikon, Tokyo): Eschenbach, Zeiss, OCULUS, MNREAD (Minnesota Near Reading Test), Colenbrander, and RADNER. Calculations were made according to EN-ISO 8596 and the International Research Council recommendations. Modern reading charts and cards exhibit a logarithmic progression of print sizes. The RADNER reading charts comprise four different cards with standardized test items (sentence optotypes), a well-defined stop criterion, accurate letter sizes, and a high print quality. Numbers and Landolt rings are also given in the booklet. The OCULUS cards have currently been reissued according to recent standards and also exhibit a high print quality. In addition to letters, numbers, Landolt rings, and examples taken from a timetable and the telephone book, sheet music is also offered. The Colenbrander cards use short sentences of 44 characters, including spaces, and exhibit inaccuracy at smaller letter sizes, as do the MNREAD cards. The MNREAD cards use sentences of 60 characters, including spaces, and have a high print quality. Modern reading charts show that international standards can be achieved with test items similar to optotypes, by using recent technology and developing new concepts of test-item standardization. Accurate print sizes, high print quality, and a logarithmic progression should become the minimum requirements for reading charts and reading cards in ophthalmology.

  7. A grammar of newspaper editorial language: The complex sentence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and specifically, to the dependent clause as it occurs in these editorials. At the end of the analysis, we identified the following patterns: (a) only declarative sentences were used, (b) there was overwhelming reliance on complex sentences and (c) most of the complex sentences consisted of multiple rankshifted structures.

  8. Unscrambling Jumbled Sentences: An Authentic Task for English Language Assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanteigne, Betty

    2017-01-01

    Jumbled sentence items in language assessment have been criticized by some authors as inauthentic. However, unscrambling jumbled sentences is a common occurrence in real-world communication in English as a lingua franca. Naturalistic inquiry identified 54 instances of jumbled sentence use in daily life in Dubai/Sharjah, where English is widely…

  9. Syntactic Structure Guides Prosody in Temporarily Ambiguous Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Catherine; Carlson, Katy

    2010-01-01

    A pair of speaking and listening studies investigated the prosody of sentences with temporary Object/Clause and Late/Early Closure ambiguities. Speakers reliably produced prosodic cues that allowed listeners to disambiguate Late/Early Closure sentences, but only infrequently produced prosody that disambiguated Object/Clause sentences, as shown by…

  10. 28 CFR 91.4 - Truth in Sentencing Incentive Grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Truth in Sentencing Incentive Grants. 91... FACILITIES General § 91.4 Truth in Sentencing Incentive Grants. (a) Half of the total amount of funds... available for Truth in Sentencing Incentive Grants. (b) Eligibility. To be eligible to receive such a grant...

  11. The Child Justice Act : Procedural Sentencing Issues | Terblanche ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this contribution a number of procedural issues related to the sentencing of child offenders and emanating from the Child Justice Act 75 of 2008 are considered in some detail. As a general rule, the Act requires pre-sentence reports to be obtained from probation officers before sentencing any child offender, with only a ...

  12. The Role of Constraints in Creative Sentence Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haught, Catrinel

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments explored how people create novel sentences referring to given entities presented either in line drawings or in nouns. The line drawings yielded more creative sentences than the words, both as rated by judges and objectively by a measure of the amount of information that the sentences conveyed. A hypothesis about the cognitive…

  13. Sentence Comprehension in Slovak-Speaking Patients with Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marková, Jana; Horváthová, Lubica; Králová, Mária; Cséfalvay, Zsolt

    2017-01-01

    Background: According to some studies, sentence comprehension is diminished in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, but they differ on what underlies the sentence comprehension impairment. Sentence comprehension in AD patients has been studied mainly in the English language. It is less clear how patients with AD speaking a morphologically rich…

  14. Teaching strategies for improving reading and writing in English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reading and writing have become one serious national issue in primary schools in South Africa, and has affected the male and female gender alike. This becomes more so after the ANA (2014) and Progress in International Reading Literacy (PIRLS, 2015) revealed that learners struggle to construct sentences and to spell ...

  15. Reading Ability and Reading Engagement in Older Adults With Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Angeline M.; van Landingham, Suzanne W.; Massof, Robert W.; Rubin, Gary S.; Ramulu, Pradeep Y.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We evaluated the impact of glaucoma-related vision loss on reading ability and reading engagement in 10 reading activities. Methods. A total of 63 glaucoma patients and 59 glaucoma suspect controls self-rated their level of reading difficulty for 10 reading items, and responses were analyzed using Rasch analysis to determine reading ability. Reading engagement was assessed by asking subjects to report the number of days per week they engaged in each reading activity. Reading restriction was determined as a decrement in engagement. Results. Glaucoma subjects more often described greater reading difficulty than controls for all tasks except puzzles (P reading tasks involved puzzles, books, and finances, while the least difficult reading tasks involved notes, bills, and mail. In multivariable weighted least squares regression models of Rasch-estimated person measures of reading ability, less reading ability was found for glaucoma patients compared to controls (β = −1.60 logits, P reading ability was associated with more severe visual field (VF) loss (β = −0.68 logits per 5-dB decrement in better-eye VF mean deviation [MD], P reading on 18% fewer days (P = 0.003) and newspaper reading on 10% fewer days (P = 0.008). No statistically significant reading restriction was observed for other reading activities (P > 0.05). Conclusions. Glaucoma patients have less reading ability and engage less in a variety of different reading activities, particularly those requiring sustained reading. Future work should evaluate the mechanisms underlying reading disability in glaucoma to determine how patients can maintain reading ability and engagement. PMID:25052992

  16. Reading for Meaning: Reading Comprehension Skills in ASD and the Role of Oral Language, Central Coherence, and Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Meghan M.

    2016-01-01

    Reading comprehension is a complex interactional process whereby the accumulated meaning of sounds, words, and sentences is integrated to form a meaningful representation of text. It is well established that many individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have reading comprehension difficulties, but less is understood about the underlying…

  17. Effect of multichannel digital signal processing on loudness comfort, sentence recognition, and sound quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mispagel, Karen M; Valente, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of increasing the number of processing channels from 32- to 64-signal processing channels on subjects' loudness comfort and satisfaction, sentence recognition, and sound quality of his or her own voice. Ten experienced hearing aid users with mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss wore behind-the-ear (BTE) hearing aids with Adaptive Dynamic Range Optimization (ADRO) signal processing for a period of six weeks in the 32-channel and 64-channel conditions. Results revealed no significant differences in loudness comfort or satisfaction for the majority of sound samples as measured by the Subjective Loudness Test and Environmental Sounds Questionnaire. No significant differences in sentence recognition between the two processing conditions were found as measured by the Hearing In Noise Test (HINT). Additionally, no subjective differences in sound quality of subjects' own voice were determined by the Listening Tasks Questionnaire.

  18. Assessing Reading Skill with a Think-Aloud Procedure and Latent Semantic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliano, Joseph P.; Millis, Keith K.

    2003-01-01

    Two studies examined the viability of assessing reading strategies using a think-aloud protocol combined with latent semantic analysis (LSA). Findings demonstrated that the responses of less-skilled readers semantically overlapped more with focal sentences than with causal antecedent sentences, whereas skilled readers' responses overlapped with…

  19. [Predictive power of working memory task for reading comprehension: an investigation using reading span test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Masanao; Kondo, Hirohito; Ashida, Kayo; Otsuka, Yuki; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2007-02-01

    This study investigated the crucial factor mediating a correlation between performance of reading span test (RST) and reading comprehension. In the research literature on this issue, one of the remaining controversial points is whether the similarity of sentence processing between RST and comprehension contributes to the correlation. In this study, four RST conditions were created by the combination of two factors: relatedness of stimulus sentences (related or unrelated with each other) and focus of target words (focus or non-focus with respect to sentence meaning). If the correlation is mediated by the similarity of sentence processing, RST performance of related and focus condition, which was most akin to comprehension, would have higher correlation with reading comprehension than other conditions. However, as a result of correlation analysis based on data from ninety-six participants, no such evidence was obtained. On the other hand, RST performance of unrelated conditions that were supposed to strongly require attention control showed significant correlation with reading comprehension. These findings are discussed in terms of the contribution of attention control and short-term memory to performing RST and reading comprehension.

  20. Simultaneously Uncovering the Patterns of Brain Regions Involved in Different Story Reading Subprocesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehbe, Leila; Murphy, Brian; Talukdar, Partha; Fyshe, Alona; Ramdas, Aaditya; Mitchell, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Story understanding involves many perceptual and cognitive subprocesses, from perceiving individual words, to parsing sentences, to understanding the relationships among the story characters. We present an integrated computational model of reading that incorporates these and additional subprocesses, simultaneously discovering their fMRI signatures. Our model predicts the fMRI activity associated with reading arbitrary text passages, well enough to distinguish which of two story segments is being read with 74% accuracy. This approach is the first to simultaneously track diverse reading subprocesses during complex story processing and predict the detailed neural representation of diverse story features, ranging from visual word properties to the mention of different story characters and different actions they perform. We construct brain representation maps that replicate many results from a wide range of classical studies that focus each on one aspect of language processing and offer new insights on which type of information is processed by different areas involved in language processing. Additionally, this approach is promising for studying individual differences: it can be used to create single subject maps that may potentially be used to measure reading comprehension and diagnose reading disorders. PMID:25426840

  1. Simultaneously uncovering the patterns of brain regions involved in different story reading subprocesses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Wehbe

    Full Text Available Story understanding involves many perceptual and cognitive subprocesses, from perceiving individual words, to parsing sentences, to understanding the relationships among the story characters. We present an integrated computational model of reading that incorporates these and additional subprocesses, simultaneously discovering their fMRI signatures. Our model predicts the fMRI activity associated with reading arbitrary text passages, well enough to distinguish which of two story segments is being read with 74% accuracy. This approach is the first to simultaneously track diverse reading subprocesses during complex story processing and predict the detailed neural representation of diverse story features, ranging from visual word properties to the mention of different story characters and different actions they perform. We construct brain representation maps that replicate many results from a wide range of classical studies that focus each on one aspect of language processing and offer new insights on which type of information is processed by different areas involved in language processing. Additionally, this approach is promising for studying individual differences: it can be used to create single subject maps that may potentially be used to measure reading comprehension and diagnose reading disorders.

  2. Adding sentence types to a model of syntactic category acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Stella; Goldwater, Sharon; Keller, Frank

    2013-07-01

    The acquisition of syntactic categories is a crucial step in the process of acquiring syntax. At this stage, before a full grammar is available, only surface cues are available to the learner. Previous computational models have demonstrated that local contexts are informative for syntactic categorization. However, local contexts are affected by sentence-level structure. In this paper, we add sentence type as an observed feature to a model of syntactic category acquisition, based on experimental evidence showing that pre-syntactic children are able to distinguish sentence type using prosody and other cues. The model, a Bayesian Hidden Markov Model, allows for adding sentence type in a few different ways; we find that sentence type can aid syntactic category acquisition if it is used to characterize the differences in word order between sentence types. In these models, knowledge of sentence type permits similar gains to those found by extending the local context. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  3. Effects of false-evidence ploys and expert testimony on jurors' verdicts, recommended sentences, and perceptions of confession evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, William Douglas; Forrest, Krista D

    2009-01-01

    During interrogations, police may use false-evidence ploys or fabricated claims to convince suspects to confess. Mock jurors read trial materials containing interrogation transcripts with or without a false-evidence ploy and one of two expert witness conditions (present or absent). We examined jurors' verdicts, recommended sentences, and perceptions of the interrogation. Although factual evidence and the defendant's confession remained constant across conditions, false-evidence ploys led to fewer convictions and shorter sentences. Jurors also perceived interrogations with ploys as more deceptive and coercive. Expert testimony reduced convictions and increased interrogation deception and coercion ratings. Across ploy types, participants rated demeanor ploys as less deceptive and recommended longer sentences for confessors. Outcomes reveal important, previously unrecognized consequences of false-evidence ploys. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Toward defining good writing: A rhetorical analysis of the words, sentences, and paragraphs in 16 industrial scripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisinger, R. R.; Petersen, B. T.

    1981-01-01

    The assumption that teachers of technical writing agree on a definition of good writing was found to be without basis. Resolution of disagreements arising from close reading and textual analysis is described. Writing samples from corporate sources including IBM, ALCOA, Exxon, Weyerhaeuser, Bell Labs, Underwriters Laboratories, Dow Chemical, and US Steel were requested. A mixture of informative and persuasive examples, and examples directed at lay and specialist audiences were received. Analyses of 16 writing samples are reported. Analysis of word level, sentence level, and paragraph level, was completed. Syllabism, verb selection, nominalizations, vocabulary choices, t-units, subordination, sentence and clause length, syntactic order, patterns, development, topic sentences, propositional order, and transitions were analyzed.

  5. Modality Effects on Sentence Memory and Understanding

    OpenAIRE

    岡, 直樹; 田中, 裕佳

    2016-01-01

    In this study, poems were presented in one of three modalities: auditory, visual, or audiovisual. Modality differences in recall performance were observed only in a word memory test, revealing that visual and audiovisual presentation exhibited superiority over auditory presentation. The modality effect was not observed in the serial recall test, or the meaning understanding test. These results are discussed in terms of sentence memory and understanding.

  6. GENERATIVE WORDS OF ALBANIAN AND ENGLISH SENTENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Shkelqim Millaku

    2017-01-01

    This studies or the aim of the research is to deals the generative “morphems, words or “simple or compound[1]” sentence. The full congrast of Albanian and English language in this phenomena of generative is in morphology and in syntactic structure. This accepts of studies will comparted, contrasted and generated between two languages. This studies deals with noun (noun phrase), verb (verb phrase) of syntactic structure between Albanian and English language. In both of languages, most linguis...

  7. Development, reliability, and validity of PRESTO: a new high-variability sentence recognition test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jaimie L; Tamati, Terrin N; Pisoni, David B

    2013-01-01

    ) and retest (Phase II). PRESTO validity was analyzed by a correlational analysis of participant performance on PRESTO and HINT sentences tested in Phase II, and by an analysis of variance of within-subject factors of sentence test and SNR, and a between-subjects factor of group, based on level of Phase I performance. A wide range of performance on PRESTO was observed; averaged across all SNRs, keyword accuracy ranged from 40.26 to 76.18% correct. PRESTO accuracy at retest (Phase II) was highly correlated with Phase I accuracy (r = 0.92, p test type and SNR [F(3, 114) = 121.36, p test/retest reliability. Although a moderate correlation was observed between PRESTO and HINT sentences, a different pattern of results occurred with the two types of sentences depending on the level of the competition, suggesting the use of different processing strategies. Findings from this study demonstrate the importance of high-variability materials for assessing and understanding individual differences in speech perception. American Academy of Audiology.

  8. A Study on the Development of Reading Skills of the Students Having Difficulty in Reading: Enrichment Reading Program

    OpenAIRE

    Hayati AKYOL; Ahmet ÇAKIROĞLU; Hayriye Gül KURUYER

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to improve the reading skills of the students having difficulty in reading through an enrichment reading program. The current study was conducted by means of one-subject research technique and between-subjects multiple-starting levels model belonging to this technique. The study was carried out with three participants from fifth grade. In order to collect data for the study, word recognition test, reading texts, Ekwall and Shanker reading inventory and reading compreh...

  9. Neural activations correlated with reading speed during reading novels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimaki, Norio; Munetsuna, Shinji; Sasaki, Toyofumi; Hayakawa, Tomoe; Ihara, Aya; Wei, Qiang; Terazono, Yasushi; Murata, Tsutomu

    2009-12-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure neural activations in subjects instructed to silently read novels at ordinary and rapid speeds. Among the 19 subjects, 8 were experts in a rapid reading technique. Subjects pressed a button to turn pages during reading, and the interval between turning pages was recorded to evaluate the reading speed. For each subject, we evaluated activations in 14 areas and at 2 instructed reading speeds. Neural activations decreased with increasing reading speed in the left middle and posterior superior temporal area, left inferior frontal area, left precentral area, and the anterior temporal areas of both hemispheres, which have been reported to be active for linguistic processes, while neural activation increased with increasing reading speed in the right intraparietal sulcus, which is considered to reflect visuo-spatial processes. Despite the considerable reading speed differences, correlation analysis showed no significant difference in activation dependence on reading speed with respect to the subject groups and instructed reading speeds. The activation reduction with speed increase in language-related areas was opposite to the previous reports for low reading speeds. The present results suggest that subjects reduced linguistic processes with reading speed increase from ordinary to rapid speed.

  10. Evaluating Year-End Oral Reading Records of First Graders in Terms of Prosody Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaarslan, Mustafa; Ergün, Akile

    2017-01-01

    Prosody is evaluated as an important factor in fluent reading, and in literature it is expressed as a significant reading skill that affects comprehension. Prosody--described as a fluent reading ability of a reader with suitable sentences and expressions--includes stress, intonation, duration (time passed on voicing a word) and pausing properties…

  11. Principles and Implementation of Reading Activities in Primary School English Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinxiu, Jing; Zhengping, Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Reading is an important skill in learning English. However, reading class is not emphasized in some primary schools in China, and there are various problems with the reading activities, which inadequately just focus on teaching of words, sentences separately from texts. This paper aims to bring out a whole system of principles in designing…

  12. Attention Therapy Improves Reading Comprehension in Adjudicated Teens in a Residential Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley-Tremblay, John; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Eyer, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    This study quantified the influence of visual Attention Therapy (AT) on reading skills and Coherent Motion Threshold (CMT) in adjudicated teens with moderate reading disabilities (RD) residing in a residential alternative sentencing program. Forty-two students with below-average reading scores were identified using standardized reading…

  13. Self-Guided Reading: Touch-Based Measures of Syntactic Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Hunter

    2016-01-01

    A novel online reading methodology termed Self-Guided Reading (SGR) is examined to determine if it can successfully detect well-studied syntactic processing behaviours. In SGR, a participant runs their finger under masked text in order to reveal a sentence. It is therefore similar to self-paced reading in presentation of stimuli, but different in…

  14. [Health state assessment in people sentenced to the penalty of restriction of liberty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świderski, Paweł; Żaba, Czesław; Macioszek, Natalia

    2016-12-22

    Assessment of the health state of people sentenced to the penalty of restriction of liberty makes up a significant percentage of cases annually elaborated in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences. The analysis of such cases was accomplished to point out the difficulties that expert physicians could encounter in formulating their opinions. The analysis involved 1051 medico-legal opinions issued in the years 2004-2013, considering the health state of people performing the duty of free, controlled social labor. The authors collected data on age, sex, type of diseases and the ability to control social work of convicted subjects. Among those sentenced to the penalty of restriction of liberty the men aged 51-60 were in the majority. Individuals able to work only in specified conditions were the most numerous group (56.3%). People able to work in all conditions were the smallest set (9.5%). Light work was the type of work most frequently recommended to the persons able to work only in specific conditions (58.4%). The largest group of diseases comprised spondylopathies and osteoarthropathies (51.4%). It was followed by the group of cardiac diseases and angiopathies, including hypertension (38.7%). The number of cases concerning the ability of the sentenced persons to serve the penalty of restriction of liberty annually elaborated in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences and the number of sentences imposed on the national scale indicate that medical experts may be obliged to provide opinions of this kind. Assessment of the health state of people sentenced to the penalty of restriction of liberty in some cases can be a difficult task for the expert physicians because of frequent lack of information about a specific type of work performed by the sentenced persons having only the data about their diseases. Med Pr 2016;67(6):765-775.

  15. ERP evidence for telicity effects on syntactic processing in garden-path sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaia, Evguenia; Wilbur, Ronnie B; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2009-03-01

    Verbs contain multifaceted information about both the semantics of an action, and potential argument structures. Linguistic theory classifies verbs according to whether the denoted action has an inherent (telic) end-point (fall, awaken), or whether it is considered homogenous, or atelic (read, worship). The aim of our study was to examine how this distinction influences on-line sentence processing, investigating the effects of verbal telicity on the ease of syntactic re-analysis of Object reduced relative clauses. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 22 English speakers as they read sentences in which the main verb was either telic or atelic, e.g., "The actress awakened/worshipped by the writer left in a hurry". ERPs elicited by telic and atelic verbs, the preposition "by" introducing the second argument (Agent), and the second argument itself, e.g., "writer", were compared. Additionally, participants were grouped according to receptive syntactic proficiency: normal (NP) or high (HP). ERPs from the NP group first diverged at the second argument, with the atelic condition eliciting larger amplitude negativity at the N100, and continuing to the P200 interval. In contrast, ERPs from the HP group first diverged earlier in the sentence, on the word "by". ERPs elicited by "by" in the atelic condition were also characterized by increased negativity, in this case significant at P200 and Anterior Negativity between 320 and 500ms post stimulus onset. Our results support the postulated conceptual/semantic distinction underlying the two verb categories, and demonstrate that world-knowledge about actions designated by verbs and syntactic proficiency are reflected in on-line processing of sentence structure.

  16. Sentence Syntax and Content in the Human Temporal Lobe: An fMRI Adaptation Study in Auditory and Visual Modalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devauchelle, A.D.; Dehaene, S.; Pallier, C. [INSERM, Gif sur Yvette (France); Devauchelle, A.D.; Dehaene, S.; Pallier, C. [CEA, DSV, I2BM, NeuroSpin, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France); Devauchelle, A.D.; Pallier, C. [Univ. Paris 11, Orsay (France); Oppenheim, C. [Univ Paris 05, Ctr Hosp St Anne, Paris (France); Rizzi, L. [Univ Siena, CISCL, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Dehaene, S. [Coll France, F-75231 Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    Priming effects have been well documented in behavioral psycho-linguistics experiments: The processing of a word or a sentence is typically facilitated when it shares lexico-semantic or syntactic features with a previously encountered stimulus. Here, we used fMRI priming to investigate which brain areas show adaptation to the repetition of a sentence's content or syntax. Participants read or listened to sentences organized in series which could or not share similar syntactic constructions and/or lexico-semantic content. The repetition of lexico-semantic content yielded adaptation in most of the temporal and frontal sentence processing network, both in the visual and the auditory modalities, even when the same lexico-semantic content was expressed using variable syntactic constructions. No fMRI adaptation effect was observed when the same syntactic construction was repeated. Yet behavioral priming was observed at both syntactic and semantic levels in a separate experiment where participants detected sentence endings. We discuss a number of possible explanations for the absence of syntactic priming in the fMRI experiments, including the possibility that the conglomerate of syntactic properties defining 'a construction' is not an actual object assembled during parsing. (authors)

  17. Verbal Semantics Drives Early Anticipatory Eye Movements during the Comprehension of Verb-Initial Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauppe, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Studies on anticipatory processes during sentence comprehension often focus on the prediction of postverbal direct objects. In subject-initial languages (the target of most studies so far), however, the position in the sentence, the syntactic function, and the semantic role of arguments are often conflated. For example, in the sentence “The frog will eat the fly” the syntactic object (“fly”) is at the same time also the last word and the patient argument of the verb. It is therefore not apparent which kind of information listeners orient to for predictive processing during sentence comprehension. A visual world eye tracking study on the verb-initial language Tagalog (Austronesian) tested what kind of information listeners use to anticipate upcoming postverbal linguistic input. The grammatical structure of Tagalog allows to test whether listeners' anticipatory gaze behavior is guided by predictions of the linear order of words, by syntactic functions (e.g., subject/object), or by semantic roles (agent/patient). Participants heard sentences of the type “Eat frog fly” or “Eat fly frog” (both meaning “The frog will eat the fly”) while looking at displays containing an agent referent (“frog”), a patient referent (“fly”) and a distractor. The verb carried morphological marking that allowed the order and syntactic function of agent and patient to be inferred. After having heard the verb, listeners fixated on the agent irrespective of its syntactic function or position in the sentence. While hearing the first-mentioned argument, listeners fixated on the corresponding referent in the display accordingly and then initiated saccades to the last-mentioned referent before it was encountered. The results indicate that listeners used verbal semantics to identify referents and their semantic roles early; information about word order or syntactic functions did not influence anticipatory gaze behavior directly after the verb was heard. In this verb

  18. Verbal Semantics Drives Early Anticipatory Eye Movements during the Comprehension of Verb-Initial Sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauppe, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Studies on anticipatory processes during sentence comprehension often focus on the prediction of postverbal direct objects. In subject-initial languages (the target of most studies so far), however, the position in the sentence, the syntactic function, and the semantic role of arguments are often conflated. For example, in the sentence "The frog will eat the fly" the syntactic object ("fly") is at the same time also the last word and the patient argument of the verb. It is therefore not apparent which kind of information listeners orient to for predictive processing during sentence comprehension. A visual world eye tracking study on the verb-initial language Tagalog (Austronesian) tested what kind of information listeners use to anticipate upcoming postverbal linguistic input. The grammatical structure of Tagalog allows to test whether listeners' anticipatory gaze behavior is guided by predictions of the linear order of words, by syntactic functions (e.g., subject/object), or by semantic roles (agent/patient). Participants heard sentences of the type "Eat frog fly" or "Eat fly frog" (both meaning "The frog will eat the fly") while looking at displays containing an agent referent ("frog"), a patient referent ("fly") and a distractor. The verb carried morphological marking that allowed the order and syntactic function of agent and patient to be inferred. After having heard the verb, listeners fixated on the agent irrespective of its syntactic function or position in the sentence. While hearing the first-mentioned argument, listeners fixated on the corresponding referent in the display accordingly and then initiated saccades to the last-mentioned referent before it was encountered. The results indicate that listeners used verbal semantics to identify referents and their semantic roles early; information about word order or syntactic functions did not influence anticipatory gaze behavior directly after the verb was heard. In this verb-initial language, event semantics

  19. Verbal semantics drives early anticipatory eye movements during the comprehension of verb-initial sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eSauppe

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies on anticipatory processes during sentence comprehension often focus on the prediction of postverbal direct objects. In subject-initial languages (the target of most studies so far, however, the position in the sentence, the syntactic function, and the semantic role of arguments are often conflated. For example, in the sentence The frog will eat the fly the syntactic object (fly is at the same time also the last word and the patient argument of the verb. It is therefore not apparent which kind of information listeners orient to for predictive processing during sentence comprehension. A visual world eye tracking study on the verb-initial language Tagalog (Austronesian tested what kind of information listeners use to anticipate upcoming postverbal linguistic input. The grammatical structure of Tagalog allows to test whether listeners' anticipatory gaze behavior is guided by predictions of the linear order of words, by syntactic functions (e.g., subject/object, or by semantic roles (agent/patient. Participants heard sentences of the type Eat frog fly or Eat fly frog (both meaning The frog will eat the fly while looking at displays containing an agent referent (frog, a patient referent (fly and a distractor. The verb carried morphological marking that allowed the order and syntactic function of agent and patient to be inferred. After having heard the verb, listeners fixated on the agent irrespective of its syntactic function or position in the sentence. While hearing the first-mentioned argument, listeners fixated on the corresponding referent in the display accordingly and then initiated saccades to the last-mentioned referent before it was encountered. The results indicate that listeners used verbal semantics to identify referents and their semantic roles early; information about word order or syntactic functions did not influence anticipatory gaze behavior directly after the verb was heard. In this verb-initial language, event semantics

  20. Connected text reading and differences in text reading fluency in adult readers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallot, S.; Hollis, G.; Rooij, M. de

    2013-01-01

    The process of connected text reading has received very little attention in contemporary cognitive psychology. This lack of attention is in parts due to a research tradition that emphasizes the role of basic lexical constituents, which can be studied in isolated words or sentences. However, this

  1. [SENTREP test: two lists of sentences of equal length to check the attention and the presence of linguistic maturity problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedó, M A

    Comparing the syntactic complexity of the sentences, in addition to its length, may help detect the linguistic weaknesses of Spanish-speaking subjects. The test consists of two lists of sentences of similar length: a list of sentences of well-controlled length, based on the repetition of bisyllabic words (such as the ones suggested by Kagan & Klein) and adding length to the sentences in two syllables steps; and a parallel list where a series of linguistic complexities are included (negatives, persons, numbers, tenses, composite or multiple verbs, relatives, etc) where length increases one syllable at a time. We administered this test to 41, 44, 62 and 18 student aged 6, 9, 12 and 15 at a upper-class school in Bogotá; and to parallel groups of 20 gifted students (in a school for gifted children near Bogotá) and 40 disabled Hispanic non-readers attending an independent special program. Below a certain developmental level (the age of 9) student must face complexity as one more difficulty that diminishes the length of the repeated sentence. On the contrary: after this age, their mastery of the structure of language acts as a leading thread that allows the repetition of longer and longer sentences, much longer than their simple attention span. This diagnostic approach adds an unexpected approach to the very quick observation and detection of both attentional and linguistic problems.

  2. How Knowledge Powers Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemov, Doug

    2017-01-01

    Recent research shows that reading comprehension relies heavily on prior knowledge. Far more than generic "reading skills" like drawing inferences, making predictions, and knowing the function of subheads, how well students learn from a nonfiction text depends on their background knowledge of the text's subject matter. And in a cyclical…

  3. Reading Faster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the visual nature of the reading process as it relates to reading speed. It points out that there is a physical limit on normal reading speed and beyond this limit the reading process will be different from normal reading where almost every word is attended to. The article describes a range of activities for developing…

  4. READING THEORIES AND READING COMPREHENSION

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Novary Ngabut

    2015-01-01

    In this article several reading theories in their relations to reading comprehension teachers and lecturers of English need to know are reviewed. At the theory level, three other Models of Reading, namely Bottom-Up, Top-Down, and Interactive are previously discussed to the Schema Theory. In reviewing the reading comprehension, the history of reading instruction, types and purposes of reading, and cognitive reading skills are discussed. Finally, it reviews six variables involved in the compreh...

  5. Assessing Comprehension During Reading with the Reading Strategy Assessment Tool (RSAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliano, Joseph P; Millis, Keith K; Levinstein, Irwin

    2011-08-01

    Comprehension emerges as the results of inference and strategic processes that support the construction of a coherent mental model for a text. However, the vast majority of comprehension skills tests adopt a format that does not afford an assessment of these processes as they operate during reading. This study assessed the viability of the Reading Strategy Assessment Tool (RSAT), which is an automated computer-based reading assessment designed to measure readers' comprehension and spontaneous use of reading strategies while reading texts. In the tool, readers comprehend passages one sentence at a time, and are asked either an indirect ("What are your thoughts regarding your understanding of the sentence in the context of the passage?") or direct (e.g., why X?) question after reading each pre-selected target sentence. The answers to the indirect questions are analyzed on the extent that they contain words associated with comprehension processes. The answers to direct questions are coded for the number of content words in common with an ideal answer, which is intended to be an assessment of emerging comprehension. In the study, the RSAT approach was shown to predict measures of comprehension comparable to standardized tests. The RSAT variables were also shown to correlate with human ratings. The results of this study constitute a "proof of concept" and demonstrate that it is possible to develop a comprehension skills assessment tool that assesses both comprehension and comprehension strategies.

  6. CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT READING COMPREHENSION IN THE SUBJECT ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES / CONSIDERACIONES SOBRE LA COMPRENSIÓN LECTORA EN LA ASIGNATURA INGLÉS CON FINES GENERALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Feliciana Mayo Castro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reading comprehension is one of the general abilities of English language in the teaching-learning process. This skill constitutes a cultural and a work device, and it is the basis that helps to acquire of a great amount of knowledge. This methodological suggestion facilitates the development of reading comprehension due to that it is a system of exercises which are organized in a hierarchical way that leads the students to better decode the message expressed in a text. Reading comprehension ability makes easier to decode a message not only in English language but in Spanish language as well. LA COMPRENSIÓN LECTORA EN LA ASIGNATURA INGLÉS CON FINES GENERALES AUTORAS: DIRECCIÓN PARA CORRESPONDENCIA: Departamento de Idiomas. Universidad de Las Tunas, Cuba. E-mail graciela@ult.edu.cu Fecha de recepción: 21\t-\t08\t-\t2013 Fecha de aceptación:\t30\t-\t11\t-\t2013 RESUMEN La comprensión lectora es una de las habilidades generales en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje del idioma inglés, esta constituye un instrumento de trabajo y de cultura y es la base que facilita el aprendizaje de un gran cúmulo de conocimientos. La presente alternativa metodológica facilita el desarrollo de la habilidad de comprensión lectora pues parte de un sistema de ejercicios jerárquicamente organizados, lo que conllevan al estudiante a una decodificación más acertada del mensaje expresado en los textos. El desarrollo de esta habilidad les permite la decodificación de información tanto en la lengua inglesa como en la lengua materna.

  7. Proficiency and sentence constraint effects on second language word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tengfei; Chen, Baoguo; Lu, Chunming; Dunlap, Susan

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents an experiment that investigated the effects of L2 proficiency and sentence constraint on semantic processing of unknown L2 words (pseudowords). All participants were Chinese native speakers who learned English as a second language. In the experiment, we used a whole sentence presentation paradigm with a delayed semantic relatedness judgment task. Both higher and lower-proficiency L2 learners could make use of the high-constraint sentence context to judge the meaning of novel pseudowords, and higher-proficiency L2 learners outperformed lower-proficiency L2 learners in all conditions. These results demonstrate that both L2 proficiency and sentence constraint affect subsequent word learning among second language learners. We extended L2 word learning into a sentence context, replicated the sentence constraint effects previously found among native speakers, and found proficiency effects in L2 word learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. What eye movements can tell us about sentence comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasishth, Shravan; von der Malsburg, Titus; Engelmann, Felix

    2013-03-01

    Eye movement data have proven to be very useful for investigating human sentence processing. Eyetracking research has addressed a wide range of questions, such as recovery mechanisms following garden-pathing, the timing of processes driving comprehension, the role of anticipation and expectation in parsing, the role of semantic, pragmatic, and prosodic information, and so on. However, there are some limitations regarding the inferences that can be made on the basis of eye movements. One relates to the nontrivial interaction between parsing and the eye movement control system which complicates the interpretation of eye movement data. Detailed computational models that integrate parsing with eye movement control theories have the potential to unpack the complexity of eye movement data and can therefore aid in the interpretation of eye movements. Another limitation is the difficulty of capturing spatiotemporal patterns in eye movements using the traditional word-based eyetracking measures. Recent research has demonstrated the relevance of these patterns and has shown how they can be analyzed. In this review, we focus on reading, and present examples demonstrating how eye movement data reveal what events unfold when the parser runs into difficulty, and how the parsing system interacts with eye movement control. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:125-134. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1209 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Structuring Judicial Discretion in China: Exploring the 2014 Sentencing Guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Julian V.; Pei, Wei

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn recent years, a range of western jurisdictions has introduced reforms designed to restrict and guide judicial discretion at sentencing. The reforms enacted include mandatory sentencing laws and guiding statutes prescribing sentencing purposes and principles as well as important aggravating and mitigating factors. However, formal guidelines are the most promising and well-studied innovation. We may now add China to the growing list of countries that have recognized the utility o...

  10. Improving Students' Writing Skill by Using Scramble Sentence Method

    OpenAIRE

    Afrizal, M

    2016-01-01

    This thesis entitled Improving Students' Writing Skill by Using Scramble Sentence Method (A Collaborative Classroom Action Research To the Second Years Students of SMP Negeri 3 Bireuen). The problems of the research are (1) Can the use of Scramble Sentence Method improve the students' writing skill to the second year students of SMP Negeri 3 Bireuen?, and (2) Can the use of Scramble Sentence Method give motivation to the students?. Based on research problems, the purposes of the research are ...

  11. The role of prominence in Spanish sentence comprehension: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattei, Carolina A; Tabullo, Ángel; París, Luis; Wainselboim, Alejandro J

    2015-11-01

    Prominence is the hierarchical relation among arguments that allows us to understand 'Who did what to whom' in a sentence. The present study aimed to provide evidence about the role of prominence information for the incremental interpretation of arguments in Spanish. We investigated the time course of neural correlates associated to the comprehension of sentences that require a reversal of argument prominence hierarchization. We also studied how the amount of available prominence information may affect the incremental build-up of verbal expectations. Results of the ERP data revealed that at the disambiguating verb region, object-initial sentences (only one argument available) elicited a centro-parietal negativity with a peak at 400 ms post-onset. Subject-initial sentences (two arguments available) yielded a broadly distributed positivity at around 650 ms. This dissociation suggests that argument interpretation may depend on their morphosyntactic features, and also on the amount of prominence information available before the verb is encountered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Large scale brain functional networks support sentence comprehension: evidence from both explicit and implicit language tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zude; Fan, Yuanyuan; Feng, Gangyi; Huang, Ruiwang; Wang, Suiping

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that sentences are comprehended via widespread brain regions in the fronto-temporo-parietal network in explicit language tasks (e.g., semantic congruency judgment tasks), and through restricted temporal or frontal regions in implicit language tasks (e.g., font size judgment tasks). This discrepancy has raised questions regarding a common network for sentence comprehension that acts regardless of task effect and whether different tasks modulate network properties. To this end, we constructed brain functional networks based on 27 subjects' fMRI data that was collected while performing explicit and implicit language tasks. We found that network properties and network hubs corresponding to the implicit language task were similar to those associated with the explicit language task. We also found common hubs in occipital, temporal and frontal regions in both tasks. Compared with the implicit language task, the explicit language task resulted in greater global efficiency and increased integrated betweenness centrality of the left inferior frontal gyrus, which is a key region related to sentence comprehension. These results suggest that brain functional networks support both explicit and implicit sentence comprehension; in addition, these two types of language tasks may modulate the properties of brain functional networks.

  13. A Study on the English Vowel Lengths between Sentence-Initial and Sentence-Final Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Heesuk

    2000-01-01

    Investigated English vowel lengths between Americans and Koreans when they speak English sentences. Koreans showed a foreign accent in their English pronunciation of vowels in relation to their utterance positions. Americans showed a final lengthening effect, but Koreans showed a final shortening effect. (Author/VWL)

  14. I "hear" what you're "saying": Auditory perceptual simulation, reading speed, and reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peiyun; Christianson, Kiel

    2016-01-01

    Auditory perceptual simulation (APS) during silent reading refers to situations in which the reader actively simulates the voice of a character or other person depicted in a text. In three eye-tracking experiments, APS effects were investigated as people read utterances attributed to a native English speaker, a non-native English speaker, or no speaker at all. APS effects were measured via online eye movements and offline comprehension probes. Results demonstrated that inducing APS during silent reading resulted in observable differences in reading speed when readers simulated the speech of faster compared to slower speakers and compared to silent reading without APS. Social attitude survey results indicated that readers' attitudes towards the native and non-native speech did not consistently influence APS-related effects. APS of both native speech and non-native speech increased reading speed, facilitated deeper, less good-enough sentence processing, and improved comprehension compared to normal silent reading.

  15. The Effects of the Allain Reading System on Reading Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, Althea Saizan

    Five hundred second-grade pupils participated in a study of the effect of the Allain Color Pack reading system on reading achievement. Subjects were divided into equal treatment and control groups; each group was stratified according to low, average, and high reading ability determined on the basis of pretests of vocabulary and comprehension. The…

  16. Neural bases of event knowledge and syntax integration in comprehension of complex sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaia, Evie; Newman, Sharlene

    2015-01-01

    Comprehension of complex sentences is necessarily supported by both syntactic and semantic knowledge, but what linguistic factors trigger a readers' reliance on a specific system? This functional neuroimaging study orthogonally manipulated argument plausibility and verb event type to investigate cortical bases of the semantic effect on argument comprehension during reading. The data suggest that telic verbs facilitate online processing by means of consolidating the event schemas in episodic memory and by easing the computation of syntactico-thematic hierarchies in the left inferior frontal gyrus. The results demonstrate that syntax-semantics integration relies on trade-offs among a distributed network of regions for maximum comprehension efficiency.

  17. Sentence production in rehabilitation of agrammatism: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silagi, Marcela Lima; Hirata, Fernanda Naito; de Mendonça, Lúcia Iracema Zanotto

    2014-01-01

    Agrammatism is characterized by morphosyntactic deficits in production of sentences. Studies dealing with the treatment of these deficits are scarce and their results controversial. The present study describes the rehabilitation of a case diagnosed as chronic Broca's aphasia, with agrammatism, using a method directed to sentence structural deficits. The method aims to expand the grammatical repertoire by training production of sentences with support from contexts that stimulate actions and dialogues. The patient showed positive results on all types of sentences trained and generalized the gains to spontaneous speech. However, these benefits were not sustained in the long term. PMID:29213917

  18. Development of the Russian matrix sentence test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warzybok, Anna; Zokoll, Melanie; Wardenga, Nina; Ozimek, Edward; Boboshko, Maria; Kollmeier, Birger

    2015-01-01

    To develop the Russian matrix sentence test for speech intelligibility measurements in noise. Test development included recordings, optimization of speech material, and evaluation to investigate the equivalency of the test lists and training. For each of the 500 test items, the speech intelligibility function, speech reception threshold (SRT: signal-to-noise ratio, SNR, that provides 50% speech intelligibility), and slope was obtained. The speech material was homogenized by applying level corrections. In evaluation measurements, speech intelligibility was measured at two fixed SNRs to compare list-specific intelligibility functions. To investigate the training effect and establish reference data, speech intelligibility was measured adaptively. Overall, 77 normal-hearing native Russian listeners. The optimization procedure decreased the spread in SRTs across words from 2.8 to 0.6 dB. Evaluation measurements confirmed that the 16 test lists were equivalent, with a mean SRT of -9.5 ± 0.2 dB and a slope of 13.8 ± 1.6%/dB. The reference SRT, -8.8 ± 0.8 dB for the open-set and -9.4 ± 0.8 dB for the closed-set format, increased slightly for noise levels above 75 dB SPL. The Russian matrix sentence test is suitable for accurate and reliable speech intelligibility measurements in noise.

  19. Facial Action and Emotional Language: ERP Evidence that Blocking Facial Feedback Selectively Impairs Sentence Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joshua D; Winkielman, Piotr; Coulson, Seana

    2015-11-01

    There is a lively and theoretically important debate about whether, how, and when embodiment contributes to language comprehension. This study addressed these questions by testing how interference with facial action impacts the brain's real-time response to emotional language. Participants read sentences about positive and negative events (e.g., "She reached inside the pocket of her coat from last winter and found some (cash/bugs) inside it.") while ERPs were recorded. Facial action was manipulated within participants by asking participants to hold chopsticks in their mouths using a position that allowed or blocked smiling, as confirmed by EMG. Blocking smiling did not influence ERPs to the valenced words (e.g., cash, bugs) but did influence ERPs to final words of sentences describing positive events. Results show that affectively positive sentences can evoke smiles and that such facial action can facilitate the semantic processing indexed by the N400 component. Overall, this study offers causal evidence that embodiment impacts some aspects of high-level comprehension, presumably involving the construction of the situation model.

  20. Child writers’ construction and reconstruction of single sentences and construction of multi-sentence texts: contributions of syntax and transcription to translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Nagy, William; Beers, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Children in grades one to four completed two sentence construction tasks: (a) Write one complete sentence about a topic prompt (sentence integrity, Study 1); and (b) Integrate two sentences into one complete sentence without changing meaning (sentence combining, Study 2). Most, but not all, children in first through fourth grade could write just one sentence. The sentence integrity task was not correlated with sentence combining until fourth grade, when in multiple regression, sentence integrity explained unique variance in sentence combining, along with spelling. Word-level skills (morphology in first and spelling in second through fourth grade) consistently explained unique variance in sentence combining. Thus, many beginning writers have syntactic knowledge of what constitutes a complete sentence, but not until fourth grade do both syntax and transcription contribute uniquely to flexible translation of ideas into the syntax of a written sentence. In Study 3, eleven syntactic categories were identified in single- and multi- sentence composing from second to fifth grade. Complex clauses (independent plus subordinate) occurred more often on single-sentence composing, but single independent clauses occurred more often on multi-sentence composing. For multi-sentence text, more single, independent clauses were produced by pen than keyboard in grades 3 to 7. The most frequent category of complex clauses in multi-sentence texts varied with genre (relative for essays and subordinate for narratives). Thus, in addition to syntax-level sentence construction and word-level transcription, amount of translation (number of sentences), mode of transcription, and genre for multiple sentence text also influence translation of ideas into written language of child writers. Results of these studies employing descriptive linguistic analyses are discussed in reference to cognitive theory of writing development. PMID:21383865

  1. Child writers' construction and reconstruction of single sentences and construction of multi-sentence texts: contributions of syntax and transcription to translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Virginia W; Nagy, William; Beers, Scott

    2011-02-01

    Children in grades one to four completed two sentence construction tasks: (a) Write one complete sentence about a topic prompt (sentence integrity, Study 1); and (b) Integrate two sentences into one complete sentence without changing meaning (sentence combining, Study 2). Most, but not all, children in first through fourth grade could write just one sentence. The sentence integrity task was not correlated with sentence combining until fourth grade, when in multiple regression, sentence integrity explained unique variance in sentence combining, along with spelling. Word-level skills (morphology in first and spelling in second through fourth grade) consistently explained unique variance in sentence combining. Thus, many beginning writers have syntactic knowledge of what constitutes a complete sentence, but not until fourth grade do both syntax and transcription contribute uniquely to flexible translation of ideas into the syntax of a written sentence. In Study 3, eleven syntactic categories were identified in single- and multi- sentence composing from second to fifth grade. Complex clauses (independent plus subordinate) occurred more often on single-sentence composing, but single independent clauses occurred more often on multi-sentence composing. For multi-sentence text, more single, independent clauses were produced by pen than keyboard in grades 3 to 7. The most frequent category of complex clauses in multi-sentence texts varied with genre (relative for essays and subordinate for narratives). Thus, in addition to syntax-level sentence construction and word-level transcription, amount of translation (number of sentences), mode of transcription, and genre for multiple sentence text also influence translation of ideas into written language of child writers. Results of these studies employing descriptive linguistic analyses are discussed in reference to cognitive theory of writing development.

  2. Parsing Complex Noun Phrases: Effects of Hierarchical Structure and Sentence Position on Memory Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Sergio; Igoa, José Manuel

    2017-08-10

    In this paper, we report two experiments in Spanish designed to find out what kind of processes underlie the online parsing of complex noun phrases (NPs). To that end, we used a 'click detection' paradigm coupled with an oral comprehension task with sentences made up of complex NPs comprising embedded prepositional phrases PPs or coordinate NPs. The critical NPs consisted of words or pseudowords, and were inserted either at subject position (Experiment 1) or at object position (Experiment 2) in the sentence. Results show an opposite pattern of RTs to clicks when the complex NP is located at subject (vs. object) position, with the former case showing heavier processing demands as the parser delves deeper into the complex NP, regardless of the internal constituency of the target NP and its lexical content, and the latter yielding the opposite pattern. These results suggest that structural complexity by itself does not determine an increase in processing costs during sentence parsing, which is only apparent in cases involving deferred operations like subject-verb agreement.

  3. Processing Coordinate Subject-Verb Agreement in L1 and L2 Greek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltsa, Maria; Tsimpli, Ianthi M; Marinis, Theodoros; Stavrou, Melita

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines the processing of subject-verb (SV) number agreement with coordinate subjects in pre-verbal and post-verbal positions in Greek. Greek is a language with morphological number marked on nominal and verbal elements. Coordinate SV agreement, however, is special in Greek as it is sensitive to the coordinate subject's position: when pre-verbal, the verb is marked for plural while when post-verbal the verb can be in the singular. We conducted two experiments, an acceptability judgment task with adult monolinguals as a pre-study (Experiment 1) and a self-paced reading task as the main study (Experiment 2) in order to obtain acceptance as well as processing data. Forty adult monolingual speakers of Greek participated in Experiment 1 and a hundred and forty one in Experiment 2. Seventy one children participated in Experiment 2: 30 Albanian-Greek sequential bilingual children and 41 Greek monolingual children aged 10-12 years. The adult data in Experiment 1 establish the difference in acceptability between singular VPs in SV and VS constructions reaffirming our hypothesis. Meanwhile, the adult data in Experiment 2 show that plural verbs accelerate processing regardless of subject position. The child online data show that sequential bilingual children have longer reading times (RTs) compared to the age-matched monolingual control group. However, both child groups follow a similar processing pattern in both pre-verbal and post-verbal constructions showing longer RTs immediately after a singular verb when the subject was pre-verbal indicating a grammaticality effect. In the post-verbal coordinate subject sentences, both child groups showed longer RTs on the first subject following the plural verb due to the temporary number mismatch between the verb and the first subject. This effect was resolved in monolingual children but was still present at the end of the sentence for bilingual children indicating difficulties to reanalyze and integrate information

  4. The role of reading time complexity and reading speed in text comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallot, Sebastian; O'Brien, Beth A; Haussmann, Anna; Kloos, Heidi; Lyby, Marlene S

    2014-11-01

    Reading speed is commonly used as an index of reading fluency. However, reading speed is not a consistent predictor of text comprehension, when speed and comprehension are measured on the same text within the same reader. This might be due to the somewhat ambiguous nature of reading speed, which is sometimes regarded as a feature of the reading process, and sometimes as a product of that process. We argue that both reading speed and comprehension should be seen as the result of the reading process, and that the process of fluent text reading can instead be described by complexity metrics that quantify aspects of the stability of the reading process. In this article, we introduce complexity metrics in the context of reading and apply them to data from a self-paced reading study. In this study, children and adults read a text silently or aloud and answered comprehension questions after reading. Our results show that recurrence metrics that quantify the degree of temporal structure in reading times yield better prediction of text comprehension compared to reading speed. However, the results for fractal metrics are less clear. Furthermore, prediction of text comprehension is generally strongest and most consistent across silent and oral reading when comprehension scores are normalized by reading speed. Analyses of word length and word frequency indicate that the observed complexity in reading times is not a simple function of the lexical properties of the text, suggesting that text reading might work differently compared to reading of isolated word or sentences. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Higher language ability is related to angular gyrus activation increase during semantic processing, independent of sentence incongruency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene eVan Ettinger-Veenstra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relation between individual language ability and neural semantic processing abilities. Our aim was to explore whether high-level language ability would correlate to decreased activation in language-specific regions or rather increased activation in supporting language regions during processing of sentences. Moreover, we were interested if observed neural activation patterns are modulated by semantic incongruency similarly to previously observed changes upon syntactic congruency modulation. We investigated 27 healthy adults with a sentence reading task - which tapped language comprehension and inference, and modulated sentence congruency - employing functional magnetic resonance imaging. We assessed the relation between neural activation, congruency modulation, and test performance on a high-level language ability assessment with multiple regression analysis. Our results showed increased activation in the left-hemispheric angular gyrus extending to the temporal lobe related to high language ability. This effect was independent of semantic congruency, and no significant relation between language ability and incongruency modulation was observed. Furthermore, a significant increase of activation in the inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally when the sentences were incongruent, indicating that processing incongruent sentences was more demanding than processing congruent sentences and required increased activation in language regions. The correlation of high-level language ability with increased rather than decreased activation in the left angular gyrus, a region specific for language processing is opposed to what the neural efficiency hypothesis would predict. We can conclude that there is no evidence found for an interaction between semantic congruency related brain activation and high-level language performance, even though the semantic incongruent condition shows to be more demanding and evoking more neural activation.

  6. [Reading ability of junior high school students in relation to self-evaluation and depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Toshiya; Hayashi, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Guidelines for the diagnosis of reading disorders in elementary school students were published recently in Japan. On the basis of these guidelines, we administrated reading test batteries to 43 Japanese junior high-school students from grade two. The reading test consisted of single sounds, single words, and single sentences. We evaluated the reading speed and the number of reading errors made by the test takers; their performance was compared with the normal value for elementary school students in grade six, as stated in the guidelines. The reading ability of the junior high-school students was not higher than that of the elementary school students. Seven students (16.3%) were found to have reading difficulties (RD group) and they met the criterion for diagnosis of reading disorder as per the guidelines. Three students had difficulties in reading single sounds and single words, but they faced no problems when reading single sentences. It was supposed that the strategies used by the students for reading sentences may have differed from those used for reading single sounds or single words. No significant differences were found between the RD and non-RD group students on scores of scholastic self-evaluation, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms. Therefore, reading difficulty did not directly influence the level of self-evaluation or depression.

  7. Reading Comics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Carol L.

    2008-01-01

    Many adults, even librarians who willingly add comics to their collections, often dismiss the importance of comics. Compared to reading "real" books, reading comics appears to be a simple task and compared to reading no books, reading comics might be preferable. After all, comics do have words, but the plentiful pictures seem to carry most of the…

  8. Sentence Patterns in Mariama Ba's So Long a Letter | Chukwukaelo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Such stylistic devices as foregrounding, sentence fragmentation pattern repetition and category rule violation. The emphasis is on determining how the author's sentences create aesthetic patterns and values. The Transformational Generative Grammar (TGG) was applied in the analysis of certain aspects of identified literary ...

  9. The Role of Broca's Area in Sentence Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalsky, Corianne; Hickok, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    The role of Broca's area in sentence processing has been debated for the last 30 years. A central and still unresolved issue is whether Broca's area plays a specific role in some aspect of syntactic processing (e.g., syntactic movement, hierarchical structure building) or whether it serves a more general function on which sentence processing…

  10. Grammar for College Writing: A Sentence-Composing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgallon, Don; Killgallon, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Across America, in thousands of classrooms, from elementary school to high school, the time-tested sentence-composing approach has given students tools to become better writers. Now the authors present a much anticipated sentence-composing grammar worktext for college writing. This book presents a new and easier way to understand grammar: (1) Noun…

  11. Approaching Early Grammatical Intervention from a Sentence-Focused Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Pamela A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this response to Kamhi (2014), a sentence-focused framework is presented to help clinicians select treatment targets as part of a comprehensive approach to early grammatical intervention. Method: The literature on the relationship between lexical verbs, sentence structure, and tense/agreement morphemes is reviewed, and developmental…

  12. Sentence Comprehension in Young Adults with Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseheart, Rebecca; Altmann, Lori J. P.; Park, Heeyoung; Lombardino, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of syntactic complexity on written sentence comprehension in compensated adults with dyslexia. Because working memory (WM) plays a key role in processing complex sentences, and individuals with dyslexia often demonstrate persistent deficits in WM, we hypothesized that individuals with dyslexia would perform more…

  13. Sentence Processing Factors in Adults with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poll, Gerard H.

    2012-01-01

    Sentence imitation effectively discriminates between adults with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Little is known, however, about the factors that result in performance differences. This study evaluated the effects of working memory, processing speed, and argument status on sentence imitation. Working memory was measured by both a…

  14. Negative Sentences in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Rosalind; Rombough, Kelly; Martin, Jasmine; Orton, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This study used elicited production methodology to investigate the negative sentences that are produced by English-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI). Negative sentences were elicited in contexts in which adults use the negative auxiliary verb doesn't (e.g., "It doesn't fit"). This form was targeted to see how…

  15. Cerebral Asymmetry, Sentence Structure, Mode of Response, and Recognition Latency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedletsky, Leonard J.

    It was reasoned that if the right ear/left brain hemisphere is more efficient than the left ear/right hemisphere at extracting the meaning of a sentence, then verbatim information presented to the right ear may be more difficult to retrieve than verbatim information presented to the left ear immediately after the sentence is heard. This idea was…

  16. Ambiguity resolution in a Neural Blackboard Architecture for sentence structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Frank; van der Velde, Frank; de Kamps, Marc; Besold, Tarek R.; Kühnberger, Kai-Uwe

    2015-01-01

    We simulate two examples of ambiguity resolution found in human language processing in a neural blackboard architecture for sentence representation and processing. The architecture also accounts for a related garden path effect. The architecture represents and processes sentences in terms of

  17. Community Sentencing of Petty Offenders: An Exploration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With such favourable attitudes, it is recommended that community sentencing be considered as an alternative to custodial sentencing of petty offenders. Thus, there is the urgent call for a reexamination of Ghana's criminal justice system towards embracing some forms of restorative justice such as community service.

  18. Effects of surprisal and locality on Danish sentence processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Kizach, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    An eye-tracking experiment in Danish investigates two dominant accounts of sentence processing: locality-based theories that predict a processing advantage for sentences where the distance between the major syntactic heads is minimized, and the surprisal theory which predicts that processing time...

  19. 76 FR 45007 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... guideline sentence; (B) a compilation of studies on, and analysis of, recidivism by child pornography... amendments to the Federal sentencing guidelines for drug offenses. (5) Continuation of its review of child pornography offenses and report to Congress as a result of such review. It is anticipated that any such report...

  20. Sentence comprehension and word repetition : A positron emission tomography investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stowe, L.A.; Paans, A.M.J.; Wijers, A.A.; Zwarts, F.; Mulder, G.; Vaalburg, W.

    1999-01-01

    Using positron emission tomography, visual presentation of sentences was shown to cause increased regional cerebral blood flow relative to word Lists in the left lateral anterior superior and middle temporal gyri, attributable to cognitive processes that occur during sentence comprehension in

  1. The Effects of Syntactic Complexity on Processing Sentences in Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Rebecca; Ruigendijk, Esther

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of stationary (non-fluctuating) noise on processing and understanding of sentences, which vary in their syntactic complexity (with the factors canonicity, embedding, ambiguity). It presents data from two RT-studies with 44 participants testing processing of German sentences in silence and in noise. Results show a…

  2. Connected Text Reading and Differences in Text Reading Fluency in Adult Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallot, Sebastian; Hollis, Geoff; van Rooij, Marieke

    2013-01-01

    The process of connected text reading has received very little attention in contemporary cognitive psychology. This lack of attention is in parts due to a research tradition that emphasizes the role of basic lexical constituents, which can be studied in isolated words or sentences. However, this lack of attention is in parts also due to the lack of statistical analysis techniques, which accommodate interdependent time series. In this study, we investigate text reading performance with traditional and nonlinear analysis techniques and show how outcomes from multiple analyses can used to create a more detailed picture of the process of text reading. Specifically, we investigate reading performance of groups of literate adult readers that differ in reading fluency during a self-paced text reading task. Our results indicate that classical metrics of reading (such as word frequency) do not capture text reading very well, and that classical measures of reading fluency (such as average reading time) distinguish relatively poorly between participant groups. Nonlinear analyses of distribution tails and reading time fluctuations provide more fine-grained information about the reading process and reading fluency. PMID:23977177

  3. Cortical activation in the processing of passive sentences in L1 and L2: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Satoru; Okamoto, Hideyuki; Miyamoto, Tadao; Yoshimoto, Kei; Kim, Jungho; Iwata, Kazuki; Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Uchida, Shinya; Ikuta, Naho; Sassa, Yuko; Nakamura, Wataru; Horie, Kaoru; Sato, Shigeru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2006-04-01

    The question of whether the bilingual brain processes a first and second language (L1 and L2, respectively) differently is a central issue in many psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic studies. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether late bilinguals process structurally complex sentences in L1 and L2 in different cortical networks. For this purpose, we directly compared brain activity during the processing of active and passive sentences in both L1 and L2. We asked 36 healthy subjects to judge whether or not a presented sentence was semantically plausible. Both L1 and L2 activated the left hemispheric language-related regions such as the left inferior frontal, superior/middle temporal, and parietal cortices. However, we found different activation patterns between L1 and L2 in the processing of passive sentences. Passive sentences elicited greater activation than their active counterparts in the left pars triangularis, the premotor area, and the superior parietal lobule in Japanese, but not in English. Furthermore, there was a significant interaction between sentence type (active versus passive) and language (Japanese versus English) in the left pars orbitalis. The results of this study indicate that late bilinguals use similar cortical regions to comprehend both L1 and L2. However, when late bilinguals are presented with structurally complex sentences, the involvement of these regions differs between L1 and L2. These results suggest that, in addition to age of L2 acquisition and L2 proficiency, differences in grammatical construction affect cortical representation during the comprehension of L1 and L2.

  4. Sentence processing and grammaticality in functional linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads

    The dissertation presents a functional linguistic model of grammaticality and investigates methods for applying this notion in empirical work. The use of the notion of grammaticality in generative grammar has been criticized by functionalists (Harder, 1996; Lakoff & Johnson, 1999), but attempts...... to constructively define what it then means that a sentence is grammatical from a functional linguistics perspective have been limited. The notion of grammaticality that will be put forward here is based on Langacker’s (2000) dynamical usage-based model. Langacker’s model is extended to accommodate the general...... grammaticality. It is concluded that the intuitions of linguists should in principle be considered hypotheses of grammaticality, and that such hypotheses need to be tested with independent data. Such data can for example take the form of corpus data or acceptability judgment experiments. It is furthermore argued...

  5. Emotional Sentence Annotation Helps Predict Fiction Genre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samothrakis, Spyridon; Fasli, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Fiction, a prime form of entertainment, has evolved into multiple genres which one can broadly attribute to different forms of stories. In this paper, we examine the hypothesis that works of fiction can be characterised by the emotions they portray. To investigate this hypothesis, we use the work of fictions in the Project Gutenberg and we attribute basic emotional content to each individual sentence using Ekman’s model. A time-smoothed version of the emotional content for each basic emotion is used to train extremely randomized trees. We show through 10-fold Cross-Validation that the emotional content of each work of fiction can help identify each genre with significantly higher probability than random. We also show that the most important differentiator between genre novels is fear. PMID:26524352

  6. Emotional Sentence Annotation Helps Predict Fiction Genre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samothrakis, Spyridon; Fasli, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Fiction, a prime form of entertainment, has evolved into multiple genres which one can broadly attribute to different forms of stories. In this paper, we examine the hypothesis that works of fiction can be characterised by the emotions they portray. To investigate this hypothesis, we use the work of fictions in the Project Gutenberg and we attribute basic emotional content to each individual sentence using Ekman's model. A time-smoothed version of the emotional content for each basic emotion is used to train extremely randomized trees. We show through 10-fold Cross-Validation that the emotional content of each work of fiction can help identify each genre with significantly higher probability than random. We also show that the most important differentiator between genre novels is fear.

  7. Phonetic detail and lateralization of reading-related inner speech and of auditory and somatosensory feedback processing during overt reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Christian A; Darquea, Maritza; Behrens, Marion; Cordani, Lorenzo; Keller, Christian; Fuchs, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Phonetic detail and lateralization of inner speech during covert sentence reading as well as overt reading in 32 right-handed healthy participants undergoing 3T fMRI were investigated. The number of voiceless and voiced consonants in the processed sentences was systematically varied. Participants listened to sentences, read them covertly, silently mouthed them while reading, and read them overtly. Condition comparisons allowed for the study of effects of externally versus self-generated auditory input and of somatosensory feedback related to or independent of voicing. In every condition, increased voicing modulated bilateral voice-selective regions in the superior temporal sulcus without any lateralization. The enhanced temporal modulation and/or higher spectral frequencies of sentences rich in voiceless consonants induced left-lateralized activation of phonological regions in the posterior temporal lobe, regardless of condition. These results provide evidence that inner speech during reading codes detail as fine as consonant voicing. Our findings suggest that the fronto-temporal internal loops underlying inner speech target different temporal regions. These regions differ in their sensitivity to inner or overt acoustic speech features. More slowly varying acoustic parameters are represented more anteriorly and bilaterally in the temporal lobe while quickly changing acoustic features are processed in more posterior left temporal cortices. Furthermore, processing of external auditory feedback during overt sentence reading was sensitive to consonant voicing only in the left superior temporal cortex. Voicing did not modulate left-lateralized processing of somatosensory feedback during articulation or bilateral motor processing. This suggests voicing is primarily monitored in the auditory rather than in the somatosensory feedback channel. Hum Brain Mapp 38:493-508, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Motivational reading on education, meaningful reading realisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Qafa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study I will present some ideas on today’s educational practice for motivation, the realization of the meaningful reading. There is a special place for the methodical ranking of the reading process, starting in school. Main requests of this reading, consist of the deep meaning of the subject, exploration of the idea, and other elements of the subject, implementation of the technique’s rules of the expressive reading, such as breathing, voice, diction, intonation, spelling, stoppages, logical emphasizes, emotional expressions, temper, timber, gesticulations, and mimic. There is also highlighted the fact that the used method comes from the pupils’ results and depends on the capability and level of the teacher, from the programming’s scale, the tools that are put into disposition, the age and the level of the pupils, and from the environment that the teacher creates during courses. At the end there are some practical guidelines for the realization of the expressive reading in the literature subject.

  9. Assessing Syntactic Deficits in Chinese Broca's aphasia using the Northwestern Assessment of Verbs and Sentences-Chinese (NAVS-C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honglei; Thompson, Cynthia K

    English-speaking patients with Broca's aphasia and agrammatism evince difficulty with complex grammatical structures, including verbs and sentences. A few studies have found similar patterns among Chinese-speaking patients with broca's aphasia, despite structural differences between these two languages. However, no studies have explicitly examined verb properties, including the number and optionality of arguments (participant roles) selected by the verb, and only a few studies have examined sentence deficits among Chinese patients. In addition, there are no test batteries presently available to assess syntactically important properties of verbs and sentences in Chinese patients. This study used a Chinese version of the Northwestern Assessment of Verbs and Sentences (NAVS; Thompson, 2011), originally developed for English speakers with aphasia, to examine the verb and sentence deficit patterns among Chinese speakers with aphasia. As in the original NAVS, the Chinese version (NAVS-C) assessed verbs by the number and optionality of arguments as well as sentence canonicity, in the both production and comprehension. Fifteen Chinese patients with Broca's aphasia and fifteen age-matched healthy normal controls participated in this study. All NAVS-C tests were administered, in which participants were asked either to produce or identify verbs and sentences coinciding with action pictures. Despite grammatical differences between Chinese and English, the impairment caused by structural complexity of verbs and sentences was replicated in Chinese-speaking patients using the NAVS-C. Verbs with more arguments were significantly more impaired than those with fewer arguments and verbs with optional arguments were significantly more impaired than those with obligatory arguments. One deviation from English-speaking patients, however, is that the Chinese-speaking patients exhibited greater difficulty with subject relative clauses than with object relative clauses because the former

  10. Repetition priming in oral text reading: a therapeutic strategy for phonologic text alexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Susan Nitzberg; Sperling, Anne J; Watson, Nora L; Friedman, Rhonda B

    2009-06-01

    BACKGROUND: Phonologic text alexia (PhTA) is a reading disorder in which reading of pseudowords is impaired, but reading of real words is impaired only when reading text. Oral reading accuracy remains well preserved when words are presented individually, but when presented in text the part-of-speech effect that is often seen in phonologic alexia (PhA) emerges. AIMS: To determine whether repetition priming could strengthen and/or maintain the activation of words during text reading. METHODS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURES: We trained NYR, a patient with PhTA, to use a strategy, Sentence Building, designed to improve accuracy of reading words in text. The strategy required NYR to first read the initial word, and then build up the sentence by adding on sequential words, in a step-wise manner, utilizing the benefits of repetition priming to enhance accuracy. OUTCOMES #ENTITYSTARTX00026; RESULTS: When using the strategy, NYR displayed improved accuracy not only for sentences she practiced using the strategy, but unpracticed sentences as well. Additionally, NYR performed better on a test of comprehension when using the strategy, as compared to without the strategy. CONCLUSIONS: In light of research linking repetition priming to increased neural processing efficiency, our results suggest that use of this compensatory strategy improves reading accuracy and comprehension by temporarily boosting phonologic activation levels.

  11. Processing coordinate subject-verb agreement in L1 and L2 Greek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eKaltsa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the processing of subject-verb (SV number agreement with coordinate subjects in preverbal and postverbal positions in Greek. Greek is a language with morphological number marked on nominal and verbal elements. Coordinate SV agreement however is special in Greek as it is sensitive to the coordinate subject’s position: when preverbal, the verb is marked for plural while when postverbal the verb can be in the singular. We conducted two experiments, an acceptability judgment task with adult monolinguals as a pre-study (Experiment 1 and a self-paced reading task as the main study (Experiment 2 in order to obtain acceptance as well as processing data. Forty adult monolingual speakers of Greek participated in Experiment 1 and a hundred and forty one in Experiment 2. Seventy one children participated in Experiment 2: 30 Albanian-Greek sequential bilingual children and 41 Greek monolingual children aged 10 to 12 years. The adult data in Experiment 1 establish the difference in acceptability between singular VPs in SV and VS constructions reaffirming our hypothesis. Meanwhile, the adult data in Experiment 2 show that plural verbs accelerate processing regardless of subject position. The child online data show that sequential bilingual children have longer reading times (RTs compared to the age-matched monolingual control group. However, both child groups follow a similar processing pattern in both preverbal and postverbal constructions showing longer RTs immediately after a singular verb when the subject was preverbal indicating a grammaticality effect. In the postverbal coordinate subject sentences, both child groups showed longer RTs on the first subject following the plural verb due to the temporary number mismatch between the verb and the first subject. This effect was resolved in monolingual children but was still present at the end of the sentence for bilingual children indicating difficulties to reanalyze and integrate

  12. Automatic selection of informative sentences: The sentences that can generate multiple choice questions

    OpenAIRE

    Mukta Majumder; Sujan Kumar Saha

    2014-01-01

    Traditional education cannot meet the expectation and requirement of a Smart City; it require more advance forms like active learning, ICT education etc. Multiple choice questions (MCQs) play an important role in educational assessment and active learning which has a key role in Smart City education. MCQs are effective to assess the understanding of well-defined concepts. A fraction of all the sentences of a text contain well-defined concepts or information that can be asked as a MCQ. These i...

  13. Establishing propositional truth-value in counterfactual and real-world contexts during sentence comprehension: differential sensitivity of the left and right inferior frontal gyri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwland, Mante S

    2012-02-15

    What makes a proposition true or false has traditionally played an essential role in philosophical and linguistic theories of meaning. A comprehensive neurobiological theory of language must ultimately be able to explain the combined contributions of real-world truth-value and discourse context to sentence meaning. This fMRI study investigated the neural circuits that are sensitive to the propositional truth-value of sentences about counterfactual worlds, aiming to reveal differential hemispheric sensitivity of the inferior prefrontal gyri to counterfactual truth-value and real-world truth-value. Participants read true or false counterfactual conditional sentences ("If N.A.S.A. had not developed its Apollo Project, the first country to land on the moon would be Russia/America") and real-world sentences ("Because N.A.S.A. developed its Apollo Project, the first country to land on the moon has been America/Russia") that were matched on contextual constraint and truth-value. ROI analyses showed that whereas the left BA 47 showed similar activity increases to counterfactual false sentences and to real-world false sentences (compared to true sentences), the right BA 47 showed a larger increase for counterfactual false sentences. Moreover, whole-brain analyses revealed a distributed neural circuit for dealing with propositional truth-value. These results constitute the first evidence for hemispheric differences in processing counterfactual truth-value and real-world truth-value, and point toward additional right hemisphere involvement in counterfactual comprehension. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Individual differences in fifth graders’ reading and language predict their comprehension monitoring development: An eye-movement study

    OpenAIRE

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Radach, Ralph; Vorstius, Christian; Day, Stephanie L.; McLean, Leigh; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated fifth-graders’ (n=52) fall literacy, academic language, and motivation, and how these skills predicted fall and spring comprehension monitoring on an eye movement task. Comprehension monitoring was defined as the identification and repair of misunderstandings when reading text. In the eye movement task, children read two sentences; the second included either a plausible or implausible word in the context of the first sentence. Stronger readers had shorter readin...

  15. Developing a Logarithmic Chinese Reading Acuity Chart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qi-Ming; Cong, Lin-Juan; Yu, Cong; Liu, Lei

    2017-06-01

    An individual's reading ability cannot be reliably predicted from his/her letter acuity, contrast sensitivity, and visual field extent. We developed a set of Chinese reading acuity charts (C-READ) to assess the reading ability of Chinese readers, based on the collective wisdom of previously published reading acuity charts, especially the MNRead and the Radner Reading Charts. The C-READ consists of three charts. Each consists sixteen 12-character simplified Chinese sentences crafted from first- to third-grade textbooks. One hundred eighteen native Chinese-speaking college students (aged 22.1 ± 2.1 years) with normal or corrected to normal near vision (-0.26 ± 0.05 logMAR) were included in the study to develop the C-READ charts, to test the homogeneity of the three charts, and to validate the C-READ against the text paragraphs from the International Reading Speed Texts (IReST) with corrected and uncorrected near vision. The reading acuity, critical print size, and maximum reading speed for young normal native Chinese-speaking readers were 0.16 ± 0.05 logMAR, 0.24 ± 0.06 logMAR, and 273.44 ± 34.37 characters per minute (mean ± SD), respectively. The reliability test revealed no significant differences among the three C-READ charts and no significant test order effect in the three reading parameters. Regression analyses showed that the IReST reading speed could be reliably predicted by the C-READ maximum reading speed under the corrected near-vision condition (adjusted R = 0.72) and by C-READ maximum reading speed and critical print size under the uncorrected near-vision condition (adjusted R = 0.69). The three C-READ charts are very comparable to each other, and there is no significant order effect. Reading test results can accurately predict continuous text reading performance quantified by the IReST reading speed over a wide range of refractive errors. The C-READ is a reliable and valid clinical instrument for quantifying reading performance in simplified

  16. Long-term language levels and reading skills in mandarin-speaking prelingually deaf children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Che-Ming; Chen, Yen-An; Chan, Kai-Chieh; Lee, Li-Ang; Hsu, Kuang-Hung; Lin, Bao-Guey; Liu, Tien-Chen

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to document receptive and expressive language levels and reading skills achieved by Mandarin-speaking children who had received cochlear implants (CIs) and used them for 4.75-7.42 years. The effects of possible associated factors were also analyzed. Standardized Mandarin language and reading tests were administered to 39 prelingually deaf children with Nucleus 24 devices. The Mandarin Chinese version of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test was used to assess their receptive vocabulary knowledge and the Revised Primary School Language Assessment Test for their receptive and expressive language skills. The Graded Chinese Character Recognition Test was used to test their written word recognition ability and the Reading Comprehension Test for their reading comprehension ability. Raw scores from both language and reading measurements were compared to normative data of nor- mal-hearing children to obtain standard scores. The results showed that the mean standard score for receptive vocabulary measurement and the mean T scores for the receptive language, expressive language and total language measurement were all in the low-average range in comparison to the normative sample. In contrast, the mean T scores for word and text reading comprehension were almost the same as for their age-matched hearing counterparts. Among all children with CIs, 75.7% scored within or above the normal range of their age-matched hearing peers on receptive vocabulary measurement. For total language, Chinese word recognition and reading scores, 71.8, 77 and 82% of children with CIs were age appropriate, respectively. A strong correlation was found between language and reading skills. Age at implantation and sentence perception scores account for 37% of variance for total language outcome. Sentence perception scores and preimplantation residual hearing were revealed to be associated with the outcome of reading comprehension. We concluded that by using standard tests, the

  17. Evidence for simultaneous syntactic processing of multiple words during reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joshua; Meeter, Martijn; Grainger, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    A hotly debated issue in reading research concerns the extent to which readers process parafoveal words, and how parafoveal information might influence foveal word recognition. We investigated syntactic word processing both in sentence reading and in reading isolated foveal words when these were flanked by parafoveal words. In Experiment 1 we found a syntactic parafoveal preview benefit in sentence reading, meaning that fixation durations on target words were decreased when there was a syntactically congruent preview word at the target location (n) during the fixation on the pre-target (n-1). In Experiment 2 we used a flanker paradigm in which participants had to classify foveal target words as either noun or verb, when those targets were flanked by syntactically congruent or incongruent words (stimulus on-time 170 ms). Lower response times and error rates in the congruent condition suggested that higher-order (syntactic) information can be integrated across foveal and parafoveal words. Although higher-order parafoveal-on-foveal effects have been elusive in sentence reading, results from our flanker paradigm show that the reading system can extract higher-order information from multiple words in a single glance. We propose a model of reading to account for the present findings.

  18. Accurate reading with sequential presentation of single letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Seow Chiang Price

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rapid, accurate reading is possible when isolated, single words from a sentence are sequentially presented at a fixed spatial location. We investigated if reading of words and sentences is possible when single letters are rapidly presented at the fovea under user-controlled or automatically-controlled rates. When tested with complete sentences, trained participants achieved reading rates of over 60 words/minute and accuracies of over 90% with the single letter reading (SLR method and naive participants achieved average reading rates over 30 wpm with >90% accuracy. Accuracy declined as individual letters were presented for shorter periods of time, even when the overall reading rate was maintained by increasing the duration of spaces between words. Words in the lexicon that occur more frequently were identified with higher accuracy and more quickly, demonstrating that trained participants have lexical access. In combination, our data strongly suggest that comprehension is possible and that SLR is a practicable form of reading under conditions in which normal scanning of text is not possible, or for scenarios with limited spatial and temporal resolution such as patients with low vision or prostheses.

  19. The thematic hierarchy in sentence comprehension: A study on the interaction between verb class and word order in Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattei, Carolina A; Dickey, Michael W; Wainselboim, Alejandro J; París, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Linking is the theory that captures the mapping of the semantic roles of lexical arguments to the syntactic functions of the phrases that realize them. At the sentence level, linking allows us to understand "who did what to whom" in an event. In Spanish, linking has been shown to interact with word order, verb class, and case marking. The current study aims to provide the first piece of experimental evidence about the interplay between word order and verb type in Spanish. We achieve this by adopting role and reference grammar and the extended argument dependency model. Two different types of clauses were examined in a self-paced reading task: clauses with object-experiencer psychological verbs and activity verbs. These types of verbs differ in the way that their syntactic and semantic structures are linked, and thus they provide interesting evidence on how information that belongs to the syntax-semantics interface might influence the predictive and integrative processes of sentence comprehension with alternative word orders. Results indicate that in Spanish, comprehension and processing speed is enhanced when the order of the constituents in the sentence mirrors their ranking on a semantic hierarchy that encodes a verb's lexical semantics. Moreover, results show that during online comprehension, predictive mechanisms based on argument hierarchization are used rapidly to inform the processing system. Our findings corroborate already existing cross-linguistic evidence on the issue and are briefly discussed in the light of other sentence-processing models.

  20. Representing number in the real-time processing of agreement: Self-paced reading evidence from Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A. Tucker

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the processing of subject-verb agreement, non-subject plural nouns following a singular subject sometimes attract the agreement with the verb, despite not being grammatically licensed to do so. This phenomenon generates agreement errors in production and an increased tendency to fail to notice such errors in comprehension, thereby providing a window into the representation of grammatical number in working memory during sentence processing. Research in this topic, however, is primarily done in related languages with similar agreement systems. In order to increase the cross-linguistic coverage of the processing of agreement, we conducted a self-paced reading study in Modern Standard Arabic. We report robust agreement attraction errors in relative clauses, a configuration not particularly conducive to the generation of such errors for all possible lexicalizations. In particular, we examined the speed with which readers retrieve a subject controller for both grammatical and ungrammatical agreeing verbs in sentences where verbs are preceded by two NPs, one of which is a local non-subject NP that can act as a distractor for the successful resolution of subject-verb agreement. Our results suggest that the frequency of errors is modulated by the kind of plural formation strategy used on the attractor noun: nouns which form plurals by suffixation condition high rates of attraction, whereas nouns which form their plurals by internal vowel change (ablaut generate lower rates of errors and reading-time attraction effects of smaller magnitudes. Furthermore, we show some evidence that these agreement attraction effects are mostly contained in the right tail of reaction time distributions. We also present modeling data in the ACT-R framework which supports a view of these ablauting patterns wherein they are differentially specified for number and evaluate the consequences of possible representations for theories of grammar and parsing.

  1. Representing number in the real-time processing of agreement: self-paced reading evidence from Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Matthew A.; Idrissi, Ali; Almeida, Diogo

    2015-01-01

    In the processing of subject-verb agreement, non-subject plural nouns following a singular subject sometimes “attract” the agreement with the verb, despite not being grammatically licensed to do so. This phenomenon generates agreement errors in production and an increased tendency to fail to notice such errors in comprehension, thereby providing a window into the representation of grammatical number in working memory during sentence processing. Research in this topic, however, is primarily done in related languages with similar agreement systems. In order to increase the cross-linguistic coverage of the processing of agreement, we conducted a self-paced reading study in Modern Standard Arabic. We report robust agreement attraction errors in relative clauses, a configuration not particularly conducive to the generation of such errors for all possible lexicalizations. In particular, we examined the speed with which readers retrieve a subject controller for both grammatical and ungrammatical agreeing verbs in sentences where verbs are preceded by two NPs, one of which is a local non-subject NP that can act as a distractor for the successful resolution of subject-verb agreement. Our results suggest that the frequency of errors is modulated by the kind of plural formation strategy used on the attractor noun: nouns which form plurals by suffixation condition high rates of attraction, whereas nouns which form their plurals by internal vowel change (ablaut) generate lower rates of errors and reading-time attraction effects of smaller magnitudes. Furthermore, we show some evidence that these agreement attraction effects are mostly contained in the right tail of reaction time distributions. We also present modeling data in the ACT-R framework which supports a view of these ablauting patterns wherein they are differentially specified for number and evaluate the consequences of possible representations for theories of grammar and parsing. PMID:25914651

  2. Effects of single-band syllabic amplitude compression on temporal speech information in nonsense syllables and in sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tasell, D J; Trine, T D

    1996-10-01

    The effects of single-band amplitude compression on the use by subjects with normal hearing of temporal speech information were assessed using speech stimuli that had been processed to remove most spectral information before being compressed. The resulting signal-related-noise (SRN) stimuli isolated the effects of compression on the temporal information in speech by making it impossible for subjects to identify stimulus items on the basis of spectral speech information. Subjects with normal hearing listened to /aCa/ SRN disyllables that had been subjected to single-band compression at various combinations of compression ratio (CR) and time constants (TC). Performance was reduced only in the most severe compression condition (CR = 8; TC = 50), and then only slightly. Additional testing showed that subjects could use both periodicity and compression-overshoot artifactual information--in addition to envelope information--to identify the compressed /aCa/ stimuli. When a list of 10 context-controlled sentences was converted to SRN and compressed at CR = 8 and TC = 50, the ability of subjects with normal hearing to identify the sentences was significantly affected. Results established that (a) subjects with normal hearing differ widely in their abilities to use temporal information for speech identification, even after training; (b) subjects can learn to use both temporal envelope and periodicity information for identification if disyllables, even though; (c) subjects with normal hearing need envelope but not periodicity information to identify SRN sentences in a closed set. These results suggest that single-band compression at CR = 8 and TC = 50 would be undesirable for persons with limited ability to resolve speech spectral information. It is currently not known how less severe compression conditions would affect envelope information in sentences.

  3. Spatiotemporal dynamics of argument retrieval and reordering: an FMRI and EEG study on sentence processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Lars; Obleser, Jonas; Kiebel, Stefan J; Friederici, Angela D

    2012-01-01

    In sentence processing, it is still unclear how the neural language network successfully establishes argument-verb dependencies in its spatiotemporal neuronal dynamics. Previous work has suggested that the establishment of subject-verb and object-verb dependencies requires argument retrieval from working memory, and that dependency establishment in object-first sentences additionally necessitates argument reordering. We examine the spatiotemporal neuronal dynamics of the brain regions that subserve these sub-processes by crossing an argument reordering factor (i.e., subject-first versus object-first sentences) with an argument retrieval factor (i.e., short versus long argument-verb dependencies) in German. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we found that reordering demands focally activate the left pars opercularis (Broca's area), while storage and retrieval demands activated left temporo-parietal (TP) regions. In addition, when analyzing the time course of fMRI-informed equivalent current dipole sources in the EEG at the subcategorizing verb, we found that activity in the TP-region occurs relatively early (40-180 ms), followed by activity in Broca's area (300-500 ms). These findings were matched by topographical correlation analyses of fMRI activations in EEG sensor space, showing that, in the scalp potential, TP-region activity surfaces as an early positivity and IFG activity as a later positivity in the scalp potential. These results provide fine-grained evidence for spatiotemporally separable sub-processes of argument retrieval and reordering in sentence processing.

  4. Coordinating sentence composition with error correction: A multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Waes, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Error analysis involves detecting and correcting discrepancies between the 'text produced so far' (TPSF and the writer's mental representation of what the text should be. While many factors determine the choice of strategy, cognitive effort is a major contributor to this choice. This research shows how cognitive effort during error analysis affects strategy choice and success as measured by a series of online text production measures. We hypothesize that error correction with speech recognition software differs from error correction with keyboard for two reasons. Speech produces auditory commands and, consequently, different error types. The study reported on here measured the effects of (1 mode of presentation (auditory or visual-tactile, (2 error span, whether the error spans more or less than two characters, and (3 lexicality, whether the text error comprises an existing word. A multilevel analysis was conducted to take into account the hierarchical nature of these data. For each variable (interference reaction time, preparation time, production time, immediacy of error correction, and accuracy of error correction, multilevel regression models are presented. As such, we take into account possible disturbing person characteristics while testing the effect of the different conditions and error types at the sentence level.The results show that writers delay error correction more often when the TPSF is read out aloud first. The auditory property of speech seems to free resources for the primary task of writing, i.e. text production. Moreover, the results show that large errors in the TPSF require more cognitive effort, and are solved with a higher accuracy than small errors. The latter also holds for the correction of small errors that result in non-existing words.

  5. Structure before meaning: sentence processing, plausibility, and subcategorization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Kizach

    Full Text Available Natural language processing is a fast and automatized process. A crucial part of this process is parsing, the online incremental construction of a syntactic structure. The aim of this study was to test whether a wh-filler extracted from an embedded clause is initially attached as the object of the matrix verb with subsequent reanalysis, and if so, whether the plausibility of such an attachment has an effect on reaction time. Finally, we wanted to examine whether subcategorization plays a role. We used a method called G-Maze to measure response time in a self-paced reading design. The experiments confirmed that there is early attachment of fillers to the matrix verb. When this attachment is implausible, the off-line acceptability of the whole sentence is significantly reduced. The on-line results showed that G-Maze was highly suited for this type of experiment. In accordance with our predictions, the results suggest that the parser ignores (or has no access to information about implausibility and attaches fillers as soon as possible to the matrix verb. However, the results also show that the parser uses the subcategorization frame of the matrix verb. In short, the parser ignores semantic information and allows implausible attachments but adheres to information about which type of object a verb can take, ensuring that the parser does not make impossible attachments. We argue that the evidence supports a syntactic parser informed by syntactic cues, rather than one guided by semantic cues or one that is blind, or completely autonomous.

  6. Structure before meaning: sentence processing, plausibility, and subcategorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizach, Johannes; Nyvad, Anne Mette; Christensen, Ken Ramshøj

    2013-01-01

    Natural language processing is a fast and automatized process. A crucial part of this process is parsing, the online incremental construction of a syntactic structure. The aim of this study was to test whether a wh-filler extracted from an embedded clause is initially attached as the object of the matrix verb with subsequent reanalysis, and if so, whether the plausibility of such an attachment has an effect on reaction time. Finally, we wanted to examine whether subcategorization plays a role. We used a method called G-Maze to measure response time in a self-paced reading design. The experiments confirmed that there is early attachment of fillers to the matrix verb. When this attachment is implausible, the off-line acceptability of the whole sentence is significantly reduced. The on-line results showed that G-Maze was highly suited for this type of experiment. In accordance with our predictions, the results suggest that the parser ignores (or has no access to information about) implausibility and attaches fillers as soon as possible to the matrix verb. However, the results also show that the parser uses the subcategorization frame of the matrix verb. In short, the parser ignores semantic information and allows implausible attachments but adheres to information about which type of object a verb can take, ensuring that the parser does not make impossible attachments. We argue that the evidence supports a syntactic parser informed by syntactic cues, rather than one guided by semantic cues or one that is blind, or completely autonomous.

  7. Do two and three year old children use an incremental first-NP-as-agent bias to process active transitive and passive sentences?: A permutation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbot-Smith, Kirsten; Chang, Franklin; Rowland, Caroline; Ferguson, Heather; Pine, Julian

    2017-01-01

    We used eye-tracking to investigate if and when children show an incremental bias to assume that the first noun phrase in a sentence is the agent (first-NP-as-agent bias) while processing the meaning of English active and passive transitive sentences. We also investigated whether children can override this bias to successfully distinguish active from passive sentences, after processing the remainder of the sentence frame. For this second question we used eye-tracking (Study 1) and forced-choice pointing (Study 2). For both studies, we used a paradigm in which participants simultaneously saw two novel actions with reversed agent-patient relations while listening to active and passive sentences. We compared English-speaking 25-month-olds and 41-month-olds in between-subjects sentence structure conditions (Active Transitive Condition vs. Passive Condition). A permutation analysis found that both age groups showed a bias to incrementally map the first noun in a sentence onto an agent role. Regarding the second question, 25-month-olds showed some evidence of distinguishing the two structures in the eye-tracking study. However, the 25-month-olds did not distinguish active from passive sentences in the forced choice pointing task. In contrast, the 41-month-old children did reanalyse their initial first-NP-as-agent bias to the extent that they clearly distinguished between active and passive sentences both in the eye-tracking data and in the pointing task. The results are discussed in relation to the development of syntactic (re)parsing.

  8. Scientific Versus Humanistic Approaches to Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mark E.

    The scientific approach with humans is usually subject to many human and environmental variables that are difficult to control. Reading behavior and reading disability are two of the most researched topics in education and psychology, yet reading research continues to abound with contradictions. Standardized tests, speed reading, and computer…

  9. SUBJECTIVE DISTRESS CAUSED BY CO-SPEAKERS’ REACTIONS – REDUCTION DURING STATIONARY GROUP TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena TADIKJ

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Stuttering is a disorder that represents multifunctional problem. It probably exists since the beginning of mankind. Its’ frequency and severity are influenced by different factors. Among the most significant ones are the complexity of statement, speaking speed, and speakers’ emotional reaction to the whole speech situation and other co-speakers. Goal: To present the results of two-weeks intensive group stationary treatment of adults who stutter, especially stuttering severity and level of subjective distress caused by co-speakers’ reactions in the beginning and at the end of the treatment. Subjects: A group of 25 adults who stutter. Methodology: At the beginning and at the end of the group stationary treatment speech status was taken, consisting of counting, enumerating, repeating the sentences, reading a 100-word tale, retelling the read text, and conversation on a free subject. In the same time, subjective distress caused by 13 different co-speakers reactions was estimated. Results show that very positive results are achieved in the reduction of speech disfluences, as well as moderate reduction of subjective distress caused by co-speakers’ reactions. In the paper the results are shown in more details, and, subsequently, implications for further research and treatment.

  10. A Study on the Development of Reading Skills of the Students Having Difficulty in Reading: Enrichment Reading Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Hayati; Çakiroglu, Ahmet; Kuruyer, Hayriye Gül

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to improve the reading skills of the students having difficulty in reading through an enrichment reading program. The current study was conducted by means of one-subject research technique and between-subjects multiple-baseline levels model belonging to this technique. The study was carried out with three participants from…

  11. Implicit prosody and cue-based retrieval: L1 and L2 agreement and comprehension during reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Pratt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This project focuses on structural and prosodic effects during reading, examining their influence on agreement processing and comprehension in native English (L1 and Spanish-English bilingual (L2 speakers. We consolidate research from several distinct areas of inquiry—cognitive processing, reading fluency, and L1/L2 processing—in order to support the integration of prosody with a cue-based retrieval mechanism for subject-verb agreement.To explore this proposal, the experimental design manipulated text presentation to influence implicit prosody, using sentences designed to induce subject-verb agreement attraction errors. Materials included simple and complex relative clauses with head nouns and verbs that were either matched or mismatched for number. Participants read items in one of three presentation formats (whole sentence, word-by-word, or phrase-by-phrase, rated each item for grammaticality, and responded to a comprehension probe. Results indicated that while overall, message comprehension was prioritized over subject-verb agreement computation, presentation format differentially affected both measures in the L1 and L2 groups. For the L1 participants, facilitating the projection of phrasal prosody onto text (phrase-by-phrase presentation enhanced performance in agreement processing, while disrupting prosodic projection via word-by-word presentation decreased comprehension accuracy. For the L2 participants however, phrase-by-phrase presentation was not significantly beneficial for agreement processing, and also resulted in lower comprehension accuracy. These differences point to a significant role of prosodic phrasing during agreement processing in both L1 and L2 speakers, additionally suggesting that it may contribute to a cue-based retrieval agreement model, either acting as a cue directly, or otherwise scaffolding the retrieval process. The discussion and results presented provide support both for a cue-based retrieval mechanism in

  12. Understanding How Syntactic Awareness Contributes to Reading Comprehension: Evidence from Mediation and Longitudinal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, S. Hélène; Kieffer, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The authors tested theoretically driven predictions as to the ways in which syntactic awareness, or awareness of word order within sentences, might contribute to reading comprehension, the end goal of reading development and instruction. They conducted a longitudinal study of 100 English-speaking children followed from Grade 3 to 4. Children…

  13. L1 Glosses: Effects on EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ying-Hsueh; Good, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the effects of 3 kinds of glosses--first-language (L1) Chinese glosses plus second-language (L2) English example sentences, L1 in-text glosses, and L1 marginal glosses--in comparison with a no-gloss condition in reading an English passage, to explore whether providing glosses can facilitate reading comprehension and…

  14. Is There a Vertical Component to Saccade Targeting in Chinese Reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Chuanli; Meng, Hongxia; Liang, Feifei; Bai, Xuejun; Yan, Guoli

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether Chinese character structure influenced readers' saccadic targeting in Chinese reading. Readers' eye movements were recorded when they read single sentences containing one-character or two-character target words. Both the one-character words and the two constituent characters of two-character words either had a…

  15. Identifying Writing Difficulties in First Grade: An Investigation of Writing and Reading Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Kristen D.; Coker, David L., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Early identification of students who are at risk for writing difficulties is an important first step in improving writing performance. First grade students (N = 150) were administered a set of early writing measures and reading measures in January. Sentence Writing Quality and Oral Reading Fluency demonstrated strong classification accuracy when a…

  16. Movement Kinematics of the Braille-Reading Finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Barry

    2011-01-01

    A new means of measuring the movement properties of the braille-reading finger is described and exemplified in an experiment in which experienced readers of braille encountered sentences comprised of keywords in which word and orthographic frequencies were manipulated. These new data are considered in theoretical and practical terms. (Contains 2…

  17. A Validation of Parafoveal Semantic Information Extraction in Reading Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Kliegl, Reinhold; Yan, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Parafoveal semantic processing has recently been well documented in reading Chinese sentences, presumably because of language-specific features. However, because of a large variation of fixation landing positions on pretarget words, some preview words actually were located in foveal vision when readers' eyes landed close to the end of the…

  18. Function Words in the Prosody of Fluent Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Rose-Marie

    2006-01-01

    This paper exposes how function words and their prosodic features play a part in learning and teaching to read in the early years. It sketches the place that function words have in the grammar of English and describes their phonological features, especially their weak stress and its role in the prosodic quality of sentences. It considers the ways…

  19. Conceptual and Syntactic Strategies in Reading a Foreign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulijn, Jan M.

    Conceptual and syntactic strategies in reading a foreign language are considered with attention to the functioning of the sentence parser. Topics of analysis include: the theoretical background and the educational relevance of the question of strategies; a study of the relative importance of the two parsing principles (syntactically guided…

  20. Shades of Meaning: Using Color to Enhance Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viau, Elizabeth Anne

    1998-01-01

    Shows how word processors and color printers are promising tools for helping students to think more clearly as they read. Discusses how students can use different colored lettering to identify topic sentences; to separate descriptive from narrative or informational writing; to separate information from emotion in writing; and to make changes if…

  1. A Componential Theory of Reading Skills and Their Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-30

    perceptual, phonological, and structural information about lexical items included in the fixation, and (b) semantic, conceptual, and pragmatic ...the increase in reading time when a sentence containing Components of Reading 58 anaphora is ambiguous with regard to the selection of a referent...Frederiksen, J. R. Understanding anaphora : Rules used by readers in assigning pronominal referents. Discourse Processes, in press. French, J. W., Ekstrom, R

  2. Parallel Processing and Sentence Comprehension Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, Marisa Ferrara; Hale, John T.; Vasishth, Shravan; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2011-01-01

    Eye fixation durations during normal reading correlate with processing difficulty, but the specific cognitive mechanisms reflected in these measures are not well understood. This study finds support in German readers' eye fixations for two distinct difficulty metrics: surprisal, which reflects the change in probabilities across syntactic analyses…

  3. ERROR ANALYSIS ON INFORMATION AND TECHNOLOGY STUDENTS’ SENTENCE WRITING ASSIGNMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rentauli Mariah Silalahi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Students’ error analysis is very important for helping EFL teachers to develop their teaching materials, assessments and methods. However, it takes much time and effort from the teachers to do such an error analysis towards their students’ language. This study seeks to identify the common errors made by 1 class of 28 freshmen students studying English in their first semester in an IT university. The data is collected from their writing assignments for eight consecutive weeks. The errors found were classified into 24 types and the top ten most common errors committed by the students were article, preposition, spelling, word choice, subject-verb agreement, auxiliary verb, plural form, verb form, capital letter, and meaningless sentences. The findings about the students’ frequency of committing errors were, then, contrasted to their midterm test result and in order to find out the reasons behind the error recurrence; the students were given some questions to answer in a questionnaire format. Most of the students admitted that careless was the major reason for their errors and lack understanding came next. This study suggests EFL teachers to devote their time to continuously check the students’ language by giving corrections so that the students can learn from their errors and stop committing the same errors.

  4. Developing Reading Ability in the Content Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlin, Robert

    Subject-area teachers are not expected to be reading experts, but they can help students overcome reading difficulties. Students often fail to meet the subject-matter demands due to lack of purpose in reading content, unfamiliarity with technical vocabulary, and the heavy concept load and idea density in the material. Teachers can use reading…

  5. Reading Processes and Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreteiro, Rui Manuel; Justo, João Manuel; Figueira, Ana Paula

    2016-08-01

    Home literacy environment explains between 12 and 18.5 % of the variance of children's language skills. Although most authors agree that children whose parents encourage them to read tend to develop better and earlier reading skills, some authors consider that the impact of family environment in reading skills is overvalued. Probably, other variables of parent-child relationship, like parenting styles, might be relevant for this field. Nevertheless, no previous studies on the effect of parenting styles in literacy have been found. To analyze the role of parenting styles in the reading processes of children. Children's perceptions of parenting styles contribute significantly to the explanation of statistical variance of children's reading processes. 110 children (67 boys and 43 girls), aged between 7 and 11 years (M [Formula: see text] 9.22 and SD [Formula: see text] 1.14) from Portuguese schools answered to a socio-demographic questionnaire. To assess reading processes it was administered the Portuguese adaptation (Figueira et al. in press) of Bateria de Avaliação dos Processos Leitores-Revista (PROLEC-R). To assess the parenting styles Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran-parents (EMBU-P) and EMBU-C (children version) were administered. According to multiple hierarchical linear regressions, individual factors contribute to explain all reading tests of PROLEC-R, while family factors contribute to explain most of these tests. Regarding parenting styles, results evidence the explanatory power about grammatical structures, sentence comprehension and listening. Parenting styles have an important role in the explanation of higher reading processes (syntactic and semantic) but not in lexical processes, focused by main theories concerning dyslexia.

  6. Binocular coordination during reading of blurred and nonblurred text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jainta, Stephanie; Dehnert, Anne; Heinrich, Sven P; Jaschinski, Wolfgang

    2011-12-09

    Reading a text requires vergence angle adjustments, so that the images in the two eyes fall on corresponding retinal areas. Vergence adjustments bring the two retinal images into Panum's fusional area and therefore, small remaining errors or regulations do not lead to double vision. The present study evaluated dynamic and static aspects of the binocular coordination when upcoming text was blurred. Binocular eye movements and accommodation responses were simultaneously measured for 20 participants while reading single, nonblurred sentences and while the text was blurred as if it were seen by a person in whom the combination of refraction and accommodation deviated from the stimulus plane by 0.5 D. Text comprehension did not change, even though fixation times increased for reading blurred sentences. The disconjugacy during saccades was also not affected by blurred text presentations, but the vergence adjustment during fixations was reduced. Further, for blurred text, the overall vergence angle shifted in the exo direction, and this shift correlated with the individual heterophoria. Accommodation measures showed that the lag of accommodation was slightly larger for reading blurred sentences and that the shift in vergence angle was larger when the individual lag of accommodation was also larger. The results suggest that reading comprehension is robust against changes in binocular coordination that result from moderate text degradation; nevertheless, these changes are likely to be linked to the development of fatigue and visual strain in near reading conditions.

  7. Teaching Word Meanings to Students at Different Reading Ability: A Controlled Assessment of the Contextual-Based Vocabulary Instruction on Reading Comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    İlter, İlhan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of contextual-based vocabulary instruction on reading comprehension of seventh-grade students at different reading ability levels in social studies. The Sentence Verification Technique test consisted of 16-items was used to determine participants’ reading comprehension skills. In addition, a semi-structured interview form was used to describe participants’ perceptions and experiences related to the vocabulary intervention program acti...

  8. Sentence-Combining in Technical Writing: An Editing Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Mary

    1982-01-01

    Describes the development and use of sentence combining exercises at a midwestern university and presents the results of a test to determine the effects of the exercises on syntactic maturity and mechanics. (HTH)

  9. 75 FR 54699 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... Congress warranting a Commission response. (6) Continuation of its review of child pornography offenses and... sentence; (B) a compilation of studies ] on, and analysis of, recidivism by child pornography offenders...

  10. The dynamic influence of emotional words on sentence processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jinfeng; Wang, Lin; Yang, Yufang

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, we aimed to examine how the emotionality of words influences online sentence processing-specifically, the influence of emotional words on the processing of following words in sentences. We manipulated the emotionality of verbs as well as the orthographic correctness of their following (neutral) object nouns, so that the orthographic violation of the (neutral) nouns occurred in either emotional or neutral sentences. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to both the nouns and the verbs. We found that the orthographic violation of the nouns elicited a P2 and an N400 effect in the emotionally neutral sentences, but an LPC effect in the emotionally charged sentences. We also found that the emotional verbs elicited a larger N1, a larger P2, and a larger N400 than did the neutral verbs. The ERP results suggest that emotional words capture more attention than neutral words, which further affects early orthographic analysis of the following words. Our findings demonstrate a dynamic influence of emotional words on sentence processing.

  11. Beyond captions: linking figures with abstract sentences in biomedical articles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P Bockhorst

    Full Text Available Although figures in scientific articles have high information content and concisely communicate many key research findings, they are currently under utilized by literature search and retrieval systems. Many systems ignore figures, and those that do not typically only consider caption text. This study describes and evaluates a fully automated approach for associating figures in the body of a biomedical article with sentences in its abstract. We use supervised methods to learn probabilistic language models, hidden Markov models, and conditional random fields for predicting associations between abstract sentences and figures. Three kinds of evidence are used: text in abstract sentences and figures, relative positions of sentences and figures, and the patterns of sentence/figure associations across an article. Each information source is shown to have predictive value, and models that use all kinds of evidence are more accurate than models that do not. Our most accurate method has an F1-score of 69% on a cross-validation experiment, is competitive with the accuracy of human experts, has significantly better predictive accuracy than state-of-the-art methods and enables users to access figures associated with an abstract sentence with an average of 1.82 fewer mouse clicks. A user evaluation shows that human users find our system beneficial. The system is available at http://FigureItOut.askHERMES.org.

  12. Chinese Sentence Classification Based on Convolutional Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chengwei; Wu, Ming; Zhang, Chuang

    2017-10-01

    Sentence classification is one of the significant issues in Natural Language Processing (NLP). Feature extraction is often regarded as the key point for natural language processing. Traditional ways based on machine learning can not take high level features into consideration, such as Naive Bayesian Model. The neural network for sentence classification can make use of contextual information to achieve greater results in sentence classification tasks. In this paper, we focus on classifying Chinese sentences. And the most important is that we post a novel architecture of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to apply on Chinese sentence classification. In particular, most of the previous methods often use softmax classifier for prediction, we embed a linear support vector machine to substitute softmax in the deep neural network model, minimizing a margin-based loss to get a better result. And we use tanh as an activation function, instead of ReLU. The CNN model improve the result of Chinese sentence classification tasks. Experimental results on the Chinese news title database validate the effectiveness of our model.

  13. Brain structural correlates of complex sentence comprehension in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fengler, Anja; Meyer, Lars; Friederici, Angela D

    2015-10-01

    Prior structural imaging studies found initial evidence for the link between structural gray matter changes and the development of language performance in children. However, previous studies generally only focused on sentence comprehension. Therefore, little is known about the relationship between structural properties of brain regions relevant to sentence processing and more specific cognitive abilities underlying complex sentence comprehension. In this study, whole-brain magnetic resonance images from 59 children between 5 and 8 years were assessed. Scores on a standardized sentence comprehension test determined grammatical proficiency of our participants. A confirmatory factory analysis corroborated a grammar-relevant and a verbal working memory-relevant factor underlying the measured performance. Voxel-based morphometry of gray matter revealed that while children's ability to assign thematic roles is positively correlated with gray matter probability (GMP) in the left inferior temporal gyrus and the left inferior frontal gyrus, verbal working memory-related performance is positively correlated with GMP in the left parietal operculum extending into the posterior superior temporal gyrus. Since these areas are known to be differentially engaged in adults' complex sentence processing, our data suggest a specific correspondence between children's GMP in language-relevant brain regions and differential cognitive abilities that guide their sentence comprehension. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Brain structural correlates of complex sentence comprehension in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Fengler

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Prior structural imaging studies found initial evidence for the link between structural gray matter changes and the development of language performance in children. However, previous studies generally only focused on sentence comprehension. Therefore, little is known about the relationship between structural properties of brain regions relevant to sentence processing and more specific cognitive abilities underlying complex sentence comprehension. In this study, whole-brain magnetic resonance images from 59 children between 5 and 8 years were assessed. Scores on a standardized sentence comprehension test determined grammatical proficiency of our participants. A confirmatory factory analysis corroborated a grammar-relevant and a verbal working memory-relevant factor underlying the measured performance. Voxel-based morphometry of gray matter revealed that while children's ability to assign thematic roles is positively correlated with gray matter probability (GMP in the left inferior temporal gyrus and the left inferior frontal gyrus, verbal working memory-related performance is positively correlated with GMP in the left parietal operculum extending into the posterior superior temporal gyrus. Since these areas are known to be differentially engaged in adults’ complex sentence processing, our data suggest a specific correspondence between children's GMP in language-relevant brain regions and differential cognitive abilities that guide their sentence comprehension.

  15. Fluency and reading comprehension in students with reading difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Tânia Augusto; Carvalho, Carolina Alves Ferreira de; Kida, Adriana de Souza Batista; Avila, Clara Regina Brandão de

    2011-12-01

    To characterize the performance of students with reading difficulties in decoding and reading comprehension tasks as well as to investigate the possible correlations between them. Sixty students (29 girls) from 3rd to 5th grades of public Elementary Schools were evaluated. Thirty students (Research Group - RG), ten from each grade, were nominated by their teachers as presenting evidences of learning disabilities. The other thirty students were indicated as good readers, and were matched by gender, age and grade to the RG, composing the Comparison Group (CG). All subjects were assessed regarding the parameters of reading fluency (rate and accuracy in words, pseudowords and text reading) and reading comprehension (reading level, number and type of ideas identified, and correct responses on multiple choice questions). The RG presented significantly lower scores than the CG in fluency and reading comprehension. Different patterns of positive and negative correlations, from weak to excellent, among the decoding and comprehension parameters were found in both groups. In the RG, low values of reading rate and accuracy were observed, which were correlated to low scores in comprehension and improvement in decoding, but not in comprehension, with grade increase. In CG, correlation was found between different fluency parameters, but none of them was correlated to the reading comprehension variables. Students with reading and writing difficulties show lower values of reading fluency and comprehension than good readers. Fluency and comprehension are correlated in the group with difficulties, showing that deficits in decoding influence reading comprehension, which does not improve with age increase.

  16. Effect of reverberation and noise on the intelligibility of sentences in cases of presbyacusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquesnoy, A J; Plomp, R

    1980-08-01

    For 80 male subjects (age 60--90) and 30 female subjects (age 71--89) the monaural Speech-Reception Threshold (SRT) for sentences was investigated under five reverberation conditions at a constant noise level. The reverberation times used were between 0 and 2.3 s. The noise, with the long-term average speech spectrum, had a level of 52.5 dBA. Each subject was assigned to one of several subgroups formed on the basis of the maximum reverberation time at which the subject was still able to understand the sentences correctly The mean SRTs and the standard deviations are given, per subgroup, as a function of reverberation time. It is shown that, for each subgroup, the SRT in different reverberant sound fields can be expressed as a single number, namely the required Speech Transmission Index (STI) as introduced in room acoustics by Houtgast and Steeneken [Acustica 28, 66--73 (1973)]. Furthermore, it is shown that a model of SRT as a function of noise level, developed by Plomp [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 63, 533--549 (1978)], can be combined with the STI model and can thus include the effect of reverberation.

  17. Comparison of reading speed with 3 different log-scaled reading charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buari, Noor Halilah; Chen, Ai-Hong; Musa, Nuraini

    2014-01-01

    A reading chart that resembles real reading conditions is important to evaluate the quality of life in terms of reading performance. The purpose of this study was to compare the reading speed of UiTM Malay related words (UiTM-Mrw) reading chart with MNread Acuity Chart and Colenbrander Reading Chart. Fifty subjects with normal sight were randomly recruited through randomized sampling in this study (mean age=22.98±1.65 years). Subjects were asked to read three different near charts aloud and as quickly as possible at random sequence. The charts were the UiTM-Mrw Reading Chart, MNread Acuity Chart and Colenbrander Reading Chart, respectively. The time taken to read each chart was recorded and any errors while reading were noted. Reading performance was quantified in terms of reading speed as words per minute (wpm). The mean reading speed for UiTM-Mrw Reading Chart, MNread Acuity Chart and Colenbrander Reading Chart was 200±30wpm, 196±28wpm and 194±31wpm, respectively. Comparison of reading speed between UiTM-Mrw Reading Chart and MNread Acuity Chart showed no significant difference (t=-0.73, p=0.72). The same happened with the reading speed between UiTM-Mrw Reading Chart and Colenbrander Reading Chart (t=-0.97, p=0.55). Bland and Altman plot showed good agreement between reading speed of UiTM-Mrw Reading Chart with MNread Acuity Chart with the Colenbrander Reading Chart. UiTM-Mrw Reading Chart in Malay language is highly comparable with standardized charts and can be used for evaluating reading speed. Copyright © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. The neural correlates of reading fluency deficits in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Nicolas; Benjamin, Christopher; Minas, Jennifer; Gaab, Nadine

    2015-06-01

    Multiple studies have shown that individuals with a reading disability (RD) demonstrate deficits in posterior left-hemispheric brain regions during reading-related tasks. These studies mainly focused on reading sub-skills, and it remains debated whether such dysfunction is apparent during more ecologically valid reading skills, such as reading fluency. In this fMRI study, reading fluency was systematically varied to characterize neural correlates of reading fluency in 30 children with (RD) and without (typical developing children, TYP) a RD. Sentences were presented at constrained, comfortable, and accelerated speeds, which were determined based on individual reading speed. Behaviorally, RD children displayed decreased performance in several reading-related tasks. Using fMRI, we demonstrated that both TYP and RD children display increased activation in several components of the reading network during fluent reading. When required to read at an accelerated speed, RD children exhibited less activation in the fusiform gyrus (FG) compared with the TYP children. A region of interest analysis substantiated differences in the FG and demonstrated a relationship to behavioral reading performance. These results suggest that the FG plays a key role in fluent reading and that it can be modulated by speed. These results and their implications for remediation strategies should be considered in educational practice. Published by Oxford University Press 2013. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  19. Evaluation of a gaze-controlled vision enhancement system for reading in visually impaired people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Aguilar

    Full Text Available People with low vision, especially those with Central Field Loss (CFL, need magnification to read. The flexibility of Electronic Vision Enhancement Systems (EVES offers several ways of magnifying text. Due to the restricted field of view of EVES, the need for magnification is conflicting with the need to navigate through text (panning. We have developed and implemented a real-time gaze-controlled system whose goal is to optimize the possibility of magnifying a portion of text while maintaining global viewing of the other portions of the text (condition 1. Two other conditions were implemented that mimicked commercially available advanced systems known as CCTV (closed-circuit television systems-conditions 2 and 3. In these two conditions, magnification was uniformly applied to the whole text without any possibility to specifically select a region of interest. The three conditions were implemented on the same computer to remove differences that might have been induced by dissimilar equipment. A gaze-contingent artificial 10° scotoma (a mask continuously displayed in real time on the screen at the gaze location was used in the three conditions in order to simulate macular degeneration. Ten healthy subjects with a gaze-contingent scotoma read aloud sentences from a French newspaper in nine experimental one-hour sessions. Reading speed was measured and constituted the main dependent variable to compare the three conditions. All subjects were able to use condition 1 and they found it slightly more comfortable to use than condition 2 (and similar to condition 3. Importantly, reading speed results did not show any significant difference between the three systems. In addition, learning curves were similar in the three conditions. This proof of concept study suggests that the principles underlying the gaze-controlled enhanced system might be further developed and fruitfully incorporated in different kinds of EVES for low vision reading.

  20. Evaluation of a gaze-controlled vision enhancement system for reading in visually impaired people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Carlos; Castet, Eric

    2017-01-01

    People with low vision, especially those with Central Field Loss (CFL), need magnification to read. The flexibility of Electronic Vision Enhancement Systems (EVES) offers several ways of magnifying text. Due to the restricted field of view of EVES, the need for magnification is conflicting with the need to navigate through text (panning). We have developed and implemented a real-time gaze-controlled system whose goal is to optimize the possibility of magnifying a portion of text while maintaining global viewing of the other portions of the text (condition 1). Two other conditions were implemented that mimicked commercially available advanced systems known as CCTV (closed-circuit television systems)-conditions 2 and 3. In these two conditions, magnification was uniformly applied to the whole text without any possibility to specifically select a region of interest. The three conditions were implemented on the same computer to remove differences that might have been induced by dissimilar equipment. A gaze-contingent artificial 10° scotoma (a mask continuously displayed in real time on the screen at the gaze location) was used in the three conditions in order to simulate macular degeneration. Ten healthy subjects with a gaze-contingent scotoma read aloud sentences from a French newspaper in nine experimental one-hour sessions. Reading speed was measured and constituted the main dependent variable to compare the three conditions. All subjects were able to use condition 1 and they found it slightly more comfortable to use than condition 2 (and similar to condition 3). Importantly, reading speed results did not show any significant difference between the three systems. In addition, learning curves were similar in the three conditions. This proof of concept study suggests that the principles underlying the gaze-controlled enhanced system might be further developed and fruitfully incorporated in different kinds of EVES for low vision reading.

  1. Periodic letter strokes within a word affect fixation disparity during reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jainta, Stephanie; Jaschinski, Wolfgang; Wilkins, Arnold J

    2010-11-02

    We investigated the way in which binocular coordination in reading is affected by the spatial structure of text. Vergence eye movements were measured (EyeLink II) in 32 observers while they read 120 single German sentences (Potsdam Sentence Corpus) silently for comprehension. The similarity in shape between the neighboring strokes of component letters, as measured by the first peak in the horizontal auto-correlation of the images of the words, was found to be associated with (i) a smaller minimum fixation disparity (i.e. vergence error) during fixation; (ii) a longer time to reach this minimum disparity and (iii) a longer overall fixation duration. The results were obtained only for binocular reading: no effects of auto-correlation could be observed for monocular reading. The findings help to explain the longer reading times reported for words and fonts with high auto-correlation and may also begin to provide a causal link between poor binocular control and reading difficulties.

  2. Teaching Reading in High School: Improving Reading in Content Areas. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlin, Robert

    Designed for prospective and practicing secondary school teachers, this volume examines several aspects of reading in the content areas: the general reading problem in high schools, the development of programs for reading in specific subject areas, the psychology of reading instruction in the content areas, the improvement of diagnostic teaching,…

  3. Causal-implicative relationships in the Serbian hypotaxis (Complex of generative complex sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojvodić Dojčil P.

    2015-01-01

    Polish are unable to distinguish real from eventual conditionality because they, unlike the Serbian language, do not have formal (grammatical means for delimitation between different types of hypothetical modality. In other words, the perfective present in the Serbian language, which in conditional sentences formally coincides with the Northern Slavic perfective future (which is the same as analytical, imperfective, future, used in those languages in both the main and the subordinate clauses of the conditional sentences, can never signify real conditionality, but only an eventual one. In addition to this, the Serbian language in order to express eventual conditionality in subordinate clauses uses future II (exact as well. Therefore, based on a short contrastive analysis of the material, it can be concluded that the inventory of resources used to express these types of modal hypothetical relationships is much richer in the Serbian language than it is in Russian or Polish. In relation to this, it is pointed out that the abovementioned specific features of the compared languages represent a typological boundary between the Southern Slavic and Northern Slavic languages. Likewise, the paper analyzes in a detailed manner complex concessive sentences with an emphasis on their semantic interpretation. This interpretation implies primarily ascertaining the basic components of the semantic invariant of the concession category, as well as an explanation of the principle of “unfulfilled expectations”, i.e. an implicit cause which enables the subject to unexpectedly overcome or fail to overcome an obstacle, which is precisely what concessive relationships are built on. In this regard, it can be noted that concessive relationships are closely associated with categories of evidentiality and epistemic modality, which is, in principle, the result of a mandatory, although, as a rule, formally inexplicit presence (participation of the addresser (speaker in the organization of given

  4. An analysis of subject agreement errors in English: the case of third ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For the incorrect sentences they were to underline the error and give the correct answer. The main findings of the study were: subject-verb agreement errors are prominent in simple sentence constructions and in complex linguistic environments. The study also found that performance errors appear frequently in simple ...

  5. Language production and working memory: The case of subject-verb agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartsuiker, R.J.; Barkhuysen, Pashiera

    2006-01-01

    In order to study the role of working memory in sentence formulation, we elicited errors of subject-verb agreement in spoken sentence completion, while speakers did or did not maintain an extrinsic memory load (a word list). We compared participants with low and high speaking spans (a measure of

  6. ERP effects of subject-verb agreement violations in patients with Broca's aphasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenaar, M.E.D.; Brown, C.M.; Hagoort, P.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents electrophysiological data on on-line syntactic processing during auditory sentence comprehension in patients with Broca's aphasia. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded from the scalp while subjects listened to sentences that were either syntactically correct or

  7. Elaboração e validação de tabela MNREAD para o idioma português Development and validation of the MNREAD reading acuity chart in Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Tamaki Monteiro de Castro

    2005-12-01

    with simple vocabulary. A total of 110 sentences were generated. The sentences were presented to 36 subjects (20 adults and 16 children and mistakes and reading time were marked. 38 sentences were selected for a prototype (MNREAD-P. Sentences with extreme high and low mean reading time, large standard deviation, and with persistent mistakes by subjects were excluded. Validation: Twenty subjects with normal vision (logMAR 0 or 20/20 or better, with best refractive correction were tested with the MNREAD-P and read a passage of text, representing normal, day-to-day reading. Reading speeds in words per minute were recorded for both the MNREAD and the text passage. RESULTS: Sentences in the MNREAD Portuguese chart are sufficiently consistent to provide reliable measures of reading abilities. Reading speeds for the passage (logMar = 0.6 were 197.8 words/minute and the maximum reading speeds calculated by the MNREAD-P were 200.1 words/minute. The correlation between the two measures was r = 0.82. CONCLUSION: The MNREAD-P was tested on normal vision subjects and the results were the same from the original Minnesota Low Vision Reading Test. The reading speed measured on the MNREAD-P was statistically equivalent to the reading speed of the passage.

  8. Predicting complex syntactic structure in real time: Processing of negative sentences in Russian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanina, Nina

    2017-11-01

    In Russian negative sentences the verb's direct object may appear either in the accusative case, which is licensed by the verb (as is common cross-linguistically), or in the genitive case, which is licensed by the negation (Russian-specific "genitive-of-negation" phenomenon). Such sentences were used to investigate whether case marking is employed for anticipating syntactic structure, and whether lexical heads other than the verb can be predicted on the basis of a case-marked noun phrase. Experiment 1, a completion task, confirmed that genitive-of-negation is part of Russian speakers' active grammatical repertoire. In Experiments 2 and 3, the genitive/accusative case manipulation on the preverbal object led to shorter reading times at the negation and verb in the genitive versus accusative condition. Furthermore, Experiment 3 manipulated linear order of the direct object and the negated verb in order to distinguish whether the abovementioned facilitatory effect was predictive or integrative in nature, and concluded that the parser actively predicts a verb and (otherwise optional) negation on the basis of a preceding genitive-marked object. Similarly to a head-final language, case-marking information on preverbal noun phrases (NPs) is used by the parser to enable incremental structure building in a free-word-order language such as Russian.

  9. Words translated in sentence contexts produce repetition priming in visual word comprehension and spoken word production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Wendy S; Camacho, Alejandra; Lara, Carolina

    2014-10-01

    Previous research with words read in context at encoding showed little if any long-term repetition priming. In Experiment 1, 96 Spanish-English bilinguals translated words in isolation or in sentence contexts at encoding. At test, they translated words or named pictures corresponding to words produced at encoding and control words not previously presented. Repetition priming was reliable in all conditions, but priming effects were generally smaller for contextualized than for isolated words. Repetition priming in picture naming indicated priming from production in context. A componential analysis indicated priming from comprehension in context, but only in the less fluent language. Experiment 2 was a replication of Experiment 1 with auditory presentation of the words and sentences to be translated. Repetition priming was reliable in all conditions, but priming effects were again smaller for contextualized than for isolated words. Priming in picture naming indicated priming from production in context, but the componential analysis indicated no detectable priming for auditory comprehension. The results of the two experiments taken together suggest that repetition priming reflects the long-term learning that occurs with comprehension and production exposures to words in the context of natural language.

  10. GeneRIF indexing: sentence selection based on machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimeno-Yepes, Antonio J; Sticco, J Caitlin; Mork, James G; Aronson, Alan R

    2013-05-31

    A Gene Reference Into Function (GeneRIF) describes novel functionality of genes. GeneRIFs are available from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Gene database. GeneRIF indexing is performed manually, and the intention of our work is to provide methods to support creating the GeneRIF entries. The creation of GeneRIF entries involves the identification of the genes mentioned in MEDLINE®; citations and the sentences describing a novel function. We have compared several learning algorithms and several features extracted or derived from MEDLINE sentences to determine if a sentence should be selected for GeneRIF indexing. Features are derived from the sentences or using mechanisms to augment the information provided by them: assigning a discourse label using a previously trained model, for example. We show that machine learning approaches with specific feature combinations achieve results close to one of the annotators. We have evaluated different feature sets and learning algorithms. In particular, Naïve Bayes achieves better performance with a selection of features similar to one used in related work, which considers the location of the sentence, the discourse of the sentence and the functional terminology in it. The current performance is at a level similar to human annotation and it shows that machine learning can be used to automate the task of sentence selection for GeneRIF annotation. The current experiments are limited to the human species. We would like to see how the methodology can be extended to other species, specifically the normalization of gene mentions in other species.

  11. Unscrambling jumbled sentences: An authentic task for English language assessment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Lanteigne

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Jumbled sentence items in language assessment have been criticized by some authors as inauthentic. However, unscrambling jumbled sentences is a common occurrence in real-world communication in English as a lingua franca. Naturalistic inquiry identified 54 instances of jumbled sentence use in daily life in Dubai/Sharjah, where English is widely used as a lingua franca. Thus it is seen that jumbled sentence test items can reflect real-world language use. To evaluate scrambled sentence test items, eight test item types developed from one jumbled sentence instance (“Want taxi Dubai you?” were analyzed in terms of interactivity and authenticity. Items ranged from being completely decontextualized, non-interactive, and inauthentic to being fully contextualized, interactive, and authentic. To determine appropriate assessment standards for English tests in schools in this region, the English language standards for schools and English language requirements for university admission in the UAE were analyzed. Schools in Dubai/Sharjah use Inner Circle English varieties of English (e.g., British or American English as the standard for evaluation, as well as non-native-English-speaker varieties (e.g., Indian English(es. Also, students applying to English-medium universities in the UAE must meet the required scores on standardized English tests including the IELTS and TOEFL. Standards for evaluation of communication in English involving tasks of jumbled sentences in classroom tests must reflect the language learning goals of the school and community. Thus standards for classroom assessment of English in Dubai/Sharjah are determined by local schools’ and universities’ policies.

  12. Eye Movements Reveal Effects of Visual Content on Eye Guidance and Lexical Access during Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin B Paterson; McGowan, Victoria A.; Jordan, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Normal reading requires eye guidance and activation of lexical representations so that words in text can be identified accurately. However, little is known about how the visual content of text supports eye guidance and lexical activation, and thereby enables normal reading to take place. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To investigate this issue, we investigated eye movement performance when reading sentences displayed as normal and when the spatial frequency content of text was filtered to ...

  13. 〈Original Papers〉Non-Linear Note Taking Based on Mind Map for Efficient Reading

    OpenAIRE

    HONKE, Yoshifumi

    2011-01-01

    [Abstract] We are expected to read a variety of books at school or job for various purposes. Many of us start reading from on page one and take information one after each other trying to understand the contents without doubting whether that reading style is the best. We generally make notes in sentence-based line structures without doubting whether that style is the best. Few people recognize such conventional styles might be considered useless work and wasting time. This paper will investiga...

  14. A new principle for the standardization of long paragraphs for reading speed analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radner, Wolfgang; Radner, Stephan; Diendorfer, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the reliability, validity, and statistical comparability of long paragraphs that were developed to be equivalent in construction and difficulty. Seven long paragraphs were developed that were equal in syntax, morphology, and number and position of words (111), with the same number of syllables (179) and number of characters (660). For validity analyses, the paragraphs were compared with the mean reading speed of a set of seven sentence optotypes of the RADNER Reading Charts (mean of 7 × 14 = 98 words read). Reliability analyses were performed by calculating the Cronbach's alpha value and the corrected total item correlation. Sixty participants (aged 20-77 years) read the paragraphs and the sentences (distance 40 cm; font: Times New Roman 12 pt). Test items were presented randomly; reading length was measured with a stopwatch. Reliability analysis yielded a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.988. When the long paragraphs were compared in pairwise fashion, significant differences were found in 13 of the 21 pairs (p reading speed was 173.34 ± 24.01 words per minute (wpm) for the long paragraphs and 198.26 ± 28.60 wpm for the sentence optotypes. The maximum difference in reading speed was 5.55 % for the long paragraphs and 2.95 % for the short sentence optotypes. The correlation between long paragraphs and sentence optotypes was high (r = 0.9243). Despite good reliability and equivalence in construction and degree of difficulty, a statistically significant difference in reading speed can occur between long paragraphs. Since statistical significance should be dependent only on the persons tested, either standardizing long paragraphs for statistical equality of reading speed measurements or increasing the number of presented paragraphs is recommended for comparative investigations.

  15. EARLY READING ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENTS: ABILITIES AND PROCESSES INVOLVED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia de Souza

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the following early reading assessment instruments: “Bateria de Recepção e Produção da Linguagem Verbal” (SCLIAR-CABRAL, 2003a and “Teste de Competência de Leitura de Palavras e Pseudopalavras” (SEABRA; CAPOVILLA, 2010. The main research goal is to analyze in each one of these reading assessment instruments some of the multiple cognitive processes and basic low-level abilities involved in reading. In this sense, decoding, word recognition, lexical access, syntactic and textual processing, and comprehension are the cognitive processes taken into account. With regard to the basic reading abilities, accuracy and fluency (rhythm, prosody and speed are considered. The results indicate that each one of the analyzed reading assessment instruments assesses different aspects of the reading processes and abilities, mainly through off-line measures. ScliarCabral’s assessment battery allows the researcher or the teacher to evaluate the following processes: perception of the grapheme opposition in minimal pairs of words and in sentences, difficulties in sentence processing, skills in decoding the graphemic-phonemic relationship, and textual comprehension. In its turn, the reading assessment instrument proposed by Seabra e Capovilla allows one to evaluate student’s reading development level, by classifying the kind of processing as logographic, alphabetic or orthographic.

  16. Planning sentences while doing other things at the same time: effects of concurrent verbal and visuospatial working memory load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Jana; Mädebach, Andreas; Oppermann, Frank; Jescheniak, Jörg D

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated to what extent advance planning during sentence production is affected by a concurrent cognitive load. In two picture-word interference experiments in which participants produced subject-verb-object sentences while ignoring auditory distractor words, we assessed advance planning at a phonological (lexeme) and at an abstract-lexical (lemma) level under visuospatial or verbal working memory (WM) load. At the phonological level, subject and object nouns were found to be activated before speech onset with concurrent visuospatial WM load, but only subject nouns were found to be activated with concurrent verbal WM load, indicating a reduced planning scope as a function of type of WM load (Experiment 1). By contrast, at the abstract-lexical level, subject and object nouns were found to be activated regardless of type of concurrent load (Experiment 2). In both experiments, sentence planning had a more detrimental effect on concurrent verbal WM task performance than on concurrent visuospatial WM task performance. Overall, our results suggest that advance planning at the phonological level is more affected by a concurrently performed verbal WM task than advance planning at the abstract-lexical level. Also, they indicate an overlap of resources allocated to phonological planning in speech production and verbal WM.

  17. The Relationship between Phonological Features in Oral Reading and Reading Comprehension of Black West Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundre, Donna; Karlin, Andrea

    A study investigated the relationship between phonological features in the oral reading of black West Indians and their reading comprehension. Subjects were 54 college students at the College of the Virgin Islands, St. Thomas. Each subject was recorded reading two passages and completed two cloze tests. The tapes then were analyzed for nine…

  18. Bilingual Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garganta, Soledad; Ramirez, Inez

    This report discusses the importance of bilingual reading instruction for limited English speaking ability (LESA) students, and careful testing of their language dominance and reading levels. Bilingual students, and English- and Spanish-dominant students from the Fabens Independent School District, Grades K-13, were tested for the data reported…

  19. Neural mechanisms of sentence comprehension based on predictive processes and decision certainty: Electrophysiological evidence from non-canonical linearizations in a flexible word order language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dröge, Alexander; Fleischer, Jürg; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina

    2016-02-15

    The specificity or generality of language-related event-related brain potentials (ERPs) has been a point of continuing debate in the cognitive neuroscience of language. The present study measured ERPs to (preferred) subject-before-object (SO) and (dispreferred) object-before-subject (OS) word orders in German while manipulating morphosyntactic and semantic cues to correct sentence interpretation. We presented sentence pairs as connected speech (context and target sentences) and examined ERPs at the position of the first argument (noun phrase) in the target sentence. At this position, word order was determinable by either (a) case marking (morphosyntactic cue); (b) animacy (semantic cue); or (c) the preceding context sentence (local ambiguity; contextual cue). Following each sentence pair, participants judged the acceptability of the second sentence in the context of the first and performed a probe word recognition task. Results showed a biphasic N400-P600 pattern at the first noun phrase in the OS conditions irrespectively of which cues (syntactic or semantic) were available to the parser for disambiguation. N400 latency varied as a function of temporal cue availability and P600 amplitude increased for unambiguous object-initial conditions even though these were rated acceptable in the judgment task. These findings support an interpretation of ERP components in terms of general cognitive mechanisms such as predictive processes (N400) and decision certainty (P600 as an instance of the P300) rather than a domain-specific view of a semantic N400 and a syntactic P600. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Training Of Manual Actions Improves Language Understanding of Semantically-Related Action Sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo eLocatelli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual knowledge accessed by language may involve the re-activation of the associated primary sensory-motor processes. Whether these embodied representations are indeed constitutive to conceptual knowledge is hotly debated, particularly since direct evidence that sensory-motor expertise can improve conceptual processing is scarce.In this study, we sought for this crucial piece of evidence, by training naive healthy subjects to perform complex manual actions and by measuring, before and after training, their performance in a semantic language task. 19 participants engaged in 3 weeks of motor training. Each participant was trained in 3 complex manual actions (e.g. origami. Before and after the training period, each subject underwent a series of manual dexterity tests and a semantic language task. The latter consisted of a sentence-picture semantic congruency judgment task, with 6 target congruent sentence-picture pairs (semantically related to the trained manual actions, 6 non-target congruent pairs (semantically unrelated, and 12 filler incongruent pairs.Manual action training induced a significant improvement in all manual dexterity tests, demonstrating the successful acquisition of sensory-motor expertise. In the semantic language task, the reaction times to both target and non-target congruent sentence-image pairs decreased after action training, indicating a more efficient conceptual-semantic processing. Noteworthy, the reaction times for target pairs decreased more than those for non-target pairs, as indicated by the 2x2 interaction. These results were confirmed when controlling for the potential bias of increased frequency of use of target lexical items during manual training.The results of the present study suggest that sensory-motor expertise gained by training of specific manual actions can lead to an improvement of cognitive-linguistic skills related to the specific conceptual-semantic domain associated to the trained actions.

  1. The development and evaluation of the Finnish Matrix Sentence Test for speech intelligibility assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Aarno; Buschermöhle, Michael; Aarnisalo, Antti A; Vanhanen, Annukka; Hyyrynen, Taneli; Aaltonen, Olli; Löppönen, Heikki; Zokoll, Melanie A; Kollmeier, Birger

    2014-07-01

    The Finnish Matrix Test is the first sentence test in noise for the Finnish language. It was developed according to the HearCom standards and provides reliable speech intelligibility measurements with highly comparable results with the other international matrix tests. The aim of the study was to develop an accurate speech intelligibility test in noise for the Finnish language that is comparable across different languages. We chose a matrix sentence test, which comprises a base matrix of 10 names, verbs, numerals, adjectives and nouns. Test lists were formed from this matrix quasi randomly, providing test sentences of the same syntactical structure. The speech material corresponds to everyday spoken language and the phoneme distribution is representative of the Finnish language. The test was optimized by determining the speech recognition thresholds of the individual words and subsequently by applying level corrections of up to ±3 dB. Evaluation measurements were performed to check the equivalence of the different test lists with respect to speech intelligibility and to provide reference values for further clinical applications. After training, the mean speech recognition threshold (SRT) and the slope of the final test lists were -10.1 ± 0.1 dB signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR)and 16.7 ± 1.2%/dB, respectively (measurements at constant level; inter-list variability). The mean SRT and the slope of the test subjects were -10.1 ± 0.7 dB SNR and 17.5 ± 2.2%/dB (measurements at constant level; inter-subject variability). The expected SRT range for normal-hearing young adults for adaptive measurements is -9.7 ± 0.7 dB SNR.

  2. That Noun Phrase May Be Beneficial and This May Not Be: Discourse Cohesion in Reading and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Scott A.; Rose, Dani Francuz; Danekes, Cassondra; Rose, Charles Wesley; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of attended and unattended demonstratives on text processing, comprehension, and writing quality in two studies. In the first study, participants (n = 45) read 64 mini-stories in a self-paced reading task and identified the main referent in the clauses. The sentences varied in the type of demonstratives (i.e., this,…

  3. Comparing the Contribution of Two Tests of Working Memory to Reading in Relation to Phonological Awareness and Rapid Naming Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George K.; Das, J. P.; Hayward, Denyse V.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the contribution of two different versions of working memory to word reading and reading comprehension in relation to phonological awareness and rapid naming speed. Fifty children were administered two measures of working memory, namely an adaptation of the Daneman and Carpenter sentence span task and…

  4. A Learning Perspective on Individual Differences in Skilled Reading: Exploring and Exploiting Orthographic and Semantic Discrimination Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milin, Petar; Divjak, Dagmar; Baayen, R. Harald

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the present study is to understand the role orthographic and semantic information play in the behavior of skilled readers. Reading latencies from a self-paced sentence reading experiment in which Russian near-synonymous verbs were manipulated appear well-predicted by a combination of bottom-up sublexical letter triplets (trigraphs) and…

  5. Effect of Posttraumatic Stress on Study Time in a Task Measuring Four Component Processes Underlying Text-Level Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Michael P.; Griffiths, Gina G.; Sohlberg, Mckay Moore

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on 4 components underlying text-level reading comprehension. Method: A group of 17 veterans with PTSD and 17 matched control participants took part. An experimental task required participants to read and study 3-sentence paragraphs describing semantic…

  6. [The key parameters of design research and analysis of the Chinese reading visual acuity chart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen-xiao; Liu, Zhi-hui; Gao, Ji-tuo; Guo, Ying-xuan; He, Ji-cang; Qu, Jia; Lü, Fan

    2013-06-01

    Reading is a visual function human being used to understand environmental events based on writing materials. This study investigated the feasibility of reading visual acuity chart in assessment of reading ability by analysis of the key factors involved in the design of the visual acuity chart. The reading level was determined as grade 3 primary school with Song as the font and 30 characters included in the sentences. Each of the sentences consisted of 27 commonly-used Chinese characters (9 characters between any two punctuations) and 3 punctuations. There were no contextual clues between the 80 sentences selected. The characters had 13 different sizes with an increment of 0.1 log unit (e.g.1.2589) and 2.5 pt was determined as the critical threshold. Readable test for visual target was followed as (1) 29 candidates with a raw or corrected visual acuity (VA)of at least 1.0 were selected to read 80 selected sentences with the size of characters of 2.5 pt at a distance of 40 cm, (2) the time used for reading with the number of characters wrongly read was recorded, (3) 39 sentences were selected as visual targets based on reading speed, effective reading position and total number of character strokes, (4) The 39 selected sentences were then randomly divided into 3 groups with no significant difference among the groups in the 3 factors listed at (3) with paired t-test. This reading visual chart was at level of Grade 3 primary school with a total stroke number of 165-210(Mean 185 ± 10), 13 font sizes a 0.1 log unit increment, a song pattern and 2.5 pt as the critical threshold. All candidates achieved 100% correct in reading test under 2.5 pt with an effective reading speed as 120.65-162 wpm (Mean 142.93 ± 11.80) and effective reading position as 36.03-61.48(Mean 48.85 ± 6.81). The reading test for the 3 groups of sentences showed effective reading speed as (142.49 ± 12.14) wpm,(142.86 ± 12.55) wpm and (143.44 ± 11.63) wpm respectively(t1-2 = -0.899, t2-3 = -1

  7. Reading speed, comprehension and eye movements while reading Japanese novels: evidence from untrained readers and cases of speed-reading trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Hiromitsu; Minagawa-Kawai, Yasuyo; Watanabe, Shigeru; Sasaki, Toyofumi; Ueda, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that meditative training enhances perception and cognition. In Japan, the Park-Sasaki method of speed-reading involves organized visual training while forming both a relaxed and concentrated state of mind, as in meditation. The present study examined relationships between reading speed, sentence comprehension, and eye movements while reading short Japanese novels. In addition to normal untrained readers, three middle-level trainees and one high-level expert on this method were included for the two case studies. In Study 1, three of 17 participants were middle-level trainees on the speed-reading method. Immediately after reading each story once on a computer monitor, participants answered true or false questions regarding the content of the novel. Eye movements while reading were recorded using an eye-tracking system. Results revealed higher reading speed and lower comprehension scores in the trainees than in the untrained participants. Furthermore, eye-tracking data by untrained participants revealed multiple correlations between reading speed, accuracy and eye-movement measures, with faster readers showing shorter fixation durations and larger saccades in X than slower readers. In Study 2, participants included a high-level expert and 14 untrained students. The expert showed higher reading speed and statistically comparable, although numerically lower, comprehension scores compared with the untrained participants. During test sessions this expert moved her eyes along a nearly straight horizontal line as a first pass, without moving her eyes over the whole sentence display as did the untrained students. In addition to revealing correlations between speed, comprehension and eye movements in reading Japanese contemporary novels by untrained readers, we describe cases of speed-reading trainees regarding relationships between these variables. The trainees overall tended to show poor performance influenced by the speed-accuracy trade

  8. Reading Speed, Comprehension and Eye Movements While Reading Japanese Novels: Evidence from Untrained Readers and Cases of Speed-Reading Trainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Hiromitsu; Minagawa-Kawai, Yasuyo; Watanabe, Shigeru; Sasaki, Toyofumi; Ueda, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Background A growing body of evidence suggests that meditative training enhances perception and cognition. In Japan, the Park-Sasaki method of speed-reading involves organized visual training while forming both a relaxed and concentrated state of mind, as in meditation. The present study examined relationships between reading speed, sentence comprehension, and eye movements while reading short Japanese novels. In addition to normal untrained readers, three middle-level trainees and one high-level expert on this method were included for the two case studies. Methodology/Principal Findings In Study 1, three of 17 participants were middle-level trainees on the speed-reading method. Immediately after reading each story once on a computer monitor, participants answered true or false questions regarding the content of the novel. Eye movements while reading were recorded using an eye-tracking system. Results revealed higher reading speed and lower comprehension scores in the trainees than in the untrained participants. Furthermore, eye-tracking data by untrained participants revealed multiple correlations between reading speed, accuracy and eye-movement measures, with faster readers showing shorter fixation durations and larger saccades in X than slower readers. In Study 2, participants included a high-level expert and 14 untrained students. The expert showed higher reading speed and statistically comparable, although numerically lower, comprehension scores compared with the untrained participants. During test sessions this expert moved her eyes along a nearly straight horizontal line as a first pass, without moving her eyes over the whole sentence display as did the untrained students. Conclusions/Significance In addition to revealing correlations between speed, comprehension and eye movements in reading Japanese contemporary novels by untrained readers, we describe cases of speed-reading trainees regarding relationships between these variables. The trainees overall

  9. Reading speed, comprehension and eye movements while reading Japanese novels: evidence from untrained readers and cases of speed-reading trainees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromitsu Miyata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence suggests that meditative training enhances perception and cognition. In Japan, the Park-Sasaki method of speed-reading involves organized visual training while forming both a relaxed and concentrated state of mind, as in meditation. The present study examined relationships between reading speed, sentence comprehension, and eye movements while reading short Japanese novels. In addition to normal untrained readers, three middle-level trainees and one high-level expert on this method were included for the two case studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Study 1, three of 17 participants were middle-level trainees on the speed-reading method. Immediately after reading each story once on a computer monitor, participants answered true or false questions regarding the content of the novel. Eye movements while reading were recorded using an eye-tracking system. Results revealed higher reading speed and lower comprehension scores in the trainees than in the untrained participants. Furthermore, eye-tracking data by untrained participants revealed multiple correlations between reading speed, accuracy and eye-movement measures, with faster readers showing shorter fixation durations and larger saccades in X than slower readers. In Study 2, participants included a high-level expert and 14 untrained students. The expert showed higher reading speed and statistically comparable, although numerically lower, comprehension scores compared with the untrained participants. During test sessions this expert moved her eyes along a nearly straight horizontal line as a first pass, without moving her eyes over the whole sentence display as did the untrained students. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In addition to revealing correlations between speed, comprehension and eye movements in reading Japanese contemporary novels by untrained readers, we describe cases of speed-reading trainees regarding relationships between these variables

  10. Specialization in the left prefrontal cortex for sentence comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L

    2002-08-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined cortical activation under syntactic decision tasks and a short-term memory task for sentences, focusing on essential properties of syntactic processing. By comparing activation in these tasks with a short-term memory task for word lists, we found that two regions in the left prefrontal cortex showed selective activation for syntactic processing: the dorsal prefrontal cortex (DPFC) and the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Moreover, the left DPFC showed more prominent activation under the short-term memory task for sentences than that for word lists, which cannot be explained by general cognitive factors such as task difficulty and verbal short-term memory. These results support the proposal of specialized systems for sentence comprehension in the left prefrontal cortex.

  11. Why should I read? - A cross-cultural investigation into adolescents' reading socialisation and reading attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeder, Peter; Stokmans, Mia

    2013-06-01

    While reading behaviour of adolescents is a frequent object of research, most studies in this field are restricted to a single country. This study investigates reading as a leisure-time activity across social groups from three regions differing in reading tradition as well as in the facilities available for reading. The authors analyse the reading behaviour of a total of 2,173 adolescents in the Netherlands, in Beijing (China), and in Cape Town (South Africa). Taking Icek Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour as a starting point, the authors adjusted it to model the three most important determinants of reading behaviour, namely (1) reading attitude; (2) subjective norms (implicit and explicit social pressure to read); and (3) perceived behavioural control, which includes reading proficiency and appropriateness of the available books (book supply). While they found the adjusted model to fit the Dutch and Beijing situation quite well, it appeared to be inappropriate for the Cape Town situation. Despite considerable cultural and situational differences between the Netherlands and Beijing, the results show a similar pattern for these two environments. The most important determinants turn out to be: the hedonic reading attitude, the implicit norm of family and friends, the attractiveness of the available choice of books, and the perceived reading proficiency.

  12. From Expressive Reading to Rapid Reading: The Rise in Reading Rate During the Efficiency Movement (1910-1925)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Reading rate, a component of reading not closely attended to by educators and researchers prior to the 20th century, quickly became the subject of considerable research shortly after the turn of the century. This article uses historical content analysis to examine primary source documents from that period (1910-1925) to explore why reading rate…

  13. The Dangling model in the construction of compound sentences with regard to verb tenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mehravaran

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A sentence is the most complete syntactic unit of a language. The construction of a sentence is the most comprehensive, controversial and fascinating syntactic issue in the language grammar. The message or intention is usually conveyed through a sentence. In fact, the communicative function of a language is carried out via a sentence. A sentence can be classified in to different categories from different perspectives: semantically, constructively or performatively either with a verb or without a verb and also with regard to the construction. With regard to the construction, a sentence is either simple or compound. A simple sentence is the one with a complete meaning which only has one verb. It must be born in mind that a sentence is a complete unit whit meaning and there can be a hesitation after that. There for units of speech that have a verb without a complete meaning and there can be no silence or hesitation after them cannot be regarded as a sentence. Since they are dependent upon another sentence to be completed. They are called phrases. Such phrases can be incorporated in compound sentences make main and subordinate clauses. Compound sentences are widely discussed whit in grammatical constructions, but their types and that how have been built their various constructions are less adequately discussed. With regard to the manner of construction of compound sentences, the widest linguistic amenities can be observed in the sentences. There is not such complexity or disagreement over simple sentences but compound sentences have been less adequately investigated and there is room for more discussion and debate. Because, in some grammars, without considering the construction criteria, all sentences that are connected to one another, whit connectives are called compound sentences. This paper has precisely investigated compound sentences and has elaborated on the construction criteria of compound sentences. The study has also pointed to

  14. A Frequency-based Strategy of Obtaining Sentences from Clinical Data Repository for Crowdsourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dingcheng; Rastegar Mojarad, Majid; Li, Yanpeng; Sohn, Sunghwan; Mehrabi, Saeed; Komandur Elayavilli, Ravikumar; Yu, Yue; Liu, Hongfang

    2015-01-01

    In clinical NLP, one major barrier to adopting crowdsourcing for NLP annotation is the issue of confidentiality for protected health information (PHI) in clinical narratives. In this paper, we investigated the use of a frequency-based approach to extract sentences without PHI. Our approach is based on the assumption that sentences appearing frequently tend to contain no PHI. Both manual and automatic evaluations on 500 sentences out of the 7.9 million sentences of frequencies higher than one show that no PHI can be found among them. The promising results provide potentials of releasing those sentences for obtaining sentence-level NLP annotations via crowdsourcing.

  15. A New Font, Specifically Designed for Peripheral Vision, Improves Peripheral Letter and Word Recognition, but Not Eye-Mediated Reading Performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Bernard

    Full Text Available Reading speed is dramatically reduced when readers cannot use their central vision. This is because low visual acuity and crowding negatively impact letter recognition in the periphery. In this study, we designed a new font (referred to as the Eido font in order to reduce inter-letter similarity and consequently to increase peripheral letter recognition performance. We tested this font by running five experiments that compared the Eido font with the standard Courier font. Letter spacing and x-height were identical for the two monospaced fonts. Six normally-sighted subjects used exclusively their peripheral vision to run two aloud reading tasks (with eye movements, a letter recognition task (without eye movements, a word recognition task (without eye movements and a lexical decision task. Results show that reading speed was not significantly different between the Eido and the Courier font when subjects had to read single sentences with a round simulated gaze-contingent central scotoma (10° diameter. In contrast, Eido significantly decreased perceptual errors in peripheral crowded letter recognition (-30% errors on average for letters briefly presented at 6° eccentricity and in peripheral word recognition (-32% errors on average for words briefly presented at 6° eccentricity.

  16. The Matrix Verb as a Source of Comprehension Difficulty in Object Relative Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staub, Adrian; Dillon, Brian; Clifton, Charles, Jr.

    2017-01-01

    Two experiments used eyetracking during reading to examine the processing of the matrix verb following object and subject relative clauses. The experiments show that the processing of the matrix verb following an object relative is indeed slowed compared to the processing of the same verb following a subject relative. However, this difficulty is…

  17. Tools students need to be skillful writers building better sentences

    CERN Document Server

    Hostmeyer, Phyllis

    2012-01-01

    Build stronger writers one sentence at a time.Imagine a classroom full of enthusiastic student writers, capable of reviewing their own work with a critical eye, then crafting a polished, convincing piece. This is possible, if you take writing instruction down to its basic building block-a solid sentence-and advance from there. Phyllis Hostmeyer can show you how with Tools Students Need to Be Skillful Writers, your blueprint for effective writing instruction and unit development. Packed with lessons across grades 3-12, this indispensable

  18. Some arguments against some prevalent ideas on specificational sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Rosselló

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Copular sentences where the copula is flanked by two DPs fall into two types: predicational or ascriptive (John is the physician and specificational (The physician is John, to use the most widely accepted terms. However, according to the dominant view in the generative transformational framework, this divide, to some extent, is spurious since underlyingly specificational sentences would be predicational. Contrary to this position, I argue that the partition is real, irreducible, and syntactically-based. With this goal in mind, I discuss and reinterpret some well known data and present some new ones.

  19. Does Good Writing Mean Good Reading?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther

    2013-01-01

    Many writing guides list constructions that writers should avoid, including passives, nominalisations and long complex words and sentences. This study presents an eye-tracking experiment that compared the reading of such supposedly problematic constructions with the reading of their recommended...... parallel versions in four different Danish LSP texts. While a range of control predictors, including the length of the target constructions and their position in the texts, had significant effects on reading time, there was no effect of whether a target construction followed or opposed the advice given...... in writing guides. This suggests that, in themselves, the supposed problem constructions are not inherently problematic to understand. Therefore, factors previously put forward as important, such as the information structure of texts and the image the sender wishes to project, should be what influences...

  20. Capacity for self-monitoring reading comprehension in Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Gabriela Juliane; Carvalho, Carolina Alves Ferreira; Ávila, Clara Regina Brandão de

    2017-06-08

    To investigate the capacity for self-monitoring reading comprehension in Brazilian Elementary School students. Fifty-three Elementary students in the 5th and 9th grades from two Public Schools in the city of São Paulo were assessed. They were selected based on their oral reading rate and grouped according to their performance in reading comprehension in the following categories: Group with best comprehension: students with adequate rate and accuracy, without difficulties in reading comprehension; Group with worst comprehension: students with adequate rate and accuracy but with difficulties in reading comprehension. Two narrative texts followed by eight questions to assess reading comprehension were presented. Two sentences and two words were replaced by ungrammatical elements and pseudo-words. Under the condition of spontaneous monitoring, students read the text aloud and answered the questions. The analysis considered the calculation of hesitation, self-correction, repetitions and mistakes. Under the condition of directed monitoring, students were instructed to read the text, either aloud or silently, after being told that certain parts of the text could not make sense, and they were oriented to underline such parts. The analysis was carried out by counting of underlined items. The comparisons were made with the Mann-Whitney test. A difference was observed between the groups only at the sentence level among the 9th grade schoolchildren under the spontaneous monitoring and among the 5th grade schoolchildren under directed monitoring. Students with worst comprehension had a poorer performance to monitor the presence of ungrammatical sentences than their peers with best comprehension.