Full Text Available The gut associated lymphoid tissue is responsible for specific responses to intestinal antigens. During HIV infection, mucosal immune deficiency may account for the gastrointestinal infections. In this review we describe the humoral and cellular mucosal immune responses in normal and HIV-infected subjects.
Full Text Available Measles is caused by measles virus belonging to genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. Vaccination has played a critical role in controlling measles infection worldwide. However, in the recent years, outbreaks of measles infection still occur in many developing countries. Here, we report an outbreak of measles among healthcare workers and among the 60 measles infected patients 50 were healthcare workers including doctors, nurses, staff, and medics. Fifty-one patients (85% tested positive for IgM antibodies against the measles virus and 50 patients (83.3% tested positive for measles virus RNA. Surprisingly, 73.3% of the infected individuals had been previously immunized against measles. Since there is no infection division in our hospital, the fever clinics are located in the Emergency Division. In addition, the fever and rash were not recognized as measles symptoms at the beginning of the outbreak. These factors result in delay in isolation and early confirmation of the suspected patients and eventually a measles outbreak in the hospital. Our report highlights the importance of following a two-dose measles vaccine program in people including the healthcare workers. In addition, vigilant attention should be paid to medical staff with clinical fever and rash symptoms to avoid a possible nosocomial transmission of measles infection.
Sun, Wellington; Eckels, Kenneth H; Putnak, J Robert; Lyons, Arthur G; Thomas, Stephen J; Vaughn, David W; Gibbons, Robert V; Fernandez, Stefan; Gunther, Vicky J; Mammen, Mammen P; Statler, John D; Innis, Bruce L
Protection against dengue requires immunity against all 4 serotypes of dengue virus (DENV). Experimental challenge may be useful in evaluating vaccine-induced immunity. Ten subjects previously vaccinated with a live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine (TDV) and 4 DENV-naive control subjects were challenged by subcutaneous inoculation of either 10(3) plaque-forming units (PFU) of DENV-1 or 10(5) PFU of DENV-3. Two additional subjects who did not develop DENV-3 neutralizing antibody (NAb) from TDV were revaccinated with 10(4) PFU of live attenuated DENV-3 vaccine to evaluate memory response. All 5 TDV recipients were protected against DENV-1 challenge. Of the 5 TDV recipients challenged with DENV-3, 2 were protected. All DENV-3-challenge subjects who developed viremia also developed elevated liver enzyme levels, and 2 had values that were >10 times greater than normal. Of the 2 subjects revaccinated with DENV-3 vaccine, 1 showed a secondary response to DENV-2, while neither showed such response to DENV-3. All 4 control subjects developed dengue fever from challenge. Protection was associated with presence of NAb, although 1 subject was protected despite a lack of measurable NAb at the time of DENV-1 challenge. Vaccination with TDV induced variable protection against subcutaneous challenge. DENV-3 experimental challenge was associated with transient but marked elevations of transaminases.
Sarasa, Mathieu; Rambozzi, Luisa; Rossi, Luca; Meneguz, Pier G; Serrano, Emmanuel; Granados, José-Enrique; González, Francisco J; Fandos, Paulino; Soriguer, Ramón C; Gonzalez, Georges; Joachim, Jean; Pérez, Jesús M
Host acquired immunity is a critical factor that conditions the survival of parasites. Nevertheless, there is a shortage of data concerning inter-individual immunological inequalities in wild mammals. Sarcoptic mange is a widespread parasitosis that severely affects mammals such as the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica). Despite some work on the subject, the immune response to sarcoptic mange infestation is still a complex and poorly understood phenomenon. To improve knowledge of the host-Sarcoptes immunological interaction, 18 Iberian ibexes were experimentally infested. IgG levels were assessed using ELISA to test for potential factors determining the specific immune response to infestation. Previous exposure and sex appeared to affect the IgG response to infestation and our results suggest a sex-biased immunomodulation. We discuss the immunological pattern of host-Sarcoptes interactions and also suggest further lines of work that may improve the understanding of immunological interactions of host-Sarcoptes systems. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wong Kurt A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Human populations that are naturally subjected to Plasmodium infection do not acquire complete protection against the liver stage of this parasite despite prolonged and frequent exposure. However, sterile immunity against Plasmodium liver stage can be achieved after repeated exposure to radiation attenuated sporozoites. The reasons for this different response remain largely unknown, but a suppressive effect of blood stage Plasmodium infection has been proposed as a cause for the lack of liver stage protection. Methods Using Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL, the response generated in mice subjected to daily infective bites from normal or irradiated mosquitoes was compared. The effect of daily-infected mosquito bites on mice that were previously immunized against P. yoelii liver stage was also studied. Results It was observed that while the bites of normal infected mosquitoes do not generate strong antibody responses and protection, the bites of irradiated mosquitoes result in high levels of anti-sporozoite antibodies and protection against liver stage Plasmodium infection. Exposure to daily infected mosquito bites did not eliminate the protection acquired previously with a experimental liver stage vaccine. Conclusions Liver stage immunity generated by irradiated versus normal P. yoelii infected mosquitoes is essentially different, probably because of the blood stage infection that follows normal mosquito bites, but not irradiated. While infective mosquito bites do not induce a protective liver stage response, they also do not interfere with previously acquired liver stage protective responses, even if they induce a complete blood stage infection. Considering that the recently generated anti-malaria vaccines induce only partial protection against infection, it is encouraging that, at least in mouse models, immunity is not negatively affected by subsequent exposure and infection with the parasite.
Fica, Alberto; Gaínza, Daniela; Ortigosa, Pablo
Tetanus is declining due to vaccination, professional labor management and appropriate wound care. Tetanus cases have been reported despite immunization. We report the case of a previously healthy 21 years old female patient that presented a mild generalized tetanus requiring admission after mild and recurrent cat scratch and bites. She had received six vaccine shots during childhood, and a booster dose five years earlier after a rabbit bite. Symptoms appeared seven weeks after the last contact, and included headache, muscle spasms and mild opisthotonus. Laboratory evaluation, including CSF analysis and microbiological investigation, as well as imaging studies were all normal. The patient received 6,000 IU of human antitoxin immunoglobulin. No autonomic manifestations or respiratory compromise were registered. Symptoms resolved rapidly and she was discharge after seven days with an order to complete a tetanus toxoid immunization schedule with three doses. Tetanus is possible in urban settings with a declining epidemiologic curve of disease in previously immunized patients. Severity of disease is modulated by previous vaccination.
Ranek, L; Dalhoff, K; Poulsen, H E
To test the hypothesis that halothane hepatitis is caused by a combination of altered drug metabolism and an immunoallergic disposition, the metabolism of antipyrine, metronidazole, sparteine, phenytoin, and racemic R- and S-mephenytoin was investigated in seven subjects with previous halothane h...... hepatitis do not appear to be different from controls with regard to drug metabolism and HLA tissue type. The possibility of a higher frequency of complement C3 phenotype F and FS needs further investigation....... hepatitis. The HLA tissue types and the complement C3 phenotypes were also determined. The metabolism of antipyrine and metronidazole was within normal range in all subjects, and they were all fast or extensive metabolizers of sparteine, mephenytoin, and phenytoin. HLA tissue types were unremarkable. Five...... of the seven subjects had complement C3 phenotypes F or FS. In the general population phenotype S is the most common, but the difference in complement C3 phenotypes is not statistically significant (p = 0.07). We conclude, although in a limited number of patients, that subjects with previous halothane...
Klein, Nicola P; Ensor, Kathy; Jouve, Sylvie; Northington, Robert; Moscariello, Michele; McGovern, Paul C
Seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) has reduced incidence of vaccine-serotype pneumococcal diseases. Using a single dose of 13-valent pneumoccal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), we evaluated late immune responses 10 years after vaccination with PCV7 in infancy, compared with a PCV7-naïve cohort. In this open-label study, we administered 1 dose of PCV13 to children aged 11-14 years who had previously received PCV7 (PCV7/PCV13) or meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine (MnCC/PCV13) during infancy. We evaluated serotype-specific immunoglobulin G concentrations and opsonophagocytic activity prevaccination and 1 week and 1 month postvaccination. We recorded local reactions and systemic events for 4 days postvaccination and adverse events for 6 months. Seventy-four subjects received PCV13 (PCV7/PCV13, n = 38; MnCC/PCV13, n = 36). Prevaccination with PCV13, >62.9% of subjects had immunoglobulin G concentrations ≥0.35 µg/mL for all serotypes except serotype 4 (28-29%); proportions increased at 1 month postvaccination to 100% for all serotypes except serotypes 3 (PCV7/PCV13, 94.7%; MnCC/PCV13, 97.0%) and 14 (MnCC/PCV13, 97.1%). Immunoglobulin G and opsonophagocytic activity concentrations for the 7 common and 6 additional serotypes were similar in both groups prevaccination and increased in both groups from prevaccination to 1 week and 1 month postvaccination. Local reactions and fever were mild or moderate; no serious adverse events were reported. Late immune responses after a single dose of PCV13 were similar in children aged 11-14 years regardless of previous vaccination with PCV7 or MnCC. PCV13 was immunogenic, safe and well tolerated.
Goujon, Catherine; Gougeon, Marie-Lise; Tondeur, Laura; Poirier, Béatrice; Seffer, Valérie; Desprès, Philippe; Consigny, Paul-Henri; Vray, Muriel
For administration of multiple live attenuated vaccines, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends either simultaneous immunization or period of at least 28days between vaccines, due to a possible reduction in the immune response to either vaccine. The main objective of this study was to compare the immune response to measles (alone or combined with mumps and rubella) and yellow fever vaccines among infants aged 6-24months living in a yellow fever non-endemic country who had receivedmeasles and yellow fever vaccines before travelling to a yellow fever endemic area. A retrospective, multicenter case-control study was carried out in 7 travel clinics in the Paris area from February 1st 2011 to march 31, 2015. Cases were defined as infants immunized with the yellow fever vaccine and with the measles vaccine, either alone or in combination with mumps and rubella vaccine, with a period of 1-27days between each immunization. For each case, two controls were matched based on sex and age: a first control group (control 1) was defined as infants having received the measles vaccine and the yellow fever vaccine simultaneously; a second control group (control 2) was defined as infants who had a period of more than 27days between receiving the measles vaccine and yellow fever vaccine. The primary endpoint of the study was the percentage of infants with protective immunity against yellow fever, measured by the titer of neutralizing antibodies in a venous blood sample. One hundred and thirty-one infants were included in the study (62 cases, 50 infants in control 1 and 19 infants in control 2). Of these, 127 (96%) were shown to have a protective titer of yellow fever antibodies. All 4 infants without a protective titer of yellow fever antibodies were part of control group 1. The measles vaccine, alone or combined with mumps and rubella vaccines, appears to have no influence on humoral immune response to the yellow fever vaccine when administered between 1 and 27
Canaris, Gay J; Tape, Thomas G; Wigton, Robert S
Conventional screening for hypothyroidism is controversial. Although hypothyroidism is underdiagnosed, many organizations do not recommend screening, citing low disease prevalence in unselected populations. We studied attendees at a thyroid health fair, hypothesizing that certain patient characteristics would enhance the yield of testing. We carried out an observational study of participants at a Michigan health fair that focused on thyroid disease. We collected patient-reported symptoms and demographics by questionnaire, and correlated these with the TSH values obtained through the health fair. 794 of 858 health fair attendees participated. Most were women, and over 40% reported a family history of thyroid disease. We identified 97 (12.2%) participants with previously unknown thyroid dysfunction. No symptom or combination of symptoms discriminated between hypothyroid and euthyroid individuals. Hypothyroid and euthyroid participants in the health fair reported each symptom with a similar prevalence (p > 0.01), a prevalence which was very high. In fact, when compared with a previously published case-control study that reported symptoms, the euthyroid health fair participants reported a higher symptom prevalence (range 3.9% to 66.3%, mean 31.5%), than the euthyroid individuals from the case-control study (range 2% to 54%, mean 17.4%). A high proportion of previously undiagnosed thyroid disease was identified at this health fair. We initially hypothesized symptoms would distinguish between thyroid function states. However, this was not the case in this health fair screening population. The prevalence of reported symptoms was similar and high in both euthyroid and hypothyroid participants. Because attendees were self-selected, it is possible that this health fair that focused on thyroid disease attracted participants specifically concerned about thyroid health. Despite the lack of symptom discrimination, the much higher prevalence of hypothyroidism in this study
Kumagai, Takuji; Ihara, Toshiaki; Nakayama, Tetsuo; Nagata, Nobuo; Kamiya, Hitoshi
The reintroduction of measles-rubella combined (MR) vaccination to Japan raised concerns about adverse events as well as immunogenicity related to booster immunization in subjects with naturally acquired immunity to measles or rubella. The time course of reactogenicity and antibody responses in recipients with pre-existing immunity to measles through natural infection was observed. Eighteen children aged 80-104 months received MR booster vaccination; 16 of them had had previous rubella vaccination. There were virtually no clinical reactions related to booster vaccination, and a highly significant antibody response to rubella antigen, whereas the antibody rise to measles was statistically significant but poor. Vaccination of individuals already immune is not harmful. Booster immunization to rubella for Japanese children is vitally important. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.
Gervash, A.; Giniyatulin, R.; Mazul, I.
Considering beryllium as plasma facing armour this paper presents recent results obtained in Russia. A special process of joining beryllium to a Cu-alloy material structure is described and recent results of thermal cycling tests of such joints are presented. Summarizing the results, the authors show that a Cu-alloy heat sink structure armoured with beryllium can survive high heat fluxes (≥10 MW/m 2 ) during 1000 heating/cooling cycles without serious damage to the armour material and its joint. The principal feasibility of thermal cycling of beryllium grades and their joints directly in the core of a nuclear reactor is demonstrated and the main results of this test are presented. The paper also describes the thermal cycling of different beryllium grades having cracks initiated by previously applied high heat loads simulating plasma disruptions. (orig.)
Dhar, D.N.; Sharma, R.L.
The immune response of lambs infected with the lungworm, Dictyocaulus filaria to vaccination with the radiation attenuated D.filaria vaccine was studied under experimental conditions. Healthy, un-infected lambs, 4-6 months of age were randomly distributed into three groups. Group one lambs were previously exposed to single or trickle infections of D.filaria before being vaccinated, group two lambs were vaccinated only whereas the group three lambs received neither infection nor were vaccinated. All the lambs were subsequently challanged with normal infective D.filaria larvae. The results of the experiment indicate that the vaccine confers very little or practically no immunity in lambs already exposed to the infection. The significance of these findings in the use of the vaccine for the control of lungworm disease in sheep under field conditions is discussed. (author)
O'Connell, Anne R; Demmers, Kristina J; Smaill, Bronwyn; Reader, Karen L; Juengel, Jennifer L
In a naturally mated cycle, ova and viable embryo number as well as embryo size were assessed on Day 4, 10, 14, 18, and 30 of gestation in Romney ewes (n = 38-44 per gestational group). For Days 4-18 of gestation, embryos were recovered by flushing the reproductive tract after slaughtering of the ewe. Ovulation rate was determined by counting the number of corpora lutea present on both ovaries. For the Day 30 group, number of ovulations was measured by laparoscopic examination of the ovaries at Day 9-12 of the cycle, and number of embryos present was determined by ultrasound examination at approximately Day 30 of pregnancy. Most of embryo loss occurred before Day 14 of gestation with 6% loss before Day 4, and 12% loss between Day 4 and 14 of gestation. A similar proportion of viable embryos per number of ova ovulated were recovered on Day 14 and 18 (82%) and Day 30 (81%) of gestation. Fertilization failure was estimated at 1%. Conceptus and embryo size was most variable on Day 14, representing a period of rapid growth (conceptus length ± standard deviation); Day 4 (169 ± 8 μm), Day 10 (379 ± 93 μm), Day 14 (23 ± 32 mm), Day 18 (embryo length ± standard deviation; 5.0 ± 0.7 mm). Vaccination with commercially available fertility vaccines targeting androstenedione (Androvax and Ovastim) in previous seasons resulted in reduced conceptus size compared with controls. However, no difference in the proportion of viable embryos was observed between treatments, signifying maternal tolerance for considerable variation at this stage of development. Furthermore, the finding that most of loss occurs within the first 14 days of gestation highlights the importance of both oocyte quality and the uterine environment for the embryo to successfully overcome the challenges leading up to and including pregnancy recognition in the ewe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The goal of this study is to investigate associations between subjective memory complaint and objective cognitive performance in older people with previous major depression-a high-risk sample for cognitive impairment and later dementia. A cross-sectional study was carried out in people aged 60 or over with previous major depression but not fulfilling current major depression criteria according to DSM-IV-TR. People with dementia or Mini-Mental State Examination score less than 17 were excluded. Subjective memory complaint was defined on the basis of a score ≧4 on the subscale of Geriatric Mental State schedule, a maximum score of 8. Older people aged equal or over 60 without any psychiatric diagnosis were enrolled as healthy controls. Cognitive function was evaluated using a series of cognitive tests assessing verbal memory, attention/speed, visuospatial function, verbal fluency, and cognitive flexibility in all participants. One hundred and thirteen older people with previous major depression and forty-six healthy controls were enrolled. Subjective memory complaint was present in more than half of the participants with depression history (55.8%. Among those with major depression history, subjective memory complaint was associated with lower total immediate recall and delayed verbal recall scores after adjustment. The associations between subjective memory complaint and worse memory performance were stronger in participants with lower depressive symptoms (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score<7. The results suggest subjective memory complaint may be a valid appraisal of memory performance in older people with previous major depression and consideration should be given to more proactive assessment and follow-up in these clinical samples.
Nicholaou, Theo; Chen, Weisan; Davis, Ian D; Jackson, Heather M; Dimopoulos, Nektaria; Barrow, Catherine; Browning, Judy; Macgregor, Duncan; Williams, David; Hopkins, Wendie; Maraskovsky, Eugene; Venhaus, Ralph; Pan, Linda; Hoffman, Eric W; Old, Lloyd J; Cebon, Jonathan
NY-ESO-1 protein formulated in ISCOMATRIX™ results in CD4+, CD8+ T cell and antibody-mediated immunity. We evaluated persistence of immunity, relapse-free survival and tumour antigen expression upon relapse in patients vaccinated in an earlier trial. Immunity was measured in 28 patients with resected NY-ESO-1-expressing tumours (melanoma 25, breast 3) 252-1,155 days (median = 681) after vaccination. In the earlier vaccination, trial patients received NY-ESO-1 with ISCOMATRIX™ adjuvant at three protein doses 10 μg, 30 μg or 100 μg (n = 14); 100 μg NY-ESO-1 protein (n = 8) or placebo (n = 6), together with 1 μg of intradermal (ID) NY-ESO-1 protein twice for DTH skin testing. Immune responses assessed in the current study included antibody titres, circulating NY-ESO-1-specific T cells and DTH reactivity 2 days after DTH skin testing with NY-ESO-1 protein (1 μg) or peptides (10 μg). Relapse-free survival was determined for 42 melanoma patients. On relapse NY-ESO-1 and HLA, class I was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 17. Persisting anti-NY-ESO-1 immunity was detected in 10/14 recipients who had previously received vaccine with ISCOMATRIX™ adjuvant. In contrast, immunity only persisted in 3/14 who received 100 μg un-adjuvanted NY-ESO-1 protein (3/8) or 2 μg DTH protein (0/6) P = 0.02. Hence, persisting NY-ESO-1 immunity was associated with prior adjuvant. Tumour NY-ESO-1 or HLA class I was downregulated in participants who relapsed suggesting immunoediting had occurred. Immunoediting suggests that a signal of anti-tumour activity was observed in high-risk resected melanoma patients vaccinated with NY-ESO-1/ISCOMATRIX™. This was associated with measurable persisting immunity in the majority of vaccinated subjects tested. A prospective randomised trial has been undertaken to confirm these results.
Rhodes, Sophie J; Knight, Gwenan M; Fielding, Katherine; Scriba, Thomas J; Pathan, Ansar A; McShane, Helen; Fletcher, Helen; White, Richard G
A more effective tuberculosis (TB) vaccine is needed to eliminate TB disease. Many new vaccine candidates enhance the immunogenicity of the existing vaccine, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Understanding BCG induced immune variation is key to developing a new vaccine. We aimed to establish if individual-level covariates were associated with cell-mediated immune response (interferon gamma (IFN-γ)) at vaccine trial enrolment (baseline) in a long-term retrospective analysis (LTR) and after BCG vaccination in a short-term prospective analysis (STP). Four covariates were analysed: gender, country, BCG vaccination history and monocyte/lymphocyte cell count ratio. Univariable and multivariable linear regression were conducted on IFN-γ response at baseline for LTR, and area under the curve (AUC), 24 week and peak IFN-γ response for STP. Previous BCG vaccination was strongly associated with higher IFN-γ response at baseline (LTR analysis) (p-values response (p-value = 0.1). BCG revaccination was strongly associated with a larger response increase than primary-vaccination (AUC & peak p-values 0.1). This analysis suggests that previous BCG vaccination and gender are associated with durable IFN-γ responses. Vaccine trials may need to stratify by BCG vaccination history and gender. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
De P Campos, Ualace; Sanches, Seisse G; Hatzopoulos, Stavros; Carvallo, Renata M M; Kochanek, Krzysztof; Skarżyński, Henryk
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sub-clinical alterations on the amplitudes and slopes of the DPOAE input-output responses from subjects with previous history of middle ear dysfunction. The study included 15 subjects with and 15 subjects without a history of otitis media in the last 10 years. All participants were assessed with acoustic immittance, pure-tone audiometry, and DPOAEs. For the later, I/O functions and I/O slopes were estimated at 1501, 2002, 3174, 4004 and 6384 Hz. No statistically significant differences were found between the 2 groups in terms of behavioral thresholds. The group with a previous history of middle ear dysfunction presented significantly lower mean DPOAE amplitudes at 2002, 3174 and 4004 Hz. In terms of DPOAE slopes, no statistically significant differences were observed at the tested frequencies, except at 3174 Hz. Middle ear pathologies can produce subclinical alterations that are undetectable with traditional pure-tone audiometry. The data from the present study show that reduced amplitude DPOAEs are associated with a previous history of middle ear complications. The corresponding DPOAE slopes were affected at only 1 tested frequency, suggesting that the cochlear non-linearity is preserved. Considering these results, it remains to be elucidated to what degree the DPOAE amplitude attenuation interferes with higher-order auditory tasks.
Full Text Available Background: To determine whether botulinum toxin treatment history affected the outcomes of a study comparing the safety and efficacy of incobotulinumtoxinA with placebo in subjects with cervical dystonia (CD.Methods: This was a prospective, double‐blind, randomized, placebo‐controlled, multicenter trial in botulinum toxin‐treated or toxin‐naïve CD subjects. Subjects received a fixed dose of either 120 U or 240 U of incobotulinumtoxinA or placebo. The primary outcome measure was change from baseline to Week 4 in the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS total score. Treatment‐emergent adverse events (TEAEs were also evaluated. This report represents a subgroup analysis of botulinum toxin‐treated or toxin‐naïve subjects.Results: Participants (N = 233; 38.6% toxin‐naïve had a mean age of 52.8 years. IncobotulinumtoxinA significantly improved TWSTRS total scores from baseline to Week 4 in both dose groups versus placebo, and the improvement persisted through the end of the study (≤20 weeks. Both the previously toxin‐treated and toxin‐naïve subjects demonstrated significant improvements in TWSTRS total scores at Week 4 compared to baseline. The most frequent TEAEs in the incobotulinumtoxinA groups were dysphagia, neck pain, and muscular weakness, which were generally mild. TEAEs were more common in the 240 U group and toxin‐naïve subjects. Discussion: Overall, incobotulinumtoxinA was safe and effective in CD, regardless of toxin therapy history. A lower starting dose may be better tolerated among toxin‐naïve subjects without sacrificing efficacy.
Umeh, Gregory C; Nomhwange, Terna Ignatius; Shamang, Anthony F; Zakari, Furera; Musa, Audu I; Dogo, Paul M; Gugong, Victor; Iliyasu, Neyu
Attitude and subjective well-being are important factors in mothers accepting or rejecting Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) supplemental immunization. The purpose of the study was to determine the role of mothers' attitude and subjective wellbeing on non-compliance to OPV supplemental immunization in Northern Nigeria. The study utilized a cross-sectional design to assess attitude and subjective well-being of mothers using previously validated VACSATC (Vaccine Safety, Attitudes, Training and Communication-10 items) & SUBI (Subjective Well-being Inventory-40 items) measures. A total of 396 participants (equal number of non-compliant and compliant mothers) from 94 non-compliant settlements were interviewed, after informed consent. T-test was run to assess difference in mean scores between the non-compliant and compliant mothers on VACSATC and SUBI measures. The research showed a significant difference in mean scores between the non-compliant and compliant groups on VACSATC measure of mothers' attitude (M = 18.9 non-compliant, compared to 26.5 compliant; p subjective well-being, the study showed there was no significant difference in the mean scores of the SUBI measure (M = 77.4 non-compliant, compared to 78.0 compliant; p > 0.05). The research has shown that negative attitude is more commonly present in non-compliant mothers and may be a factor in vaccine refusal in Northern Nigeria.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The immune system gradually deteriorates with age and nutritional status is a major factor in immunosenescence. Of the many nutritional factors implicated in age-related immune dysfunction, vitamin A may be a good candidate, since vitamin A concentrations classically decrease during aging whereas it may possess important immunomodulatory properties via its active metabolites, the retinoic acids. This prompted us to investigate the immune response induced by retinoids in adults and elderly healthy subjects. Before and after oral supplementation with 13cis retinoic acid (0.5 mg/kg/day during 28 days, whole blood cells were phenotyped, and functions of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and polymorphonuclear cells (PMN were investigated by flow cytometry and ELISA tests. Results In both young adults (n = 20, 25 ± 4 years and older subjects (n = 20, 65 ± 4 years, retinoic acid supplementation had no effect on the distribution of leukocyte subpopulations or on the functions of PBMC (Il-2 and sIl-2R production, membrane expression of CD25. Concerning PMN, retinoic acid induced an increase in both spontaneous migration and cell surface expression of CD11b in the two different age populations, whereas bactericidal activity and phagocytosis remained unchanged. Conclusions We demonstrated that retinoic acid induces the same intensity of immune response between adult and older subjects, and more specifically affects PMN functions, i.e. adhesion and migration, than PBMC functions.
Full Text Available A specific response of human serum neutralizing antibodies (nAb to a conformational epitope as a result of vaccination of human subjects with the surface envelope glycoprotein (gp120 of HIV-1 has not previously been documented. Here, we used computational analysis to assess the epitope-specific responses of human subjects, which were immunized with recombinant gp120 immunogens in the VAX003 and VAX004 clinical trials. Our computational methodology--a variation of sieve analysis--compares the occurrence of specific nAb targeted conformational 3D epitopes on viruses from infected individuals who received vaccination to the occurrence of matched epitopes in the viruses infecting placebo subjects. We specifically studied seven crystallographically defined nAb targeted conformational epitopes in the V3 loop, an immunogenic region of gp120. Of the six epitopes present in the immunogens and targeted by known monoclonal neutralizing antibodies, only the one targeted by the anti-V3 nAb 2219 exhibited a significant reduction in occurrence in vaccinated subjects compared to the placebo group. This difference occurred only in the VAX003 Thailand cohort. No difference was seen between vaccinated and placebo groups for the occurrence of an epitope that was not present in the immunogen. Thus, it can be theorized that a specific 2219-like human neutralizing antibody immune response to AIDSVAX immunization occurred in the VAX003 cohort, and that this response protected subjects from a narrow subset of HIV-1 viruses circulating in Thailand in the 1990s and bearing the conformational epitope targeted by the neutralizing antibody 2219.
Thomazi, Gabriela Ortega Coelho; Alves, Glaucie Jussilane; Turíbio, Thompson de Oliveira; Rocha, André Moreira; Aires, Raquel da Silva; Jácome, Larissa Barros Silvestre; Spencer, Patrick Jack
Wounds from stinging freshwater stingrays are painful, difficult to heal and cause extensive necrosis and systemic phenomena. The treatment is symptomatic, of low efficiency and there is no therapy, which causes more suffering to the injured. This study aimed to evaluate the immune response induced by the native or irradiated by 60-Co gamma from Paratrygon aiereba mucus. IPEN’s Committee on Ethics in the Use of Animals (n.º126/2013) and lanes captured under license from the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (n.º6781-1/2014) approved this research. For the assays, sera from Swiss mice previously immunized against native or irradiated mucus were used. The proliferation of splenic B cells in response to mucus was evaluated by the In Vitro Induced Antibody Production method and serum and splenic cytokines were also quantified. Our data demonstrate that the irradiated mucus of P. aiereba induces greater production of antibodies and more immunological memory in the mice. Spleen cells from animals immunized against irradiated mucus produced IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10, and serum TNF-α (immunized group against irradiated mucus) and IL-6 and IL-17 (immunized group against native mucus). The results corroborate the use of ionizing radiation, with production of highly responsive antibodies and better immune response, besides proving that Paratrygon aiereba mucus is capable of stimulating cellular and humoral adaptive immune response, contributing to the continuity of associated investigations. (author)
Thomazi, Gabriela Ortega Coelho; Alves, Glaucie Jussilane; Turíbio, Thompson de Oliveira; Rocha, André Moreira; Aires, Raquel da Silva; Jácome, Larissa Barros Silvestre; Spencer, Patrick Jack, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia; Costa, Andrea da; Rodrigues, Jaqueline Pollizeli; Galisteo Júnior, Andrés Jimenez; Andrade Júnior, Heitor Franco de, E-mail: email@example.com, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Laboratório de Protozoologia; Seibert, Carla Simone, E-mail: email@example.com [Universidade Federal do Tocantins (UFT), Porto Nacional, TO (Brazil)
Wounds from stinging freshwater stingrays are painful, difficult to heal and cause extensive necrosis and systemic phenomena. The treatment is symptomatic, of low efficiency and there is no therapy, which causes more suffering to the injured. This study aimed to evaluate the immune response induced by the native or irradiated by 60-Co gamma from Paratrygon aiereba mucus. IPEN’s Committee on Ethics in the Use of Animals (n.º126/2013) and lanes captured under license from the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (n.º6781-1/2014) approved this research. For the assays, sera from Swiss mice previously immunized against native or irradiated mucus were used. The proliferation of splenic B cells in response to mucus was evaluated by the In Vitro Induced Antibody Production method and serum and splenic cytokines were also quantified. Our data demonstrate that the irradiated mucus of P. aiereba induces greater production of antibodies and more immunological memory in the mice. Spleen cells from animals immunized against irradiated mucus produced IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10, and serum TNF-α (immunized group against irradiated mucus) and IL-6 and IL-17 (immunized group against native mucus). The results corroborate the use of ionizing radiation, with production of highly responsive antibodies and better immune response, besides proving that Paratrygon aiereba mucus is capable of stimulating cellular and humoral adaptive immune response, contributing to the continuity of associated investigations. (author)
Full Text Available Gene therapy strategies for congenital myopathies may require repeat administration of adeno-associated viral (AAV vectors due to aspects of the clinical application, such as: (i administration of doses below therapeutic efficacy in patients enrolled in early phase clinical trials; (ii progressive reduction of the therapeutic gene expression over time as a result of increasing muscle mass in patients treated at a young age; and (iii a possibly faster depletion of pathogenic myofibers in this patient population. Immune response triggered by the first vector administration, and to subsequent doses, represents a major obstacle for successful gene transfer in young patients. Anti-capsid and anti-transgene product related humoral and cell-mediated responses have been previously observed in all preclinical models and human subjects who received gene therapy or enzyme replacement therapy (ERT for congenital myopathies. Immune responses may result in reduced efficacy of the gene transfer over time and/or may preclude for the possibility of re-administration of the same vector. In this study, we evaluated the immune response of a Pompe patient dosed with an AAV1-GAA vector after receiving Rituximab and Sirolimus to modulate reactions against ERT. A key finding of this single subject case report is the observation that B-cell ablation with rituximab prior to AAV vector exposure results in non-responsiveness to both capsid and transgene, therefore allowing the possibility of repeat administration in the future. This observation is significant for future gene therapy studies and establishes a clinically relevant approach to blocking immune responses to AAV vectors.
O'Sullivan, Kieran; Murray, Elaine; Sainsbury, David
Abstract Background Warm-up and stretching are suggested to increase hamstring flexibility and reduce the risk of injury. This study examined the short-term effects of warm-up, static stretching and dynamic stretching on hamstring flexibility in individuals with previous hamstring injury and uninjured controls. Methods A randomised crossover study design, over 2 separate days. Hamstring flexibility was assessed using passive knee extension range of motion (PKE ROM). 18 previously injured indi...
Clarice Carvalho Alves
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A vaccine against schistosomiasis would have a great impact in disease elimination. Sm29 and Sm22.6 are two parasite tegument proteins which represent promising antigens to compose a vaccine. These antigens have been associated with resistance to infection and reinfection in individuals living in endemic area for the disease and induced partial protection when evaluated in immunization trials using naïve mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPALS FINDINGS: In this study we evaluated rSm29 and rSm22.6 ability to induce protection in Balb/c mice that had been previously infected with S. mansoni and further treated with Praziquantel. Our results demonstrate that three doses of the vaccine containing rSm29 were necessary to elicit significant protection (26%-48%. Immunization of mice with rSm29 induced a significant production of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-4; significant production of specific antibodies; increased percentage of CD4+ central memory cells in comparison with infected and treated saline group and increased percentage of CD4+ effector memory cells in comparison with naïve Balb/c mice immunized with rSm29. On the other hand, although immunization with Sm22.6 induced a robust immune response, it failed to induce protection. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that rSm29 retains its ability to induce protection in previously infected animals, reinforcing its potential as a vaccine candidate.
Alves, Clarice Carvalho; Araujo, Neusa; dos Santos, Viviane Cristina Fernandes; Couto, Flávia Bubula; Assis, Natan R G; Morais, Suellen B; Oliveira, Sérgio Costa; Fonseca, Cristina Toscano
A vaccine against schistosomiasis would have a great impact in disease elimination. Sm29 and Sm22.6 are two parasite tegument proteins which represent promising antigens to compose a vaccine. These antigens have been associated with resistance to infection and reinfection in individuals living in endemic area for the disease and induced partial protection when evaluated in immunization trials using naïve mice. In this study we evaluated rSm29 and rSm22.6 ability to induce protection in Balb/c mice that had been previously infected with S. mansoni and further treated with Praziquantel. Our results demonstrate that three doses of the vaccine containing rSm29 were necessary to elicit significant protection (26%-48%). Immunization of mice with rSm29 induced a significant production of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-4; significant production of specific antibodies; increased percentage of CD4+ central memory cells in comparison with infected and treated saline group and increased percentage of CD4+ effector memory cells in comparison with naïve Balb/c mice immunized with rSm29. On the other hand, although immunization with Sm22.6 induced a robust immune response, it failed to induce protection. Our results demonstrate that rSm29 retains its ability to induce protection in previously infected animals, reinforcing its potential as a vaccine candidate.
Ece A Mutlu
Full Text Available HIV progression is characterized by immune activation and microbial translocation. One factor that may be contributing to HIV progression could be a dysbiotic microbiome. We therefore hypothesized that the GI mucosal microbiome is altered in HIV patients and this alteration correlates with immune activation in HIV. 121 specimens were collected from 21 HIV positive and 22 control human subjects during colonoscopy. The composition of the lower gastrointestinal tract mucosal and luminal bacterial microbiome was characterized using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing and was correlated to clinical parameters as well as immune activation and circulating bacterial products in HIV patients on ART. The composition of the HIV microbiome was significantly different than that of controls; it was less diverse in the right colon and terminal ileum, and was characterized by loss of bacterial taxa that are typically considered commensals. In HIV samples, there was a gain of some pathogenic bacterial taxa. This is the first report characterizing the terminal ileal and colonic mucosal microbiome in HIV patients with next generation sequencing. Limitations include use of HIV-infected subjects on HAART therapy.
O'Sullivan, Kieran; Murray, Elaine; Sainsbury, David
Warm-up and stretching are suggested to increase hamstring flexibility and reduce the risk of injury. This study examined the short-term effects of warm-up, static stretching and dynamic stretching on hamstring flexibility in individuals with previous hamstring injury and uninjured controls. A randomised crossover study design, over 2 separate days. Hamstring flexibility was assessed using passive knee extension range of motion (PKE ROM). 18 previously injured individuals and 18 uninjured controls participated. On both days, four measurements of PKE ROM were recorded: (1) at baseline; (2) after warm-up; (3) after stretch (static or dynamic) and (4) after a 15-minute rest. Participants carried out both static and dynamic stretches, but on different days. Data were analysed using Anova. Across both groups, there was a significant main effect for time (p static stretching (p = 0.04) but significantly decreased after dynamic stretching (p = 0.013). The increased flexibility after warm-up and static stretching reduced significantly (p 0.05). Using ANCOVA to adjust for the non-significant (p = 0.141) baseline difference between groups, the previously injured group demonstrated a greater response to warm-up and static stretching, however this was not statistically significant (p = 0.05). Warm-up significantly increased hamstring flexibility. Static stretching also increased hamstring flexibility, whereas dynamic did not, in agreement with previous findings on uninjured controls. The effect of warm-up and static stretching on flexibility was greater in those with reduced flexibility post-injury, but this did not reach statistical significance. Further prospective research is required to validate the hypothesis that increased flexibility improves outcomes. ACTRN12608000638336.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Warm-up and stretching are suggested to increase hamstring flexibility and reduce the risk of injury. This study examined the short-term effects of warm-up, static stretching and dynamic stretching on hamstring flexibility in individuals with previous hamstring injury and uninjured controls. Methods A randomised crossover study design, over 2 separate days. Hamstring flexibility was assessed using passive knee extension range of motion (PKE ROM. 18 previously injured individuals and 18 uninjured controls participated. On both days, four measurements of PKE ROM were recorded: (1 at baseline; (2 after warm-up; (3 after stretch (static or dynamic and (4 after a 15-minute rest. Participants carried out both static and dynamic stretches, but on different days. Data were analysed using Anova. Results Across both groups, there was a significant main effect for time (p 0.05. Using ANCOVA to adjust for the non-significant (p = 0.141 baseline difference between groups, the previously injured group demonstrated a greater response to warm-up and static stretching, however this was not statistically significant (p = 0.05. Conclusion Warm-up significantly increased hamstring flexibility. Static stretching also increased hamstring flexibility, whereas dynamic did not, in agreement with previous findings on uninjured controls. The effect of warm-up and static stretching on flexibility was greater in those with reduced flexibility post-injury, but this did not reach statistical significance. Further prospective research is required to validate the hypothesis that increased flexibility improves outcomes. Trial Registration ACTRN12608000638336
BACKGROUND: Warm-up and stretching are suggested to increase hamstring flexibility and reduce the risk of injury. This study examined the short-term effects of warm-up, static stretching and dynamic stretching on hamstring flexibility in individuals with previous hamstring injury and uninjured controls. METHODS: A randomised crossover study design, over 2 separate days. Hamstring flexibility was assessed using passive knee extension range of motion (PKE ROM). 18 previously injured individuals and 18 uninjured controls participated. On both days, four measurements of PKE ROM were recorded: (1) at baseline; (2) after warm-up; (3) after stretch (static or dynamic) and (4) after a 15-minute rest. Participants carried out both static and dynamic stretches, but on different days. Data were analysed using Anova. RESULTS: Across both groups, there was a significant main effect for time (p < 0.001). PKE ROM significantly increased with warm-up (p < 0.001). From warm-up, PKE ROM further increased with static stretching (p = 0.04) but significantly decreased after dynamic stretching (p = 0.013). The increased flexibility after warm-up and static stretching reduced significantly (p < 0.001) after 15 minutes of rest, but remained significantly greater than at baseline (p < 0.001). Between groups, there was no main effect for group (p = 0.462), with no difference in mean PKE ROM values at any individual stage of the protocol (p > 0.05). Using ANCOVA to adjust for the non-significant (p = 0.141) baseline difference between groups, the previously injured group demonstrated a greater response to warm-up and static stretching, however this was not statistically significant (p = 0.05). CONCLUSION: Warm-up significantly increased hamstring flexibility. Static stretching also increased hamstring flexibility, whereas dynamic did not, in agreement with previous findings on uninjured controls. The effect of warm-up and static stretching on flexibility was greater in those with reduced
Andrade, Daniela V; Harris, Eva
Zika virus (ZIKV) caused explosive epidemics across the Americas, starting in Brazil in 2015, and has been associated with severe manifestations such as microcephaly in babies born to infected mothers and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. As the underlying mechanisms of pathogenesis remain largely unknown, diverse investigations have focused on a potential role for flavivirus cross-reactive antibodies in enhancing ZIKV infection. Antibody-dependent enhancement is especially concerning due to structural similarities between ZIKV and other flaviviruses, especially dengue virus (DENV), that co-circulate in areas affected by ZIKV. Conversely, investigating cross-neutralizing antibodies is important for understanding protection among flaviviruses, including ZIKV. In this review, we discuss the latest findings regarding ZIKV-induced adaptive immunity, such as monoclonal and polyclonal antibody responses, structural immunology, and T cell-mediated responses. Much progress has been made in a short amount of time, but many questions remain. Fully understanding the specificity, magnitude, and kinetics of B cell/antibody and T cell responses in ZIKV-infected individuals with or without prior exposure to flaviviruses is of great relevance for diagnostics and vaccine development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Le Bourg, Eric
The Toll pathway of Drosophila melanogaster, when activated by the Beauveria bassiana fungus, directs the expression of the drosomycin and metchnikowin antimicrobial peptide genes by inducing the translocation into the nucleus of the DIF transcription factor. Accordingly, DIF mutants have been reported to have a lower resistance to fungi than control flies. However, as the longevity of non-infected DIF flies has not been measured in previous studies, it could be that survival times after infection are constrained by a low longevity. In the present study, DIF flies reared in conditions similar to those used in these previous studies had much lower survival time after infection than the control flies, but the longevity of non-infected DIF flies was also very low. Using rearing conditions controlling larval crowding, age of parents and mating status of experimental flies increased longevity of non-infected flies and survival time after infection in both strains. However, DIF flies had a similar survival time after infection as control ones or a slightly lower one, which shows that the effect of DIF is weaker than previously thought.
Basso, B; Marini, V
Trypanosoma cruzi is a real challenge to the host's immune system, because it requires strong humoral and cellular immune response to remove circulating trypomastigote forms, and to prevent the replication of amastigote forms in tissues, involving many regulator and effector components. This protozoan is responsible for Chagas disease, a major public health problem in Latinamerica. We have developed a model of vaccination with Trypanosoma rangeli, a parasite closely related to T. cruzi, but nonpathogenic to humans, which reduces the infectiousness in three different species of animals, mice, dogs and guinea pigs, against challenge with T. cruzi. In a previous work, we demonstrated that mice vaccinated with T. rangeli showed important soluble mediators that stimulate phagocytic activity versus only infected groups. The aim of this work was to study the innate immune response in mice vaccinated or not with T. rangeli. Different population cells and some soluble mediators (cytokines) in peritoneal fluid and plasma in mice vaccinated-infected and only infected with T. cruzi were studied. In the first hours of challenge vaccinated mice showed an increase of macrophages, NK, granulocytes, and regulation of IL6, IFNγ, TNFα and IL10, with an increase of IL12, with respect to only infected mice. Furthermore an increase was observed of Li T, Li B responsible for adaptative response. Finally the findings showed that the innate immune response plays an important role in vaccinated mice for the early elimination of the parasites, complementary with the adaptative immune response, suggesting that vaccination with T. rangeli modulates the innate response, which develops some kind of immunological memory, recognizing shared antigens with T. cruzi. These results could contribute to the knowledge of new mechanisms which would have an important role in the immune response to Chagas disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Faris, Mo'ez Al-Islam E; Kacimi, Safia; Al-Kurd, Ref'at A; Fararjeh, Mohammad A; Bustanji, Yasser K; Mohammad, Mohammad K; Salem, Mohammad L
Intermittent fasting and caloric restriction have been shown to extend life expectancy and reduce inflammation and cancer promotion in animal models. It was hypothesized that intermittent prolonged fasting practiced during the month of Ramadan (RIF) could positively affect the inflammatory state. To investigate this hypothesis, a cross-sectional study was designed to investigate the impact of RIF on selected inflammatory cytokines and immune biomarkers in healthy subjects. Fifty (21 men and 29 women) healthy volunteers who practiced Ramadan fasting were recruited for the investigation of circulating proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor α), immune cells (total leukocytes, monocytes, granulocytes, and lymphocytes), and anthropometric and dietary assessments. The investigations were conducted 1 week before Ramadan fasting, at the end of the third week of Ramadan, and 1 month after the cessation of Ramadan month. The proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor α; systolic and diastolic blood pressures; body weight; and body fat percentage were significantly lower (P fasting. Immune cells significantly decreased during Ramadan but still remained within the reference ranges. These results indicate that RIF attenuates inflammatory status of the body by suppressing proinflammatory cytokine expression and decreasing body fat and circulating levels of leukocytes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Purswani, Murli U; Karalius, Brad; Yao, Tzy-Jyun; Schmid, D Scott; Burchett, Sandra K; Siberry, George K; Patel, Kunjal; Van Dyke, Russell B; Yogev, Ram; Lurie, Robert H; Yogev, Ram; Sanders, Margaret Ann; Malee, Kathleen; Hunter, Scott; Shearer, William; Paul, Mary; Cooper, Norma; Harris, Lynnette; Purswani, Murli; Baig, Mahboobullah; Cintron, Anna; Puga, Ana; Navarro, Sandra; Garvie, Patricia; Blood, James; Burchett, Sandra; Karthas, Nancy; Kammerer, Betsy; Wiznia, Andrew; Burey, Marlene; Nozyce, Molly; Dieudonne, Arry; Bettica, Linda; Adubato, Susan; Chen, Janet; Bulkley, Maria Garcia; Ivey, Latreaca; Grant, Mitzie; Knapp, Katherine; Allison, Kim; Wilkins, Megan; Acevedo-Flores, Midnela; Rios, Heida; Olivera, Vivian; Silio, Margarita; Jones, Medea; Sirois, Patricia; Spector, Stephen; Norris, Kim; Nichols, Sharon; McFarland, Elizabeth; Katai, Alisa; Dunn, Jennifer; Paul, Suzanne; Scott, Gwendolyn; Bryan, Patricia; Willen, Elizabeth
Two doses of live-attenuated varicella-zoster vaccine are recommended for human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)-infected children with CD4% ≥ 15%. We determined the prevalence and persistence of antibody in immunized children with perinatal HIV (PHIV) and their association with number of vaccinations, combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), and HIV status. The Adolescent Master Protocol is an observational study of children with PHIV and perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected (PHEU) children conducted at 15 US sites. In a cross-sectional analysis, we tested participants' most recent stored sera for varicella antibody using whole-cell and glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Seropositivity predictors were identified using multivariable logistic regression models and C statistics. Samples were available for 432 children with PHIV and 221 PHEU children; 82% of children with PHIV and 97% of PHEU children were seropositive (P children with PHIV and PHEU children was 100% at 94% at all intervals. Independent predictors of seropositivity among children with PHIV were receipt of 2 vaccine doses, receipt of 1 dose while on ≥ 3 months of cART, compared with none (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 14.0 and 2.8, respectively; P children with PHIV receive their first dose ≥ 3 months after cART initiation and maintained by completion of the 2-dose series and long-term cART use. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
Rothschild, C; Laurian, Y; Satre, E P; Borel Derlon, A; Chambost, H; Moreau, P; Goudemand, J; Parquet, A; Peynet, J; Vicariot, M; Beurrier, P; Claeyssens, S; Durin, A; Faradji, A; Fressinaud, E; Gaillard, S; Guérin, V; Guérois, C; Pernod, G; Pouzol, P; Schved, J F; Gazengel, C
Fifty French previously untreated patients with severe hemophilia A (factor VIII brand of recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII), were evaluated for inhibitor development, assessment of risk factors and outcome of immune tolerance regimen. The median period on study was 32 months (range 9-74) since the first injection of rFVIII. Fourteen patients (28%) developed an inhibitor, four of whom (8%) with a high titer (> or = 10 BU). All inhibitor patients but one continued to receive rFVIII either for on-demand treatment or for immune tolerance regimen (ITR). Among these patients, inhibitor was transient in 2 (4%), became undetectable in 6 and was still present in 6. The prevalence of inhibitor was 12%. Presence of intron 22 inversion was found to be a risk factor for inhibitor development. Immune tolerance was difficult to achieve in our series despite a follow-up period of 16 to 30 months: immune tolerance was complete in only one out of the 3 patients undergoing low dose ITR and in one out of the 5 patients with high dose ITR.
Maura Moscardi Bacchi
Full Text Available Fifty male white Swiss mice aged 4 weeks were inoculated with 5 x 10(5 viable yeast forms of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (strain 18. Ten of these animals had been previously immunized with particulate P. brasiliensis antigenfor 4 weeks by intradermal injection. The controls consisted of 10 animals that were only immunized and 10 animals submitted to no treatment. The animals were sacrificed 2, 4, 7,11 and 16 weeks later. We studied: 1 the anti-P. brasiliensis delayed hypersensitivity response measured by the footpad test 24 hours prior to sacrifice; 2 the specific antibody production measured by double immunodiffusion in agar gel; 3 the histopathology of lungs, liver, spleen, adrenals and kidneys. We observed that: a the immunized animals developed more intense cell-immune responses than the infected ones; b infection reduced the cell- immune response of the immunized animals; c intravenous infection of mice with P. brasiliensis was characterized by a systemic and progressive granulomatous inflammation. The animals infected after previous immunization showed less extensive lung inflammation, with smaller granulomas and fewer fungi. The results indicate that the present murine model mimics some findings of the human subacute form of paracoccidioidomycosis (systemic disease with depressed cellular immunity and that the extrapulmonary immunization scheme was able to induce a certain degree of protection of the lung from infection with P. brasiliensisCinqüenta camundongos suíços, brancos, com quatro semanas de idade, foram inoculados com 5x10(5 formas leveduriformes, viáveis de Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis (cepa 18. Dez destes animais tinham sido previamente imunizados com antígeno particulado de P. brasiliensis, durante quatro semanas, por injeção intradérmica. Os controles consistiram de 10 animais que foram somente imunizados e 10 inoculados com solução salina estéril. Os animais foram sacrificados após 2, 4, 7, 11 e 16 semanas
Peklaj, Cirila; Podlesek, Anja; Pecjak, Sonja
The aim of the study was to examine the relationships between gender, previous knowledge, different personality traits, subject-specific motivational dimensions and students' math grade in secondary school. A total of 386 first-year students (142 boys and 244 girls) from secondary schools in Slovenia (mean age was 15.7 years) participated in the…
Full Text Available Abstract Options for patients with relapsed or refractory (R/R classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL after brentuximab vedotin (Bv and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT are limited. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI are active in this population but rarely induce complete response (CR. Ten patients with R/R cHL after ASCT and Bv received pembrolizumab (n = 8 or nivolumab (n = 2. Five had been previously exposed to 5-azacitidine on a phase 1 study. Among nine evaluable patients, seven (78% achieved CR, one partial response, and one reduction of tumor burden. All five patients who had received 5-azacitidine prior to ICI achieved CR, while only two of four who did not receive prior 5-azacitidine achieved CR. At a median follow-up of 9.9 months [0.5–14.3], eight patients are alive and five are still receiving treatment. We documented an unprecedented CR rate after ICI in patients with R/R cHL. We hypothesize that hypomethylating agents might have an immune priming effect and enhance the efficacy of ICI.
... a lot worse. Some are even life-threatening. Immunization shots, or vaccinations, are essential. They protect against things like measles, ... B, polio, tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (whooping cough). Immunizations are important for adults as well as children. ...
Waart, de F.; Portengen, L.; Doekes, G.; Verwaal, C.J.; Kok, F.J.
It has been suggested that decreased immune responsiveness in the elderly may be counteracted by the antioxidant vitamin E. In a 3-month double-blind placebo-controlled intervention trial among elderly subjects aged 65 years and over we studied the effects of a daily dose of 100 mg
Bartle, Naomi C; Harvey, Kate
Breastfeeding confers important health benefits to both infants and their mothers, but rates are low in the United Kingdom and other developed countries despite widespread promotion. This study examined the relationships between personal and vicarious experience of infant feeding, self-efficacy, the theory of planned behaviour variables of attitudes and subjective norm, and the likelihood of breastfeeding at 6-8 weeks post-natally. A prospective questionnaire study of both first-time mothers (n = 77) and experienced breastfeeders (n = 72) recruited at an antenatal clinic in South East England. Participants completed a questionnaire at 32 weeks pregnant assessing personal and vicarious experience of infant feeding (breastfeeding, formula-feeding, and maternal grandmother's experience of breastfeeding), perceived control, self-efficacy, intentions, attitudes (to breastfeeding and formula-feeding), and subjective norm. Infant feeding behaviour was recorded at 6-8 weeks post-natally. Multiple linear regression modelled the influence of vicarious experience on attitudes, subjective norm, and self-efficacy (but not perceived control) and modelled the influence of attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, and past experience on intentions to breastfeed. Logistic regression modelled the likelihood of breastfeeding at 6-8 weeks. Previous experience (particularly personal experience of breastfeeding) explained a significant amount of variance in attitudes, subjective norm, and self-efficacy. Intentions to breastfeed were predicted by subjective norm and attitude to formula-feeding and, in experienced mothers, self-efficacy. Breastfeeding at 6 weeks was predicted by intentions and vicarious experience of formula-feeding. Vicarious experience, particularly of formula-feeding, has been shown to influence the behaviour of first-time and experienced mothers both directly and indirectly via attitudes and subjective norm. Interventions that reduce exposure to formula
Sipola, Petri; Heikkinen, Jari; Laaksonen, David E; Kettunen, Raimo
Hypertrophy of the left ventricle is a diagnostic dilemma in subjects who engage in regular endurance exercise. We studied prospectively whether endurance training in previously sedentary young and middle-aged men and women can alter left ventricular (LV) characteristics. We recruited 33 healthy young and middle-aged subjects (18 women, 15 men, ages 21 to 59 years) to undergo 12 weeks of home-based brisk walking and jogging at a target heart rate > or =120 beats/min for > or =30 minutes 3 times a week. LV characteristics were measured by cine magnetic resonance imaging. Training intensity as estimated by heart rate correlated positively with the increase in LV myocardial area (r = 0.51, p = 0.005) in the 28 men and women completing the study. In the 13 men and women who trained with heart rate of > or =120 beats/min, LV myocardial area was larger after than before training (17.7 +/- 2.9 vs 16.8 +/- 2.8 cm(2), p <0.05). Moreover, in these subjects LV myocardial area increased more (5.5 +/- 9.0% vs -3.0 +/- 5.0%) than in the 15 men and women who trained at a lower intensity (p <0.05). LV end-systolic and end-diastolic area and ejection fraction did not change significantly. In conclusion, moderate-to-vigorous endurance training at moderate volumes does not influence LV end-diastolic volume or ejection fraction, but has a minor influence on LV hypertrophy in previously sedentary young and middle-aged men and women.
Full Text Available Although HAART suppresses HIV replication, it is often unable to restore immune homeostasis. Consequently, non-AIDS-defining diseases are increasingly seen in treated individuals. This is attributed to persistent virus expression in reservoirs and to cell activation. Of note, in CD4(+ T cells and monocyte-macrophages of virologically-suppressed individuals, there is continued expression of multi-spliced transcripts encoding HIV regulatory proteins. Among them, Tat is essential for virus gene expression and replication, either in primary infection or for virus reactivation during HAART, when Tat is expressed, released extracellularly and exerts, on both the virus and the immune system, effects that contribute to disease maintenance. Here we report results of an ad hoc exploratory interim analysis (up to 48 weeks on 87 virologically-suppressed HAART-treated individuals enrolled in a phase II randomized open-label multicentric clinical trial of therapeutic immunization with Tat (ISS T-002. Eighty-eight virologically-suppressed HAART-treated individuals, enrolled in a parallel prospective observational study at the same sites (ISS OBS T-002, served for intergroup comparison. Immunization with Tat was safe, induced durable immune responses, and modified the pattern of CD4(+ and CD8(+ cellular activation (CD38 and HLA-DR together with reduction of biochemical activation markers and persistent increases of regulatory T cells. This was accompanied by a progressive increment of CD4(+ T cells and B cells with reduction of CD8(+ T cells and NK cells, which were independent from the type of antiretroviral regimen. Increase in central and effector memory and reduction in terminally-differentiated effector memory CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells were accompanied by increases of CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cell responses against Env and recall antigens. Of note, more immune-compromised individuals experienced greater therapeutic effects. In contrast, these changes were opposite
Nikitin, G.Yu.; Barabanova, A.V.; Nadezhina, N.M.; Tertov, V.V.; Orekhov, A.N.
The potentiaoity of coronary atherosclerosis was assessed from cholesterol levels in the ciculationg immune complexes (CIC) in 53 subjects who suffered acute radiation sickness in 1986 after the Chernobyl power plant accident. CIC cholesterol levels of the subjects who suffered 3-4 years before acute radiation sickness of the first-second degrees of severity were found elevated as against an adequately matched reference group. Thus, subjects who suffered the second degree of severity acute radiation sickness after the radiation exposure, from 3-4 years later a group at high risk of coronary atherosclerosis
Jesús Vega Encabo
Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation.
Maria E. Ceballos-Villegas
Full Text Available The Hoffmann reflex (H-wave is produced by alpha-motoneuron activation in the spinal cord. A feature of this electromyography response is that it exhibits fluctuations in amplitude even during repetitive stimulation with the same intensity of current. We herein explore the hypothesis that physical training induces plastic changes in the motor system. Such changes are evaluated with the fractal dimension (FD analysis of the H-wave amplitude-fluctuations (H-wave FD and the cross-covariance (CCV between the bilateral H-wave amplitudes. The aim of this study was to compare the H-wave FD as well as the CCV before and after track training in sedentary individuals and athletes. The training modality in all subjects consisted of running three times per week (for 13 weeks in a concrete road of 5 km. Given the different physical condition of sedentary vs. athletes, the running time between sedentary and athletes was different. After training, the FD was significantly increased in sedentary individuals but significantly reduced in athletes, although there were no changes in spinal excitability in either group of subjects. Moreover, the CCV between bilateral H-waves exhibited a significant increase in athletes but not in sedentary individuals. These differential changes in the FD and CCV indicate that the plastic changes in the complexity of the H-wave amplitude fluctuations as well as the synaptic inputs to the Ia-motoneuron systems of both legs were correlated to the previous fitness history of the subjects. Furthermore, these findings demonstrate that the FD and CCV can be employed as indexes to study plastic changes in the human motor system.
Li, Xiang-Fei; Xu, Chao; Tian, Hong-Yan; Jiang, Guang-Zhen; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Liu, Wen-Bin
This study aimed to investigate the effects of feeding rates on stress response, innate immunity and hypoxia resistance of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala. Fish were randomly assigned to one of six feeding rates (2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7% of body weight/day) for 60 days. Then, fish were subjected to hypoxic conditions and haemato-immunological parameters were analyzed pre- and post-challenge. Low feed ration resulted in decreased liver superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and reduced glutathione contents. Inadequate feeding also adversely affected the immune functions of fish, as was characterized by the relatively low haemato-immunological parameters (including alternative complement (ACH50), myeloperoxidase (MPO), plasma protein profiles and transferring) and high hypoxia-induced mortality. High feed ration did not lead to the improvement in antioxidant capability, immune responses and survival. In addition, plasma cortisol, glucose and transferrin levels as well as lysozyme activities all increased significantly after hypoxia challenge, whereas the opposite was true for plasma ACH50 and MPO activities as well as protein profiles in terms of hypoxia challenge. An interaction between feeding rate and hypoxia was also observed in plasma cortisol, glucose and protein profiles. In conclusion, a feeding rate of 4-5% of body weight/day is optimal to boost the innate immunity of juvenile blunt snout bream. Low ration resulted in decreased antioxidant capability, compromised immune functions and reduced hypoxia resistance, while over feeding did not benefit the health status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
O. O. Obukhova
Full Text Available Abstract. In present work, we studied some interrelations between tobacco smoking and the processes of immune system stimulation in healthy blood donors. In our opinion, this issue is especially important for the big industrial center, with rather strong antigenic exposure of the organism. The levels of circulating immune complexes (CIC were used as a marker index which reflects specific antigen-antibody interactions during inflammation. According to the results obtained, the majority of persons who have high CIC levels were tobacco smokers (53.76%. Moreover, the percentage of persons with high CIC content, like as the mean values of this index is increased proportionally to the duration of smoking. A mixture of tobacco smoke components seems to exert direct toxic effect upon various compartments of the immune system and causes local irritation of bronchial tree, thus producing local and systemic inflammatory reaction. It is, possibly, an additional factor which determines activation of immune system, with a background of adverse antropogenic exposures typical to industrial centers. The data obtained allow us to affirm a toxic action of tobacco smoke upon the organism of smokers, with development of inflammatory reactions that are displayed as increased CIC levels at preclinical stage.
Bayoumi, R A; Abu-Zeid, Y A; Abdulhadi, N H; Saeed, B O; Theander, T G; Hviid, L; Ghalib, H W; Nugud, A H; Jepsen, S; Jensen, J B
To determine the possible differences in the immune response to Plasmodium falciparum between sickle-cell trait (Hb AS) and normal haemoglobin (Hb AA) individuals, we examined 35 Hb AS and 24 Hb AA subjects matched for age and microenvironment. Their age was 2-55 years and all lived in a malaria endemic area 300 km south of Khartoum. Antibodies to ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (Pf155/RESA) and to circumsporozoite (CS) protein (anti-NANP40) indicated equal exposure to falciparum malaria. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (BMNCs) from 20/35 (57%) Hb AS subjects compared with 10/24 (42%) Hb AA subjects, responded to affinity-purified P. falciparum soluble antigens (SPAg). Of those responding to SPAg, 9 (26%) Hb AS subjects and only two (8%) Hb AA subjects had high responses. The mean proliferative response to SPAg of BMNCs from Hb AS individuals was significantly higher than in Hb AA individuals (P less than 0.025). Responses of BMNCs to PPD and PHA were also higher among Hb AS individuals and correlated positively with responses to SPAg. These findings support the hypotheses that the sickle-cell trait protects individuals from P. falciparum infections, at least in part, by modulating the immune response.
Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Yáñez-Vico, Rosa-María; Moreno-Manteca, Blanca; Moreno-Fernández, Ana María; Mendoza-Mendoza, Asunción; Solano-Reina, Enrique
The aim of the present case-control study was to determine--using the 10 most recent annual listings of the most beautiful black and white people--whether any common, measurable esthetic parameter could be extracted from both groups. A total of 80 women (40 white and 40 black), who had been included in the list of People magazine's 100 most beautiful people during the previous 10 years, were selected. Lateral photographs of all 80 subjects were obtained from Internet databases, oriented, and sized. A modified photogrammetric analysis was performed on the lateral view of each subject to obtain the angle and proportion measurements. Differences between the 2 groups were compared with 95% significance using the Student t test for independent samples. Facial similarities in the 2 ethnic groups were observed for the angle of the inferior facial third, labiomental angle, angle of facial convexity, and cervicomental angle. These results point to a similar conformation of the lower part of the face in relation to the neck that was shared by both groups of beautiful women. Additionally, both groups showed similar results for the lower lip projection. Likewise, similar proportional measurements were found for the upper lip proportion, notwithstanding differences in protrusion. Modern society is changing the classic concept of facial beauty because of globalization and the prevalence of multiethnic communities in the developed world. Independently of ethnic origin, beautiful women tend to have similar facial features that are a mixture of both black and white features. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Moro-García, Marco Antonio; Alonso-Arias, Rebeca; Baltadjieva, Maria; Fernández Benítez, Carlos; Fernández Barrial, Manuel Amadeo; Díaz Ruisánchez, Enrique; Alonso Santos, Ricardo; Alvarez Sánchez, Magdalena; Saavedra Miján, Juan; López-Larrea, Carlos
Throughout life, there is an aging of the immune system that causes impairment of its defense capability. Prevention or delay of this deterioration is considered crucial to maintain general health and increase longevity. We evaluated whether dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 8481 could enhance the immune response in the elderly. This multi-center, double-blind, and placebo controlled study enrolled 61 elderly volunteers who were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or probiotics. Each capsule of probiotics contained at least 3 × 10(7) L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 8481. Individuals in the study were administered three capsules per day for 6 months. Blood samples were obtained at baseline (time 0), end of month 3, and month 6. We characterized cell subpopulations, measured cytokines by flow cytometry, quantified T cell receptor excision circle (TREC) by real-time PCR (RT-PCR), and determined human β-defensin-2 (hBD-2) concentrations and human cytomegalovirus (CMV) titers by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Elderly responded to the intake of probiotic with an increase in the percentage of NK cells, an improvement in the parameters defining the immune risk profile (IRP), and an increase in the T cell subsets that are less differentiated. The probiotic group also showed decreased concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 but increased antimicrobial peptide hBD-2. These effects disappeared within 6 months of stopping the probiotic intake. Immunomodulation induced by L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 8481 could favor the maintenance of an adequate immune response, mainly by slowing the aging of the T cell subpopulations and increasing the number of immature T cells which are potential responders to new antigens.
Zachariae, R; Kristensen, J S; Hokland, P
The present study measured the effects of relaxation and guided imagery on cellular immune function. During a period of 10 days 10 healthy subjects were given one 1-hour relaxation procedure and one combined relaxation and guided imagery procedure, instructing the subjects to imagine their immune...... on the immune defense and could form the basis of further studies on psychological intervention and immunological status. Udgivelsesdato: 1990-null......The present study measured the effects of relaxation and guided imagery on cellular immune function. During a period of 10 days 10 healthy subjects were given one 1-hour relaxation procedure and one combined relaxation and guided imagery procedure, instructing the subjects to imagine their immune...
Li, X X; Fan, H Y; Sun, L; Liang, J C; Deng, Y P
Objective: To detect the changes in the immune function of opioid-dependent subjects during the withdrawal stage through the administration of Jitai tablet. Methods: Subjects were treated as Jitai tablet alone, Jitai tablet plus buprenorphine and placebo, in a randomized,double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Before and after the 14(th) day of withdrawal, levels of immunoglobulin (IgM, IgA, IgG), T cell subsets (CD(3)(+), CD(4)(+), CD(8)(+), CD(4)(+)/CD(8)(+)) and cytokines (IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4, IFN-γ/IL-4) were detected. Results: Compared with healthy people, immunity function before withdrawal among the opioid abusers showed higher levels of IgM, IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4 and lower level of CD(3)(+)T, as (1.67±0.87) g/L, (14.44±13.50) % , (20.23±15.10) % , (1.97±1.59) % , (47.01±13.62) % , respectively, with difference statistically significant ( P 0.05). At the 14(th) day of withdrawal in placebo group, levels of IL-4 returned to normal while IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio increased by 3.43 times ( P 0.05). Compared with placebo group, fluctuation of IgG and IgM decreased in Jitai group during withdrawal period, together with a normal level of IgM at the 14(th) day. Level of IL-4 abnormally rose up by 0.54 times in Jitai tablet plus buprenorphine group, while IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio been switched back at the 14(th) day of withdrawal. Other immune indicators were not affected by medical interventions. Conclusion: We noticed that certain impairment of the immune function might be restored by Jitai tablet during the withdrawal period.
Wilk, Mieszko M; Misiak, Alicja; McManus, Róisín M; Allen, Aideen C; Lynch, Marina A; Mills, Kingston H G
Th1 and Th17 cells have an established role in protective immunity to Bordetella pertussis , but this evidence is based largely on peripheral T cells. There is emerging evidence that local tissue-resident memory T (T RM ) cells that accumulate in tissue following mucosal infection may be crucial for long-term immunity. In this study, we examined the role of respiratory CD4 T RM cells in immunity to B. pertussis Natural immunity to B. pertussis induced by infection is considered long lasting and effective at preventing reinfection. Consistent with this, we found that convalescent mice rapidly cleared the bacteria after reinfection. Furthermore, CD4 T cells with a T RM cell phenotype (CD44 + CD62L - CD69 + or CD44 + CD62L - CD69 + CD103 + ) accumulated in the lungs of mice during infection with B. pertussis and significantly expanded through local proliferation following reinfection. These CD4 T RM cells were B. pertussis specific and secreted IL-17 or IL-17 and IFN-γ. Treatment of mice with FTY720, which prevented migration of T and B cells from lymph nodes to the circulation, significantly exacerbated B. pertussis infection. This was associated with significantly reduced infiltration of central memory T cells and B cells into the lungs. However, the local expansion of T RM cells and the associated rapid clearance of the secondary infection were not affected by treatment with FTY720 before rechallenge. Moreover, adoptive transfer of lung CD4 T RM cells conferred protection in naive mice. Our findings reveal that Ag-specific CD4 T RM cells play a critical role in adaptive immunity against reinfection and memory induced by natural infection with B. pertussis . Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
Eugen-Olsen, J; Afzelius, P; Andresen, L
We have shown earlier increased intracellular levels of cAMP in peripheral lymphocytes from HIV-seropositive subjects and that a chemically induced decrease in this level increases cell proliferation and cytotoxicity. Others have shown that serotonin indirectly decreases intracellular cAMP levels...... enhancing effect on cell proliferation in some HIV-seropositive individuals than in others....... in normal peripheral lymphocytes. In this study, we show that addition of serotonin decreases intracellular levels of cAMP in lymphocytes from HIV-seropositive subjects and significantly increases the proliferative capacity in vitro. However, the effect of serotonin varies with the initial proliferative...
Jha, Arun Kumar; Uppal, Beena; Chadha, Sanjim; Aggarwal, Prabhav; Ghosh, Roumi; Dewan, Richa
Intestinal infection causing diarrheal disease is a dominant contributor to high morbidity and mortality in developing countries. This intervention study aimed to assess the response of specific anti-microbial and anti-retroviral therapy (ART) on enteropathogens identified in HIV/AIDS adult subjects from northern India. Seventy five ART naive (group 1) and seventy five ART adherent (group 2) HIV/AIDS adult subjects with diarrhea were enrolled. Stool samples from all subjects were examined for enteropathogens by wet mount, staining methods, culture and ELISA. Subjects with enteropathogens were started on specific therapy as per National AIDS Control Organisation, Government of India's guidelines. Follow-up stool samples were examined after 2-4 weeks of completion of therapy for persistence/clearing of enteropathogens. CD4+ T lymphocyte count was done for all subjects. At enrollment, group 1 had 26.13% bacterial, 57.66% parasitic & 16.22% fungal pathogens while group 2 had 11.9%, 69.05% & 19.05% pathogens, respectively. Parasitic diarrhea was more common than bacterial diarrhea. The coccidian parasites (Cryptosporidium spp. & Isospora belli) were the common parasites identified. Clearance of enteric pathogens was significant after specific anti-microbial therapy (p = 0.0001). Persistence of enteropathogens was seen primarily for coccidian parasites. Clearance of enteropathogens after specific therapy and the diagnostic yield of stool specimens were influenced by the CD4+ counts. Immune competence coupled with specific anti-microbial therapy displays the best response against enteric pathogens.
Bayoumi, R A; Abu-Zeid, Y A; Abdulhadi, N H
To determine the possible differences in the immune response to Plasmodium falciparum between sickle-cell trait (Hb AS) and normal haemoglobin (Hb AA) individuals, we examined 35 Hb AS and 24 Hb AA subjects matched for age and microenvironment. Their age was 2-55 years and all lived in a malaria...... individuals (P less than 0.025). Responses of BMNCs to PPD and PHA were also higher among Hb AS individuals and correlated positively with responses to SPAg. These findings support the hypotheses that the sickle-cell trait protects individuals from P. falciparum infections, at least in part, by modulating...... endemic area 300 km south of Khartoum. Antibodies to ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (Pf155/RESA) and to circumsporozoite (CS) protein (anti-NANP40) indicated equal exposure to falciparum malaria. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (BMNCs) from 20/35 (57%) Hb AS subjects compared with 10/24 (42...
Clarice Carvalho Alves; Neusa Araujo; Viviane Cristina Fernandes dos Santos; Flávia Bubula Couto; Natan R G Assis; Suellen B Morais; Sérgio Costa Oliveira; Cristina Toscano Fonseca
BACKGROUND: A vaccine against schistosomiasis would have a great impact in disease elimination. Sm29 and Sm22.6 are two parasite tegument proteins which represent promising antigens to compose a vaccine. These antigens have been associated with resistance to infection and reinfection in individuals living in endemic area for the disease and induced partial protection when evaluated in immunization trials using naïve mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPALS FINDINGS: In this study we evaluated rSm29 and r...
Hamrick, P.E.; McRee, D.I.; Thaxton, P.; Parkhurst, C.R.
Fertile Japanese quail eggs were exposed to continuous wave microwave radiation at an intensity of 5 mW/cm 2 (50 W/m 2 ) and a frequency of 2450 Mhz. The absorbed power density was determined to be 4.03 W/kg. The eggs were exposed throughout the first 12 days of the normal incubation period of 17.5 days. Non-exposed control eggs were incubated in a chamber identical to the exposure chamber. After hatching, exposed and control quail were reared in the conventional laboratory manner. Weekly body weight measurements were made to compare the growth patterns of exposed and control quail. The weights of the exposed male at the ages of 4 and 5 weeks were 12 and 7%, respectively, less than the control males. These differences approached statistical significance (P<=0.05). At 5 weeks of age the quail were challenged with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and the levels of the anti-SRBC antibodies were determined. The levels of specific anti-SRBC antibodies, determined 4 days after antigen challenges, were of the same magnitude for both the exposed and control quail. Following this assessment of humoral immunity, the quail were sacrificed and the bursa of Fabricius and spleen were removed and a comparison was made of exposed and control birds. The weights of the bursa of Fabricius and spleen were not altered significantly by the microwave exposure. (author)
Eugen-Olsen, J; Afzelius, P; Andresen, L
We have shown earlier increased intracellular levels of cAMP in peripheral lymphocytes from HIV-seropositive subjects and that a chemically induced decrease in this level increases cell proliferation and cytotoxicity. Others have shown that serotonin indirectly decreases intracellular cAMP levels...... in normal peripheral lymphocytes. In this study, we show that addition of serotonin decreases intracellular levels of cAMP in lymphocytes from HIV-seropositive subjects and significantly increases the proliferative capacity in vitro. However, the effect of serotonin varies with the initial proliferative...... response; e.g., these with the highest initial responses have the highest increases. An increase in IL-2 production may be a part of this mechanism since addition of serotonin to in vitro cultures of PHA-stimulated cells increases the expression of mRNA for IL-2 and IFN-gamma. The effect on lymphocyte...
Choudhury, Shahana A; Matin, Fazle
Little is known regarding waning immunity to tetanus toxoid (TT) in HIV-infected children and the need for booster doses before the recommended interval of 5-10 years. Anti-tetanus antibodies were assessed by ELISA in 24 HIV-infected and 24 control children. A protective level (>0.1 IU/ml) of TT antibodies was observed in 62% of HIV-infected children and in 100% of controls. HIV-infected children with five doses had a significantly (p=0.01) lower prevalence of protective immunity compared to controls. Follow-up anti-TT antibody levels in nine HIV-infected children declined from 1.27 to 0.26 IU/ml, but levels did not decline in the seven controls; five of the seven (71%) children with a non-protective level of antibodies responded with a level>0.16 IU/ml following one booster dose of the vaccine. HIV-infected children may need TT boosters before the recommended 5-10 years. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schmidt, Jana; Jentsch, Holger; Stingu, Catalina-Suzana; Sack, Ulrich
Objective Immunological processes in the etiopathogenesis of periodontitis, especially the aggressive form, are not well understood. This study examined clinical as well as systemic immunological and local microbiological features in healthy controls and patients with different forms of periodontitis. Materials and Methods 14 healthy subjects, 15 patients diagnosed with aggressive periodontitis, and 11 patients with chronic periodontitis were recruited. Periodontal examination was performed and peripheral blood was collected from each patient. Lymphocyte populations as well as the release of cytokines by T-helper cells were determined by flow cytometry and enzyme linked immunosorbent spot assay. Subgingival plaque samples were taken from each individual and immediately cultivated for microbiological examination. Results When stimulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with lipopolysaccharide, a higher IL-1β release was found in patients with moderate chronic periodontitis compared to the other groups (pperiodontitis showed the highest percentage of memory B-cells without class switch (p = 0.01). The subgingival plaque differed quantitatively as well as qualitatively with a higher number of Gram-negative anaerobic species in periodontitis patients. Prevotella denticola was found more often in patients with aggressive periodontitis (pperiodontitis, seems to be associated with an activation of the systemic immune response. Conclusion Differences between aggressive periodontitis and moderate chronic periodontitis are evident, which raises the question of an inadequate balance between systemic immune response and bacterial infection in aggressive periodontitis. PMID:25299619
Full Text Available Live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs are considered as safe and effective tool to control influenza in different age groups, especially in young children. An important part of the LAIV safety evaluation is the detection of vaccine virus replication in the nasopharynx of the vaccinees, with special attention to a potential virus transmission to the unvaccinated close contacts. Conducting LAIV clinical trials in some geographical regions with year-round circulation of influenza viruses warrants the development of robust and reliable tools for differentiating vaccine viruses from wild-type influenza viruses in nasal pharyngeal wash (NPW specimens of vaccinated subjects. Here we report the development of genotyping assay for the detection of wild-type and vaccine-type influenza virus genes in NPW specimens of young children immunized with Russian-backbone seasonal trivalent LAIV using Sanger sequencing from newly designed universal primers. The new primer set allowed amplification and sequencing of short fragments of viral genes in NPW specimens and appeared to be more sensitive than conventional real-time RT-PCR protocols routinely used for the detection and typing/subtyping of influenza virus in humans. Furthermore, the new assay is capable of defining the origin of wild-type influenza virus through BLAST search with the generated sequences of viral genes fragments.
Bayoumi, R A; Abu-Zeid, Y A; Abdulhadi, N H
To determine the possible differences in the immune response to Plasmodium falciparum between sickle-cell trait (Hb AS) and normal haemoglobin (Hb AA) individuals, we examined 35 Hb AS and 24 Hb AA subjects matched for age and microenvironment. Their age was 2-55 years and all lived in a malaria ...
The tetravalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine is immunogenic with a clinically acceptable safety profile in subjects previously vaccinated with a tetravalent polysaccharide vaccine.
Dbaibo, Ghassan; Van der Wielen, Marie; Reda, Mariam; Medlej, Fouad; Tabet, Carelle; Boutriau, Dominique; Sumbul, Anne; Anis, Sameh; Miller, Jacqueline M
The immunogenicity and safety of the tetravalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) were evaluated in subjects previously vaccinated with a tetravalent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine and in subjects without previous meningococcal vaccination. In this phase II, open, controlled study (NCT00661557), healthy subjects aged 4.5-34 years received one dose of MenACWY-TT at month 0. Subjects in the MPS group (n=192) had received polysaccharide vaccine in a study conducted 30-42 months earlier; age-matched subjects in the noMPS control group (n=79) had received no meningococcal vaccination within the past 10 years. Serum bactericidal activity using rabbit complement (rSBA) was measured at month 0 and month 1. At month 1, ≥97.0% of subjects had rSBA titers ≥1:128. Post-vaccination rSBA geometric mean titers (GMTs) were ≥3.9-fold higher than pre-vaccination in both treatment groups. Exploratory analyses showed no statistically significant differences between groups in percentages of subjects with rSBA titers ≥1:8 and ≥1:128, but significantly lower rSBA GMTs and vaccine response rates for each serogroup in the MPS versus the noMPS group. MenACWY-TT had an acceptable safety profile in both groups. These results suggest that MenACWY-TT could be used in vaccination programs irrespective of the pre-vaccination status with polysaccharide vaccine. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shubin, V.M.; Litver, B.Ya.; Zykova, I.A.
Some factors of nonspecific bodily protection (bactericidal capacity, complement, lysozyme, beta lysins of blood serum) are analyzed in gamma defectoscopists and in workers exposed to occupational factors of nonradiation nature. A number of alterations in immunity indices in persons exposed to combined radiation and nonradiation factors (stimulation of beta lysins, increased levels of antitissue antibodies, etc.) had has been revealed. These alterations appear to have resulted from the potentiation of the effects from ionizing radiation and nonradiation nature factors
The iron, folacin, vitamin B 12 , and zinc status of a group of economically and socially disadvantaged elderly persons in the Washington Metropolitan Area was evaluated. Factors related to deficiencies of these nutrients, the relationships between the status of these nutrients and cell-mediated immunity, and the relationships of iron, folacin and vitamin B 12 status to hemoglobin levels in the subjects were also examined. It was also determined whether there were any interactions among iron, folacin, vitamin B 12 and zinc status in their relationships to cell-mediated immunity. Socio-demographic and nutritional data on the subjects were obtained using a questionnaire. Dietary data were obtained using a dietary record. A fasting blood sample was drawn and the levels of ferritin, folate and vitamin B 12 , and the erythrocyte levels of folate were determined by radioassay. Plasma and hair zinc levels were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Cell-mediated immune response was determined by transformation of peripheral blood lymphocytes after stimulation by mitogens, and by allogenic lymphocytes in the mixed lymphocyte reaction
Krams, Indrikis; Daukste, Janina; Kivleniece, Inese; Krama, Tatjana; Rantala, Markus J
Immune defenses of insects show either broad reactions or specificity and durability of induced protection against attacking parasites and pathogens. In this study, we tested whether encapsulation response against nylon monofilament increases between two attempts of activation of immune system in mealworm beetles Tenebrio molitor, and whether previous exposure to nylon monofilament may also increase protection against an entomopathogenic fungus. We found that survival of beetles subjected to immune activation by nylon implant and subsequent fungal exposure a week later was significantly higher than survival of beetles which had been subjected to fungal infection only. This result suggests that previous immune activation by the nylon implant may be considered as broad spectrum "immune priming" which helps to fight not only the same intruder but also other parasites. © 2012 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Scherer, Erin M; Smith, Robin A; Simonich, Cassandra A; Niyonzima, Nixon; Carter, Joseph J; Galloway, Denise A
Licensed human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines provide near complete protection against the types of HPV that most commonly cause anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers (HPV 16 and 18) when administered to individuals naive to these types. These vaccines, like most other prophylactic vaccines, appear to protect by generating antibodies. However, almost nothing is known about the immunological memory that forms following HPV vaccination, which is required for long-term immunity. Here, we have identified and isolated HPV 16-specific memory B cells from female adolescents and young women who received the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in the absence of pre-existing immunity, using fluorescently conjugated HPV 16 pseudoviruses to label antigen receptors on the surface of memory B cells. Antibodies cloned and expressed from these singly sorted HPV 16-pseudovirus labeled memory B cells were predominantly IgG (>IgA>IgM), utilized diverse variable genes, and potently neutralized HPV 16 pseudoviruses in vitro despite possessing only average levels of somatic mutation. These findings suggest that the quadrivalent HPV vaccine provides an excellent model for studying the development of B cell memory; and, in the context of what is known about memory B cells elicited by influenza vaccination/infection, HIV-1 infection, or tetanus toxoid vaccination, indicates that extensive somatic hypermutation is not required to achieve potent vaccine-specific neutralizing antibody responses.
Tirapazamine plus cisplatin versus cisplatin in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: A report of the international CATAPULT I study group. Cisplatin and Tirapazamine in Subjects with Advanced Previously Untreated Non-Small-Cell Lung Tumors.
von Pawel, J; von Roemeling, R; Gatzemeier, U; Boyer, M; Elisson, L O; Clark, P; Talbot, D; Rey, A; Butler, T W; Hirsh, V; Olver, I; Bergman, B; Ayoub, J; Richardson, G; Dunlop, D; Arcenas, A; Vescio, R; Viallet, J; Treat, J
A phase III trial, Cisplatin and Tirapazamine in Subjects with Advanced Previously Untreated Non-Small-Cell Lung Tumors (CATAPULT I), was designed to determine the efficacy and safety of tirapazamine plus cisplatin for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with previously untreated NSCLC were randomized to receive either tirapazamine (390 mg/m(2) infused over 2 hours) followed 1 hour later by cisplatin (75 mg/m(2) over 1 hour) or 75 mg/m(2) of cisplatin alone, every 3 weeks for a maximum of eight cycles. A total of 446 patients with NSCLC (17% with stage IIIB disease and pleural effusions; 83% with stage IV disease) were entered onto the study. Karnofsky performance status (KPS) was >/= 60 for all patients (for 10%, KPS = 60; for 90%, KPS = 70 to 100). Sixty patients (14%) had clinically stable brain metastases. The median survival was significantly longer (34.6 v 27. 7 weeks; P =.0078) and the response rate was significantly greater (27.5% v 13.7%; P CATAPULT I study shows that tirapazamine enhances the activity of cisplatin in patients with advanced NSCLC and confirms that hypoxia is an exploitable therapeutic target in human malignancies.
Sara M. Reyna
Full Text Available Background. Exercise has an anti-inflammatory effect against, and immune cells play critical roles in the development, of insulin resistance and atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVD. Thus, the goal of this study was to determine whether exercise improves insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant subjects by downregulating proinflammatory signaling in immune cells. Methods. Seventeen lean, 8 obese nondiabetic, and 11 obese type 2 diabetic individuals underwent an aerobic exercise program for 15 days and an insulin clamp before and after exercise. Peripheral mononuclear cells (PMNC were obtained for determination of Toll-like receptor (TLR 2 and 4 protein content and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. Results. Compared with that in lean individuals, TLR4 protein content was increased by 4.2-fold in diabetic subjects. This increase in TLR4 content was accompanied by a 3.0-fold increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK phosphorylation. Exercise improved insulin sensitivity in the lean, obese, and type 2 diabetes groups. However, exercise did not affect TLR content or ERK phosphorylation. Conclusions. TLR4 content and ERK phosphorylation are increased in PMNC of type 2 diabetic individuals. While exercise improves insulin sensitivity, this effect is not related to changes in TLR2/TLR4 content or ERK phosphorylation in PMNC of type 2 diabetic individuals.
Iana H Haralambieva
Full Text Available Although influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality in the elderly, the factors underlying the reduced vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy in this age group are not completely understood. Age and immunosenescence factors, and their impact on humoral immunity after influenza vaccination, are of growing interest for the development of better vaccines for the elderly.We assessed associations between age and immunosenescence markers (T cell receptor rearrangement excision circles - TREC content, peripheral white blood cell telomerase - TERT expression and CD28 expression on T cells and influenza A/H1N1 vaccine-induced measures of humoral immunity in 106 older subjects at baseline and three timepoints post-vaccination.TERT activity (TERT mRNA expression was significantly positively correlated with the observed increase in the influenza-specific memory B cell ELISPOT response at Day 28 compared to baseline (p-value=0.025. TREC levels were positively correlated with the baseline and early (Day 3 influenza A/H1N1-specific memory B cell ELISPOT response (p-value=0.042 and p-value=0.035, respectively. The expression and/or expression change of CD28 on CD4+ and/or CD8+ T cells at baseline and Day 3 was positively correlated with the influenza A/H1N1-specific memory B cell ELISPOT response at baseline, Day 28 and Day 75 post-vaccination. In a multivariable analysis, the peak antibody response (HAI and/or VNA at Day 28 was negatively associated with age, the percentage of CD8+CD28 low T cells, IgD+CD27- naïve B cells, and percentage overall CD20- B cells and plasmablasts, measured at Day 3 post-vaccination. The early change in influenza-specific memory B cell ELISPOT response was positively correlated with the observed increase in influenza A/H1N1-specific HAI antibodies at Day 28 and Day 75 relative to baseline (p-value=0.007 and p-value=0.005, respectively.Our data suggest that influenza-specific humoral immunity is significantly influenced by
Freidhoff, L R; Ehrlich-Kautzky, E; Meyers, D A; Ansari, A A; Bias, W B; Marsh, D G
Associations between HLA type and IgE or IgG antibody (Ab) responses to two well-characterized, antigenetically non-crossreactive components of Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen extract, Lol p I (Rye I) and Lol p II (Rye II) were studied in two groups of skin-test positive (ST+) Caucasoid adults. By both nonparametric and parametric statistical methods, significant associations were found between Ab responses to both Lol I and Lol II and the possession of HLA-DR3. In view of the well-known associations of both DR3 and B8 (which are in linkage disequilibrium) with many autoimmune diseases, differences in anti-Lol I and anti-Lol II mean log[Ab] levels between B8+, DR3- vs B8-, DR3- subjects and B8+, DR3+ vs B8-, DR3+ subjects were investigated. No differences were found. Our data, along with recent RFLP and DNA sequence studies, suggest that an Ia molecule involved in immune recognition of a similar major Ia recognition site of both the Lol molecules may consist of a DR3 alpha-beta I pair. Abbreviations used: Ab: Antibody. HLA: Human leukocyte antigen. Lol p I, Lol I: Group I allergen from Lolium perenne pollen (Rye I). Lol p II, Lol II: Group II allergen from Lolium perenne pollen (Rye II). Mr: Relative molecular mass. Rx: Immunotherapy with grass pollen extracts. ST: Skin test.
Mirfendereski, E; Jahanian, R
The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of chromium-methionine (CrMet) and vitamin C (VC) on performance, immune response, and stress status of laying hens subjected to high stocking density. A total of 360 Hy-Line W-36 leghorn hens (at 26 wk old) were used in a 2×3×2 factorial arrangement that had 2 cage densities (5 and 7 hens per cage), 3 Cr levels (0, 500, and 1,000 ppb as CrMet), and 2 dietary VC levels (0 and 500 ppm as L-ascorbic acid). The trial lasted for 12 wk. The first 2 wk were for adaptation (26 to 28 wk of age), and the remaining 10 wk served as the main recording period. In addition to performance, immune response to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was assessed at d 7 and 14 postvaccination. Also, the birds' stress status was evaluated by analyzing appropriate plasma metabolites. The results showed that hens in cages with higher stocking density had lower hen-day egg production, egg mass, and feed intake compared with those in normal density cages (Pfeed conversion efficiency (Pfeed conversion ratio in VC-unsupplemented diets. Although plasma concentrations of triglycerides and high-density lipoproteins were not influenced by dietary treatments, supplemental CrMet decreased plasma cholesterol levels (Phens kept at a density of 7 hens/cage were significantly higher than those of hens in normal cage density (Phens. While high stocking density caused a marked increase in plasma corticosterone (Phens. The high stocking density challenge suppressed NDV antibody response (Phens kept at a density of 7 hens/cage (P<0.01). From the present observations, it can be concluded that CrMet can improve laying performance largely because it alleviates harmful responses to stressful conditions. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Full Text Available This study on a breast cancer survivor suffering from cancer-related fatigue (CaRF and depression investigated the bidirectional relationship between cellular immune activity and subjective sleep. The 49-year-old patient (breast cancer diagnosis 5 years before the study, currently in remission collected her full urine output for 28 days in 12-h intervals (8:00 p.m. to 8:00 a.m. and 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m.. These urine samples were used to determine urinary neopterin (cellular immune activation marker and creatinine concentrations via high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC. Each morning, the patient answered questions on five sleep variables: sleep quality (SQ, sleep recreational value (SRV, total sleep time (TST, total wake time (TWT, and awakenings during sleep period (ADS. For the purpose of this study, the time series of the nighttime urinary neopterin levels and the five sleep variables were determined. Using centered moving average (CMA smoothing and cross-correlational analysis, this study showed that increases in the positive sleep variables SQ and SRV were followed by urinary neopterin concentration decreases after 96–120 h (SQ, lag 4: r = −0.411; p = 0.044; SRV: lag 4: r = −0.472; p = 0.021 and 120–144 h (SRV, lag 5: r = −0.464; p = 0.026. Increases in the negative sleep variable TWT, by contrast, were followed by increases in urinary neopterin concentrations 72–96 h later (lag 3: r = 0.522; p = 0.009. No systematic effects in the other direction, i.e., from urinary neopterin levels to sleep, were observed in this study. Although preliminary, the findings of this study highlight the benefit of carefully investigating temporal delays and directions of effects when studying the dynamic relationship between sleep and immune variables in the natural context of everyday life.
PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION: A risk factor for third trimester uterine rupture in three ... for accurate diagnosis of uterine rupture. KEY WORDS: Induced second trimester abortion - Previous uterine surgery - Uterine rupture. ..... scarred uterus during second trimester misoprostol- induced labour for a missed ...
Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.
Jyonouchi, Harumi; Geng, Lee; Davidow, Amy L
Background Some children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by fluctuating behavioral symptoms following immune insults, persistent gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, and a lack of response to the first-line intervention measures. These children have been categorized as the ASD-inflammatory subtype (ASD-IS) for this study. We reported a high prevalence of non-IgE mediated food allergy (NFA) in young ASD children before, but not all ASD/NFA children reveal such clinical featur...
Effect of yeast (Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous) and plant (Saint John's wort, lemon balm, and rosemary) extract based functional diets on antioxidant and immune status of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) subjected to crowding stress.
Reyes-Cerpa, Sebastián; Vallejos-Vidal, Eva; Gonzalez-Bown, María José; Morales-Reyes, Jonathan; Pérez-Stuardo, Diego; Vargas, Deborah; Imarai, Mónica; Cifuentes, Víctor; Spencer, Eugenio; Sandino, Ana María; Reyes-López, Felipe E
Salmon farming may face stress due to the intensive culture conditions with negative impacts on overall performance. In this aspect, functional feed improves not only the basic nutritional requirements but also the health status and fish growth. However, to date no studies have been carried out to evaluate the effect of functional diets in salmon subjected to crowding stress. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of yeast extract (Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous; diet A) and the combination of plant extracts (common Saint John's wort, lemon balm, and rosemary; diet B) on the antioxidant and immune status of Atlantic salmon grown under normal cultured conditions and then subjected to crowding stress. Fish were fed with functional diets during 30 days (12 kg/m 3 ) and then subjected to crowding stress (20 kg/m 3 ) for 10 days. The lipid peroxidation in gut showed that both diets induced a marked decrease on oxidative damage when fish were subjected to crowding stress. The protein carbonylation in muscle displayed at day 30 a marked decrease in both functional diets that was more marked on the stress condition. The expression of immune markers (IFNγ, CD4, IL-10, TGF-β, IgM mb , IgM sec , T-Bet, and GATA-3) indicated the upregulation of those associated to humoral-like response (CD4, IL-10, GATA-3) when fish were subjected to crowding stress. These results were confirmed with the expression of secreted IgM. Altogether, these functional diets improved the antioxidant status and increased the expression of genes related to Th2-like response suggesting a protective role on fish subjected to crowding stress. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available Despite the many advances in modern medicine, each year thousands of people in the world die from diseases that are easily prevented by safe and effective vaccines. Few measures in preventive medicine are of such proven value and as easy to implement as routine immunization against infectious diseases. Prevention of infection by immunization is a lifelong process. There are a number of vaccines that all adults (¡I18 years require. There are also other vaccines that need to be tailored to meet individual variations in risk resulting from occupation, foreign travel, underlying illness, lifestyle and age. In this study, we tried to review this important subject. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 159-166
Full Text Available Despite the many advances in modern medicine, each year thousands of people in the world die from diseases that are easily prevented by safe and effective vaccines. Few measures in preventive medicine are of such proven value and as easy to implement as routine immunization against infectious diseases. Prevention of infection by immunization is a lifelong process. There are a number of vaccines that all adults (¡I18 years require. There are also other vaccines that need to be tailored to meet individual variations in risk resulting from occupation, foreign travel, underlying illness, lifestyle and age. In this study, we tried to review this important subject. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(2: 159-166
Schuler, K; Lu, C; Chang, H D; Croft, M; Zanetti, M; Gerloni, M
The fate of T cell responses to peptide-based vaccination is subject to constraints by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), MHC restriction. Using as a model system of T and B cell epitopes from the circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite, we show that vaccination by somatic transgene immunization readily primes Balb/c mice (H-2(d)) a strain previously reported to be non-responder to immunization with a synthetic peptide vaccine encompassing these epitopes. Following genetic vaccination Balb/c mice developed a primary T cell response comparable to that of the responder strain C57Bl/6 (H-2(b)). Following booster immunization on day 45 Balb/c mice responded with a typical T cell memory response. Priming induced the formation of specific antibodies, which rose sharply after booster immunization. These findings suggests that genetic immunization can circumvent MHC class II restriction.
Bogolyubov, V.M.; Malyavin, A.G.; Pershin, S.B.; Shubina, A.V.; Kubli, S.Kh.; Myshelova, K.P.
An attempt was made to affect immunologic reactions in infectious-allergic asthma patients by subjecting them to transcerebral exposure to UHF electric field. Seventy-six patients, aged 23 to 69 years with varying duration of the disease, were studied. The treatment consisted of 25 exposures lasting from 5 to 15 min; a sham exposure was used on ten patients serving as controls. In all, 55/66 patients experienced clinical improvement lasting 6 to 12 months; only 2/10 control patients had any improvement. After the exposure, the level of T-lymphocytes increased along with blood histamine level; no significant changes were observed in case of B-lymphocytes. This immunologic correction was most effective in patients with atopy, with decreased levels of T-lymphocytes and elevated levels of B-lymphocytes. 12 references.
Full Text Available Patients with chronic liver diseases are usually thin as a result of hypermetabolism and malnutrition expressed by reduced levels of leptin and impairment of other adyponectins such as visfatin.We evaluated the metabolic and inflammatory effects of intravenous high-dose furosemide plus hypertonic saline solutions (HSS compared with repeated paracentesis and a standard oral diuretic schedule, in patients with cirrhosis and refractory ascites.59 consecutive cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites unresponsive to outpatient treatment. Enrolled subjects were randomized to treatment with intravenous infusion of furosemide (125-250mg⁄bid plus small volumes of HSS from the first day after admission until 3 days before discharge (Group A, n:38, or repeated paracentesis from the first day after admission until 3 days before discharge (Group B, n: 21. Plasma levels of ANP, BNP, Leptin, visfatin, IL-1β, TNF-a, IL-6 were measured before and after the two type of treatment.Subjects in group A were observed to have a significant reduction of serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, ANP, BNP, and visfatin, thus regarding primary efficacy endpoints, in Group A vs. Group B we observed higher Δ-TNF-α, Δ-IL-1β, Δ-IL-6, Δ-ANP, Δ-BNP, Δ-visfatin, Δ-Leptin at discharge.Our findings underline the possible inflammatory and metabolic effect of saline overload correction in treatment of cirrhosis complications such as refractory ascites, suggesting a possible role of inflammatory and metabolic-nutritional variables as severity markers in these patients.
Liongue, Clifford; John, Liza B; Ward, Alister
Adaptive immunity, involving distinctive antibody- and cell-mediated responses to specific antigens based on "memory" of previous exposure, is a hallmark of higher vertebrates. It has been argued that adaptive immunity arose rapidly, as articulated in the "big bang theory" surrounding its origins, which stresses the importance of coincident whole-genome duplications. Through a close examination of the key molecules and molecular processes underpinning adaptive immunity, this review suggests a less-extreme model, in which adaptive immunity emerged as part of longer evolutionary journey. Clearly, whole-genome duplications provided additional raw genetic materials that were vital to the emergence of adaptive immunity, but a variety of other genetic events were also required to generate some of the key molecules, whereas others were preexisting and simply co-opted into adaptive immunity.
Tran Dinh, Y.R.; Mamo, H.; Cervoni, J.; Caulin, C.; Saimot, A.C.
Quantitative measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) by xenon-133 ( 133 Xe) tomography, together with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electroencephalography (EEG), psychometric tests, and laboratory analyses were performed on 18 human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) seropositive asymptomatic subjects. Abnormalities of cerebral perfusion were observed in 16 cases (88%). These abnormalities were particularly frequent in the frontal regions (77% of cases). MRI demonstrated leucoencephalopathy in only two cases. EEG showed only induced diffuse abnormalities in two cases. Psychometric tests showed restricted moderate disturbances in 55% of patients. These disturbances mostly concerned those sectors involved in cognitive functions and memorization. These results indicate that quantitative measurements of CBF by 133 Xe-SPECT is capable of detecting abnormalities of cerebral perfusion at a very early stage (Phase II) of HIV-1 infection. These abnormalities are indications of disturbances resulting from unidentified metabolic or vascular lesions. This technique appears to be superior to MRI at this stage of the disease's development. It could provide objective information leading to earlier treatment, and prove useful in evaluating potential antiviral chemotherapy
Malla, N; Goyal, K; Dhanda, R S; Yadav, M
Innate and adaptive immunity play a significant role in urogenital infections. Innate immunity is provided by the epithelial cells and mucus lining along with acidic pH, which forms a strong physical barrier against the pathogens in female reproductive tract. Cells of innate immune system, antimicrobial peptides, cytokines, chemokines and adaptive immunity in the reproductive tract are evolved during infection, and a pro-inflammatory response is generated to fight against the invading pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis, a primary urogenital protozoa, the etiological agent of human trichomoniasis, a curable sexually transmitted infection. The involvement of the urogenital tract by other protozoal infections such as P. falciparum, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Toxoplasma, Entamoeba histolytica and Acanthamoeba infection is rarely reported. Trichomonas induce pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive responses in infected subjects. Multifactorial pathogenic mechanisms including parasite adherence, cysteine proteases, lipophosphoglycan, free radical, cytokine generation and Toll-like receptors appear to interplay with the induction of local and systemic immune responses that ultimately determine the outcome of the infection. However, the involvement of urogenital pathogen-specific immune mechanisms and effect of normal local resident flora on the outcome (symptomatic vs. asymptomatic) of infection are poorly understood. Moreover, immune interactions in trichomoniasis subjects co-infected with bacterial and viral pathogens need to be elucidated. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
... sheets Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Immunization coverage Fact sheet Reviewed January 2018 Key facts ... at least 90% coverage of DTP3 vaccine. Global immunization coverage 2016 A summary of global vaccination coverage ...
... may be given as part of a combination vaccine so that a child gets fewer shots. Talk with your doctor about ... Kids Teens Frequently Asked Questions About Immunizations Your Child's Immunizations Is the Flu Vaccine a Good Idea for Your Family? Word! Immunizations ...
Masi, Anne; Glozier, Nicholas; Dale, Russell; Guastella, Adam J
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental condition characterized by variable impairments in communication and social interaction as well as restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. Heterogeneity of presentation is a hallmark. Investigations of immune system problems in ASD, including aberrations in cytokine profiles and signaling, have been increasing in recent times and are the subject of ongoing interest. With the aim of establishing whether cytokines have utility as potential biomarkers that may define a subgroup of ASD, or function as an objective measure of response to treatment, this review summarizes the role of the immune system, discusses the relationship between the immune system, the brain, and behavior, and presents previously-identified immune system abnormalities in ASD, specifically addressing the role of cytokines in these aberrations. The roles and identification of biomarkers are also addressed, particularly with respect to cytokine profiles in ASD.
Enderling, Heiko; Hlatky, Lynn; Hahnfeldt, Philip
The role of the immune system in tumor progression has been a subject for discussion for many decades. Numerous studies suggest that a low immune response might be beneficial, if not necessary, for tumor growth, and only a strong immune response can counter tumor growth and thus inhibit progression. We implement a cellular automaton model previously described that captures the dynamical interactions between the cancer stem and non-stem cell populations of a tumor through a process of self-metastasis. By overlaying on this model the diffusion of immune reactants into the tumor from a peripheral source to target cells, we simulate the process of immune-system-induced cell kill on tumor progression. A low cytotoxic immune reaction continuously kills cancer cells and, although at a low rate, thereby causes the liberation of space-constrained cancer stem cells to drive self-metastatic progression and continued tumor growth. With increasing immune system strength, however, tumor growth peaks, and then eventually falls below the intrinsic tumor sizes observed without an immune response. With this increasing immune response the number and proportion of cancer stem cells monotonically increases, implicating an additional unexpected consequence, that of cancer stem cell selection, to the immune response. Cancer stem cells and immune cytotoxicity alone are sufficient to explain the three-step "immunoediting" concept - the modulation of tumor growth through inhibition, selection and promotion.
Smith, L Courtney; Ghosh, Julie; Buckley, Katherine M; Clow, Lori A; Dheilly, Nolwenn M; Haug, Tor; Henson, John H; Li, Chun; Lun, Cheng Man; Majeske, Audrey J; Matranga, Valeria; Nair, Sham V; Rast, Jonathan P; Raftos, David A; Roth, Mattias; Sacchi, Sandro; Schrankel, Catherine S; Stensvåg, Klara
A survey for immune genes in the genome for the purple sea urchin has shown that the immune system is complex and sophisticated. By inference, immune responses of all echinoderms maybe similar. The immune system is mediated by several types of coelomocytes that are also useful as sensors of environmental stresses. There are a number of large gene families in the purple sea urchin genome that function in immunity and of which at least one appears to employ novel approaches for sequence diversification. Echinoderms have a simpler complement system, a large set of lectin genes and a number of antimicrobial peptides. Profiling the immune genes expressed by coelomocytes and the proteins in the coelomic fluid provide detailed information about immune functions in the sea urchin. The importance of echinoderms in maintaining marine ecosystem stability and the disastrous effects of their removal due to disease will require future collaborations between ecologists and immunologists working towards understanding and preserving marine habitats.
Geraldine Jody Macdonald
Full Text Available This article addresses the complex contexts within which Canadian health professionals engage in immunizing children and focuses on the Canadian practice guidelines and current scientific evidence that direct Canadian health professional competencies. The article begins by presenting two current global vaccine initiatives and links these to immunization in Canada. A selected literature review identifies current best immunization practices. With the purpose of promoting quality improvement, three key Canadian immunization competencies for health professional are highlighted: communication with parents, including those who are experiencing vaccine hesitancy; administration of immunizing agents; and documentation of immunizations. Health professionals are encouraged to reflect on immunization competencies and ensure evidence-based practices underpin vaccine delivery in their primary care settings.
Kopáček, Petr; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Burešová, Veronika; Daffre, S.
Roč. 708, - (2010), 137-162 ISSN 0065-2598 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/2136; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : tick * pathogen transmission * innate immunity Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.379, year: 2010
A properly functioning immune system is essential to good health. It defends the body against infectious agents and in some cases tumor cells. Individuals with immune deficiencies resulting from genetic defects, diseases (e.g., AIDS, leukemia), or drug therapies are more suscepti...
various types of pathogen recognition receptors on epithelial cells and resident cells of the innate immune system, especially macrophages, initiate a localised inflammatory response characterised by an early influx of blood neutrophils.1,2. A comparison of the major characteristics of innate and adaptive immune responses ...
Burns, E A; Leventhal, E A
The prime function of the immune system is to protect the entire organism from a variety of insults and illnesses, including the development of cancer. The question of how age-related declines in immune function contribute to an increasing incidence of malignancies continues to be a focus of discussion and speculation. The recent literature from the National Library of Medicine database (1990 through the present) was searched for articles using the medical subject headings (MeSH terms) of aging, immunity, cancer, senescence, and apoptosis. Bibliographies of articles retrieved were also scanned. Data from in vitro and in vivo animal and human studies demonstrate clear age-related alterations in both the cellular and humoral components of the immune system, but there is little evidence supporting direct causal links between immune senescence and most malignancies. Senescent decline in immune surveillance leads to the accumulation of cellular and DNA mutations that could be a significant factor in the development of malignancy and programmed cell death or apoptosis observed in the elderly.
Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Helge, Jørn Wulff; Richter, Erik
these subjects were used to eliminate day-to-day variation in the immunological tests. Independently of diet, training increased the percentage of CD3-CD16+ CD56+ natural killer (NK) cells from [mean (SEM)] 14 (1) % to 20 (3) % (P = 0.05), whereas the NK-cell activity, either unstimulated or stimulated...... influence natural immunity, and suggest that ingestion of a fat-rich diet during training is detrimental to the immune system compared to the effect of a carbohydrate-rich diet....
Stefanescu, Ioan; Titescu, Gheorghe; Tamaian, Radu; Haulica, Ion; Bild, Walther
The immunity booster is, according to its patent description, microbiologically pure water with an D/(D+H) isotopic concentration of 100 ppm, with physical-chemical characteristics similar to those of distilled water. It is obtained by sterilization of a mixture of deuterium depleted water, with a 25 ppm isotopic concentration, with distilled water in a volume ratio of 4:6. Unlike natural immunity boosters (bacterial agents as Bacillus Chalmette-Guerin, Corynebacterium parvum; lipopolysaccharides; human immunoglobulin) or synthetical products (levamysol; isoprinosyne with immunostimulating action), which cause hypersensitivity and shocks, thrill, fever, sickness and the immunity complex disease, the water of 100 ppm D/(D + H) isotopic concentration is a toxicity free product. The testing for immune reaction of the immunity booster led to the following results: - an increase of cell action capacity in the first immunity shielding stage (macrophages), as evidenced by stimulation of a number of essential characterizing parameters, as well as of the phagocytosis capacity, bactericide capacity, and opsonic capacity of serum; - an increase of the number of leucocyte particularly of the granulocyte in peripheral blood, produced especially when medullar toxic agents like caryolysine are used; - it hinders the effect of lowering the number of erythrocytes in peripheral blood produced by experimentally induced chronic inflammation; - an increase of nonspecific immunity defence capacity against specific bacterial aggression of both Gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae 558 ) and of the Gram-negative ones (Klebsiella pneumoniae 507 ); - an increase of immunity - stimulating activity (proinflamatory), like that of levamisole as evidenced by the test of stimulation of experimentally induced inflammation by means of carrageenan. The following advantages of the immunity booster are stressed: - it is toxicity free and side effect free; - can be orally administrated as
Asociación entre tuberculosis infantil grave e inmunización previa con BCG en un hospital de referencia nacional, Perú 1990-2000 Association between severe tuberculosis in children and previous BCG immunization in a national referral Hospital, Peru 1990-2000
Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la asociación entre la inmunización con BCG y tuberculosis grave (TB. Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo, se incluyó fichas de pacientes atendidos en el servicio de neumología del Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño de Perú, entre los años 1990-2000. Se revisaron un total de 2106 casos de TB entre los que había 259 casos graves (TB miliar o meningoencefalitis por TB. Del total, 497 casos no tenían antecedente de inmunización con BCG; 202 tenían TB grave y 295 TB no grave (OR= 0,05; IC 95%= 0,03-0,07. En conclusión, los niños con diagnóstico de TB y que han sido inmunizados con BCG, tienen 94% menos riesgo de desarrollar TB grave, en comparación a los niños con diagnóstico no inmunizados con BCG.The objective of the study was to determine the association between BCG immunization and severe tuberculosis (TB. We performed a retrospective study, including medical records from patients of the pneumology department at the National Children’s Institute in Peru, between the years 1990-2000. A total of 2106 TB cases were reviewed, from them 259 patients were severe (miliary TB or meningoencephalitic TB. From all, 497 cases did not have history of BCG vaccination, 202 had severe TB and 295 non-severe TB (OR = 0.05, 95% CI = 0.03 to 0.07. In conclusion, children diagnosed with TB and who have been immunized with BCG, has 94% lower risk of developing severe TB, compared to children with TB non-immunized with BCG.
Lisa E Hensley
Full Text Available A major challenge in developing vaccines for emerging pathogens is their continued evolution and ability to escape human immunity. Therefore, an important goal of vaccine research is to advance vaccine candidates with sufficient breadth to respond to new outbreaks of previously undetected viruses. Ebolavirus (EBOV vaccines have demonstrated protection against EBOV infection in nonhuman primates (NHP and show promise in human clinical trials but immune protection occurs only with vaccines whose antigens are matched to the infectious challenge species. A 2007 hemorrhagic fever outbreak in Uganda demonstrated the existence of a new EBOV species, Bundibugyo (BEBOV, that differed from viruses covered by current vaccine candidates by up to 43% in genome sequence. To address the question of whether cross-protective immunity can be generated against this novel species, cynomolgus macaques were immunized with DNA/rAd5 vaccines expressing ZEBOV and SEBOV glycoprotein (GP prior to lethal challenge with BEBOV. Vaccinated subjects developed robust, antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses against the GP from ZEBOV as well as cellular immunity against BEBOV GP, and immunized macaques were uniformly protected against lethal challenge with BEBOV. This report provides the first demonstration of vaccine-induced protective immunity against challenge with a heterologous EBOV species, and shows that Ebola vaccines capable of eliciting potent cellular immunity may provide the best strategy for eliciting cross-protection against newly emerging heterologous EBOV species.
Rhonda M. Brand
Full Text Available Alcoholics suffer from immune dysfunction that can impede vaccine efficacy. If ethanol (EtOH-induced immune impairment is in part a result of direct exposure of immune cells to EtOH, then reduced levels of exposure could result in less immune dysfunction. As alcohol ingestion results in lower alcohol levels in skin than blood, we hypothesized that the skin immune network may be relatively preserved, enabling skin-targeted immunizations to obviate the immune inhibitory effects of alcohol consumption on conventional vaccines. We employed the two most common chronic EtOH mouse feeding models, the liver-damaging Lieber-DeCarli (LD and liver-sparing Meadows-Cook (MC diets, to examine the roles of EtOH and/or EtOH-induced liver dysfunction on alcohol related immunosuppression. Pair-fed mice were immunized against the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA by DNA immunization or against flu by administering the protein-based influenza vaccine either systemically (IV, IM, directly to liver (hydrodynamic, or cutaneously (biolistic, ID. We measured resulting tissue EtOH levels, liver stress, regulatory T cell (Treg, and myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC populations. We compared immune responsiveness by measuring delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH, antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL, and antibody induction as a function of delivery route and feeding model. We found that, as expected, and independent of the feeding model, EtOH ingestion inhibits DTH, CTL lysis, and antigen-specific total IgG induced by traditional systemic vaccines. On the other hand, skin-targeted vaccines were equally immunogenic in alcohol-exposed and non-exposed subjects, suggesting that cutaneous immunization may result in more efficacious vaccination in alcohol-ingesting subjects.
Brand, Rhonda M; Stottlemyer, John Mark; Cline, Rachel A; Donahue, Cara; Behari, Jaideep; Falo, Louis D
Alcoholics suffer from immune dysfunction that can impede vaccine efficacy. If ethanol (EtOH)-induced immune impairment is in part a result of direct exposure of immune cells to EtOH, then reduced levels of exposure could result in less immune dysfunction. As alcohol ingestion results in lower alcohol levels in skin than blood, we hypothesized that the skin immune network may be relatively preserved, enabling skin-targeted immunizations to obviate the immune inhibitory effects of alcohol consumption on conventional vaccines. We employed the two most common chronic EtOH mouse feeding models, the liver-damaging Lieber-DeCarli (LD) and liver-sparing Meadows-Cook (MC) diets, to examine the roles of EtOH and/or EtOH-induced liver dysfunction on alcohol related immunosuppression. Pair-fed mice were immunized against the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) by DNA immunization or against flu by administering the protein-based influenza vaccine either systemically (IV, IM), directly to liver (hydrodynamic), or cutaneously (biolistic, ID). We measured resulting tissue EtOH levels, liver stress, regulatory T cell (Treg), and myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) populations. We compared immune responsiveness by measuring delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL), and antibody induction as a function of delivery route and feeding model. We found that, as expected, and independent of the feeding model, EtOH ingestion inhibits DTH, CTL lysis, and antigen-specific total IgG induced by traditional systemic vaccines. On the other hand, skin-targeted vaccines were equally immunogenic in alcohol-exposed and non-exposed subjects, suggesting that cutaneous immunization may result in more efficacious vaccination in alcohol-ingesting subjects.
Kozora, E; Filley, C M; Zhang, L; Brown, M S; Miller, D E; Arciniegas, D B; Pelzman, J L; West, S G
This study examined the relationship between immune, cognitive and neuroimaging assessments in subjects with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) without histories of overt neuropsychiatric (NP) disorders. In total, 84 subjects with nonNPSLE and 37 healthy controls completed neuropsychological testing from the American College of Rheumatology SLE battery. Serum autoantibody and cytokine measures, volumetric magnetic resonance imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy data were collected on a subset of subjects. NonNPSLE subjects had lower scores on measures of visual/complex attention, visuomotor speed and verbal memory compared with controls. No clinically significant differences between nonNPSLE patients and controls were found on serum measures of lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin antibodies, beta 2-glycoproteins, or pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, interferon alpha (IFN-alpha), and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma)). Higher scores on a global cognitive impairment index and a memory impairment index were correlated with lower IFN-alpha. Few associations between immune functions and neuroimaging parameters were found. Results indicated that nonNPSLE patients demonstrated cognitive impairment but not immune differences compared with controls. In these subjects, who were relatively young and with mild disease, no relationship between cognitive dysfunction, immune parameters, or previously documented neuroimaging abnormalities were noted. Immune measures acquired from cerebrospinal fluid instead of serum may yield stronger associations.
Martines, Wania Regina Veiga; Machado, Ana Lúcia
This is a theoretical reflection concerning the link between production of care and subjectivity, and the ideas that support this connection. It was performed a search for studies that had been previously elaborated in the database from University of São Paulo. The discussions upon de findings were based on some ideas of post-modernity and its criticism to the instrumental rationality, that relies on contemporaneous conceptions and actions concerning care. Recovering the subject and their very subjectivity production means to recover a kind of care that mix the edge between objective and subjective and bets on an integrated view of daily human productions and actions.
Vermeulen, Anke; Müller, Wendt; Eens, Marcel
The immune system is one of the most important adaptations that has evolved to protect animals from a wide range of pathogens they encounter from early life onwards. During the early developmental period this is particularly true for the innate immunity, as other components of the immune system are, as yet, poorly developed. But innate immunity may not only be crucial for early life survival, but may also have long-lasting effects, for example if early life immunity reflects the functioning of the immune system as a whole. For this reason, we investigated the importance of four constitutive innate immune parameters (natural antibodies, complement activity, concentrations of haptoglobin, and concentrations of nitric oxide) for recruitment in free-living great tits. We compared nestling immunity of recruits with nestling immunity of their nonrecruited siblings. We also investigated within individual consistency of these innate immune parameters for those individuals that recruited, which may be taken as a measure of immune capacity. In accordance with previous studies, we found a clear effect of tarsus length and a trend for body mass on the likelihood to recruit. Nevertheless, we found no evidence that higher levels of constitutive innate immunity as a nestling facilitated local recruitment. Furthermore, individual innate immunity was not consistent across life stages, that is to say, nestling immune parameters did not determine, or respectively, reflect adult innate immune parameters. This plasticity in innate immune components may explain why we did not find long-lasting survival benefits.
Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen
A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool...... to understanding, especially but not exclusively in observational and interview-based studies. Psychodynamic or psychoanalytic approaches to research add an emphasis on unconscious motivational processes in both researchers and research participants that impact research experience and data. Building upon Anglo......-Saxon and continental traditions, this special issue provides examples of the use of researcher subjectivity, informed by psychoanalytic thinking, in expanding research understanding....
Vaccinations; Immunizations; Immunize; Vaccine shots; Prevention - vaccine ... component) of the vaccine. VACCINE SCHEDULE The recommended vaccination (immunization) schedule is updated every 12 months by ...
Boule, Lisbeth A; Kovacs, Elizabeth J
The global population is aging: in 2010, 8% of the population was older than 65 y, and that is expected to double to 16% by 2050. With advanced age comes a heightened prevalence of chronic diseases. Moreover, elderly humans fair worse after acute diseases, namely infection, leading to higher rates of infection-mediated mortality. Advanced age alters many aspects of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, leading to impaired responses to primary infection and poor development of immunologic memory. An often overlooked, yet increasingly common, behavior in older individuals is alcohol consumption. In fact, it has been estimated that >40% of older adults consume alcohol, and evidence reveals that >10% of this group is drinking more than the recommended limit by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol consumption, at any level, alters host immune responses, including changes in the number, phenotype, and function of innate and adaptive immune cells. Thus, understanding the effect of alcohol ingestion on the immune system of older individuals, who are already less capable of combating infection, merits further study. However, there is currently almost nothing known about how drinking alters innate immunity in older subjects, despite innate immune cells being critical for host defense, resolution of inflammation, and maintenance of immune homeostasis. Here, we review the effects of aging and alcohol consumption on innate immune cells independently and highlight the few studies that have examined the effects of alcohol ingestion in aged individuals. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.
Wang, Ying-Hui; Zhang, Yu-Gen
Extracellular amyloid deposition defines a range of amyloidosis and amyloid-related disease. Addition to primary and secondary amyloidosis, amyloid-related disease can be observed in different tissue/organ that sharing the common pathogenesis based on the formation of amyloid deposition. Currently, both Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes can be diagnosed with certainly only based on the autopsy results, by which amyloidosis of the associative tissue/organ is observed. Intriguingly, since it demonstrated that amyloid deposits trigger inflammatory reaction through the activation of cascaded immune response, wherein several lines of evidence implies a protective role of amyloid in preventing autoimmunity. Furthermore, attempts for preventing amyloid formation and/or removing amyloid deposits from the brain have caused meningoencephalitis and consequent deaths among the subjects. Hence, it is important to note that amyloid positively participates in maintaining immune homeostasis and contributes to irreversible inflammatory response. In this review, we will focus on the interactive relationship between amyloid and the immune system, discussing the potential functional roles of amyloid in immune tolerance and homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
SUBJECT INDEX. Absorption. Effect of NaCl on the spectral and kinetic properties of cresyl violet (CV)-sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) complex. 299. Acid catalysts. Temperature-programmed desorption of water and ammonia on sulphated zirconia catalysts for measuring their strong acidity and acidity distribution. 281.
SUBJECT INDEX. Ab initio calculations. Basis set effects on energy and hardness profiles of the hydrogen fluoride dimer. 549. Activation by calcinations. Highly active and reusable catalyst from Fe-Mg- hydrotalcite anionic clay for Friedel–Crafts type benzyla- tion reactions. 635. Adsorption. Adsorption studies of iron(III) on ...
J. Astrophys. Astr. (2006) 27, 469–472. Subject Index. Astrophysical Processes. Spatial Damping of Linear Compressional Magnetoacoustic Waves in Quiescent. Prominences (K. A. P. Singh), 321. Report on the Dynamical Evolution of an Axially Symmetric Quasar Model. (N. J. Papadopoulos & N. D. Caranicolas), 389.
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
SUBJECT INDEX. 1D inversion. A direct inversion scheme for deep resistivity sound- ing data using artificial neural networks. 49. 40. Ar-. 39. Ar thermochronology. Tectono-thermal evolution of the India-Asia colli- sion zone based on. 40. Ar-. 39. Ar thermochronology in. Ladakh, India. 737. ANN. Artificial neural network ...
Bice, D.E.; Harris, D.L.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Bowen, J.A.
The effects of inhaled pollutants on the immune defenses in the lung can be studied in several animal species. To assure that the data obtained can be extrapolated to man, it is essential that the development of lung immunity is similar in the experimental animal selected and in humans. Because of the similarity of immune responses in chimpanzees and in humans, the development of immunity in the chimpanzee after lung immunization was evaluated. The results from the chimpanzees were qualitatively the same as those from previous studies in which single lung lobes of dogs were immunized. It was concluded that immunotoxicology data obtained in dogs can be used to estimate the effects of inhaled pollutants on the immune defense mechanism in the human lung
Milošević Jelena; Lilić Vekoslav; Tasić Marija; Radović-Janošević Dragana; Stefanović Milan; Antić Vladimir
Introduction The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complic...
Kotál, Jan; Langhansová, H.; Lieskovská, J.; Andersen, J. F.; Francischetti, I.M.B.; Chavakis, T.; Kopecký, J.; Pedra, J. H. F.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Chmelař, J.
Roč. 128, OCT 14 2015 (2015), s. 58-68 ISSN 1874-3919 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/12/2409 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Adaptive immunity * Innate immunity * Saliva * Salivary glands * Tick Subject RIV: EB - Gene tics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.867, year: 2015
Bailey, S.; Miller, Barbara J.; Cooper, E. L.
The oligochaete annelids Lumbricus terrestris and Eisenia foetida were used to demonstrate adoptive transfer of transplantation immunity. Eisenia grafts were used as sensitizing antigen and test grafts. Host Lumbricus injected with coelomic fluid containing coelomocytes from Lumbricus donors previously sensitized to Eisenia grafts rejected test grafts in an accelerated fashion. The rejection time was shorter and significantly different from that of worms injected with saline or coelomocytes from unsensitized worms. Coelomocytes resemble various vertebrate leucocytes and immunocytes and seem equivalent to a hypothetical invertebrate precursor wandering cell which recognizes and reacts to antigen. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:5558033
Pinge-Filho, P; Peron, J P S; de Moura, T R; Menolli, R A; Graça, V K; Estevão, D; Tadokoro, C E; Jankevicius, J V; Rizzo, L V
We have previously demonstrated that Phytomonas serpens, a tomato parasite, shares antigens with Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoa that causes Chagas' disease. These antigens are recognized by human sera and induce protective immunity in Balb/c mice. In the present study, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) knockout (KO) mice and C57BL/6 mice treated with the nitric oxide inhibitor, aminoguanidine (AG, 50 mg kg(-1)) infected with T. cruzi, were used to demonstrate the role of nitric oxide (NO) to host protection against T. cruzi infection achieved by oral immunization with live P. serpens. A reduction in parasitaemia and an increase in survival were observed in C57BL/6 infected mice and previously immunized with P. serpens, when compared to non-immunized mice. iNOS (KO) mice immunized and C57BL/6 immunized and treated with AG presented parasitaemia and mortality rates comparable to those of infected and non-immunized mice. By itself, immunization with P. serpens did not induce inflammation in the myocardium, but C57BL/6 mice so immunized showed fewer amastigotes nests in the heart following an acute T. cruzi infection than those in non-immunized mice. These results suggest that protective immunity against T. cruzi infection induced by immunization with P. serpens is dependent upon enhanced NO production during the acute phase of T. cruzi infection.
Sylwia Małgorzata Słotwińska
Full Text Available Anorexia nervosa is a disease involving eating disorders. It mainly affects young people, especially teenage women. The disease is often latent and occurs in many sub-clinical and partial forms. Approximately from 0.3% to 1% of the population suffers from anorexia. It has been shown that patients with anorexia develop neurotransmitter-related disorders, leading to uncontrolled changes in the immune and endocrine systems. Interactions between cytokines, neuropeptides, and neurotransmitters play an important role in disease development. Significant malnutrition induces disorders and alterations in T-cell populations. The cellular response in patients with anorexia nervosa has been shown to be normal, although opinions on this issue are controversial. Laboratory studies on neutrophils in anorexia patients showed decreased adhesion and reduced bactericidal and cell activities. Despite such unfavourable results, patients with anorexia are resistant to infections, which are very rare in this group. Glutamine improves the performance of the human immune system. The administration of glutamine to anorexia patients, as a supplement to parenteral nutrition, has resulted in significant improvements in immune system parameters. The results of previous studies on the causes and risk factors in the development of anorexia nervosa are still ambiguous. One can hope that the differences and similarities between patients with anorexia nervosa and those with other forms of protein-calorie malnutrition may be helpful in determining the relationship between nutritional status and body defences and susceptibility to infection, and can help to broaden the knowledge about the aetiopathogenesis of anorexia nervosa.
Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P
To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.
Canaris, Gay J; Tape, Thomas G; Wigton, Robert S
Background Conventional screening for hypothyroidism is controversial. Although hypothyroidism is underdiagnosed, many organizations do not recommend screening, citing low disease prevalence in unselected populations. We studied attendees at a thyroid health fair, hypothesizing that certain patient characteristics would enhance the yield of testing. Methods We carried out an observational study of participants at a Michigan health fair that focused on thyroid disease. We collected patient-rep...
Pareek, Manan; Bhatt, Deepak L; Vaduganathan, Muthiah
failure, stroke, or all-cause mortality. Predictive capabilities were evaluated using Cox proportional-hazards regression, Harrell's concordance index (C-index), and net reclassification improvement. Median age was 66 (interquartile range: 60-70) years, and 413 (31%) were female. During median 8.......6 (interquartile range: 8.1-9.2) follow-up years, 368 (28%) composite events occurred. NT-proBNP, hs-TnT, GDF-15, and IL-6 were significantly associated with outcome, independently of traditional risk factors, medications, and echocardiography ( p
Bathum, Lise; Depont Christensen, René; Engers Pedersen, Lars
This study aimed to investigate the association of lipoprotein and triglyceride levels with all-cause mortality in a population free from diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) at baseline. The European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention state that in general total cholesterol (TC...
Soon, Ing Shian; deBruyn, Jennifer C C; Wrobel, Iwona
Protection against vaccine-preventable diseases is important in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) due to frequent immunosuppressive therapy use. The chronic relapsing nature and treatment regimen of IBD may necessitate modified timing of immunizations. To evaluate the completeness of immunizations in children with IBD. Immunization records of all children with IBD followed at the Alberta Children's Hospital (Calgary, Alberta) were reviewed. For children with incomplete immunization according to the province of Alberta schedule, the reasons for such were clarified. Demographic data and age at diagnosis were also collected. Immunization records were obtained from 145 (79%) children with IBD. Fifteen children had incomplete routine childhood immunizations, including two with no previous immunizations. The most common incomplete immunizations included hepatitis B (n=9), diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis at 14 to 16 years of age (n=7), and diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, inactivated polio at four to six years of age (n=6). The reasons for incomplete immunization included use of immunosuppressive therapy at time of scheduled immunization; IBD-related symptoms at time of scheduled immunization; parental refusal; recent move from elsewhere with different immunization schedule; unawareness of routine immunization; and needle phobia. Although the majority of children with IBD had complete childhood immunizations, suboptimal immunizations were present in 10%. With increasing use of immunosuppressive therapy in IBD, physicians caring for children with IBD must periodically evaluate immunization status and ensure the completeness of childhood immunizations.
Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.
A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)
... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedule for Adults (19 Years of Age and ... diseases that can be prevented by vaccines . 2018 Immunization Schedule Recommended Vaccinations for Adults by Age and ...
... Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Get ... date. See Disclaimer for additional details. Based on Immunization Schedule for Children 0 through 6 Years of ...
... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Immunizations Immunizations and African Americans African American adults are less ... 19 to 35 months had comparable rates of immunization. African American women are as likely to have ...
... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Quiz: Immune System KidsHealth / For Kids / Quiz: Immune System Print How much do you know about your immune system? Find out by taking this quiz! Partner Message ...
Lenski, Markus; Büser, Natalie; Scherer, Michael
Background and purpose - Patients with osteoporosis who present with an acute onset of back pain often have multiple fractures on plain radiographs. Differentiation of an acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture (AOVF) from previous fractures is difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of concomitant AOVFs and previous OVFs in patients with symptomatic AOVFs, and to identify risk factors for concomitant AOVFs. Patients and methods - This was a prospective epidemiological study based on the Registry of Pathological Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures (REPAPORA) with 1,005 patients and 2,874 osteoporotic vertebral fractures, which has been running since February 1, 2006. Concomitant fractures are defined as at least 2 acute short-tau inversion recovery (STIR-) positive vertebral fractures that happen concomitantly. A previous fracture is a STIR-negative fracture at the time of initial diagnostics. Logistic regression was used to examine the influence of various variables on the incidence of concomitant fractures. Results - More than 99% of osteoporotic vertebral fractures occurred in the thoracic and lumbar spine. The incidence of concomitant fractures at the time of first patient contact was 26% and that of previous fractures was 60%. The odds ratio (OR) for concomitant fractures decreased with a higher number of previous fractures (OR =0.86; p = 0.03) and higher dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry T-score (OR =0.72; p = 0.003). Interpretation - Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures are common. Risk factors for concomitant fractures are a low T-score and a low number of previous vertebral fractures in cases of osteoporotic vertebral fracture. An MRI scan of the the complete thoracic and lumbar spine with STIR sequence reduces the risk of under-diagnosis and under-treatment.
Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; H. Mortensen, Laust; Krebs, Lone
OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence and patient characteristics of women with uterine rupture during singleton births at term without a previous caesarean delivery. STUDY DESIGN: Population based cohort study. Women with term singleton birth, no record of previous caesarean delivery and planned...... vaginal delivery (n=611,803) were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry (1997-2008). Medical records from women recorded with uterine rupture during labour were reviewed to ascertain events of complete uterine rupture. Relative Risk (RR) and adjusted Relative Risk Ratio (aRR) of complete uterine...... rupture with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were ascertained according to characteristics of the women and of the delivery. RESULTS: We identified 20 cases with complete uterine rupture. The incidence of complete uterine rupture among women without previous caesarean delivery was about 3...
Weiss, M.; Sýkorová, Zuzana; Garnica, S.; Riess, K.; Martos, F.; Krause, C.; Oberwinkler, F.; Bauer, R.; Redecker, D.
Roč. 6, č. 2 (2011), s. 1-7 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Sebacinales * endophytes * mycorrhiza Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.092, year: 2011
pregnancy if they were married, educated, had dental insurance, previously used dental services when not pregnant, or had knowledge about the possible connection between oral health and pregnancy outcome8. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors determining good oral hygiene among pregnant women ...
The perceptions of educational manag ers from previously disadvantaged primary and high schools in the Nelson Mandela Metropole regarding the issue of empowerment are outlined and the perceptions of educational managers in terms of various aspects of empowerment at different levels reflected. A literature study ...
Anwer, S; Egan, R; Cross, N; Guru Naidu, S; Somasekar, K
Common bile duct stones in patients with a previous gastrectomy can be a technical challenge because of the altered anatomy. This paper presents the successful management of two such patients using non-traditional techniques as conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was not possible.
Doemling, Donald B.; Bowman, Douglas C.
In a five-year study, second-year human physiology students were grouped for laboratory according to previous physiology and laboratory experience. No significant differences in course or board examination performance were found, though correlations were found between predental grade-point averages and grouping. (MSE)
Agrawal, Babita; Singh, Shakti; Gupta, Nancy; Li, Wen; Vedi, Satish; Kumar, Rakesh
Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) afflicts 3% of the world's population and can lead to serious and late-stage liver diseases. Developing a vaccine for HCV is challenging because the correlates of protection are uncertain and traditional vaccine approaches do not work. Studies of natural immunity to HCV in humans have resulted in many enigmas. Human beings are not immunologically naïve because they are continually exposed to various environmental microbes and antigens, creating large populations of memory T cells. Heterologous immunity occurs when this pool of memory T cells cross-react against a new pathogen in an individual. Such heterologous immunity could influence the outcome when an individual is infected by a pathogen. We have recently made an unexpected finding that adenoviruses, a common environmental pathogen and an experimental vaccine vector, can induce robust cross-reactive immune responses against multiple antigens of HCV. Our unique finding of previously uncharacterized heterologous immunity against HCV opens new avenues to understand HCV pathogenesis and develop effective vaccines.
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Immune System KidsHealth / For Parents / Immune System What's in this ... can lead to illness and infection. About the Immune System The immune system is the body's defense against ...
Our Immune System A story for children with primary immunodeficiency diseases Written by Sara LeBien IMMUNE DEFICIENCY FOUNDATION A note ... who are immune deficient to better understand their immune system. What is a “ B-cell, ” a “ T-cell, ” ...
We describe the detection of dihydroxymagnesium carboxylates (CHOMg) in astrochemical context. CHOMg was detected in meteorites via ultrahigh-resolving chemical analytics and represents a novel, previously unreported chemical class. Thus, chemical stability was probed via quantum chemical computations, in combination with experimental fragmentation techniques. Results propose the putative formation of green-chemical OH-Grignard-type molecules and triggered fundamental questions within chemica...
Milosević, Jelena; Lilić, Vekoslav; Tasić, Marija; Radović-Janosević, Dragana; Stefanović, Milan; Antić, Vladimir
The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complication development. The research was conducted at the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Nis covering 10-year-period (from 1995 to 2005) with 32358 deliveries, 1280 deliveries after a previous cesarean section, 131 cases of placenta previa and 118 cases of placental abruption. The experimental groups was presented by the cases of placenta previa or placental abruption with prior cesarean section in obstetrics history, opposite to the control group having the same conditions but without a cesarean section in medical history. The incidence of placenta previa in the control group was 0.33%, opposite to the 1.86% incidence after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections and as high as 14.28% after three cesarean sections in obstetric history. Placental abruption was recorded as placental complication in 0.33% pregnancies in the control group, while its incidence was 1.02% after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections. The difference in the incidence of intrapartal hysterectomy between the group with prior cesarean section (0.86%) and without it (0.006%) shows a high statistical significance (pcesarean section is an important risk factor for the development of placental complications.
... everyone who needs to know the facts about immunization. NNii believes that immunization is one of the most important ways to ... published... What's New for 2002? The Recommended Childhood Immunization Schedule Download the 2002 Recommended Childhood Immunization... Immunization ...
Christophers, E; Metzler, G; Röcken, M
Psoriasis is an immune-regulated skin disease with various clinical subtypes and disease activities. The majority of patients present with predominantly stable plaques. At the onset of new lesions, plaque-type psoriasis frequently demonstrates pin-sized and highly inflammatory papules sometimes with an inflammatory border. The histopathology of initial psoriasis differs from stable plaque-type psoriasis. Early lesions demonstrate innate immune cells with neutrophils, degranulating mast cells and macrophages. These are followed by interleukin (IL)-1-dependent T helper (Th)17 cells, finally resulting in the Th1-dominated immunopathology of stable plaque-type psoriasis, where mononuclear cells predominate with interspersed neutrophilic (Munro) microabscesses. These features suggest a bimodal immune pathway where alternate activation of either innate (autoinflammatory) or adaptive (autoimmune) immunity predominates. Neutrophilic infiltrations appear during early psoriasis with Munro abscesses. They are time limited and occur periodically, clinically best seen in linear nail pitting. These features strongly suggest a critical role for an IL-1-Th17-dominated autoinflammation in the initiation of psoriasis, followed by a Th1-dominated late-phase reaction. The concept of bimodal immune activation helps to explain results from therapeutic interventions that are variable and previously only partly understood. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.
Gleason, Mary Margaret; Fox, Nathan A; Drury, Stacy S; Smyke, Anna T; Nelson, Charles A; Zeanah, Charles H
This study included 54-month-old children with a history of institutional care. Our goal was to: (1) examine differences in indiscriminate social behaviors in children with a history of institutional care compared with home-reared children; (2) test whether foster care reduces indiscriminate social behaviors in a randomized controlled trial; and (3) examine early predictors of indiscriminate behaviors. Participants were 58 children with a history of institutional care and 31 never-institutionalized control (NIG) subjects enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of foster care for institutional care, assessed from toddlerhood to 54 months. Indiscriminate social behaviors were measured naturalistically by using the Stranger at the Door procedure. In the Stranger at the Door procedure, children with a history of institutional care left with a stranger at higher rates than NIG subjects (33% vs. 3.5%; P Children in the care as usual group left more than NIG subjects (41.9% vs. 3.6%; P ≤ .001). The differences between the foster care group (24.1%) and the care as usual group and between foster care group and NIG were not significant. In a logistic regression, early disorganized attachment behaviors, baseline developmental quotient, and caregiving quality after randomization contributed to variance at 54 months. In the same analysis using only children with a history of institutional care, only disorganized attachment contributed significantly to 54-month indiscriminate social behaviors (Exp[B] = 1.6 [95% confidence interval: 1.1-2.5]). Observed socially indiscriminate behaviors at 54 months were associated with prolonged exposure to institutional care. Young children raised in conditions of deprivation who fail to develop organized attachments as toddlers are at increased risk for subsequent indiscriminate behaviors.
Ernst, M E; Bergus, G R; Sorofman, B A
To examine patients' acceptance and reported use of traditional and nontraditional immunization providers and settings. Survey. Stratified sample of private family physician clinics, family medicine residency training programs, community pharmacies that provide immunizations under standing order protocols, and nonimmunizing community pharmacies, all located in Iowa. Individuals presenting for medical care or pharmacy services. Not applicable. Sources of past immunizations, 'access to immunizations, importance of immunization records, and future use of different health care providers and settings for immunizations. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to examine the relationships between patient demographics and recruitment site on the question responses. 420 surveys were returned (67% response rate). Respondents frequently received immunizations at sites other than physician offices. Younger patients and those living in smaller towns were more likely to report receiving an immunization from a nonphysician. Patients recruited in immunizing pharmacies more often reported previous immunization by a pharmacist (P < .001), most often for influenza. Respondents often reported that it was more convenient to receive an immunization outside a physician office. Greater support was noted for receiving adult immunizations from nonphysicians and in nontraditional settings, whereas traditional settings and providers (physician offices, community health departments) were preferred for childhood immunizations. Iowans report accessing different health care providers and settings for their routine immunizations. In general, they are more likely to support using traditional immunization providers and settings for childhood immunizations but are less exclusive about where they receive adult immunizations. Pharmacists should consider focusing initial efforts on administering adult immunizations, due to greater patient acceptance of nontraditional immunizers for adult
Geverink, N A; Parmentier, H K; de Vries Reilingh, G; Schouten, W G P; Gort, G; Wiegant, V M
Several recent studies in juvenile pigs demonstrated a relationship between the degree of resistance displayed early in life in a so-called "backtest" and parameters of cell-mediated and humoral immunity. Some of the immune characteristics were reported to depend on the interaction between backtest classification and housing system. In the present study, the effects of backtest classification and housing condition on immune reactivity in adult gilts were examined. At 10 and 17 days of age, female piglets were subjected to the backtest. In this test, each piglet is restrained on its back for 1 min and the number of escape attempts is scored. Pigs classified as high resisting (HR) or low resisting (LR) were selected and housed in groups of six gilts. At 7 months of age, half of the gilts were housed in individual stalls. At 12 months of age, gilts were challenged by immunization with DNP-KLH. Control gilts were treated similarly with a placebo. Blood samples were drawn prior to immunization (Day 0) and weekly thereafter until Day 28. No significant effects of backtest type on cellular and humoral responses against KLH were found. Furthermore, being housed in stalls as compared to groups had no consequences for the immune response and did not induce differences between HR and LR gilts. Differences in behavior and physiology found previously between HR and LR gilts, particularly in gilts in stall housing, may thus be of relatively little importance for immune-related health.
Trevisan, Andrea; Frasson, Clara; Morandin, Marta; Beggio, Michela; Bruno, Alberto; Davanzo, Elisabetta; Di Marco, Livio; Simioni, Livio; Amato, Guglielmo
To determine whether self-reported history of disease and/or vaccination is predictive of immunity against hepatitis B, varicella, rubella, mumps, and measles. The seroprevalence of viral antibodies and the predictive value of a self-report questionnaire were determined for 616 paramedical students who matriculated into Padua Medical School (Padua, Italy) during 2003-2005. The majority of subjects (86.9%) remembered being vaccinated against hepatitis B but had no recollection of disease. Among vaccinees, 1.5% showed markers of previous infection, 6.7% tested negative for anti-hepatitis B virus surface antigen (anti-HBsAg) antibodies, and 91.8% tested positive for anti-HBsAg. Self-reported vaccination history had a positive predictive value of 93.2% for test results positive for immunity against hepatitis B. Immunity against varicella (93.7% of subjects) and rubella (95.5%) was high, compared with immunity against mumps (79.9%) and measles (83.1%). In addition, results of tests for detection of immunity against mumps and measles were equivocal for more than 7% of subjects, probably because their vaccination regimen was not completed. Self-reported histories of varicella disease and rubella disease and vaccination had high positive predictive values (greater than 98% each) for testing positive for antiviral antibodies, compared with self-reported histories of mumps disease and vaccination and measles disease and vaccination; however, high positive predictive values were observed for self-reported histories of mumps only (92.0%) and measles only (94.7%). The self-report questionnaire used in this study did not accurately predict immunity against 5 transmittable but vaccine-preventable diseases. A complete serological evaluation of healthcare workers, followed by vaccination of those with negative or equivocal results of serological tests, is an appropriate measure to decrease the risk of infection in this population.
Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios
For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.
Randolph, Gwendalyn J; Ivanov, Stoyan; Zinselmeyer, Bernd H; Scallan, Joshua P
The lymphatic vasculature is not considered a formal part of the immune system, but it is critical to immunity. One of its major roles is in the coordination of the trafficking of antigen and immune cells. However, other roles in immunity are emerging. Lymphatic endothelial cells, for example, directly present antigen or express factors that greatly influence the local environment. We cover these topics herein and discuss how other properties of the lymphatic vasculature, such as mechanisms of lymphatic contraction (which immunologists traditionally do not take into account), are nonetheless integral in the immune system. Much is yet unknown, and this nascent subject is ripe for exploration. We argue that to consider the impact of lymphatic biology in any given immunological interaction is a key step toward integrating immunology with organ physiology and ultimately many complex pathologies.
Full Text Available Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administration of E1 prostaglandin (Misoprostol, and intravenous infusion of Oxytocin-Richter. The assessment of rediness of parturient canals was conducted by Bishop’s score; the labour course was assessed by a partogram. The effectiveness of labour induction techniques was assessed by the number of administered doses, the time of onset of regular labour, the course of labour and the postpartum period and the presence of complications, and the course of the early neonatal period, which implied the assessment of the child’s condition, described in the newborn development record. The foetus was assessed by medical ultrasound and antenatal and intranatal cardiotocography (CTG. Obtained results were analysed with SAS statistical processing software. Results The overall percentage of successful births with intravaginal administration of Misoprostol was 93 per cent (83 of cases. This percentage was higher than in the amniotomy group (relative risk (RR 11.7 and was similar to the oxytocin group (RR 0.83. Amniotomy was effective in 54 per cent (39 of cases, when it induced regular labour. Intravenous oxytocin infusion was effective in 94 per cent (89 of cases. This percentage was higher than that with amniotomy (RR 12.5. Conclusions The success of vaginal delivery after previous Caesarean section can be achieved in almost 70 per cent of cases. At that, labour induction does not decrease this indicator and remains within population boundaries.
Šinkora, Marek; Butler, J. E.
Roč. 33, č. 3 (2009), s. 273-283 ISSN 0145-305X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/07/0087; GA ČR GA523/07/0088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : ontogeny of the porcine immune system * swine adaptive immunity * development of alpha beta and gamma delta T cells Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.290, year: 2009
Vinkler, Michal; Albrecht, Tomáš
Roč. 60, č. 3 (2011), s. 277-282 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0640; GA ČR GA206/08/1281; GA ČR GAP505/10/1871 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : acquired immunity * evolutionary immunology * immunological priming * innate immunity * invertebrates Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.554, year: 2011
Milton, J. D.; Clements, G. B.; Edwards, R. H.
We have endeavoured to find immunological indications of chronic virus infection in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (myalgic encephalomyelitis) and to investigate immune responsiveness to viruses in such patients in comparison with normal subjects and patients with muscular dystrophy. Levels of circulating IgM immune complexes were elevated (above the 95% normal control range) in 10 (17%) of 58 patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, which was not significantly different from the norma...
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune bleeding disorder resulting from low platelet counts caused by inadequate production as well as increased destruction by autoimmune mechanisms. As with other autoimmune disorders, chronic ITP is characterized by perturbations of immune homeostasis with hyperactivated effector cells as well as defective regulatory arm of the adaptive immune system, which will be reviewed here. Interestingly, some ITP treatments are associated with restoring the regulatory imbalance, although it remains unclear whether the immune system is redirected to a state of tolerance once treatment is discontinued. Understanding the mechanisms that result in breakdown of immune homeostasis in ITP will help to identify novel pathways for restoring tolerance and inhibiting effector cell responses. This information can then be translated into developing therapies for averting autoimmunity not only in ITP but also many autoimmune disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Griffin, Russell L; Davis, Gregory G; Levitan, Emily B; MacLennan, Paul A; Redden, David T; McGwin, Gerald
Research has reported that a strong risk factor for traumatic injury is having a previous injury (i.e., recidivism). To date, the only study examining the relationship between recidivism and homicide reported strong associations, but was limited by possible selection bias. The current matched case-control study utilized coroner's data from 2004 to 2008. Subjects were linked to trauma registry data to determine whether the person had a previous traumatic injury. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association between homicide and recidivism. Homicide risk was increased for those having a previous traumatic injury (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.09-2.99) or a previous intentional injury (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.24-5.17). These results suggest an association between homicide and injury recidivism, and that trauma centers may be an effective setting for screening individuals for secondary prevention efforts of homicide through violence prevention programs. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
The classical model of immunity posits that the immune system reacts to pathogens and injury and restores homeostasis. Indeed, a century of research has uncovered the means and mechanisms by which the immune system recognizes danger and regulates its own activity. However, this classical model does not fully explain complex phenomena, such as tolerance, allergy, the increased prevalence of inflammatory pathologies in industrialized nations and immunity to multiple infections. In this Essay, I propose a model of immunity that is based on equilibrium, in which the healthy immune system is always active and in a state of dynamic equilibrium between antagonistic types of response. This equilibrium is regulated both by the internal milieu and by the microbial environment. As a result, alteration of the internal milieu or microbial environment leads to immune disequilibrium, which determines tolerance, protective immunity and inflammatory pathology.
Your immune system is a complex network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to defend against germs. It ... t, to find and destroy them. If your immune system cannot do its job, the results can be ...
... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000093.htm Pneumonia - weakened immune system To use the sharing features on this page, ... fighting off infection because of problems with the immune system. This type of disease is called "pneumonia in ...
Terme, Magali; Tanchot, Corinne
Despite having been much debated, it is now well established that the immune system plays an essential role in the fight against cancer. In this article, we will highlight the implication of the immune system in the control of tumor growth and describe the major components of the immune system involved in the antitumoral immune response. The immune system, while exerting pressure on tumor cells, also will play a pro-tumoral role by sculpting the immunogenicity of tumors cells as they develop. Finally, we will illustrate the numerous mechanisms of immune suppression that take place within the tumoral microenvironment which allow tumor cells to escape control from the immune system. The increasingly precise knowledge of the brakes to an effective antitumor immune response allows the development of immunotherapy strategies more and more innovating and promising of hope. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Innate immunity was for a long time considered to be non-specific because the major function of this system is to digest pathogens and present antigens to the cells involved in acquired immunity. However, recent studies have shown that innate immunity is not non-specific, but is instead sufficiently specific to discriminate self from pathogens through evolutionarily conserved receptors, designated Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Indeed, innate immunity has a crucial role in early host defence aga...
Yusuf, Nabiha; Timares, Laura; Seibert, Megan D.; Xu Hui; Elmets, Craig A.
Polyaromatic hydrocarbons are ubiquitous environmental pollutants that are potent mutagens and carcinogens. Researchers have taken advantage of these properties to investigate the mechanisms by which chemicals cause cancer of the skin and other organs. When applied to the skin of mice, several carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons have also been shown to interact with the immune system, stimulating immune responses and resulting in the development of antigen-specific T-cell-mediated immunity. Development of cell-mediated immunity is strain-specific and is governed by Ah receptor genes and by genes located within the major histocompatibility complex. CD8 + T cells are effector cells in the response, whereas CD4 + T cells down-regulate immunity. Development of an immune response appears to have a protective effect since strains of mice that develop a cell-mediated immune response to carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons are less likely to develop tumors when subjected to a polyaromatic hydrocarbon skin carcinogenesis protocol than mice that fail to develop an immune response. With respect to innate immunity, TLR4-deficient C3H/HeJ mice are more susceptible to polyaromatic hydrogen skin tumorigenesis than C3H/HeN mice in which TLR4 is normal. These findings support the hypothesis that immune responses, through their interactions with chemical carcinogens, play an active role in the prevention of chemical skin carcinogenesis during the earliest stages. Efforts to augment immune responses to the chemicals that cause tumors may be a productive approach to the prevention of tumors caused by these agents
Immune Deficiency Disorders; Severe Combined Immunodeficiency; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; X-linked Agammaglobulinemia; Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome; Hyper-IgM; DiGeorge Syndrome; Chediak-Higashi Syndrome; Common Variable Immune Deficiency; Immune Dysregulatory Disorders; Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis; IPEX; Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome; X-linked Lymphoproliferative Syndrome
Work, Kirsten A.; Gibbs, Melissa A.; Friedman, Erich J.
We describe a card game that helps introductory biology students understand the basics of the immune response to pathogens. Students simulate the steps of the immune response with cards that represent the pathogens and the cells and molecules mobilized by the immune system. In the process, they learn the similarities and differences between the…
Rapin, Nicolas; Lund, Ole; Castiglione, Filippo
MOTIVATION: The recognition of antigenic peptides is a major event of an immune response. In current mesoscopic-scale simulators of the immune system, this crucial step has been modeled in a very approximated way. RESULTS: We have equipped an agent-based model of the immune system with immuno...
Plants are invaded by an array of pathogens of which only a few succeed in causing disease. The attack by others is countered by a sophisticated immune system possessed by the plants. The plant immune system is broadly divided into two, viz. microbial-associated molecular-patterns-triggered immunity (MTI) and ...
Gaetano Andrea De
Full Text Available Abstract Background Transplantation is often the only way to treat a number of diseases leading to organ failure. To overcome rejection towards the transplanted organ (graft, immunosuppression therapies are used, which have considerable side-effects and expose patients to opportunistic infections. The development of a model to complement the physician’s experience in specifying therapeutic regimens is therefore desirable. The present work proposes an Ordinary Differential Equations model accounting for immune cell proliferation in response to the sudden entry of graft antigens, through different activation mechanisms. The model considers the effect of a single immunosuppressive medication (e.g. cyclosporine, subject to first-order linear kinetics and acting by modifying, in a saturable concentration-dependent fashion, the proliferation coefficient. The latter has been determined experimentally. All other model parameter values have been set so as to reproduce reported state variable time-courses, and to maintain consistency with one another and with the experimentally derived proliferation coefficient. Results The proposed model substantially simplifies the chain of events potentially leading to organ rejection. It is however able to simulate quantitatively the time course of graft-related antigen and competent immunoreactive cell populations, showing the long-term alternative outcomes of rejection, tolerance or tolerance at a reduced functional tissue mass. In particular, the model shows that it may be difficult to attain tolerance at full tissue mass with acceptably low doses of a single immunosuppressant, in accord with clinical experience. Conclusions The introduced model is mathematically consistent with known physiology and can reproduce variations in immune status and allograft survival after transplantation. The model can be adapted to represent different therapeutic schemes and may offer useful indications for the optimization of
De Gaetano, Andrea; Matone, Alice; Agnes, Annamaria; Palumbo, Pasquale; Ria, Francesco; Magalini, Sabina
Transplantation is often the only way to treat a number of diseases leading to organ failure. To overcome rejection towards the transplanted organ (graft), immunosuppression therapies are used, which have considerable side-effects and expose patients to opportunistic infections. The development of a model to complement the physician's experience in specifying therapeutic regimens is therefore desirable. The present work proposes an Ordinary Differential Equations model accounting for immune cell proliferation in response to the sudden entry of graft antigens, through different activation mechanisms. The model considers the effect of a single immunosuppressive medication (e.g. cyclosporine), subject to first-order linear kinetics and acting by modifying, in a saturable concentration-dependent fashion, the proliferation coefficient. The latter has been determined experimentally. All other model parameter values have been set so as to reproduce reported state variable time-courses, and to maintain consistency with one another and with the experimentally derived proliferation coefficient. The proposed model substantially simplifies the chain of events potentially leading to organ rejection. It is however able to simulate quantitatively the time course of graft-related antigen and competent immunoreactive cell populations, showing the long-term alternative outcomes of rejection, tolerance or tolerance at a reduced functional tissue mass. In particular, the model shows that it may be difficult to attain tolerance at full tissue mass with acceptably low doses of a single immunosuppressant, in accord with clinical experience. The introduced model is mathematically consistent with known physiology and can reproduce variations in immune status and allograft survival after transplantation. The model can be adapted to represent different therapeutic schemes and may offer useful indications for the optimization of therapy protocols in the transplanted patient.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Chemical gas weapons especially nitrogen mustard which was used in Iraq-Iran war against Iranian troops have several harmful effects on skin. Some other chemical agents also can cause acne form lesions on skin. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of acneform in previously chemically damaged soldiers and non chemically damaged persons. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, 180 chemically damaged soldiers, who have been referred to dermatology clinic between 2000 – 2004, and forty non-chemically damaged people, were chosen randomly and examined for acneform lesions. SPSS software was used for statistic analysis of the data. Results: The mean age of the experimental group was 37.5 ± 5.2 and that of the control group was 38.7 ± 5.9 years. The mean percentage of chemical damage in cases was 31 percent and the time after the chemical damage was 15.2 ± 1.1 years. Ninety seven cases (53.9 percent of the subjects and 19 people (47.5 percent of the control group had some degree of acne. No significant correlation was found in incidence, degree of lesions, site of lesions and age of subjects between two groups. No significant correlation was noted between percentage of chemical damage and incidence and degree of lesions in case group. Conclusion: Incidence of acneform lesions among previously chemically injured peoples was not higher than the normal cases.
Full Text Available Assessment of costs accompanying activation of immune system and related neuroendocrine pathways is essential for understanding the selective forces operating on these systems. Here we attempted to detect such costs in terms of disruption to redox balance and interference between different immune system components in captive wild-caught greenfinches (Carduelis chloris. Study birds were subjected to an endotoxin-induced inflammatory challenge and temporary exposure to a psychological stressor (an image of a predator in a 2*2 factorial experiment. Injection of bacterial endotoxin resulted in up-regulation of two markers of antioxidant protection - erythrocyte glutathione, and plasma oxygen radical absorbance (OXY. These findings suggest that inflammatory responses alter redox homeostasis. However, no effect on markers of oxidative damage to proteins or DNA in erythrocytes could be detected. We found no evidence that the endotoxin injection interfered with antibody production against Brucella abortus antigen or the intensity of chronic coccidiosis. The hypothesis of within-immune system trade-offs as a cost of immunity was thus not supported in our model system. We showed for the first time that administration of endotoxin can reduce the level of corticosterone deposited into feathers. This finding suggests a down-regulation of the corticosterone secretion cascade due to an endotoxin-induced immune response, a phenomenon that has not been reported previously. Exposure to the predator image did not affect any of the measured physiological parameters.
Full Text Available Dengue is one of the most important and wide-spread viral infections affecting human populations. The last few decades have seen a dramatic increase in the global burden of dengue, with the virus now being endemic or near-endemic in over 100 countries world-wide. A recombinant tetravalent vaccine candidate (CYD-TDV has recently completed Phase III clinical efficacy trials in South East Asia and Latin America and has been licensed for use in several countries. The trial results showed moderate-to-high efficacies in protection against clinical symptoms and hospitalisation but with so far unknown effects on transmission and infections per se. Model-based predictions about the vaccine's short- or long-term impact on the burden of dengue are therefore subject to a considerable degree of uncertainty. Furthermore, different immune interactions between dengue's serotypes have frequently been evoked by modelling studies to underlie dengue's oscillatory dynamics in disease incidence and serotype prevalence. Here we show how model assumptions regarding immune interactions in the form of antibody-dependent enhancement, temporary cross-immunity and the number of infections required to develop full immunity can significantly affect the predicted outcome of a dengue vaccination campaign. Our results thus re-emphasise the important gap in our current knowledge concerning the effects of previous exposure on subsequent dengue infections and further suggest that intervention impact studies should be critically evaluated by their underlying assumptions about serotype immune-interactions.
Meitern, Richard; Sild, Elin; Lind, Mari-Ann; Männiste, Marju; Sepp, Tuul; Karu, Ulvi; Hõrak, Peeter
Assessment of costs accompanying activation of immune system and related neuroendocrine pathways is essential for understanding the selective forces operating on these systems. Here we attempted to detect such costs in terms of disruption to redox balance and interference between different immune system components in captive wild-caught greenfinches (Carduelis chloris). Study birds were subjected to an endotoxin-induced inflammatory challenge and temporary exposure to a psychological stressor (an image of a predator) in a 2*2 factorial experiment. Injection of bacterial endotoxin resulted in up-regulation of two markers of antioxidant protection – erythrocyte glutathione, and plasma oxygen radical absorbance (OXY). These findings suggest that inflammatory responses alter redox homeostasis. However, no effect on markers of oxidative damage to proteins or DNA in erythrocytes could be detected. We found no evidence that the endotoxin injection interfered with antibody production against Brucella abortus antigen or the intensity of chronic coccidiosis. The hypothesis of within-immune system trade-offs as a cost of immunity was thus not supported in our model system. We showed for the first time that administration of endotoxin can reduce the level of corticosterone deposited into feathers. This finding suggests a down-regulation of the corticosterone secretion cascade due to an endotoxin-induced immune response, a phenomenon that has not been reported previously. Exposure to the predator image did not affect any of the measured physiological parameters. PMID:23805316
Meitern, Richard; Sild, Elin; Lind, Mari-Ann; Männiste, Marju; Sepp, Tuul; Karu, Ulvi; Hõrak, Peeter
Assessment of costs accompanying activation of immune system and related neuroendocrine pathways is essential for understanding the selective forces operating on these systems. Here we attempted to detect such costs in terms of disruption to redox balance and interference between different immune system components in captive wild-caught greenfinches (Carduelis chloris). Study birds were subjected to an endotoxin-induced inflammatory challenge and temporary exposure to a psychological stressor (an image of a predator) in a 2*2 factorial experiment. Injection of bacterial endotoxin resulted in up-regulation of two markers of antioxidant protection - erythrocyte glutathione, and plasma oxygen radical absorbance (OXY). These findings suggest that inflammatory responses alter redox homeostasis. However, no effect on markers of oxidative damage to proteins or DNA in erythrocytes could be detected. We found no evidence that the endotoxin injection interfered with antibody production against Brucella abortus antigen or the intensity of chronic coccidiosis. The hypothesis of within-immune system trade-offs as a cost of immunity was thus not supported in our model system. We showed for the first time that administration of endotoxin can reduce the level of corticosterone deposited into feathers. This finding suggests a down-regulation of the corticosterone secretion cascade due to an endotoxin-induced immune response, a phenomenon that has not been reported previously. Exposure to the predator image did not affect any of the measured physiological parameters.
Full Text Available To speak for the Diplomatic Law (Immunities and Privileges in International Organizations, first, this topic briefly describes the international organizations, what are they, as established, as extinct, and finally, as a shared international organizations. They are not subject of this paper, but Immunity and Privileges in International Organizations are. This paper gives an overview of the history of the immunity and privileges in international organizations, conventions, laws of the country regarding Immunities and Privileges, where the seat of the International Organization, Immunities and privileges of diplomatic representatives in international organizations, Immunities and privileges of representatives of international organizations in the state where the seat of the Organization, immunity and privileges of members of the family, diplomatic representatives International Organizations, Immunities and Privileges in the European Union, the difference between the immunity and privileges of international organizations, and Immunity and Privileges between states. This paper analyzes also the immunity and inviolability of buildings of International Organizations, immunity and inviolability of the archives of international organizations, the immunity and privileges of goods to international organizations, the release from the obligation of tax payments, the release from the provision of the diplomatic staff of International Organizations, etc. However, the paper includes charts, respectively, some official data from countries where the headquarters of international organizations are situated and gives an overview of the number of international governmental and nongovernmental organizations.
Sjödin, Anders Mikael
’. The Panel has previously assessed a claim on iron and contribution to the normal function of the immune system in the general population with a favourable outcome. The Panel considers that the role of iron in the functioning of the immune system applies to all ages, including infants and young children up...... to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to iron and contribution to the normal function of the immune system. The scope of the application was proposed to fall under a health claim referring to children’s development and health. The Panel considers that the food...... constituent, iron, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised and that contribution to the normal function of the immune system is a beneficial physiological effect. The target population proposed by the applicant is ‘infants and young children from birth to 3 years of age...
Lambert, Nathaniel; Haralambieva, Iana; Ovsyannikova, Inna; Larrabee, Beth; Pankratz, V. Shane; Poland, Gregory
Although vaccination campaigns have significantly reduced the global burden of rubella disease, there are still regional outbreaks and cases of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Rubella vaccination elicits a strong humoral, as well as cellular, response. The relationship between these two measures in response to rubella vaccine is poorly understood. We have previously reported no correlation between rubella virus-specific cytokine secretion and IgG antibody levels after rubella vaccination. In the current study, we extend our previous work to report correlations between secreted cytokines and functional neutralizing antibodies after rubella vaccination in four distinct cohorts. There was evidence of significant differences (p rubella virus-specific humoral and cellular responses between cohorts. When investigating relationships between rubella vaccine-specific humoral and cellular immunity, we observed a significant correlation between neutralizing antibodies and IFN-γ (rs = 0.21, p = 0.0004). We also observed correlations in subjects with extreme humoral immune phenotypes and IFN-γ levels in two of the four cohorts (rs = 0.32, p = 0.01; rs = 0.36, p = 0.01, respectively). These findings indicate that there is a high level of heterogeneity in rubella-specific immune responses between study populations. We believe that the novel correlation discovered between IFN-γ and neutralizing antibody titers will give future insight into the functional mechanisms of immunity induced by rubella virus and other live viral vaccines. PMID:24375276
Pathinayake, Prabuddha S; Hsu, Alan C-Y; Wark, Peter A B
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major infectious disease affecting millions of people worldwide and it is the main etiological agent for outbreaks of hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Infection is often associated with severe gastroenterological, pulmonary, and neurological diseases that are most prevalent in children. Currently, no effective vaccine or antiviral drugs exist against EV71 infection. A lack of knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of EV71 infection in the host and the virus-host interactions is a major constraint to developing specific antiviral strategies against this infection. Previous studies have identified and characterized the function of several viral proteins produced by EV71 that interact with the host innate immune proteins, including type I interferon signaling and microRNAs. These interactions eventually promote efficient viral replication and increased susceptibility to the disease. In this review we discuss the functions of EV71 viral proteins in the modulation of host innate immune responses to facilitate viral replication.
Wang, Ying-Hui; Zhang, Yu-Gen
Innate immune system is an important modulator of the inflammatory response during infection and tissue injury/repair. The kidney as a vital organ with high energy demand plays a key role in regulating the disease related metabolic process. Increasing research interest has focused on the immune pathogenesis of many kidney diseases. However, innate immune cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages, NK cells and a few innate lymphocytes, as well as the complement system are essential for renal immune homeostasis and ensure a coordinated balance between tissue injury and regeneration. The innate immune response provides the first line of host defense initiated by several classes of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as membrane-bound Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), together with inflammasomes responsible for early innate immune response. Although the innate immune system is well studied, the research on the detailed relationship between innate immunity and kidney is still very limited. In this review, we will focus on the innate immune sensing system in renal immune homeostasis, as well as the corresponding pathogenesis of many kidney diseases. The pivotal roles of innate immunity in renal injury and regeneration with special emphasis on kidney disease related immunoregulatory mechanism are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wu, Jie; Xie, Aini; Chen, Wenhao
The immune system provides defenses against invading pathogens while maintaining immune tolerance to self-antigens. This immune homeostasis is harmonized by the direct interactions between immune cells and the cytokine environment in which immune cells develop and function. Herein, we discuss three non-redundant paradigms by which cytokines maintain or break immune tolerance. We firstly describe how anti-inflammatory cytokines exert direct inhibitory effects on immune cells to enforce immune ...
Lionakis, Michail S.; Iliev, Iliyan D.; Hohl, Tobias M.
Pathogenic fungi cause a wide range of syndromes in immune-competent and immune-compromised individuals, with life-threatening disease primarily seen in humans with HIV/AIDS and in patients receiving immunosuppressive therapies for cancer, autoimmunity, and end-organ failure. The discovery that specific primary immune deficiencies manifest with fungal infections and the development of animal models of mucosal and invasive mycoses have facilitated insight into fungus-specific recognition, signaling, effector pathways, and adaptive immune responses. Progress in deciphering the molecular and cellular basis of immunity against fungi is guiding preclinical studies into vaccine and immune reconstitution strategies for vulnerable patient groups. Furthermore, recent work has begun to address the role of endogenous fungal communities in human health and disease. In this review, we summarize a contemporary understanding of protective immunity against fungi. PMID:28570272
Bayer, Ronald, Ed.
Six articles are presented on the use of human subjects in research on acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Topics include the ethics of human experimentation, female and pediatric AIDS patients, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and AIDS among correctional inmates, community-based AIDS research, and clinical trials of HIV…
Jackson, Sarah E; Mason, Gavin M; Wills, Mark R
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection induces both innate immune responses including Natural Killer cells as well as adaptive humoral and cell mediated (CD4+ helper, CD8+ cytotoxic and γδ T cell) responses which lead to the resolution of acute primary infection. Despite such a robust primary immune response, HCMV is still able to establish latency. Long term memory T cell responses are maintained at high frequency and are thought to prevent clinical disease following periodic reactivation of the virus. As such, a balance is established between the immune response and viral reactivation. Loss of this balance in the immunocompromised host can lead to unchecked viral replication following reactivation of latent virus, with consequent disease and mortality. HCMV encodes multiple immune evasion mechanisms that target both the innate and acquired immune system. This article describes the current understanding of Natural killer cell, antibody and T cell mediated immune responses and the mechanisms that the virus utilizes to subvert these responses. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Marie-Louise H. Hansen
Full Text Available Background: Whereas the effects of various socio-demographic determinants on a woman's risk of having an abortion are relatively well-documented, less attention has been given to the effect of previous abortions and births. Objective: To study the effect of previous abortions and births on Danish women's risk of an abortion, in addition to a number of demographic and personal characteristics. Data and methods: From the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset we obtained data on the number of live births and induced abortions by year (1981-2001, age (16-39, county of residence and marital status. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of the explanatory variables on the probability of having an abortion in a relevant year. Main findings and conclusion: A woman's risk of having an abortion increases with the number of previous births and previous abortions. Some interactions were was found in the way a woman's risk of abortion varies with calendar year, age and parity. The risk of an abortion for women with no children decreases while the risk of an abortion for women with children increases over time. Furthermore, the risk of an abortion decreases with age, but relatively more so for women with children compared to childless women. Trends for teenagers are discussed in a separate section.
Sin, Yung Wa; Newman, Chris; Dugdale, Hannah L.; Buesching, Christina; Mannarelli, Maria Elena; Annavi, Geetha; Burke, Terry; MacDonald, David W.
The innate immune system provides the primary vertebrate defence system against pathogen invasion, but it is energetically costly and can have immune pathological effects. A previous study in sticklebacks found that intermediate major histocompatibility complex (MHC) diversity correlated with a
Elma Z Tchilian
Full Text Available BCG, the only licensed vaccine against tuberculosis, provides some protection against disseminated disease in infants but has little effect on prevention of adult pulmonary disease. Newer parenteral immunization prime boost regimes may provide improved protection in experimental animal models but are unproven in man so that there remains a need for new and improved immunization strategies.Mice were immunized parenterally, intranasally or simultaneously by both routes with BCG or recombinant mycobacterial antigens plus appropriate adjuvants. They were challenged with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb and the kinetics of Mtb growth in the lungs measured. We show that simultaneous immunization (SIM of mice by the intranasal and parenteral routes is highly effective in increasing protection over parenteral BCG administration alone. Intranasal immunization induces local pulmonary immunity capable of inhibiting the growth of Mtb in the early phase (the first week of infection, while parenteral immunization has a later effect on Mtb growth. Importantly, these two effects are additive and do not depend on priming and boosting the immune response. The best SIM regimes reduce lung Mtb load by up to 2 logs more than BCG given by either route alone.These data establish SIM as a novel and highly effective immunization strategy for Mtb that could be carried out at a single clinic visit. The efficacy of SIM does not depend on priming and boosting an immune response, but SIM is complementary to prime boost strategies and might be combined with them.
Molyneaux, P J
Rotaviruses are the most important cause of severe gastro-enteritis in infants and young children. However, the determinants of protective immunity are poorly understood. Human immunity to rotavirus can be acquired passively or actively. It may be humoral or cell-mediated, protective or non-protective, homotypic or heterotypic and mucosal or systemic, or any combination of these. Mucosal immunity is protective against rotavirus illness, but not against infection, whereas systemic immunity reflects exposure, but probably has little if any role in protection. Both local and cell-mediated immunity are likely to be important in protection. However, there is no agreement as to a reliable surrogate marker of small intestinal protective immunity, and little is known about small intestinal cell-mediated immunity in man, especially infants. Passive mucosal immunity, but not systemic immunity, may contribute to protection in breast-fed infants, and in those at increased risk of serious illness who have been given oral immunoglobulin, either as prophylaxis or therapeutically. Animal and adult studies may have only limited relevance to those who are at greatest risk of serious illness. However, it is probably from such studies that hypotheses about small intestinal cell-mediated immunity in the protection of infants against rotavirus infection in man remain unclear, and this continues to hinder vaccine research.
Malik, Jyoti; Bhan, Maharaj K; Ray, Pratima
Annual deaths in infants and young children due to rotavirus (RV) infection are around 100,000 in India and about 600,000 globally. Development of a vaccine for this disease is a high priority. The protective mechanisms for RV diarrhea in human are not fully understood, but it is known that children develop natural immunity against RV. Early exposure to RV results in most severe episode of diarrhea and subsequent infections are milder or asymptomatic. Of the immune responses measured during natural infection, RV-specific antibodies have been well documented, whereas data on cellular immunity in humans are sparse. It is generally thought that two outer capsid proteins VP4 and VP7 play a critical role in protective immunity by stimulating production of neutralizing antibodies. While serotype- specific protection mediated by antibodies directed against the outer capsid proteins may be a mechanism of protection, such a correlate for protection has been difficult to demonstrate in humans during clinical trials. Increasing evidences suggest that viral proteins that lack a capacity of eliciting neutralizing antibody response also induce protective immunity. Limited efforts have focused on the role of non-structural proteins in protective immunity. This review describes current understanding of antibody responses in children with focus on responses specific to viral antigens with their possible role in protective immunity. We have also briefly reviewed the responses elicited to non-antibody effectors during RV infection in human subjects.
Helfert, Stephanie M
It has been a long journey starting from the beginnings of variolation  leading up to the greatest success in the history of immunization: the eradication of smallpox . Today, vaccines are an acknowledged important medical advance . Nevertheless, immunization has been the subject of public controversy on several occasions [15, 24, 31]. This article shall provide a short overview of some aspects of the early stages of immunization in Western countries, including some examples of vaccine safety controversies in the past.
Kaunisto, Kari M; Suhonen, Jukka
The immune response affects host's survival and reproductive success. Insurmountable immune function has not evolved because it is costly and there is a trade-off between other life-history traits. In previous studies several factors such as diet and temperature have been proposed to cause interpopulation differences in immune response. Moreover, the insect immune system may be functionally more protective upon secondary exposure, thus infection history may associate with the immune response. Here we measured how geographical location and parasite burden is related to variation in immune response between populations. We included 13 populations of the Northern Damselfly Coenagrion hastulatum (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) in Finland over a latitudinal range of 880 km to this study. We found that water mites associated strongly with the immune response at interpopulation level: the more the mites, the higher the immune response. Also, in an alternative model based on AIC, latitude and individual size associated with the immune response. In turn, endoparasitic gregarines did not affect the immune response. To conclude, a positive interpopulation association between the immune response and the rate of water mite infection may indicate (i) local adaptation to chronic parasite stress, (ii) effective 'induced' immune response against parasites, or (iii) a combined effect of both of these.
Weissman, Daniel H.; Carp, Joshua
Congruency effects in distracter interference tasks are often smaller after incongruent trials than after congruent trials. However, the sources of such congruency sequence effects (CSEs) are controversial. The conflict monitoring model of cognitive control links CSEs to the detection and resolution of response conflict. In contrast, competing theories attribute CSEs to attentional or affective processes that vary with previous-trial congruency (incongruent vs. congruent). The present study s...
Denholm, Rachel; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Stücker, Isabelle; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brenner, Darren R.; De Matteis, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Siemiatycki, Jack; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Zaridze, David; Field, John K.; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Kendzia, Benjamin; Peters, Susan; Behrens, Thomas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brüning, Thomas; Kromhout, Hans
Rationale: Previous respiratory diseases have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Respiratory conditions often co-occur and few studies have investigated multiple conditions simultaneously. Objectives: Investigate lung cancer risk associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and asthma. Methods: The SYNERGY project pooled information on previous respiratory diseases from 12,739 case subjects and 14,945 control subjects from 7 case–control studies conducted in Europe and Canada. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between individual diseases adjusting for co-occurring conditions, and patterns of respiratory disease diagnoses and lung cancer. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, center, ever-employed in a high-risk occupation, education, smoking status, cigarette pack-years, and time since quitting smoking. Measurements and Main Results: Chronic bronchitis and emphysema were positively associated with lung cancer, after accounting for other respiratory diseases and smoking (e.g., in men: odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–1.48 and OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.21–1.87, respectively). A positive relationship was observed between lung cancer and pneumonia diagnosed 2 years or less before lung cancer (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 2.33–4.70 for men), but not longer. Co-occurrence of chronic bronchitis and emphysema and/or pneumonia had a stronger positive association with lung cancer than chronic bronchitis “only.” Asthma had an inverse association with lung cancer, the association being stronger with an asthma diagnosis 5 years or more before lung cancer compared with shorter. Conclusions: Findings from this large international case–control consortium indicate that after accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases, chronic bronchitis and emphysema continue to have a positive association with lung cancer. PMID:25054566
Various clause types in Dutch and German are at least temporarily ambiguous with respect to the order of subject and object. A number of previous studies regarding the processing of such subject-object ambiguities have reported a preference for a subject-object interpretation. This order preference
Schofield, Louis; Mueller, Ivo
Under appropriate conditions of transmission intensity, functional immunity to malaria appears to be acquired in distinct stages. The first phase reduces the likelihood of severe or fatal disease; the second phase limits the clinical impact of 'mild' malaria; and the third provides partial but incomplete protection against pathogen burden. These findings suggest clinical immunity to mortality and morbidity is acquired earlier, with greater ease, and via distinct mechanisms as compared to anti-parasite immunity, which is more difficult to achieve, takes longer and is only ever partially efficacious. The implications of this view are significant in that current vaccination strategies aim predominantly to achieve anti-parasite immunity, although imparting clinical immunity is the public health objective. Despite enormous relevance for global public health, the mechanisms governing these processes remain obscure. Four candidate mechanisms might mediate clinical immunity, namely immunity to cytoadherence determinants, tolerance to toxins, acquired immunity to toxins, and immunoregulation. This review addresses the targets and determinants of clinical immunity, and considers the implications for vaccine development.
Principi, Nicola; Litt, David; Terranova, Leonardo; Picca, Marina; Malvaso, Concetta; Vitale, Cettina; Fry, Norman K; Esposito, Susanna
To evaluate the role of Bordetella pertussis infection, 96 otherwise healthy 7- to 17-year-old subjects who were suffering from a cough lasting from 2 to 8 weeks were prospectively recruited. At enrolment, a nasopharyngeal swab and an oral fluid sample were obtained to search for pertussis infection by the detection of B. pertussis DNA and/or an elevated titre of anti-pertussis toxin IgG. Evidence of pertussis infection was found in 18 (18.7 %; 95 % confidence interval, 11.5-28.0) cases. In 15 cases, the disease occurred despite booster administration. In two cases, pertussis was diagnosed less than 2 years after the booster injection, whereas in the other cases it was diagnosed between 2 and 9 years after the booster dose. This study used non-invasive testing to show that pertussis is one of the most important causes of long-lasting cough in school-age subjects. Moreover, the protection offered by acellular pertussis vaccines currently wanes more rapidly than previously thought.
Croiset, G; Heijnen, C J; Veldhuis, H D; de Wied, D; Ballieux, R E
The influence of mild, emotional stress was investigated for its effect on the immune system by subjecting rats to the one-trial-learning passive avoidance test. The reactivity of the immune system was tested by determining the proliferative response after mitogenic stimulation in vitro as well as
Smits, Hermelijn H.; de Jong, Esther C.; Wierenga, Eddy A.; Kapsenberg, Martien L.
Adaptive immunity protects against infection and cancer but is also a potential threat to the host because of the risk of excessive inflammation or the development of autoimmunity and allergy. Therefore, immune responses are subject to negative regulation. An important aspect of negative regulation
Background: Age appropriate immunization (AAI) observed as an important issue irrespective of vaccine coverage. Aim: To study the extent of AAI in a state with high coverage for fully immunized (FI) coverage. Subjects and Methods: A rapid cross-sectional survey was done in all 12 districts of Himachal Pradesh, India ...
Full Text Available The "gold standard" for assessing mucosal immunity after vaccination with poliovirus vaccines consists in measuring virus excretion in stool after challenge with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV. This testing is time and resource intensive, and development of alternative methods is a priority for accelerating polio eradication. We therefore evaluated circulating antibody-secreting cells (ASCs as a potential means to evaluate mucosal immunity to poliovirus vaccine.199 subjects, aged 10 years, and previously immunized repeatedly with OPV, were selected. Subjects were assigned to receive either a booster dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV, bivalent OPV (bOPV, or no vaccine. Using a micro-modified whole blood-based ELISPOT assay designed for field setting, circulating poliovirus type-specific IgA- and IgG-ASCs, including gut homing α4β7+ ASCs, were enumerated on days 0 and 7 after booster immunization. In addition, serum samples collected on days 0, 28 and 56 were tested for neutralizing antibody titers against poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3. Stool specimens were collected on day 28 (day of bOPV challenge, and on days 31, 35 and 42 and processed for poliovirus isolation.An IPV dose elicited blood IgA- and IgG-ASC responses in 84.8 to 94.9% of subjects, respectively. In comparison, a bOPV dose evoked corresponding blood ASC responses in 20.0 to 48.6% of subjects. A significant association was found between IgA- and IgG-ASC responses and serum neutralizing antibody titers for poliovirus type 1, 2, 3 (p<0.001. In the IPV group, α4β7+ ASCs accounted for a substantial proportion of IgA-ASCs and the proportion of subjects with a positive α4β7+ IgA-ASC response to poliovirus types 1, 2 and 3 was 62.7%, 89.8% and 45.8%, respectively. A significant association was observed between virus excretion and α4β7+ IgA- and/or IgG-ASC responses to poliovirus type 3 among immunized children; however, only a weak association was found for type 1 poliovirus
Zhang, Qing; Wang, Peng; Kim, Yohan
We present a new release of the immune epitope database analysis resource (IEDB-AR, http://tools.immuneepitope.org), a repository of web-based tools for the prediction and analysis of immune epitopes. New functionalities have been added to most of the previously implemented tools, and a total...
Butler, J. E.; Lager, K.; Golde, W.; Faaberg, K. S.; Šinkora, Marek; Loving, C.; Zhang, Y.
Roč. 59, 1-3 (2014), s. 81-108 ISSN 0257-277X Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Immune dysregulation * Pandemic * Economic loss Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.098, year: 2014
Fu, Ying; Liu, Qiang; Anrather, Josef
Inflammatory and immune responses in the brain can shape the clinical presentation and outcome of stroke. Approaches for effective management of acute stroke are sparse and many measures for brain protection fail, but our ability to modulate the immune system and modify the disease progression of multiple sclerosis is increasing. As a result, immune interventions are currently being explored as therapeutic interventions in acute stroke. In this Review, we compare the immunological features of acute stroke with those of multiple sclerosis, identify unique immunological features of stroke, and consider the evidence for immune interventions. In acute stroke, microglia activation and cell death products trigger an inflammatory cascade that damages vessels and the parenchyma within minutes to hours of the ischaemia or haemorrhage. Immune interventions that restrict brain inflammation, vascular permeability and tissue oedema must be administered rapidly to reduce acute immune-mediated destruction and to avoid subsequent immunosuppression. Preliminary results suggest that the use of drugs that modify disease in multiple sclerosis might accomplish these goals in ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. Further elucidation of the immune mechanisms involved in stroke is likely to lead to successful immune interventions. PMID:26303850
... b Varicella (Chickenpox) Inactivated Polio Measles, Mumps, Rubella Hepatitis A Pneumococcal Conjugate Influenza (Flu) Adapted from Immunizations & Infectious Diseases: An Informed Parent’s Guide Copyright © 2006 American Academy of Pediatrics, revised 2/2012 Note: Immunization information is updated ...
Clinical trial: Randomized. Blind. Double-dummy design. Placebo-controlled. Vector. Insert. : A process of artificial induction of immunity in an effort to protect against infectious disease. : Induces in the recipient a degree of immunity similar to that achieved from the natural infection, and is able to prevent clinical disease.
Allie, S Rameeza; Randall, Troy D
Mucosal surfaces, such as the respiratory epithelium, are directly exposed to the external environment and therefore, are highly susceptible to viral infection. As a result, the respiratory tract has evolved a variety of innate and adaptive immune defenses in order to prevent viral infection or promote the rapid destruction of infected cells and facilitate the clearance of the infecting virus. Successful adaptive immune responses often lead to a functional state of immune memory, in which memory lymphocytes and circulating antibodies entirely prevent or lessen the severity of subsequent infections with the same virus. This is also the goal of vaccination, although it is difficult to vaccinate in a way that mimics respiratory infection. Consequently, some vaccines lead to robust systemic immune responses, but relatively poor mucosal immune responses that protect the respiratory tract. In addition, adaptive immunity is not without its drawbacks, as overly robust inflammatory responses may lead to lung damage and impair gas exchange or exacerbate other conditions, such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Thus, immune responses to respiratory viral infections must be strong enough to eliminate infection, but also have mechanisms to limit damage and promote tissue repair in order to maintain pulmonary homeostasis. Here, we will discuss the components of the adaptive immune system that defend the host against respiratory viral infections. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.
Sáfadi, Marco Aurélio; Bettinger, Julie A; Maturana, Gabriela Moreno; Enwere, Godwin; Borrow, Ray
Meningococcal disease is a major public health problem and immunization is considered the best strategy for prevention. The introduction of meningococcal C conjugate immunization schedules that targeted adolescents, with catch-up programs in several European countries, Australia and Canada proved to be highly effective, with dramatic reduction in the incidence of serogroup C disease, not only in vaccinated, but also in unvaccinated individuals. Meningococcal quadrivalent (A, C, W, Y) conjugate vaccines are now licensed and are being used in adolescent programs in North America and to control serogroup W disease in South America. In the African meningitis belt, a mass immunization campaign against serogroup A disease using a meningococcal A conjugate vaccine is now controlling the devastating epidemics of meningococcal disease. After introducing new immunization programs, it is of importance to maintain enhanced surveillance for a better understanding of the changing nature of disease epidemiology. This information is crucial for identifying optimal immunization policies.
Pandey, Rupal; Mousawy, Khalida; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash
Cannabinoid pharmacology has made important advances in recent years after the discovery of the cannabinoid receptors. These discoveries have added to our understanding of exogenous and endogenous cannabinoid signaling along with exploring the various pathways of their biosynthesis, molecular structure, inactivation, and anatomical distribution of their receptors throughout the body. The endocannabinoid system is involved in immunoregulation and neuroprotection. In this article, we have reviewed the possible mechanisms of the regulation of the immune response by endocannabinoids which include modulation of immune response in different cell types, effect on cytokine network, induction of apoptosis in immune cells and downregulation of innate and adaptive immune response. Studies from our laboratory have suggested that administration of endocannabinoids or use of inhibitors of enzymes that breakdown the endocannabinoids, leads to immunosuppression and recovery from immune-mediated injury to organs such as the liver. Thus, manipulation of endocannabinoids in vivo may constitute a novel treatment modality against inflammatory disorders. PMID:19428268
Full Text Available Parasites can dramatically reduce the fitness of their hosts, and natural selection should favor defense mechanisms that can protect hosts against disease. Much work has focused on understanding genetic and physiological immunity against parasites, but hosts can also use behaviors to avoid infection, reduce parasite growth or alleviate disease symptoms. It is increasingly recognized that such behaviors are common in insects, providing strong protection against parasites and parasitoids. We review the current evidence for behavioral immunity in insects, present a framework for investigating such behavior, and emphasize that behavioral immunity may act through indirect rather than direct fitness benefits. We also discuss the implications for host-parasite co-evolution, local adaptation, and the evolution of non-behavioral physiological immune systems. Finally, we argue that the study of behavioral immunity in insects has much to offer for investigations in vertebrates, in which this topic has traditionally been studied.
Vanha-Aho, Leena-Maija; Valanne, Susanna; Rämet, Mika
Cytokines are a large and diverse group of small proteins that can affect many biological processes, but most commonly cytokines are known as mediators of the immune response. In the event of an infection, cytokines are produced in response to an immune stimulus, and they function as key regulators of the immune response. Cytokines come in many shapes and sizes, and although they vary greatly in structure, their functions have been well conserved in evolution. The immune signaling pathways that respond to cytokines are remarkably conserved from fly to man. Therefore, Drosophila melanogaster, provides an excellent platform for studying the biology and function of cytokines. In this review, we will describe the cytokines and cytokine-like molecules found in the fly and discuss their roles in host immunity. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other.
R. Sh. Saitgareev
Full Text Available Heart Transplantation (HTx to date remains the most effective and radical method of treatment of patients with end-stage heart failure. The defi cit of donor hearts is forcing to resort increasingly to the use of different longterm mechanical circulatory support systems, including as a «bridge» to the follow-up HTx. According to the ISHLT Registry the number of recipients underwent cardiopulmonary bypass surgery increased from 40% in the period from 2004 to 2008 to 49.6% for the period from 2009 to 2015. HTx performed in repeated patients, on the one hand, involves considerable technical diffi culties and high risks; on the other hand, there is often no alternative medical intervention to HTx, and if not dictated by absolute contradictions the denial of the surgery is equivalent to 100% mortality. This review summarizes the results of a number of published studies aimed at understanding the immediate and late results of HTx in patients, previously underwent open heart surgery. The effect of resternotomy during HTx and that of the specifi c features associated with its implementation in recipients previously operated on open heart, and its effects on the immediate and long-term survival were considered in this review. Results of studies analyzing the risk factors for perioperative complications in repeated recipients were also demonstrated. Separately, HTx risks after implantation of prolonged mechanical circulatory support systems were examined. The literature does not allow to clearly defi ning the impact factor of earlier performed open heart surgery on the course of perioperative period and on the prognosis of survival in recipients who underwent HTx. On the other hand, subject to the regular fl ow of HTx and the perioperative period the risks in this clinical situation are justifi ed as a long-term prognosis of recipients previously conducted open heart surgery and are comparable to those of patients who underwent primary HTx. Studies
Buffen, Kathrin; Oosting, Marije; Li, Yang; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi; Netea, Mihai G.; Joosten, Leo A. B.
Inhibition of autophagy increases the severity of murine Lyme arthritis and human adaptive immune responses against B. burgdorferi. We have previously demonstrated that inhibition of autophagy increased the Borrelia burgdorferi induced innate cytokine production in vitro, but little is known
Roy, Soumitra; Shirley, Pamela S.; McClelland, Alan; Kaleko, Michael
Immunity to adenoviruses is an important hurdle to be overcome for successful gene therapy. The presence of antibodies to the capsid proteins prevents efficacious adenovirus vector administration in vivo. We tested whether immunity to a particular serotype of adenovirus (Ad5) may be overcome with a vector that encodes the hexon sequences from a different adenovirus serotype (Ad12). We successfully constructed an adenovirus vector with a chimeric Ad5-Ad12 hexon which was not neutralized by plasma from C57BL/6 mice immunized with Ad5. The vector was also capable of transducing the livers of C57BL/6 mice previously immunized with Ad5. PMID:9658137
Remune, an immune response therapy composed of inactivated HIV, is designed to enhance the immune system's ability to recognize and kill HIV proteins. Developed by Dr. Jonas Salk, researchers hope Remune's actions can alter the course of HIV infection and slow disease progression. Remune has gained Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval to enter the critical Phase III trial stage. Two clinical trials are tracking Remune's immunogenicity (ability to provoke an immune response), its immunogenicity relative to dose level, and its effect on viral load. An ongoing trial, approved in February of 1996, enrolled 2,500 patients at 74 sites. The manufacturer, Immune Response Corporation (IRC), announced earlier this year that treatment with Remune induces an immune response to HIV that cross-reacts with different strains of the virus. This immune response is crucial for developing an effective worldwide treatment. Remune decreases levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a). IRC recently began a Phase I clinical trial in Great Britain that combines Remune with a protease inhibitor, two antiviral nucleoside analogues, and Interleukin-2. The trial is designed to determine the role that the drug may play in restoring immune response.
O. V. Shamsheva
Full Text Available The article presents the changes Immunization Schedule Russia introduced in 2014. In new Schedule now is the vaccination against pneumococcal disease for all children of 2 months with revaccination at 4 and 15 months old; excluded from the Schedule second revaccination against tuberculosis. At risk groups to be vaccinated against the flu, entered pregnant women and persons subject to military conscription. Recommendations on use of vaccines containing relevant antigens for the Russian Federation, to provide maximum effectiveness of immunization and vaccines that do not contain preservatives in children under 1 year of age. Offered to create a council of experts in the field of vaccinology and vaccine prevention
Cain, Derek W; Cidlowski, John A
Endogenous glucocorticoids are crucial to various physiological processes, including metabolism, development and inflammation. Since 1948, synthetic glucocorticoids have been used to treat various immune-related disorders. The mechanisms that underlie the immunosuppressive properties of these hormones have been intensely scrutinized, and it is widely appreciated that glucocorticoids have pleiotropic effects on the immune system. However, a clear picture of the cellular and molecular basis of glucocorticoid action has remained elusive. In this Review, we distil several decades of intense (and often conflicting) research that defines the interface between the endocrine stress response and the immune system.
Miller, Michael A; Rathore, Mobeen H
In summary, immunizations in special populations require understanding the underlying disease and how it might affect the immune system's ability to mount an antibody response to vaccines or predispose certain patient populations to developing certain serious infections. There is still a great need for research on the optimal timing of vaccines after transplants, how to assess protection and development of a protective antibody response after immunization, and whether certain groups (eg, HIV) need to be revaccinated after a certain amount of time if their antibody levels decline. In addition, there are limited data on efficacy of the newer vaccines in these special patient populations, which also requires further investigation.
Benson, Etienne S
Argument In recent decades, through the work of Jane Goodall and other ethologists, the practice of giving personal names to nonhuman animals who are the subjects of scientific research has become associated with claims about animal personhood and scientific objectivity. While critics argue that such naming practices predispose the researcher toward anthropomorphism, supporters suggest that it sensitizes the researcher to individual differences and social relations. Both critics and supporters agree that naming tends to be associated with the recognition of individual animal rights. The history of the naming of research animals since the late nineteenth century shows, however, that the practice has served a variety of purposes, most of which have raised few ethical or epistemological concerns. Names have been used to identify research animals who play dual roles as pets, workers, or patients, to enhance their market value, and to facilitate their identification in the field. The multifaceted history of naming suggests both that the use of personal names by Goodall and others is less of a radical break with previous practices than it might first appear to be and that the use of personal names to recognize the individuality, sentience, or rights of nonhuman animals faces inherent limits and contradictions.
Korolevskaya, Larisa B; Shmagel, Konstantin V; Shmagel, Nadezhda G; Saidakova, Evgeniya V
Currently, immune activation is proven to be the basis for the HIV infection pathogenesis and a strong predictor of the disease progression. Among the causes of systemic immune activation the virus and its products, related infectious agents, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and regulatory CD4+ T cells' decrease are considered. Recently microbial translocation (bacterial products yield into the bloodstream as a result of the gastrointestinal tract mucosal barrier integrity damage) became the most popular hypothesis. Previously, we have found an association between immune complexes present in the bloodstream of HIV infected patients and the T cell activation. On this basis, we propose a significantly modified hypothesis of immune activation in HIV infection. It is based on the immune complexes' participation in the immunocompetent cells' activation. Immune complexes are continuously formed in the chronic phase of the infection. Together with TLR-ligands (viral antigens, bacterial products coming from the damaged gut) present in the bloodstream they interact with macrophages. As a result macrophages are transformed into the type II activated forms. These macrophages block IL-12 production and start synthesizing IL-10. High level of this cytokine slows down the development of the full-scale Th1-response. The anti-viral reactions are shifted towards the serogenesis. Newly synthesized antibodies' binding to viral antigens leads to continuous formation of the immune complexes capable of interacting with antigen-presenting cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Crucian, B. E.; Mehta, S.; Stowe, R. P.; Uchakin, P.; Quiriarte, H.; Pierson, D.; Sams, C. F.
This poster presentation reviews a study that is designed to address immune system dysregulation and the risk to crewmembers in long duration exploration class missions. This study will address these objectives: (1) Determine the status of adaptive immunity physiological stress, viral immunity, latent herpesvirus reactivation in astronauts during 6 month missions to the International Space Station; (2) determine the clinical risk related to immune dysregulation for exploration class spaceflight; and (3) determine an appropriate monitoring strategy for spaceflight-associated immune dysfunction that could be used for the evaluation of countermeasures. The study anticipates 17 subjects, and for this presentation, (midpoint study data) 10 subjects are reviewed.
Kwast, Lydia; Fiechter, Daniëlle; Kruijssen, Laura; Bleumink, Rob; Ludwig, Irene; Bol-Schoenmakers, Marianne; Smit, Joost; Pieters, Raymond
The development of immune-dependent drug hypersensitivity reactions (IDHR) is likely to involve activation of the innate immune system to stimulate neo-antigen specific T-cells. Previously it has been shown that, upon oral exposure to several drugs with immune-adjuvant capacity, mice developed
Chen, Guangchun; Robert, Jacques
Although a variety of virus species can infect amphibians, diseases caused by ranaviruses ([RVs]; Iridoviridae) have become prominent, and are a major concern for biodiversity, agriculture and international trade. The relatively recent and rapid increase in prevalence of RV infections, the wide range of host species infected by RVs, the variability in host resistance among population of the same species and among different developmental stages, all suggest an important involvement of the amphibian immune system. Nevertheless, the roles of the immune system in the etiology of viral diseases in amphibians are still poorly investigated. We review here the current knowledge of antiviral immunity in amphibians, focusing on model species such as the frog Xenopus and the salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum), and on recent progress in generating tools to better understand how host immune defenses control RV infections, pathogenicity, and transmission.
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Full Text Available Galectins are highly expressed in epithelial cells and immune cells. In skin, they can be detected in keratinocytes, melanocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages, and T cells. Galectins are present outside and inside the cells and thus may exhibit different functions through extracellular and intracellular actions. Galectins can be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory skin diseases by affecting growth, apoptosis, maturation, activation, and motility of keratinocytes and immune cells. Expression of galectins may change depending on the cellular status, such as proliferation and activation. For example, galectin-3 expression is upregulated in T cells but downregulated in dendritic cells when these cells are activated. Furthermore, their expression may also change under pathological conditions. Understanding the function of each galectin in keratinocytes and different immune cell types may reveal how galectins contribute to the pathogenesis of immune-mediated skin diseases.
Wüthrich, Marcel; Deepe, George S.; Klein, Bruce
Only a handful of the more than 100,000 fungal species on our planet cause disease in humans, yet the number of life-threatening fungal infections in patients has recently skyrocketed as a result of advances in medical care that often suppress immunity intensely. This emerging crisis has created pressing needs to clarify immune defense mechanisms against fungi, with the ultimate goal of therapeutic applications. Herein, we describe recent insights in understanding the mammalian immune defenses deployed against pathogenic fungi. The review focuses on adaptive immune responses to the major medically important fungi and emphasizes how dendritic cells and subsets in various anatomic compartments respond to fungi, recognize their molecular patterns, and signal responses that nurture and shape the differentiation of T cell subsets and B cells. Also emphasized is how the latter deploy effector and regulatory mechanisms that eliminate these nasty invaders while also constraining collateral damage to vital tissue. PMID:22224780
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007165.htm Exercise and immunity To use the sharing features on ... take a daily walk or follow a simple exercise routine a few times a week. Exercise helps ...
Immunity rules are part and parcel of the law of international organizations. It has long been accepted that international organizations and their staff need to enjoy immunity from the jurisdiction of national courts. However, it is the application of these rules in practice that increasingly causes controversy. Claims against international organizations are brought before national courts by those who allegedly suffer from their activities. These can be both natural and legal persons such as companies. National courts, in particular lower courts, have often been less willing to recognize the immunity of the organization concerned than the organization s founding fathers. Likewise, public opinion and legal writings frequently criticize international organizations for invoking their immunity and for the lack of adequate means of redress for claimants. It is against this background that an international conference was organized at Leiden University in June 2013. A number of highly qualified academics and practit...
... wild animal bites a child. Passive immunizations for hepatitis A (gamma globulin) may be helpful for people traveling to a part of the world where hepatitis A is common. They are typically given before children ...
In addition to the cytokines and cytotoxic granules, exosomes have been known as the intercellular communicator and cytotoxic missile of immune cells for the past decade. It has been well known that mature dendritic cell(DC)-derived exosomes participate in the T cell and natural killer(NK)cell activation, while immature DCs secrete tolerogenic exosomes for regulatory T(Treg)cell generation. Treg cell-derived EVs act as a suppressor against pathogenic type-1 T helper(Th1)cell responses. CD8+ T cells produce tumoricidal exosomes for preventing tumor invasion and metastasis transiently after T cell receptor(TCR)-mediated stimulation. Thus, immune cells produce functional exosomes in the activation state- and/or differentiation stage-dependent manner. In this review, the role of immune cell-derived exosomes will be introduced, focusing mainly on immune reaction against tumor.
Labzin, Larisa I; Heneka, Michael T; Latz, Eicke
The innate immune system plays diverse roles in health and disease. It represents the first line of defense against infection and is involved in tissue repair, wound healing, and clearance of apoptotic cells and cellular debris. Excessive or nonresolving innate immune activation can lead to systemic or local inflammatory complications and cause or contribute to the development of inflammatory diseases. In the brain, microglia represent the key innate immune cells, which are involved in brain development, brain maturation, and homeostasis. Impaired microglial function, either through aberrant activation or decreased functionality, can occur during aging and during neurodegeneration, and the resulting inflammation is thought to contribute to neurodegenerative diseases. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of the influence of innate immunity on neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease.
Lamb, Tracey J
.... Often endemic in developing countries many parasitic diseases are neglected in terms of research funding and much remains to be understood about parasites and the interactions they have with the immune system...
Herberman, R.B.; Wiltrout, R.H.; Gorelik, E.
The authors present the changes in the immune system in tumor-bearing hosts that may influence the development of progression of metastases. Included are mononuclear cell infiltration of metastases; alterations in natural resistance mediated by natural killer cells and macrophages; development of specific immunity mediated by T-lymphocytes or antibodies; modulation of tumor-associated antigen expression; and the down-regulation of the immune response to the tumor by several suppressor mechanisms; the augmentation of the immune response and its potential for therapeutic application; includes the prophylaxis of metastases formation by NK cells; the therapy of metastases by augmentation NK-, macrophage-, or T-lymphocyte-mediated responses by biological response modifiers; and the transfer of anticancer activity by cytoxic T-lymphocytes or immunoconjugates of monoclonal antibodies with specificity for tumors
Che, Jenny W; Daniels, Keith A; Selin, Liisa K; Welsh, Raymond M
One's history of infections can affect the immune response to unrelated pathogens and influence disease outcome through the process of heterologous immunity. This can occur after acute viral infections, such as infections with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and vaccinia virus, where the pathogens are cleared, but it becomes a more complex issue in the context of persistent infections. In this study, murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) was used as a persistent infection model to study heterologous immunity with LCMV. If mice were previously immune to LCMV and then infected with MCMV (LCMV+MCMV), they had more severe immunopathology, enhanced viral burden in multiple organs, and suppression of MCMV-specific T cell memory inflation. MCMV infection initially reduced the numbers of LCMV-specific memory T cells, but continued MCMV persistence did not further erode memory T cells specific to LCMV. When MCMV infection was given first (MCMV+LCMV), the magnitude of the acute T cell response to LCMV declined with age though this age-dependent decline was not dependent on MCMV. However, some of these MCMV persistently infected mice with acute LCMV infection (7 of 36) developed a robust immunodominant CD8 T cell response apparently cross-reactive between a newly defined putative MCMV epitope sequence, M57 727-734 , and the normally subdominant LCMV epitope L 2062-2069 , indicating a profound private specificity effect in heterologous immunity between these two viruses. These results further illustrate how a history of an acute or a persistent virus infection can substantially influence the immune responses and immune pathology associated with acute or persistent infections with an unrelated virus. This study extends our understanding of heterologous immunity in the context of persistent viral infection. The phenomenon has been studied mostly with viruses such as LCMV that are cleared, but the situation can be more complex with a persistent virus such as MCMV. We found that
Humoral and cellular mechanisms play roles in immune response to foreign antigens. The present study was designed to determine the T lymphocyte subsets (CD4 + T cells, CD8 + T cells and CD4/CD8 ratio) in the prostate cancer subjects and control subjects. CD4 + T cells (`l/count) and CD8 + T cells (`l/count) were ...
Conway, DJ; Polley, SD
Immune responses that kill pathogens or reduce their reproductive rate are generally important in protecting hosts from infection and disease. Pathogens that escape the full impact of such responses will survive, and any heritable genetic basis of this evasion will be selected. Due to the memory component of vertebrate immune responses, pathogens with rare alleles of a target antigen can have an advantage over those with common alleles, leading to the maintenance of a polymorphism. At the gen...
In this podcast, Dr. Andrew Kroger from CDCâs National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases discusses simple, safe, and effective ways adults can help protect themselves, their family, and their community from serious and deadly diseases. Created: 3/19/2012 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD). Date Released: 3/19/2012.
Song, C.W.; Guertin, D.P.
The combined effect of radiation and cell-mediated immune reaction on tumor cells was investigated in vitro. Mastocytoma P815-X2 cells of DBA mice either were irradiated first and subjected to immune lysis by immune splenic lymphocytes of C57Bl mice, or the tumor cells were subjected to immune reaction first and then irradiated. Cell survival was quantitated by colony formation in soft agar medium. It was observed that cellular immune damage to tumor cells did not influence the response of tumor cells to subsequent radiation. Irradiation of tumor cells first, followed by subjection of the cells to cellular immune reaction, slightly enhanced the death of the tumor cells. It appears that this enhanced death might have resulted from a relative increase in the ratio of the number of cytotoxic immune cells to the number of target tumor cells in the incubation mixture as a consequence of the decrease in the number of viable tumor cells by radiation
Wang, Xiaojing; Ning, Qin
Liver failure is a clinical syndrome of various etiologies, manifesting as jaundice, encephalopathy, coagulopathy and circulatory dysfunction, which result in subsequent multiorgan failure. Clinically, liver failure is classified into four categories: acute, subacute, acute-on-chronic and chronic liver failure. Massive hepatocyte death is considered to be the core event in the development of liver failure, which occurs when the extent of hepatocyte death is beyond the liver regenerative capacity. Direct damage and immune-mediated liver injury are two major factors involved in this process. Increasing evidence has suggested the essential role of immune-mediated liver injury in the pathogenesis of liver failure. Here, we review the evolved concepts concerning the mechanisms of immune-mediated liver injury in liver failure from human and animal studies. Both innate and adaptive immunity, especially the interaction of various immune cells and molecules as well as death receptor signaling system are discussed. In addition, we highlight the concept of "immune coagulation", which has been shown to be related to the disease progression and liver injury exacerbation in HBV related acute-on-chronic liver failure.
Full Text Available The mammalian intestinal tract is the largest immune organ in the body and comprises cells from non-hemopoietic (epithelia, Paneth cells, goblet cells and hemopoietic (macrophages, dendritic cells, T-cells origin, and is also a dwelling for trillions of microbes collectively known as the microbiota. The homeostasis of this large microbial biomass is prerequisite to maintain host health by maximizing beneficial symbiotic relationships and minimizing the risks of living in such close proximity. Both microbiota and host immune system communicate with each other to mutually maintain homeostasis in what could be called a "love-hate relationship." Further, the host innate and adaptive immune arms of the immune system cooperate and compensate each other to maintain the equilibrium of a highly complex gut ecosystem in a stable and stringent fashion. Any imbalance due to innate or adaptive immune deficiency or aberrant immune response may lead to dysbiosis and low-grade to robust gut inflammation, finally resulting in metabolic diseases.
Chassaing, Benoit; Kumar, Manish; Baker, Mark T.; Singh, Vishal; Vijay-Kumar, Matam
The mammalian intestinal tract is the largest immune organ in the body and comprises cells from non-hemopoietic (epithelia, Paneth cells, goblet cells) and hemopoietic (macrophages, dendritic cells, T-cells) origin, and is also a dwelling for trillions of microbes collectively known as the microbiota. The homeostasis of this large microbial biomass is prerequisite to maintain host health by maximizing beneficial symbiotic relationships and minimizing the risks of living in such close proximity. Both microbiota and host immune system communicate with each other to mutually maintain homeostasis in what could be called a “love–hate relationship.” Further, the host innate and adaptive immune arms of the immune system cooperate and compensate each other to maintain the equilibrium of a highly complex gut ecosystem in a stable and stringent fashion. Any imbalance due to innate or adaptive immune deficiency or aberrant immune response may lead to dysbiosis and low-grade to robust gut inflammation, finally resulting in metabolic diseases. PMID:25163502
Innate immunity is the first barrier against pathogen infection and has also the important function of activating the adaptive immunity. The receptors of innate immunity, such as toll-like receptors and other receptors, recognize as danger signals the molecular patterns of pathogens as well as those of endogenous molecules released by dying cells. The information is transmitted to adapter proteins that, through a chain of kinases that translate the signal to transcription factors regulating inflammatory genes. In the inflammatory milieu dendritic cells become mature, intercept the antigen and migrate to lymphoid organs where they present the antigen to naïve T cells. Complement also exerts an important role of bridge between innate and adaptive immunity. In donor-deceased kidney transplantation, the innate immunity is triggered in the donor by brain death and is aggravated by the cold ischemia and even more by reperfusion. Once activated, innate immunity produces a local inflammatory environment leading to dendritic cell maturation and complement activation. Dendritic cells present the alloantigen to T cells and induce their differentiation towards effector Th1 and Th17 while inhibiting Th2 and T regulatory cells. A main goal of the current research in transplantation is to obtain an immunological tolerance. Experimental studies showed the possibility of inducing operative tolerance in murine models and even in primates with the infusion of regulatory dendritic cells. However, there are no data with this technique in clinical transplantation.
Haase, David; Rieger, Jennifer K; Witten, Anika; Stoll, Monika; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Kalbe, Martin; Reusch, Thorsten B H
Adaptive immunity in vertebrates can confer increased resistance against invading pathogens upon re-infection. But how specific parasite genotypes affect the temporal transition from innate to adaptive immunity under continual exposure to parasites is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effects of homologous and heterologous exposures of genetically distinct parasite lineages of the eye fluke Diplostomum pseudospathaceum on gene expression patterns of adaptive immunity in sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Observable differences in gene expression were largely attributable to final exposures while there was no transcription pattern characteristic for a general response to repeated infections with D. pseudospathaceum. None of the final exposure treatments was able to erase the distinct expression patterns resulting from a heterologous pre-exposed fish. Interestingly, heterologous final exposures showed similarities between different treatment groups subjected to homologous pre-exposure. The observed pattern was supported by parasite infection rates and suggests that host immunization was optimized towards an adaptive immune response that favored effectiveness against parasite diversity over specificity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Plants belonging to the genus Salacia in the Hippocrateaceae family are known to inhibit sugar absorption. In a previous study, administration of Salacia reticulata extract in rats altered the intestinal microbiota and increased expression of immune-relevant genes in small intestinal epithelial cells. This study aimed to investigate the effect of S. reticulata extract in human subjects by examining the gene expression profiles of blood cells, immunological indices, and intestinal microbiota. The results revealed an improvement in T-cell proliferation activity and some other immunological indices. In addition, the intestinal microbiota changed, with an increase in Bifidobacterium and a decrease in Clostridium bacteria. The expression levels of many immune-relevant genes were altered in blood cells. We concluded that S. reticulata extract ingestion in humans improved immune functions and changed the intestinal microbiota.UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000011732.
Prabuddha S. Pathinayake
Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is a major infectious disease affecting millions of people worldwide and it is the main etiological agent for outbreaks of hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD. Infection is often associated with severe gastroenterological, pulmonary, and neurological diseases that are most prevalent in children. Currently, no effective vaccine or antiviral drugs exist against EV71 infection. A lack of knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of EV71 infection in the host and the virus-host interactions is a major constraint to developing specific antiviral strategies against this infection. Previous studies have identified and characterized the function of several viral proteins produced by EV71 that interact with the host innate immune proteins, including type I interferon signaling and microRNAs. These interactions eventually promote efficient viral replication and increased susceptibility to the disease. In this review we discuss the functions of EV71 viral proteins in the modulation of host innate immune responses to facilitate viral replication.
Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan
Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.
Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.
that theory calls for. We illustrate this approach using data from a controlled experiment with real monetary consequences to the subjects. This allows the observer to make inferences about the latent subjective probability, under virtually any well-specified model of choice under subjective risk, while still...
Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.
that theory calls for. We illustrate this approach using data from a controlled experiment with real monetary consequences to the subjects. This allows the observer to make inferences about the latent subjective probability, under virtually any well-specified model of choice under subjective risk, while still...
Blackwell, Aaron D; Trumble, Benjamin C; Maldonado Suarez, Ivan; Stieglitz, Jonathan; Beheim, Bret; Snodgrass, J Josh; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael
Amazonian populations are exposed to diverse parasites and pathogens, including protozoal, bacterial, fungal and helminthic infections. Yet much knowledge of the immune system is based on industrialised populations where these infections are relatively rare. This study examines distributions and age-related differences in 22 measures of immune function for Bolivian forager-horticulturalists and US and European populations. Subjects were 6338 Tsimane aged 0-90 years. Blood samples collected between 2004-2014 were analysed for 5-part blood differentials, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and total immunoglobulins E, G, A and M. Flow cytometry was used to quantify naïve and non-naïve CD4 and CD8 T cells, natural killer cells, and B cells. Compared to reference populations, Tsimane have elevated levels of most immunological parameters, particularly immunoglobulins, eosinophils, ESR, B cells, and natural killer cells. However, monocytes and basophils are reduced and naïve CD4 cells depleted in older age groups. Tsimane ecology leads to lymphocyte repertoires and immunoglobulin profiles that differ from those observed in industrialised populations. These differences have consequences for disease susceptibility and co-vary with patterns of other life history traits, such as growth and reproduction.
Zinkernagel, Rolf M.
Simplified and generalizable rules of immune responses against infections or vaccines have been summarized into 20 statements previously (Scand. J. Immunol. 60 (2004) 9-13) and are restated in a slightly different form here. The key terms of immunology (e.g. specificity, tolerance and memory) are explained in terms of their co-evolutionary importance in the equilibrium between infectious agents and diseases with higher vertebrate hosts. Specificity is best defined by protective antibodies or protective activated T cells; e.g. serotype specific neutralizing antibodies against polio viruses represent the discriminatory power of an immune response very well indeed. Tolerance is reviewed in terms of reactivity rather than self-nonself discrimination. Immune respones are deleted against antigens expressed at sufficient levels within the lymphoheamopoetic system, but may well exist at both, the T and the B cell level against antigens strictly outside of secondary lymphatic organs. In this respect the immune system behaves identically against virus infections and against self antigens. Persistent virus infections delete responsive T cells, once eliminated immune T cell responses wane, if a virus keeps outside of secondary lymphatic tissues no immune response is induced. Immunological memory is usually defined as earlier and greater responses but this does not correlate with protective immunity stringently. It is summarized here that pre-existing titers of protective neutralizing antibodies or pre-existence of activated T cells are the correlates of protection acute cytopathic lethal infections and toxins or against intracellular parasites. It is concluded that many discrepancies and uncertainties in immunological research derive from model situations and experimental results that are correctly measured but cannot be related to co-evolutionary contexts, i.e. survival.
de Voer, R.M.
Meningococcal serogroup C conjugate immunization was introduced in the Dutch national immunization schedule at the age of 14 months, together with a large catch-up campaign in 2002. After introduction of this MenC immunization, the incidence of MenC completely disappeared from the immunized
Agita, Arisya; Alsagaff, M Thaha
The immune system, inflammation and hypertension are related to each other. Innate and adaptive immunity system triggers an inflammatory process, in which blood pressure may increase, stimulating organ damage. Cells in innate immune system produce ROS, such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, which aimed at killing pathogens. Long-term inflammation process increases ROS production, causing oxidative stress which leads to endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial function is to regulate blood vessel tone and structure. When inflammation lasts, NO bioavailability decreases, disrupting its main function as vasodilator, so that blood vessels relaxation and vasodilatation are absent. Effector T cells and regulatory lymphocytes, part of the adaptive immune system, plays role in blood vessels constriction in hypertension. Signals from central nervous system and APC activates effector T lymphocyte differentiation and accelerate through Th-1 and Th-17 phenotypes. Th-1 and Th-17 effectors participate in inflammation which leads to increased blood pressure. One part of CD4+ is the regulatory T cells (Tregs) that suppress immune response activation as they produce immunosuppressive cytokines, such as TGF-β and IL-10. Adoptive transfer of Tregs cells can reduce oxidative stress in blood vessels, endothelial dysfunction, infiltration of aortic macrophages and T cells as well as proinflammatory cytokine levels in plasma circulation.
Full Text Available The immune system, inflammation and hypertension are related to each other. Innate and adaptive immunity system triggers an inflammatory process, in which blood pressure may increase, stimulating organ damage. Cells in innate immune system produce ROS, such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, which aimed at killing pathogens. Long-term inflammation process increases ROS production, causing oxidative stress which leads to endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial function is to regulate blood vessel tone and structure. When inflammation lasts, NO bioavailability decreases, disrupting its main function as vasodilator, so that blood vessels relaxation and vasodilatation are absent. Effector T cells and regulatory lymphocytes, part of the adaptive immune system, plays role in blood vessels constriction in hypertension. Signals from central nervous system and APC activates effector T lymphocyte differentiation and accelerate through Th-1 and Th-17 phenotypes. Th-1 and Th-17 effectors participate in inflammation which leads to increased blood pressure. One part of CD4+ is the regulatory T cells (Tregs that suppress immune response activation as they produce immunosuppressive cytokines, such as TGF-β and IL-10. Adoptive transfer of Tregs cells can reduce oxidative stress in blood vessels, endothelial dysfunction, infiltration of aortic macrophages and T cells as well as proinflammatory cytokine levels in plasma circulation.
Milutinović, Barbara; Kurtz, Joachim
Evidence for innate immune memory (or 'priming') in invertebrates has been accumulating over the last years. We here provide an in-depth review of the current state of evidence for immune memory in invertebrates, and in particular take a phylogenetic viewpoint. Invertebrates are a very heterogeneous group of animals and accordingly, evidence for the phenomenon of immune memory as well as the hypothesized molecular underpinnings differ largely for the diverse invertebrate taxa. The majority of research currently focuses on Arthropods, while evidence from many other groups of invertebrates is fragmentary or even lacking. We here concentrate on immune memory that is induced by pathogenic challenges, but also extent our view to a non-pathogenic context, i.e. allograft rejection, which can also show forms of memory and can inform us about general principles of specific self-nonself recognition. We discuss definitions of immune memory and a number of relevant aspects such as the type of antigens used, the route of exposure, and the kinetics of reactions following priming. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Epilepsy is a chronic brain disorder that affects one percent of the human population worldwide. Immune responses are implicated in seizure induction and the development of epilepsy. Pre-clinical and clinical evidence have accumulated to suggest a positive feedback cycle between brain inflammation and epileptogenesis. Prolonged or recurrent seizures and brain injuries lead to upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines and activated immune responses to further increase seizure susceptibility, promote neuronal excitability, and induce blood-brain barrier (BBB breakdown. This review focuses on the potential role of innate and adaptive immune responses in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Both human studies and animal models that help delineate the contributions of brain inflammation in epileptogenesis will be discussed. We highlight the critical role of brain-resident immune mediators and emphasize the contribution of brain-infiltrating peripheral leukocytes. Additionally, we propose possible immune mechanisms that underlie epileptogenesis. Several proinflammatory pathways are discussed, including the interleukin-1 receptor/ toll-like receptor signaling cascade, the pathways activated by danger-associated molecular patterns, and the cyclooxygenase-2 / prostaglandin pathway. Finally, development of better therapies that target the key constituents and processes identified in these mechanisms are considered, for instance, engineering antagonizing agents that effectively block these pathways in an antigen-specific manner.
Ramanan, Parameshwaran; Shabman, Reed S; Brown, Craig S; Amarasinghe, Gaya K; Basler, Christopher F; Leung, Daisy W
The Filoviridae family of viruses, which includes the genera Ebolavirus (EBOV) and Marburgvirus (MARV), causes severe and often times lethal hemorrhagic fever in humans. Filoviral infections are associated with ineffective innate antiviral responses as a result of virally encoded immune antagonists, which render the host incapable of mounting effective innate or adaptive immune responses. The Type I interferon (IFN) response is critical for establishing an antiviral state in the host cell and subsequent activation of the adaptive immune responses. Several filoviral encoded components target Type I IFN responses, and this innate immune suppression is important for viral replication and pathogenesis. For example, EBOV VP35 inhibits the phosphorylation of IRF-3/7 by the TBK-1/IKKε kinases in addition to sequestering viral RNA from detection by RIG-I like receptors. MARV VP40 inhibits STAT1/2 phosphorylation by inhibiting the JAK family kinases. EBOV VP24 inhibits nuclear translocation of activated STAT1 by karyopherin-α. The examples also represent distinct mechanisms utilized by filoviral proteins in order to counter immune responses, which results in limited IFN-α/β production and downstream signaling.
Christopher F. Basler
Full Text Available The Filoviridae family of viruses, which includes the genera Ebolavirus (EBOV and Marburgvirus (MARV, causes severe and often times lethal hemorrhagic fever in humans. Filoviral infections are associated with ineffective innate antiviral responses as a result of virally encoded immune antagonists, which render the host incapable of mounting effective innate or adaptive immune responses. The Type I interferon (IFN response is critical for establishing an antiviral state in the host cell and subsequent activation of the adaptive immune responses. Several filoviral encoded components target Type I IFN responses, and this innate immune suppression is important for viral replication and pathogenesis. For example, EBOV VP35 inhibits the phosphorylation of IRF-3/7 by the TBK-1/IKKε kinases in addition to sequestering viral RNA from detection by RIG-I like receptors. MARV VP40 inhibits STAT1/2 phosphorylation by inhibiting the JAK family kinases. EBOV VP24 inhibits nuclear translocation of activated STAT1 by karyopherin-α. The examples also represent distinct mechanisms utilized by filoviral proteins in order to counter immune responses, which results in limited IFN-α/β production and downstream signaling.
Maureen K. Purcell
Full Text Available Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non‑virion (NV protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals.
Purcell, Maureen K.; Laing, Kerry J.; Winton, James R.
Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN) system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M) protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non‑virion (NV) protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals. PMID:22355456
Favoreel, H W
Alphaherpesviruses represent the largest subfamily of the herpesviruses and comprise many different, closely related pathogens of man and animal, including herpes simplex virus (cold sores, genital lesions) and varicella-zoster virus (chickenpox, shingles) in man, pseudorabies virus orAujeszky's disease virus in pigs (neurological and respiratory symptoms, abortion), equine herpesvirus type 1 (neurological and respiratory symptoms, abortion), and bovine herpesvirus type 1 (respiratory symptoms, abortion). Typical for alphaherpesviruses, and for herpesviruses in general, is their ability to persist in a non-replicative, latent state in their host during its entire lifetime. Specific stimuli can lead to reactivation of these viruses from their latent state, which can lead to renewed spread within and between hosts and recurrent symptoms. This recurrent replication and spread implies that herpesviruses have evolved techniques to delay and avoid recognition and elimination by the immune system, so-called immune evasion mechanisms. In the current manuscript, different alphaherpesvirus immune evasion mechanisms will be reviewed that have been discovered and elucidated at our research group based on pseudorabies virus and that interfere with the antiviral activity of virus-specific antibodies. Investigating immune evasion mechanisms leads to novel insights in the interactions between viruses, host cells, and the immunity, but can also lead to novel avenues in the design of strategies to interfere with viral infections.
Purcell, Maureen K; Laing, Kerry J; Winton, James R
Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN) system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M) protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non‑virion (NV) protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals.
Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase (CPT I or CPT II) Deficiency; Very Long Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase (VLCAD) Deficiency; Long-chain 3-hydroxy-acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase (LCHAD) Deficiency; Trifunctional Protein (TFP) Deficiency; Carnitine-acylcarnitine Translocase (CACT) Deficiency
Biermasz, N. R.; Joustra, S. D.; Donga, E.; Pereira, A. M.; van Duinen, N.; van Dijk, M.; van der Klaauw, A. A.; Corssmit, E. P. M.; Lammers, G. J.; van Kralingen, K. W.; van Dijk, J. G.; Romijn, J. A.
Context and Objective: Fatigue and excessive sleepiness have been reported after treatment of nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas (NFMA). Because these complaints may be caused by disturbed nocturnal sleep, we evaluated objective sleep characteristics in patients treated for NFMA. Design: We
Triozzi, Pierre L., E-mail: email@example.com [Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195 (United States); Fernandez, Anthony P. [Departments of Dermatology and Anatomic Pathology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195 (United States)
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive neuroendocrine skin cancer. The Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is implicated in its pathogenesis. Immune mechanisms are also implicated. Patients who are immunosuppressed have an increased risk. There is evidence that high intratumoral T-cell counts and immune transcripts are associated with favorable survival. Spontaneous regressions implicate immune effector mechanisms. Immunogenicity is also supported by observation of autoimmune paraneoplastic syndromes. Case reports suggest that immune modulation, including reduction of immune suppression, can result in tumor regression. The relationships between MCPyV infection, the immune response, and clinical outcome, however, remain poorly understood. Circulating antibodies against MCPyV antigens are present in most individuals. MCPyV-reactive T cells have been detected in both MCC patients and control subjects. High intratumoral T-cell counts are also associated with favorable survival in MCPyV-negative MCC. That the immune system plays a central role in preventing and controlling MCC is supported by several observations. MCCs often develop, however, despite the presence of humoral and cellular immune responses. A better understanding on how MCPyV and MCC evade the immune response will be necessary to develop effective immunotherapies.
Triozzi, Pierre L.; Fernandez, Anthony P.
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive neuroendocrine skin cancer. The Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is implicated in its pathogenesis. Immune mechanisms are also implicated. Patients who are immunosuppressed have an increased risk. There is evidence that high intratumoral T-cell counts and immune transcripts are associated with favorable survival. Spontaneous regressions implicate immune effector mechanisms. Immunogenicity is also supported by observation of autoimmune paraneoplastic syndromes. Case reports suggest that immune modulation, including reduction of immune suppression, can result in tumor regression. The relationships between MCPyV infection, the immune response, and clinical outcome, however, remain poorly understood. Circulating antibodies against MCPyV antigens are present in most individuals. MCPyV-reactive T cells have been detected in both MCC patients and control subjects. High intratumoral T-cell counts are also associated with favorable survival in MCPyV-negative MCC. That the immune system plays a central role in preventing and controlling MCC is supported by several observations. MCCs often develop, however, despite the presence of humoral and cellular immune responses. A better understanding on how MCPyV and MCC evade the immune response will be necessary to develop effective immunotherapies
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a result...
Full Text Available Candida albicans is not a pathogen in healthy individuals, but can cause severe systemic candidiasis in immunocompromised patients. C. albicans has various virulence factors and activates the innate immune system. Specifically, C. albicans induces proinflammatory cytokine production in various cell types via many receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs and C-type lectin receptors (CLRs. This microorganism also promotes phagocytosis via CLRs on macrophages. In a previous study, we found that C. albicans induces the production of galectin-3, which is a known CLR that kills C. albicans. This review indicates that the use of mouthwash containing an antimicrobial peptide or protein might be a useful new oral care method for the prevention of oral candidiasis.
Martins, I P; Mares, I; Stilwell, P A
Subjective language complaints (SLC) are common during ageing but have not been investigated in detail. We aim to determine their association with demographic and clinical variables and objective cognitive performance. A sample of 479 individuals aged 50 years or above (average 66 ± 9.1 years), followed in primary care, with no history of brain disorder were asked two questions concerning SLC, fulfilled a depression scale and undertook a battery of cognitive tests. Response to questions regarding proper name retrieval (PNR) and word finding difficulties (WFD) was studied and their contribution to each measure of the battery calculated by repeated linear regression analysis, adjusting for age, sex, education, living alone and depressive symptoms. Word finding difficulties (47.6%) were more frequently reported than problematic PNR (10.9%). Both were more common in women, in subjects with depressive symptoms and in those living alone, but were unrelated with age or education. Both symptoms contributed significantly to the variance in tests of semantic fluency and episodic memory. PNR was also associated with immediate phonological memory. Subjective language complaints are especially common amongst individuals living alone and/or with depressive symptoms. They are associated with a worse cognitive performance in some memory and language-executive tests. Further studies are needed to understand their predictive value for cognitive decline. © 2012 The Author(s). European Journal of Neurology © 2012 EFNS.
Mahr, J A; Gooding, L R
Adenovirus is a human pathogen that infects mainly respiratory and gastrointestinal epithelia. While the pathology caused by this virus is generally not life threatening in immunocompetent individuals, there is a large literature describing its ability to establish a persistent infection. These persistent infections typically occur in apparently healthy individuals with no outward signs of disease. Such a long term and benign interaction between virus and immune system requires adenoviruses to dampen host antiviral effector mechanisms that would otherwise eliminate the virus and cause immune-mediated pathology to the host. Adenovirus devotes a significant portion of its genome to gene products whose sole function seems to be the modulation of host immune responses. This review focuses on what is currently understood about how these immunomodulatory mechanisms work and how they might play a role in maintaining the virus in a persistent state.
viruses. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and serum samples from cotton rats immunized 28 days previously with influenza A/PR/8/34 or influenza A/Wuhan...lymphocytes (CTL) were responsible. However, more recent studies in mice demonstrate that antibodies also contribute to this immune response. We...the lungs of immunized mice after challenge with a heterosubtypic virus (Schulman and Kilbourne1965). These authors observed that mice previously
Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, N Reginald
A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.
Griffiths, Thomas L; Daniels, Dylan; Austerweil, Joseph L; Tenenbaum, Joshua B
Some events seem more random than others. For example, when tossing a coin, a sequence of eight heads in a row does not seem very random. Where do these intuitions about randomness come from? We argue that subjective randomness can be understood as the result of a statistical inference assessing the evidence that an event provides for having been produced by a random generating process. We show how this account provides a link to previous work relating randomness to algorithmic complexity, in which random events are those that cannot be described by short computer programs. Algorithmic complexity is both incomputable and too general to capture the regularities that people can recognize, but viewing randomness as statistical inference provides two paths to addressing these problems: considering regularities generated by simpler computing machines, and restricting the set of probability distributions that characterize regularity. Building on previous work exploring these different routes to a more restricted notion of randomness, we define strong quantitative models of human randomness judgments that apply not just to binary sequences - which have been the focus of much of the previous work on subjective randomness - but also to binary matrices and spatial clustering. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Laurindo Ferreira da Rocha Junior
Full Text Available Adaptive immunity has evolved as a very powerful and highly specialized tool of host defense. Its classical protagonists are lymphocytes of the T- and B-cell lineage. Cytokines and chemokines play a key role as effector mechanisms of the adaptive immunity. Some autoimmune and inflammatory diseases are caused by disturbance of the adaptive immune system. Recent advances in understanding the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases have led to research on new molecular and therapeutic targets. PPARγ are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily and are transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism as well as innate and adaptive immunity. PPARγ is activated by synthetic and endogenous ligands. Previous studies have shown that PPAR agonists regulate T-cell survival, activation and T helper cell differentiation into effector subsets: Th1, Th2, Th17, and Tregs. PPARγ has also been associated with B cells. The present review addresses these issues by placing PPARγ agonists in the context of adaptive immune responses and the relation of the activation of these receptors with the expression of cytokines involved in adaptive immunity.
E. V. Yakushenko
Full Text Available Abstract. Interleukin–18 is one of the main cytokines, inducing production of IFNg. It is the important factor of anti–infectious and anti–tumor immunity. The review represent molecular–genetic and biochemical characteristics of IL–18. The data about producers, the structure of the receptor and of IL–18 binding protein, as well as signal transduction in the cell are considered. Besides that, the main immune effects of IL–18 are discussed. (Med. Immunol., 2005, vol.7, № 4, pp 355–364
Hogue, Michael D; Meador, Anna E
Vaccines are among most cost-effective public health strategies. Despite effective vaccines for many bacterial and viral illnesses, tens of thousands of adults and hundreds of children die each year in the United States from vaccine-preventable diseases. Underutilization of vaccines requires rethinking the approach to incorporating vaccines into practice. Arguably, immunizations could be a part all health care encounters. Shared responsibility is paramount if deaths are to be reduced. This article reviews the available vaccines in the US market, as well as practice recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
E. V. Yakushenko; J. A. Lopatnikova; S. V. Sennikov
Abstract. Interleukin–18 is one of the main cytokines, inducing production of IFNg. It is the important factor of anti–infectious and anti–tumor immunity. The review represent molecular–genetic and biochemical characteristics of IL–18. The data about producers, the structure of the receptor and of IL–18 binding protein, as well as signal transduction in the cell are considered. Besides that, the main immune effects of IL–18 are discussed. (Med. Immunol., 2005, vol.7, № 4, pp 355–364)...
Full Text Available Pentraxin-3 (PTX3 is a multifactorial protein involved in immunity and inflammation, which is rapidly produced and released by several cell types in response to inflammatory signals. It may be suggested that PTX3 is related to periodontal tissue inflammation. Its salivary concentrations may have a diagnostic potential. Pentraxin-3 (PTX3 is an ancient family of multifactorial proteins involved in immunity and inflammation. They are rapidly produced and released by various types of cells when there are indications of inflammation. PTX3 is related to inflammation in the periodontal tissue and it can be suggested that salivary concentrations may be used for diagnosing the same.
van Gerven, Nicole MF; de Boer, Ynto S; Mulder, Chris JJ; van Nieuwkerk, Carin MJ; Bouma, Gerd
To provide an update of the latest trends in epidemiology, clinical course, diagnostics, complications and treatment of auto immune hepatitis (AIH). A search of the MEDLINE database was performed using the search terms: “auto immune hepatitis”, “clinical presentation”, “symptoms”, “signs”, “diagnosis”, “auto antibodies”, “laboratory values”, “serology”, “histopathology”, “histology”, “genetics”, “HLA genes”, “non-HLA genes”, “environment”, “epidemiology”, “prevalence”, “incidence”, “demograph...
Seelig, L L; Steven, W M; Stewart, G L
The deleterious effects of maternal ethanol consumption on neonatal immune development and early immune responses has been well documented. However, the effects of such neonatal exposure to maternally consumed ethanol on the neonates' immune responses in their adult life, especially in combination with additional ethanol exposure, has received little attention. For these experiments, female rats were fed on either 6% ethanol or pair-fed isocaloric control Lieber-DeCarli liquid diets for 30 days prior to, and during, pregnancy and lactation. One day after weaning their pups, the mothers were infected with 1000 Trichinella spiralis larvae, and maintained on diets for an additional 20 days. At this time, they were challenged with 2000 T. spiralis larvae, killed 3 days later, and their immune status determined. These animals served as the first generation alcohol animals. Their female offspring served as the experimental second generation animals. These animals received maternal ethanol during pregnancy and lactation and control diet during their juvenile period (from weaning to 90 days of age). They were then subjected to a schedule of ethanol or pairfeeding, identical to the first generation dams. Two groups of second generation animals were established: Group 1 was exposed to ethanol during their dam's pregnancy and lactation periods only, with no subsequent ethanol treatment; Group 2 received ethanol during their dam's pregnancy and lactation periods and then again throughout their adult experimental period. Our previous studies showed only minimal changes following a secondary challenge in T. spiralis-immunized rats; however, neonates born to alcohol-consuming mothers did show some depressed secondary immune responses when challenged soon after weaning. We chose to use a secondary immune challenge to assess further immune alterations in second generation adult animals. No differences between any of the ethanol and pair-fed groups were observed in intestinal worm
Full Text Available The leading cause of moderate or severe thrombocytopenia in otherwise healthy appearing neonates is immune thrombocytopenia. Immune thrombocytopenia in the fetus or newborn may result from platelet alloantibodies against paternal antigens inherited by the fetus (alloimmune thrombocytopenia or platelet autoantibodies in the mother with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP. Only 10% of human platelet antigen (HPA-1a negative mothers who are exposed to HPA-1a positive fetal platelets during pregnancy develop HPA-1a alloantibodies, and 30% of fetuses/neonates will develop thrombocytopenia and 20% of these cases being severe. The most serious complication of severe fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT is intracranial hemorrhage (ICH, which is detected in 10-20% of affected fetuses/neonates, with most cases occurring antenatally. ICH leads to neurological sequelae in 20%, and deaths in 5-10% cases. There is no evidence-based optimal treatment strategy. Platelet antibody titration in maternal plasma is not helpful for decision-making. The best indicator for current pregnancy is the outcome of the previous pregnancy. The risk of recurrence among subsequent HPA-positive sibling is close to 100% where the previous sibling was affected with antenatal intracranial ICH. The risk of ICH becomes higher with more severe and earlier onset in each subsequent pregnancy. Serial platelet counts should be obtained for the first 5-7 days of delivery to keep the platelet counts higher than 30,000/µL without active bleeding and higher that 50,000-100,000/µL with active bleeding. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG is not alternative to platelet transfusions, since platelet counts don’t rise before 24-48 h. In platelet- transfused patients, IVIG can be given to potentially prolong the survival of the incompatible platelets. ITP during pregnancy is not considered a serious risk of perinatal bleeding, but may cause a moderate thrombocytopenia in neonate
This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series and also constitutes a part of the ETDE Procedures Manual. It presents the rules, guidelines and procedures to be adopted by centers submitting input to the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) or the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE). It is a manual for the subject analysis part of input preparation, meaning the selection, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing of relevant publications, and is to be used in conjunction with the Thesauruses, Subject Categories documents and the documents providing guidelines for the preparation of abstracts. The concept and structure of the new manual are intended to describe in a logical and efficient sequence all the steps comprising the subject analysis of documents to be reported to INIS or ETDE. The manual includes new chapters on preparatory analysis, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing, as well as rules, guidelines, procedures, examples and a special chapter on guidelines and examples for subject analysis in particular subject fields. (g.t.; a.n.)
Thornton, Lisa M; Andersen, Barbara L; Crespin, Timothy R; Carson, William E
Research connects stressful events with altered immune regulation, but the role of subjective stress is uncertain. Using a longitudinal design, we provide a statistically powerful test of the relationship between subjective stress (perceived stress, emotional distress) and immunity (T cell blastogenesis, natural killer cell cytotoxicity, [NKCC]) as individuals adjust to a severe stressor, a cancer diagnosis and its treatments. Women with regional breast cancer (N=113) were assessed at diagnosis/surgery and reassessed 4, 8, 12, and 18 months later. Latent growth curve analysis tested two hypotheses: (1) initial levels of subjective stress will correlate inversely with initial levels of immunity, and (2) rate of change in subjective stress will correlate inversely with rate of change in immunity. As predicted by Hypothesis 1, participants with high initial subjective stress showed poor initial blastogenesis. As predicted by Hypothesis 2, participants exhibiting an early, rapid decline in subjective stress also showed rapid improvement in NKCC. Follow-up analyses revealed perceived stress to be strongly related to immune function, while emotional distress was not. This is the first study to investigate trajectories in stress and immunity during recovery from a major stressor. Results imply that NK and T cells are sensitive to different aspects of the stress response. While T cell blastogenesis correlated with initial (peak) subjective stress, NKCC correlated with change (improvement) in subjective stress. These data highlight the importance of subjective stress, particularly stress appraisals, in the immune response to a major stressor.
Shrestha, Badri Man
The immune system recognises a transplanted kidney as foreign body and mounts immune response through cellular and humoral mechanisms leading to acute or chronic rejection, which ultimately results in graft loss. Over the last five decades, there have been significant advances in the understanding of the immune responses to transplanted organs in both experimental and clinical transplant settings. Modulation of the immune response by using immunosuppressive agents has led to successful outcomes after kidney transplantation. The paper provides an overview of the general organisation and function of human immune system, immune response to kidney transplantation, and the current practice of immunosuppressive therapy in kidney transplantation in the United Kingdom.
Russell, A.S.; Percy, J.S.; Kovithavongs, T.
We assessed cell-mediated immunity to herpes simplex virus type 1 antigen in patients suffering from recurrent cold sores and in a series of healthy controls. Paradoxically, all those subject to recurrent herpetic infections had, without exception, evidence of cell-mediated immunity to herpes antigens. This was demonstrated by lymphocyte transformation and specific 51 Cr release from infected human amnion cells after incubation with peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Where performed, skin tests with herpes antigen were also positive. In addition, serum from these patients specifically sensitized herpes virus-infected cells to killing by nonimmune, control mononuclear cells. These tests were negative in the control patients except in a few cases, and it is suggested that these latter may be the asymptomatic herpes virus carriers previously recognized or that they may have experienced a genital infection. (U.S.)
Kløverpris, Henrik Nyhus; Buus, Anette Stryhn; van der Stok, Mary
of HIV, we undertook, in a study of >1,000 C-clade-infected subjects, a comprehensive analysis of the epitopes presented by these 3 alleles and of the selection pressure imposed on HIV by each response. In contrast to previous studies, we show that each of these three HLA alleles is characterized both...... by unique CD8(+) T-cell specificities and by clear-cut differences in selection pressure imposed on the virus by those responses. These studies comprehensively define for the first time the CD8(+) T-cell responses and immune selection pressures for which these protective alleles are responsible....... These findings are consistent with HLA class I alleles mediating effective immune control of HIV through the number of p24 Gag-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses generated that can drive significant selection pressure on the virus....
Iaia, F. M.; Perez-Gomez, J.; Nordsborg, Nikolai
The present study examined how metabolic response and work capacity are affected by previous exhaustive exercise. Seven subjects performed an exhaustive cycle exercise ( approximately 130%-max; EX2) after warm-up (CON) and 2 min after an exhaustive bout at a very high (VH; approximately 30 s), high...... during a repeated high-intensity exercise lasting 1/2-2 min....
Rytter, Maren Johanne Heilskov; Kolte, Lilian; Briend, André
BACKGROUND: Malnourished children have increased risk of dying, with most deaths caused by infectious diseases. One mechanism behind this may be impaired immune function. However, this immune deficiency of malnutrition has not previously been systematically reviewed. OBJECTIVES: To review...... the scientific literature about immune function in children with malnutrition. METHODS: A systematic literature search was done in PubMed, and additional articles identified in reference lists and by correspondence with experts in the field. The inclusion criteria were studies investigating immune parameters...... are reduced in severely malnourished children, but intact in moderate malnutrition. Cytokine patterns are skewed towards a Th2-response. Other immune parameters seem intact or elevated: leukocyte and lymphocyte counts are unaffected, and levels of immunoglobulins, particularly immunoglobulin A, are high...
Kemenade, van Lidy; Cohen, Nicholas; Chadzinska, Magdalena
It has now become accepted that the immune system and neuroendocrine system form an integrated part of our physiology. Immunological defense mechanisms act in concert with physiological processes like growth and reproduction, energy intake and metabolism, as well as neuronal development. Not only
Toole, Kimberly; Perry, Cynthia S.
School nurses often have the responsibility to ensure that students meet all immunization requirements for school entry and school attendance. In large inner-city school districts, many obstacles exist which make this task daunting and often result in lengthy absences and exclusions for students. It is critical that school nurses find creative and…
Upadhyay, Ranjan; Hammerich, Linda; Peng, Paul; Brown, Brian; Merad, Miriam; Brody, Joshua D.
While the cellular origin of lymphoma is often characterized by chromosomal translocations and other genetic aberrations, its growth and development into a malignant neoplasm is highly dependent upon its ability to escape natural host defenses. Neoplastic cells interact with a variety of non-malignant cells in the tumor milieu to create an immunosuppressive microenvironment. The resulting functional impairment and dysregulation of tumor-associated immune cells not only allows for passive growth of the malignancy but may even provide active growth signals upon which the tumor subsequently becomes dependent. In the past decade, the success of immune checkpoint blockade and adoptive cell transfer for relapsed or refractory lymphomas has validated immunotherapy as a possible treatment cornerstone. Here, we review the mechanisms by which lymphomas have been found to evade and even reprogram the immune system, including alterations in surface molecules, recruitment of immunosuppressive subpopulations, and secretion of anti-inflammatory factors. A fundamental understanding of the immune evasion strategies utilized by lymphomas may lead to better prognostic markers and guide the development of targeted interventions that are both safer and more effective than current standards of care
Upadhyay, Ranjan; Hammerich, Linda; Peng, Paul [Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Brown, Brian [Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Merad, Miriam [Department of Oncological Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Brody, Joshua D., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States)
While the cellular origin of lymphoma is often characterized by chromosomal translocations and other genetic aberrations, its growth and development into a malignant neoplasm is highly dependent upon its ability to escape natural host defenses. Neoplastic cells interact with a variety of non-malignant cells in the tumor milieu to create an immunosuppressive microenvironment. The resulting functional impairment and dysregulation of tumor-associated immune cells not only allows for passive growth of the malignancy but may even provide active growth signals upon which the tumor subsequently becomes dependent. In the past decade, the success of immune checkpoint blockade and adoptive cell transfer for relapsed or refractory lymphomas has validated immunotherapy as a possible treatment cornerstone. Here, we review the mechanisms by which lymphomas have been found to evade and even reprogram the immune system, including alterations in surface molecules, recruitment of immunosuppressive subpopulations, and secretion of anti-inflammatory factors. A fundamental understanding of the immune evasion strategies utilized by lymphomas may lead to better prognostic markers and guide the development of targeted interventions that are both safer and more effective than current standards of care.
Koga, Toshihiko; Oho, Takahiko; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Nakano, Yoshio
Dental caries is one of the most common infectious diseases. Of the oral bacteria, mutans streptococci, such as Streptococcus mutans and S. sobrinus, are considered to be causative agents of dental caries in humans. There have been numerous studies of the immunology of mutans streptococci. To control dental caries, dental caries vaccines have been produced using various cell-surface antigens of these organisms. Progress in recombinant DNA technology and peptide synthesis has been applied to the development of recombinant and synthetic peptide vaccines to control dental caries. Significant protective effects against dental caries have been shown in experimental animals, such as mice, rats and monkeys, which have been subcutaneously, orally, or intranasally immunized with these antigens. Only a few studies, however, have examined the efficacy of dental caries vaccines in humans. Recently, local passive immunization using murine monoclonal antibodies, transgenic plant antibodies, egg-yolk antibodies, and bovine milk antibodies to antigens of mutans streptococci have been used to control the colonization of the organisms and the induction of dental caries in human. Such immunization procedures may be a safer approach for controlling human dental caries than active immunization.
van Gerven, Nicole Mf; de Boer, Ynto S; Mulder, Chris Jj; van Nieuwkerk, Carin Mj; Bouma, Gerd
To provide an update of the latest trends in epidemiology, clinical course, diagnostics, complications and treatment of auto immune hepatitis (AIH). A search of the MEDLINE database was performed using the search terms: "auto immune hepatitis", "clinical presentation", "symptoms", "signs", "diagnosis", "auto antibodies", "laboratory values", "serology", "histopathology", "histology", "genetics", "HLA genes", "non-HLA genes", "environment", "epidemiology", "prevalence", "incidence", "demographics", "complications", "HCC", "PBC", "PSC", "corticosteroid", "therapy", "treatment", "alternative treatment". English-language full-text articles and abstracts were considered. Articles included reviews, meta-analysis, prospective retrospective studies. No publication date restrictions were applied. AIH is an immune meditated progressive inflammatory liver disease that predominantly affects middle-aged females but may affect people of all ages. The clinical spectrum of AIH is wide, ranging from absent or mild symptoms to fulminant hepatic failure. The aetiology of AIH is still unknown, but is believed to occur as the consequence of an aberrant immune response towards an un-known trigger in a genetically susceptible host. In the absence of a gold standard, diagnosis is based on the combination of clinical, biochemical and histopathological criteria. Immunosuppressive treatment has been the cornerstone of treatment since the earliest description of the disease in 1950 by Waldenström. Such treatment is often successful at inducing remission and generally leads to normal life expectancy. Nevertheless, there remain significant areas of unmet aetiological a clinical needs including fundamental insight in disease pathogenesis, optimal therapy, duration of treatment and treatment alternatives in those patients unresponsive to standard treatment regimens.
Kumar, Amit; Wonganan, Piyanuch; Sandoval, Michael A.; Li, Xinran; Zhu, Saijie; Cui, Zhengrong
Previously, it was shown that microneedle-mediated transcutaneous immunization with plasmid DNA can potentially induce a stronger immune response than intramuscular injection of the same plasmid DNA. In the present study, we showed that the immune responses induced by transcutaneous immunization by applying plasmid DNA onto a skin area pretreated with solid microneedles were significantly enhanced by coating the plasmid DNA on the surface of cationic nanoparticles. In addition, the net surface charge of the DNA-coated nanoparticles significantly affected their in vitro skin permeation and their ability to induce immune responses in vivo. Transcutaneous immunization with plasmid DNA-coated net positively charged anoparticles elicited a stronger immune response than with plasmid DNA-coated net negatively charged nanoparticles or by intramuscular immunization with plasmid DNA alone. Transcutaneous immunization with plasmid DNA-coated net positively charged nanoparticles induced comparable immune responses as intramuscular injection of them, but transcutaneous immunization was able to induce specific mucosal immunity and a more balanced T helper type 1 and type 2 response. The ability of the net positively charged DNA-coated nanoparticles to induce a strong immune response through microneedle-mediated transcutaneous immunization may be attributed to their ability to increase the expression of the antigen gene encoded by the plasmid and to more effectively stimulate the maturation of antigen-presenting cells. PMID:22921518
Hammer, Lawrence D; Curry, Edward S; Harlor, Allen D; Laughlin, James J; Leeds, Andrea J; Lessin, Herschel R; Rodgers, Chadwick T; Granado-Villar, Deise C; Brown, Jeffrey M; Cotton, William H; Gaines, Beverly Marie Madry; Gambon, Thresia B; Gitterman, Benjamin A; Gorski, Peter A; Kraft, Colleen A; Marino, Ronald Vincent; Paz-Soldan, Gonzalo J; Zind, Barbara
In 1977, the American Academy of Pediatrics issued a statement calling for universal immunization of all children for whom vaccines are not contraindicated. In 1995, the policy statement "Implementation of the Immunization Policy" was published by the American Academy of Pediatrics, followed in 2003 with publication of the first version of this statement, "Increasing Immunization Coverage." Since 2003, there have continued to be improvements in immunization coverage, with progress toward meeting the goals set forth in Healthy People 2010. Data from the 2007 National Immunization Survey showed that 90% of children 19 to 35 months of age have received recommended doses of each of the following vaccines: inactivated poliovirus (IPV), measles-mumps-rubella (MMR), varicella-zoster virus (VZB), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). For diphtheria and tetanus and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine, 84.5% have received the recommended 4 doses by 35 months of age. Nevertheless, the Healthy People 2010 goal of at least 80% coverage for the full series (at least 4 doses of DTaP, 3 doses of IPV, 1 dose of MMR, 3 doses of Hib, 3 doses of HBV, and 1 dose of varicella-zoster virus vaccine) has not yet been met, and immunization coverage of adolescents continues to lag behind the goals set forth in Healthy People 2010. Despite these encouraging data, a vast number of new challenges that threaten continued success toward the goal of universal immunization coverage have emerged. These challenges include an increase in new vaccines and new vaccine combinations as well as a significant number of vaccines currently under development; a dramatic increase in the acquisition cost of vaccines, coupled with a lack of adequate payment to practitioners to buy and administer vaccines; unanticipated manufacturing and delivery problems that have caused significant shortages of various vaccine products; and the rise of a public antivaccination movement that uses the
MEIR, IRIT; PADDEN, CAROL A.; ARONOFF, MARK; SANDLER, WENDY
The notion of subject in human language has a privileged status relative to other arguments. This special status is manifested in the behavior of subjects at the morphological, syntactic, semantic and discourse levels. Here we bring evidence that subjects have privileged status at the lexical level as well, by analyzing lexicalization patterns of verbs in three different sign languages. Our analysis shows that the sublexical structure of iconic signs denoting state of affairs in these languages manifests an inherent pattern of form–meaning correspondence: the signer’s body consistently represents one argument of the verb, the subject. The hands, moving in relation to the body, represent all other components of the event – including all other arguments. This analysis shows that sign languages provide novel evidence in support of the centrality of the notion of subject in human language. It also solves a typological puzzle about the apparent primacy of object in sign language verb agreement, a primacy not usually found in spoken languages, in which subject agreement ranks higher. Our analysis suggests that the subject argument is represented by the body and is part of the lexical structure of the verb. Because it is always inherently represented in the structure of the sign, the subject is more basic than the object, and tolerates the omission of agreement morphology. PMID:23066169
Meir, Irit; Padden, Carol A; Aronoff, Mark; Sandler, Wendy
The notion of subject in human language has a privileged status relative to other arguments. This special status is manifested in the behavior of subjects at the morphological, syntactic, semantic and discourse levels. Here we bring evidence that subjects have privileged status at the lexical level as well, by analyzing lexicalization patterns of verbs in three different sign languages. Our analysis shows that the sublexical structure of iconic signs denoting state of affairs in these languages manifests an inherent pattern of form-meaning correspondence: the signer's body consistently represents one argument of the verb, the subject. The hands, moving in relation to the body, represent all other components of the event - including all other arguments. This analysis shows that sign languages provide novel evidence in support of the centrality of the notion of subject in human language. It also solves a typological puzzle about the apparent primacy of object in sign language verb agreement, a primacy not usually found in spoken languages, in which subject agreement ranks higher. Our analysis suggests that the subject argument is represented by the body and is part of the lexical structure of the verb. Because it is always inherently represented in the structure of the sign, the subject is more basic than the object, and tolerates the omission of agreement morphology.
J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)
textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed
Vasanth Patil, H.B.; Sathish Kumar, B.Y.
Antimicrobial peptides are important in the first line of the host defense system of all insect species. In the present study antimicrobial peptide(s) were isolated from the hemolymph of the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus. Both non induced and immune induced hemolymphs were tested for their antimicrobial activity against different bacterial strains and C. albicans. Induction was done by injecting E. coli into the abdominal cavity of the O. taurus. The non induced hemolymph did not show activity against any of the tested fungal and bacterial strains where as induced hemolymph showed activity against all tested bacterial strains but no activity against C. albicans. The induced hemolymph was subjected to non reducing SDS-PAGE and UV wavelength scan was performed to detect the presence of peptides. The immune induced hemolymph was purified by gel filtration chromatography to separate the proteins responsible for the antibacterial activity. The fractions within the peak were tested against those bacteria which previously showed sensitivity to the crude immune induced hemolymph. All fractions were found to be active against all tested bacteria with difference in zone of inhibition. The peptides are active against prokaryotes and not against eukaryotes. These properties reveal its unique characteristics and therapeutic application. (author)
Marsh, Heather A; Malik, Fauzia; Shapiro, Eve; Omer, Saad B; Frew, Paula M
We explored the attitudes, opinions, and concerns of African American women regarding influenza vaccination during pregnancy. As influenza immunization coverage rates remain suboptimal in the United States among this population, we elicited message framing strategies for multicomponent interventions aimed at decreasing future incident cases of maternal and neonatal influenza. Semi-structured in-depth interviews (N = 21) were conducted with pregnant African American women at urban OB/GYN clinics who had not received an influenza vaccine. Interviews were transcribed, subjected to intercoder reliability assessment, and content analyzed to identify common thematic factors related to acceptance of the influenza vaccine and health communication message preferences. Four major themes were identified. These were communication approaches, normal vaccine behavior, pregnancy vaccination, and positive versus negative framing. Two strong themes emerged: positively-framed messages were preferred over negatively-framed messages and those emphasizing the health of the infant. Additionally, previous immunization, message source, and vaccine misperceptions also played important roles in decision-making. The majority of women indicated that positively framed messages focusing on the infant's health would encourage them to receive an influenza vaccine. Messages emphasizing immunization benefits such as protection against preterm birth and low birth weight outcomes have potential to overcome widespread negative community perceptions and cultural beliefs. Additionally, messages transmitted via interpersonal networks and social media strongly influence motivation to obtain vaccination during pregnancy. The findings of this study will assist in developing tailored messages that change pregnant African American women's influenza vaccination decision-making to achieve improved coverage.
Cooper, Bret; Campbell, Kimberly B; McMahon, Michael B; Luster, Douglas G
Phakopsora pachyrhizi, a fungus that causes rust disease on soybean, has potential to impart significant yield loss and disrupt food security and animal feed production. Rpp1 is a soybean gene that confers immunity to soybean rust, and it is important to understand how it regulates the soybean defense system and to use this knowledge to protect commercial crops. It was previously discovered that some soybean proteins resembling transcription factors accumulate in the nucleus of Rpp1 soybeans. To determine if they contribute to immunity, Bean pod mottle virus was used to attenuate or silence the expression of their genes. Rpp1 plants subjected to virus-induced gene silencing exhibited reduced amounts of RNA for 5 of the tested genes, and the plants developed rust-like symptoms after subsequent inoculation with fungal spores. Symptoms were associated with the accumulation of rust fungal RNA and protein. Silenced plants also had reduced amounts of RNA for the soybean Myb84 transcription factor and soybean isoflavone O-methyltransferase, both of which are important to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and lignin formation, crucial components of rust resistance. These results help resolve some of the genes that contribute to Rpp1-mediated immunity and improve upon the knowledge of the soybean defense system. It is possible that these genes could be manipulated to enhance rust resistance in otherwise susceptible soybean cultivars. PMID:24401541
Gut microbiota play an important role in human immunological processes, potentially affecting allergic diseases such as eczema. The diversity and structure of gut microbiota in infants with eczema have been previously documented. This study aims to evaluate by comparative metagenomics differences in genetic content in gut microbiota of infants with eczema and their matched controls. Stools were collected at the age of one month old from twelve infants from an at risk birth cohort in a case control manner. Clinical follow up for atopic outcomes were carried out at the age of 12 and 24 months. Microbial genomic DNA were extracted from stool samples and used for shotgun sequencing. Comparative metagenomic analysis showed that immune-regulatory TCAAGCTTGA motifs were significantly enriched in the six healthy controls (C) communities compared to the six eczema subjects (E), with many encoded by Bifidobacterium (38% of the total motifs in the C communities). Draft genomes of five Bifidobacterium species populations (B. longum, B. bifidum, B. breve, B. dentium, and B. pseudocatenulatum) were recovered from metagenomic datasets. The B. longum BFN-121-2 genome encoded more TCAAGCTTGA motifs (4.2 copies per one million genome sequence) than other Bifidobacterium genomes. Additionally, the communities in the stool of controls (C) were also significantly enriched in functions associated with tetrapyrrole biosynthesis compared to those of eczema (E). Our results show distinct immune-modulatory genomic properties of gut microbiota in infants associated with eczema and provide new insights into potential role of gut microbiota in affecting human immune homeostasis.
Cooper, Bret; Campbell, Kimberly B; McMahon, Michael B; Luster, Douglas G
Phakopsora pachyrhizi, a fungus that causes rust disease on soybean, has potential to impart significant yield loss and disrupt food security and animal feed production. Rpp1 is a soybean gene that confers immunity to soybean rust, and it is important to understand how it regulates the soybean defense system and to use this knowledge to protect commercial crops. It was previously discovered that some soybean proteins resembling transcription factors accumulate in the nucleus of Rpp1 soybeans. To determine if they contribute to immunity, Bean pod mottle virus was used to attenuate or silence the expression of their genes. Rpp1 plants subjected to virus-induced gene silencing exhibited reduced amounts of RNA for 5 of the tested genes, and the plants developed rust-like symptoms after subsequent inoculation with fungal spores. Symptoms were associated with the accumulation of rust fungal RNA and protein. Silenced plants also had reduced amounts of RNA for the soybean Myb84 transcription factor and soybean isoflavone O-methyltransferase, both of which are important to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and lignin formation, crucial components of rust resistance. These results help resolve some of the genes that contribute to Rpp1-mediated immunity and improve upon the knowledge of the soybean defense system. It is possible that these genes could be manipulated to enhance rust resistance in otherwise susceptible soybean cultivars.
... Action Coalition AIM Vaccine Education Center 2012 National Immunization Survey Data Released Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... on this page kept for historical reasons. National Immunization Survey (NIS) – Children (19-35 months old) MMWR : ...
Tawfik, A.F.; Colley, D.G.
Resistance of mice to challenge infections of Schistosoma mansoni was evaluated before and after elimination of their primary, established S. mansoni infections with the chemotherapeutic drug praziquantel. Mice treated after either 10 or 20 weeks of primary infection were challenged 6 or 10 weeks after treatment. Mice infected for for 10 weeks prior to treatment expressed progressively less resistance 6 and 10 weeks after treatment. By 10 weeks after treatment significant levels of protection were no longer observed. Resistance waned more slowly if mice were treated 20 weeks after infection, and there was still significant expression of resistance to challenge 10 weeks after treatment. A separate set of experiments evaluated the use of highly irradiated cercariae as a vaccine in mice that had been previously infected with S. mansoni and cured with praziquantel. It was observed that effective immunizations were possible in previously infected mice. These studies demonstrate that established resistance waned after treatment and the rate of loss of protection was dependent upon the duration of infection prior to treatment. Furthermore, the irradiated cercarial vaccine studies indicate that in the murine model induction of immunological resistance was feasible following chemotherapeutic treatment of infected populations
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Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis in grazing areas of Mupfurudzi ... Plant attributes for Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis were measured in previously cultivated and uncultivated sites making up rangelands of the scheme.
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... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT: STATUS: Closed meeting. PLACE: 100 F Street, NE., Washington, DC. DATE AND TIME OF PREVIOUSLY ANNOUNCED MEETING: Thursday, December 9, 2010 at 2 p.m. CHANGE IN THE MEETING: Time change. The closed...
Tingo, Jennifer E; Carroll, Sheila J; Crystal, Matthew A
We present the case of an infant with three distinct outflow tracts from the right ventricle. Three outlets from the heart have been previously named the "Tritruncal Heart". We review the two previously reported cases of tritruncal hearts and describe the anatomy, diagnosis, surgical management, and outcome of our case. Embryologic implications are also discussed.
Persichetti, Paolo; Cagli, Barbara; Simone, Pierfranco; Cogliandro, Annalisa; Fortunato, Lucio; Altomare, Vittorio; Trodella, Lucio
The most common surgical approach in case of local tumor recurrence after quadrantectomy and radiotherapy is salvage mastectomy. Breast reconstruction is the subsequent phase of the treatment and the plastic surgeon has to operate on previously irradiated and manipulated tissues. The medical literature highlights that breast reconstruction with tissue expanders is not a pursuable option, considering previous radiotherapy a contraindication. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the influence of previous radiotherapy on 2-stage breast reconstruction (tissue expander/implant). Only patients with analogous timing of radiation therapy and the same demolitive and reconstructive procedures were recruited. The results of this study prove that, after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients, implant reconstruction is still possible. Further comparative studies are, of course, advisable to draw any conclusion on the possibility to perform implant reconstruction in previously irradiated patients.
Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M.
In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female.
have included the measles vaccination records to calculate the immunization dropout rate. The next issue is that the data from health centers will have fewer dropouts as the parents are aware of the benefits of immunization and have volunteered to get their children immunized. Moreover the 3 DPT doses are given with ...
Immune evasion is defined as a strategy employed by pathogenic microorganisms to evade or antagonize a host’s immune response, thereby maximizing survival and transmission to a new host. To fully understand immune evasion, both the pathogen and the host, and especially the interaction between the
Full Text Available Eccentric gaze in darkness evokes minor centripetal eye drifts in healthy subjects, as cerebellar control sufficiently compensates for the inherent deficiencies of the brainstem gaze-holding network. This behavior is commonly described using a leaky integrator model, which assumes that eye velocity grows linearly with gaze eccentricity. Results from previous studies in patients and healthy subjects suggest caution when this assumption is applied to eye eccentricities larger than 20 degrees. To obtain a detailed characterization of the centripetal gaze-evoked drift, we recorded horizontal eye position in 20 healthy subjects. With their head fixed, they were asked to fixate a flashing dot (50 ms every 2 sthat was quasi-stationary displacing(0.5 deg/s between ± 40 deg horizontally in otherwise complete darkness. Drift velocity was weak at all angles tested. Linearity was assessed by dividing the range of gaze eccentricity in four bins of 20 deg each, and comparing the slopes of a linear function fitted to the horizontal velocity in each bin. The slopes of single subjects for gaze eccentricities of ± 0-20 deg were, in median,0.41 times the slopes obtained for gaze eccentricities of ± 20-40 deg. By smoothing the individual subjects' eye velocity as a function of gaze eccentricity, we derived a population of position-velocity curves. We show that a tangent function provides a better fit to the mean of these curves when large eccentricities are considered. This implies that the quasi-linear behavior within the typical ocular motor range is the result of a tuning procedure, which is optimized in the most commonly used range of gaze. We hypothesize that the observed non-linearity at eccentric gaze results from a saturation of the input that each neuron in the integrating network receives from the others. As a consequence, gaze-holding performance declines more rapidly at large eccentricities.
Bertolini, Giovanni; Tarnutzer, Alexander A.; Olasagasti, Itsaso; Khojasteh, Elham; Weber, Konrad P.; Bockisch, Christopher J.; Straumann, Dominik; Marti, Sarah
Eccentric gaze in darkness evokes minor centripetal eye drifts in healthy subjects, as cerebellar control sufficiently compensates for the inherent deficiencies of the brainstem gaze-holding network. This behavior is commonly described using a leaky integrator model, which assumes that eye velocity grows linearly with gaze eccentricity. Results from previous studies in patients and healthy subjects suggest caution when this assumption is applied to eye eccentricities larger than 20 degrees. To obtain a detailed characterization of the centripetal gaze-evoked drift, we recorded horizontal eye position in 20 healthy subjects. With their head fixed, they were asked to fixate a flashing dot (50 ms every 2 s)that was quasi-stationary displacing(0.5 deg/s) between ±40 deg horizontally in otherwise complete darkness. Drift velocity was weak at all angles tested. Linearity was assessed by dividing the range of gaze eccentricity in four bins of 20 deg each, and comparing the slopes of a linear function fitted to the horizontal velocity in each bin. The slopes of single subjects for gaze eccentricities of ±0−20 deg were, in median,0.41 times the slopes obtained for gaze eccentricities of ±20−40 deg. By smoothing the individual subjects' eye velocity as a function of gaze eccentricity, we derived a population of position-velocity curves. We show that a tangent function provides a better fit to the mean of these curves when large eccentricities are considered. This implies that the quasi-linear behavior within the typical ocular motor range is the result of a tuning procedure, which is optimized in the most commonly used range of gaze. We hypothesize that the observed non-linearity at eccentric gaze results from a saturation of the input that each neuron in the integrating network receives from the others. As a consequence, gaze-holding performance declines more rapidly at large eccentricities. PMID:23637824
Liu, Yingru; Feinen, Brandon; Russell, Michael W.
It is well known that gonorrhea can be acquired repeatedly with no apparent development of protective immunity arising from previous episodes of infection. Symptomatic infection is characterized by a purulent exudate, but the host response mechanisms are poorly understood. While the remarkable antigenic variability displayed by Neisseria gonorrhoeae and its capacity to inhibit complement activation allow it to evade destruction by the host’s immune defenses, we propose that it also has the ...
Full Text Available H. pylori persists in the human stomach over decades and promotes several adverse clinical sequelae including gastritis, peptic ulcers and gastric cancer that are linked to the induction and subsequent evasion of chronic gastric inflammation. Emerging evidence indicates that H. pylori infection may also protect against asthma and some other immune-mediated conditions through regulatory T cell effects outside the stomach. To characterize the complexity of the CD4+ T cell response generated during H. pylori infection, computational methods were previously used to generate a panel of 90 predicted epitopes conserved among H. pylori genomes that broadly cover HLA Class II diversity for maximum population coverage. Here, these sequences were tested individually for their ability to induce in vitro responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by interferon-γ ELISpot assay. The average number of spot-forming cells/million PBMCs was significantly elevated in H. pylori-infected subjects over uninfected persons. Ten of the 90 peptides stimulated IFN-γ secretion in the H. pylori-infected group only, whereas two out of the 90 peptides elicited a detectable IFN-γ response in the H. pylori-uninfected subjects but no response in the H. pylori-infected group. Cytokine ELISA measurements performed using in vitro PBMC culture supernatants demonstrated significantly higher levels of TNF-α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and TGF-β1 in the H. pylori-infected subjects, whereas IL-17A expression was not related to the subjects H. pylori-infection status. Our results indicate that the human T cell responses to these 90 peptides are generally increased in actively H. pylori-infected, compared with H. pylori-naïve, subjects. This information will improve understanding of the complex immune response to H. pylori, aiding rational epitope-driven vaccine design as well as helping identify other H. pylori epitopes with potentially immunoregulatory effects.
Wang, J-J; Zhou, J-J; Yuan, X-L; Li, C-Y; Sheng, H; Su, B; Sheng, C-J; Qu, S; Li, H
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an immune deficiency disease. The etiology of hyperthyroidism, which can also be immune-related, is usually divided into six classical categories, including hypophyseal, hypothalamic, thyroid, neoplastic, autoimmune and inflammatory hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism is a rare complication of highly active antimicrobial therapy (HAART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Hyperthyroidism caused directly by AIDS has not been previously reported. A 29-year-old man who complained of dyspnea and asthenia for 1 month, recurrent fever for more than 20 days, and breathlessness for 1 week was admitted to our hospital. The thyroid function test showed that the level of free thyroxine (FT4) was higher than normal and that the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was below normal. He was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism. Additional investigations revealed a low serum albumin level and chest infection, along with diffuse lung fibrosis. Within 1 month, he experienced significant weight loss, no hand tremors, intolerance of heat, and perspiration proneness. We recommended an HIV examination; subsequently, AIDS was diagnosed based on the laboratory parameters. This is the first reported case of hyperthyroidism caused by AIDS. AIDS may cause hyperthyroidism by immunization regulation with complex, atypical, and easily ignored symptoms. Although hyperthyroidism is rare in patients with AIDS, clinicians should be aware of this potential interaction and should carefully monitor thyroid function in HIV-positive patients.
The smallpox vaccine represents the earliest attempt in engineering immunity. The recent success of chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T cells) in cancer once again demonstrates the clinical potential of immune engineering. Inspired by this success, diverse approaches have been used to boost various aspects of immunity: engineering dendritic cells (DCs), natural killer (NK) cells, T cells, antibodies, cytokines, small peptides, and others. With recent development of various high-throughput technologies (of which engineers, especially biomedical engineers/bioengineers contributed significantly), such as immune repertoire sequencing, and analytical methods, a systems level of understanding immunity (or the lack of it) beyond model animals has provided critical insights into the human immune system. This review focuses on recent progressed made in systems biology and the engineering of adaptive immunity.
Evidence from both human and rodent studies has indicated that alterations in immunological parameters occur after space flight. Among the parameters shown, by us and others, to be affected is the production of interferons. Interferons are a family of cytokines that are antiviral and play a major role in regulating immune responses that control resistance to infection. Alterations in interferon and other cytokine production and activity could result in changes in immunity and a possible compromise of host defenses against both opportunistic and external infections. The purpose of the present study is to explore further the effects of space flight on cyotokines and cytokine-directed immunological function. Among the tests carried out are interferon-alpha production, interferon-gamma production, interleukin-1 and -2 production, signal transduction in neutrophils, signal transduction in monocytes, and monocyte phagocytic activity. The experiments will be performed using peripheral blood obtained from human subjects. It is our intent to eventually carry out these experiments using astronauts as subjects to determine the effects of space flight on cytokine production and activity. However, these subjects are not currently available. Until they become available, we will carry out these experiments using subjects maintained in the bed-rest model for microgravity.
Jerry R McGhee
Full Text Available An intricate network of innate and immune cells and their derived mediators function in unison to protect us from toxic elements and infectious microbial diseases that are encountered in our environment. This vast network operates efficiently by use of a single cell epithelium in, for example, the gastrointestinal (GI and upper respiratory (UR tracts, fortified by adjoining cells and lymphoid tissues that protect its integrity. Perturbations certainly occur, sometimes resulting in inflammatory diseases or infections that can be debilitating and life threatening. For example, allergies in the eyes, skin, nose, and the UR or digestive tracts are common. Likewise, genetic background and environmental microbial encounters can lead to inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs. This mucosal immune system (MIS in both health and disease is currently under intense investigation worldwide by scientists with diverse expertise and interests. Despite this activity, there are numerous questions remaining that will require detailed answers in order to use the MIS to our advantage. In this issue of PLOS Biology, a research article describes a multi-scale in vivo systems approach to determine precisely how the gut epithelium responds to an inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, given by the intravenous route. This article reveals a previously unknown pathway in which several cell types and their secreted mediators work in unison to prevent epithelial cell death in the mouse small intestine. The results of this interesting study illustrate how in vivo systems biology approaches can be used to unravel the complex mechanisms used to protect the host from its environment.
Oberzaucher, Elisabeth; Grammer, Karl
Over the past decades, information about the characteristics of attractiveness has accumulated. We know about eight pillars of beauty, among them youthfulness, symmetry, hormone markers and body odor. But what is the biological function of these attractive signals? Is there one common function to be found in all eight beauty markers? In this paper, we argue that attractiveness signals immune resistance. Being attractive would thus be an honest signal for an immune system that coped well with the environmental challenges it was exposed to during ontogeny. This is a prerequisite for developmental stability, which again affects the differentiation of beauty characteristics. We argue that human preferences and mate choice criteria have evolved in coevolution with parasites, and that the current parasite load modulates our decision making. Copyright © 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Sultana, R; Ferdous, K J; Hossain, M; Zahid, M S H; Islam, L N
Occupational exposure to cotton dust, fibers, metal fumes and different chemicals used in the aparrel manufacturing industries cause a wide range of physical and psychological health problems in the garment workers that may also affect their immune function. To assess the immune system function in garment workers. A total of 45 workers of a garment factory, and 41 control subjects, not exposed to the garment working environment were enrolled in this study. In the study subjects, the complement system function was assessed as bactericidal activity on Escherichia coli DH5α cells using the standard plate count method. Serum complement components C3 and C4 were measured by immunoprecipitation, and IgG was measured by immunonephelometry. The bactericidal activity of serum complement in the garment workers (range: 93.5%-99.9%) was significantly (pgarment workers, the mean levels of complement C3, and C4 were 1.75 and 0.26 g/L, respectively that were close to those of the controls. The mean IgG level in the garment workers was 13.5 g/L that was significantly (pgarment factory may affect the immune system.
Zhao, Le; Lu, Wuyuan
Defensins are a major family of antimicrobial peptides expressed predominantly in neutrophils and epithelial cells, and play important roles in innate immune defense against infectious pathogens. Their biological functions in and beyond innate immunity, structure and activity relationships, mechanisms of action, and therapeutic potential continue to be interesting research topics. This review examines recent progress in our understanding of alpha and theta-defensins - the two structural classes composed of members of myeloid origin. A novel mode of antibacterial action is described for human enteric alpha-defensin 6, which forms structured nanonets to entrap bacterial pathogens and protect against bacterial invasion of the intestinal epithelium. The functional multiplicity and mechanistic complexity of defensins under different experimental conditions contribute to a debate over the role of enteric alpha-defensins in mucosal immunity against HIV-1 infection. Contrary to common belief, hydrophobicity rather than cationicity plays a dominant functional role in the action of human alpha-defensins; hydrophobicity-mediated high-order assembly endows human alpha-defensins with an extraordinary ability to acquire structural diversity and functional versatility. Growing evidence suggests that theta-defensins offer the best opportunity for therapeutic development as a novel class of broadly active anti-infective and anti-inflammatory agents. Defensins are the 'Swiss army knife' in innate immunity against microbial pathogens. Their modes of action are often reminiscent of the story of 'The Blind Men and the Elephant'. The functional diversity and mechanistic complexity, as well as therapeutic potential of defensins, will continue to attract attention to this important family of antimicrobial peptides.
Preventive vaccination is successfully practised today against two neoplastic diseases of domestic animals: fibropapillomatosis of cattle and Marek's disease of chickens (a lymphoproliferative disease). Also it may soon be possible to immunize cats against lymphosarcoma. This memorandum describes these diseases and the immunological reactions involved. It also mentions a number of other tumours that could be used for immunological studies. The greatest advances in immunity have been made with the tumours caused by viruses. The killed papillomavirus vaccine used against bovine papillomatosis produces demonstrable antibodies against the virus. In the case of Marek's disease of chickens, which is due to a herpesvirus, a live virus vaccine is used. This does not prevent infection with virulent virus, but prevents the development of neoplasia. The mechanism by which the vaccine produces its effect is not yet known. Immunization with live and with killed vaccines has been successfully carried out experimentally against leukosis of chickens, which is caused by an oncornavirus. There is evidence that it will be possible to vaccinate cats against lymphosarcoma with non-living vaccine. Naturally occurring cancer in domestic animals parallels cancer in man more closely than does experimentally induced cancer in inbred laboratory animals; therefore immunological studies with the former are more likely to yield results relevant to the problem in man. Experimental cancer in rodents provides models that have the great advantages of uniformity and availability, and they cannot be replaced. However, models in domestic animals offer valuable supplementary systems for research aimed at elucidating the basic principles of immunity to cancer. PMID:4363397
del Alcázar Garrido, Joan
Um observador privilegiado e participante do processo que levou à quebra da "imunidade soberana" do ex-ditador chileno Augusto Pinochet expõe como e em nome do que isso ocorreu.A privileged observer of, as well as a participant in, the process that resulted in the breaking of the "sovereign immunity" of Chiles former dictator Augusto Pinochet tells how and in the name of what this happened.
Bandrick, Meggan; Theis, Kara; Molitor, Thomas W
Passively acquired maternal derived immunity (MDI) is a double-edged sword. Maternal derived antibody-mediated immunity (AMI) and cell-mediated immunity (CMI) are critical immediate defenses for the neonate; however, MDI may interfere with the induction of active immunity in the neonate, i.e. passive interference. The effect of antigen-specific MDI on vaccine-induced AMI and CMI responses to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) was assessed in neonatal piglets. To determine whether CMI and AMI responses could be induced in piglets with MDI, piglets with high and low levels of maternal M. hyopneumoniae-specific immunity were vaccinated against M. hyopneumoniae at 7 d of age. Piglet M. hyopneumoniae-specific antibody, lymphoproliferation, and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses were measured 7 d and 14 d post vaccination. Piglets with M. hyopneumoniae-specific MDI failed to show vaccine-induced AMI responses; there was no rise in M. hyopneumoniae antibody levels following vaccination of piglets in the presence of M. hyopneumoniae-specific MDI. However, piglets with M. hyopneumoniae-specific MDI had primary (antigen-specific lymphoproliferation) and secondary (DTH) M. hyopneumoniae-specific CMI responses following vaccination. In this study neonatal M. hyopneumoniae-specific CMI was not subject to passive interference by MDI. Further, it appears that both maternal derived and endogenous CMI contribute to M. hyopneumoniae-specific CMI responses in piglets vaccinated in the face of MDI.
Full Text Available No research has previously been done regarding the phenomenon of adolescents who have previously been involved in Satanism and who experience obstacles in their strive for mental health. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism present behavioral problems like aggressive outbursts, depression, “ psychosis” or suicide attempts, that could lead to suicide. In the phenomenonanalysis semi-structured, phenomenological interviews were performed with the respondents and their parents. The respondents were requested to write a naïve sketch about their life. After completion of the data-control, guidelines for nursing staff were set.
Shimizu, Yutaka; Taraborrelli, Lucia; Walczak, Henning
Linear ubiquitination is a post-translational protein modification recently discovered to be crucial for innate and adaptive immune signaling. The function of linear ubiquitin chains is regulated at multiple levels: generation, recognition, and removal. These chains are generated by the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), the only known ubiquitin E3 capable of forming the linear ubiquitin linkage de novo. LUBAC is not only relevant for activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in various signaling pathways, but importantly, it also regulates cell death downstream of immune receptors capable of inducing this response. Recognition of the linear ubiquitin linkage is specifically mediated by certain ubiquitin receptors, which is crucial for translation into the intended signaling outputs. LUBAC deficiency results in attenuated gene activation and increased cell death, causing pathologic conditions in both, mice, and humans. Removal of ubiquitin chains is mediated by deubiquitinases (DUBs). Two of them, OTULIN and CYLD, are constitutively associated with LUBAC. Here, we review the current knowledge on linear ubiquitination in immune signaling pathways and the biochemical mechanisms as to how linear polyubiquitin exerts its functions distinctly from those of other ubiquitin linkage types. © 2015 The Authors. Immunological Reviews Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Špela Magister, Janko Kos
Full Text Available Cystatins comprise a large superfamily of related proteins with diverse biological activities. They were initially characterised as inhibitors of lysosomal cysteine proteases, however, in recent years some alternative functions for cystatins have been proposed. Cystatins possessing inhibitory function are members of three families, family I (stefins, family II (cystatins and family III (kininogens. Stefin A is often linked to neoplastic changes in epithelium while another family I cystatin, stefin B is supposed to have a specific role in neuredegenerative diseases. Cystatin C, a typical type II cystatin, is expressed in a variety of human tissues and cells. On the other hand, expression of other type II cystatins is more specific. Cystatin F is an endo/lysosome targeted protease inhibitor, selectively expressed in immune cells, suggesting its role in processes related to immune response. Our recent work points on its role in regulation of dendritic cell maturation and in natural killer cells functional inactivation that may enhance tumor survival. Cystatin E/M expression is mainly restricted to the epithelia of the skin which emphasizes its prominent role in cutaneous biology. Here, we review the current knowledge on type I (stefins A and B and type II cystatins (cystatins C, F and E/M in pathologies, with particular emphasis on their suppressive vs. promotional function in the tumorigenesis and metastasis. We proposed that an imbalance between cathepsins and cystatins may attenuate immune cell functions and facilitate tumor cell invasion.
Magister, Spela; Kos, Janko
Cystatins comprise a large superfamily of related proteins with diverse biological activities. They were initially characterised as inhibitors of lysosomal cysteine proteases, however, in recent years some alternative functions for cystatins have been proposed. Cystatins possessing inhibitory function are members of three families, family I (stefins), family II (cystatins) and family III (kininogens). Stefin A is often linked to neoplastic changes in epithelium while another family I cystatin, stefin B is supposed to have a specific role in neuredegenerative diseases. Cystatin C, a typical type II cystatin, is expressed in a variety of human tissues and cells. On the other hand, expression of other type II cystatins is more specific. Cystatin F is an endo/lysosome targeted protease inhibitor, selectively expressed in immune cells, suggesting its role in processes related to immune response. Our recent work points on its role in regulation of dendritic cell maturation and in natural killer cells functional inactivation that may enhance tumor survival. Cystatin E/M expression is mainly restricted to the epithelia of the skin which emphasizes its prominent role in cutaneous biology. Here, we review the current knowledge on type I (stefins A and B) and type II cystatins (cystatins C, F and E/M) in pathologies, with particular emphasis on their suppressive vs. promotional function in the tumorigenesis and metastasis. We proposed that an imbalance between cathepsins and cystatins may attenuate immune cell functions and facilitate tumor cell invasion.
Full Text Available The elaboration of an effective immune response against pathogenic microbes such as viruses, intracellular bacteria or protozoan parasites relies on the recognition of microbial products called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs. Ligation of the PRRs leads to synthesis and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Infected cells and other stressed cells also release host-cell derived molecules, called damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs, danger signals, or alarmins, which are generic markers for damage. DAMPs are recognized by specific receptors on both immune and nonimmune cells, which, depending on the target cell and the cellular context, can lead to cell differentiation or cell death, and either inflammation or inhibition of inflammation. Recent research has revealed that DAMPs and PAMPs synergize to permit secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β: PAMPs stimulate synthesis of pro-IL-1β, but not its secretion; while DAMPs can stimulate assembly of an inflammasome containing, usually, a Nod-like receptor (NLR member, and activation of the protease caspase-1, which cleaves pro-IL-1β into IL-1β, allowing its secretion. Other NLR members do not participate in formation of inflammasomes but play other essential roles in regulation of the innate immune response.
Full Text Available It is well known that gonorrhea can be acquired repeatedly with no apparent development of protective immunity arising from previous episodes of infection. Symptomatic infection is characterized by a purulent exudate, but the host response mechanisms are poorly understood. While the remarkable antigenic variability displayed by Neisseria gonorrhoeae and its capacity to inhibit complement activation allow it to evade destruction by the host’s immune defenses, we propose that it also has the capacity to avoid inducing specific immune responses. In a mouse model of vaginal gonococcal infection, N. gonorrhoeae elicits Th17-driven inflammatory- immune responses, which recruit innate defense mechanisms including an influx of neutrophils. Concomitantly, N. gonorrhoeae suppresses Th1- and Th2-dependent adaptive immunity, including specific antibody responses, through a mechanism involving TGF-β and regulatory T cells. Blockade of TGF-β alleviates the suppression of specific anti-gonococcal responses and allows Th1 and Th2 responses to emerge with the generation of immune memory and protective immunity. Genital tract tissues are naturally rich in TGF-β, which fosters an immunosuppressive environment that is important in reproduction. In exploiting this niche, N. gonorrhoeae exemplifies a well-adapted pathogen that proactively elicits from its host innate responses that it can survive and concomitantly suppresses adaptive immunity. Comprehension of these mechanisms of gonococcal pathogenesis should allow the development of novel approaches to therapy and facilitate the development of an effective vaccine.
... the Double Helix Ear Pages ECG/Electrocardiogram Immune System Immune Responses Malaria MRI Nerve Signaling Pavlov's Dog Split ... Alfred Nobel's Life and Work Teachers' Questionnaire The Immune System Play the Immune System Game About the game ...
Pelka, Karin; De Nardo, Dominic
This review introduces recent concepts in innate immunity highlighting some of the latest exciting findings. These include: the discovery of the initiator of pyroptosis, Gasdermin D, and mechanisms of inflammatory caspases in innate immune signaling; the formation of oligomeric signalosomes downstream of innate immune receptors; mechanisms that shape innate immune responses, such as cellular homeostasis, cell metabolism, and pathogen viability; rapid methods of cell-to-cell communication; the interplay between the host and its microbiome and the concept of innate immunological memory. Furthermore, we discuss open questions and illustrate how technological advances, such as CRISPR/Cas9, may provide important answers for outstanding questions in the field of innate immunity.
This study is a literary critical analysis of post-1960s Native American fiction and its engagement in the concepts of subject-ivity and identity in relation to both tribal- and Euroamerican -generated socio-cultural discourses and paradigms. This study adds to the critical enquiry of previous
Pasricha, Satwant K
Reported cases of nearly 2600 children (subjects) who claim to remember previous lives have been investigated in cultures with and without belief in reincarnation. The authenticity in most cases has been established. To study the influence of attitudes of parents of the subjects, families of the deceased person with whom they are identified and attention paid by others on the features of the cases. The study is based on field investigations. Data is derived from analysis of a larger series of an ongoing project. Information on initial and subsequent attitudes of subjects' mothers was available for 292 and 136 cases, respectively; attitudes of 227 families of deceased person (previous personality) with whom he is identified, and the extent of attention received from outsiders for 252 cases. Observations and interviews with multiple firsthand informants on both sides of the case as well as some neutral informants supplemented by examination of objective data were the chief methods of investigation. The initial attitude of mothers varied from encouragement (21%) to neutral or tolerance (51%) to discouragement (28%). However, it changed significantly from neutrality to taking measures to induce amnesia in their children for previous life memories due to various psychosocial pressures and prevalent beliefs. Families of the previous personalities, once convinced, showed complete acceptance in a majority of cases. Outside attention was received in 58% cases. The positive attitude of parents might facilitate expression of memories but subsequently attitudes of persons concerned do not seem to alter features of the cases.
Kawahara, Mamoru; Takaku, Hiroshi
Although tumor lysate contains all the potential helper and killer epitopes capable of stimulating T cells, it is difficult to use as a cancer vaccine because it suppresses dendritic cell (DC) function. We report that wild-type baculovirus possesses an adjuvant effect to improve the immunogenicity of tumor lysate. When mice were administered CT26 tumor cell lysate combined with baculovirus intradermally, antitumor immunity was induced and rejection of CT26 tumor growth was observed in 40% of the immunized mice. In contrast, such antitumor immunity was not elicited in mice inoculated with tumor cell lysate or baculovirus alone. In tumor-bearing mice, which had previously received the combined baculovirus and tumor lysate vaccine, the established tumors were completely eradicated by administering a booster dose of the combined vaccine. This antitumor effect was attributed to tumor-specific T cell immunity mediated primarily by CD8⁺ T cells. Baculovirus also strongly activated DCs loaded with tumor lysate. Increased interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-12p70 production were also observed in DCs co-cultured with tumor cell lysate and baculovirus. Our study demonstrates that combined baculovirus and tumor lysate vaccine can effectively stimulate DCs to induce acquired antitumor immunity.
Pouget, Jennie G; Gonçalves, Vanessa F; Spain, Sarah L
in immune genes contributes to schizophrenia. We show that there is no enrichment of immune loci outside of the MHC region in the largest genetic study of schizophrenia conducted to date, in contrast to 5 diseases of known immune origin. Among 108 regions of the genome previously associated...
... participation can influence perceptions of PA among the students. Physical activity promotion programmes should consider the role of these factors which should be emphasised from childhood. Keywords: physical activity, students, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, previous participation, sedentary lifestyle, Rwanda
Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family planning clinic in Northern Nigeria. Amina Mohammed‑Durosinlorun, Joel Adze, Stephen Bature, Caleb Mohammed, Matthew Taingson, Amina Abubakar, Austin Ojabo, Lydia Airede ...
Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.
Yamani-Zamzami, Tarik Y
To determine the maternal and perinatal outcomes at term in women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no history of vaginal birth. This is a case-control study conducted at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2002. One hundred sixty-two women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no previous vaginal birth were compared with 324 control women. The cesarean section rate was higher in the study group 40 (24.7%) versus 23 (7.1%) in the control group and was statistically significant (phistory of vaginal delivery are considered less favorable, the vaginal birth after cesarean section success rate may be even lower if the indication for previous primary cesarean delivery was failure to progress, and may be associated with increased risk of uterine rupture. Further study is required to confirm our findings.
Lu, H-L; St Leger, R J
The study of infection and immunity in insects has achieved considerable prominence with the appreciation that their host defense mechanisms share many fundamental characteristics with the innate immune system of vertebrates. Studies on the highly tractable model organism Drosophila in particular have led to a detailed understanding of conserved innate immunity networks, such as Toll. However, most of these studies have used opportunistic human pathogens and may not have revealed specialized immune strategies that have arisen through evolutionary arms races with natural insect pathogens. Fungi are the commonest natural insect pathogens, and in this review, we focus on studies using Metarhizium and Beauveria spp. that have addressed immune system function and pathogen virulence via behavioral avoidance, the use of physical barriers, and the activation of local and systemic immune responses. In particular, we highlight studies on the evolutionary genetics of insect immunity and discuss insect-pathogen coevolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jin, Haoran; Shi, Wei; Zhou, Yingfang; Wu, Beisheng; Peng, Chao
To investigate the influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on gynecological laparoscopic operation. A retrospective analysis of 3 283 cases of gynecological diseases by laparoscopic operation patients in Peking University First Hospital from 2007 January to 2012 December, among them, 719 (21.90%) patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery history (study Group), 2 564 (78.10%)patients have no history of abdominopelvic surgery (control group). Study group 719 patients, previous operation times: one time in 525 cases, 194 cases were multiple; previous operation: 185 cases of gynecological surgery, 305 cases of obstetric surgery, 108 cases of general surgery, and 121 complex surgery (include at least two kinds of surgery); previous operative approach: 650 cases laparotomy and 69 cases laparoscopy. Compared two groups of patients with abdominopelvic adhesion and the gynecologic laparoscopic operation situation, analyzed the influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on abdominopelvic adhesion on and gynecological laparoscopic operation. The incidence of abdominopelvic adhesion in the patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery was 51.2% (368/719), which was significantly higher than that of 8.2% (211/2 564)in patients without previous abdominopelvic surgery (P surgery (23.1%, 166/719) was significantly higher than that in the control group (3.3% , 85/2 564;P laparotomy was 0.6% (4/719) significantly more than the control groups (0.1%, 2/2 564; P = 0.023). Compared with other groups, patients with gynecological or complex surgery or multiple operation history presented more severe abdominopelvic adhesion both in the score and degree (P laparotomy showed no statistical difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). The laparoscopic operation could be carried out successfully and safely in patients with a history of various abdominopelvic operations, but the conversion rate increases, for patients with a history of multiple operation because of pelvic adhesion
DE Oliveira Gomes, Daniel Claudio; DA Silva Costa Souza, Beatriz Lilian; DE Matos Guedes, Herbert Leonel; Lopes, Ulisses Gazos; Rossi-Bergmann, Bartira
LACK (Leishmania analogue of the receptor kinase C) is a conserved protein in protozoans of the genus Leishmania which is associated with the immunopathogenesis and susceptibility of BALB/c mice to L. major infection. Previously, we demonstrated that intranasal immunization with a plasmid carrying the LACK gene of Leishmania infantum (LACK-DNA) promotes protective immunity in BALB/c mice against Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania chagasi. In the present study, we investigated the protective immunity achieved in hamsters intranasally vaccinated with 2 doses of LACK-DNA (30 μg). Compared with controls (PBS and pCI-neo plasmid), animals vaccinated with LACK-DNA showed significant reduction in parasite loads in the spleen and liver, increased lymphoproliferative response and increased nitric oxide (NO) production by parasite antigen-stimulated splenocytes. Furthermore, hamsters vaccinated with LACK-DNA presented high IgG and IgG2a serum levels when compared to control animals. Our results showed that intranasal vaccination with LACK-DNA promotes protective immune responses in hamsters and demonstrated the broad spectrum of intranasal LACK-DNA efficacy in different host species, confirming previous results in murine cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis.
Patterson, Paul H
Recent studies have highlighted a connection between infection during pregnancy and the increased risk of autism in the offspring. Parallel studies of cerebral spinal fluid, blood and postmortem brains reveal an ongoing, hyper-responsive inflammatory-like state in many young as well as adult autism subjects. There are also indications of gastrointestinal problems in at least a subset of autistic children. Work on the maternal infection risk factor using animal models indicates that aspects of brain and peripheral immune dysregulation can begin during fetal development and continue through adulthood. The offspring of infected or immune-activated dams also display cardinal behavioral features of autism, as well as neuropathology consistent with that seen in human autism. These rodent models are proving useful for the study of pathogenesis and gene-environment interactions as well as for the exploration of potential therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Martin, Stefan F
The innate immune system recognizes deviation from homeostasis caused by infectious or non-infectious assaults. The threshold for its activation seems to be established by a calibration process that includes sensing of microbial molecular patterns from commensal bacteria and of endogenous signals. It is becoming increasingly clear that adaptive features, a hallmark of the adaptive immune system, can also be identified in the innate immune system. Such adaptations can result in the manifestation of a primed state of immune and tissue cells with a decreased activation threshold. This keeps the system poised to react quickly. Moreover, the fact that the innate immune system recognizes a wide variety of danger signals via pattern recognition receptors that often activate the same signaling pathways allows for heterologous innate immune stimulation. This implies that, for example, the innate immune response to an infection can be modified by co-infections or other innate stimuli. This "design feature" of the innate immune system has many implications for our understanding of individual susceptibility to diseases or responsiveness to therapies and vaccinations. In this article, adaptive features of the innate immune system as well as heterologous innate immunity and their implications are discussed.
Lundgaard Andersen, Linda
is also subjected to psychodynamic processes. In this article, I draw upon a number of research inquiries to illustrate how psychodynamic processes influence research processes: data production, research questions and methodology, relations to informants, as well as interpretation and analysis. I further......Fieldwork is one of the important methods in educational, social, and organisational research. In fieldwork, the researcher takes residence for a shorter or longer period amongst the subjects and settings to be studied. The aim of this is to study the culture of people: how people seem to make...... sense of their lives and which moral, professional, and ethical values seem to guide their behaviour and attitudes. In fieldwork, the researcher has to balance participation and observation in her attempts at representation. Consequently, the researcher’s academic and life-historical subjectivity...
Hamre, Bjørn; Fristrup, Tine; Christensen, Gerd
This article examines the constructions of the deviant subject in Danish Foucauldian educational research. Following the work of Foucault, we argue that the deviant subject, on the one hand, could be considered as a subject of exemption. In this case, exemption is deduced from Foucault......’s understanding of the relation between normality and deviancy. On the other hand, an examination of Danish Foucauldian disability research shows that this conception of ‘the deviant subject’ has changed over time. Hence, the present expectations of ‘the disabled’ are – more or less – influenced by contemporary...... discourses of general education. Thus, this article argues that Foucauldian disability studies could benefit from taking into account Foucauldian research in the field of general education. Until recently, the two research fields have been mutually isolated....
Jahn, R G; Dunne, B J
Over the greater portion of its long scholarly history, the particular form of human observation, reasoning, and technical deployment we properly term "science" has relied at least as much on subjective experience and inspiration as it has on objective experiments and theories. Only over the past few centuries has subjectivity been progressively excluded from the practice of science, leaving an essentially secular analytical paradigm. Quite recently, however, a compounding constellation of newly inexplicable physical evidence, coupled with a growing scholarly interest in the nature and capability of human consciousness, are beginning to suggest that this sterilization of science may have been excessive and could ultimately limit its epistemological reach and cultural relevance. In particular, an array of demonstrable consciousness-related anomalous physical phenomena, a persistent pattern of biological and medical anomalies, systematic studies of mind/brain relationships and the mechanics of human creativity, and a burgeoning catalogue of human factors effects within contemporary information processing technologies, all display empirical correlations with subjective aspects that greatly complicate, and in many cases preclude, their comprehension on strictly objective grounds. However, any disciplined re-admission of subjective elements into rigorous scientific methodology will hinge on the precision with which they can be defined, measured, and represented, and on the resilience of established scientific techniques to their inclusion. For example, any neo-subjective science, while retaining the logical rigor, empirical/theoretical dialogue, and cultural purpose of its rigidly objective predecessor, would have the following requirements: acknowledgment of a proactive role for human consciousness; more explicit and profound use of interdisciplinary metaphors; more generous interpretations of measurability, replicability, and resonance; a reduction of ontological
Ooi, Poh Veh
Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.
Ooi, Poh Veh
Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.
Olsen, Dorte Reff; Montgomery, Edith; Bojholm, S
AIM: To research possible associations between previous exposure to specific torture techniques and prevalent pain in the head and face, back, and feet. METHODS: 221 refugees, 193 males and 28 females, previously exposed to torture in their home country, were subject to a clinical interview...... was general abuse of the whole body (OR 5.64, 95% CI 1.93-16.45). CONCLUSION: In spite of many factors being potentially co-responsible for prevalent pain, years after the torture took place it presents itself as strongly associated with specific loci of pain, with generalized effects, and with somatizing....
Van den Nieuwboer, M; Brummer, R J; Guarner, F; Morelli, L; Cabana, M; Claasen, E
This study aimed to systematically evaluate safety of probiotics and synbiotics in immune compromised adults (≥18 years). Safety was analysed using the Common Terminology Clinical Adverse Events (CTCAE version 4.0) classification, thereby providing an update on previous reports using the most recent available clinical data (2008-2013). Safety aspects are represented and related to number of participants per probiotic strain/culture, study duration, dosage, clinical condition and selected afflictions. Analysis of 57 clinical studies indicates that probiotic and/or synbiotic administration in immune compromised adults is safe with regard to the current evaluated probiotic strains, dosages and duration. Individuals were considered immune compromised if HIV-infected, critically ill, underwent surgery or had an organ- or an autoimmune disease. There were no major safety concerns in the study, as none of the serious adverse events (AE)s were related, or suspected to be related, to the probiotic or synbiotic product and the study products were well tolerated. Overall, AEs occurred less frequent in immune compromised subjects receiving probiotics and/or synbiotics compared to the control group. In addition, the results demonstrated a flaw in precise reporting and classification of AE in most studies. Furthermore, generalisability of conclusions are greatly limited by the inconsistent, imprecise and potentially incomplete reporting as well as the variation in probiotic strains, dosages, administration regimes, study populations and reported outcomes. We argue that standardised reporting on adverse events (CTCAE) in 'food' studies should be obligatory, thereby improving reliability of data and re-enforcing the safety profile of probiotics.
Løkke, Anders; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Dahl, Ronald
Background and Aim: Under-diagnosis of COPD is a widespread problem. This study aimed to identify previously undiagnosed cases of COPD in a high-risk population identified through general practice. Methods: Participating GPs (n = 241) recruited subjects with no previous diagnosis of lung disease,...
Full Text Available We used ultra-deep sequencing to obtain tens of thousands of HIV-1 sequences from regions targeted by CD8+ T lymphocytes from longitudinal samples from three acutely infected subjects, and modeled viral evolution during the critical first weeks of infection. Previous studies suggested that a single virus established productive infection, but these conclusions were tempered because of limited sampling; now, we have greatly increased our confidence in this observation through modeling the observed earliest sample diversity based on vastly more extensive sampling. Conventional sequencing of HIV-1 from acute/early infection has shown different patterns of escape at different epitopes; we investigated the earliest escapes in exquisite detail. Over 3-6 weeks, ultradeep sequencing revealed that the virus explored an extraordinary array of potential escape routes in the process of evading the earliest CD8 T-lymphocyte responses--using 454 sequencing, we identified over 50 variant forms of each targeted epitope during early immune escape, while only 2-7 variants were detected in the same samples via conventional sequencing. In contrast to the diversity seen within epitopes, non-epitope regions, including the Envelope V3 region, which was sequenced as a control in each subject, displayed very low levels of variation. In early infection, in the regions sequenced, the consensus forms did not have a fitness advantage large enough to trigger reversion to consensus amino acids in the absence of immune pressure. In one subject, a genetic bottleneck was observed, with extensive diversity at the second time point narrowing to two dominant escape forms by the third time point, all within two months of infection. Traces of immune escape were observed in the earliest samples, suggesting that immune pressure is present and effective earlier than previously reported; quantifying the loss rate of the founder virus suggests a direct role for CD8 T-lymphocyte responses
Roč. 4, č. 1 (2014), s. 187-195 ISSN 1804-624X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/1164 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Levinas * phenomenology * factivity * body * experience Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion
Brussaard, P.J.; Glaudemans, P.W.M.
Attention is paid to a variery of subjects which are related to shell model applications, e.g. the Lanczos method for matrix diagonalization, truncation methods (seniority truncation, single-particle energy truncation and diagonal energy truncation which can be used for reducing the configuration space.) Coulomb energies and spurious states are briefly discussed. Finally attention is paid to the particle-vibrator model
Reidsma, Dennis; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Artstein, R.; Boleda, G.; Keller, F.; Schulte im Walde, S.
Many interesting phenomena in conversation can only be annotated as a subjective task, requiring interpretative judgements from annotators. This leads to data which is annotated with lower levels of agreement not only due to errors in the annotation, but also due to the differences in how annotators
Jansen, MA, Robert
Includes one diagnostic test and three complete tests, all questions answered and explained, self-assessment guides, and subject reviews. Also features test strategies, QR codes to short instructional videos, and a detailed appendix with equations, physical constants, and a basic math review.
Fukuya, Tatsuro; Mihara, Futoshi; Kudo, Sho; Russell, W.J.; Delongchamp, R.R.; Vaeth, M.; Hosoda, Yutaka.
Tracheobronchial calcification is reportedly more frequent in women than in men. Ten cases of extensive tracehobronchial calcification were identified on chest radiographs of 1,152 consecutively examined Adult Health Study subjects, for a prevalence of 0.87 %. An additional 51 subjects having this coded diagnosis were identified among 11,758 members of this fixed population sample. Sixty of the 61 subjects were women. The manifestations and extent of this type of calcification and its correlations with clinical and histopathologic features, which have not been previously reported, are described here. (author)
Kultursay, N.; Taneli, B.; Cavusoglu, A.
A 5-year old boy was admitted to the hospital with failure to thrive since he was 2 years old, with weakness in his legs and a waddling gait. He has normal mental development. His parents are normal phenotypically and are unrelated. In analysing his pedigree only a grandfather is described to have waddling gait. He has a normal craniofacial appearance but a disproportionate body with normal trunk and short extremities with height below the 3rd percentile. The diagnosis of pseudoachondroplasia was made on clinical, radiological and laboratory findings. He also had immune deficiency characterised by low T-lymphocyte populations and a low level of serum immunoglobulin A. (orig.)
Andersen, Mads Hald
Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3)-specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells are present among human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), especially in cancer patients. Such T lymphocytes are able not only to specifically recognize dendritic cells (DCs) that have been exposed to recombinant FOXP3...... and regulatory T cells, but also to kill FOXP3(+) malignant T cells. The natural occurrence of FOXP3-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes among human PBMCs suggests a general role for these cells in the complex network of immune regulation....
Full Text Available Target detection performance is known to be influenced by events in the previous trials. It has not been clear, however, whether this bias effect is due to the previous sensory stimulus, motor response, or decision. Also it remains open whether or not the previous trial effect emerges via the same mechanism as the effect of knowledge about the target probability. In the present study, we asked normal human subjects to make a decision about the presence or absence of a visual target. We presented a pre-cue indicating the target probability before the stimulus, and also a decision-response mapping cue after the stimulus so as to tease apart the effect of decision from that of motor response. We found that the target detection performance was significantly affected by the probability cue in the current trial and also by the decision in the previous trial. While the information about the target probability modulated the decision criteria, the previous decision modulated the sensitivity to target-relevant sensory signals (d-prime. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we also found that activation in the left intraparietal sulcus was decreased when the probability cue indicated a high probability of the target. By contrast, activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus was increased when the subjects made a target-present decision in the previous trial, but this change was observed specifically when the target was present in the current trial. Activation in these regions was associated with individual-difference in the decision computation parameters. We argue that the previous decision biases the target detection performance by modulating the processing of target-selective information, and this mechanism is distinct from modulation of decision criteria due to expectation of a target.
Ballegaard, Vibe C; Schejbel, Lone; Hoffmann, Steen
BACKGROUND: The risk of life-threatening and invasive infections with encapsulated bacteria is increased in patients with hyposplenia or asplenia. We report a case of recurrent invasive pneumococcal meningitis in a woman with previous unknown hyposplenia. She was vaccinated after the first episode...... was found. Despite immunization against S. pneumoniae and measurement of what was interpreted as protective levels of serotype-specific IgG antibodies after vaccination, the patient suffered from a third episode of IPD. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with predisposing medical conditions or a history of severe...... infections with encapsulated bacteria should be screened for spleen dysfunction. If splenic function is impaired, prevention against severe invasive infection with encapsulated bacteria are a major priority....
Ortaldo, J.R.; McCoy, J.L.
The radioprotective action of interferon (IF) in increasing the survival time of mice lethally irradiated 24 h previously was evaluated. A single intraperitoneal injection of 30,000 units of IF administered 1 day following a LD 100 dose of irradiation significantly prolonged the mean survival time of the animals. Multiple inoculations of IF given 1,3, and 5 days after irradiation only slightly increased the survival time over that observed in mice receiving single injections. Marked decreases in total number of splenocytes were observed in irradiated mice as well as in the mice receiving postirradiation IF therapy, whereas total peripheral white blood cell counts were not appreciably changed when evaluated 3 days after X irradiation. Natural lymphocyte killer activity of splenocytes from irradiated animals receiving IF was significantly increased, suggesting that the protective action of IF could be partially attributable to the boosting of some depressed immune functions
Akash M. Mehta
Full Text Available The local immune response is considered a key determinant in cervical carcinogenesis after persistent infection with oncogenic, high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV infections. Genetic variation in various immune response genes has been shown to influence risk of developing cervical cancer, as well as progression and survival among cervical cancer patients. We reviewed the literature on associations of immunogenetic single nucleotide polymorphism, allele, genotype, and haplotype distributions with risk and progression of cervical cancer. Studies on HLA and KIR gene polymorphisms were excluded due to the abundance on literature on that subject. We show that multiple genes and loci are associated with variation in risk of cervical cancer. Rather than one single gene being responsible for cervical carcinogenesis, we postulate that variations in the different immune response genes lead to subtle differences in the effectiveness of the antiviral and antitumour immune responses, ultimately leading to differences in risk of developing cervical cancer and progressive disease after HPV infection.
Walsh, Neil P; Gleeson, Michael; Shephard, Roy J
purpose such as improvement of physical condition or competition. Extreme physical activity of any type may have implications for the immune system. However, because of its emotive component, exercise is likely to have a larger effect, and to date the great majority of our knowledge on this subject comes....... It is widely accepted that acute and chronic exercise alter the number and function of circulating cells of the innate immune system (e.g. neutrophils, monocytes and natural killer (NK) cells). A limited number of animal studies has helped us determine the extent to which these changes alter susceptibility...... in acquired immunity with acute exercise and training remains unknown. The production of secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) is the major effector function of the mucosal immune system providing the 'first line of defence' against pathogens. To date, the majority of exercise studies have assessed saliva SIg...
Upendra K Kar
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Modifications of adjuvants that induce cell-mediated over antibody-mediated immunity is desired for development of vaccines. Nanocapsules have been found to be viable adjuvants and are amenable to engineering for desired immune responses. We previously showed that natural nanocapsules called vaults can be genetically engineered to elicit Th1 immunity and protection from a mucosal bacterial infection. The purpose of our study was to characterize immunity produced in response to OVA within vault nanoparticles and compare it to another nanocarrier. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We characterized immunity resulting from immunization with the model antigen, ovalbumin (OVA encased in vault nanocapsules and liposomes. We measured OVA responsive CD8(+ and CD4(+ memory T cell responses, cytokine production and antibody titers in vitro and in vivo. We found that immunization with OVA contain in vaults induced a greater number of anti-OVA CD8(+ memory T cells and production of IFNγ plus CD4(+ memory T cells. Also, modification of the vault body could change the immune response compared to OVA encased in liposomes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These experiments show that vault nanocapsules induced strong anti-OVA CD8(+ and CD4(+ T cell memory responses and modest antibody production, which markedly differed from the immune response induced by liposomes. We also found that the vault nanocapsule could be modified to change antibody isotypes in vivo. Thus it is possible to create a vault nanocapsule vaccine that can result in the unique combination of immunogen-responsive CD8(+ and CD4(+ T cell immunity coupled with an IgG1 response for future development of vault nanocapsule-based vaccines against antigens for human pathogens and cancer.
The aim of the present study is to examine the relationships between Internet addiction, subjective vitality, and subjective happiness. The participants were 328 university students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Online Cognition Scale, the Subjective Vitality Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. According to the results, subjective vitality and subjective happiness were negatively predicted by Internet addiction. On the other hand, subjective happiness was positively predicted by subjective vitality. In addition, subjective vitality mediated the relationship between Internet addiction and subjective happiness. Results were discussed in light of the literature.
Carrasco-Yepez, M M; Campos-Rodríguez, R; Reséndiz-Albor, A A; Peña-Juárez, C; Contis-Montes de Oca, A; Arciniega-Martínez, I M; Bonilla-Lemus, P; Rojas-Hernandez, S
We investigated whether intranasal immunization with amoebic lysates plus cholera toxin modified the populations of T and B lymphocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells by flow cytometry from nose-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), cervical lymph nodes (CN), nasal passages (NP) and spleen (SP). In all immunized groups, the percentage of CD4 was higher than CD8 cells. CD45 was increased in B cells from mice immunized. We observed IgA antibody-forming cell (IgA-AFC) response, mainly in NALT and NP. Macrophages from NP and CN expressed the highest levels of CD80 and CD86 in N. fowleri lysates with either CT or CT alone immunized mice, whereas dendritic cells expressed high levels of CD80 and CD86 in all compartment from immunized mice. These were lower than those expressed by macrophages. Only in SP from CT-immunized mice, these costimulatory molecules were increased. These results suggest that N. fowleri and CT antigens are taking by APCs, and therefore, protective immunity depends on interactions between APCs and T cells from NP and CN. Consequently, CD4 cells stimulate the differentiation from B lymphocytes to AFC IgA-positive; antibody that we previously found interacting with trophozoites in the nasal lumen avoiding the N. fowleri attachment to nasal epithelium. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Julik, Emily; Reyes-Del Valle, Jorge
Current measles vaccines suffer from poor effectiveness in young infants due primarily to the inhibitory effect of residual maternal immunity on vaccine responses. The development of a measles vaccine that resists such passive immunity would strongly contribute to the stalled effort toward measles eradication. In this concise communication, we show that a measles virus (MV) with enhanced hemagglutinin (H) expression and incorporation, termed MVvac2-H2, retained its enhanced immunogenicity, previously established in older mice, when administered to very young, genetically modified, MV-susceptible mice in the presence of passive anti-measles immunity. This immunity level mimics the sub-neutralizing immunity prevalent in infants too young to be vaccinated. Additionally, toward a more physiological small animal model of maternal anti-measles immunity interference, we document vertical transfer of passive anti-MV immunity in genetically-modified, MV susceptible mice and show in this physiological model a better MVvac2-H2 immunogenic profile than that of the parental vaccine strain. In sum, these data support the notion that enhancing MV hemagglutinin incorporation can circumvent in vivo neutralization. This strategy merits additional exploration as an alternative pediatric measles vaccine.
Tidbury, Hannah J; Pedersen, Amy B; Boots, Mike
Invertebrates mount a sophisticated immune response with the potential to exhibit a form of immune memory through 'priming'. Increased immune protection following early exposure to bacteria has been found both later in life (within generation priming) and in the next generation (transgeneration priming) in a number of invertebrates. However, it is unclear how general immune priming is and whether immune priming occurs in response to different parasites, including viruses. Here, using Plodia interpuctella (Lepidoptera) and its natural DNA virus, Plodia interpunctella granulosis virus, we find evidence for both within generation and transgeneration immune priming. Individuals previously exposed to low doses of virus, as well as the offspring of exposed individuals, are subsequently less susceptible to viral challenge. Relatively little is known about the mechanisms that underpin viral immunity but it is probable that the viral immune response is somewhat different to that of bacteria. We show that immune priming may, however, be a characteristic of both responses, mediated through different mechanisms, suggesting that immune memory may be a general phenomenon of insect immunity. This is important because immune priming may influence both host-parasite population and evolutionary dynamics.
Qiu, Feifei; Liang, Chun-Ling; Liu, Huazhen; Zeng, Yu-Qun; Hou, Shaozhen; Huang, Song; Lai, Xiaoping; Dai, Zhenhua
Cigarette smoking is associated with numerous diseases and poses a serious challenge to the current healthcare system worldwide. Smoking impacts both innate and adaptive immunity and plays dual roles in regulating immunity by either exacerbation of pathogenic immune responses or attenuation of defensive immunity. Adaptive immune cells affected by smoking mainly include T helper cells (Th1/Th2/Th17), CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells and memory T/B lymphocytes while innate immune cells impacted by smoking are mostly DCs, macrophages and NK cells. Complex roles of cigarette smoke have resulted in numerous diseases, including cardiovascular, respiratory and autoimmune diseases, allergies, cancers and transplant rejection etc. Although previous reviews have described the effects of smoking on various diseases and regional immunity associated with specific diseases, a comprehensive and updated review is rarely seen to demonstrate impacts of smoking on general immunity and, especially on major components of immune cells. Here, we aim to systematically and objectively review the influence of smoking on major components of both innate and adaptive immune cells, and summarize cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying effects of cigarette smoking on the immune system. The molecular pathways impacted by cigarette smoking involve NFκB, MAP kinases and histone modification. Further investigations are warranted to understand the exact mechanisms responsible for smoking-mediated immunopathology and to answer lingering questions over why cigarette smoking is always harmful rather than beneficial even though it exerts dual effects on immune responses.
Full Text Available Immune infertility, in terms of reproductive failure, has become a serious health issue involving approximately 1 out of 5 couples at reproductive age. Semen that is defined as a complex fluid containing sperm, cellular vesicles and other cells and components, could sensitize the female genital tract. The immune rejection of male semen in the female reproductive tract is explained as the failure of natural tolerance leading to local and/or systemic immune response. Present active immune mechanism may induce high levels of anti-seminal/sperm antibodies. It has already been proven that iso-immunization is associated with infertility. Comprehensive studies with regards to the identification of antibody-targets and the determination of specific antibody class contribute to the development of effective immuno-therapy and, on the other hand, potential immuno-contraception, and then of course to complex patient diagnosis. This review summarizes the aspects of female immune infertility.
Chang, Jonathan E; Turley, Shannon J
The initiation of adaptive immune responses depends upon the careful maneuvering of lymphocytes and antigen into and within strategically placed lymph nodes (LNs). Non-hematopoietic stromal cells form the cellular infrastructure that directs this process. Once regarded as merely structural features of lymphoid tissues, these cells are now appreciated as essential regulators of immune cell trafficking, fluid flow, and LN homeostasis. Recent advances in the identification and in vivo targeting of specific stromal populations have resulted in striking new insights to the function of stromal cells and reveal a level of complexity previously unrealized. We discuss here recent discoveries that highlight the pivotal role that stromal cells play in orchestrating immune cell homeostasis and adaptive immunity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gurusamy, Devikala; Clever, David; Eil, Robert; Restifo, Nicholas P
Adaptive evolution has prompted immune cells to use a wide variety of inhibitory signals, many of which are usurped by tumor cells to evade immune surveillance. Although tumor immunologists often focus on genes and proteins as mediators of immune function, here we highlight two elements from the periodic table-oxygen and potassium-that suppress the immune system in previously unappreciated ways. While both are key to the maintenance of T-cell function and tissue homeostasis, they are exploited by tumors to suppress immuno-surveillance and promote metastatic spread. We discuss the temporal and spatial roles of these elements within the tumor microenvironment and explore possible therapeutic interventions for effective and promising anticancer therapies. Cancer Immunol Res; 5(6); 426-33. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.
The purpose of this study was to characterize the effects of chronic low-dose ionizing radiation (LDR) on murine immune cells. Previously, it had been reported that LDR enhances the proliferative activity of T cells in vitro and delays the growth of transplantable immunogenic tumors in vivo. This suggests that LDR eliminates immune suppressor cells, which downregulates immune response and/or adoptively upregulates the responsiveness of immune effector cells. It had also been reported that human lymphocytes become refractive to high dose radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations by pretreating mitotically active lymphocytes in vitro with very low doses of ionizing radiation, and the adaptive effect can be abrogated by cycloheximide. This suggests that protein synthesis is required for lymphocytes to respond adoptively to LDR
... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 225.45 Section 225.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR STATE, LOCAL, AND INDIAN TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS (OMB CIRCULAR A-87) § 225.45 Relationship to...
An 8-year-old previously healthy female presented with a 3 weeks history of headache, neck stiffness, deafness, fever and vomiting and was diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis. She had documented hearing loss and was referred to tertiary-level care after treatment with fluconazole did not improve her neurological ...
Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the case of Beryx splendens from the Sierra Leone Rise (Gulf of Guinea) ... A spectral analysis and red-noise spectra procedure (REDFIT) algorithm was used to identify the red-noise spectrum from the gaps in the observed time-series of catch per unit effort by ...
Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis: Pathophysiology of a community-based cohort. B.W. Allwood, R Gillespie, M Galperin-Aizenberg, M Bateman, H Olckers, L Taborda-Barata, G.L. Calligaro, Q Said-Hartley, R van Zyl-Smit, C.B. Cooper, E van Rikxoort, J Goldin, N Beyers, E.D. Bateman ...
Balance and bilateral skills of selected previously disadvantaged children aged 9 to 12 years. Eileen K Africa, Karel J Van Deventer. Abstract. The main aim of the study was to design an appropriate motor skills development programme that could be implemented in any primary school to improve the fundamental motor ...
Background: A previous ceasarean section is an important variable that influences patient management in subsequent pregnancies. A trial of vaginal delivery in such patients is a feasible alternative to a secondary section, thus aiding to reduce the ceasarean section rate and its associated co-morbidities. Objective: To ...
Objective. To compare the outcome of suburethral sling procedures (tension-free vaginal tape (TVT), obturator tape (Ob-tape)) for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women with previous surgery for SUI or pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Methods. A comparative, descriptive, retrospective study was done using information ...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 532.405 Section 532.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... rate may be based upon a rate of pay received during a temporary promotion, so long as the temporary...
... of Substantially Equivalent State Law § 1710.552 Previously accepted state filings. (a) Materials... and contracts or agreements contain notice of purchaser's revocation rights. In addition see § 1715.15..., unless the developer is obligated to do so in the contract. (b) If any such filing becomes inactive or...
... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.352 Use of... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 9701.352 Section 9701.352 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT...
In this report, we present a case of an 11‑year‑old previously undiagnosed sickle cell disease Nigerian girl with severe acute bilateral orbital infarction and retinal detachment to highlight that hemoglobinopathy induced orbital infarction should be considered in African children with acute onset proptosis with or without ...
Tilford, J M; Robbins, J M; Shema, S J; Farmer, F L
To examine the healthcare utilization and costs of previously uninsured rural children. Four years of claims data from a school-based health insurance program located in the Mississippi Delta. All children who were not Medicaid-eligible or were uninsured, were eligible for limited benefits under the program. The 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES) was used to compare utilization of services. The study represents a natural experiment in the provision of insurance benefits to a previously uninsured population. Premiums for the claims cost were set with little or no information on expected use of services. Claims from the insurer were used to form a panel data set. Mixed model logistic and linear regressions were estimated to determine the response to insurance for several categories of health services. The use of services increased over time and approached the level of utilization in the NMES. Conditional medical expenditures also increased over time. Actuarial estimates of claims cost greatly exceeded actual claims cost. The provision of a limited medical, dental, and optical benefit package cost approximately $20-$24 per member per month in claims paid. An important uncertainty in providing health insurance to previously uninsured populations is whether a pent-up demand exists for health services. Evidence of a pent-up demand for medical services was not supported in this study of rural school-age children. States considering partnerships with private insurers to implement the State Children's Health Insurance Program could lower premium costs by assembling basic data on previously uninsured children.
An experiment was conducted with eighteen rumen cannulated sheep fed on a chopped lucerne diet. Previous level of intake significantly influenced the level at which sheep initially established voluntary feed intake. This difference had disappeared after three weeks on an ad lib. intake. Perturbation analysis of the results ...
Gudim, Laurie, Comp.; And Others
This report discusses battered women and the role of their previous victimization. After a literature review on family violence in general, these topics are discussed: (1) family violence and the patriarchy; (2) the historical background of family violence; (3) intergenerational cycle of violence; and (4) psychological literature's four ways…
Age, education, religion, parity, prior contraception, and interval from the last delivery were significantly associated with the current choice of contraception (P 0.05). Overall, when comparing the pattern among those with a previous operative delivery and those without, ...
In the '98-'99 period some process cells of the EUREX pant will be dismantled, in order to place there the liquid wastes conditioning plant 'CORA'. This report resumes the previous activities (plant rinsing campaigns and inactive Cell 014 dismantling), run in the past three years and the drawn experience [it
The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North-West Province. Evans's theory of job satisfaction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixedmethods explanatory research design was important in discovering issues with ...
Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in antenatal care: Cross sectional study on timing of antenatal care booking at public health facilities in ... Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted to collect data from 630 pregnant women who were attending antenatal care service at 10 governmental ...
We investigated the effects of previous cultivation on regeneration potential under miombo woodlands in a resettlement area, a spatial product of Zimbabwe's land reforms. We predicted that cultivation would affect population structure, regeneration, recruitment and potential grazing capacity of rangelands. Plant attributes ...
Sep 14, 2017 ... Case Report. How to cite this article: Olarinoye-Akorede SA, Silas BT. Mondor's disease of the breast in a Nigerian woman previously treated for invasive ductal carcinoma in the ... and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms. For reprints .... malignancy. Financial support and sponsorship.
... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forwarding commodities... commodities previously shipped. Order T-1 applies to transportation on or discharge from ships documented... ship or aircraft, before the issuance of Order T-1, had transported restricted commodities manifested...
Herington, Jennifer L; Bruner-Tran, Kaylon L; Lucas, John A; Osteen, Kevin G
Endometriosis is a common, complex gynecologic disorder characterized by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma at extrauterine (ectopic) sites. In women who develop this disease, alterations in specific biological processes involving both the endocrine and immune systems have been observed, which may explain the survival and growth of displaced endometrial tissue in affected women. In the past decade, a considerable amount of research has implicated a role for alterations in progesterone action at both eutopic and ectopic sites of endometrial growth which may contribute to the excessive inflammation associated with progression of endometriosis; however, it remains unclear whether these anomalies induce the condition or are simply a consequence of the disease process. In this article, we summarize current knowledge of alterations within the immune system of endometriosis patients and discuss how endometrial cells from women with this disease not only have the capacity to escape immunosurveillance, but also use inflammatory mechanisms to promote their growth within the peritoneal cavity. Finally, we discuss evidence that exposure to an environmental endocrine disruptor, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, can mediate the development of an endometrial phenotype that exhibits both reduced progesterone responsiveness and hypersensitivity to proinflammatory stimuli mimicking the endometriosis phenotype. Future studies in women with endometriosis should consider whether a heightened inflammatory response within the peritoneal microenvironment contributes to the development and persistence of this disease. PMID:21895474
Gliński, Z; Jarosz, J
Advances in biochemistry and molecular biology have made it possible to identify a number of mechanisms active in the immune phenomena of echinoderms. It is obvious that echinoderms have the ability to distinguish between different foreign objects (pathologically changed tissues, microorganisms, parasites, grafts) and to express variable effector mechanisms which are elicited specifically and repeatably after a variety of non-self challenges. The molecular and biochemical basis for the expression of these variable defense mechanisms and the specific signals which elicit one type of effector mechanism are not, however, yet well known. The high capacity of coelomocytes to phagocytose, entrap and encapsulate invading microorganisms is a valid immune cell-mediated mechanism of echinoderms. The entrapped bacteria, discharged cellular materials and disintegrating granular cells are compacted and provoke the cellular encapsulation reaction. Moreover, humoral-based reactions form an integral part of the echinoderm defense system against microbial invaders. Factors such as lysozyme, perforins (hemolysins) vitellogenin and lectins are normal constituents of hemolymph, while cytokines are synthesized by echinoderms in response to infection.
Palomino, Diana Carolina Torres; Marti, Luciana Cavalheiro
Chemokines are a large family of small cytokines and generally have low molecular weight ranging from 7 to 15kDa. Chemokines and their receptors are able to control the migration and residence of all immune cells. Some chemokines are considered pro-inflammatory, and their release can be induced during an immune response at a site of infection, while others are considered homeostatic and are involved in controlling of cells migration during tissue development or maintenance. The physiologic importance of this family of mediators is resulting from their specificity − members of the chemokine family induce recruitment of well-defined leukocyte subsets. There are two major chemokine sub-families based upon cysteine residues position: CXC and CC. As a general rule, members of the CXC chemokines are chemotactic for neutrophils, and CC chemokines are chemotactic for monocytes and sub-set of lymphocytes, although there are some exceptions. This review discusses the potential role of chemokines in inflammation focusing on the two best-characterized chemokines: monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, a CC chemokine, and interleukin-8, a member of the CXC chemokine sub-family. PMID:26466066
Hu, Bo Hua; Zhang, Celia; Frye, Mitchell D
The cochlea has an immune environment dominated by macrophages under resting conditions. When stressed, circulating monocytes enter the cochlea. These immune mediators, along with cochlear resident cells, organize a complex defense response against pathological challenges. Since the cochlea has minimal exposure to pathogens, most inflammatory conditions in the cochlea are sterile. Although the immune response is initiated for the protection of the cochlea, off-target effects can cause collateral damage to cochlear cells. A better understanding of cochlear immune capacity and regulation would therefore lead to development of new therapeutic treatments. Over the past decade, there have been many advances in our understanding of cochlear immune capacity. In this review, we provide an update and overview of the cellular components of cochlear immune capacity with a focus on macrophages in mammalian cochleae. We describe the composition and distribution of immune cells in the cochlea and suggest that phenotypic and functional characteristics of macrophages have site-specific diversity. We also highlight the response of immune cells to acute and chronic stresses and comment on the potential function of immune cells in cochlear homeostasis and disease development. Finally, we briefly review potential roles for cochlear resident cells in immune activities of the cochlea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kjærup, R B; Juul-Madsen, H R; Norup, L R; Sørensen, P; Dalgaard, T S
Owing to the higher demands for avoiding medication and antibiotics, health status of the production animals plays an important role in the poultry industry, especially in organic poultry systems. Immunity plays a major role in keeping the host free from disease, and it is evident that the host's genetic make-up influences immunity and disease resistance/susceptibility in chickens. Previously, breeding strategies aimed at selection for resistance against specific diseases with the risk of creating less disease resistance against other pathogens. Changing breeding strategies towards selection of chickens with a more general and broad disease resistance or robustness may therefore improve the overall health status, animal welfare, and food security in the poultry production. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the immunocompetence of the presumed "robust" Hellevad chickens with two chicken lines widely used in organic production, Bovans Brown (Bovans) and Hisex White (Hisex). The chickens were subjected to a routine vaccination program comprising one parasite and four viral vaccines. The current study indicates that considerable differences in immunocompetence may exist between commercial layer lines used in organic production. The Hellevad chickens were found to have higher body weight at the end of the experiment (17 weeks of age) than the other two lines. Furthermore, Hellevad and Hisex chickens were found to have higher levels of humoral innate immunity with regard to sample to positive ratio of natural antibodies in serum and concentration of mannose-binding lectin in serum as compared to Bovans. Moreover, indications of an inflammatory response were observed in the Bovans at week 5, corresponding to 1 week after vaccination with live infectious bursal disease virus. With regard to adaptive immune parameters such as IgY concentration in blood and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV)-specific antibody titres, the Hellevad and Hisex chickens had lower
This is the final report on the immunity in Chagas ’ disease contract and it summarizes the results of a diversity of studies directed toward...antibody test for Chagas ’ disease. Also mentioned are the facts that the cell membranes of live trypomastigotes are not immunoreactive with the...humoral immune response of an infected host and that suppression of parasitemias in chronic Chagas ’ disease is probably a function of the cell immune system of the host. (Author)
Ploegh, H L
The vertebrate body is an ideal breeding ground for viruses and provides the conditions that promote their growth, survival, and transmission. The immune system evolved and deals with this challenge. Mutually assured destruction is not a viable evolutionary strategy; thus, the study of host-virus interactions provides not only a glimpse of life at immunity's edge, but it has also illuminated essential functions of the immune system, in particular, the area of major histocompatibility complex-restricted antigen presentation.
In this paper, 11 narratives about former experiences in learning of mathematics written by nursing students are thematically analyzed. Most students had a positive relationship with the subject in primary school, when they found mathematics fun and were able to master the subject. For some, a change occurred in the transition to lower secondary school. The reasons for this change was found in the subject (increased difficulty), the teachers (movement of teachers, numerous substitute teachers), the class environment and size (many pupils, noise), and the student him- or herself (silent and anonymous pupil). This change was also found in the transition from lower to higher secondary school. By contrast, some students had experienced changes that were positive, and their mathematics teacher was a significant factor in this positive change. The paper emphasizes the importance of previous experiences in learning mathematics to nursing students when learning about drug calculation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Karam, Amer; Stempel, Michelle; Cody, Hiram S; Port, Elisa R
Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is the standard of care for axillary staging in breast cancer, but many clinical scenarios questioning the validity of SLN biopsy remain. Here we describe our experience with reoperative-SLN (re-SLN) biopsy after previous mastectomy. Review of the SLN database from September 1996 to December 2007 yielded 20 procedures done in the setting of previous mastectomy. SLN biopsy was performed using radioisotope with or without blue dye injection superior to the mastectomy incision, in the skin flap in all patients. In 17 of 20 patients (85%), re-SLN biopsy was performed for local or regional recurrence after mastectomy. Re-SLN biopsy was successful in 13 of 20 patients (65%) after previous mastectomy. Of the 13 patients, 2 had positive re-SLN, and completion axillary dissection was performed, with 1 having additional positive nodes. In the 11 patients with negative re-SLN, 2 patients underwent completion axillary dissection demonstrating additional negative nodes. One patient with a negative re-SLN experienced chest wall recurrence combined with axillary recurrence 11 months after re-SLN biopsy. All others remained free of local or axillary recurrence. Re-SLN biopsy was unsuccessful in 7 of 20 patients (35%). In three of seven patients, axillary dissection was performed, yielding positive nodes in two of the three. The remaining four of seven patients all had previous modified radical mastectomy, so underwent no additional axillary surgery. In this small series, re-SLN was successful after previous mastectomy, and this procedure may play some role when axillary staging is warranted after mastectomy.
Full Text Available Costs and benefits of the immune response have attracted considerable attention in the last years among evolutionary biologists. Given the cost of parasitism, natural selection should favor individuals with the most effective immune defenses. Nevertheless, there exists huge variation in the expression of immune effectors among individuals. To explain this apparent paradox, it has been suggested that an over-reactive immune system might be too costly, both in terms of metabolic resources and risks of immune-mediated diseases, setting a limit to the investment into immune defenses. Here, we argue that this view neglects one important aspect of the interaction: the role played by evolving pathogens. We suggest that taking into account the co-evolutionary interactions between the host immune system and the parasitic strategies to overcome the immune response might provide a better picture of the selective pressures that shape the evolution of immune functioning. Integrating parasitic strategies of host exploitation can also contribute to understand the seemingly contradictory results that infection can enhance, but also protect from, autoimmune diseases. In the last decades, the incidence of autoimmune disorders has dramatically increased in wealthy countries of the northern hemisphere with a concomitant decrease of most parasitic infections. Experimental work on model organisms has shown that this pattern may be due to the protective role of certain parasites (i.e., helminths that rely on the immunosuppression of hosts for their persistence. Interestingly, although parasite-induced immunosuppression can protect against autoimmunity, it can obviously favor the spread of other infections. Therefore, we need to think about the evolution of the immune system using a multidimensional trade-off involving immunoprotection, immunopathology and the parasitic strategies to escape the immune response.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Littoral cell angioma (LCA is a rare vascular tumor of the spleen. Generally thought to be benign, additional cases of LCA with malignant features have been described. Thus, its malignant potential seems to vary and must be considered uncertain. The etiology remains unclear, but an immune dysregulation for the apparent association with malignancies of visceral organs or immune-mediated diseases has been proposed. Case Presentation We report a case of LCA in a 43-year old male patient who presented with a loss of appetite and intermittent upper abdominal pain. Computed tomography showed multiple hypoattenuating splenic lesions which were hyperechogenic on abdominal ultrasound. Lymphoma was presumed and splenectomy was performed. Pathological evaluation revealed LCA. Conclusions LCA is a rare, primary vascular neoplasm of the spleen that might etiologically be associated with immune dysregulation. In addition, it shows a striking association with synchronous or prior malignancies. With about one-third of the reported cases to date being co-existent with malignancies of visceral organs or immune-mediated diseases, this advocates for close follow-ups in all patients diagnosed with LCA. To our knowledge, this report is the first one of LCA associated with previous pulmonary sarcoidosis and hypothesizes a TNF-α related pathogenesis of this splenic tumor.
Raaijmakers, S.A.; Kraaij, W.
We present a shallow linguistic approach to subjectivity classification. Using multinomial kernel machines, we demonstrate that a data representation based on counting character n-grams is able to improve on results previously attained on the MPQA corpus using word-based n-grams and syntactic
Romero-Ángeles, B; Urriolagoitia-Sosa, G; Torres-San Miguel, C R; Molina-Ballinas, A; Benítez-García, H A; Vargas-Bustos, J A; Urriolagoitia-Calderón, G
This research presents a numerical simulation of the shot peening process and determines the residual stress field induced into a component with a previous loading history. The importance of this analysis is based on the fact that mechanical elements under shot peening are also subjected to manufacturing processes, which convert raw material into finished product. However, material is not provided in a virgin state, it has a previous loading history caused by the manner it is fabricated. This condition could alter some beneficial aspects of the residual stress induced by shot peening and could accelerate the crack nucleation and propagation progression. Studies were performed in beams subjected to strain hardening in tension (5ε y ) before shot peening was applied. Latter results were then compared in a numerical assessment of an induced residual stress field by shot peening carried out in a component (beam) without any previous loading history. In this paper, it is clearly shown the detrimental or beneficial effect that previous loading history can bring to the mechanical component and how it can be controlled to improve the mechanical behavior of the material
Homeostasis between the host and viruses is naturally maintained. On the one hand, the immune system activates the immune response to kill or eliminate viruses; on the other hand, the immune system controls the immune response to maintain immune homeostasis. The cause of persistent infections with hepatitis viruses such as HBV and HCV is that viral molecules damage the immune system of the host and their variants escape immune clearance. Long-term coexistence of the host and viruses is the pr...
Colosio, C.; Birindelli, S.; Corsini, E.; Galli, C.L.; Maroni, M.
Industrialized countries are facing an increase of diseases attributable to an alteration of the immune system function, and concern is growing that this trend could be at least partially attributable to new and modified patterns of exposure to chemicals. Among chemicals matter of concern, pesticides can be included. The Authors have reviewed the existing evidence of pesticide immunotoxicity in humans, showing that existing data are inadequate to raise conclusions on the immunotoxic risk related to these compounds. The limits of existing studies are: poor knowledge on exposure levels, heterogeneity of the approach, and difficulty in giving a prognostic significance to the slight changes often observed. To overcome these limits, the Authors have proposed a tier approach, based on three steps: the first, addressed at pointing out a possible immunomodulation; the second, at refining the results and the third one, when needed, to finalize the study and to point out concordance with previous results. Studies should preferably be carried out through comparison of pre- and post-exposure findings in the same groups of subjects to be examined immediately after the end of the exposure. A simplification of the first step approach can be used by the occupational health physician and the occupational toxicologist. Conclusions on the prognostic significance of the slight changes often observed will be reached only by validating the hypothesis generated by field studies with an epidemiological approach. In this field, the most useful option is represented by longitudinal perspective studies
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are associated with an altered systemic immune response leading to inflammation-mediated damage to the gut and other organs. Oral immune therapy is a method of systemic immune modulation via alteration of the gut immune system. It uses the inherit ability of the innate system of the gut to redirect the systemic innate and adaptive immune responses. Oral immune therapy is an attractive clinical approach to treat autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. It can induce immune modulation without immune suppression, has minimal toxicity and is easily administered. Targeting the systemic immune system via the gut immune system can serve as an attractive novel therapeutic method for IBD. This review summarizes the current data and discusses several examples of oral immune therapeutic methods for using the gut immune system to generate signals to reset systemic immunity as a treatment for IBD.
Bock, H L; Kruppenbacher, J P; Bienzle, U; De Clercq, N A; Hofmann, F; Clemens, R L
Travelers seeking protection from hepatitis A also often need protection against other infections, prevalent at their destinations. A total of 396 volunteers received not only a hepatitis A vaccine but also either a vaccine against polio, hepatitis B, diphtheria, tetanus, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, typhoid fever or rabies according to their individual needs. We investigated the potential influence of the hepatitis A vaccination on the immune response to the other travelers vaccines that were administered concurrently. With seroprotection rates of 100% for yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis and rabies immunization and tetanus boosters our data demonstrate that the concurrent administration of hepatitis A vaccine does not compromise the immune response of these vaccines. Also for oral typhoid, hepatitis B and diphtheria vaccination we did not detect a negative influence of concurrent hepatitis A vaccine administration as compared with respective vaccinations when given alone. Prior to vaccination, more than one third of our subjects lacked protective antibody levels against diphtheria and only 44% of initially seronegative travelers seroconverted to an anti-diphtheria titer > or = 0.01 mIU/mL, supporting a need for an additional dose. Furthermore, only two thirds of the vaccinees tested prior to vaccination were protected against polio type 3, and the seroconversion rate following the administration of oral polio vaccine, was lower for viral type 3 (80%), as has been previously demonstrated in settings without concurrent other vaccinations. No negative effect of concurrent travelers vaccinations on the immune response of a hepatitis A vaccine has been detected in a previous report, and, likewise our data suggest no impairment of the antibody response of these travelers vaccines by the concurrent administration of the hepatitis A vaccine.
Full Text Available The onset of cancer is unavoidably accompanied by suppression of antitumor immunity. This occurs through mechanisms ranging from the progressive accumulation of regulatory immune cells associated with chronic immune stimulation and inflammation, to the expression of immunosuppressive molecules. Some of them are being successfully exploited as therapeutic targets, with impressive clinical results achieved in patients, as in the case of immune checkpoint inhibitors. To limit immune attack, tumor cells exploit specific pathways to render the tumor microenvironment hostile for antitumor effector cells. Local acidification might, in fact, anergize activated T cells and facilitate the accumulation of immune suppressive cells. Moreover, the release of extracellular vesicles by tumor cells can condition distant immune sites contributing to the onset of systemic immune suppression. Understanding which mechanisms may be prevalent in specific cancers or disease stages, and identifying possible strategies to counterbalance would majorly contribute to improving clinical efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. Here, we intend to highlight these mechanisms, how they could be targeted and the tools that might be available in the near future to achieve this goal.
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 11. The Immune System and Bodily Defence How Does the Immune System Generate a Truly Infinite Repertoire Capability? Vineeta Bal Satyajit Rath. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 11 November 1997 pp 8-13 ...
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 6. The Major Players in Adaptive Immunity - Cell-mediated Immunity. Asma Ahmed Banishree Saha Anand Patwardhan Shwetha Shivaprasad Dipankar Nandi. General Article Volume 14 Issue 6 June 2009 pp 610-621 ...
The Immune Response of Maternally Immune Chicks to Vaccination with Newcastle Disease Virus. ... G A El-Tayeb, M Y El-Ttegani, I E Hajer, M A Mohammed ... This study was conducted to determine the persistence of maternally derived antibodies (MDA) to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in newly hatched chicks and the ...
Objective: To determine the cellular immune response in Bell's palsy (BP) and its prognostic value in relation to clinical and electrophysiological findings. Methods: Twenty patients with BP were subjected to: Facial nerve paralysis assessment according to House–Brackmann (H&B) grading system, bilateral facial nerve ...
Grosskinsky, D. K.; Edelsbrunner, K.; Pfeifhofer, H.; van der Graaff, E.; Roitsch, Thomas
Roč. 8, č. 7 (2013), "e24798.1"-"e24798.4" ISSN 1559-2324 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Pseudomonas syringae * cytokinin * phytohormone * plant defense * plant immunity * plant pathogen interaction * plant resistance * tobacco * zeatin Subject RIV: ED - Physiology
Říhová, Blanka; Etrych, Tomáš; Šírová, Milada; Šubr, Vladimír; Ulbrich, Karel
Roč. 8, Supplement 1 (2015), s. 37 ISSN 1875-2292. [7th International Conference on Tumor Microenvironment. 11.10.2015-15.10.2015, Tel Aviv] Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : Immune system * cancer treatment * nanomedicines Subject RIV: EC - Immunology OBOR OECD: Immunology
Sak, Bohumil; Ditrich, Oleg
Roč. 52, 1/2 (2005), s. 158-162 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : microsporidiosis * intestinal immunity * Encephalitozoon cuniculi Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.138, year: 2005
Tomasetti, M.; Neužil, Jiří
Roč. 76, - (2007), s. 463-491 ISSN 0083-6729 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514; CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : vitamin E analogues * inducers of apoptosis * immune surveillance Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.889, year: 2007
Akturk, Halis Kaan; Yasa, Seda
Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with non-autoimmune childhood onset insulin dependent diabetes and optic atrophy. WFS type 2 (WFS2) differs from WFS type 1 (WFS1) with upper intestinal ulcers, bleeding tendency and the lack ofdiabetes insipidus. Li-fespan is short due to related comorbidities. Only a few familieshave been reported with this syndrome with the CISD2 mutation. Here we report two siblings with a clinical diagnosis of WFS2, previously misdiagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy-related blindness. We report possible additional clinical and laboratory findings that have not been pre-viously reported, such as asymptomatic hypoparathyroidism, osteomalacia, growth hormone (GH) deficiency and hepatomegaly. Even though not a requirement for the diagnosis of WFS2 currently, our case series confirm hypogonadotropic hypogonadism to be also a feature of this syndrome, as reported before. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.
Neugebauer, N. M.; Harrod, S. B.; Bardo, M. T.
Research has indicated a high correlation between psychostimulant use and tobacco cigarette smoking in human substance abusers. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of acute and repeated nicotine administration on responding for intravenous methamphetamine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion) in a rodent model of self-administration, as well as the potential of nicotine to induce reinstatement of previously extinguished drug-taking behavior in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In addition, ...
Aranguren, María; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas CONICET
The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974) performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertisin...
The article surveys the scientific results of previous research into the contribution of the sun to climatic alterations. The author concludes that there is evidence of eight cold periods after the last ice age and that the alterations largely were due to climate effects from the sun. However, these effects are only causing a fraction of the registered global warming. It is assumed that the human activities are contributing to the rest of the greenhouse effect
Molfenter, Sonja M.; Leigh, Chelsea; Steele, Catriona M.
This study builds on previous work by Kendall, Leonard and McKenzie, which investigated event sequence variability for 12 paired-events during swallowing by healthy volunteers. They identified four event pairs, which always occurred in a stereotyped order as well as a most-common occurring overall order of events during swallowing. In the current study, we investigate overall event sequencing and the same four paired-events in a sample of swallows by healthy, young (under 45 years old) volunt...
Spinillo, Arsenio; Beneventi, Fausta; Ramoni, Véronique; Caporali, Roberto; Locatelli, Elena; Simonetta, Margherita; Cavagnoli, Chiara; Alpini, Claudia; Albonico, Giulia; Prisco, Elena; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio
The objective of this study was to evaluate the rates of previously undiagnosed rheumatic diseases during the first trimester of pregnancy and their impact on the pregnancy outcome. Pregnant women in their first trimester were screened using a two-step approach using a self-administered 10-item questionnaire and subsequent testing for rheumatic autoantibodies (antinuclear antibody, anti-double-stranded DNA, anti-extractable nuclear antigen, anticardiolipin antibodies, anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies and lupus anticoagulant) and evaluation by a rheumatologist. Overall, the complications of pregnancy evaluated included fetal loss, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, fetal growth restriction, delivery at less than 34 weeks, neonatal resuscitation and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. Out of the 2458 women screened, the authors identified 62 (2.5%) women with previously undiagnosed undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) and 24 (0.98%) women with previously undiagnosed definite systemic rheumatic disease. The prevalences were seven (0.28%) for systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjogren's syndrome, six (0.24%) for rheumatoid arthritis, three (0.12%) for antiphospholipid syndrome and one (0.04%) for systemic sclerosis. In multiple exact logistic regression, after adjustment for potential confounders, the OR of overall complications of pregnancy were 2.81 (95% CI 1.29 to 6.18) in women with UCTD and 4.57 (95% CI 1.57 to 13.57) in those with definite diseases, respectively, compared with asymptomatic controls. In our population approximately 2.5% and 1% of first trimester pregnant women had a previously undiagnosed UCTD and definite systemic rheumatic disease, respectively. These conditions were associated with significant negative effects on the outcome of pregnancy.
Lind, R F; Pruitt, R L; Greenfeld, D
Having a newborn child admitted to a newborn intensive care unit can be a traumatic experience for parents; however, parents who previously have been infertile face unique problems in coping with this situation. The authors discuss the difficulties parents must overcome in resolving their crises and in developing a good relationship with their child, or, in some cases, coming to terms with the child's death or ongoing disability. In addition, the authors offer suggestions for effective social work intervention.
Keerthi Kocherla; Vasantha Kocherla
Patau syndrome is the least common and most severe of the viable autosomal trisomies with median survival of fewer than 3 days was first identified as a cytogenetic syndrome in 1960. Patau syndrome is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 13. In this case report, we present antenatal imaging findings and gross foetal specimen correlation of foetus with Patau syndrome confirmed by karyotyping in third gravida who had significant previous obstetric history of gastrochisis in monochorionic and...
Kjærup, Rikke Brødsgaard; Juul-Madsen, Helle Risdahl; Norup, Liselotte Rothmann
’s genetic make-up influences immunity and disease resistance/susceptibility in chickens. Previously, breeding strategies aimed at selection for resistance against specific diseases with the risk of creating less disease resistance against other pathogens. Changing breeding strategies towards selection...... of chickens with a more general and broad disease resistance or robustness may therefore improve the overall health status, animal welfare, and food security in the poultry production. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the immunocompetence of the presumed “robust” Hellevad chickens with two...... chicken lines widely used in organic production, Bovans Brown (Bovans) and Hisex White (Hisex). The chickens were subjected to a routine vaccination program comprising one parasite and four viral vaccines. The current study indicates that considerable differences in immunocompetence may exist between...
Molfenter, Sonja M; Leigh, Chelsea; Steele, Catriona M
This study builds on previous work by Kendall, Leonard, and McKenzie, which investigated event sequence variability for 12 paired events during swallowing by healthy volunteers. They identified four event pairs that always occurred in a stereotyped order and a most common occurring overall order of events during swallowing. In the current study, we investigated overall event sequencing and the same four paired events in a sample of swallows by healthy young (under 45 years old) volunteers. Data were collected during a 16-swallow lateral videofluoroscopy protocol, which included manipulations of bolus volume, barium density, bolus viscosity, and swallow cueing. Our results agreed with previous findings that variable event sequencing is found in healthy swallowing, and, in regard to obligatory sequencing of two paired events, movement of the arytenoids toward the base of the epiglottis begins prior to upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening and maximum hyolaryngeal approximation occurs after UES opening. However, our data failed to replicate the previous findings that there is obligatory sequencing of maximum pharyngeal constriction after maximal UES distension and the UES opens before bolus arrival at the UES. The most common observed overall event sequence reported by Kendall et al. was observed in only 4/293 swallows in our dataset. Manipulations of bolus volume, bolus viscosity, barium concentration, swallow cueing, and swallow repetitions could not completely account for the differences observed between the two studies.
Ku, Lowell; Wong, Herb; Liu, C. Y.; Phelps, John Y.
Background and Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of intraabdominal adhesions to the umbilicus following gynecologic laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of all gynecologic laparoscopic procedures in a private practice setting to identify patients with a repeat laparoscopy who had a history of a previous laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. Patients with a history of other surgeries were excluded. All repeat laparoscopies used a left upper quadrant entry technique where the abdominal cavity was surveyed for adhesions. We also reviewed adverse events attributable to the left upper quadrant entry approach. Results: We identified 151 patients who underwent a second laparoscopy and had a previous umbilical scar. Thirty-two of the 151 (21.2%) patients with a history of a laparoscopy had evidence of adhesions to the umbilical undersurface. No adverse events or injuries were attributed to the left upper quadrant entry technique. Conclusions: Adhesions to the umbilical undersurface occur in 21.2% of patients who have undergone a prior laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. For this reason, we recommend an alternate location for entry in patients with an umbilical scar from a previous laparoscopy. PMID:17651555
Møller, A P; Christe, P; Lux, E
Parasite-mediated sexual selection may arise as a consequence of 1) females avoiding mates with directly transmitted parasites, 2) females choosing less-parasitized males that provide parental care of superior quality, or 3) females choosing males with few parasites in order to obtain genes for parasite resistance in their offspring. Studies of specific host-parasite systems and comparative analyses have revealed both supportive and conflicting evidence for these hypotheses. A meta-analysis of the available evidence revealed a negative relationship between parasite load and the expression of male secondary sexual characters. Experimental studies yielded more strongly negative relationships than observations did, and the relationships were more strongly negative for ectoparasites than for endoparasites. There was no significant difference in the magnitude of the negative effect for species with and without male parental care, or between behavioral and morphological secondary sexual characters. There was a significant difference between studies based on host immune function and those based on parasite loads, with stronger effects for measures of immune function, suggesting that the many negative results from previous analyses of parasite-mediated sexual selection may be explained because relatively benign parasites were studied. The multivariate analyses demonstrating strong effect sizes of immune function in relation to the expression of secondary sexual characters, and for species with male parental care as compared to those without, suggest that parasite resistance may be a general determinant of parasite-mediated sexual selection.
Poschet, Jens Fredrich; Carroll-Portillo, Amanda; Wu, Meiye; Manginell, Ronald Paul; Herr, Amy Elizabeth; Martino, Anthony A.; Perroud, Thomas D.; Branda, Catherine; Srivastava, Nimisha; Sinclair, Michael B.; Moorman, Matthew Wallace; Apblett, Christopher Alan; Sale, Kenneth L.; James, Conrad D.; Carles, Elizabeth L.; Lidke, Diane S. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Rebeil, Roberto; Kaiser, Julie; Seaman, William (University of California, San Francisco, CA); Rempe, Susan; Brozik, Susan Marie; Jones, Howland D. T.; Gemperline, Paul (East Carolina University, Greenville, NC); Throckmorton, Daniel J.; Misra, Milind; Murton, Jaclyn K.; Carson, Bryan D.; Zhang, Zhaoduo; Plimpton, Steven James; Renzi, Ronald F.; Lane, Todd W.; Ndiaye-Dulac, Elsa; Singh, Anup K.; Haaland, David Michael; Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Davis, Ryan W.; Ricken, James Bryce; Branda, Steven S.; Patel, Kamlesh D.; Joo, Jaewook; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Brennan, James S.; Martin, Shawn Bryan; Brasier, Allan (University of Texas Mecial Branch, Galveston, TX)
The overarching goal is to develop novel technologies to elucidate molecular mechanisms of the innate immune response in host cells to pathogens such as bacteria and viruses including the mechanisms used by pathogens to subvert/suppress/obfuscate the immune response to cause their harmful effects. Innate immunity is our first line of defense against a pathogenic bacteria or virus. A comprehensive 'system-level' understanding of innate immunity pathways such as toll-like receptor (TLR) pathways is the key to deciphering mechanisms of pathogenesis and can lead to improvements in early diagnosis or developing improved therapeutics. Current methods for studying signaling focus on measurements of a limited number of components in a pathway and hence, fail to provide a systems-level understanding. We have developed a systems biology approach to decipher TLR4 pathways in macrophage cell lines in response to exposure to pathogenic bacteria and their lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our approach integrates biological reagents, a microfluidic cell handling and analysis platform, high-resolution imaging and computational modeling to provide spatially- and temporally-resolved measurement of TLR-network components. The Integrated microfluidic platform is capable of imaging single cells to obtain dynamic translocation data as well as high-throughput acquisition of quantitative protein expression and phosphorylation information of selected cell populations. The platform consists of multiple modules such as single-cell array, cell sorter, and phosphoflow chip to provide confocal imaging, cell sorting, flow cytomtery and phosphorylation assays. The single-cell array module contains fluidic constrictions designed to trap and hold single host cells. Up to 100 single cells can be trapped and monitored for hours, enabling detailed statistically-significant measurements. The module was used to analyze translocation behavior of transcription factor NF-kB in macrophages upon activation
Smith, G L
Vaccinia virus expresses many virulence factors that are non-essential for virus replication in cell culture but are important in vivo. In this paper three mechanisms are described that are used by vaccinia virus to evade the host immune response to infection. One of these is the release of a soluble protein that binds CC chemokines and that is unrelated to cellular chemokine receptors. The other two mechanisms are displayed by virus particles that are released from infected cells. This form of vaccinia virus is called extracellular enveloped virus (EEV) and is resistant to neutralisation by antibody and to destruction by complement. Resistance to complement is mediated by the acquisition of host complement control proteins, particularly CD55, during virus release from infected cells.
Full Text Available Dengue viruses (DENV are the most important mosquito transmitted viral pathogens infecting humans. DENV infection produces a spectrum of disease, most commonly causing a self-limiting flu-like illness known as dengue fever; yet with increased frequency, manifesting as life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF. Waning cross-protective immunity from any of the four dengue serotypes may enhance subsequent infection with another heterologous serotype to increase the probability of DHF. Decades of effort to develop dengue vaccines are reaching the finishing line with multiple candidates in clinical trials. Nevertheless, concerns remain that imbalanced immunity, due to the prolonged prime-boost schedules currently used in clinical trials, could leave some vaccinees temporarily unprotected or with increased susceptibility to enhanced disease. Here we develop a DENV serotype 1 (DENV-1 DNA vaccine with the immunodominant cross-reactive B cell epitopes associated with immune enhancement removed. We compare wild-type (WT with this cross-reactivity reduced (CRR vaccine and demonstrate that both vaccines are equally protective against lethal homologous DENV-1 challenge. Under conditions mimicking natural exposure prior to acquiring protective immunity, WT vaccinated mice enhanced a normally sub-lethal heterologous DENV-2 infection resulting in DHF-like disease and 95% mortality in AG129 mice. However, CRR vaccinated mice exhibited redirected serotype-specific and protective immunity, and significantly reduced morbidity and mortality not differing from naïve mice. Thus, we demonstrate in an in vivo DENV disease model, that non-protective vaccine-induced immunity can prime vaccinees for enhanced DHF-like disease and that CRR DNA immunization significantly reduces this potential vaccine safety concern. The sculpting of immune memory by the modified vaccine and resulting redirection of humoral immunity provide insight into DENV vaccine induced immune
Reppas, J.B.; Dale, A.; Sereno, M.; Tootell, R.
The human brain is not very different of the monkey's one: at least, its visual cortex is organized as a similar scheme. Specialized areas in the movement analysis are found and others in the forms perception. In this work, the author tries to answer to the following questions: 1)why so many visual areas? What are exactly their role in vision? Thirteen years of experimentation have not allowed to answer to these questions. The cerebral NMR imaging gives the opportunity of understanding the subjective perception of the visual world. One step which is particularly described in this work is to know how the visual cortex reacts to the optical illusions. (O.M.)
Coggins, James M.
Object-Oriented Programming is enabled by advances in compiler technology and programming language design supporting encapsulation and inheritance. This technical adjustment has had a surprisingly broad impact on strategies for design and development of software. This paper explains what Object-Oriented Programming is, why it has attracted so much interest, and then critically examines its impact. The conclusion is that the optimal use of OOP occurs when application clients are empowered to contribute to the inspection, testing and development of the software they need, in a strategy I call Subject-Oriented Programming. The paper concludes by examining what the next important advance in software technology is likely to be.
of a community of social/youth workers in Copenhagen between 1987 and 2003, who developed a pedagogy through creating collectives and mobilizing young people as participants. The theoretical and practical traditions are combined in a unique methodology viewing research as a contentious modeling of prototypical......What is a 'we' – a collective – and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity – and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas...
Roberts, Diane M.; Nanda, Anjali; Havenga, Menzo J. E.; Abbink, Peter; Lynch, Diana M.; Ewald, Bonnie A.; Liu, Jinyan; Thorner, Anna R.; Swanson, Patricia E.; Gorgone, Darci A.; Lifton, Michelle A.; Lemckert, Angelique A. C.; Holterman, Lennart; Chen, Bing; Dilraj, Athmanundh; Carville, Angela; Mansfield, Keith G.; Goudsmit, Jaap; Barouch, Dan H.
A common viral immune evasion strategy involves mutating viral surface proteins in order to evade host neutralizing antibodies. Such immune evasion tactics have not previously been intentionally applied to the development of novel viral gene delivery vectors that overcome the critical problem of
Piersma, Sytse Jan
Cervical cancer is induced by HPV in virtually all cases, but it is still unknown how these virus-positive tumors arise in the face of immunity. In this thesis we examined the role of different arms of the adaptive immune response on cervical cancer. In previous studies, it was shown that cancer
Hodný, Zdeněk; Reiniš, Milan; Hubáčková, Soňa; Vašicová, Pavla; Bartek, Jiří
-, 01 Sep (2015) ISSN 2162-4011 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : IFNγ * NADPH oxidase * immunity * cancer Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.266, year: 2014
Prince, A. M.; Reesink, H.; Pascual, D.; Horowitz, B.; Hewlett, I.; Murthy, K. K.; Cobb, K. E.; Eichberg, J. W.
The use of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immune globulin (HIVIG) in prevention of HIV infection in chimpanzees was investigated in the hope of ultimate application to interruption of vertical transmission. In previous experiments, no protection was observed when relatively high challenge
Hayney, Mary S.; Bartell, Julie C.
The childhood immunization schedule includes at least 17 scheduled immunizations prior to the age of 24 months. Immunization laws require childcare centers to maintain immunization records and enforce immunization standards for children who attend these centers. Childcare providers generally receive little formal education about infectious…
Twycross, Jamie; Aickelin, Uwe
Innate immunity now occupies a central role in immunology. However, artificial immune system models have largely been inspired by adaptive not innate immunity. This paper reviews the biological principles and properties of innate immunity and, adopting a conceptual framework, asks how these can be incorporated into artificial models. The aim is to outline a meta-framework for models of innate immunity.
Kim, Yohan; Ponomarenko, Julia; Zhu, Zhanyang
The immune epitope database analysis resource (IEDB-AR: http://tools.iedb.org) is a collection of tools for prediction and analysis of molecular targets of T- and B-cell immune responses (i.e. epitopes). Since its last publication in the NAR webserver issue in 2008, a new generation of peptide...
Alaska State Dept. of Health and Social Services, Juneau. Div. of Family and Youth Services.
This booklet provides parents with information about immunizations and vaccine-preventable diseases, balances the benefits and risk of vaccination, and responds to inaccuracies or misinformation about immunizations and vaccine-preventable diseases. Section 1 presents a message to parents about vaccination. Section 2 offers facts about…
Chen, Zhiyun; He, Qiushui
Pertussis is one of the most prevalent vaccine-preventable diseases worldwide. The true infection rate is significantly higher than the reported incidence rate. An increased prevalence of pertussis in older populations has been found, mainly caused by waning immunity after vaccination. Vaccine-induced immunity differs due to variation in vaccine content, schedule and coverage. Protection following acellular pertussis vaccines has been suggested to wane faster than whole cell pertussis vaccines. However, long-term immune persistence of whole cell pertussis vaccines may be confounded by a progressive acquisition of natural immunity. The World Health Organization has recommended that a switch from whole cell to acellular pertussis vaccines for primary immunization in infants should only be considered if additional periodic boosters or maternal immunization can be ensured and sustained in the national immunization schedules. In this review, we present data on immune persistence after different pertussis vaccinations and compare the findings from countries with different vaccination strategies. Future aspects in serological studies are briefly discussed.
Bos, J. D.; de Rie, M. A.; Teunissen, M. B. M.; Piskin, G.
The current understanding of the function of natural killer (NK) T cells in innate immunity and their potential to control acquired specific immunity, as well as the remarkable efficacy of antitumour necrosis factor-alpha biological treatments in psoriasis, forces us to refine the current T-cell
Borghans, J.A.M.; Boer, R.J. de
Diversity is one of the key characteristics of the vertebrate immune system. Lymphocyte repertoires of at least 3x10⁷ different clonotypes protect humans against infections, while avoiding unwanted immune responses against self-peptides and innocuous antigens. It is this lymphocyte diversity
Crevel, R. van; Ottenhoff, T.H.; Meer, J.W.M. van der
The different manifestations of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis reflect the balance between the bacillus and host defense mechanisms. Traditionally, protective immunity to tuberculosis has been ascribed to T-cell-mediated immunity, with CD4(+) T cells playing a crucial role. Recent
Cell-mediated Immunity sma hmed', Banishree Saha', nand Patwardhan°,. Shwetha Shivaprasad and Dipankar Nandis. Our immune system, by and large, does a fine job in protect- ing us from opportunistic and infectious microbes, potential carcinogens and allergens. It is therefore crucial to under- stand the organization ...
Van Damme, Pierre; Bonanni, Paolo; Bosch, F Xavier
With the availability of the nonavalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, vaccinees, parents and healthcare providers need guidance on how to complete an immunization course started with the bi- or quadrivalent vaccine and whether to revaccinate individuals who have completed a full immunization...... course with the bi- or quadrivalent vaccine. To answer these questions three parameters should be considered: age at the start of vaccination (9 to 14 years of age versus 15 years and older, the cut-off for 2 or 3 doses schedule), the number of doses already received and the time interval between doses....... Based on a number of scenarios, we propose that the 9-valent vaccine can be used to complete an incomplete vaccination regimen or might be added to a previous completed schedule to extend protection....
Pride, David T.; Sun, Christine L.; Salzman, Julia; Rao, Nitya; Loomer, Peter; Armitage, Gary C.; Banfield, Jillian F.; Relman, David A.
Viruses may play an important role in the evolution of human microbial communities. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) provide bacteria and archaea with adaptive immunity to previously encountered viruses. Little is known about CRISPR composition in members of human microbial communities, the relative rate of CRISPR locus change, or how CRISPR loci differ between the microbiota of different individuals. We collected saliva from four periodontally healthy human subjects over an 11- to 17-mo time period and analyzed CRISPR sequences with corresponding streptococcal repeats in order to improve our understanding of the predominant features of oral streptococcal adaptive immune repertoires. We analyzed a total of 6859 CRISPR bearing reads and 427,917 bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences. We found a core (ranging from 7% to 22%) of shared CRISPR spacers that remained stable over time within each subject, but nearly a third of CRISPR spacers varied between time points. We document high spacer diversity within each subject, suggesting constant addition of new CRISPR spacers. No greater than 2% of CRISPR spacers were shared between subjects, suggesting that each individual was exposed to different virus populations. We detect changes in CRISPR spacer sequence diversity over time that may be attributable to locus diversification or to changes in streptococcal population structure, yet the composition of the populations within subjects remained relatively stable. The individual-specific and traceable character of CRISPR spacer complements could potentially open the way for expansion of the domain of personalized medicine to the oral microbiome, where lineages may be tracked as a function of health and other factors. PMID:21149389
Fernández-Gutiérrez, Benjamín; Perrotti, Pedro P.; Gisbert, Javier P.; Domènech, Eugeni; Fernández-Nebro, Antonio; Cañete, Juan D.; Ferrándiz, Carlos; Tornero, Jesús; García-Sánchez, Valle; Panés, Julián; Fonseca, Eduardo; Blanco, Francisco; Rodríguez-Moreno, Jesús; Carreira, Patricia; Julià, Antonio; Marsal, Sara; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Luis
Abstract To analyze in several immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) the influence of demographic and clinical-related variables on the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and compare their standardized prevalences. Cross-sectional study, including consecutive patients diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Crohn disease, or ulcerative colitis, from rheumatology, gastroenterology, and dermatology tertiary care outpatient clinics located throughout Spain, between 2007 and 2010. Our main outcome was defined as previous diagnosis of angina, myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease, and/or stroke. Bivariate and multivariate logistic and mixed-effects logistic regression models were performed for each condition and the overall cohort, respectively. Standardized prevalences (in subjects per 100 patients, with 95% confidence intervals) were calculated using marginal analysis. We included 9951 patients. For each IMID, traditional cardiovascular risk factors had a different contribution to CVD. Overall, older age, longer disease duration, presence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, and male sex were independently associated with a higher CVD prevalence. After adjusting for demographic and traditional cardiovascular risk factors, systemic lupus erythematosus exhibited the highest CVD standardized prevalence, followed by rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, Crohn disease, psoriatic arthritis, and ulcerative colitis (4.5 [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.2, 6.8], 1.3 [95% CI: 0.8, 1.8], 0.9 [95% CI: 0.5, 1.2], 0.8 [95% CI: 0.2, 1.3], 0.6 [95% CI: 0.2, 1.0], and 0.5 [95% CI: 0.1, 0.8], respectively). Systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriasis are associated with higher prevalence of CVD compared with other IMIDs. Specific prevention programs should be established in subjects affected with these conditions to prevent CVD. PMID:28658137
Kyriacou, S A; Giannakoglou, K C [National Technical University of Athens, Parallel CFD and Optimization Unit, PO Box 64069, Athens 15710 (Greece); Weissenberger, S; Grafenberger, P, E-mail: stelios.Kyriacou@gmail.co [Andritz HYDRO, RD, Lunzerstrasse 78, 4031 Linz (Austria)
A design-optimization method for hydraulic machinery is proposed. Optimal designs are obtained using the appropriate CFD evaluation software driven by an evolutionary algorithm which is also assisted by artificial neural networks used as surrogate evaluation models or metamodels. As shown in a previous IAHR paper by the same authors, such an optimization method substantially reduces the CPU cost, since the metamodels can discard numerous non-promising candidate solutions generated during the evolution, at almost negligible CPU cost, without evaluating them by means of the costly CFD tool. The present paper extends the optimization method of the previous paper by making it capable to accommodate and exploit pieces of useful information archived during previous relevant successful designs. So, instead of parameterizing the geometry of the hydraulic machine components, which inevitably leads to many design variables, enough to slow down the design procedure, in the proposed method all new designs are expressed as weighted combinations of the archived ones. The archived designs act as the design space bases. The role of the optimization algorithms is to find the set (or sets, for more than one objectives, where the Pareto front of non-dominated solutions is sought) of weight values, corresponding to the hydraulic machine configuration(s) with optimal performance. Since the number of weights is much less that the number of design variables of the conventional shape parameterization, the design space dimension reduces and the CPU cost of the metamodel-assisted evolutionary algorithm is much lower. The design of a Francis runner is used to demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed method.
Juan M. Guerrero
Full Text Available Melatonin modulates a wide range of physiological functions with pleiotropic effects on the immune system. Despite the large number of reports implicating melatonin as an immunomodulatory compound, it still remains unclear how melatonin regulates immunity. While some authors argue that melatonin is an immunostimulant, many studies have also described anti-inflammatory properties. The data reviewed in this paper support the idea of melatonin as an immune buffer, acting as a stimulant under basal or immunosuppressive conditions or as an anti-inflammatory compound in the presence of exacerbated immune responses, such as acute inflammation. The clinical relevance of the multiple functions of melatonin under different immune conditions, such as infection, autoimmunity, vaccination and immunosenescence, is also reviewed.
Carrillo-Vico, Antonio; Lardone, Patricia J.; Álvarez-Sánchez, Nuria; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Ana; Guerrero, Juan M.
Melatonin modulates a wide range of physiological functions with pleiotropic effects on the immune system. Despite the large number of reports implicating melatonin as an immunomodulatory compound, it still remains unclear how melatonin regulates immunity. While some authors argue that melatonin is an immunostimulant, many studies have also described anti-inflammatory properties. The data reviewed in this paper support the idea of melatonin as an immune buffer, acting as a stimulant under basal or immunosuppressive conditions or as an anti-inflammatory compound in the presence of exacerbated immune responses, such as acute inflammation. The clinical relevance of the multiple functions of melatonin under different immune conditions, such as infection, autoimmunity, vaccination and immunosenescence, is also reviewed. PMID:23609496
Full Text Available Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS is a spectrum of diseases, characterized by debilitating cytopenias and a propensity of developing acute myeloid leukemia. Comprehensive sequencing efforts have revealed a range of mutations characteristic, but not specific, of MDS. Epidemiologically, autoimmune diseases are common in patients with MDS, fueling hypotheses of common etiological mechanisms. Both innate and adaptive immune pathways are overly active in the hematopoietic niche of MDS. Although supportive care, growth factors, and hypomethylating agents are the mainstay of MDS treatment, some patients—especially younger low-risk patients with HLA-DR15 tissue type—demonstrate impressive response rates after immunosuppressive therapy. This is in contrast to higher-risk MDS patients, where several immune activating treatments, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, are in the pipeline. Thus, the dual role of immune mechanisms in MDS is challenging, and rigorous translational studies are needed to establish the value of immune manipulation as a treatment of MDS.
Delévaux, I; Chamoux, A; Aumaître, O
The etiology of auto-immune disorders is multifactorial. Stress is probably a participating factor. Indeed, a high proportion of patients with auto-immune diseases report uncommon stress before disease onset or disease flare. The biological consequences of stress are increasingly well understood. Glucocorticoids and catecholamines released by hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis during stress will alter the balance Th1/Th2 and the balance Th17/Treg. Stress impairs cellular immunity, decreases immune tolerance and stimulates humoral immunity exposing individuals to autoimmune disease among others. The treatment for autoimmune disease should include stress management. Copyright © 2012 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Castillo, Eliana; Poliquin, Vanessa
To review the evidence and provide recommendations on immunization in pregnancy. Outcomes evaluated include effectiveness of immunization and risks and benefits for mother and fetus. The Medline and Cochrane databases were searched for articles published up to January 2017 on the topic of immunization in pregnancy. The evidence obtained was reviewed and evaluated by the Infectious Diseases Committee of the SOGC under the leadership of the principal authors, and recommendations were made according to guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). Implementation of the recommendations in this guideline should result in more appropriate immunization of pregnant and breastfeeding women, decreased risk of contraindicated immunization, and better disease prevention. Copyright © 2017 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The last issue of the report «vaccines and immunization: world situation» stresses considerable success in immunization at the global level since the mid 90 s — completely total eradication of poliomyelitis across the world, as well as the drastic reduction of the new measles and tetanus cases among mothers and newborns in some poor countries. The report also briefly describes the progress in the development and implementation of the new life saving vaccines, which may save millions of lives annually. The authors have explained some of the reasons, why the global community should invest in immunization, as well as the perspectives for the use of vaccines and immunization in future.Key words: vaccine, immunization, children.
Glenthøj, Andreas; Ørskov, Andreas Due; Hansen, Jakob Werner
-especially younger low-risk patients with HLA-DR15 tissue type-demonstrate impressive response rates after immunosuppressive therapy. This is in contrast to higher-risk MDS patients, where several immune activating treatments, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, are in the pipeline. Thus, the dual role of immune...... diseases are common in patients with MDS, fueling hypotheses of common etiological mechanisms. Both innate and adaptive immune pathways are overly active in the hematopoietic niche of MDS. Although supportive care, growth factors, and hypomethylating agents are the mainstay of MDS treatment, some patients...... mechanisms in MDS is challenging, and rigorous translational studies are needed to establish the value of immune manipulation as a treatment of MDS....
Banks, T A; Rouse, B T
Viral persistence depends on the successful avoidance of the host's immunologic surveillance system. This review, which focuses specifically on the herpesviruses, delineates several possible strategies for evading or delaying the immune response. One strategy common to all herpesviruses is the establishment of latency, a state in which the virus may be partially or even completely hidden from the immune system. Other proposed mechanisms of immune evasion include interaction of the virus with components of the humoral immune system, virus-induced modulation of cell-surface recognition structures, and virally mediated interference in antigen processing. Additional strategies include molecular mimicry and the ability of one particular herpesvirus to encode an immunosuppressive cytokine. Although a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms of herpesvirus-mediated immune evasion is currently lacking, future studies should identify those critical interactions between host and virus that may prove amenable to therapeutic intervention.
Ronit, Andreas; Berg, Ronan M G; Bruunsgaard, Helle
Non-serotype b strains of Haemophilus influenzae are extremely rare causes of acute bacterial meningitis in immunocompetent individuals. We report a case of acute bacterial meningitis in a 14-year-old boy, who was previously healthy and had been immunised against H influenzae serotype b (Hib......). The causative pathogen was identified as H influenzae serotype f (Hif), and was successfully treated with ceftriaxone. An immunological evaluation revealed transient low levels of immunoglobulins but no apparent immunodeficiency was found 2 years after the clinical insult....
Hjelm Brandt Kristensen, Frans
vascular state. While it is biologically plausible that these changes may induce long-term consequences, the insight into morbidity as well as mortality in patients with previous hyperthyroidism is limited. The reasons for this are a combination of inadequately powered studies, varying definitions......,400 non-hyperthyroid control individuals (matched for age and sex), all identified from a random 5% sample of the Danish background population (n=339,481). In the second study population, 625 same-sex twin pairs, discordant for hyperthyroidism, were included. For each individual, the degree of co...
Fong, Kenneth; Tee, Shang-Ian; Ho, Madeline S L; Pan, Jiun Yit
Protothecosis is an uncommon condition resulting from infection by achlorophyllous algae of the Prototheca species. Immunocompromised individuals are generally most susceptible to protothecal infection and tend to develop severe and disseminated disease. However, the association between protothecosis and HIV-induced immunosuppression is not clear, with only a handful of cases having been described to date. Here we report a case of cutaneous protothecosis in a Chinese man with previously undiagnosed HIV infection that responded well to oral itraconazole. © 2014 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.
Ray, Ann; Kinch, Lisa N; de Souza Santos, Marcela; Grishin, Nick V; Orth, Kim; Salomon, Dor
Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells. The pan-genome of the genus Vibrio is a potential reservoir of unidentified toxins that can provide insight into how members of this genus have successfully risen as emerging pathogens worldwide. We focused on Vibrio proteolyticus, a marine bacterium that was previously implicated in virulence toward marine animals, and characterized its interaction with eukaryotic cells. We found that this bacterium causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and leads to cell death. Using a
Trpkov, Cvetan; Nath, Ermin; Moon, Michael; Windram, Jonathan; Graham, Michelle M
Purulent pericarditis is a rare acutely life-threatening condition. Initial symptoms, signs, and investigations can be nonspecific. Echocardiography is invaluable for establishing the diagnosis and initial management. We present a case of a previously healthy patient with purulent pericarditis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in the absence of a primary focus of infection. The patient deteriorated rapidly with cardiac tamponade and septic shock and was managed successfully by a combined medical and surgical approach. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wasik, Brian R; Muñoz-Rojas, Andrés R; Okamoto, Kenichi W; Miller-Jensen, Kathryn; Turner, Paul E
Virus-host coevolution has selected for generalized host defense against viruses, exemplified by interferon production/signaling and other innate immune function in eukaryotes such as humans. Although cell-surface binding primarily limits virus infection success, generalized adaptation to counteract innate immunity across disparate hosts may contribute to RNA virus emergence potential. We examined this idea using vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) populations previously evolved on strictly immune-deficient (HeLa) cells, strictly immune competent (MDCK) cells, or on alternating deficient/competent cells. By measuring viral fitness in unselected human cancer cells of differing innate immunity, we confirmed that HeLa-adapted populations were specialized for innate immune-deficient hosts, whereas MDCK-adapted populations were relatively more generalized for fitness on hosts of differing innate immune capacity and of different species origin. We also confirmed that HeLa-evolved populations maintained fitness in immune-deficient nonhuman primate cells. These results suggest that innate immunity is more prominent than host species in determining viral fitness at the host-cell level. Finally, our prediction was inexact that selection on alternating deficient/competent hosts should produce innate viral generalists. Rather, fitness differences among alternating host-evolved VSV populations indicated variable capacities to evade innate immunity. Our results suggest that the evolutionary history of innate immune selection can affect whether RNA viruses evolve greater host-breadth. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Thornton, Lisa M.; Andersen, Barbara L.; Crespin, Timothy R.; Carson, William E.
Research connects stressful events with altered immune regulation, but the role of subjective stress is uncertain. Using a longitudinal design, we provide a statistically powerful test of the relationship between subjective stress (perceived stress, emotional distress) and immunity (T cell blastogenesis, natural killer cell cytotoxicity, [NKCC]) as individuals adjust to a severe stressor, a cancer diagnosis and its treatments. Women with regional breast cancer (N = 113) were assessed at diagn...
Valdés-Tovar, Marcela; Escobar, Carolina; Solís-Chagoyán, Héctor; Asai, Miguel; Benítez-King, Gloria
The light-dark cycle is an environmental factor that influences immune physiology, and so, variations of the photoperiod length result in altered immune responsivity. Macrophage physiology comprises a spectrum of functions that goes from host defense to immune down-regulation, in addition to their homeostatic activities. Macrophages also play a key role in the transition from innate to adaptive immune responses. Met-enkephalin (MEnk) has been recognized as a modulator of macrophage physiology acting in an autocrine or paracrine fashion to influence macrophage activation, phenotype polarization and production of cytokines that would enhance lymphocyte activation at early stages of an immune response. Previously it was shown that splenic MEnk tissue content is reduced in rats exposed to constant light. In this work, we explored whether production of Met-enkephalin-containing peptides (MECPs) in cultured splenic macrophages is affected by exposure of rats to a constant light regime. In addition, we explored whether primary immune response was impaired under this condition. We found that in rats, 15 days in constant light was sufficient to disrupt their general activity rhythm. Splenic MEnk content oscillations and levels were also blunted throughout a 24-h period in animals subjected to constant light. In agreement, de novo synthesis of MECPs evaluated through incorporation of (35)S-methionine was reduced in splenic macrophages from rats exposed to constant light. Moreover, MECPs immunocytochemistry showed a decrease in the intracellular content and lack of granule-like deposits in this condition. Furthermore, we found that primary T-dependent antibody response was compromised in rats exposed to constant light. In those animals, pharmacologic treatment with MEnk increased IFN-γ-secreting cells. Also, IL-2 secretion from antigen-stimulated splenocytes was reduced after incubation with naloxone, suggesting that immune-derived opioid peptides and stimulation of opioid
van der Meer, Jos W M; Joosten, Leo A B; Riksen, Niels; Netea, Mihai G
The innate arm of the immune system is generally viewed as primitive and non-specific and - in contrast to the adaptive immune arm - not to possess memory. However in plants and invertebrate animals that lack adaptive immunity, innate immunity will exhibit a prolonged enhanced functional state after adequate priming. A similar enhancement of function of the innate immunity has occasionally been described in vertebrates, including humans. Over the past few years we have studied this phenomenon in greater detail and we have coined the term 'Trained (innate) immunity' (TI). TI can be induced by a variety of stimuli, of which we have studied BCG and β-glucan in greater detail. The non-specific protective effects of BCG that have been observed in vaccination studies in the literature are probably due to TI. Monocytes and macrophages are among the main cells of the innate immune arm that can be trained. We have discovered that both BCG (via NOD2 signalling) and β-glucan (via dectin-1) induce epigenetic reprogramming, in particular stable changes in histone trimethylation at H3K4. These epigenetic changes lead to cellular activation, enhanced cytokine production and a change in the metabolic state of the cell with a shift from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis. TI is not only important for host defence and vaccine responses, but most probably also for diseases like atherosclerosis. Modulation of TI is a promising area for new treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nakada-Tsukui, Kumiko; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi
Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite and the causative agent of amebiasis. It is estimated approximately 1% of humans are infected with E. histolytica, resulting in an estimate of 100,000 deaths annually. Clinical manifestations of amebic infection range widely from asymptomatic to severe symptoms, including dysentery and extra-intestinal abscesses. Like other infectious diseases, it is assumed that only ~20% of infected individuals develop symptoms, and genetic factors of both the parasite and humans as well as the environmental factors, e.g., microbiota, determine outcome of infection. There are multiple essential steps in amebic infection: degradation of and invasion into the mucosal layer, adherence to the intestinal epithelium, invasion into the tissues, and dissemination to other organs. While the mechanisms of invasion and destruction of the host tissues by the amebae during infection have been elucidated at the molecular levels, it remains largely uncharacterized how the parasite survive in the host by evading and attacking host immune system. Recently, the strategies for immune evasion by the parasite have been unraveled, including immunomodulation to suppress IFN-γ production, elimination of immune cells and soluble immune mediators, and metabolic alterations against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species to fend off the attack from immune system. In this review, we summarized the latest knowledge on immune reaction and immune evasion during amebiasis. PMID:27242782
Full Text Available Abstract Background: Despite the importance of functional-performance deficits in athletes with history of ankle sprain few, studies have been carried out in this area. The aim of this research was to study relationship between previous ankle sprains and functional-performance deficits in athletes. Materials and methods: The subjects were 40 professional athletes selected through random sampling among volunteer participants in soccer, basketball, volleyball and handball teams of Lorestan province. The subjects were divided into 2 groups: Injured group (athletes with previous ankle sprains and healthy group (athletes without previous ankle sprains. In this descriptive study we used Functional-performance tests (figure 8 hop test and side hop test to determine ankle deficits and limitations. They participated in figure 8 hop test including hopping in 8 shape course with the length of 5 meters and side hop test including 10 side hop repetitions in course with the length of 30 centimeters. Time were recorded via stopwatch. Results: After data gathering and assessing information distributions, Pearson correlation was used to assess relationships, and independent T test to assess differences between variables. Finally the results showed that there is a significant relationship between previous ankle sprains and functional-performance deficits in the athletes. Conclusion: The athletes who had previous ankle sprains indicated functional-performance deficits more than healthy athletes in completion of mentioned functional-performance tests. The functional-performance tests (figure 8 hop test and side hop test are sensitive and suitable to assess and detect functional-performance deficits in athletes. Therefore we can use the figure 8 hop and side hop tests for goals such as prevention, assessment and rehabilitation of ankle sprains without spending too much money and time.
Provan, Drew; Stasi, Roberto; Newland, Adrian C.; Blanchette, Victor S.; Bolton-Maggs, Paula; Bussel, James B.; Chong, Beng H.; Cines, Douglas B.; Gernsheimer, Terry B.; Godeau, Bertrand; Grainger, John; Greer, Ian; Hunt, Beverley J.; Imbach, Paul A.; Lyons, Gordon; McMillan, Robert; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Sanz, Miguel A.; Tarantino, Michael; Watson, Shirley; Young, Joan; Kuter, David J.
Previously published guidelines for the diagnosis and management of primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) require updating largely due to the introduction of new classes of therapeutic agents, and a greater understanding of the disease pathophysiology. However, treatment-related decisions still
Henriksen, Maya Maria Mihályi
use of antibiotics, further knowledge of the disease is needed. Previous studies focusing on various types of aquacultures demonstrated the presence of F. psychrophilum in all examined farms. The bacterium was demonstrated in gills, skin, internal organs and wounds both during RTFS outbreaks......) Establish an experimental infection model imitating natural infection, 2) examine the immune response in blood and selected organs, and 3) examine potential portals of entry for the bacterium. Previous experimental immersion-challenges involving F. psychrophilum have resulted in none or low mortality...... in rainbow trout fry, unless the fish are stressed or have their surface compromised through e.g. injuries to the skin. The effect of a range of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations was tested on fry in order to assess mortality. An appropriate dose was subsequently combined with immersion in a diluted...
Quiñones-Parra, Sergio; Loh, Liyen; Brown, Lorena E; Kedzierska, Katherine; Valkenburg, Sophie A
Although an influenza vaccine has been available for 70 years, influenza virus still causes seasonal epidemics and worldwide pandemics. Currently available vaccines elicit strain-specific antibody (Ab) responses to the surface haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) proteins, but these can be ineffective against serologically-distinct viral variants and novel subtypes. Thus, there is a great need for cross-protective or "universal" influenza vaccines to overcome the necessity for annual immunization against seasonal influenza and to provide immunity to reduce the severity of infection with pandemic or outbreak viruses. It is well established that natural influenza infection can provide cross-reactive immunity that can reduce the impact of infection with distinct influenza type A strains and subtypes, including H1N1, H3N2, H2N2, H5N1, and H7N9. The key to generating universal influenza immunity through vaccination is to target functionally-conserved regions of the virus, which include epitopes on the internal proteins for cross-reactive T cell immunity or on the HA stem for broadly reactive Ab responses. In the wake of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) have been characterized and isolated from convalescent and vaccinated individuals, inspiring development of new vaccination techniques to elicit such responses. Induction of influenza-specific T cell responses through vaccination has also been recently examined in clinical trials. Strong evidence is available from human and animal models of influenza to show that established influenza-specific T cell memory can reduce viral shedding and symptom severity. However, the published evidence also shows that CD8(+) T cells can efficiently select immune escape mutants early after influenza virus infection. Here, we discuss universal immunity to influenza viruses mediated by both cross-reactive T cells and Abs, the mechanisms of immune evasion in influenza, and propose how to counteract
Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.
(1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.
Laugesen, Caroline Schmidt; Ostri, Christoffer; Brynskov, Troels
PURPOSE: There is little information about the efficacy of intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition in vitrectomized eyes. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of anti-VEGF (ranibizumab) on diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes. METHODS: A nationwide...... retrospective review of medical records from 2010 to 2013. RESULTS: We identified 33 previously vitrectomized eyes in 28 patients treated with ranibizumab injections for diabetic macular oedema. Median follow-up was 323 days (interquartile range 72-1404 days). Baseline mean visual acuity was 0.57 logMAR (95% CI...... 0.13-1.01) before injections. After an average of 4.7 injections (range 1-15), mean visual acuity remained stable at 0.54 logMAR (95% CI 0.13-0.95) with a mean improvement of 0.03 (p = 0. 45, 95% CI -0.12 to 0.06). In 12 eyes (36%), visual acuity improved 0.1 logMAR or more, in 12 eyes (36%), vision...
Full Text Available Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells.
Full Text Available An unaware event referred to as kidnapping makes the estimation result of localization incorrect. In a previous unknown environment, incorrect localization result causes incorrect mapping result in Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM by kidnapping. In this situation, the explored area and unexplored area are divided to make the kidnapping recovery difficult. To provide sufficient information on kidnapping, a framework to judge whether kidnapping has occurred and to identify the type of kidnapping with filter-based SLAM is proposed. The framework is called double kidnapping detection and recognition (DKDR by performing two checks before and after the “update” process with different metrics in real time. To explain one of the principles of DKDR, we describe a property of filter-based SLAM that corrects the mapping result of the environment using the current observations after the “update” process. Two classical filter-based SLAM algorithms, Extend Kalman Filter (EKF SLAM and Particle Filter (PF SLAM, are modified to show that DKDR can be simply and widely applied in existing filter-based SLAM algorithms. Furthermore, a technique to determine the adapted thresholds of metrics in real time without previous data is presented. Both simulated and experimental results demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed method.
Hamai, Yoko; Imanishi, Yukio
The aim of this study was to examine the results of vaginal delivery in patients with a past history of cesarean section. The type of delivery, interventions during delivery, and the prognoses of the mothers and babies were examined in 145 women with a history of cesarean section over the 10-year period from January 2000 to December 2009. A scheduled cesarean section was performed in 27 cases. Vaginal delivery was recommended in 118 cases and the success rate was 94.9% (112/118). Uterine rupture was observed in one patient who experienced a natural rupture at home and whose previous cesarean section was an inverse T incision. No cases required a blood transfusion or hysterectomy. The prognoses of both mothers and babies were good and the vaginal delivery success rate was 94.9%. Uterine rupture was observed in one case. Vaginal delivery with previous cesarean section should be considered in cases with expectation and informed consent. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
What can Jacques Lacan tell us about relations of power and figures of authority? – That is the guiding question of "What Captivates the Subject?" The dissertation answers this question by providing a close study of Lacanian texts and seminars from 1953 to 1973, seeking to present not only...... for two concepts central to the technical psychoanalytical vocabulary: identification and the object. Identifications and the relation to libidinal objects were acknowledged by Freud as the most fundamental mechanisms in the social life of any human being, just as he regarded them as fundamental...... to the establishment and maintenance of power structures, not least within the psychoanalytic clinic itself. Yet his accounts of the concepts remain blurry and tentative throughout his career, and it took a Lacan to finally build a rigorous theoretical framework around these concepts. Throughout the dissertation...
This article contributes to the rethinking of qualitative interview research into intercultural issues. It suggests that the application of poststructuralist thought should not be limited to the analysis of the interview material itself, but incorporate the choice of interviewees and the modalities...... for the accomplishment of interviews. The paper focuses on a discussion of theoretical and methodological considerations of design, approach and research strategy. These discussions are specified in relation to a project on gender and ethnicity in cultural encounters at Universities. In the paper, I introduce a research...... design named Cultural interviewing, present an approach to the design of interviews named Interview without a subject, and offer an analytic strategy directed towards the analysis of interview transcripts named Interview on the level of the signifier. The paper concludes that even though it is relevant...
Full Text Available A primordial aspect of the Sartrian critique of alienation concerns understanding the analytic ideology as the domination of materiality over the symbolic, in other words as the reification of the human, and therefore as anticulture. In the context of contemporary nihilism, the decoding of the mechanisms which consign praxis to the practico-inert requires a critique of the relations between the social sciences and philosophy, which in its turn implies a new theory of the relation between what Sartre calls the "notion" (the area of subjectivity and the "concept" (objectivity, From this perspective, the deconstruction of the established frontiers between the social sciences and philosophy, and between the conceptual and the narrative, is corelative to a redefinition of the relation between theory and practice.
Raja, J.F.; Bangash, K.T.; Mahmud, G.
Objective: To develop a scoring system for the prediction of successful vaginal birth after caesarean section, following induction of labour with intra-vaginal E2 gel (Glandin). Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2010 to August 2011, at the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences in Islamabad. Trial of labour in previous one caesarean section, undergoing induction with intra-vaginal E2 gel, was attempted in 100 women. They were scored according to six variables; maternal age; gestation; indications of previous caesarean; history of vaginal birth either before or after the previous caesarean; Bishop score and body mass index. Multivariate and univariate logistic regression analysis was used to develop the scoring system. Results: Of the total, 67 (67%) women delivered vaginally, while 33 (33%) ended in repeat caesarean delivery. Among the subjects, 55 (55%) women had no history of vaginal delivery either before or after previous caesarean section; 15 (15%) had history of vaginal births both before and after the previous caesarean; while 30 (30%) had vaginal delivery only after the previous caesarean section. Rates of successful vaginal birth after caesarean increased from 38% in women having a score of 0-3 to 58% in patients scoring 4-6. Among those having a score of 7-9 and 10-12, the success rates were 71% and 86% respectively. Conclusion: Increasing scores correlated with the increasing probability of vaginal birth after caesarean undergoing induction of labour. The admission VBAC scoring system is useful in counselling women with previous caesarean for the option of induction of labour or repeat caesarean delivery. (author)
Maria Abildgaard Steffensen
Full Text Available Adenoviral vectors have shown a great potential for vaccine development due to their inherent ability to induce potent and protective CD8 T-cell responses. However, a critical issue regarding the use of these vectors is the existence of inhibitory immunity against the most commonly used Ad5 vector in a large part of the human population. We have recently developed an improved adenoviral vaccine vector system in which the vector expresses the transgene tethered to the MHC class II associated invariant chain (Ii. To further evaluate the potential of this system, the concept of pre-existing inhibitory immunity to adenoviral vectors was revisited to investigate whether the inhibition previously seen with the Ad5 vector also applied to the optimized vector system. We found this to be the case, and antibodies dominated as the mechanism underlying inhibitory vector immunity. However, presence of CD8 T cells directed against epitopes in the adenoviral vector seemed to correlate with repression of the induced response in re-vaccinated B-cell deficient mice. More importantly, despite a repressed primary effector CD8 T-cell response in Ad5-immune animals subjected to vaccination, memory T cells were generated that provided the foundation for an efficient recall response and protection upon subsequent viral challenge. Furthermore, the transgene specific response could be efficiently boosted by homologous re-immunization. Taken together, these studies indicate that adenoviral vectors can be used to induce efficient CD8 T-cell memory even in individuals with pre-existing vector immunity.